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Sample records for mammalian dna methylation

  1. Methylated DNA Immunoprecipitation Analysis of Mammalian Endogenous Retroviruses.

    PubMed

    Rebollo, Rita; Mager, Dixie L

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses are repetitive sequences found abundantly in mammalian genomes which are capable of modulating host gene expression. Nevertheless, most endogenous retrovirus copies are under tight epigenetic control via histone-repressive modifications and DNA methylation. Here we describe a common method used in our laboratory to detect, quantify, and compare mammalian endogenous retrovirus DNA methylation. More specifically we describe methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) followed by quantitative PCR. PMID:26895065

  2. Methylated DNA-binding protein is present in various mammalian cell types

    SciTech Connect

    Supakar, P.C.; Weist, D.; Zhang, D.; Inamdar, N.; Zhang, Xianyang; Khan, R.; Ehrlich, M. ); Ehrlich, K.C. )

    1988-08-25

    A DNA-binding protein from human placenta, methylated DNA-binding protein (MDBP), binds to certain DNA sequences only when they contain 5-methylcytosine (m{sup 5}C) residues at specific positions. The authors found a very similar DNA-binding activity in nuclear extracts of rat tissues, calf thymus, human embryonal carcinoma cells, HeLa cells, and mouse LTK cells. Like human placental MDBP, the analogous DNA-binding proteins from the above mammalian cell lines formed a number of different low-electrophoretic-mobility complexes with a 14-bp MDBP-specific oligonucleotide duplex. All of these complexes exhibited the same DNA methylation specificity and DNA sequence specificity. Although MDBP activity was found in various mammalian cell types, it was not detected in extracts of cultured mosquito cells and so may be associated only with cells with vertebrate-type DNA methylation.

  3. Retrotransposon silencing by DNA methylation can drive mammalian genomic imprinting.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shunsuke; Ono, Ryuichi; Narita, Takanori; Pask, Andrew J; Shaw, Geoffrey; Wang, Changshan; Kohda, Takashi; Alsop, Amber E; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A; Kohara, Yuji; Ishino, Fumitoshi; Renfree, Marilyn B; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko

    2007-04-13

    Among mammals, only eutherians and marsupials are viviparous and have genomic imprinting that leads to parent-of-origin-specific differential gene expression. We used comparative analysis to investigate the origin of genomic imprinting in mammals. PEG10 (paternally expressed 10) is a retrotransposon-derived imprinted gene that has an essential role for the formation of the placenta of the mouse. Here, we show that an orthologue of PEG10 exists in another therian mammal, the marsupial tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii), but not in a prototherian mammal, the egg-laying platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), suggesting its close relationship to the origin of placentation in therian mammals. We have discovered a hitherto missing link of the imprinting mechanism between eutherians and marsupials because tammar PEG10 is the first example of a differentially methylated region (DMR) associated with genomic imprinting in marsupials. Surprisingly, the marsupial DMR was strictly limited to the 5' region of PEG10, unlike the eutherian DMR, which covers the promoter regions of both PEG10 and the adjacent imprinted gene SGCE. These results not only demonstrate a common origin of the DMR-associated imprinting mechanism in therian mammals but provide the first demonstration that DMR-associated genomic imprinting in eutherians can originate from the repression of exogenous DNA sequences and/or retrotransposons by DNA methylation. PMID:17432937

  4. Early Developmental and Evolutionary Origins of Gene Body DNA Methylation Patterns in Mammalian Placentas.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Diane I; Jayashankar, Kartika; Douglas, Kory C; Thirkill, Twanda L; York, Daniel; Dickinson, Pete J; Williams, Lawrence E; Samollow, Paul B; Ross, Pablo J; Bannasch, Danika L; Douglas, Gordon C; LaSalle, Janine M

    2015-08-01

    Over the last 20-80 million years the mammalian placenta has taken on a variety of morphologies through both divergent and convergent evolution. Recently we have shown that the human placenta genome has a unique epigenetic pattern of large partially methylated domains (PMDs) and highly methylated domains (HMDs) with gene body DNA methylation positively correlating with level of gene expression. In order to determine the evolutionary conservation of DNA methylation patterns and transcriptional regulatory programs in the placenta, we performed a genome-wide methylome (MethylC-seq) analysis of human, rhesus macaque, squirrel monkey, mouse, dog, horse, and cow placentas as well as opossum extraembryonic membrane. We found that, similar to human placenta, mammalian placentas and opossum extraembryonic membrane have globally lower levels of methylation compared to somatic tissues. Higher relative gene body methylation was the conserved feature across all mammalian placentas, despite differences in PMD/HMDs and absolute methylation levels. Specifically, higher methylation over the bodies of genes involved in mitosis, vesicle-mediated transport, protein phosphorylation, and chromatin modification was observed compared with the rest of the genome. As in human placenta, higher methylation is associated with higher gene expression and is predictive of genic location across species. Analysis of DNA methylation in oocytes and preimplantation embryos shows a conserved pattern of gene body methylation similar to the placenta. Intriguingly, mouse and cow oocytes and mouse early embryos have PMD/HMDs but their placentas do not, suggesting that PMD/HMDs are a feature of early preimplantation methylation patterns that become lost during placental development in some species and following implantation of the embryo. PMID:26241857

  5. Early Developmental and Evolutionary Origins of Gene Body DNA Methylation Patterns in Mammalian Placentas

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Diane I.; Jayashankar, Kartika; Douglas, Kory C.; Thirkill, Twanda L.; York, Daniel; Dickinson, Pete J.; Williams, Lawrence E.; Samollow, Paul B.; Ross, Pablo J.; Bannasch, Danika L.; Douglas, Gordon C.; LaSalle, Janine M.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 20-80 million years the mammalian placenta has taken on a variety of morphologies through both divergent and convergent evolution. Recently we have shown that the human placenta genome has a unique epigenetic pattern of large partially methylated domains (PMDs) and highly methylated domains (HMDs) with gene body DNA methylation positively correlating with level of gene expression. In order to determine the evolutionary conservation of DNA methylation patterns and transcriptional regulatory programs in the placenta, we performed a genome-wide methylome (MethylC-seq) analysis of human, rhesus macaque, squirrel monkey, mouse, dog, horse, and cow placentas as well as opossum extraembryonic membrane. We found that, similar to human placenta, mammalian placentas and opossum extraembryonic membrane have globally lower levels of methylation compared to somatic tissues. Higher relative gene body methylation was the conserved feature across all mammalian placentas, despite differences in PMD/HMDs and absolute methylation levels. Specifically, higher methylation over the bodies of genes involved in mitosis, vesicle-mediated transport, protein phosphorylation, and chromatin modification was observed compared with the rest of the genome. As in human placenta, higher methylation is associated with higher gene expression and is predictive of genic location across species. Analysis of DNA methylation in oocytes and preimplantation embryos shows a conserved pattern of gene body methylation similar to the placenta. Intriguingly, mouse and cow oocytes and mouse early embryos have PMD/HMDs but their placentas do not, suggesting that PMD/HMDs are a feature of early preimplantation methylation patterns that become lost during placental development in some species and following implantation of the embryo. PMID:26241857

  6. Mammalian Brain Development is Accompanied by a Dramatic Increase in Bipolar DNA Methylation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ming-An; Sun, Zhixiong; Wu, Xiaowei; Rajaram, Veena; Keimig, David; Lim, Jessica; Zhu, Hongxiao; Xie, Hehuang

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism critical for tissue development and cell specification. Mammalian brains consist of many different types of cells with assumedly distinct DNA methylation profiles, and thus some genomic loci may demonstrate bipolar DNA methylation pattern, i.e. hypermethylated in one cell subset but hypomethylated in others. Currently, how extensive methylation patterns vary among brain cells is unknown and bipolar methylated genomic loci remain largely unexplored. In this study, we implemented a procedure to infer cell-subset specific methylated (CSM) loci from the methylomes of human and mouse frontal cortices at different developmental stages. With the genome-scale hairpin bisulfite sequencing approach, we demonstrated that the majority of CSM loci predicted likely resulted from the methylation differences among brain cells rather than from asymmetric DNA methylation between DNA double strands. Correlated with enhancer-associated histone modifications, putative CSM loci increased dramatically during early stages of brain development and were enriched for GWAS variants associated with neurological disorder-related diseases/traits. Altogether, this study provides a procedure to identify genomic regions showing methylation differences in a mixed cell population and our results suggest that a set of cis-regulatory elements are primed in early postnatal life whose functions may be compromised in human neurological disorders. PMID:27585862

  7. Mammalian Brain Development is Accompanied by a Dramatic Increase in Bipolar DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ming-an; Sun, Zhixiong; Wu, Xiaowei; Rajaram, Veena; Keimig, David; Lim, Jessica; Zhu, Hongxiao; Xie, Hehuang

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism critical for tissue development and cell specification. Mammalian brains consist of many different types of cells with assumedly distinct DNA methylation profiles, and thus some genomic loci may demonstrate bipolar DNA methylation pattern, i.e. hypermethylated in one cell subset but hypomethylated in others. Currently, how extensive methylation patterns vary among brain cells is unknown and bipolar methylated genomic loci remain largely unexplored. In this study, we implemented a procedure to infer cell-subset specific methylated (CSM) loci from the methylomes of human and mouse frontal cortices at different developmental stages. With the genome-scale hairpin bisulfite sequencing approach, we demonstrated that the majority of CSM loci predicted likely resulted from the methylation differences among brain cells rather than from asymmetric DNA methylation between DNA double strands. Correlated with enhancer-associated histone modifications, putative CSM loci increased dramatically during early stages of brain development and were enriched for GWAS variants associated with neurological disorder-related diseases/traits. Altogether, this study provides a procedure to identify genomic regions showing methylation differences in a mixed cell population and our results suggest that a set of cis-regulatory elements are primed in early postnatal life whose functions may be compromised in human neurological disorders. PMID:27585862

  8. High definition profiling of mammalian DNA methylation by array capture and single molecule bisulfite sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, Emily; Smith, Andrew D.; Kendall, Jude; Xuan, Zhenyu; Ravi, Kandasamy; Rooks, Michelle; Zhang, Michael Q.; Ye, Kenny; Bhattacharjee, Arindam; Brizuela, Leonardo; McCombie, W. Richard; Wigler, Michael; Hannon, Gregory J.; Hicks, James B.

    2009-01-01

    DNA methylation stabilizes developmentally programmed gene expression states. Aberrant methylation is associated with disease progression and is a common feature of cancer genomes. Presently, few methods enable quantitative, large-scale, single-base resolution mapping of DNA methylation states in desired regions of a complex mammalian genome. Here, we present an approach that combines array-based hybrid selection and massively parallel bisulfite sequencing to profile DNA methylation in genomic regions spanning hundreds of thousands of bases. This single molecule strategy enables methylation variable positions to be quantitatively examined with high sampling precision. Using bisulfite capture, we assessed methylation patterns across 324 randomly selected CpG islands (CGI) representing more than 25,000 CpG sites. A single lane of Illumina sequencing permitted methylation states to be definitively called for >90% of target sties. The accuracy of the hybrid-selection approach was verified using conventional bisulfite capillary sequencing of cloned PCR products amplified from a subset of the selected regions. This confirmed that even partially methylated states could be successfully called. A comparison of human primary and cancer cells revealed multiple differentially methylated regions. More than 25% of islands showed complex methylation patterns either with partial methylation states defining the entire CGI or with contrasting methylation states appearing in specific regional blocks within the island. We observed that transitions in methylation state often correlate with genomic landmarks, including transcriptional start sites and intron-exon junctions. Methylation, along with specific histone marks, was enriched in exonic regions, suggesting that chromatin states can foreshadow the content of mature mRNAs. PMID:19581485

  9. DNA methylation on N(6)-adenine in mammalian embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao P; Wang, Tao; Seetin, Matthew G; Lai, Yongquan; Zhu, Shijia; Lin, Kaixuan; Liu, Yifei; Byrum, Stephanie D; Mackintosh, Samuel G; Zhong, Mei; Tackett, Alan; Wang, Guilin; Hon, Lawrence S; Fang, Gang; Swenberg, James A; Xiao, Andrew Z

    2016-04-21

    It has been widely accepted that 5-methylcytosine is the only form of DNA methylation in mammalian genomes. Here we identify N(6)-methyladenine as another form of DNA modification in mouse embryonic stem cells. Alkbh1 encodes a demethylase for N(6)-methyladenine. An increase of N(6)-methyladenine levels in Alkbh1-deficient cells leads to transcriptional silencing. N(6)-methyladenine deposition is inversely correlated with the evolutionary age of LINE-1 transposons; its deposition is strongly enriched at young (<1.5 million years old) but not old (>6 million years old) L1 elements. The deposition of N(6)-methyladenine correlates with epigenetic silencing of such LINE-1 transposons, together with their neighbouring enhancers and genes, thereby resisting the gene activation signals during embryonic stem cell differentiation. As young full-length LINE-1 transposons are strongly enriched on the X chromosome, genes located on the X chromosome are also silenced. Thus, N(6)-methyladenine developed a new role in epigenetic silencing in mammalian evolution distinct from its role in gene activation in other organisms. Our results demonstrate that N(6)-methyladenine constitutes a crucial component of the epigenetic regulation repertoire in mammalian genomes. PMID:27027282

  10. Targeted DNA methylation by homology-directed repair in mammalian cells. Transcription reshapes methylation on the repaired gene

    PubMed Central

    Morano, Annalisa; Angrisano, Tiziana; Russo, Giusi; Landi, Rosaria; Pezone, Antonio; Bartollino, Silvia; Zuchegna, Candida; Babbio, Federica; Bonapace, Ian Marc; Allen, Brittany; Muller, Mark T.; Chiariotti, Lorenzo; Gottesman, Max E.; Porcellini, Antonio; Avvedimento, Enrico V.

    2014-01-01

    We report that homology-directed repair of a DNA double-strand break within a single copy Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) gene in HeLa cells alters the methylation pattern at the site of recombination. DNA methyl transferase (DNMT)1, DNMT3a and two proteins that regulate methylation, Np95 and GADD45A, are recruited to the site of repair and are responsible for selective methylation of the promoter-distal segment of the repaired DNA. The initial methylation pattern of the locus is modified in a transcription-dependent fashion during the 15–20 days following repair, at which time no further changes in the methylation pattern occur. The variation in DNA modification generates stable clones with wide ranges of GFP expression. Collectively, our data indicate that somatic DNA methylation follows homologous repair and is subjected to remodeling by local transcription in a discrete time window during and after the damage. We propose that DNA methylation of repaired genes represents a DNA damage code and is source of variation of gene expression. PMID:24137009

  11. Undetectable levels of N6-methyl adenine in mouse DNA: Cloning and analysis of PRED28, a gene coding for a putative mammalian DNA adenine methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Ratel, David; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Charles, Marie-Pierre; Platet, Nadine; Breuillaud, Lionel; Lunardi, Joël; Berger, François; Wion, Didier

    2006-05-29

    Three methylated bases, 5-methylcytosine, N4-methylcytosine and N6-methyladenine (m6A), can be found in DNA. However, to date, only 5-methylcytosine has been detected in mammalian genomes. To reinvestigate the presence of m6A in mammalian DNA, we used a highly sensitive method capable of detecting one N6-methyldeoxyadenosine per million nucleosides. Our results suggest that the total mouse genome contains, if any, less than 10(3) m6A. Experiments were next performed on PRED28, a putative mammalian N6-DNA methyltransferase. The murine PRED28 encodes two alternatively spliced RNA. However, although recombinant PRED28 proteins are found in the nucleus, no evidence for an adenine-methyltransferase activity was detected. PMID:16684535

  12. Dysregulation of DNA methylation induced by past arsenic treatment causes persistent genomic instability in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Maurizio; Caradonna, Fabio; Klein, Catherine B

    2016-03-01

    The mechanisms by which arsenic-induced genomic instability is initiated and maintained are poorly understood. To investigate potential epigenetic mechanisms, in this study we evaluated global DNA methylation levels in V79 cells and human HaCaT keratinocytes at several time points during expanded growth of cell cultures following removal of arsenite exposures. We have found altered genomic methylation patterns that persisted up to 40 cell generations in HaCaT cells after the treatments were withdrawn. Moreover, mRNA expression levels were evaluated by RT-PCR for DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, HMLH1, and HMSH2 genes, demonstrating that the down regulation of DNMT3A and DNMT3B genes, but not DNMT1, occurred in an arsenic dose-dependent manner, and persisted for many cell generations following removal of the arsenite, offering a plausible mechanism of persistently genotoxic arsenic action. Analyses of promoter methylation status of the DNA mismatch repair genes HMLH1 and HMSH2 show that HMSH2, but not HMLH1, was epigenetically regulated by promoter hypermethylation changes following arsenic treatment. The results reported here demonstrate that arsenic exposure promptly induces genome-wide global DNA hypomethylation, and some specific gene promoter methylation changes, that persist for many cell generations following withdrawal of arsenite, supporting the hypothesis that the cells undergo epigenetic reprogramming at both the gene and genome level that is durable over many cell generations in the absence of further arsenic treatment. These DNA methylation changes, in concert with other known epigenome alterations, are likely contributing to long-lasting arsenic-induced genomic instability that manifests in several ways, including aberrant chromosomal effects. PMID:26581878

  13. Dysregulation of DNA Methylation Induced by Past Arsenic Treatment Causes Persistent Genomic Instability in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mauro, Maurizio; Caradonna, Fabio; Klein, Catherine B.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which arsenic-induced genomic instability is initiated and maintained are poorly understood. To investigate potential epigenetic mechanisms, in this study we evaluated global DNA methylation levels in V79 cells and human HaCaT keratinocytes at several time points during expanded growth of cell cultures following removal of arsenite exposures. We have found altered genomic methylation patterns that persisted up to 40 cell generations in HaCaT cells after the treatments were withdrawn. Moreover, mRNA expression levels were evaluated by RT-PCR for DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, HMLH1, and HMSH2 genes, demonstrating that the down regulation of DNMT3A and DNMT3B genes, but not DNMT1, occurred in an arsenic dose-dependent manner, and persisted for many cell generations following removal of the arsenite, offering a plausible mechanism of persistently genotoxic arsenic action. Analyses of promoter methylation status of the DNA mismatch repair genes HMLH1 and HMSH2 show that HMSH2, but not HMLH1, was epigenetically regulated by promoter hypermethylation changes following arsenic treatment. The results reported here demonstrate that arsenic exposure promptly induces genome-wide global DNA hypomethylation, and some specific gene promoter methylation changes, that persist for many cell generations following withdrawal of arsenite, supporting the hypothesis that the cells undergo epigenetic reprogramming at both the gene and genome level that is durable over many cell generations in the absence of further arsenic treatment. These DNA methylation changes, in concert with other known epigenome alterations, are likely contributing to long-lasting arsenic-induced genomic instability that manifests in several ways, including aberrant chromosomal effects. PMID:26581878

  14. DNA modifications in the mammalian brain

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jaehoon; Ming, Guo-li; Song, Hongjun

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is a crucial epigenetic mark in mammalian development, genomic imprinting, X-inactivation, chromosomal stability and suppressing parasitic DNA elements. DNA methylation in neurons has also been suggested to play important roles for mammalian neuronal functions, and learning and memory. In this review, we first summarize recent discoveries and fundamental principles of DNA modifications in the general epigenetics field. We then describe the profiles of different DNA modifications in the mammalian brain genome. Finally, we discuss roles of DNA modifications in mammalian brain development and function. PMID:25135973

  15. DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Marinus, M.G.; Løbner-Olesen, A.

    2014-01-01

    The DNA of E. coli contains 19,120 6-methyladenines and 12,045 5-methylcytosines in addition to the four regular bases and these are formed by the postreplicative action of three DNA methyltransferases. The majority of the methylated bases are formed by the Dam and Dcm methyltransferases encoded by the dam (DNA adenine methyltransferase) and dcm (DNA cytosine methyltransferase) genes. Although not essential, Dam methylation is important for strand discrimination during repair of replication errors, controlling the frequency of initiation of chromosome replication at oriC, and regulation of transcription initiation at promoters containing GATC sequences. In contrast, there is no known function for Dcm methylation although Dcm recognition sites constitute sequence motifs for Very Short Patch repair of T/G base mismatches. In certain bacteria (e.g., Vibrio cholerae, Caulobacter crescentus) adenine methylation is essential and in C. crescentus, it is important for temporal gene expression which, in turn, is required for coordinating chromosome initiation, replication and division. In practical terms, Dam and Dcm methylation can inhibit restriction enzyme cleavage; decrease transformation frequency in certain bacteria; decrease the stability of short direct repeats; are necessary for site-directed mutagenesis; and to probe eukaryotic structure and function. PMID:26442938

  16. Isolation of genomic DNA from mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Koh, Cheryl M

    2013-01-01

    The isolation of genomic DNA from mammalian cells is a routine molecular biology laboratory technique with numerous downstream applications. The isolated DNA can be used as a template for PCR, cloning, and genotyping and to generate genomic DNA libraries. It can also be used for sequencing to detect mutations and other alterations, and for DNA methylation analyses. PMID:24011044

  17. Mammalian DNA Repair. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    2003-01-24

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Mammalian DNA Repair was held at Harbortown Resort, Ventura Beach, CA. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  18. DNA methylation in plants.

    PubMed

    Vanyushin, B F

    2006-01-01

    DNA in plants is highly methylated, containing 5-methylcytosine (m5C) and N6-methyladenine (m6A); m5C is located mainly in symmetrical CG and CNG sequences but it may occur also in other non-symmetrical contexts. m6A but not m5C was found in plant mitochondrial DNA. DNA methylation in plants is species-, tissue-, organelle- and age-specific. It is controlled by phytohormones and changes on seed germination, flowering and under the influence of various pathogens (viral, bacterial, fungal). DNA methylation controls plant growth and development, with particular involvement in regulation of gene expression and DNA replication. DNA replication is accompanied by the appearance of under-methylated, newly formed DNA strands including Okazaki fragments; asymmetry of strand DNA methylation disappears until the end of the cell cycle. A model for regulation of DNA replication by methylation is suggested. Cytosine DNA methylation in plants is more rich and diverse compared with animals. It is carried out by the families of specific enzymes that belong to at least three classes of DNA methyltransferases. Open reading frames (ORF) for adenine DNA methyltransferases are found in plant and animal genomes, and a first eukaryotic (plant) adenine DNA methyltransferase (wadmtase) is described; the enzyme seems to be involved in regulation of the mitochondria replication. Like in animals, DNA methylation in plants is closely associated with histone modifications and it affects binding of specific proteins to DNA and formation of respective transcription complexes in chromatin. The same gene (DRM2) in Arabidopsis thaliana is methylated both at cytosine and adenine residues; thus, at least two different, and probably interdependent, systems of DNA modification are present in plants. Plants seem to have a restriction-modification (R-M) system. RNA-directed DNA methylation has been observed in plants; it involves de novo methylation of almost all cytosine residues in a region of siRNA-DNA

  19. DNA methylation and cognitive aging

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiangru

    2015-01-01

    With ever-increasing elder population, the high incidence of age-related diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders has turned out to be a huge public concern. Especially the elders and their families dreadfully suffer from the learning, behavioral and cognitive impairments. The lack of effective therapies for such a horrible symptom makes a great demanding for biological mechanism study for cognitive aging. Epigenetics is an emerging field that broadens the dimensions of mammalian genome blueprint. It is, unlike genetics, not only inheritable but also reversible. Recent studies suggest that DNA methylation, one of major epigenetic mechanisms, plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of age-related neurodegenerations and cognitive defects. In this review, the evolving knowledge of age-related cognitive functions and the potential DNA methylation mechanism of cognitive aging are discussed. That indicates the impairment of DNA methylation may be a crucial but reversible mechanism of behavioral and cognitive related neurodegeneration. The methods to examine the dynamics of DNA methylation patterns at tissue and single cell level and at the representative scale as well as the whole genome single base resolution are also briefly discussed. Importantly, the challenges of DNA methylation mechanism of cognitive aging research are brought up, and the possible solutions to tackle these difficulties are put forward. PMID:26015403

  20. DNA repair in mammalian embryos.

    PubMed

    Jaroudi, Souraya; SenGupta, Sioban

    2007-01-01

    Mammalian cells have developed complex mechanisms to identify DNA damage and activate the required response to maintain genome integrity. Those mechanisms include DNA damage detection, DNA repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis which operate together to protect the conceptus from DNA damage originating either in parental gametes or in the embryo's somatic cells. DNA repair in the newly fertilized preimplantation embryo is believed to rely entirely on the oocyte's machinery (mRNAs and proteins deposited and stored prior to ovulation). DNA repair genes have been shown to be expressed in the early stages of mammalian development. The survival of the embryo necessitates that the oocyte be sufficiently equipped with maternal stored products and that embryonic gene expression commences at the correct time. A Medline based literature search was performed using the keywords 'DNA repair' and 'embryo development' or 'gametogenesis' (publication dates between 1995 and 2006). Mammalian studies which investigated gene expression were selected. Further articles were acquired from the citations in the articles obtained from the preliminary Medline search. This paper reviews mammalian DNA repair from gametogenesis to preimplantation embryos to late gestational stages. PMID:17141556

  1. Mammalian cells defective in DNA mismatch correction

    SciTech Connect

    Branch, P.; Aquilina, G.; Hess, P.

    1994-12-31

    Mammalian cells counteract the cytotoxicity of methylating agents, including some used in antitumor chemotherapy, by removing the methylated base, O{sup 6}-methylguanine (O{sup 6}-meG) from their DNA. This removal is normally effected by a specific DNA repair enzyme (O{sup 6}-meG-DNA methyltransferase) that is expressed constitutively. In addition, an alternative type of resistance to methylating agents can be acquired after exposure of cells to the drug. This acquired resistance is highly specific for O{sup 6}-meG and is unusual in that alkylation of DNA is normal and there is no increase in the rate of repair of O{sup 6}-meG or any other damaged base. Instead, the cell is able to tolerate the presence of the usually cytotoxic O{sup 6}-meG and to replicate its DNA normally. The ambiguity of base pairing by O{sup 6}-meG and the observation that tolerant cells are also cross-resistant to the structurally similar 6-thioguanine in DNA has led to the suggestion that the cytotoxicity of O{sup 6}-meG (and 6-thioguanine) arises from ineffective attempts at DNA mismatch correction. This model postulates that tolerance arises as a consequence of loss of this important pathway.

  2. DNA Methylation Landscapes of Human Fetal Development

    PubMed Central

    van Iperen, Liesbeth; Suchiman, H. Eka D.; Tobi, Elmar W.; Carlotti, Françoise; de Koning, Eelco J. P.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana M.

    2015-01-01

    Remodelling the methylome is a hallmark of mammalian development and cell differentiation. However, current knowledge of DNA methylation dynamics in human tissue specification and organ development largely stems from the extrapolation of studies in vitro and animal models. Here, we report on the DNA methylation landscape using the 450k array of four human tissues (amnion, muscle, adrenal and pancreas) during the first and second trimester of gestation (9,18 and 22 weeks). We show that a tissue-specific signature, constituted by tissue-specific hypomethylated CpG sites, was already present at 9 weeks of gestation (W9). Furthermore, we report large-scale remodelling of DNA methylation from W9 to W22. Gain of DNA methylation preferentially occurred near genes involved in general developmental processes, whereas loss of DNA methylation mapped to genes with tissue-specific functions. Dynamic DNA methylation was associated with enhancers, but not promoters. Comparison of our data with external fetal adrenal, brain and liver revealed striking similarities in the trajectory of DNA methylation during fetal development. The analysis of gene expression data indicated that dynamic DNA methylation was associated with the progressive repression of developmental programs and the activation of genes involved in tissue-specific processes. The DNA methylation landscape of human fetal development provides insight into regulatory elements that guide tissue specification and lead to organ functionality. PMID:26492326

  3. ASSESSING THE EFFECTS OF HIGH METHIONINE INTAKE ON DNA METHYLATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methylation of DNA occurs at cytosines within CpG (cytosine-guanine) dinucleotides and is one of several epigenetic mechanisms that serve to establish and maintain tissue-specific patterns of gene expression. The methyl groups transferred in mammalian DNA methylation reactions are ultimately derived...

  4. Turning over DNA methylation in the mind

    PubMed Central

    Lister, Ryan; Mukamel, Eran A.

    2015-01-01

    Cytosine DNA methylation is a stable epigenetic modification with established roles in regulating transcription, imprinting, female X-chromosome inactivation, and silencing of transposons. Dynamic gain or loss of DNA methylation reshapes the genomic landscape of cells during early differentiation, and in post-mitotic mammalian brain cells these changes continue to accumulate throughout the phases of cortical maturation in childhood and adolescence. There is also evidence for dynamic changes in the methylation status of specific genomic loci during the encoding of new memories, and these epigenome dynamics could play a causal role in memory formation. However, the mechanisms that may dynamically regulate DNA methylation in neurons during memory formation and expression, and the function of such epigenomic changes in this context, are unclear. Here we discuss the possible roles of DNA methylation in encoding and retrieval of memory. PMID:26283895

  5. [DNA methylation in obesity].

    PubMed

    Pokrywka, Małgorzata; Kieć-Wilk, Beata; Polus, Anna; Wybrańska, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    The number of overweight and obese people is increasing at an alarming rate, especially in the developed and developing countries. Obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, and in consequence for premature death. The development of obesity results from the interplay of both genetic and environmental factors, which include sedentary life style and abnormal eating habits. In the past few years a number of events accompanying obesity, affecting expression of genes which are not directly connected with the DNA base sequence (e.g. epigenetic changes), have been described. Epigenetic processes include DNA methylation, histone modifications such as acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, as well as non-coding micro-RNA (miRNA) synthesis. In this review, the known changes in the profile of DNA methylation as a factor affecting obesity and its complications are described. PMID:25531701

  6. DNA Methylation in Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    den Hollander, Wouter; Meulenbelt, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent disease of articular joints and primarily characterized by degradation and calcification of articular cartilage. Presently, no effective treatment other than pain relief exists and patients ultimately need to undergo replacement surgery of the affected joint. During disease progression articular chondrocytes, the single cell type present in articular cartilage, show altered transcriptional profiles and undergo phenotypic changes that resemble the terminal differentiation route apparent in growth plate chondrocytes. Hence, given its prominent function in both regulating gene expression and maintaining cellular phenotypes, DNA methylation of CpG dinucleotides is intensively studied in the context of OA. An increasing number of studies have been published that employed a targeted approach on genes known to play a role in OA pathophysiology. As of such, it has become clear that OA responsive DNA methylation changes seem to mediate disease associated aberrant gene expression. Furthermore, established OA susceptibility alleles such as GDF5 and DIO2 appear to confer OA risk via DNA methylation and respective pathophysiological expression changes. In more recent years, genome wide profiling of DNA methylation in OA affected articular cartilage has emerged as a powerful tool to address the epigenetic changes in their entirety, which has resulted in the identification of putative patient subgroups as well as generic OA associated pathways. PMID:27019616

  7. DNA Methylation in Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    den Hollander, Wouter; Meulenbelt, Ingrid

    2015-12-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent disease of articular joints and primarily characterized by degradation and calcification of articular cartilage. Presently, no effective treatment other than pain relief exists and patients ultimately need to undergo replacement surgery of the affected joint. During disease progression articular chondrocytes, the single cell type present in articular cartilage, show altered transcriptional profiles and undergo phenotypic changes that resemble the terminal differentiation route apparent in growth plate chondrocytes. Hence, given its prominent function in both regulating gene expression and maintaining cellular phenotypes, DNA methylation of CpG dinucleotides is intensively studied in the context of OA. An increasing number of studies have been published that employed a targeted approach on genes known to play a role in OA pathophysiology. As of such, it has become clear that OA responsive DNA methylation changes seem to mediate disease associated aberrant gene expression. Furthermore, established OA susceptibility alleles such as GDF5 and DIO2 appear to confer OA risk via DNA methylation and respective pathophysiological expression changes. In more recent years, genome wide profiling of DNA methylation in OA affected articular cartilage has emerged as a powerful tool to address the epigenetic changes in their entirety, which has resulted in the identification of putative patient subgroups as well as generic OA associated pathways. PMID:27019616

  8. Nutrients and DNA Methylation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epigenetics is a new mechanism responsible for development, aging, and disease process such as cancer development. One major epigenetic phenomenon is DNA methylation, which attributes to gene expression and integrity. Deepening the knowledge on one-carbon metabolism is very important to understandin...

  9. DNA methylation in fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Dowson, Christopher; O'Reilly, Steven

    2016-09-01

    Fibrosis is characterised by an exuberant wound healing response and the major cell type responsible is the myofibroblast. The myofibroblast is typified by excessive ECM production and contractile activity and is demarcated by alpha-smooth muscle actin expression. What has recently come to light is that the activation of the fibroblast to myofibroblast may be under epigenetic control, specifically methylation. Methylation of DNA is a conserved mechanism to precisely regulate gene expression in a specific context. Hypermethylation leads to gene repression and hypomethylation results in gene induction. Methylation abnormalities have recently been uncovered in fibrosis, both organ specific and widespread fibrosis. The fact that these methylation changes are rapid and reversible lends themselves amenable to therapeutic intervention. This review considers the role of methylation in fibrosis and the activation of the myofibroblasts and how this could be targeted for fibrosis. Fibrosis is of course currently intractable to therapeutics and is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality and is an urgent unmet clinical need. PMID:27346523

  10. DNA Methylation Screening and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sant, Karilyn E.; Nahar, Muna S.; Dolinoy, Dana C.

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic form of gene regulation that is universally important throughout the life course, especially during in utero and postnatal development. DNA methylation aids in cell cycle regulation and cellular differentiation processes. Previous studies have demonstrated that DNA methylation profiles may be altered by diet and the environment, and that these profiles are especially vulnerable during development. Thus, it is important to understand the role of DNA methylation in developmental governance and subsequent disease progression. A variety of molecular methods exist to assay for global, gene-specific, and epigenome-wide methylation. Here we describe these methods and discuss their relative strengths and limitations. PMID:22669678

  11. Methods of DNA methylation detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maki, Wusi Chen (Inventor); Filanoski, Brian John (Inventor); Mishra, Nirankar (Inventor); Rastogi, Shiva (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides for methods of DNA methylation detection. The present invention provides for methods of generating and detecting specific electronic signals that report the methylation status of targeted DNA molecules in biological samples.Two methods are described, direct and indirect detection of methylated DNA molecules in a nano transistor based device. In the direct detection, methylated target DNA molecules are captured on the sensing surface resulting in changes in the electrical properties of a nano transistor. These changes generate detectable electronic signals. In the indirect detection, antibody-DNA conjugates are used to identify methylated DNA molecules. RNA signal molecules are generated through an in vitro transcription process. These RNA molecules are captured on the sensing surface change the electrical properties of nano transistor thereby generating detectable electronic signals.

  12. DNA Methylation and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ashktorab, Hassan; Brim, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the major cancers in the world and second death-causing cancer in the US. CRC development involves genetic and epigenetic alterations. Changes in DNA methylation status are believed to be involved at different stages of CRC. Promoter silencing via DNA methylation and hypomethylation of oncogenes alter genes’ expression, and can be used as a tool for the early detection of colonic lesions. DNA methylation use as diagnostic and prognostic marker has been described for many cancers including CRC. CpG Islands Methylator Phenotype (CIMP) is one of the underlying CRC mechanisms. This review aims to define methylation signatures in CRC. The analysis of DNA methylation profile in combination with the pathological diagnosis would be useful in predicting CRC tumors’ evolution and their prognostic behavior. PMID:25580099

  13. Aberrant DNA methylation reprogramming in bovine SCNT preimplantation embryos

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sheng; Chen, Xin; Wang, Fang; An, Xinglan; Tang, Bo; Zhang, Xueming; Sun, Liguang; Li, Ziyi

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation reprogramming plays important roles in mammalian embryogenesis. Mammalian somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos with reprogramming defects fail to develop. Thus, we compared DNA methylation reprogramming in preimplantation embryos from bovine SCNT and in vitro fertilization (IVF) and analyzed the influence of vitamin C (VC) on the reprogramming of DNA methylation. The results showed that global DNA methylation followed a typical pattern of demethylation and remethylation in IVF preimplantation embryos; however, the global genome remained hypermethylated in SCNT preimplantation embryos. Compared with the IVF group, locus DNA methylation reprogramming showed three patterns in the SCNT group. First, some pluripotency genes (POU5F1 and NANOG) and repeated elements (satellite I and α-satellite) showed insufficient demethylation and hypermethylation in the SCNT group. Second, a differentially methylated region (DMR) of an imprint control region (ICR) in H19 exhibited excessive demethylation and hypomethylation. Third, some pluripotency genes (CDX2 and SOX2) were hypomethylated in both the IVF and SCNT groups. Additionally, VC improved the DNA methylation reprogramming of satellite I, α-satellite and H19 but not that of POU5F1 and NANOG in SCNT preimplantation embryos. These results indicate that DNA methylation reprogramming was aberrant and that VC influenced DNA methylation reprogramming in SCNT embryos in a locus-specific manner. PMID:27456302

  14. METHYLATION OF ARSENITE BY SOME MAMMALIAN CELL LINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    THIS ABSTRACT WAS SUBMITTED ELECTRONICALLY;. SPACE CONSTRAINTS WERE SEVERE)

    Methylation of Arsenite by Some Mammalian Cell Lines.

    Methylation of arsenite is thought to play an important role in the carcinogenicity of arsenic.
    Aim 1: Determine if there is diffe...

  15. The dynamic changes of DNA methylation in primordial germ cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Duan, Lian; Liu, Yongmei; Wang, Jie; Liao, Jiangquan; Hu, Junyuan

    2016-10-15

    The discovery of DNA methylation has provided a new perspective on how DNA may be dynamically regulated in the mammalian genome. DNA methylation is a dynamic process with a demethylation and de novo methylation from primordial germ cell to differentiation. DNA methylation and demethylation have been proposed to play important roles in somatic cell reprogramming. Some essential components were discussed, such as hydroxymethylation which has recently been confirmed as a modification of developmental importance. PMID:27320728

  16. DNA methylation dynamics in muscle development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Carrió, Elvira; Suelves, Mònica

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is an essential epigenetic modification for mammalian development and is crucial for the establishment and maintenance of cellular identity. Traditionally, DNA methylation has been considered as a permanent repressive epigenetic mark. However, the application of genome-wide approaches has allowed the analysis of DNA methylation in different genomic contexts revealing a more dynamic regulation than originally thought, since active DNA methylation and demethylation occur during cellular differentiation and tissue specification. Satellite cells are the primary stem cells in adult skeletal muscle and are responsible for postnatal muscle growth, hypertrophy, and muscle regeneration. This review outlines the published data regarding DNA methylation changes along the skeletal muscle program, in both physiological and pathological conditions, to better understand the epigenetic mechanisms that control myogenesis. PMID:25798107

  17. MAMMALIAN DNA IN PCR REAGENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ancient DNA analysis is becoming widespread. These studies use polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify minute quantities of heavily damaged template. Unusual steps are taken to achieve the sensitivity necessary to detect ancient DNA, including high- cycle PCR amplification t...

  18. Methods of DNA methylation analysis.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this review was to provide guidance for investigators who are new to the field of DNA methylation analysis. Epigenetics is the study of mitotically heritable alterations in gene expression potential that are not mediated by changes in DNA sequence. Recently, it has become clear that n...

  19. Chimeric DNA methyltransferases target DNA methylation to specific DNA sequences and repress expression of target genes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fuyang; Papworth, Monika; Minczuk, Michal; Rohde, Christian; Zhang, Yingying; Ragozin, Sergei; Jeltsch, Albert

    2007-01-01

    Gene silencing by targeted DNA methylation has potential applications in basic research and therapy. To establish targeted methylation in human cell lines, the catalytic domains (CDs) of mouse Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b DNA methyltransferases (MTases) were fused to different DNA binding domains (DBD) of GAL4 and an engineered Cys2His2 zinc finger domain. We demonstrated that (i) Dense DNA methylation can be targeted to specific regions in gene promoters using chimeric DNA MTases. (ii) Site-specific methylation leads to repression of genes controlled by various cellular or viral promoters. (iii) Mutations affecting any of the DBD, MTase or target DNA sequences reduce targeted methylation and gene silencing. (iv) Targeted DNA methylation is effective in repressing Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection in cell culture with the viral titer reduced by at least 18-fold in the presence of an MTase fused to an engineered zinc finger DBD, which binds a single site in the promoter of HSV-1 gene IE175k. In short, we show here that it is possible to direct DNA MTase activity to predetermined sites in DNA, achieve targeted gene silencing in mammalian cell lines and interfere with HSV-1 propagation. PMID:17151075

  20. Redefining regulation of DNA methylation by RNA interference

    PubMed Central

    Muthusamy, Viswanathan; Bosenberg, Marcus; Wajapeyee, Narendra

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic changes refer to heritable changes that may modulate gene expression without affecting DNA sequence. DNA methylation is one such heritable epigenetic change, which is causally associated with the transcription regulation of many genes in the mammalian genome. Altered DNA methylation has been implicated in a wide variety of human diseases including cancer. Understanding the regulation of DNA methylation is likely to improve the ability to diagnose and treat these diseases. With the advent of high-throughput RNA interference (RNAi) screens, answering epigenetic questions on a genomic scale is now possible. Two recent genome-wide RNAi screens have addressed the regulation of DNA methylation in cancer, leading to the identification of the regulators of epigenetic silencing by oncogenic RAS and how epigenetic silencing of the tumor suppressor RASSF1A is maintained. These RNAi screens have much wider applications, since similar screens can now be adapted to identify the mechanism of silencing of any human disease-associated gene that is epigenetically regulated. In this review, we discuss two recent genome-wide RNAi screens for epigenetic regulators and explore potential applications in understanding DNA methylation and gene expression regulation in mammalian cells. We also discuss some of the key unanswered questions in the field of DNA methylation and suggest genome-wide RNAi screens designed to answer them. PMID:20620207

  1. 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine – the elusive epigenetic mark in mammalian DNA

    PubMed Central

    Kriukienė, Edita; Liutkevičiūtė, Zita

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, epigenetic phenomena claimed a central role in cell regulatory processes and proved important factors for understanding complex human diseases. One of the best understood epigenetic mechanisms is DNA methylation. In the mammalian genome, cytosines (C) were long known to exist in two functional states: unmethylated or methylated at the 5-position of the pyrimidine ring (5mC). Recent studies of genomic DNA from the human and mouse brain, neurons and from mouse embryonic stem cells found that a substantial fraction of 5mC in CpG dinucleotides is converted to 5-hydroxymethyl-cytosine (hmC) by the action of 2-oxoglutarate- and Fe(II)-dependent oxygenases of the TET family. These findings provided important clues in a long elusive mechanism of active DNA demethylation and bolstered a fresh wave of studies in the area of epigenetic regulation in mammals. This 15 review is dedicated to critical assessment of the most popular techniques with respect to their suitability for analysis of hmC in mammalian genomes. It also discusses the most recent data on biochemical and chemical aspects of the formation and further conversion of this nucleobase in DNA and its possible biological roles in cell differentiation, embryogenesis and brain function. PMID:22842880

  2. Genome-wide mapping of DNA methylation in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Ponts, Nadia; Fu, Lijuan; Harris, Elena Y.; Zhang, Jing; Chung, Duk-Won D.; Cervantes, Michael C.; Prudhomme, Jacques; Atanasova-Penichon, Vessela; Zehraoui, Enric; Bunnik, Evelien; Rodrigues, Elisandra M.; Lonardi, Stefano; Hicks, Glenn R.; Wang, Yinsheng; Le Roch, Karine G.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Cytosine DNA methylation is an epigenetic mark in most eukaryotic cells that regulates numerous processes, including gene expression and stress responses. We performed a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. We mapped the positions of methylated cytosines and identified a single functional DNA methyltransferase, PfDNMT, that may mediate these genomic modifications. These analyses revealed that the malaria genome is asymmetrically methylated, in which only one DNA strand is methylated, and shares common features with undifferentiated plant and mammalian cells. Notably, core promoters are hypomethylated and transcript levels correlate with intra-exonic methylation. Additionally, there are sharp methylation transitions at nucleosome and exon-intron boundaries. These data suggest that DNA methylation could regulate virulence gene expression and transcription elongation. Furthermore, the broad range of action of DNA methylation and uniqueness of PfDNMT suggest that the methylation pathway is a potential target for anti-malarial strategies. PMID:24331467

  3. DNA methylation in endometriosis (Review)

    PubMed Central

    KOUKOURA, OURANIA; SIFAKIS, STAVROS; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is defined by the presence and growth of functional endometrial tissue, outside the uterine cavity, primarily in the ovaries, pelvic peritoneum and rectovaginal septum. Although it is a benign disease, it presents with malignant characteristics, such as invasion to surrounding tissues, metastasis to distant locations and recurrence following treatment. Accumulating evidence suggests that various epigenetic aberrations may play an essential role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Aberrant DNA methylation represents a possible mechanism repsonsible for this disease, linking gene expression alterations observed in endometriosis with hormonal and environmental factors. Several lines of evidence indicate that endometriosis may partially be due to selective epigenetic deregulations influenced by extrinsic factors. Previous studies have shed light into the epigenetic component of endometriosis, reporting variations in the epigenetic patterns of genes known to be involved in the aberrant hormonal, immunologic and inflammatory status of endometriosis. Although recent studies, utilizing advanced molecular techniques, have allowed us to further elucidate the possible association of DNA methylation with altered gene expression, whether these molecular changes represent the cause or merely the consequence of the disease is a question which remains to be answered. This review provides an overview of the current literature on the role of DNA methylation in the pathophysiology and malignant evolution of endometriosis. We also provide insight into the mechanisms through which DNA methylation-modifying agents may be the next step in the research of the pharmaceutical treatment of endometriosis. PMID:26934855

  4. DNA methylation in endometriosis (Review).

    PubMed

    Koukoura, Ourania; Sifakis, Stavros; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2016-04-01

    Endometriosis is defined by the presence and growth of functional endometrial tissue, outside the uterine cavity, primarily in the ovaries, pelvic peritoneum and rectovaginal septum. Although it is a benign disease, it presents with malignant characteristics, such as invasion to surrounding tissues, metastasis to distant locations and recurrence following treatment. Accumulating evidence suggests that various epigenetic aberrations may play an essential role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Aberrant DNA methylation represents a possible mechanism repsonsible for this disease, linking gene expression alterations observed in endometriosis with hormonal and environmental factors. Several lines of evidence indicate that endometriosis may partially be due to selective epigenetic deregulations influenced by extrinsic factors. Previous studies have shed light into the epigenetic component of endometriosis, reporting variations in the epigenetic patterns of genes known to be involved in the aberrant hormonal, immunologic and inflammatory status of endometriosis. Although recent studies, utilizing advanced molecular techniques, have allowed us to further elucidate the possible association of DNA methylation with altered gene expression, whether these molecular changes represent the cause or merely the consequence of the disease is a question which remains to be answered. This review provides an overview of the current literature on the role of DNA methylation in the pathophysiology and malignant evolution of endometriosis. We also provide insight into the mechanisms through which DNA methylation-modifying agents may be the next step in the research of the pharmaceutical treatment of endometriosis. PMID:26934855

  5. Rapid method for the isolation of mammalian sperm DNA

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haotian; de Gannes, Matthew K.; Luchetti, Gianna; Pilsner, J. Richard

    2015-01-01

    The unique DNA packaging of spermatozoa renders them resistant to DNA isolation techniques used for somatic cells, requiring alternative methods that are slow and labor intensive. Here we present a rapid method for isolating high-quality sperm DNA. Isolated human sperm cells were homogenized with 0.2 mm steel beads for 5 min at room temperature in the presence of guanidine thiocyanate lysis buffer supplemented with 50 mM tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP). Our method yielded >90% high-quality DNA using 3 different commercially available silica-based spin columns. DNA yields did not differ between immediate isolation (2.84 ± 0.04 pg/cell) and isolation after 2 weeks of homogenate storage at room temperature (2.91 ± 0.13 pg/cell). DNA methylation analyses revealed similar methylation levels at both time points for three imprinted loci. Our protocol has many advantages: it is conducted at room temperature; lengthy proteinase K (ProK) digestions are eliminated; the reducing agent, TCEP, is odorless and stable at room temperature; nucleic acids are stabilized, allowing storage of homogenate; and it is adaptable for other mammalian species. Taken together, the benefits of our improved method have important implications for settings where sample processing constraints exist. PMID:26054765

  6. Rapid method for the isolation of mammalian sperm DNA.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haotian; de Gannes, Matthew K; Luchetti, Gianna; Pilsner, J Richard

    2015-06-01

    The unique DNA packaging of spermatozoa renders them resistant to DNA isolation techniques used for somatic cells, requiring alternative methods that are slow and labor intensive. Here we present a rapid method for isolating high-quality sperm DNA. Isolated human sperm cells were homogenized with 0.2 mm steel beads for 5 min at room temperature in the presence of guanidine thiocyanate lysis buffer supplemented with 50 mM tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP). Our method yielded >90% high-quality DNA using 3 different commercially available silica-based spin columns. DNA yields did not differ between immediate isolation (2.84 ± 0.04 pg/cell) and isolation after 2 weeks of homogenate storage at room temperature (2.91 ± 0.13 pg/cell). DNA methylation analyses revealed similar methylation levels at both time points for three imprinted loci. Our protocol has many advantages: it is conducted at room temperature; lengthy proteinase K (ProK) digestions are eliminated; the reducing agent, TCEP, is odorless and stable at room temperature; nucleic acids are stabilized, allowing storage of homogenate; and it is adaptable for other mammalian species. Taken together, the benefits of our improved method have important implications for settings where sample processing constraints exist. PMID:26054765

  7. Reading the unique DNA methylation landscape of the brain: Non-CpG methylation, hydroxymethylation, and MeCP2

    PubMed Central

    Kinde, Benyam; Gabel, Harrison W.; Gilbert, Caitlin S.; Griffith, Eric C.; Greenberg, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation at CpG dinucleotides is an important epigenetic regulator common to virtually all mammalian cell types, but recent evidence indicates that during early postnatal development neuronal genomes also accumulate uniquely high levels of two alternative forms of methylation, non-CpG methylation and hydroxymethylation. Here we discuss the distinct landscape of DNA methylation in neurons, how it is established, and how it might affect the binding and function of protein readers of DNA methylation. We review studies of one critical reader of DNA methylation in the brain, the Rett syndrome protein methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2), and discuss how differential binding affinity of MeCP2 for non-CpG and hydroxymethylation may affect the function of this methyl-binding protein in the nervous system. PMID:25739960

  8. Epigenomic profiling indicates a role for DNA methylation in early postnatal liver development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The question of whether DNA methylation contributes to the stabilization of gene expression patterns in differentiated mammalian tissues remains controversial. Using genome-wide methylation profiling, we screened 3757 gene promoters for changes in methylation during postnatal liver development to te...

  9. Methods in DNA methylation profiling

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Tao; Tycko, Benjamin; Liu, Ta-Ming; Lin, Huey-Jen L; Huang, Tim H-M

    2010-01-01

    Metastable and somatically heritable patterns of DNA methylation provide an important level of genomic regulation. In this article, we review methods for analyzing these genome-wide epigenetic patterns and offer a perspective on the ever-expanding literature, which we hope will be useful for investigators who are new to this area. The historical aspects that we cover will be helpful in interpreting this literature and we hope that our discussion of the newest analytical methods will stimulate future progress. We emphasize that no single approach can provide a complete view of the overall methylome, and that combinations of several modalities applied to the same sample set will give the clearest picture. Given the unexpected epigenomic patterns and new biological principles, as well as new disease markers, that have been uncovered in recent studies, it is likely that important discoveries will continue to be made using genome-wide DNA methylation profiling. PMID:20526417

  10. Electronic transport in methylated fragments of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, M. L.; Oliveira, J. I. N.; Lima Neto, J. X.; Gomes, C. E. M.; Fulco, U. L.; Albuquerque, E. L.; Freire, V. N.; Caetano, E. W. S.; de Moura, F. A. B. F.; Lyra, M. L.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the electronic transport properties of methylated deoxyribonucleic-acid (DNA) strands, a biological system in which methyl groups are added to DNA (a major epigenetic modification in gene expression), sandwiched between two metallic platinum electrodes. Our theoretical simulations apply an effective Hamiltonian based on a tight-binding model to obtain current-voltage curves related to the non-methylated/methylated DNA strands. The results suggest potential applications in the development of novel biosensors for molecular diagnostics.

  11. Electronic transport in methylated fragments of DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, M. L. de; Oliveira, J. I. N.; Lima Neto, J. X.; Gomes, C. E. M.; Fulco, U. L. Albuquerque, E. L.; Freire, V. N.; Caetano, E. W. S.; Moura, F. A. B. F. de; Lyra, M. L.

    2015-11-16

    We investigate the electronic transport properties of methylated deoxyribonucleic-acid (DNA) strands, a biological system in which methyl groups are added to DNA (a major epigenetic modification in gene expression), sandwiched between two metallic platinum electrodes. Our theoretical simulations apply an effective Hamiltonian based on a tight-binding model to obtain current-voltage curves related to the non-methylated/methylated DNA strands. The results suggest potential applications in the development of novel biosensors for molecular diagnostics.

  12. Maintenance and Expression of Mammalian Mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Claes M; Falkenberg, Maria; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2016-06-01

    Mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes 13 proteins that are essential for the function of the oxidative phosphorylation system, which is composed of four respiratory-chain complexes and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase. Remarkably, the maintenance and expression of mtDNA depend on the mitochondrial import of hundreds of nuclear-encoded proteins that control genome maintenance, replication, transcription, RNA maturation, and mitochondrial translation. The importance of this complex regulatory system is underscored by the identification of numerous mutations of nuclear genes that impair mtDNA maintenance and expression at different levels, causing human mitochondrial diseases with pleiotropic clinical manifestations. The basic scientific understanding of the mechanisms controlling mtDNA function has progressed considerably during the past few years, thanks to advances in biochemistry, genetics, and structural biology. The challenges for the future will be to understand how mtDNA maintenance and expression are regulated and to what extent direct intramitochondrial cross talk between different processes, such as transcription and translation, is important. PMID:27023847

  13. Role of CpG context and content in evolutionary signatures of brain DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Yurong; O’Donnell, Anne H.; Ge, Yongchao; Chanrion, Benjamin; Milekic, Maria; Rosoklija, Gorazd; Stankov, Aleksandar; Arango, Victoria; Dwork, Andrew J.; Gingrich, Jay A.; Haghighi, Fatemeh G.

    2011-01-01

    DNA methylation is essential in brain function and behavior; therefore, understanding the role of DNA methylation in brain-based disorders begins with the study of DNA methylation profiles in normal brain. Determining the patterns and scale of methylation conservation and alteration in an evolutionary context enables the design of focused but effective methylation studies of disease states. We applied an enzymatic-based approach, Methylation Mapping Analysis by Paired-end Sequencing (Methyl-MAPS), which utilizes second-generation sequencing technology to provide an unbiased representation of genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of human and mouse brains. In this large-scale study, we assayed CpG methylation in cerebral cortex of neurologically and psychiatrically normal human postmortem specimens, as well as mouse forebrain specimens. Cross-species human-mouse DNA methylation conservation analysis shows that DNA methylation is not correlated with sequence conservation. Instead, greater DNA methylation conservation is correlated with increasing CpG density. In addition to CpG density, these data show that genomic context is a critical factor in DNA methylation conservation and alteration signatures throughout mammalian brain evolution. We identify key genomic features that can be targeted for identification of epigenetic loci that may be developmentally and evolutionarily conserved and wherein aberrations in DNA methylation patterns can confer risk for disease. PMID:22048252

  14. Optical mapping discerns genome wide DNA methylation profiles

    PubMed Central

    Ananiev, Gene E; Goldstein, Steve; Runnheim, Rod; Forrest, Dan K; Zhou, Shiguo; Potamousis, Konstantinos; Churas, Chris P; Bergendahl, Veit; Thomson, James A; Schwartz, David C

    2008-01-01

    Background Methylation of CpG dinucleotides is a fundamental mechanism of epigenetic regulation in eukaryotic genomes. Development of methods for rapid genome wide methylation profiling will greatly facilitate both hypothesis and discovery driven research in the field of epigenetics. In this regard, a single molecule approach to methylation profiling offers several unique advantages that include elimination of chemical DNA modification steps and PCR amplification. Results A single molecule approach is presented for the discernment of methylation profiles, based on optical mapping. We report results from a series of pilot studies demonstrating the capabilities of optical mapping as a platform for methylation profiling of whole genomes. Optical mapping was used to discern the methylation profile from both an engineered and wild type Escherichia coli. Furthermore, the methylation status of selected loci within the genome of human embryonic stem cells was profiled using optical mapping. Conclusion The optical mapping platform effectively detects DNA methylation patterns. Due to single molecule detection, optical mapping offers significant advantages over other technologies. This advantage stems from obviation of DNA modification steps, such as bisulfite treatment, and the ability of the platform to assay repeat dense regions within mammalian genomes inaccessible to techniques using array-hybridization technologies. PMID:18667073

  15. Increased DNA methylation in the suicide brain.

    PubMed

    Haghighi, Fatemeh; Xin, Yurong; Chanrion, Benjamin; O'Donnell, Anne H; Ge, Yongchao; Dwork, Andrew J; Arango, Victoria; Mann, J John

    2014-09-01

    Clinical studies find that childhood adversity and stressful life events in adulthood increase the risk for major depression and for suicide. The predispositions to either major depression or suicide are thought to depend on genetic risk factors or epigenetic effects. We investigated DNA methylation signatures postmortem in brains of suicides with diagnosis of major depressive disorder. DNA methylation levels were determined at single C-phosphate-G (CpG) resolution sites within ventral prefrontal cortex of 53 suicides and nonpsychiatric controls, aged 16 to 89 years. We found that DNA methylation increases throughout the lifespan. Suicides showed an 8-fold greater number of methylated CpG sites relative to controls (P < 2.2 x 10(-16)), with greater DNA methylation changes over and above the increased methylation observed in normal aging. This increased DNA methylation may be a significant contributor to the neuropathology and psychopathology underlying the risk of suicide in depression. PMID:25364291

  16. Brain feminization requires active repression of masculinization via DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Nugent, Bridget M.; Wright, Christopher L.; Shetty, Amol C.; Hodes, Georgia E.; Lenz, Kathryn M.; Mahurkar, Anup; Russo, Scott J.; Devine, Scott E.; McCarthy, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    The developing mammalian brain is destined for a female phenotype unless exposed to gonadal hormones during a perinatal sensitive period. It has been assumed that the undifferentiated brain is masculinized by direct induction of transcription by ligand-activated nuclear steroid receptors. We found that a primary effect of gonadal steroids in the highly sexually-dimorphic preoptic area (POA) is to reduce activity of DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt) enzymes, thereby decreasing DNA methylation and releasing masculinizing genes from epigenetic repression. Pharmacological inhibition of Dnmts mimicked gonadal steroids, resulting in masculinized neuronal markers and male sexual behavior in females. Conditional knockout of the de novo Dnmt isoform, Dnmt3a, also masculinized sexual behavior in female mice. RNA sequencing revealed gene and isoform variants modulated by methylation that may underlie the divergent reproductive behaviors of males versus females. Our data show that brain feminization is maintained by the active suppression of masculinization via DNA methylation. PMID:25821913

  17. Conformation-selective methylation of geminivirus DNA.

    PubMed

    Paprotka, T; Deuschle, K; Metzler, V; Jeske, H

    2011-11-01

    Geminiviruses with small circular single-stranded DNA genomes replicate in plant cell nuclei by using various double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) intermediates: distinct open circular and covalently closed circular as well as heterogeneous linear DNA. Their DNA may be methylated partially at cytosine residues, as detected previously by bisulfite sequencing and subsequent PCR. In order to determine the methylation patterns of the circular molecules, the DNAs of tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and Abutilon mosaic virus were investigated utilizing bisulfite treatment followed by rolling circle amplification. Shotgun sequencing of the products yielded a randomly distributed 50% rate of C maintenance after the bisulfite reaction for both viruses. However, controls with unmethylated single-stranded bacteriophage DNA resulted in the same level of C maintenance. Only one short DNA stretch within the C2/C3 promoter of TYLCSV showed hyperprotection of C, with the protection rate exceeding the threshold of the mean value plus 1 standard deviation. Similarly, the use of methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes suggested that geminiviruses escape silencing by methylation very efficiently, by either a rolling circle or recombination-dependent replication mode. In contrast, attempts to detect methylated bases positively by using methylcytosine-specific antibodies detected methylated DNA only in heterogeneous linear dsDNA, and methylation-dependent restriction enzymes revealed that the viral heterogeneous linear dsDNA was methylated preferentially. PMID:21835804

  18. DNA methylation: old dog, new tricks?

    PubMed

    Spruijt, Cornelia G; Vermeulen, Michiel

    2014-11-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that is generally associated with repression of transcription initiation at CpG-island promoters. Here we argue that, on the basis of recent high-throughput genomic and proteomic screenings, DNA methylation can also have different outcomes, including activation of transcription. This is evidenced by the fact that transcription factors can interact with methylated DNA sequences. Furthermore, in certain cellular contexts, genes containing methylated promoters are highly transcribed. Interestingly, this uncoupling between methylated DNA and repression of transcription seems to be particularly evident in germ cells and pluripotent cells. Thus, contrary to previous assumptions, DNA methylation is not exclusively associated with repression of transcription initiation. PMID:25372310

  19. DNA methylation on N6-adenine in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Greer, Eric Lieberman; Blanco, Mario Andres; Gu, Lei; Sendinc, Erdem; Liu, Jianzhao; Aristizábal-Corrales, David; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Aravind, L.; He, Chuan; Shi, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Summary In mammalian cells, DNA methylation on the 5th position of cytosine (5mC) plays an important role as an epigenetic mark. However, DNA methylation was considered to be absent in C. elegans because of the lack of detectable 5mC as well as homologs of the cytosine DNA methyltransferases. Here, using multiple approaches, we demonstrate the presence of adenine N6-methylation (6mA) in C. elegans DNA. We further demonstrate that this modification increases trans-generationally in a paradigm of epigenetic inheritance. Importantly, we identify a DNA demethylase, NMAD-1, and a potential DNA methyltransferase, DAMT-1, which regulate 6mA levels and crosstalk between methylation of histone H3K4me2 and 6mA, and control the epigenetic inheritance of phenotypes associated with the loss of the H3K4me2 demethylase spr-5. Together, these data identify a DNA modification in C. elegans and raise the exciting possibility that 6mA may be a carrier of heritable epigenetic information in eukaryotes. PMID:25936839

  20. DNA methylation in hematopoietic development and disease.

    PubMed

    Gore, Aniket V; Weinstein, Brant M

    2016-09-01

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification that can have profound and widespread effects on gene expression and on cellular fate and function. Recent work has indicated that DNA methylation plays a critical role in hematopoietic development and hematopoietic disease. DNA methyltransferases and Ten-eleven translocation enzymes are required to add and remove methyl "marks" from DNA, respectively, and both sets of genes have been found necessary for proper formation and maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells and for differentiation of downstream hematopoietic lineages during development. DNA methylation and demethylation enzymes have also been implicated in hematopoietic disorders such as acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. Here, we review some of the recent literature regarding the role of DNA methylation in hematopoietic health and disease. PMID:27178734

  1. DNA Methylation Modulates Nociceptive Sensitization after Incision

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yuan; Sahbaie, Peyman; Liang, DeYong; Li, Wenwu; Shi, Xiaoyou; Kingery, Paige; Clark, J. David

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mechanism controlling DNA accessibility and gene expression. Blockade of DNA methylation can significantly affect pain behaviors implicated in neuropathic and inflammatory pain. However, the role of DNA methylation with regard to postoperative pain has not yet been explored. In this study we sought to investigate the role of DNA methylation in modulating incisional pain and identify possible targets under DNA methylation and contributing to incisional pain. DNA methyltranferase (DNMT) inhibitor 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine significantly reduced incision-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal sensitivity. Aza-2′-deoxycytidine also reduced hindpaw swelling after incision, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. Global DNA methylation and DNMT3b expression were increased in skin after incision, but none of DNMT1, DNMT3a or DNMT3b was altered in spinal cord or DRG. The expression of proopiomelanocortin Pomc encoding β-endorphin and Oprm1 encoding the mu-opioid receptor were upregulated peripherally after incision; moreover, Oprm1 expression was further increased under DNMT inhibitor treatment. Finally, local peripheral injection of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone significantly exacerbated incision-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. These results suggest that DNA methylation is functionally relevant to incisional nociceptive sensitization, and that mu-opioid receptor signaling might be one methylation regulated pathway controlling sensitization after incision. PMID:26535894

  2. DNA Methylation Modulates Nociceptive Sensitization after Incision.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuan; Sahbaie, Peyman; Liang, DeYong; Li, Wenwu; Shi, Xiaoyou; Kingery, Paige; Clark, J David

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mechanism controlling DNA accessibility and gene expression. Blockade of DNA methylation can significantly affect pain behaviors implicated in neuropathic and inflammatory pain. However, the role of DNA methylation with regard to postoperative pain has not yet been explored. In this study we sought to investigate the role of DNA methylation in modulating incisional pain and identify possible targets under DNA methylation and contributing to incisional pain. DNA methyltranferase (DNMT) inhibitor 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine significantly reduced incision-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal sensitivity. Aza-2'-deoxycytidine also reduced hindpaw swelling after incision, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. Global DNA methylation and DNMT3b expression were increased in skin after incision, but none of DNMT1, DNMT3a or DNMT3b was altered in spinal cord or DRG. The expression of proopiomelanocortin Pomc encoding β-endorphin and Oprm1 encoding the mu-opioid receptor were upregulated peripherally after incision; moreover, Oprm1 expression was further increased under DNMT inhibitor treatment. Finally, local peripheral injection of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone significantly exacerbated incision-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. These results suggest that DNA methylation is functionally relevant to incisional nociceptive sensitization, and that mu-opioid receptor signaling might be one methylation regulated pathway controlling sensitization after incision. PMID:26535894

  3. Altered DNA methylation in PAH deficient phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Dobrowolski, Steven F; Lyons-Weiler, James; Spridik, Kayla; Biery, Amy; Breck, Jane; Vockley, Jerry; Yatsenko, Svetlana; Sultana, Tamanna

    2015-01-01

    While phenylalanine (PHE) is the toxic insult in phenylketonuria (PKU), mechanisms underlying PHE toxicity remain ill-defined. Altered DNA methylation in response to toxic exposures is well-recognized. DNA methylation patterns were assessed in blood and brain from PKU patients to determine if PHE toxicity impacts methylation. Methylome assessment, utilizing methylated DNA immunoprecipitation and paired-end sequencing, was performed in DNA obtained from brain tissue of classical PKU patients, leukocytes from poorly controlled PKU patients, leukocytes from well controlled PKU patients, and appropriate control tissues. In PKU brain tissue, expression analysis determined the impact of methylation on gene function. Differential methylation was observed in brain tissue of PKU patients and expression studies identified downstream impact on gene expression. Altered patterns of methylation were observed in leukocytes of well controlled and poorly controlled patients with more extensive methylation in patients with high PHE exposure. Differential methylation of noncoding RNA genes was extensive in patients with high PHE exposure but minimal in well controlled patients. Methylome repatterning leading to altered gene expression was present in brain tissue of PKU patients, suggesting a role in neuropathology. Aberrant methylation is observed in leukocytes of PKU patients and is influenced by PHE exposure. DNA methylation may provide a biomarker relating to historic PHE exposure. PMID:25990862

  4. An integrated workflow for DNA methylation analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Pingchuan; Demirci, Feray; Mahalingam, Gayathri; Demirci, Caghan; Nakano, Mayumi; Meyers, Blake C

    2013-05-20

    The analysis of cytosine methylation provides a new way to assess and describe epigenetic regulation at a whole-genome level in many eukaryotes. DNA methylation has a demonstrated role in the genome stability and protection, regulation of gene expression and many other aspects of genome function and maintenance. BS-seq is a relatively unbiased method for profiling the DNA methylation, with a resolution capable of measuring methylation at individual cytosines. Here we describe, as an example, a workflow to handle DNA methylation analysis, from BS-seq library preparation to the data visualization. We describe some applications for the analysis and interpretation of these data. Our laboratory provides public access to plant DNA methylation data via visualization tools available at our "Next-Gen Sequence" websites (http://mpss.udel.edu), along with small RNA, RNA-seq and other data types. PMID:23706300

  5. DNA methylation as a universal biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Levenson, Victor V

    2010-01-01

    Cell-free circulating DNA carries not only tumor-specific changes in its sequence but also distinctive epigenetic marks, namely DNA methylation, in certain GC-rich fragments. These fragments are usually located within the promoters and first exons of many genes, comprising CpG islands. Analysis of DNA methylation using cell-free circulating DNA can facilitate development of very accurate biomarkers for detection, diagnosis, prediction of response to therapy and prognosis of outcomes. Recent data suggest that benign and inflammatory diseases have very specific methylation patterns within cell-free circulating DNA, which are different from the pattern of a malignant tumor of the same organ. In addition, specific methylation patterns have been detected for cancers of different organs, so a differential diagnosis of site-specific cancer appears feasible. Currently, cancer-related applications dominate the field, although methylation-based biomarkers may also be possible for other diseases, including neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. PMID:20465502

  6. Advances in genome-wide DNA methylation analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Romi; Nagarajan, Arvindhan; Wajapeyee, Narendra

    2013-01-01

    The covalent DNA modification of cytosine at position 5 (5-methylcytosine; 5mC) has emerged as an important epigenetic mark most commonly present in the context of CpG dinucleotides in mammalian cells. In pluripotent stem cells and plants, it is also found in non-CpG and CpNpG contexts, respectively. 5mC has important implications in a diverse set of biological processes, including transcriptional regulation. Aberrant DNA methylation has been shown to be associated with a wide variety of human ailments and thus is the focus of active investigation. Methods used for detecting DNA methylation have revolutionized our understanding of this epigenetic mark and provided new insights into its role in diverse biological functions. Here we describe recent technological advances in genome-wide DNA methylation analysis and discuss their relative utility and drawbacks, providing specific examples from studies that have used these technologies for genome-wide DNA methylation analysis to address important biological questions. Finally, we discuss a newly identified covalent DNA modification, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), and speculate on its possible biological function, as well as describe a new methodology that can distinguish 5hmC from 5mC. PMID:20964631

  7. DNA Damage, Homology-Directed Repair, and DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Angrisano, Tiziana; Morano, Annalisa; Lee, Bongyong; Pardo, Alba Di; Messina, Samantha; Iuliano, Rodolfo; Fusco, Alfredo; Santillo, Maria R; Muller, Mark T; Chiariotti, Lorenzo; Gottesman, Max E; Avvedimento, Enrico V

    2007-01-01

    To explore the link between DNA damage and gene silencing, we induced a DNA double-strand break in the genome of Hela or mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells using I-SceI restriction endonuclease. The I-SceI site lies within one copy of two inactivated tandem repeated green fluorescent protein (GFP) genes (DR-GFP). A total of 2%–4% of the cells generated a functional GFP by homology-directed repair (HR) and gene conversion. However, ~50% of these recombinants expressed GFP poorly. Silencing was rapid and associated with HR and DNA methylation of the recombinant gene, since it was prevented in Hela cells by 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. ES cells deficient in DNA methyl transferase 1 yielded as many recombinants as wild-type cells, but most of these recombinants expressed GFP robustly. Half of the HR DNA molecules were de novo methylated, principally downstream to the double-strand break, and half were undermethylated relative to the uncut DNA. Methylation of the repaired gene was independent of the methylation status of the converting template. The methylation pattern of recombinant molecules derived from pools of cells carrying DR-GFP at different loci, or from an individual clone carrying DR-GFP at a single locus, was comparable. ClustalW analysis of the sequenced GFP molecules in Hela and ES cells distinguished recombinant and nonrecombinant DNA solely on the basis of their methylation profile and indicated that HR superimposed novel methylation profiles on top of the old patterns. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and RNA analysis revealed that DNA methyl transferase 1 was bound specifically to HR GFP DNA and that methylation of the repaired segment contributed to the silencing of GFP expression. Taken together, our data support a mechanistic link between HR and DNA methylation and suggest that DNA methylation in eukaryotes marks homologous recombined segments. PMID:17616978

  8. Folate and DNA Methylation: A Review of Molecular Mechanisms and the Evidence for Folate’s Role12

    PubMed Central

    Crider, Krista S.; Yang, Thomas P.; Berry, Robert J; Bailey, Lynn B.

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification critical to normal genome regulation and development. The vitamin folate is a key source of the one carbon group used to methylate DNA. Because normal mammalian development is dependent on DNA methylation, there is enormous interest in assessing the potential for changes in folate intake to modulate DNA methylation both as a biomarker for folate status and as a mechanistic link to developmental disorders and chronic diseases including cancer. This review highlights the role of DNA methylation in normal genome function, how it can be altered, and the evidence of the role of folate/folic acid in these processes. PMID:22332098

  9. DNA methylation pathways and their crosstalk with histone methylation

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jiamu; Johnson, Lianna M.; Jacobsen, Steven E.; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2015-01-01

    Methylation of DNA and of histone 3 at Lys 9 (H3K9) are highly correlated with gene silencing in eukaryotes from fungi to humans. Both of these epigenetic marks need to be established at specific regions of the genome and then maintained at these sites through cell division. Protein structural domains that specifically recognize methylated DNA and methylated histones are key for targeting enzymes that catalyse these marks to appropriate genome sites. Genetic, genomic, structural and biochemical data reveal connections between these two epigenetic marks, and these domains mediate much of the crosstalk. PMID:26296162

  10. GADD45α inhibition of DNMT1 dependent DNA methylation during homology directed DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bongyong; Morano, Annalisa; Porcellini, Antonio; Muller, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we examine regulation of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) by the DNA damage inducible protein, GADD45α. We used a system to induce homologous recombination (HR) at a unique double-strand DNA break in a GFP reporter in mammalian cells. After HR, the repaired DNA is hypermethylated in recombinant clones showing low GFP expression (HR-L expressor class), while in high expressor recombinants (HR-H clones) previous methylation patterns are erased. GADD45α, which is transiently induced by double-strand breaks, binds to chromatin undergoing HR repair. Ectopic overexpression of GADD45α during repair increases the HR-H fraction of cells (hypomethylated repaired DNA), without altering the recombination frequency. Conversely, silencing of GADD45α increases methylation of the recombined segment and amplifies the HR-L expressor (hypermethylated) population. GADD45α specifically interacts with the catalytic site of DNMT1 and inhibits methylation activity in vitro. We propose that double-strand DNA damage and the resulting HR process involves precise, strand selected DNA methylation by DNMT1 that is regulated by GADD45α. Since GADD45α binds with high avidity to hemimethylated DNA intermediates, it may also provide a barrier to spreading of methylation during or after HR repair. PMID:22135303

  11. Viroid-induced DNA methylation in plants.

    PubMed

    Dalakouras, Athanasios; Dadami, Elena; Wassenegger, Michael

    2013-12-01

    In eukaryotes, DNA methylation refers to the addition of a methyl group to the fifth atom in the six-atom ring of cytosine residues. At least in plants, DNA regions that become de novo methylated can be defined by homologous RNA molecules in a process termed RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). RdDM was first discovered in viroid-infected plants. Viroids are pathogenic circular, non-coding, single-stranded RNA molecules. Members of the Pospiviroidae family replicate in the nucleus through double-stranded RNA intermediates, attracting the host RNA silencing machinery. The recruitment of this machinery results in the production of viroid-derived small RNAs (vd-sRNAs) that mediate RNA degradation and DNA methylation of cognate sequences. Here, we provide an overview of the cumulative data on the field of viroid-induced RdDM and discuss three possible scenarios concerning the mechanistic details of its establishment. PMID:25436756

  12. DMEAS: DNA methylation entropy analysis software

    PubMed Central

    He, Jianlin; Sun, Xinxi; Shao, Xiaojian; Liang, Liji; Xie, Hehuang

    2013-01-01

    Summary: DMEAS is the first user-friendly tool dedicated to analyze the distribution of DNA methylation patterns for the quantification of epigenetic heterogeneity. It supports the analysis of both locus-specific and genome-wide bisulfite sequencing data. DMEAS progressively scans the mapping results of bisulfite sequencing reads to extract DNA methylation patterns for contiguous CpG dinucleotides. It determines the DNA methylation level and calculates methylation entropy for genomic segments to enable the quantitative assessment of DNA methylation variations observed in cell populations. Availability and implementation: DMEAS program, user guide and all the testing data are freely available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/dmeas/files/ Contact: davidxie@vt.edu Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23749987

  13. DNA Methylation of BDNF Gene in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Çöpoğlu, Ümit Sertan; İğci, Mehri; Bozgeyik, Esra; Kokaçya, M. Hanifi; İğci, Yusuf Ziya; Dokuyucu, Recep; Arı, Mustafa; Savaş, Haluk A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although genetic factors are risk factors for schizophrenia, some environmental factors are thought to be required for the manifestation of disease. Epigenetic mechanisms regulate gene functions without causing a change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that regulates synaptic transmission and plasticity. It has been suggested that BDNF may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. It is established that methylation status of the BDNF gene is associated with fear learning, memory, and stressful social interactions. In this study, we aimed to investigate the DNA methylation status of BDNF gene in patients with schizophrenia. Material/Methods The study included 49 patients (33 male and 16 female) with schizophrenia and 65 unrelated healthy controls (46 male and 19 female). Determination of methylation pattern of CpG islands was based on the principle that bisulfite treatment of DNA results in conversion of unmethylated cytosine residues into uracil, whereas methylated cytosine residues remain unmodified. Methylation-specific PCR was performed with primers specific for either methylated or unmethylated DNA. Results There was no significant difference in methylated or un-methylated status for BDNF promoters between schizophrenia patients and controls. The mean duration of illness was significantly lower in the hemi-methylated group compared to the non-methylated group for BDNF gene CpG island-1 in schizophrenia patients. Conclusions Although there were no differences in BDNF gene methylation status between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, there was an association between duration of illness and DNA methylation. PMID:26851233

  14. DNA methylation contributes to natural human variation

    PubMed Central

    Heyn, Holger; Moran, Sebastian; Hernando-Herraez, Irene; Sayols, Sergi; Gomez, Antonio; Sandoval, Juan; Monk, Dave; Hata, Kenichiro; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Wang, Liewei; Esteller, Manel

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation patterns are important for establishing cell, tissue, and organism phenotypes, but little is known about their contribution to natural human variation. To determine their contribution to variability, we have generated genome-scale DNA methylation profiles of three human populations (Caucasian-American, African-American, and Han Chinese-American) and examined the differentially methylated CpG sites. The distinctly methylated genes identified suggest an influence of DNA methylation on phenotype differences, such as susceptibility to certain diseases and pathogens, and response to drugs and environmental agents. DNA methylation differences can be partially traced back to genetic variation, suggesting that differentially methylated CpG sites serve as evolutionarily established mediators between the genetic code and phenotypic variability. Notably, one-third of the DNA methylation differences were not associated with any genetic variation, suggesting that variation in population-specific sites takes place at the genetic and epigenetic levels, highlighting the contribution of epigenetic modification to natural human variation. PMID:23908385

  15. Maternal DNA Methylation Regulates Early Trophoblast Development

    PubMed Central

    Branco, Miguel R.; King, Michelle; Perez-Garcia, Vicente; Bogutz, Aaron B.; Caley, Matthew; Fineberg, Elena; Lefebvre, Louis; Cook, Simon J.; Dean, Wendy; Hemberger, Myriam; Reik, Wolf

    2016-01-01

    Summary Critical roles for DNA methylation in embryonic development are well established, but less is known about its roles during trophoblast development, the extraembryonic lineage that gives rise to the placenta. We dissected the role of DNA methylation in trophoblast development by performing mRNA and DNA methylation profiling of Dnmt3a/3b mutants. We find that oocyte-derived methylation plays a major role in regulating trophoblast development but that imprinting of the key placental regulator Ascl2 is only partially responsible for these effects. We have identified several methylation-regulated genes associated with trophoblast differentiation that are involved in cell adhesion and migration, potentially affecting trophoblast invasion. Specifically, trophoblast-specific DNA methylation is linked to the silencing of Scml2, a Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 protein that drives loss of cell adhesion in methylation-deficient trophoblast. Our results reveal that maternal DNA methylation controls multiple differentiation-related and physiological processes in trophoblast via both imprinting-dependent and -independent mechanisms. PMID:26812015

  16. Dietary and lifestyle factors of DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Unhee; Song, Min-Ae

    2012-01-01

    Lifestyle factors, such as diet, smoking, physical activity, and body weight management, are known to constitute the majority of cancer causes. Epigenetics has been widely proposed as a main mechanism that mediates the reversible effects of dietary and lifestyle factors on carcinogenesis. This chapter reviews human studies on potential dietary and lifestyle determinants of DNA methylation. Apart from a few prospective investigations and interventions of limited size and duration, evidence mostly comes from cross-sectional observational studies and supports some associations. Studies to date suggest that certain dietary components may alter genomic and gene-specific DNA methylation levels in systemic and target tissues, affecting genomic stability and transcription of tumor suppressors and oncogenes. Most data and supportive evidence exist for folate, a key nutritional factor in one-carbon metabolism that supplies the methyl units for DNA methylation. Other candidate bioactive food components include alcohol and other key nutritional factors of one-carbon metabolism, polyphenols and flavonoids in green tea, phytoestrogen, and lycopene. Some data also support a link of DNA methylation with physical activity and energy balance. Effects of dietary and lifestyle exposures on DNA methylation may be additionally modified by common genetic variants, environmental carcinogens, and infectious agents, an aspect that remains largely unexplored. In addition, growing literature supports that the environmental conditions during critical developmental stages may influence later risk of metabolic disorders in part through persistent programming of DNA methylation. Further research of these modifiable determinants of DNA methylation will improve our understanding of cancer etiology and may present certain DNA methylation markers as attractive surrogate endpoints for prevention research. Considering the plasticity of epigenetic marks and correlated nature of lifestyle factors, more

  17. DNA Methylation in Cancer and Aging.

    PubMed

    Klutstein, Michael; Nejman, Deborah; Greenfield, Razi; Cedar, Howard

    2016-06-15

    DNA methylation is known to be abnormal in all forms of cancer, but it is not really understood how this occurs and what is its role in tumorigenesis. In this review, we take a wide view of this problem by analyzing the strategies involved in setting up normal DNA methylation patterns and understanding how this stable epigenetic mark works to prevent gene activation during development. Aberrant DNA methylation in cancer can be generated either prior to or following cell transformation through mutations. Increasing evidence suggests, however, that most methylation changes are generated in a programmed manner and occur in a subpopulation of tissue cells during normal aging, probably predisposing them for tumorigenesis. It is likely that this methylation contributes to the tumor state by inhibiting the plasticity of cell differentiation processes. Cancer Res; 76(12); 3446-50. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27256564

  18. DNA Methylation Biomarkers: Cancer and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Mikeska, Thomas; Craig, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Biomarkers are naturally-occurring characteristics by which a particular pathological process or disease can be identified or monitored. They can reflect past environmental exposures, predict disease onset or course, or determine a patient’s response to therapy. Epigenetic changes are such characteristics, with most epigenetic biomarkers discovered to date based on the epigenetic mark of DNA methylation. Many tissue types are suitable for the discovery of DNA methylation biomarkers including cell-based samples such as blood and tumor material and cell-free DNA samples such as plasma. DNA methylation biomarkers with diagnostic, prognostic and predictive power are already in clinical trials or in a clinical setting for cancer. Outside cancer, strong evidence that complex disease originates in early life is opening up exciting new avenues for the detection of DNA methylation biomarkers for adverse early life environment and for estimation of future disease risk. However, there are a number of limitations to overcome before such biomarkers reach the clinic. Nevertheless, DNA methylation biomarkers have great potential to contribute to personalized medicine throughout life. We review the current state of play for DNA methylation biomarkers, discuss the barriers that must be crossed on the way to implementation in a clinical setting, and predict their future use for human disease. PMID:25229548

  19. Targeting DNA Methylation for Epigenetic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaojing; Lay, Fides; Han, Han; Jones, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    DNA methylation patterns are established during embryonic development and faithfully copied through somatic cell divisions. Based on our understanding of DNA methylation and other interrelated epigenetic modifications, a comprehensive view of the epigenetic landscape and cancer epigenome is evolving. The cancer methylome is highly disrupted, making DNA methylation an excellent target for anti-cancer therapies. During the last few decades, an increasing number of drugs targeting DNA methylation have been developed in an effort to increase efficacy, stability and to decrease toxicity. The earliest and the most successful epigenetic drug to date, 5-Azacytidine, is currently recommended as the first-line treatment for high risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) patients. Encouraging results from clinical trials have prompted further efforts to elucidate epigenetic alterations in cancer and subsequently develop new epigenetic therapies. This review delineates the latest cancer epigenetic models, recent discovery of hypomethylation agents and their application in the clinic. PMID:20846732

  20. Analysis of DNA Methylation by Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, Colin; Garg, Sanjay K.; Yung, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Pyrosequencing is a technique that uses a sequencing-by-synthesis system which is designed to quantify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Artificial C/T SNP creation via bisulfite modification permits measurement of DNA methylation locally and globally in real time. Alteration in DNA methylation has been implicated in aging, as well as aging-related conditions such as cancer, as well as cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and autoimmune diseases. Considering its ubiquitous presence in divergent clinical pathologies, quantitative analysis of DNA CpG methylation both globally and at individual genes helps to elucidate the regulation of genes involved in pathophysiological conditions. The ability to detect and quantify the methylation pattern of DNA has the potential to serve as an early detection marker and potential drug target for several diseases. Here, we provide a detailed technical protocol for pyrosequencing supplemented by critical information about assay design and nuances of the system that provides a strong foundation for beginners in the field. PMID:26420722

  1. Epigenetic DNA Methylation Linked to Social Dominance

    PubMed Central

    Lenkov, Kapa; Lee, Mi H.; Lenkov, Olga D.; Swafford, Andrew; Fernald, Russell D.

    2015-01-01

    Social status hierarchies are ubiquitous in vertebrate social systems, including humans. It is well known that social rank can influence quality of life dramatically among members of social groups. For example, high-ranking individuals have greater access to resources, including food and mating prerogatives that, in turn, have a positive impact on their reproductive success and health. In contrast low ranking individuals typically have limited reproductive success and may experience lasting social and physiological costs. Ultimately, social rank and behavior are regulated by changes in gene expression. However, little is known about mechanisms that transduce social cues into transcriptional changes. Since social behavior is a dynamic process, we hypothesized that a molecular mechanism such as DNA methylation might play a role these changes. To test this hypothesis, we used an African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, in which social rank dictates reproductive access. We show that manipulating global DNA methylation state strongly biases the outcomes of social encounters. Injecting DNA methylating and de-methylating agents in low status animals competing for status, we found that animals with chemically increased methylation states were statistically highly likely to ascend in rank. In contrast, those with inhibited methylation processes and thus lower methylation levels were statistically highly unlikely to ascend in rank. This suggests that among its many roles, DNA methylation may be linked to social status and more generally to social behavior. PMID:26717574

  2. In vivo targeting of de novo DNA methylation by histone modifications in yeast and mouse.

    PubMed

    Morselli, Marco; Pastor, William A; Montanini, Barbara; Nee, Kevin; Ferrari, Roberto; Fu, Kai; Bonora, Giancarlo; Rubbi, Liudmilla; Clark, Amander T; Ottonello, Simone; Jacobsen, Steven E; Pellegrini, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Methylation of cytosines (5(me)C) is a widespread heritable DNA modification. During mammalian development, two global demethylation events are followed by waves of de novo DNA methylation. In vivo mechanisms of DNA methylation establishment are largely uncharacterized. Here, we use Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a system lacking DNA methylation to define the chromatin features influencing the activity of the murine DNMT3B. Our data demonstrate that DNMT3B and H3K4 methylation are mutually exclusive and that DNMT3B is co-localized with H3K36 methylated regions. In support of this observation, DNA methylation analysis in yeast strains without Set1 and Set2 shows an increase of relative 5(me)C levels at the transcription start site and a decrease in the gene-body, respectively. We extend our observation to the murine male germline, where H3K4me3 is strongly anti-correlated while H3K36me3 correlates with accelerated DNA methylation. These results show the importance of H3K36 methylation for gene-body DNA methylation in vivo. PMID:25848745

  3. Dynamic changes in histone modifications precede de novo DNA methylation in oocytes.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Kathleen R; Veselovska, Lenka; Kim, Jeesun; Huang, Jiahao; Saadeh, Heba; Tomizawa, Shin-ichi; Smallwood, Sébastien A; Chen, Taiping; Kelsey, Gavin

    2015-12-01

    Erasure and subsequent reinstatement of DNA methylation in the germline, especially at imprinted CpG islands (CGIs), is crucial to embryogenesis in mammals. The mechanisms underlying DNA methylation establishment remain poorly understood, but a number of post-translational modifications of histones are implicated in antagonizing or recruiting the de novo DNA methylation complex. In mouse oogenesis, DNA methylation establishment occurs on a largely unmethylated genome and in nondividing cells, making it a highly informative model for examining how histone modifications can shape the DNA methylome. Using a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and genome-wide sequencing (ChIP-seq) protocol optimized for low cell numbers and novel techniques for isolating primary and growing oocytes, profiles were generated for histone modifications implicated in promoting or inhibiting DNA methylation. CGIs destined for DNA methylation show reduced protective H3K4 dimethylation (H3K4me2) and trimethylation (H3K4me3) in both primary and growing oocytes, while permissive H3K36me3 increases specifically at these CGIs in growing oocytes. Methylome profiling of oocytes deficient in H3K4 demethylase KDM1A or KDM1B indicated that removal of H3K4 methylation is necessary for proper methylation establishment at CGIs. This work represents the first systematic study performing ChIP-seq in oocytes and shows that histone remodeling in the mammalian oocyte helps direct de novo DNA methylation events. PMID:26584620

  4. Dynamic changes in histone modifications precede de novo DNA methylation in oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Kathleen R.; Veselovska, Lenka; Kim, Jeesun; Huang, Jiahao; Saadeh, Heba; Tomizawa, Shin-ichi; Smallwood, Sébastien A.; Chen, Taiping; Kelsey, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    Erasure and subsequent reinstatement of DNA methylation in the germline, especially at imprinted CpG islands (CGIs), is crucial to embryogenesis in mammals. The mechanisms underlying DNA methylation establishment remain poorly understood, but a number of post-translational modifications of histones are implicated in antagonizing or recruiting the de novo DNA methylation complex. In mouse oogenesis, DNA methylation establishment occurs on a largely unmethylated genome and in nondividing cells, making it a highly informative model for examining how histone modifications can shape the DNA methylome. Using a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and genome-wide sequencing (ChIP-seq) protocol optimized for low cell numbers and novel techniques for isolating primary and growing oocytes, profiles were generated for histone modifications implicated in promoting or inhibiting DNA methylation. CGIs destined for DNA methylation show reduced protective H3K4 dimethylation (H3K4me2) and trimethylation (H3K4me3) in both primary and growing oocytes, while permissive H3K36me3 increases specifically at these CGIs in growing oocytes. Methylome profiling of oocytes deficient in H3K4 demethylase KDM1A or KDM1B indicated that removal of H3K4 methylation is necessary for proper methylation establishment at CGIs. This work represents the first systematic study performing ChIP-seq in oocytes and shows that histone remodeling in the mammalian oocyte helps direct de novo DNA methylation events. PMID:26584620

  5. DNA methylation in normal and malignant hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Celik, Hamza; Kramer, Ashley; Challen, Grant A

    2016-06-01

    The study of DNA methylation has been a rapidly expanding field since its dawn in the 1960s. DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that plays a crucial role in guiding the differentiation of stem cells to their destined lineage, and in maintaining tissue homeostasis. Moreover, aberrant DNA methylation has been well characterized as a significant contributing factor in the pathogenesis of a variety of cancers. Hematopoiesis is a process that is uniquely susceptible to epigenetic changes due to the small pool of actively cycling stem cells that give rise to the entire mature immune-hematopoietic system. Mutations in DNA methyltransferase enzymes have been shown to be initiating events in the development of hematological malignancies such as acute myeloid leukemia and, therefore, have become targets for improved diagnostics and therapy. The spatial and temporal regulation of DNA methylation in the hematopoietic developmental hierarchy is critical to hematopoietic homeostasis. An improved understanding of the roles that DNA methylation plays in normal and malignant hematopoiesis will have a significant impact on the future of regenerative stem cell therapy and clinical treatment of hematopoietic malignancies. This review aims to highlight current developments in the field and prioritize future research directions. PMID:26943352

  6. RNA-directed DNA methylation in plants.

    PubMed

    Movahedi, Ali; Sun, Weibu; Zhang, Jiaxin; Wu, Xiaolong; Mousavi, Mohaddesseh; Mohammadi, Kourosh; Yin, Tongming; Zhuge, Qiang

    2015-11-01

    In plants, many small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) direct de novo methylation by DNA methyltransferase. DNA methylation typically occurs by RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM), which directs transcriptional gene silencing of transposons and endogenous transgenes. RdDM is driven by non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) produced by DNA-dependent RNA polymerases IV and V (PolIV and PolV). The production of siRNAs is initiated by PolIV and ncRNAs produced by PolIV are precursors of 24-nucleotide siRNAs. In contrast, ncRNAs produced by PolV are involved in scaffolding RNAs. In this review, we summarize recent studies of RdDM. In particular, we focus on the mechanisms involved in chromatin remodeling by PolIV and PolV. PMID:26183954

  7. Densely ionizing radiation affects DNA methylation of selective LINE-1 elements.

    PubMed

    Prior, Sara; Miousse, Isabelle R; Nzabarushimana, Etienne; Pathak, Rupak; Skinner, Charles; Kutanzi, Kristy R; Allen, Antiño R; Raber, Jacob; Tackett, Alan J; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Nelson, Gregory A; Koturbash, Igor

    2016-10-01

    Long Interspersed Nucleotide Element 1 (LINE-1) retrotransposons are heavily methylated and are the most abundant transposable elements in mammalian genomes. Here, we investigated the differential DNA methylation within the LINE-1 under normal conditions and in response to environmentally relevant doses of sparsely and densely ionizing radiation. We demonstrate that DNA methylation of LINE-1 elements in the lungs of C57BL6 mice is dependent on their evolutionary age, where the elder age of the element is associated with the lower extent of DNA methylation. Exposure to 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and methionine-deficient diet affected DNA methylation of selective LINE-1 elements in an age- and promoter type-dependent manner. Exposure to densely IR, but not sparsely IR, resulted in DNA hypermethylation of older LINE-1 elements, while the DNA methylation of evolutionary younger elements remained mostly unchanged. We also demonstrate that exposure to densely IR increased mRNA and protein levels of LINE-1 via the loss of the histone H3K9 dimethylation and an increase in the H3K4 trimethylation at the LINE-1 5'-untranslated region, independently of DNA methylation. Our findings suggest that DNA methylation is important for regulation of LINE-1 expression under normal conditions, but histone modifications may dictate the transcriptional activity of LINE-1 in response to exposure to densely IR. PMID:27419368

  8. DNA Methylation and Demethylation in Plant Immunity.

    PubMed

    Deleris, A; Halter, T; Navarro, L

    2016-08-01

    Detection of plant and animal pathogens triggers a massive transcriptional reprogramming, which is directed by chromatin-based processes, and ultimately results in antimicrobial immunity. Although the implication of histone modifications in orchestrating biotic stress-induced transcriptional reprogramming has been well characterized, very little was known, until recently, about the role of DNA methylation and demethylation in this process. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the dynamics and biological relevance of DNA methylation and demethylation in plant immunity against nonviral pathogens. In particular, we report the implications of these epigenetic regulatory processes in the transcriptional and co-transcriptional control of immune-responsive genes and discuss their relevance in fine-tuning antimicrobial immune responses. Finally, we discuss the possible yet elusive role of DNA methylation and demethylation in systemic immune responses, transgenerational immune priming, and de novo epiallelism, which could be adaptive. PMID:27491436

  9. Is the Fungus Magnaporthe Losing DNA Methylation?

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Ken-ichi; Van Vu, Ba; Kadotani, Naoki; Tanaka, Masaki; Murata, Toshiki; Shiina, Kohta; Chuma, Izumi; Tosa, Yukio; Nakayashiki, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    The long terminal repeat retrotransposon, Magnaporthe gypsy-like element (MAGGY), has been shown to be targeted for cytosine methylation in a subset of Magnaporthe oryzae field isolates. Analysis of the F1 progeny from a genetic cross between methylation-proficient (Br48) and methylation-deficient (GFSI1-7-2) isolates revealed that methylation of the MAGGY element was governed by a single dominant gene. Positional cloning followed by gene disruption and complementation experiments revealed that the responsible gene was the DNA methyltransferase, MoDMT1, an ortholog of Neurospora crassa Dim-2. A survey of MAGGY methylation in 60 Magnaporthe field isolates revealed that 42 isolates from rice, common millet, wheat, finger millet, and buffelgrass were methylation proficient while 18 isolates from foxtail millet, green bristlegrass, Japanese panicgrass, torpedo grass, Guinea grass, and crabgrass were methylation deficient. Phenotypic analyses showed that MoDMT1 plays no major role in development and pathogenicity of the fungus. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the average copy number of genomic MAGGY elements was not significantly different between methylation-deficient and -proficient field isolates even though the levels of MAGGY transcript were generally higher in the former group. MoDMT1 gene sequences in the methylation-deficient isolates suggested that at least three independent mutations were responsible for the loss of MoDMT1 function. Overall, our data suggest that MoDMT1 is not essential for the natural life cycle of the fungus and raise the possibility that the genus Magnaporthe may be losing the mechanism of DNA methylation on the evolutionary time scale. PMID:23979580

  10. Prognostic DNA Methylation Markers for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Siri H.; Orntoft, Torben F.; Sorensen, Karina D.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm and the third most common cause of cancer-related death amongst men in the Western world. PC is a clinically highly heterogeneous disease, and distinction between aggressive and indolent disease is a major challenge for the management of PC. Currently, no biomarkers or prognostic tools are able to accurately predict tumor progression at the time of diagnosis. Thus, improved biomarkers for PC prognosis are urgently needed. This review focuses on the prognostic potential of DNA methylation biomarkers for PC. Epigenetic changes are hallmarks of PC and associated with malignant initiation as well as tumor progression. Moreover, DNA methylation is the most frequently studied epigenetic alteration in PC, and the prognostic potential of DNA methylation markers for PC has been demonstrated in multiple studies. The most promising methylation marker candidates identified so far include PITX2, C1orf114 (CCDC181) and the GABRE~miR-452~miR-224 locus, in addition to the three-gene signature AOX1/C1orf114/HAPLN3. Several other biomarker candidates have also been investigated, but with less stringent clinical validation and/or conflicting evidence regarding their possible prognostic value available at this time. Here, we review the current evidence for the prognostic potential of DNA methylation markers in PC. PMID:25238417

  11. Prognostic DNA methylation markers for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Strand, Siri H; Orntoft, Torben F; Sorensen, Karina D

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm and the third most common cause of cancer-related death amongst men in the Western world. PC is a clinically highly heterogeneous disease, and distinction between aggressive and indolent disease is a major challenge for the management of PC. Currently, no biomarkers or prognostic tools are able to accurately predict tumor progression at the time of diagnosis. Thus, improved biomarkers for PC prognosis are urgently needed. This review focuses on the prognostic potential of DNA methylation biomarkers for PC. Epigenetic changes are hallmarks of PC and associated with malignant initiation as well as tumor progression. Moreover, DNA methylation is the most frequently studied epigenetic alteration in PC, and the prognostic potential of DNA methylation markers for PC has been demonstrated in multiple studies. The most promising methylation marker candidates identified so far include PITX2, C1orf114 (CCDC181) and the GABRE~miR-452~miR-224 locus, in addition to the three-gene signature AOX1/C1orf114/HAPLN3. Several other biomarker candidates have also been investigated, but with less stringent clinical validation and/or conflicting evidence regarding their possible prognostic value available at this time. Here, we review the current evidence for the prognostic potential of DNA methylation markers in PC. PMID:25238417

  12. DNA methylation, a hand behind neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Haoyang; Liu, Xinzhou; Deng, Yulin; Qing, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations represent a sort of functional modifications related to the genome that are not responsible for changes in the nucleotide sequence. DNA methylation is one of such epigenetic modifications that have been studied intensively for the past several decades. The transfer of a methyl group to the 5 position of a cytosine is the key feature of DNA methylation. A simple change as such can be caused by a variety of factors, which can be the cause of many serious diseases including several neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we have reviewed and summarized recent progress regarding DNA methylation in four major neurodegenerative diseases: Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The studies of these four major neurodegenerative diseases conclude the strong suggestion of the important role DNA methylation plays in these diseases. However, each of these diseases has not yet been understood completely as details in some areas remain unclear, and will be investigated in future studies. We hope this review can provide new insights into the understanding of neurodegenerative diseases from the epigenetic perspective. PMID:24367332

  13. DNA ligase I mediates essential functions in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Petrini, J H; Xiao, Y; Weaver, D T

    1995-01-01

    DNA replication, repair, and recombination are essential processes in mammalian cells. Hence, the application of gene targeting to the study of these DNA metabolic pathways requires the creation of nonnull mutations. We have developed a method for introducing partially defective mutants in murine embryonic stem cells that circumvents the problem of cellular lethality of targeted mutations at essential loci. Using this approach, we have determined that mammalian DNA ligase I is essential for cell viability. Thus, DNA ligases II and III are not redundant with DNA ligase I for the function(s) associated with cell proliferation. Partial complementation of the lethal DNA ligase I null mutation allowed the creation of deficient embryonic stem cell lines. We found that a wild-type DNA ligase I cDNA, as well as a variant DNA ligase I cDNA, was able to rescue the lethality of the homozygous null mutation, whereas an N-terminal deletion mutant consisting of the minimal DNA ligase I catalytic domain was not. This observation demonstrates that sequences outside the DNA ligase I catalytic domain are essential for DNA ligase I function in vivo. PMID:7623824

  14. DNA repair and radiation sensitivity in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.J.C.; Stackhouse, M. ); Chen, D.S. . Dept. of Radiation Oncology)

    1993-01-01

    Ionizing radiation induces various types of damage in mammalian cells including DNA single-strand breaks, DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), DNA-protein cross links, and altered DNA bases. Although human cells can repair many of these lesions there is little detailed knowledge of the nature of the genes and the encoded enzymes that control these repair processes. We report here on the cellular and genetic analyses of DNA double-strand break repair deficient mammalian cells. It has been well established that the DNA double-strand break is one of the major lesions induced by ionizing radiation. Utilizing rodent repair-deficient mutant, we have shown that the genes responsible for DNA double-strand break repair are also responsible for the cellular expression of radiation sensitivity. The molecular genetic analysis of DSB repair in rodent/human hybrid cells indicate that at least 6 different genes in mammalian cells are responsible for the repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Mapping and the prospect of cloning of human radiation repair genes are reviewed. Understanding the molecular and genetic basis of radiation sensitivity and DNA repair in man will provide a rational foundation to predict the individual risk associated with radiation exposure and to prevent radiation-induced genetic damage in the human population.

  15. DNA repair and radiation sensitivity in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.J.C.; Stackhouse, M.; Chen, D.S.

    1993-02-01

    Ionizing radiation induces various types of damage in mammalian cells including DNA single-strand breaks, DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), DNA-protein cross links, and altered DNA bases. Although human cells can repair many of these lesions there is little detailed knowledge of the nature of the genes and the encoded enzymes that control these repair processes. We report here on the cellular and genetic analyses of DNA double-strand break repair deficient mammalian cells. It has been well established that the DNA double-strand break is one of the major lesions induced by ionizing radiation. Utilizing rodent repair-deficient mutant, we have shown that the genes responsible for DNA double-strand break repair are also responsible for the cellular expression of radiation sensitivity. The molecular genetic analysis of DSB repair in rodent/human hybrid cells indicate that at least 6 different genes in mammalian cells are responsible for the repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Mapping and the prospect of cloning of human radiation repair genes are reviewed. Understanding the molecular and genetic basis of radiation sensitivity and DNA repair in man will provide a rational foundation to predict the individual risk associated with radiation exposure and to prevent radiation-induced genetic damage in the human population.

  16. DNA methylation and healthy human aging.

    PubMed

    Jones, Meaghan J; Goodman, Sarah J; Kobor, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    The process of aging results in a host of changes at the cellular and molecular levels, which include senescence, telomere shortening, and changes in gene expression. Epigenetic patterns also change over the lifespan, suggesting that epigenetic changes may constitute an important component of the aging process. The epigenetic mark that has been most highly studied is DNA methylation, the presence of methyl groups at CpG dinucleotides. These dinucleotides are often located near gene promoters and associate with gene expression levels. Early studies indicated that global levels of DNA methylation increase over the first few years of life and then decrease beginning in late adulthood. Recently, with the advent of microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies, increases in variability of DNA methylation with age have been observed, and a number of site-specific patterns have been identified. It has also been shown that certain CpG sites are highly associated with age, to the extent that prediction models using a small number of these sites can accurately predict the chronological age of the donor. Together, these observations point to the existence of two phenomena that both contribute to age-related DNA methylation changes: epigenetic drift and the epigenetic clock. In this review, we focus on healthy human aging throughout the lifetime and discuss the dynamics of DNA methylation as well as how interactions between the genome, environment, and the epigenome influence aging rates. We also discuss the impact of determining 'epigenetic age' for human health and outline some important caveats to existing and future studies. PMID:25913071

  17. Isolation of genomic DNA from mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, J R; Vance, J M

    2001-05-01

    This unit describes simple, cost-effective preparation of DNA from whole blood or cultured cells that yields high-molecular-weight DNA suitable for both Southern blotting and the polymerase chain reaction. Preparation time may be shortened by substituting a high-salt precipitation procedure for the dialysis step; however, this results in a smaller average fragment size. The isolation of DNA from buccal swabs, collected from the inside of the cheek, is also described. The DNA is suitable for PCR analysis. Preparation of buffered phenol for DNA extraction is described in a support protocol. This unit describes simple, cost-effective preparation of DNA from whole blood or cultured cells that yields high-molecular-we. PMID:18428220

  18. Postnatal epigenetic regulation of intestinal stem cells requires DNA methylation and is guided by the microbiome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism central to the development and maintenance of complex mammalian tissues, but our understanding of its role in intestinal development is limited. We used whole genome bisulfite sequencing, and found that differentiation of mouse colonic intestinal stem cell...

  19. Small RNA-mediated DNA (cytosine-5) methyltransferase 1 inhibition leads to aberrant DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guoqiang; Estève, Pierre-Olivier; Chin, Hang Gyeong; Terragni, Jolyon; Dai, Nan; Corrêa, Ivan R.; Pradhan, Sriharsa

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian cells contain copious amounts of RNA including both coding and noncoding RNA (ncRNA). Generally the ncRNAs function to regulate gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. Among ncRNA, the long ncRNA and small ncRNA can affect histone modification, DNA methylation targeting and gene silencing. Here we show that endogenous DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) co-purifies with inhibitory ncRNAs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) bind directly to DNMT1 with high affinity. The binding of miRNAs, such as miR-155-5p, leads to inhibition of DNMT1 enzyme activity. Exogenous miR-155-5p in cells induces aberrant DNA methylation of the genome, resulting in hypomethylation of low to moderately methylated regions. And small shift of hypermethylation of previously hypomethylated region was also observed. Furthermore, hypomethylation led to activation of genes. Based on these observations, overexpression of miR-155-5p resulted in aberrant DNA methylation by inhibiting DNMT1 activity, resulting in altered gene expression. PMID:25990724

  20. Small RNA-mediated DNA (cytosine-5) methyltransferase 1 inhibition leads to aberrant DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoqiang; Estève, Pierre-Olivier; Chin, Hang Gyeong; Terragni, Jolyon; Dai, Nan; Corrêa, Ivan R; Pradhan, Sriharsa

    2015-07-13

    Mammalian cells contain copious amounts of RNA including both coding and noncoding RNA (ncRNA). Generally the ncRNAs function to regulate gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. Among ncRNA, the long ncRNA and small ncRNA can affect histone modification, DNA methylation targeting and gene silencing. Here we show that endogenous DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) co-purifies with inhibitory ncRNAs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) bind directly to DNMT1 with high affinity. The binding of miRNAs, such as miR-155-5p, leads to inhibition of DNMT1 enzyme activity. Exogenous miR-155-5p in cells induces aberrant DNA methylation of the genome, resulting in hypomethylation of low to moderately methylated regions. And small shift of hypermethylation of previously hypomethylated region was also observed. Furthermore, hypomethylation led to activation of genes. Based on these observations, overexpression of miR-155-5p resulted in aberrant DNA methylation by inhibiting DNMT1 activity, resulting in altered gene expression. PMID:25990724

  1. Information Thermodynamics of Cytosine DNA Methylation.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Robersy; Mackenzie, Sally A

    2016-01-01

    Cytosine DNA methylation (CDM) is a stable epigenetic modification to the genome and a widespread regulatory process in living organisms that involves multicomponent molecular machines. Genome-wide cytosine methylation patterning participates in the epigenetic reprogramming of a cell, suggesting that the biological information contained within methylation positions may be amenable to decoding. Adaptation to a new cellular or organismal environment also implies the potential for genome-wide redistribution of CDM changes that will ensure the stability of DNA molecules. This raises the question of whether or not we would be able to sort out the regulatory methylation signals from the CDM background ("noise") induced by thermal fluctuations. Here, we propose a novel statistical and information thermodynamic description of the CDM changes to address the last question. The physical basis of our statistical mechanical model was evaluated in two respects: 1) the adherence to Landauer's principle, according to which molecular machines must dissipate a minimum energy ε = kBT ln2 at each logic operation, where kB is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the absolute temperature and 2) whether or not the binary stretch of methylation marks on the DNA molecule comprise a language of sorts, properly constrained by thermodynamic principles. The study was performed for genome-wide methylation data from 152 ecotypes and 40 trans-generational variations of Arabidopsis thaliana and 93 human tissues. The DNA persistence length, a basic mechanical property altered by CDM, was estimated with values from 39 to 66.9 nm. Classical methylome analysis can be retrieved by applying information thermodynamic modelling, which is able to discriminate signal from noise. Our finding suggests that the CDM signal comprises a language scheme properly constrained by molecular thermodynamic principles, which is part of an epigenomic communication system that obeys the same thermodynamic rules as do current

  2. Information Thermodynamics of Cytosine DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Robersy; Mackenzie, Sally A.

    2016-01-01

    Cytosine DNA methylation (CDM) is a stable epigenetic modification to the genome and a widespread regulatory process in living organisms that involves multicomponent molecular machines. Genome-wide cytosine methylation patterning participates in the epigenetic reprogramming of a cell, suggesting that the biological information contained within methylation positions may be amenable to decoding. Adaptation to a new cellular or organismal environment also implies the potential for genome-wide redistribution of CDM changes that will ensure the stability of DNA molecules. This raises the question of whether or not we would be able to sort out the regulatory methylation signals from the CDM background (“noise”) induced by thermal fluctuations. Here, we propose a novel statistical and information thermodynamic description of the CDM changes to address the last question. The physical basis of our statistical mechanical model was evaluated in two respects: 1) the adherence to Landauer’s principle, according to which molecular machines must dissipate a minimum energy ε = kBT ln2 at each logic operation, where kB is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the absolute temperature and 2) whether or not the binary stretch of methylation marks on the DNA molecule comprise a language of sorts, properly constrained by thermodynamic principles. The study was performed for genome-wide methylation data from 152 ecotypes and 40 trans-generational variations of Arabidopsis thaliana and 93 human tissues. The DNA persistence length, a basic mechanical property altered by CDM, was estimated with values from 39 to 66.9 nm. Classical methylome analysis can be retrieved by applying information thermodynamic modelling, which is able to discriminate signal from noise. Our finding suggests that the CDM signal comprises a language scheme properly constrained by molecular thermodynamic principles, which is part of an epigenomic communication system that obeys the same thermodynamic rules as do

  3. DNA methylation: potential biomarker in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers in the world and it is often associated with poor prognosis. Liver transplantation and resection are two currently available curative therapies. However, most patients cannot be treated with such therapies due to late diagnosis. This underscores the urgent need to identify potential markers that ensure early diagnosis of HCC. As more evidences are suggesting that epigenetic changes contribute hepatocarcinogenesis, DNA methylation was poised as one promising biomarker. Indeed, genome wide profiling reveals that aberrant methylation is frequent event in HCC. Many studies showed that differentially methylated genes and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) status in HCC were associated with clinicopathological data. Some commonly studied hypermethylated genes include p16, SOCS1, GSTP1 and CDH1. In addition, studies have also revealed that methylation markers could be detected in patient blood samples and associated with poor prognosis of the disease. Undeniably, increasing number of methylation markers are being discovered through high throughput genome wide data in recent years. Proper and systematic validation of these candidate markers in prospective cohort is required so that their actual prognostication and surveillance value could be accurately determined. It is hope that in near future, methylation marker could be translate into clinical use, where patients at risk could be diagnosed early and that the progression of disease could be more correctly assessed. PMID:24635883

  4. DNA damage responses in mammalian oocytes.

    PubMed

    Collins, Josie K; Jones, Keith T

    2016-07-01

    DNA damage acquired during meiosis can lead to infertility and miscarriage. Hence, it should be important for an oocyte to be able to detect and respond to such events in order to make a healthy egg. Here, the strategies taken by oocytes during their stages of growth to respond to DNA damaging events are reviewed. In particular, recent evidence of a novel pathway in fully grown oocytes helps prevent the formation of mature eggs with DNA damage. It has been found that fully grown germinal vesicle stage oocytes that have been DNA damaged do not arrest at this point in meiosis, but instead undergo meiotic resumption and stall during the first meiotic division. The Spindle Assembly Checkpoint, which is a well-known mitotic pathway employed by somatic cells to monitor chromosome attachment to spindle microtubules, appears to be utilised by oocytes also to respond to DNA damage. As such maturing oocytes are arrested at metaphase I due to an active Spindle Assembly Checkpoint. This is surprising given this checkpoint has been previously studied in oocytes and considered to be weak and ineffectual because of its poor ability to be activated in response to microtubule attachment errors. Therefore, the involvement of the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint in DNA damage responses of mature oocytes during meiosis I uncovers a novel second function for this ubiquitous cellular checkpoint. PMID:27069010

  5. DNA and histone methylation in gastric carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Gigek, Carolina Oliveira; Chen, Elizabeth Suchi; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marília de Arruda Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations contribute significantly to the development and progression of gastric cancer, one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. Epigenetics refers to the number of modifications of the chromatin structure that affect gene expression without altering the primary sequence of DNA, and these changes lead to transcriptional activation or silencing of the gene. Over the years, the study of epigenetic processes has increased, and novel therapeutic approaches that target DNA methylation and histone modifications have emerged. A greater understanding of epigenetics and the therapeutic potential of manipulating these processes is necessary for gastric cancer treatment. Here, we review recent research on the effects of aberrant DNA and histone methylation on the onset and progression of gastric tumors and the development of compounds that target enzymes that regulate the epigenome. PMID:23482412

  6. Liposome mediated DNA-transfer into mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Somlyai, G; Kondorosi, E; Karikó, K; Duda, E G

    1985-01-01

    We have investigated the interaction of mammalian cells with liposome encapsulated DNA. Tissue cultured mammalian cells were exposed to large, unilamellar phosphatidyl serine liposomes containing DNA molecules from different animal cells or prokaryotic organisms. The liposomes bind rapidly to the surface and are taken up by the cells and significant proportion of the encapsulated DNA is transported to the nuclei. Transient expression of the foreign genetic material could be detected in high percentage of the treated cells for a few days. During this period of time foreign DNA is present in both free and integrated form, however, the free form soon disappears. Stable transformant cell colonies--with continuous expression of new gene(s)--were isolated under selective pressure with a frequency of approx. 10(-5). PMID:3837979

  7. MTHFD1 controls DNA methylation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Groth, Martin; Moissiard, Guillaume; Wirtz, Markus; Wang, Haifeng; Garcia-Salinas, Carolina; Ramos-Parra, Perla A.; Bischof, Sylvain; Feng, Suhua; Cokus, Shawn J.; John, Amala; Smith, Danielle C.; Zhai, Jixian; Hale, Christopher J.; Long, Jeff A.; Hell, Ruediger; Díaz de la Garza, Rocío I.; Jacobsen, Steven E.

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that has important functions in transcriptional silencing and is associated with repressive histone methylation (H3K9me). To further investigate silencing mechanisms, we screened a mutagenized Arabidopsis thaliana population for expression of SDCpro-GFP, redundantly controlled by DNA methyltransferases DRM2 and CMT3. Here, we identify the hypomorphic mutant mthfd1-1, carrying a mutation (R175Q) in the cytoplasmic bifunctional methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase/methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase (MTHFD1). Decreased levels of oxidized tetrahydrofolates in mthfd1-1 and lethality of loss-of-function demonstrate the essential enzymatic role of MTHFD1 in Arabidopsis. Accumulation of homocysteine and S-adenosylhomocysteine, genome-wide DNA hypomethylation, loss of H3K9me and transposon derepression indicate that S-adenosylmethionine-dependent transmethylation is inhibited in mthfd1-1. Comparative analysis of DNA methylation revealed that the CMT3 and CMT2 pathways involving positive feedback with H3K9me are mostly affected. Our work highlights the sensitivity of epigenetic networks to one-carbon metabolism due to their common S-adenosylmethionine-dependent transmethylation and has implications for human MTHFD1-associated diseases. PMID:27291711

  8. MTHFD1 controls DNA methylation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Groth, Martin; Moissiard, Guillaume; Wirtz, Markus; Wang, Haifeng; Garcia-Salinas, Carolina; Ramos-Parra, Perla A; Bischof, Sylvain; Feng, Suhua; Cokus, Shawn J; John, Amala; Smith, Danielle C; Zhai, Jixian; Hale, Christopher J; Long, Jeff A; Hell, Ruediger; Díaz de la Garza, Rocío I; Jacobsen, Steven E

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that has important functions in transcriptional silencing and is associated with repressive histone methylation (H3K9me). To further investigate silencing mechanisms, we screened a mutagenized Arabidopsis thaliana population for expression of SDCpro-GFP, redundantly controlled by DNA methyltransferases DRM2 and CMT3. Here, we identify the hypomorphic mutant mthfd1-1, carrying a mutation (R175Q) in the cytoplasmic bifunctional methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase/methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase (MTHFD1). Decreased levels of oxidized tetrahydrofolates in mthfd1-1 and lethality of loss-of-function demonstrate the essential enzymatic role of MTHFD1 in Arabidopsis. Accumulation of homocysteine and S-adenosylhomocysteine, genome-wide DNA hypomethylation, loss of H3K9me and transposon derepression indicate that S-adenosylmethionine-dependent transmethylation is inhibited in mthfd1-1. Comparative analysis of DNA methylation revealed that the CMT3 and CMT2 pathways involving positive feedback with H3K9me are mostly affected. Our work highlights the sensitivity of epigenetic networks to one-carbon metabolism due to their common S-adenosylmethionine-dependent transmethylation and has implications for human MTHFD1-associated diseases. PMID:27291711

  9. High-throughput engineering of a mammalian genome reveals building principles of methylation states at CG rich regions

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Arnaud R; Dessus-Babus, Sophie; Burger, Lukas; Schübeler, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The majority of mammalian promoters are CpG islands; regions of high CG density that require protection from DNA methylation to be functional. Importantly, how sequence architecture mediates this unmethylated state remains unclear. To address this question in a comprehensive manner, we developed a method to interrogate methylation states of hundreds of sequence variants inserted at the same genomic site in mouse embryonic stem cells. Using this assay, we were able to quantify the contribution of various sequence motifs towards the resulting DNA methylation state. Modeling of this comprehensive dataset revealed that CG density alone is a minor determinant of their unmethylated state. Instead, these data argue for a principal role for transcription factor binding sites, a prediction confirmed by testing synthetic mutant libraries. Taken together, these findings establish the hierarchy between the two cis-encoded mechanisms that define the DNA methylation state and thus the transcriptional competence of CpG islands. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04094.001 PMID:25259795

  10. DNA methylation and demethylation events during meiotic prophase in the mouse testis.

    PubMed Central

    Trasler, J M; Hake, L E; Johnson, P A; Alcivar, A A; Millette, C F; Hecht, N B

    1990-01-01

    The genes encoding three different mammalian testis-specific nuclear chromatin proteins, mouse transition protein 1, mouse protamine 1, and mouse protamine 2, all of which are expressed postmeiotically, are marked by methylation early during spermatogenesis in the mouse. Analysis of DNA from the testes of prepubertal mice and isolated testicular cells revealed that transition protein 1 became progressively less methylated during spermatogenesis, while the two protamines became progressively more methylated; in contrast, the methylation of beta-actin, a gene expressed throughout spermatogenesis, did not change. These findings provide evidence that both de novo methylation and demethylation events are occurring after the completion of DNA replication, during meiotic prophase in the mouse testis. Images PMID:2320009

  11. Extensive alterations in DNA methylation and transcription in rice caused by introgression from Zizania latifolia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenlan; Wang, Yongming; Shen, Ye; Guo, Wanli; Hao, Shui; Liu, Bao

    2004-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that insertion of foreign DNA into mammalian genome can profoundly alter the patterns of DNA methylation and transcription of the host genome. Introgression of alien DNA into plant genomes through sexual crossing and genetic engineering are commonly used in breeding, but it is not known if plant genomes have similar responses to alien DNA introgression as those of animals. Two stable rice lines with introgression from wild rice, Zizania latifolia, were analyzed for patterns of cytosine DNA methylation and transcription of a set of selected sequences, including cellular genes and transposable element (TE)-related DNA segments. In 21 of the 30 studied sequences, marked changes in DNA methylation and/or transcription were observed compared with those of the rice parent. In all analyzed sequences, the absence of Zizania homologues in the introgression lines was confirmed. No change in DNA methylation and expression patterns was detected in randomly selected individuals of the rice parent nor in two sibling lines without introgressed Zizania DNA. The changed methylation patterns in both introgression lines were stably maintained in all five randomly sampled individuals of a given line, as well as in selfed progenies of the lines. Changed patterns in methylation and expression were also found in an independently produced asymmetric somatic nuclear hybrid (SH6) of rice and Z. latifolia that involves a different rice genotype but also contains a small amount of Z. latifolia DNA integrated into the rice genome. Thus, we have demonstrated that alien DNA introgression into a plant genome can induce extensive alterations in DNA methylation and transcription of both cellular genes and TE-related DNA segments in a genotype-independent manner. PMID:15316290

  12. Asymmetric partitioning of transfected DNA during mammalian cell division

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuan; Le, Nhung; Denoth-Lippuner, Annina; Barral, Yves; Kroschewski, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Foreign DNA molecules and chromosomal fragments are generally eliminated from proliferating cells, but we know little about how mammalian cells prevent their propagation. Here, we show that dividing human and canine cells partition transfected plasmid DNA asymmetrically, preferentially into the daughter cell harboring the young centrosome. Independently of how they entered the cell, most plasmids clustered in the cytoplasm. Unlike polystyrene beads of similar size, these clusters remained relatively immobile and physically associated to endoplasmic reticulum-derived membranes, as revealed by live cell and electron microscopy imaging. At entry of mitosis, most clusters localized near the centrosomes. As the two centrosomes split to assemble the bipolar spindle, predominantly the old centrosome migrated away, biasing the partition of the plasmid cluster toward the young centrosome. Down-regulation of the centrosomal proteins Ninein and adenomatous polyposis coli abolished this bias. Thus, we suggest that DNA clustering, cluster immobilization through association to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, initial proximity between the cluster and centrosomes, and subsequent differential behavior of the two centrosomes together bias the partition of plasmid DNA during mitosis. This process leads to their progressive elimination from the proliferating population and might apply to any kind of foreign DNA molecule in mammalian cells. Furthermore, the functional difference of the centrosomes might also promote the asymmetric partitioning of other cellular components in other mammalian and possibly stem cells. PMID:27298340

  13. DNA Methylation as a Biomarker for Preeclampsia

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Cindy M.; Ralph, Jody L.; Wright, Michelle L.; Linggi, Bryan E.; Ohm, Joyce E.

    2014-10-01

    Background: Preeclampsia contributes significantly to pregnancy-associated morbidity and mortality as well as future risk of cardiovascular disease in mother and offspring, and preeclampsia in offspring. The lack of reliable methods for early detection limits the opportunities for prevention, diagnosis, and timely treatment. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore distinct DNA methylation patterns associated with preeclampsia in both maternal cells and fetal-derived tissue that represent potential biomarkers to predict future preeclampsia and inheritance in children. Method: A convenience sample of nulliparous women (N = 55) in the first trimester of pregnancy was recruited for this prospective study. Genome-wide DNA methylation was quantified in first-trimester maternal peripheral white blood cells and placental chorionic tissue from normotensive women and those with preeclampsia (n = 6/group). Results: Late-onset preeclampsia developed in 12.7% of women. Significant differences in DNA methylation were identified in 207 individual linked cytosine and guanine (CpG) sites in maternal white blood cells collected in the first trimester (132 sites with gain and 75 sites with loss of methylation), which were common to approximately 75% of the differentially methylated CpG sites identified in chorionic tissue of fetal origin. Conclusion: This study is the first to identify maternal epigenetic targets and common targets in fetal-derived tissue that represent putative biomarkers for early detection and heritable risk of preeclampsia. Findings may pave the way for diagnosis of preeclampsia prior to its clinical presentation and acute damaging effects, and the potential for prevention of the detrimental long-term sequelae.

  14. DNA Methylation Analysis: Choosing the Right Method

    PubMed Central

    Kurdyukov, Sergey; Bullock, Martyn

    2016-01-01

    In the burgeoning field of epigenetics, there are several methods available to determine the methylation status of DNA samples. However, choosing the method that is best suited to answering a particular biological question still proves to be a difficult task. This review aims to provide biologists, particularly those new to the field of epigenetics, with a simple algorithm to help guide them in the selection of the most appropriate assay to meet their research needs. First of all, we have separated all methods into two categories: those that are used for: (1) the discovery of unknown epigenetic changes; and (2) the assessment of DNA methylation within particular regulatory regions/genes of interest. The techniques are then scrutinized and ranked according to their robustness, high throughput capabilities and cost. This review includes the majority of methods available to date, but with a particular focus on commercially available kits or other simple and straightforward solutions that have proven to be useful. PMID:26751487

  15. Oxytocin receptor DNA methylation in postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Kimmel, Mary; Clive, Makena; Gispen, Fiona; Guintivano, Jerry; Brown, Tori; Cox, Olivia; Beckmann, Matthias W; Kornhuber, Johannes; Fasching, Peter A; Osborne, Lauren M; Binder, Elisabeth; Payne, Jennifer L; Kaminsky, Zachary

    2016-07-01

    The oxytocin receptor (OXTR) is a key regulator of stress and anxiety and may be regulated by both psychosocial risk factors and gonadal hormones, making it an attractive candidate for study in postpartum depression (PPD). The objective of this study was to investigate both serum hormone and PPD specific DNA methylation variation in the OXTR. Illumina HM450 microarray data generated in a prospective PPD cohort identified significant associations (P=0.014) with PPD in an intronic region in the OXTR located 4bp proximal to an estrogen receptor (ER) binding region. Pyrosequencing confirmed moderate evidence for an interaction of CpGs in the region with childhood abuse status to mediate PPD. These CpGs located on chr3 at positions 8810078 and 8810069 exhibited significant associations with postpartum depression scores from an independent cohort of 240 women with no prior psychiatric history. Hormone analysis suggested a PPD specific negative correlation of DNA methylation in the region with serum estradiol levels. Estradiol levels and OXTR DNA methylation exhibited a significant interaction to associate with the ratio of allopregnanolone to progesterone. Cumulatively, the data corroborate our previous hypotheses of a PPD specific increased sensitivity of epigenetic reprogramming at estrogen target genes and suggests that OXTR epigenetic variation may be an important mediator of mood relevant neuroactive steroid production. PMID:27108164

  16. Characterization of DNA methylation as a function of biological complexity via dinucleotide inter-distances.

    PubMed

    Paci, Giulia; Cristadoro, Giampaolo; Monti, Barbara; Lenci, Marco; Degli Esposti, Mirko; Castellani, Gastone C; Remondini, Daniel

    2016-03-13

    We perform a statistical study of the distances between successive occurrences of a given dinucleotide in the DNA sequence for a number of organisms of different complexity. Our analysis highlights peculiar features of the CG dinucleotide distribution in mammalian DNA, pointing towards a connection with the role of such dinucleotide in DNA methylation. While the CG distributions of mammals exhibit exponential tails with comparable parameters, the picture for the other organisms studied (e.g. fish, insects, bacteria and viruses) is more heterogeneous, possibly because in these organisms DNA methylation has different functional roles. Our analysis suggests that the distribution of the distances between CG dinucleotides provides useful insights into characterizing and classifying organisms in terms of methylation functionalities. PMID:26857665

  17. CpG methylation patterns of human mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Baojing; Du, Qingqing; Chen, Lu; Fu, Guangping; Li, Shujin; Fu, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaojing; Ma, Chunling; Bin, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The epigenetic modification of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is still in controversy. To clarify this point, we applied the gold standard method for DNA methylation, bisulfite pyrosequencing, to examine human mtDNA methylation status. Before bisulfite conversion, BamHI was used to digest DNA to open the loop of mtDNA. The results demonstrated that the linear mtDNA had significantly higher bisulfite conversion efficiency compared with circular mtDNA. Furthermore, the methylation values obtained from linear mtDNA were significantly lower than that of circular mtDNA, which was verified by SEQUENOM MassARRAY. The above impacts of circular structure were also observed in lung DNA samples but not in saliva DNA samples. Mitochondrial genome methylation of blood samples and saliva samples from 14 unrelated individuals was detected. The detected regions covered 83 CpG sites across mtDNA including D-loop, 12 S rRNA, 16 S rRNA, ND1, COXI, ND3, ND4, ND5, CYTB. We found that the average methylation levels of nine regions were all less than 2% for both sample types. In conclusion, our findings firstly show that the circular structure of mtDNA affects bisulfite conversion efficiency, which leads to overestimation of mtDNA methylation values. CpG methylation in human mtDNA is a very rare event at most DNA regions. PMID:26996456

  18. CpG methylation patterns of human mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baojing; Du, Qingqing; Chen, Lu; Fu, Guangping; Li, Shujin; Fu, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaojing; Ma, Chunling; Bin, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The epigenetic modification of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is still in controversy. To clarify this point, we applied the gold standard method for DNA methylation, bisulfite pyrosequencing, to examine human mtDNA methylation status. Before bisulfite conversion, BamHI was used to digest DNA to open the loop of mtDNA. The results demonstrated that the linear mtDNA had significantly higher bisulfite conversion efficiency compared with circular mtDNA. Furthermore, the methylation values obtained from linear mtDNA were significantly lower than that of circular mtDNA, which was verified by SEQUENOM MassARRAY. The above impacts of circular structure were also observed in lung DNA samples but not in saliva DNA samples. Mitochondrial genome methylation of blood samples and saliva samples from 14 unrelated individuals was detected. The detected regions covered 83 CpG sites across mtDNA including D-loop, 12 S rRNA, 16 S rRNA, ND1, COXI, ND3, ND4, ND5, CYTB. We found that the average methylation levels of nine regions were all less than 2% for both sample types. In conclusion, our findings firstly show that the circular structure of mtDNA affects bisulfite conversion efficiency, which leads to overestimation of mtDNA methylation values. CpG methylation in human mtDNA is a very rare event at most DNA regions. PMID:26996456

  19. Zebrafish as a model to study the role of DNA methylation in environmental toxicology.

    PubMed

    Kamstra, Jorke H; Aleström, Peter; Kooter, Jan M; Legler, Juliette

    2015-11-01

    Environmental epigenetics is a rapidly growing field which studies the effects of environmental factors such as nutrition, stress, and exposure to compounds on epigenetic gene regulation. Recent studies have shown that exposure to toxicants in vertebrates is associated with changes in DNA methylation, a major epigenetic mechanism affecting gene transcription. Zebra fish, a well-known model in toxicology and developmental biology, are emerging as a model species in environmental epigenetics despite their evolutionary distance to rodents and humans. In this review, recent insights in DNA methylation during zebra fish development are discussed and compared to mammalian models in order to evaluate zebra fish as a model to study the role of DNA methylation in environmental toxicology. Differences exist in DNA methylation reprogramming during early development, whereas in later developmental stages, tissue distribution of both 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine seems more conserved between species, as well as basic DNA (de)methylation mechanisms. All DNA methyl transferases identified so far in mammals are present in zebra fish, as well as a number of major demethylation pathways. However, zebra fish appear to lack some methylation pathways present in mammals, such as parental imprinting. Several studies report effects on DNA methylation in zebra fish following exposure to environmental contaminants, such as arsenic, benzo[a]pyrene, and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate. Though more research is needed to examine heritable effects of contaminant exposure on DNA methylation, recent data suggests the usefulness of the zebra fish as a model in environmental epigenetics. PMID:25172464

  20. The methylation status of plant genomic DNA influences PCR efficiency.

    PubMed

    Kiselev, K V; Dubrovina, A S; Tyunin, A P

    2015-03-01

    During the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which is a versatile and widely used method, certain DNA sequences are rapidly amplified through thermocycling. Although there are numerous protocols of PCR optimization for different applications, little is known about the effect of DNA modifications, such as DNA methylation, on PCR efficiency. Recent studies show that cytosine methylation alters DNA mechanical properties and suggest that DNA methylation may directly or indirectly influence the effectiveness of DNA amplification during PCR. In the present study, using plant DNA, we found that highly methylated plant DNA genomic regions were amplified with lower efficiencies compared to that for the regions methylated at a lower level. The correlation was observed when amplifying stilbene synthase (STS1, STS10) genes of Vitis amurensis, the Actin2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana, the internal transcribed spacer (AtITS), and tRNAPro of A. thaliana. The level of DNA methylation within the analyzed DNA regions has been analyzed with bisulfite sequencing. The obtained data show that efficient PCRs of highly methylated plant DNA regions can be hampered. Proteinase K treatment of the plant DNA prior to PCR and using HotTaq DNA polymerase improved amplification of the highly methylated plant DNA regions. We suggest that increased DNA denaturation temperatures of the highly methylated DNA and contamination with DNA-binding proteins contribute to the hampered PCR amplification of highly methylated DNA. The data show that it is necessary to use current DNA purification protocols and commercial kits with caution to ensure appropriate PCR product yield and prevent bias toward unmethylated DNA amplification in PCRs. PMID:25506767

  1. Global and gene specific DNA methylation changes during zebrafish development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA methylation is dynamic through the life of an organism. In this study, we measured the global and gene specific DNA methylation changes in zebrafish at different developmental stages. We found that the methylation percentage of cytosines was 11.75 ± 0.96% in 3.3 hour post fertilization (hpf) zeb...

  2. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Murphy, P J; Cairns, B R

    2016-01-01

    Genomic DNA methylation functions to repress gene expression by interfering with transcription factor binding and/or recruiting repressive chromatin machinery. Recent data support contribution of regulated DNA methylation to embryonic pluripotency, development, and tissue differentiation; this important epigenetic mark is chemically stable yet enzymatically reversible-and heritable through the germline. Importantly, all the major components involved in dynamic DNA methylation are conserved in zebrafish, including the factors that "write, read, and erase" this mark. Therefore, the zebrafish has become an excellent model for studying most biological processes associated with DNA methylation in mammals. Here we briefly review the zebrafish model for studying DNA methylation and describe a series of methods for performing genome-wide DNA methylation analysis. We address and provide methods for methylated DNA immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (MeDIP-Seq), bisulfite sequencing (BS-Seq), and reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS-Seq). PMID:27443935

  3. Induced DNA repair pathway in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Overberg, R.

    1985-01-01

    The survival of cultured rat kangaroo cells (PtK-2) and human xeroderma pigmentosum cells incubated with 5 ..mu..M cycloheximide subsequent to ultraviolet irradiation is lower than that of cells incubated without cycloheximide. The drop in survival is considerably larger than that produced by incubation of unirradiated cells with cycloheximide. The phenomenon was also observed when PtK-2 cells were incubated with emetine, another protein synthesis inhibitor, or with 5,6-dichloro-1-..beta..-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole, a RNA synthesis inhibitor. PtK cells which received a preliminary UV treatment followed by an incubation period without cycloheximide and then a second irradiation and 24 hour incubation with cycloheximide, survived the effects of the second irradiation better than cells which were incubated in the presence of cycloheximide after the first and second UV irradiation. The application of cycloheximide for 24 hours after UV irradiation of PtK cells resulted in one-half as many 6-thioguanine resistant cells as compared to the number of 6-thioguanine resistant cells found when cycloheximide was not used. These experiments indicate that a UV-inducible cycloheximide-sensitive DNA repair pathway is present in PtK and xeroderma pigmentosum cells, which is error-prone in PtK cells.

  4. Alterations of DNA methylation and clinicopathological diversity of human cancers.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Yae

    2008-09-01

    Alterations of DNA methylation can account for the histological heterogeneity, reflected in the stepwise progression and complex biological characteristics of human cancers, that genetic alterations alone cannot explain. Analysis of DNA methylation status in tissue samples can be an aid to understanding the molecular mechanisms of multistage carcinogenesis. Human cancer cells show a drastic change in DNA methylation status, that is, overall DNA hypomethylation and regional DNA hypermethylation, which results in chromosomal instability and silencing of tumor-suppressor genes. Overexpression of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 1 is not a secondary result of increased cell proliferative activity but may underline the CpG island methylator phenotype of cancers. Splicing alteration of DNMT3B may result in chromosomal instability through DNA hypomethylation of pericentromeric satellite regions. Alterations of DNA methylation are observed even in the precancerous stage frequently associated with chronic inflammation and/or persistent viral infection or with cigarette smoking. Precancerous conditions showing alterations of DNA methylation may generate more malignant cancers. Aberrant DNA methylation is significantly associated with aggressiveness of cancers and poorer outcome of cancer patients. Genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation status based on array-based technology may identify DNA methylation profiles that can be used as appropriate indicators for carcinogenetic risk estimation and prognostication. PMID:18801069

  5. Epigenetic regulation of hematopoiesis by DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Gore, Aniket V; Athans, Brett; Iben, James R; Johnson, Kristin; Russanova, Valya; Castranova, Daniel; Pham, Van N; Butler, Matthew G; Williams-Simons, Lisa; Nichols, James T; Bresciani, Erica; Feldman, Bejamin; Kimmel, Charles B; Liu, Paul P; Weinstein, Brant M

    2016-01-01

    During embryonic development, cell type-specific transcription factors promote cell identities, while epigenetic modifications are thought to contribute to maintain these cell fates. Our understanding of how genetic and epigenetic modes of regulation work together to establish and maintain cellular identity is still limited, however. Here, we show that DNA methyltransferase 3bb.1 (dnmt3bb.1) is essential for maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) fate as part of an early Notch-runx1-cmyb HSPC specification pathway in the zebrafish. Dnmt3bb.1 is expressed in HSPC downstream from Notch1 and runx1, and loss of Dnmt3bb.1 activity leads to reduced cmyb locus methylation, reduced cmyb expression, and gradual reduction in HSPCs. Ectopic overexpression of dnmt3bb.1 in non-hematopoietic cells is sufficient to methylate the cmyb locus, promote cmyb expression, and promote hematopoietic development. Our results reveal an epigenetic mechanism supporting the maintenance of hematopoietic cell fate via DNA methylation-mediated perdurance of a key transcription factor in HSPCs. PMID:26814702

  6. Epigenetic regulation of hematopoiesis by DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Gore, Aniket V; Athans, Brett; Iben, James R; Johnson, Kristin; Russanova, Valya; Castranova, Daniel; Pham, Van N; Butler, Matthew G; Williams-Simons, Lisa; Nichols, James T; Bresciani, Erica; Feldman, Bejamin; Kimmel, Charles B; Liu, Paul P; Weinstein, Brant M

    2016-01-01

    During embryonic development, cell type-specific transcription factors promote cell identities, while epigenetic modifications are thought to contribute to maintain these cell fates. Our understanding of how genetic and epigenetic modes of regulation work together to establish and maintain cellular identity is still limited, however. Here, we show that DNA methyltransferase 3bb.1 (dnmt3bb.1) is essential for maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) fate as part of an early Notch-runx1-cmyb HSPC specification pathway in the zebrafish. Dnmt3bb.1 is expressed in HSPC downstream from Notch1 and runx1, and loss of Dnmt3bb.1 activity leads to reduced cmyb locus methylation, reduced cmyb expression, and gradual reduction in HSPCs. Ectopic overexpression of dnmt3bb.1 in non-hematopoietic cells is sufficient to methylate the cmyb locus, promote cmyb expression, and promote hematopoietic development. Our results reveal an epigenetic mechanism supporting the maintenance of hematopoietic cell fate via DNA methylation-mediated perdurance of a key transcription factor in HSPCs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11813.001 PMID:26814702

  7. Evidence for conserved DNA and histone H3 methylation reprogramming in mouse, bovine and rabbit zygotes

    PubMed Central

    Lepikhov, Konstantin; Zakhartchenko, Valeri; Hao, Ru; Yang, Feikun; Wrenzycki, Christine; Niemann, Heiner; Wolf, Eckhard; Walter, Joern

    2008-01-01

    Background In mammals the parental genomes are epigenetically reprogrammed after fertilization. This reprogramming includes a rapid demethylation of the paternal (sperm-derived) chromosomes prior to DNA replication in zygotes. Such active DNA demethylation in the zygote has been documented for several mammalian species, including mouse, rat, pig, human and cow, but questioned to occur in rabbit. Results When comparing immunohistochemical patterns of antibodies against 5-methyl-cytosine, H3K4me3 and H3K9me2 modifications we observe similar pronuclear distribution and dynamics in mouse, bovine and rabbit zygotes. In rabbit DNA demethylation of the paternal chromosomes occurs at slightly advanced pronuclear stages. We also show that the rabbit oocyte rapidly demethylates DNA of donor fibroblast after nuclear transfer. Conclusion Our data reveal that major events of epigenetic reprogramming during pronuclear maturation, including mechanisms of active DNA demethylation, are apparently conserved among mammalian species. PMID:19014417

  8. Genome-wide gene expression and DNA methylation differences in abnormally cloned and normally natural mating piglets.

    PubMed

    Zou, C; Fu, Y; Li, C; Liu, H; Li, G; Li, J; Zhang, H; Wu, Y; Li, C

    2016-08-01

    Many studies have proved that DNA methylation can regulate gene expression and further affect skeletal muscle growth and development of pig, whereas the mechanisms of how DNA methylation or gene expression alteration ultimately lead to phenotypical differences between the cloned and natural mating pigs remain elusive. This study aimed to investigate genome-wide gene expression and DNA methylation differences between abnormally cloned and normally natural mating piglets and identify molecular markers related to skeletal muscle growth and development in pig. The DNA methylation and genome-wide gene expression in the two groups of piglets were analysed through methylated DNA immunoprecipitation binding high-throughput sequencing and RNA sequencing respectively. We detected 1493 differentially expressed genes between the two groups, of which 382 genes were also differentially methylated. The results of the integrative analysis between DNA methylation and gene expression revealed that the DNA methylation levels showed a significantly negative and monotonic correlation with gene expression levels around the transcription start site of genes. By contrast, no notable monotonic correlation was observed in other regions. Furthermore, we identified some interesting genes and signalling pathways (e.g. myosin, heavy chain 7 and mammalian target of rapamycin) which possibly play essential roles in skeletal muscle growth and development. The results of this study provide insights into the relationship of DNA methylation with gene expression in newborn piglets and into the mechanisms in abnormally cloned animals through somatic cell nuclear transfer. PMID:27028246

  9. The role of DNA methylation on Octopus vulgaris development and their perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Freije, Eva; Gestal, Camino; Castellanos-Martínez, Sheila; Morán, Paloma

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is a common regulator of gene expression and development in mammalian and other vertebrate genomes. DNA methylation has been studied so far in a few bivalve mollusk species, finding a wide spectrum of levels. We focused our study in the common octopus, Octopus vulgaris, an important organism for neuroscience, physiology and ethology research as well as for human consumption. We aim to confirm the existence of DNA methylation in O. vulgaris and ultimately, if methylation plays a role in gene regulation during octopus development. We used a genome-wide approach, methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP), firstly in four different tissues from the same specimens from adult benthonic individuals to test whether gene expression is regulated by methylation. Secondly, we tested the hypothesis that methylation underlies development by assessing MSAP patters from paralarvae to adult developmental stages. Our data indicate that octopus genome is widely methylated since clear differences can be observed, and the methylation pattern changes with the development. The statistical analyses showed significant differences in methylation pattern between paralarvae, where higher internal cytosine methylation is observed, and the three other post-hatching stages. This suggests an important role of cytosine methylation during the first step of development, when major morphological changes take place. However, methylation seems to have little effect on gene expression during the benthonic phase, since no significant effect was revealed in the analyses of molecular variance (AMOVA) performed. Our observations highlight the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in the first developmental steps of the common octopus and opens new perspectives to overcome high mortality rate during paralarvae growth. Thus, better understanding the molecular regulation patterns could lead to new approaches that increase the efficiency of husbandry of this emergent species for

  10. DNA Methylation: Insights into Human Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Andrew J.; Marques-Bonet, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental initiative for evolutionary biologists is to understand the molecular basis underlying phenotypic diversity. A long-standing hypothesis states that species-specific traits may be explained by differences in gene regulation rather than differences at the protein level. Over the past few years, evolutionary studies have shifted from mere sequence comparisons to integrative analyses in which gene regulation is key to understanding species evolution. DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification involved in the regulation of numerous biological processes. Nevertheless, the evolution of the human methylome and the processes driving such changes are poorly understood. Here, we review the close interplay between Cytosine-phosphate-Guanine (CpG) methylation and the underlying genome sequence, as well as its evolutionary impact. We also summarize the latest advances in the field, revisiting the main literature on human and nonhuman primates. We hope to encourage the scientific community to address the many challenges posed by the field of comparative epigenomics. PMID:26658498

  11. DNA methylation requires a DNMT1 ubiquitin interacting motif (UIM) and histone ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Weihua; Wolf, Patricia; Liu, Nan; Link, Stephanie; Smets, Martha; Mastra, Federica La; Forné, Ignasi; Pichler, Garwin; Hörl, David; Fellinger, Karin; Spada, Fabio; Bonapace, Ian Marc; Imhof, Axel; Harz, Hartmann; Leonhardt, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    DNMT1 is recruited by PCNA and UHRF1 to maintain DNA methylation after replication. UHRF1 recognizes hemimethylated DNA substrates via the SRA domain, but also repressive H3K9me3 histone marks with its TTD. With systematic mutagenesis and functional assays, we could show that chromatin binding further involved UHRF1 PHD binding to unmodified H3R2. These complementation assays clearly demonstrated that the ubiquitin ligase activity of the UHRF1 RING domain is required for maintenance DNA methylation. Mass spectrometry of UHRF1-deficient cells revealed H3K18 as a novel ubiquitination target of UHRF1 in mammalian cells. With bioinformatics and mutational analyses, we identified a ubiquitin interacting motif (UIM) in the N-terminal regulatory domain of DNMT1 that binds to ubiquitinated H3 tails and is essential for DNA methylation in vivo. H3 ubiquitination and subsequent DNA methylation required UHRF1 PHD binding to H3R2. These results show the manifold regulatory mechanisms controlling DNMT1 activity that require the reading and writing of epigenetic marks by UHRF1 and illustrate the multifaceted interplay between DNA and histone modifications. The identification and functional characterization of the DNMT1 UIM suggests a novel regulatory principle and we speculate that histone H2AK119 ubiquitination might also lead to UIM-dependent recruitment of DNMT1 and DNA methylation beyond classic maintenance. PMID:26065575

  12. DNA methylation requires a DNMT1 ubiquitin interacting motif (UIM) and histone ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Qin, Weihua; Wolf, Patricia; Liu, Nan; Link, Stephanie; Smets, Martha; La Mastra, Federica; Forné, Ignasi; Pichler, Garwin; Hörl, David; Fellinger, Karin; Spada, Fabio; Bonapace, Ian Marc; Imhof, Axel; Harz, Hartmann; Leonhardt, Heinrich

    2015-08-01

    DNMT1 is recruited by PCNA and UHRF1 to maintain DNA methylation after replication. UHRF1 recognizes hemimethylated DNA substrates via the SRA domain, but also repressive H3K9me3 histone marks with its TTD. With systematic mutagenesis and functional assays, we could show that chromatin binding further involved UHRF1 PHD binding to unmodified H3R2. These complementation assays clearly demonstrated that the ubiquitin ligase activity of the UHRF1 RING domain is required for maintenance DNA methylation. Mass spectrometry of UHRF1-deficient cells revealed H3K18 as a novel ubiquitination target of UHRF1 in mammalian cells. With bioinformatics and mutational analyses, we identified a ubiquitin interacting motif (UIM) in the N-terminal regulatory domain of DNMT1 that binds to ubiquitinated H3 tails and is essential for DNA methylation in vivo. H3 ubiquitination and subsequent DNA methylation required UHRF1 PHD binding to H3R2. These results show the manifold regulatory mechanisms controlling DNMT1 activity that require the reading and writing of epigenetic marks by UHRF1 and illustrate the multifaceted interplay between DNA and histone modifications. The identification and functional characterization of the DNMT1 UIM suggests a novel regulatory principle and we speculate that histone H2AK119 ubiquitination might also lead to UIM-dependent recruitment of DNMT1 and DNA methylation beyond classic maintenance. PMID:26065575

  13. Self-methylation of BspRI DNA-methyltransferase.

    PubMed Central

    Szilák, L; Finta, C; Patthy, A; Venetianer, P; Kiss, A

    1994-01-01

    The DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase (m5C-MTase) M.BspRI is able to accept the methyl group from the methyl donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) in the absence of DNA. Transfer of the methyl group to the enzyme is a slow reaction relative to DNA methylation. Self-methylation is dependent on the native conformation of the enzyme and is inhibited by S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine, DNA and sulfhydryl reagents. Amino acid sequencing of proteolytic peptides obtained from M.BspRI, which had been methylated with [methyl-3H]AdoMet, and thin layer chromatography of the modified amino acid identified two cysteines, Cys156 and Cys181 that bind the methyl group in form of S-methylcysteine. One of the acceptor residues, Cys156 is the highly conserved cysteine which plays the role of the catalytic nucleophile of m5C-MTases. Images PMID:8065896

  14. Quantification of global mitochondrial DNA methylation levels and inverse correlation with age at two CpG sites

    PubMed Central

    Mawlood, Shakhawan K.; Dennany, Lynn; Watson, Nigel; Dempster, John; Pickard, Benjamin S.

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian ageing features biological attrition evident at cellular, genetic and epigenetic levels. Mutation of mitochondrial DNA, and nuclear DNA methylation changes are well established correlates of ageing. The methylation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a new and incompletely described phenomenon with unknown biological control and significance. Here we describe the bisulphite sequencing of mtDNA from 82 individuals aged 18‐91 years. We detected low and variable levels of mtDNA methylation at 54 of 133 CpG sites interrogated. Regression analysis of methylation levels at two CpG sites (M1215 and M1313) located within the 12S ribosomal RNA gene showed an inverse correlation with subject age suggesting their utility as epigenetic markers of ageing. PMID:26887692

  15. Age-associated changes in DNA methylation across multiple tissues in an inbred mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Spiers, Helen; Hannon, Eilis; Wells, Sara; Williams, Brenda; Fernandes, Cathy; Mill, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic disruption has been implicated in many diseases of aging, and age-associated DNA methylation changes at specific genomic loci in humans are strongly correlated with chronological age. The aim of this study was to explore the specificity of selected age-associated differentially methylated positions (aDMPs) identified in human epidemiological studies by quantifying DNA methylation across multiple tissues in homologous regions of the murine genome. We selected four high-confidence aDMPs (located in the vicinity of the ELOVL2, GLRA1, MYOD1 and PDE4C genes) and quantified DNA methylation across these regions in four tissues (blood, lung, cerebellum and hippocampus) from male and female C57BL/6J mice, ranging in age from fetal (embryonic day 17) to 630 days. We observed tissue-specific age-associated changes in DNA methylation that was directionally consistent with those observed in humans. These findings lend further support to the notion that changes in DNA methylation are associated with chronological age and suggest that these processes are often conserved across tissues and between mammalian species. Our data highlight the relevance of utilizing model systems, in which environmental and genetic influences can be carefully controlled, for the further study of these phenomena. PMID:26861500

  16. Age-associated changes in DNA methylation across multiple tissues in an inbred mouse model.

    PubMed

    Spiers, Helen; Hannon, Eilis; Wells, Sara; Williams, Brenda; Fernandes, Cathy; Mill, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Epigenetic disruption has been implicated in many diseases of aging, and age-associated DNA methylation changes at specific genomic loci in humans are strongly correlated with chronological age. The aim of this study was to explore the specificity of selected age-associated differentially methylated positions (aDMPs) identified in human epidemiological studies by quantifying DNA methylation across multiple tissues in homologous regions of the murine genome. We selected four high-confidence aDMPs (located in the vicinity of the ELOVL2, GLRA1, MYOD1 and PDE4C genes) and quantified DNA methylation across these regions in four tissues (blood, lung, cerebellum and hippocampus) from male and female C57BL/6J mice, ranging in age from fetal (embryonic day 17) to 630 days. We observed tissue-specific age-associated changes in DNA methylation that was directionally consistent with those observed in humans. These findings lend further support to the notion that changes in DNA methylation are associated with chronological age and suggest that these processes are often conserved across tissues and between mammalian species. Our data highlight the relevance of utilizing model systems, in which environmental and genetic influences can be carefully controlled, for the further study of these phenomena. PMID:26861500

  17. Folate and DNA methylation during in utero development and aging.

    PubMed

    McKay, J A; Williams, E A; Mathers, J C

    2004-12-01

    DNA methylation is one of several epigenetic mechanisms that play a regulatory role in genome programming and imprinting during embryogenesis. Aberrant DNA methylation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases associated with aging, including cancer and cardiovascular and neurological diseases. Evidence is accumulating that dietary factors in utero modulate disease risk in later life. Although folic acid is a key component of DNA methylation, the impact of folic acid availability in utero on DNA methylation patterns and disease risk in adulthood is at present poorly characterized. This review describes the relationship between folic acid and DNA methylation, and the association between DNA methylation during in utero development and aging. PMID:15506948

  18. Effects of tet-induced oxidation products of 5-methylcytosine on DNA replication in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Debin; You, Changjun; Wang, Pengcheng; Wang, Yinsheng

    2014-07-21

    Recently 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5hmdC), 5-formyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5fdC), and 5-carboxyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5cadC) were discovered in mammalian DNA as oxidation products of 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5mdC) induced by the ten-eleven translocation family of enzymes. These oxidized derivatives of 5mdC may not only act as intermediates of active cytosine demethylation in mammals but also serve as epigenetic marks on their own. It remains unclear how 5hmdC, 5fdC, and 5cadC affect DNA replication in mammalian cells. Here, we examined the effects of the three modified nucleosides on the efficiency and accuracy of DNA replication in HEK293T human kidney epithelial cells. Our results demonstrated that a single, site-specifically incorporated 5fdC or 5cadC conferred modest drops, by approximately 30%, in replication bypass efficiency without inducing detectable mutations in human cells, whereas replicative bypass of 5hmdC is both accurate and efficient. The lack of pronounced perturbation of these oxidized 5mdC derivatives on DNA replication is consistent with their roles in epigenetic regulation of gene expression. PMID:24979327

  19. Nuclear organization of DNA replication in primary mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, B K; Barbie, D A; Classon, M; Dyson, N; Harlow, E

    2000-11-15

    Using methods that conserve nuclear architecture, we have reanalyzed the spatial organization of the initiation of mammalian DNA synthesis. Contrary to the commonly held view that replication begins at hundreds of dispersed nuclear sites, primary fibroblasts initiate synthesis in a limited number of foci that contain replication proteins, surround the nucleolus, and overlap with previously identified internal lamin A/C structures. These foci are established in early G(1)-phase and also contain members of the retinoblastoma protein family. Later, in S-phase, DNA replication sites distribute to regions located throughout the nucleus. As this progression occurs, association with the lamin structure and pRB family members is lost. A similar temporal progression is found in all the primary cells we have examined but not in most established cell lines, indicating that the immortalization process modifies spatial control of DNA replication. These findings indicate that in normal mammalian cells, the onset of DNA synthesis is coordinately regulated at a small number of previously unrecognized perinucleolar sites that are selected in early G(1)-phase. PMID:11090133

  20. cDNA expression cloning in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, B J

    2001-05-01

    This unit contains protocols for expression cloning in mammalian cells. Either calcium phosphate- or liposome-mediated transfection of mammalian cells, or virus infection and liposome-mediated transfection are used to screen pools derived from a cDNA library. cDNA pools are prepared for cloning from library-transformed E. coli grown in liquid culture medium or on antibiotic-containing selection plates. Results of screening assays for expression can be detected using autoradiography of dishes of cultured cells to identify clones, direct visualization of radiolabeled cells on emulsion-coated and developed chamber slides, detection and quantification of gene activity by a functional (transport) assay with scintillation counting, or detection using a filter-based assay for binding of radioligand to membranes or whole cells. The most critical step of any cDNA cloning project is the establishment of the screening protocol. Therefore, the bioassay for the gene product must be established prior to executing any of these protocols, including construction of the cDNA library. PMID:18428491

  1. Diamondoids as DNA methylation and mutation probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaraman, Ganesh; Fyta, Maria

    2014-10-01

    In a recent study we proposed derivatives of lower diamondoids as novel biosensors, as well as possible functionalisation candidates of solid-state nanopores for DNA sequencing. A qualitative analysis has shown the abilities of these molecules to distinguish among different DNA nucleobases. In this letter, we extend the analysis and consider also methylated and mutated nucleobases, often being an indication of genetic diseases. Based on the bonding characteristics of these modified nucleobases to a diamondoid derivative, as well as their electronic properties we could reveal the ability of the diamondoid to clearly distinguish the regular from the modified nucleobases. The results show a clear indication that transport properties along these molecules would give distinct current signals.

  2. The Influence of DNA Methylation on Bone Cells

    PubMed Central

    Reppe, Sjur; Datta, Harish; Gautvik, Kaare M.

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation in eukaryotes invokes heritable alterations of the of the cytosine base in DNA without changing the underlying genomic DNA sequence. DNA methylation may be modified by environmental exposures as well as gene polymorphisms and may be a mechanistic link between environmental risk factors and the development of disease. In this review, we consider the role of DNA methylation in bone cells (osteoclasts/osteoblasts/osteocytes) and their progenitors with special focus on in vitro and ex vivo analyses. The number of studies on DNA methylation in bone cells is still somewhat limited, nevertheless it is getting increasingly clear that this type of the epigenetic changes is a critical regulator of gene expression. DNA methylation is necessary for proper development and function of bone cells and is accompanied by disease characteristic functional alterations as presently reviewed including postmenopausal osteoporosis and mechanical strain. PMID:27019613

  3. Forensic DNA methylation profiling from evidence material for investigative leads.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwan Young; Lee, Soong Deok; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2016-07-01

    DNA methylation is emerging as an attractive marker providing investigative leads to solve crimes in forensic genetics. The identification of body fluids that utilizes tissue-specific DNA methylation can contribute to solving crimes by predicting activity related to the evidence material. The age estimation based on DNA methylation is expected to reduce the number of potential suspects, when the DNA profile from the evidence does not match with any known person, including those stored in the forensic database. Moreover, the variation in DNA implicates environmental exposure, such as cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, thereby suggesting the possibility to be used as a marker for predicting the lifestyle of potential suspect. In this review, we describe recent advances in our understanding of DNA methylation variations and the utility of DNA methylation as a forensic marker for advanced investigative leads from evidence materials. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(7): 359-369]. PMID:27099236

  4. Drugging the methylome: DNA methylation and memory.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Andrew J; Sweatt, J David

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, since epigenetic mechanisms were first implicated in memory formation and synaptic plasticity, dynamic DNA methylation reactions have been identified as integral to long-term memory formation, maintenance, and recall. This review incorporates various new findings that DNA methylation mechanisms are important regulators of non-Hebbian plasticity mechanisms, suggesting that these epigenetic mechanisms are a fundamental link between synaptic plasticity and metaplasticity. Because the field of neuroepigenetics is so young and the biochemical tools necessary to probe gene-specific questions are just now being developed and used, this review also speculates about the direction and potential of therapeutics that target epigenetic mechanisms in the central nervous system and the unique pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties that epigenetic therapies may possess. Mapping the dynamics of the epigenome in response to experiential learning, even a single epigenetic mark in isolation, remains a significant technical and bioinformatic hurdle facing the field, but will be necessary to identify changes to the methylome that govern memory-associated gene expression and effectively drug the epigenome. PMID:26915423

  5. Conformation-Selective Methylation of Geminivirus DNA

    PubMed Central

    Paprotka, T.; Deuschle, K.; Metzler, V.; Jeske, H.

    2011-01-01

    Geminiviruses with small circular single-stranded DNA genomes replicate in plant cell nuclei by using various double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) intermediates: distinct open circular and covalently closed circular as well as heterogeneous linear DNA. Their DNA may be methylated partially at cytosine residues, as detected previously by bisulfite sequencing and subsequent PCR. In order to determine the methylation patterns of the circular molecules, the DNAs of tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and Abutilon mosaic virus were investigated utilizing bisulfite treatment followed by rolling circle amplification. Shotgun sequencing of the products yielded a randomly distributed 50% rate of C maintenance after the bisulfite reaction for both viruses. However, controls with unmethylated single-stranded bacteriophage DNA resulted in the same level of C maintenance. Only one short DNA stretch within the C2/C3 promoter of TYLCSV showed hyperprotection of C, with the protection rate exceeding the threshold of the mean value plus 1 standard deviation. Similarly, the use of methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes suggested that geminiviruses escape silencing by methylation very efficiently, by either a rolling circle or recombination-dependent replication mode. In contrast, attempts to detect methylated bases positively by using methylcytosine-specific antibodies detected methylated DNA only in heterogeneous linear dsDNA, and methylation-dependent restriction enzymes revealed that the viral heterogeneous linear dsDNA was methylated preferentially. PMID:21835804

  6. Genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in hepatoblastoma tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ximao; Liu, Baihui; Zheng, Shan; Dong, Kuiran; Dong, Rui

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation has a crucial role in cancer biology. In the present study, a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in hepatoblastoma (HB) tissues was performed to verify differential methylation levels between HB and normal tissues. As alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) has a critical role in HB, AFP methylation levels were also detected using pyrosequencing. Normal and HB liver tissue samples (frozen tissue) were obtained from patients with HB. Genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in these tissues was performed using an Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip, and the results were confirmed with reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip demonstrated distinctively less methylation in HB tissues than in non-tumor tissues. In addition, methylation enrichment was observed in positions near the transcription start site of AFP, which exhibited lower methylation levels in HB tissues than in non-tumor liver tissues. Lastly, a significant negative correlation was observed between AFP messenger RNA expression and DNA methylation percentage, using linear Pearson's R correlation coefficients. The present results demonstrate differential methylation levels between HB and normal tissues, and imply that aberrant methylation of AFP in HB could reflect HB development. Expansion of these findings could provide useful insight into HB biology. PMID:27446465

  7. Dynamic DNA methylation orchestrates cardiomyocyte development, maturation and disease.

    PubMed

    Gilsbach, Ralf; Preissl, Sebastian; Grüning, Björn A; Schnick, Tilman; Burger, Lukas; Benes, Vladimir; Würch, Andreas; Bönisch, Ulrike; Günther, Stefan; Backofen, Rolf; Fleischmann, Bernd K; Schübeler, Dirk; Hein, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    The heart is a highly specialized organ with essential function for the organism throughout life. The significance of DNA methylation in shaping the phenotype of the heart remains only partially known. Here we generate and analyse DNA methylomes from highly purified cardiomyocytes of neonatal, adult healthy and adult failing hearts. We identify large genomic regions that are differentially methylated during cardiomyocyte development and maturation. Demethylation of cardiomyocyte gene bodies correlates strongly with increased gene expression. Silencing of demethylated genes is characterized by the polycomb mark H3K27me3 or by DNA methylation. De novo methylation by DNA methyltransferases 3A/B causes repression of fetal cardiac genes, including essential components of the cardiac sarcomere. Failing cardiomyocytes partially resemble neonatal methylation patterns. This study establishes DNA methylation as a highly dynamic process during postnatal growth of cardiomyocytes and their adaptation to pathological stress in a process tightly linked to gene regulation and activity. PMID:25335909

  8. Dynamic DNA methylation orchestrates cardiomyocyte development, maturation and disease

    PubMed Central

    Gilsbach, Ralf; Preissl, Sebastian; Grüning, Björn A.; Schnick, Tilman; Burger, Lukas; Benes, Vladimir; Würch, Andreas; Bönisch, Ulrike; Günther, Stefan; Backofen, Rolf; Fleischmann, Bernd K.; Schübeler, Dirk; Hein, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    The heart is a highly specialized organ with essential function for the organism throughout life. The significance of DNA methylation in shaping the phenotype of the heart remains only partially known. Here we generate and analyse DNA methylomes from highly purified cardiomyocytes of neonatal, adult healthy and adult failing hearts. We identify large genomic regions that are differentially methylated during cardiomyocyte development and maturation. Demethylation of cardiomyocyte gene bodies correlates strongly with increased gene expression. Silencing of demethylated genes is characterized by the polycomb mark H3K27me3 or by DNA methylation. De novo methylation by DNA methyltransferases 3A/B causes repression of fetal cardiac genes, including essential components of the cardiac sarcomere. Failing cardiomyocytes partially resemble neonatal methylation patterns. This study establishes DNA methylation as a highly dynamic process during postnatal growth of cardiomyocytes and their adaptation to pathological stress in a process tightly linked to gene regulation and activity. PMID:25335909

  9. Arabidopsis EDM2 promotes IBM1 distal polyadenylation and regulates genome DNA methylation patterns

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Mingguang; La, Honggui; Lu, Kun; Wang, Pengcheng; Miki, Daisuke; Ren, Zhizhong; Duan, Cheng-Guo; Wang, Xingang; Tang, Kai; Zeng, Liang; Yang, Lan; Zhang, Heng; Nie, Wenfeng; Liu, Pan; Zhou, Jianping; Liu, Renyi; Zhong, Yingli; Liu, Dong; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is important for the silencing of transposons and other repetitive elements in many higher eukaryotes. However, plant and mammalian genomes have evolved to contain repetitive elements near or inside their genes. How these genes are kept from being silenced by DNA methylation is not well understood. A forward genetics screen led to the identification of the putative chromatin regulator Enhanced Downy Mildew 2 (EDM2) as a cellular antisilencing factor and regulator of genome DNA methylation patterns. EDM2 contains a composite Plant Homeo Domain that recognizes both active and repressive histone methylation marks at the intronic repeat elements in genes such as the Histone 3 lysine 9 demethylase gene Increase in BONSAI Methylation 1 (IBM1) and is necessary for maintaining the expression of these genes by promoting mRNA distal polyadenylation. Because of its role in maintaining IBM1 expression, EDM2 is required for preventing CHG methylation in the bodies of thousands of genes. Our results thus increase the understanding of antisilencing, genome methylation patterns, and regulation of alternative RNA processing by intronic heterochromatin. PMID:24248388

  10. Mammalian non-CG methylations are conserved and cell-type specific and may have been involved in the evolution of transposon elements.

    PubMed

    Guo, Weilong; Zhang, Michael Q; Wu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Although non-CG methylations are abundant in several mammalian cell types, their biological significance is sparsely characterized. We gathered 51 human and mouse DNA methylomes from brain neurons, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, primordial germ cells and oocytes. We utilized an unbiased sub-motif prediction method and reported CW as the representative non-CG methylation context, which is distinct from CC methylation in terms of sequence context and genomic distribution. A two-dimensional comparison of non-CG methylations across cell types and species was performed. Unambiguous studies of sequence preferences and genomic region enrichment showed that CW methylation is cell-type specific and is also conserved between humans and mice. In brain neurons, it was found that active long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) lacked CW methylations but not CG methylations. Coincidentally, both human Alu and mouse B1 elements preferred high CW methylations at specific loci during their respective evolutionary development. Last, the strand-specific distributions of CW methylations in introns and long interspersed nuclear elements are also cell-type specific and conserved. In summary, our results illustrate that CW methylations are highly conserved among species, are dynamically regulated in each cell type, and are potentially involved in the evolution of transposon elements. PMID:27573482

  11. Mammalian non-CG methylations are conserved and cell-type specific and may have been involved in the evolution of transposon elements

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Weilong; Zhang, Michael Q.; Wu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Although non-CG methylations are abundant in several mammalian cell types, their biological significance is sparsely characterized. We gathered 51 human and mouse DNA methylomes from brain neurons, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, primordial germ cells and oocytes. We utilized an unbiased sub-motif prediction method and reported CW as the representative non-CG methylation context, which is distinct from CC methylation in terms of sequence context and genomic distribution. A two-dimensional comparison of non-CG methylations across cell types and species was performed. Unambiguous studies of sequence preferences and genomic region enrichment showed that CW methylation is cell-type specific and is also conserved between humans and mice. In brain neurons, it was found that active long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) lacked CW methylations but not CG methylations. Coincidentally, both human Alu and mouse B1 elements preferred high CW methylations at specific loci during their respective evolutionary development. Last, the strand-specific distributions of CW methylations in introns and long interspersed nuclear elements are also cell-type specific and conserved. In summary, our results illustrate that CW methylations are highly conserved among species, are dynamically regulated in each cell type, and are potentially involved in the evolution of transposon elements. PMID:27573482

  12. MCM9 Is Required for Mammalian DNA Mismatch Repair.

    PubMed

    Traver, Sabine; Coulombe, Philippe; Peiffer, Isabelle; Hutchins, James R A; Kitzmann, Magali; Latreille, Daniel; Méchali, Marcel

    2015-09-01

    DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is an evolutionarily conserved process that corrects DNA polymerase errors during replication to maintain genomic integrity. In E. coli, the DNA helicase UvrD is implicated in MMR, yet an analogous helicase activity has not been identified in eukaryotes. Here, we show that mammalian MCM9, a protein involved in replication and homologous recombination, forms a complex with MMR initiation proteins (MSH2, MSH3, MLH1, PMS1, and the clamp loader RFC) and is essential for MMR. Mcm9-/- cells display microsatellite instability and MMR deficiency. The MCM9 complex has a helicase activity that is required for efficient MMR since wild-type but not helicase-dead MCM9 restores MMR activity in Mcm9-/- cells. Moreover, MCM9 loading onto chromatin is MSH2-dependent, and in turn MCM9 stimulates the recruitment of MLH1 to chromatin. Our results reveal a role for MCM9 and its helicase activity in mammalian MMR. PMID:26300262

  13. MeT-DB: a database of transcriptome methylation in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Flores, Mario A; Meng, Jia; Zhang, Lin; Zhao, Xinyu; Rao, Manjeet K.; Chen, Yidong; Huang, Yufei

    2015-01-01

    Methyltranscriptome is an exciting new area that studies the mechanisms and functions of methylation in transcripts. The MethylTranscriptome DataBase (MeT-DB, http://compgenomics.utsa.edu/methylation/) is the first comprehensive resource for N6-methyladenosine (m6A) in mammalian transcriptome. It includes a database that records publicaly available data sets from methylated RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeRIP-Seq), a recently developed technology for interrogating m6A methyltranscriptome. MeT-DB includes ∼300k m6A methylation sites in 74 MeRIP-Seq samples from 22 different experimental conditions predicted by exomePeak and MACS2 algorithms. To explore this rich information, MeT-DB also provides a genome browser to query and visualize context-specific m6A methylation under different conditions. MeT-DB also includes the binding site data of microRNA, splicing factor and RNA binding proteins in the browser window for comparison with m6A sites and for exploring the potential functions of m6A. Analysis of differential m6A methylation and the related differential gene expression under two conditions is also available in the browser. A global perspective of the genome-wide distribution of m6A methylation in all the data is provided in circular ideograms, which also act as a navigation portal. The query results and the entire data set can be exported to assist publication and additional analysis. PMID:25378335

  14. DNA methylation restrains transposons from adopting a chromatin signature permissive for meiotic recombination

    PubMed Central

    Zamudio, Natasha; Barau, Joan; Teissandier, Aurélie; Walter, Marius; Borsos, Maté; Servant, Nicolas; Bourc'his, Déborah

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is essential for protecting the mammalian germline against transposons. When DNA methylation-based transposon control is defective, meiotic chromosome pairing is consistently impaired during spermatogenesis: How and why meiosis is vulnerable to transposon activity is unknown. Using two DNA methylation-deficient backgrounds, the Dnmt3L and Miwi2 mutant mice, we reveal that DNA methylation is largely dispensable for silencing transposons before meiosis onset. After this, it becomes crucial to back up to a developmentally programmed H3K9me2 loss. Massive retrotransposition does not occur following transposon derepression, but the meiotic chromatin landscape is profoundly affected. Indeed, H3K4me3 marks gained over transcriptionally active transposons correlate with formation of SPO11-dependent double-strand breaks and recruitment of the DMC1 repair enzyme in Dnmt3L−/− meiotic cells, whereas these features are normally exclusive to meiotic recombination hot spots. Here, we demonstrate that DNA methylation restrains transposons from adopting chromatin characteristics amenable to meiotic recombination, which we propose prevents the occurrence of erratic chromosomal events. PMID:26109049

  15. MIWI2 as an Effector of DNA Methylation and Gene Silencing in Embryonic Male Germ Cells.

    PubMed

    Kojima-Kita, Kanako; Kuramochi-Miyagawa, Satomi; Nagamori, Ippei; Ogonuki, Narumi; Ogura, Atsuo; Hasuwa, Hidetoshi; Akazawa, Takashi; Inoue, Norimitsu; Nakano, Toru

    2016-09-13

    During the development of mammalian embryonic germ cells, global demethylation and de novo DNA methylation take place. In mouse embryonic germ cells, two PIWI family proteins, MILI and MIWI2, are essential for the de novo DNA methylation of retrotransposons, presumably through PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). Although piRNA-associated MIWI2 has been reported to play critical roles in the process, its molecular mechanisms have remained unclear. To identify the mechanism, transgenic mice were produced; they contained a fusion protein of MIWI2 and a zinc finger (ZF) that recognized the promoter region of a type A LINE-1 gene. The ZF-MIWI2 fusion protein brought about DNA methylation, suppression of the type A LINE-1 gene, and a partial rescue of the impaired spermatogenesis of MILI-null mice. In addition, ZF-MIWI2 was associated with the proteins involved in DNA methylation. These data indicate that MIWI2 functions as an effector of de novo DNA methylation of the retrotransposon. PMID:27626653

  16. DNA Methylation is Developmentally Regulated for Genes Essential for Cardiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Alyssa A.; Lin, Mingyan; Lister, Rolanda L.; Maslov, Alex A.; Wang, Yidong; Suzuki, Masako; Wu, Bingruo; Greally, John M.; Zheng, Deyou; Zhou, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Background DNA methylation is a major epigenetic mechanism altering gene expression in development and disease. However, its role in the regulation of gene expression during heart development is incompletely understood. The aim of this study is to reveal DNA methylation in mouse embryonic hearts and its role in regulating gene expression during heart development. Methods and Results We performed the genome‐wide DNA methylation profiling of mouse embryonic hearts using methyl‐sensitive, tiny fragment enrichment/massively parallel sequencing to determine methylation levels at ACGT sites. The results showed that while global methylation of 1.64 million ACGT sites in developing hearts remains stable between embryonic day (E) 11.5 and E14.5, a small fraction (2901) of them exhibit differential methylation. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that these sites are enriched at genes involved in heart development. Quantitative real‐time PCR analysis of 350 genes with differential DNA methylation showed that the expression of 181 genes is developmentally regulated, and 79 genes have correlative changes between methylation and expression, including hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2). Required for heart valve formation, Has2 expression in the developing heart valves is downregulated at E14.5, accompanied with increased DNA methylation in its enhancer. Genetic knockout further showed that the downregulation of Has2 expression is dependent on DNA methyltransferase 3b, which is co‐expressed with Has2 in the forming heart valve region, indicating that the DNA methylation change may contribute to the Has2 enhancer's regulating function. Conclusions DNA methylation is developmentally regulated for genes essential to heart development, and abnormal DNA methylation may contribute to congenital heart disease. PMID:24947998

  17. DNA Methylation and Potential for Epigenetic Regulation in Pygospio elegans.

    PubMed

    Kesäniemi, Jenni E; Heikkinen, Liisa; Knott, K Emily

    2016-01-01

    Transitions in developmental mode are common evolutionarily, but how and why they occur is not understood. Developmental mode describes larval phenotypes, including morphology, ecology and behavior of larvae, which typically are generalized across different species. The polychaete worm Pygospio elegans is one of few species polymorphic in developmental mode, with multiple larval phenotypes, providing a possibility to examine the potential mechanisms allowing transitions in developmental mode. We investigated the presence of DNA methylation in P. elegans, and, since maternal provisioning is a key factor determining eventual larval phenotype, we compared patterns of DNA methylation in females during oogenesis in this species. We demonstrate that intragenic CpG site DNA methylation and many relevant genes necessary for DNA methylation occur in P. elegans. Methylation-sensitive AFLP analysis showed that gravid females with offspring differing in larval developmental mode have significantly different methylation profiles and that the females with benthic larvae and non-reproductive females from the same location also differ in their epigenetic profiles. Analysis of CpG sites in transcriptome data supported our findings of DNA methylation in this species and showed that CpG observed/expected ratios differ among females gravid with embryos destined to different developmental modes. The differences in CpG site DNA methylation patterns seen among the samples suggest a potential for epigenetic regulation of gene expression (through DNA methylation) in this species. PMID:27008314

  18. DNA Methylation and Potential for Epigenetic Regulation in Pygospio elegans

    PubMed Central

    Kesäniemi, Jenni E.; Heikkinen, Liisa; Knott, K. Emily

    2016-01-01

    Transitions in developmental mode are common evolutionarily, but how and why they occur is not understood. Developmental mode describes larval phenotypes, including morphology, ecology and behavior of larvae, which typically are generalized across different species. The polychaete worm Pygospio elegans is one of few species polymorphic in developmental mode, with multiple larval phenotypes, providing a possibility to examine the potential mechanisms allowing transitions in developmental mode. We investigated the presence of DNA methylation in P. elegans, and, since maternal provisioning is a key factor determining eventual larval phenotype, we compared patterns of DNA methylation in females during oogenesis in this species. We demonstrate that intragenic CpG site DNA methylation and many relevant genes necessary for DNA methylation occur in P. elegans. Methylation-sensitive AFLP analysis showed that gravid females with offspring differing in larval developmental mode have significantly different methylation profiles and that the females with benthic larvae and non-reproductive females from the same location also differ in their epigenetic profiles. Analysis of CpG sites in transcriptome data supported our findings of DNA methylation in this species and showed that CpG observed/expected ratios differ among females gravid with embryos destined to different developmental modes. The differences in CpG site DNA methylation patterns seen among the samples suggest a potential for epigenetic regulation of gene expression (through DNA methylation) in this species. PMID:27008314

  19. Structural basis for Klf4 recognition of methylated DNA.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiwei; Olanrewaju, Yusuf Olatunde; Zheng, Yu; Hashimoto, Hideharu; Blumenthal, Robert M; Zhang, Xing; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2014-04-01

    Transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 4 (Klf4), one of the factors directing cellular reprogramming, recognizes the CpG dinucleotide (whether methylated or unmodified) within a specific G/C-rich sequence. The binding affinity of the mouse Klf4 DNA-binding domain for methylated DNA is only slightly stronger than that for an unmodified oligonucleotide. The structure of the C-terminal three Krüppel-like zinc fingers (ZnFs) of mouse Klf4, in complex with fully methylated DNA, was determined at 1.85 Å resolution. An arginine and a glutamate interact with the methyl group. By comparison with two other recently characterized structures of ZnF protein complexes with methylated DNA, we propose a common principle of recognition of methylated CpG by C2H2 ZnF proteins, which involves a spatially conserved Arg-Glu pair. PMID:24520114

  20. An atlas of DNA methylation in diverse bovine tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We launched an effort to produce a reference cattle DNA methylation resource to improve animal production. We will employ experimental pipelines built around next generation sequencing technologies to map DNA methylation in cultured cells and primary tissues systems frequently involved in animal pro...

  1. Analyses of cattle DNA methylation patterns in diverse tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We launched an effort to produce a reference cattle DNA methylation resource to improve animal production. We will employ experimental pipelines built around next generation sequencing technologies to map DNA methylation in culture cells and primary tissues systems frequently involved in animal prod...

  2. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis of candidate genes in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Erin M; Riggs, Bridget M; Delmas, Amber L; Koch, Abby; Hakam, Ardeshir; Brown, Kevin D

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation has been observed in cervical cancer; however, most studies have used non-quantitative approaches to measure DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to quantify methylation within a select panel of genes previously identified as targets for epigenetic silencing in cervical cancer and to identify genes with elevated methylation that can distinguish cancer from normal cervical tissues. We identified 49 women with invasive squamous cell cancer of the cervix and 22 women with normal cytology specimens. Bisulfite-modified genomic DNA was amplified and quantitative pyrosequencing completed for 10 genes (APC, CCNA, CDH1, CDH13, WIF1, TIMP3, DAPK1, RARB, FHIT, and SLIT2). A Methylation Index was calculated as the mean percent methylation across all CpG sites analyzed per gene (~4-9 CpG site) per sequence. A binary cut-point was defined at >15% methylation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC curve (AUC) of methylation in individual genes or a panel was examined. The median methylation index was significantly higher in cases compared to controls in 8 genes, whereas there was no difference in median methylation for 2 genes. Compared to HPV and age, the combination of DNA methylation level of DAPK1, SLIT2, WIF1 and RARB with HPV and age significantly improved the AUC from 0.79 to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.00, p-value = 0.003). Pyrosequencing analysis confirmed that several genes are common targets for aberrant methylation in cervical cancer and DNA methylation level of four genes appears to increase specificity to identify cancer compared to HPV detection alone. Alterations in DNA methylation of specific genes in cervical cancers, such as DAPK1, RARB, WIF1, and SLIT2, may also occur early in cervical carcinogenesis and should be evaluated. PMID:25826459

  3. Quantitative DNA Methylation Analysis of Candidate Genes in Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Erin M.; Riggs, Bridget M.; Delmas, Amber L.; Koch, Abby; Hakam, Ardeshir; Brown, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation has been observed in cervical cancer; however, most studies have used non-quantitative approaches to measure DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to quantify methylation within a select panel of genes previously identified as targets for epigenetic silencing in cervical cancer and to identify genes with elevated methylation that can distinguish cancer from normal cervical tissues. We identified 49 women with invasive squamous cell cancer of the cervix and 22 women with normal cytology specimens. Bisulfite-modified genomic DNA was amplified and quantitative pyrosequencing completed for 10 genes (APC, CCNA, CDH1, CDH13, WIF1, TIMP3, DAPK1, RARB, FHIT, and SLIT2). A Methylation Index was calculated as the mean percent methylation across all CpG sites analyzed per gene (~4-9 CpG site) per sequence. A binary cut-point was defined at >15% methylation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC curve (AUC) of methylation in individual genes or a panel was examined. The median methylation index was significantly higher in cases compared to controls in 8 genes, whereas there was no difference in median methylation for 2 genes. Compared to HPV and age, the combination of DNA methylation level of DAPK1, SLIT2, WIF1 and RARB with HPV and age significantly improved the AUC from 0.79 to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97–1.00, p-value = 0.003). Pyrosequencing analysis confirmed that several genes are common targets for aberrant methylation in cervical cancer and DNA methylation level of four genes appears to increase specificity to identify cancer compared to HPV detection alone. Alterations in DNA methylation of specific genes in cervical cancers, such as DAPK1, RARB, WIF1, and SLIT2, may also occur early in cervical carcinogenesis and should be evaluated. PMID:25826459

  4. Regulation of DNA methylation turnover at LTR retrotransposons and imprinted loci by the histone methyltransferase Setdb1.

    PubMed

    Leung, Danny; Du, Tingting; Wagner, Ulrich; Xie, Wei; Lee, Ah Young; Goyal, Preeti; Li, Yujing; Szulwach, Keith E; Jin, Peng; Lorincz, Matthew C; Ren, Bing

    2014-05-01

    During mammalian development, DNA methylation patterns need to be reset in primordial germ cells (PGCs) and preimplantation embryos. However, many LTR retrotransposons and imprinted genes are impervious to such global epigenetic reprogramming via hitherto undefined mechanisms. Here, we report that a subset of such genomic regions are resistant to widespread erasure of DNA methylation in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) lacking the de novo DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b. Intriguingly, these loci are enriched for H3K9me3 in mESCs, implicating this mark in DNA methylation homeostasis. Indeed, deletion of the H3K9 methyltransferase SET domain bifurcated 1 (Setdb1) results in reduced H3K9me3 and DNA methylation levels at specific loci, concomitant with increased 5-hydroxymethylation (5hmC) and ten-eleven translocation 1 binding. Taken together, these data reveal that Setdb1 promotes the persistence of DNA methylation in mESCs, likely reflecting one mechanism by which DNA methylation is maintained at LTR retrotransposons and imprinted genes during developmental stages when DNA methylation is reprogrammed. PMID:24757056

  5. Maternal methyl supplements increase offspring DNA methylation at Axin Fused

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transient environmental exposures during mammalian development can permanently alter gene expression and metabolism by influencing the establishment of epigenetic gene regulatory mechanisms. The genomic characteristics that confer such epigenetic plasticity upon specific loci, however, have not been...

  6. A DNA methylation fingerprint of 1628 human samples

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Agustin F.; Assenov, Yassen; Martin-Subero, Jose Ignacio; Balint, Balazs; Siebert, Reiner; Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Hidalgo, Manuel; Tan, Aik-Choon; Galm, Oliver; Ferrer, Isidre; Sanchez-Cespedes, Montse; Villanueva, Alberto; Carmona, Javier; Sanchez-Mut, Jose V.; Berdasco, Maria; Moreno, Victor; Capella, Gabriel; Monk, David; Ballestar, Esteban; Ropero, Santiago; Martinez, Ramon; Sanchez-Carbayo, Marta; Prosper, Felipe; Agirre, Xabier; Fraga, Mario F.; Graña, Osvaldo; Perez-Jurado, Luis; Mora, Jaume; Puig, Susana; Prat, Jaime; Badimon, Lina; Puca, Annibale A.; Meltzer, Stephen J.; Lengauer, Thomas; Bridgewater, John; Bock, Christoph; Esteller, Manel

    2012-01-01

    Most of the studies characterizing DNA methylation patterns have been restricted to particular genomic loci in a limited number of human samples and pathological conditions. Herein, we present a compromise between an extremely comprehensive study of a human sample population with an intermediate level of resolution of CpGs at the genomic level. We obtained a DNA methylation fingerprint of 1628 human samples in which we interrogated 1505 CpG sites. The DNA methylation patterns revealed show this epigenetic mark to be critical in tissue-type definition and stemness, particularly around transcription start sites that are not within a CpG island. For disease, the generated DNA methylation fingerprints show that, during tumorigenesis, human cancer cells underwent a progressive gain of promoter CpG-island hypermethylation and a loss of CpG methylation in non-CpG-island promoters. Although transformed cells are those in which DNA methylation disruption is more obvious, we observed that other common human diseases, such as neurological and autoimmune disorders, had their own distinct DNA methylation profiles. Most importantly, we provide proof of principle that the DNA methylation fingerprints obtained might be useful for translational purposes by showing that we are able to identify the tumor type origin of cancers of unknown primary origin (CUPs). Thus, the DNA methylation patterns identified across the largest spectrum of samples, tissues, and diseases reported to date constitute a baseline for developing higher-resolution DNA methylation maps and provide important clues concerning the contribution of CpG methylation to tissue identity and its changes in the most prevalent human diseases. PMID:21613409

  7. Quantitative comparison of genome-wide DNA methylation mapping technologies.

    PubMed

    Bock, Christoph; Tomazou, Eleni M; Brinkman, Arie B; Müller, Fabian; Simmer, Femke; Gu, Hongcang; Jäger, Natalie; Gnirke, Andreas; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Meissner, Alexander

    2010-10-01

    DNA methylation plays a key role in regulating eukaryotic gene expression. Although mitotically heritable and stable over time, patterns of DNA methylation frequently change in response to cell differentiation, disease and environmental influences. Several methods have been developed to map DNA methylation on a genomic scale. Here, we benchmark four of these approaches by analyzing two human embryonic stem cell lines derived from genetically unrelated embryos and a matched pair of colon tumor and adjacent normal colon tissue obtained from the same donor. Our analysis reveals that methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeDIP-seq), methylated DNA capture by affinity purification (MethylCap-seq), reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) and the Infinium HumanMethylation27 assay all produce accurate DNA methylation data. However, these methods differ in their ability to detect differentially methylated regions between pairs of samples. We highlight strengths and weaknesses of the four methods and give practical recommendations for the design of epigenomic case-control studies. PMID:20852634

  8. High resolution methylome map of rat indicates role of intragenic DNA methylation in identification of coding region.

    PubMed

    Sati, Satish; Tanwar, Vinay Singh; Kumar, K Anand; Patowary, Ashok; Jain, Vaibhav; Ghosh, Sourav; Ahmad, Shadab; Singh, Meghna; Reddy, S Umakar; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Raghunath, Manchala; Sivasubbu, Sridhar; Chakraborty, Kausik; Scaria, Vinod; Sengupta, Shantanu

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is crucial for gene regulation and maintenance of genomic stability. Rat has been a key model system in understanding mammalian systemic physiology, however detailed rat methylome remains uncharacterized till date. Here, we present the first high resolution methylome of rat liver generated using Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation and high throughput sequencing (MeDIP-Seq) approach. We observed that within the DNA/RNA repeat elements, simple repeats harbor the highest degree of methylation. Promoter hypomethylation and exon hypermethylation were common features in both RefSeq genes and expressed genes (as evaluated by proteomic approach). We also found that although CpG islands were generally hypomethylated, about 6% of them were methylated and a large proportion (37%) of methylated islands fell within the exons. Notably, we obeserved significant differences in methylation of terminal exons (UTRs); methylation being more pronounced in coding/partially coding exons compared to the non-coding exons. Further, events like alternate exon splicing (cassette exon) and intron retentions were marked by DNA methylation and these regions are retained in the final transcript. Thus, we suggest that DNA methylation could play a crucial role in marking coding regions thereby regulating alternative splicing. Apart from generating the first high resolution methylome map of rat liver tissue, the present study provides several critical insights into methylome organization and extends our understanding of interplay between epigenome, gene expression and genome stability. PMID:22355382

  9. How Can Plant DNA Viruses Evade siRNA-Directed DNA Methylation and Silencing?

    PubMed Central

    Pooggin, Mikhail M.

    2013-01-01

    Plants infected with DNA viruses produce massive quantities of virus-derived, 24-nucleotide short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which can potentially direct viral DNA methylation and transcriptional silencing. However, growing evidence indicates that the circular double-stranded DNA accumulating in the nucleus for Pol II-mediated transcription of viral genes is not methylated. Hence, DNA viruses most likely evade or suppress RNA-directed DNA methylation. This review describes the specialized mechanisms of replication and silencing evasion evolved by geminiviruses and pararetoviruses, which rescue viral DNA from repressive methylation and interfere with transcriptional and post-transcriptional silencing of viral genes. PMID:23887650

  10. Distribution, recognition and regulation of non-CpG methylation in the adult mammalian brain

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Junjie U.; Su, Yijing; Shin, Joo Heon; Shin, Jaehoon; Li, Hongda; Xie, Bin; Zhong, Chun; Hu, Shaohui; Le, Thuc; Fan, Guoping; Zhu, Heng; Chang, Qiang; Gao, Yuan; Ming, Guo-li; Song, Hongjun

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation plays critical roles in the nervous system and has been traditionally considered to be restricted to CpG dinucleotides in metazoan genomes. Here we show that the single-base resolution DNA methylome from adult mouse dentate neurons consists of both CpG (~75%) and CpH (~25%) methylation (H = A/C/T). Neuronal CpH methylation is conserved in human brains, enriched in low CpG-density regions, depleted at protein-DNA interaction sites, and anti-correlated with gene expression. Functionally, both mCpGs and mCpHs can repress transcription in vitro and are recognized by MeCP2 in neurons in vivo. Unlike most CpG methylation, CpH methylation is established de novo during neuronal maturation and requires DNMT3A for active maintenance in post-mitotic neurons. These characteristics of CpH methylation suggest a significantly expanded proportion of the neuronal genome under cytosine methylation regulation and provide a new foundation for understanding the role of this key epigenetic modification in the nervous system. PMID:24362762

  11. Optimized method for methylated DNA immuno-precipitation

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Jensen, Per

    2015-01-01

    Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) is one of the most widely used methods to evaluate DNA methylation on a whole genome scale, and involves the capture of the methylated fraction of the DNA by an antibody specific to methyl-cytosine. MeDIP was initially coupled with microarray hybridization to detect local DNA methylation enrichments along the genome. More recently, MeDIP has been coupled with next generation sequencing, which highlights its current and future applicability. In previous studies in which MeDIP was applied, the protocol took around 3 days to be performed. Given the importance of MeDIP for studies involving DNA methylation, it was important to optimize the method in order to deliver faster turnouts. The present article describes optimization steps of the MeDIP method. The length of the procedure was reduced in half without compromising the quality of the results. This was achieved by:•Reduction of the number of washes in different stages of the protocol, after a careful evaluation of the number of indispensable washes.•Reduction of reaction times for detaching methylated DNA fragments from the complex agarose beads:antibody.•Modification of the methods to purify methylated DNA, which incorporates new devices and procedures, and eliminates a lengthy phenol and chloroform:isoamyl alcohol extraction. PMID:26740923

  12. Quantitative Live Imaging of Endogenous DNA Replication in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Andrew; Lorca, Thierry; Castro, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Historically, the analysis of DNA replication in mammalian tissue culture cells has been limited to static time points, and the use of nucleoside analogues to pulse-label replicating DNA. Here we characterize for the first time a novel Chromobody cell line that specifically labels endogenous PCNA. By combining this with high-resolution confocal time-lapse microscopy, and with a simplified analysis workflow, we were able to produce highly detailed, reproducible, quantitative 4D data on endogenous DNA replication. The increased resolution allowed accurate classification and segregation of S phase into early-, mid-, and late-stages based on the unique subcellular localization of endogenous PCNA. Surprisingly, this localization was slightly but significantly different from previous studies, which utilized over-expressed GFP tagged forms of PCNA. Finally, low dose exposure to Hydroxyurea caused the loss of mid- and late-S phase localization patterns of endogenous PCNA, despite cells eventually completing S phase. Taken together, these results indicate that this simplified method can be used to accurately identify and quantify DNA replication under multiple and various experimental conditions. PMID:23029203

  13. Ras regulation of DNA-methylation and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Patra, Samir Kumar

    2008-04-01

    Genome wide hypomethylation and regional hypermethylation of cancer cells and tissues remain a paradox, though it has received a convincing confirmation that epigenetic switching systems, including DNA-methylation represent a fundamental regulatory mechanism that has an impact on genome maintenance and gene transcription. Methylated cytosine residues of vertebrate DNA are transmitted by clonal inheritance through the strong preference of DNA methyltransferase, DNMT1, for hemimethylated-DNA. Maintenance of methylation patterns is necessary for normal development of mice, and aberrant methylation patterns are associated with many human tumours. DNMT1 interacts with many proteins during cell cycle progression, including PCNA, p53, EZH2 and HP1. Ras family of GTPases promotes cell proliferation by its oncogenic nature, which transmits signals by multiple pathways in both lipid raft dependent and independent fashion. DNA-methylation-mediated repression of DNA-repair protein O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene and increased rate of K-Ras mutation at codon for amino acids 12 and 13 have been correlated with a secondary role for Ras-effector homologues (RASSFs) in tumourigenesis. Lines of evidence suggest that DNA-methylation associated repression of tumour suppressors and apoptotic genes and ceaseless proliferation of tumour cells are regulated in part by Ras-signaling. Control of Ras GTPase signaling might reduce the aberrant methylation and accordingly may reduce the risk of cancer development.

  14. Conserved and Divergent Patterns of DNA Methylation in Higher Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ning; Wang, Lin; Chen, Jing; Wang, Luwen; Leach, Lindsey; Luo, Zewei

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation in the genome plays a fundamental role in the regulation of gene expression and is widespread in the genome of eukaryotic species. For example, in higher vertebrates, there is a “global” methylation pattern involving complete methylation of CpG sites genome-wide, except in promoter regions that are typically enriched for CpG dinucleotides, or so called “CpG islands.” Here, we comprehensively examined and compared the distribution of CpG sites within ten model eukaryotic species and linked the observed patterns to the role of DNA methylation in controlling gene transcription. The analysis revealed two distinct but conserved methylation patterns for gene promoters in human and mouse genomes, involving genes with distinct distributions of promoter CpGs and gene expression patterns. Comparative analysis with four other higher vertebrates revealed that the primary regulatory role of the DNA methylation system is highly conserved in higher vertebrates. PMID:25355807

  15. Maternal Methyl-Group Donor Intake and Global DNA (Hydroxy)Methylation before and during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Pauwels, Sara; Duca, Radu Corneliu; Devlieger, Roland; Freson, Kathleen; Straetmans, Dany; Van Herck, Erik; Huybrechts, Inge; Koppen, Gurdun; Godderis, Lode

    2016-01-01

    It is still unclear to which extent methyl-group intake during pregnancy can affect maternal global DNA (hydroxyl)methylation. Pregnancy methylation profiling and its link with methyl-group intake in a healthy population could enhance our understanding of the development of pregnancy related disorders. One hundred forty-eight women were enrolled in the MANOE (MAternal Nutrition and Offspring’s Epigenome) study. Thiry-four women were enrolled before pregnancy and 116 during the first trimester of pregnancy. Global DNA (hydroxy)methylation in blood using LC-MS/MS and dietary methyl-group intake (methionine, folate, betaine, and choline) using a food-frequency questionnaire were estimated pre-pregnancy, during each trimester, and at delivery. Global DNA (hydroxy)methylation levels were highest pre-pregnancy and at weeks 18–22 of pregnancy. We observed a positive relation between folic acid and global DNA methylation (p = 0.04) and hydroxymethylation (p = 0.04). A high intake of methionine pre-pregnancy and in the first trimester showed lower (hydroxy)methylation percentage in weeks 11–13 and weeks 18–22, respectively. Choline and betaine intake in the first weeks was negatively associated with hydroxymethylation. Women with a high intake of these three methyl groups in the second and third trimester showed higher hyrdoxymethylation/methylation levels in the third trimester. To conclude, a time trend in DNA (hydroxy)methylation was found and women with higher methyl-group intake showed higher methylation in the third trimester, and not in earlier phases of pregnancy. PMID:27509522

  16. Maternal Methyl-Group Donor Intake and Global DNA (Hydroxy)Methylation before and during Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Sara; Duca, Radu Corneliu; Devlieger, Roland; Freson, Kathleen; Straetmans, Dany; Van Herck, Erik; Huybrechts, Inge; Koppen, Gurdun; Godderis, Lode

    2016-01-01

    It is still unclear to which extent methyl-group intake during pregnancy can affect maternal global DNA (hydroxyl)methylation. Pregnancy methylation profiling and its link with methyl-group intake in a healthy population could enhance our understanding of the development of pregnancy related disorders. One hundred forty-eight women were enrolled in the MANOE (MAternal Nutrition and Offspring's Epigenome) study. Thiry-four women were enrolled before pregnancy and 116 during the first trimester of pregnancy. Global DNA (hydroxy)methylation in blood using LC-MS/MS and dietary methyl-group intake (methionine, folate, betaine, and choline) using a food-frequency questionnaire were estimated pre-pregnancy, during each trimester, and at delivery. Global DNA (hydroxy)methylation levels were highest pre-pregnancy and at weeks 18-22 of pregnancy. We observed a positive relation between folic acid and global DNA methylation (p = 0.04) and hydroxymethylation (p = 0.04). A high intake of methionine pre-pregnancy and in the first trimester showed lower (hydroxy)methylation percentage in weeks 11-13 and weeks 18-22, respectively. Choline and betaine intake in the first weeks was negatively associated with hydroxymethylation. Women with a high intake of these three methyl groups in the second and third trimester showed higher hyrdoxymethylation/methylation levels in the third trimester. To conclude, a time trend in DNA (hydroxy)methylation was found and women with higher methyl-group intake showed higher methylation in the third trimester, and not in earlier phases of pregnancy. PMID:27509522

  17. Curcumin Modulates DNA Methylation in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Link, Alexander; Balaguer, Francesc; Shen, Yan; Lozano, Juan Jose; Leung, Hon-Chiu E.; Boland, C. Richard; Goel, Ajay

    2013-01-01

    Aim Recent evidence suggests that several dietary polyphenols may exert their chemopreventive effect through epigenetic modifications. Curcumin is one of the most widely studied dietary chemopreventive agents for colon cancer prevention, however, its effects on epigenetic alterations, particularly DNA methylation, remain unclear. Using systematic genome-wide approaches, we aimed to elucidate the effect of curcumin on DNA methylation alterations in colorectal cancer cells. Materials and Methods To evaluate the effect of curcumin on DNA methylation, three CRC cell lines, HCT116, HT29 and RKO, were treated with curcumin. 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) and trichostatin A treated cells were used as positive and negative controls for DNA methylation changes, respectively. Methylation status of LINE-1 repeat elements, DNA promoter methylation microarrays and gene expression arrays were used to assess global methylation and gene expression changes. Validation was performed using independent microarrays, quantitative bisulfite pyrosequencing, and qPCR. Results As expected, genome-wide methylation microarrays revealed significant DNA hypomethylation in 5-aza-CdR-treated cells (mean β-values of 0.12), however, non-significant changes in mean β-values were observed in curcumin-treated cells. In comparison to mock-treated cells, curcumin-induced DNA methylation alterations occurred in a time-dependent manner. In contrast to the generalized, non-specific global hypomethylation observed with 5-aza-CdR, curcumin treatment resulted in methylation changes at selected, partially-methylated loci, instead of fully-methylated CpG sites. DNA methylation alterations were supported by corresponding changes in gene expression at both up- and down-regulated genes in various CRC cell lines. Conclusions Our data provide previously unrecognized evidence for curcumin-mediated DNA methylation alterations as a potential mechanism of colon cancer chemoprevention. In contrast to non

  18. Methylating agents and DNA repair responses: methylated bases and sources of strand breaks

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Michael D.; Pittman, Douglas L.

    2008-01-01

    The chemical methylating agents methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) and N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) have been used for decades as classical DNA damaging agents. These agents have been utilized to uncover and explore pathways of DNA repair, DNA damage response, and mutagenesis. MMS and MNNG modify DNA by adding methyl groups to a number of nucleophilic sites on the DNA bases, although MNNG produces a greater percentage of O-methyl adducts. There has been substantial progress elucidating direct reversal proteins that remove methyl groups and base excision repair (BER), which removes and replaces methylated bases. Direct reversal proteins and BER thus counteract the toxic, mutagenic and clastogenic effects of methylating agents. Despite recent progress, the complexity of DNA damage responses to methylating agents is still being discovered. In particular, there is growing understanding of pathways such as homologous recombination, lesion bypass, and mismatch repair that react when the response of direct reversal proteins and BER is insufficient. Furthermore, the importance of proper balance within the steps in BER has been uncovered with the knowledge that DNA structural intermediates during BER are deleterious. A number of issues complicate elucidating the downstream responses when direct reversal is insufficient or BER is imbalanced. These include inter-species differences, cell-type specific differences within mammals and between cancer cell lines, and the type of methyl damage or BER intermediate encountered. MMS also carries a misleading reputation of being a ‘radiomimetic,’ i.e., capable of directly producing strand breaks. This review focuses on the DNA methyl damage caused by MMS and MNNG for each site of potential methylation to summarize what is known about the repair of such damage and the downstream responses and consequences if not repaired. PMID:17173371

  19. SINE transcription by RNA polymerase III is suppressed by histone methylation but not by DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Varshney, Dhaval; Vavrova-Anderson, Jana; Oler, Andrew J.; Cowling, Victoria H.; Cairns, Bradley R.; White, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs), such as Alu, spread by retrotransposition, which requires their transcripts to be copied into DNA and then inserted into new chromosomal sites. This can lead to genetic damage through insertional mutagenesis and chromosomal rearrangements between non-allelic SINEs at distinct loci. SINE DNA is heavily methylated and this was thought to suppress its accessibility and transcription, thereby protecting against retrotransposition. Here we provide several lines of evidence that methylated SINE DNA is occupied by RNA polymerase III, including the use of high-throughput bisulphite sequencing of ChIP DNA. We find that loss of DNA methylation has little effect on accessibility of SINEs to transcription machinery or their expression in vivo. In contrast, a histone methyltransferase inhibitor selectively promotes SINE expression and occupancy by RNA polymerase III. The data suggest that methylation of histones rather than DNA plays a dominant role in suppressing SINE transcription. PMID:25798578

  20. DNA Methylation Variation Trends during the Embryonic Development of Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shizhao; Zhu, Yufei; Zhi, Lihui; Han, Xiaoying; Shen, Jing; Liu, Yanli; Yao, Junhu; Yang, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    The embryogenesis period is critical for epigenetic reprogramming and is thus of great significance in the research field of poultry epigenetics for elucidation of the trends in DNA methylation variations during the embryonic development of birds, particularly due to differences in embryogenesis between birds and mammals. Here, we first examined the variations in genomic DNA methylation during chicken embryogenesis through high-performance liquid chromatography using broilers as the model organism. We then identified the degree of DNA methylation of the promoters and gene bodies involved in two specific genes (IGF2 and TNF-α) using the bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction method. In addition, we measured the expression levels of IGF2, TNF-α and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 1, 3a and 3b. Our results showed that the genomic DNA methylation levels in the liver, heart and muscle increased during embryonic development and that the methylation level of the liver was significantly higher in mid-anaphase. In both the muscle and liver, the promoter methylation levels of TNF-α first increased and then decreased, whereas the gene body methylation levels remained lower at embryonic ages E8, 11 and 14 before increasing notably at E17. The promoter methylation level of IGF2 decreased persistently, whereas the methylation levels in the gene body showed a continuous increase. No differences in the expression of TNF-α were found among E8, 11 and 14, whereas a significant increase was observed at E17. IGF2 showed increasing expression level during the examined embryonic stages. In addition, the mRNA and protein levels of DNMTs increased with increasing embryonic ages. These results suggest that chicken shows increasing genomic DNA methylation patterns during the embryonic period. Furthermore, the genomic DNA methylation levels in tissues are closely related to the genes expression levels, and gene expression may be simultaneously regulated by promoter hypomethylation

  1. Heterochromatin dynamics during the differentiation process revealed by the DNA methylation reporter mouse, MethylRO.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Jun; Maehara, Kazumitsu; Mashiko, Daisuke; Ichinose, Takako; Yao, Tatsuma; Hori, Mayuko; Sato, Yuko; Kimura, Hiroshi; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Yamagata, Kazuo

    2014-06-01

    In mammals, DNA is methylated at CpG sites, which play pivotal roles in gene silencing and chromatin organization. Furthermore, DNA methylation undergoes dynamic changes during development, differentiation, and in pathological processes. The conventional methods represent snapshots; therefore, the dynamics of this marker within living organisms remains unclear. To track this dynamics, we made a knockin mouse that expresses a red fluorescent protein (RFP)-fused methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) protein from the ROSA26 locus ubiquitously; we named it MethylRO (methylation probe in ROSA26 locus). Using this mouse, we performed RFP-mediated methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeDIP-seq), whole-body section analysis, and live-cell imaging. We discovered that mobility and pattern of heterochromatin as well as DNA methylation signal intensity inside the nuclei can be markers for cellular differentiation status. Thus, the MethylRO mouse represents a powerful bioresource and technique for DNA methylation dynamics studies in developmental biology, stem cell biology, as well as in disease states. PMID:24936475

  2. Heterochromatin Dynamics during the Differentiation Process Revealed by the DNA Methylation Reporter Mouse, MethylRO

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Jun; Maehara, Kazumitsu; Mashiko, Daisuke; Ichinose, Takako; Yao, Tatsuma; Hori, Mayuko; Sato, Yuko; Kimura, Hiroshi; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Yamagata, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Summary In mammals, DNA is methylated at CpG sites, which play pivotal roles in gene silencing and chromatin organization. Furthermore, DNA methylation undergoes dynamic changes during development, differentiation, and in pathological processes. The conventional methods represent snapshots; therefore, the dynamics of this marker within living organisms remains unclear. To track this dynamics, we made a knockin mouse that expresses a red fluorescent protein (RFP)-fused methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) protein from the ROSA26 locus ubiquitously; we named it MethylRO (methylation probe in ROSA26 locus). Using this mouse, we performed RFP-mediated methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeDIP-seq), whole-body section analysis, and live-cell imaging. We discovered that mobility and pattern of heterochromatin as well as DNA methylation signal intensity inside the nuclei can be markers for cellular differentiation status. Thus, the MethylRO mouse represents a powerful bioresource and technique for DNA methylation dynamics studies in developmental biology, stem cell biology, as well as in disease states. PMID:24936475

  3. DNA methylation impacts on learning and memory in aging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liang; van Groen, Thomas; Kadish, Inga; Tollefsbol, Trygve O.

    2008-01-01

    Learning and memory are two of the fundamental cognitive functions that confer us the ability to accumulate knowledge from our experiences. Although we use these two mental skills continuously, understanding the molecular basis of learning and memory is very challenging. Methylation modification of DNA is an epigenetic mechanism that plays important roles in regulating gene expression, which is one of the key processes underlying the functions of cells including neurons. Interestingly, a genome-wide decline in DNA methylation occurs in the brain during normal aging, which coincides with a functional decline in learning and memory with age. It has been speculated that DNA methylation in neurons might be involved in memory coding. However, direct evidence supporting the role of DNA methylation in memory formation is still under investigation. This particular function of DNA methylation has not drawn wide attention despite several important studies that have provided supportive evidence for the epigenetic control of memory formation. To facilitate further exploration of the epigenetic basis of memory function, we will review existing studies on DNA methylation that are related to the development and function of the nervous system. We will focus on studies illustrating how DNA methylation regulates neural activities and memory formation via the control of gene expression in neurons, and relate these studies to various age-related neurological disorders that affect cognitive functions. PMID:17850924

  4. PRMT5-mediated methylation of histone H4R3 recruits DNMT3A, coupling histone and DNA methylation in gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Quan; Rank, Gerhard; Tan, Yuen T; Li, Haitao; Moritz, Robert L; Simpson, Richard J; Cerruti, Loretta; Curtis, David J; Patel, Dinshaw J; Allis, C David; Cunningham, John M; Jane, Stephen M

    2009-03-01

    Mammalian gene silencing is established through methylation of histones and DNA, although the order in which these modifications occur remains contentious. Using the human beta-globin locus as a model, we demonstrate that symmetric methylation of histone H4 arginine 3 (H4R3me2s) by the protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 is required for subsequent DNA methylation. H4R3me2s serves as a direct binding target for the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3A, which interacts through the ADD domain containing the PHD motif. Loss of the H4R3me2s mark through short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of PRMT5 leads to reduced DNMT3A binding, loss of DNA methylation and gene activation. In primary erythroid progenitors from adult bone marrow, H4R3me2s marks the inactive methylated globin genes coincident with localization of PRMT5. Our findings define DNMT3A as both a reader and a writer of repressive epigenetic marks, thereby directly linking histone and DNA methylation in gene silencing. PMID:19234465

  5. Protection of CpG islands from DNA methylation is DNA-encoded and evolutionarily conserved.

    PubMed

    Long, Hannah K; King, Hamish W; Patient, Roger K; Odom, Duncan T; Klose, Robert J

    2016-08-19

    DNA methylation is a repressive epigenetic modification that covers vertebrate genomes. Regions known as CpG islands (CGIs), which are refractory to DNA methylation, are often associated with gene promoters and play central roles in gene regulation. Yet how CGIs in their normal genomic context evade the DNA methylation machinery and whether these mechanisms are evolutionarily conserved remains enigmatic. To address these fundamental questions we exploited a transchromosomic animal model and genomic approaches to understand how the hypomethylated state is formed in vivo and to discover whether mechanisms governing CGI formation are evolutionarily conserved. Strikingly, insertion of a human chromosome into mouse revealed that promoter-associated CGIs are refractory to DNA methylation regardless of host species, demonstrating that DNA sequence plays a central role in specifying the hypomethylated state through evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. In contrast, elements distal to gene promoters exhibited more variable methylation between host species, uncovering a widespread dependence on nucleotide frequency and occupancy of DNA-binding transcription factors in shaping the DNA methylation landscape away from gene promoters. This was exemplified by young CpG rich lineage-restricted repeat sequences that evaded DNA methylation in the absence of co-evolved mechanisms targeting methylation to these sequences, and species specific DNA binding events that protected against DNA methylation in CpG poor regions. Finally, transplantation of mouse chromosomal fragments into the evolutionarily distant zebrafish uncovered the existence of a mechanistically conserved and DNA-encoded logic which shapes CGI formation across vertebrate species. PMID:27084945

  6. DNA INTERSTRAND CROSSLINK REPAIR IN MAMMALIAN CELLS: STEP BY STEP

    PubMed Central

    Muniandy, Parameswary; Liu, Jia; Majumdar, Alokes; Liu, Su-ting; Seidman, Michael M.

    2009-01-01

    Interstrand DNA crosslinks (ICLs) are formed by natural products of metabolism and by chemotherapeutic reagents. Work in E. coli identified a two cycle repair scheme involving incisions on one strand on either side of the ICL (unhooking) producing a gapped intermediate with the incised oligonucleotide attached to the intact strand. The gap is filled by recombinational repair or lesion bypass synthesis. The remaining monoadduct is then removed by Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER). Despite considerable effort, our understanding of each step in mammalian cells is still quite limited. In part this reflects the variety of crosslinking compounds, each with distinct structural features, used by different investigators. Also, multiple repair pathways are involved, variably operative during the cell cycle. G1 phase repair requires functions from NER, although the mechanism of recognition has not been determined. Repair can be initiated by encounters with the transcriptional apparatus, or a replication fork. In the case of the latter, the reconstruction of a replication fork, stalled or broken by collision with an ICL, adds to the complexity of the repair process. The enzymology of unhooking, the identity of the lesion bypass polymerases required to fill the first repair gap, and the functions involved in the second repair cycle are all subjects of active inquiry. Here we will review current understanding of each step in ICL repair in mammalian cells. PMID:20039786

  7. DNA methylation profiles in preeclampsia and healthy control placentas.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Kristen R; Chiu, Christine L; Pidsley, Ruth; Makris, Angela; Hennessy, Annemarie; Lind, Joanne M

    2016-05-15

    Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy that affects 3-5% of all pregnancies. There is evidence to suggest that epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, play a role in placental development and function. This study compared DNA methylation profiles of placentas from preeclampsia-affected pregnancies with placentas from healthy pregnancies to identify gene-specific changes in DNA methylation that may contribute to the development of preeclampsia. The methylation status of eight placental biopsies taken from preeclampsia-affected and 16 healthy pregnancies was analyzed using the Illumina Infinium Methylation 450 BeadChip array. Bisulfite pyrosequencing was used to confirm regions found to be differentially methylated between preeclampsia and healthy placentas. A total of 303 differentially methylated regions, 214 hypermethylated and 89 hypomethylated, between preeclampsia cases and controls were identified, after adjusting for gestational age (adjusted P < 0.05). Functional annotation found cell adhesion, wingless type MMTV Integration Site family member 2 (Wnt) signaling pathway, and regulation of transcription were significantly enriched in these gene regions. Hypermethylation of WNT2, sperm equatorial segment protein (SPESP1), NADPH oxidase 5 (NOX5), and activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) in preeclampsia placentas was confirmed with pyrosequencing. This study found differences in methylation in gene regions involved in cell signaling (WNT2), fertilization and implantation (SPESP1), reactive oxygen species signaling (NOX5), and cell adhesion (ALCAM). These results build on recently published studies that have reported significant differences in DNA methylation in preeclampsia placentas. PMID:26968548

  8. DNA Methylation and Its Implications and Accessibility for Neuropsychiatric Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Day, Jeremy J.; Kennedy, Andrew J.; Sweatt, J. David

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the potential pharmacological targeting of a set of powerful epigenetic mechanisms: DNA methylation control systems in the central nervous system (CNS). Specifically, we focus on the possible use of these targets for novel future treatments for learning and memory disorders. We first describe several unique pharmacological attributes of epigenetic mechanisms, especially DNA cytosine methylation, as potential drug targets. We then present an overview of the existing literature regarding DNA methylation control pathways and enzymes in the nervous system, particularly as related to synaptic function, plasticity, learning and memory. Lastly, we speculate upon potential categories of CNS cognitive disorders that might be amenable to methylomic targeting. PMID:25340930

  9. DNA methylation characteristics of primary melanomas with distinct biological behaviour.

    PubMed

    Ecsedi, Szilvia; Hernandez-Vargas, Hector; Lima, Sheila C; Vizkeleti, Laura; Toth, Reka; Lazar, Viktoria; Koroknai, Viktoria; Kiss, Timea; Emri, Gabriella; Herceg, Zdenko; Adany, Roza; Balazs, Margit

    2014-01-01

    In melanoma, the presence of promoter related hypermethylation has previously been reported, however, no methylation-based distinction has been drawn among the diverse melanoma subtypes. Here, we investigated DNA methylation changes associated with melanoma progression and links between methylation patterns and other types of somatic alterations, including the most frequent mutations and DNA copy number changes. Our results revealed that the methylome, presenting in early stage samples and associated with the BRAF(V600E) mutation, gradually decreased in the medium and late stages of the disease. An inverse relationship among the other predefined groups and promoter methylation was also revealed except for histologic subtype, whereas the more aggressive, nodular subtype melanomas exhibited hypermethylation as well. The Breslow thickness, which is a continuous variable, allowed for the most precise insight into how promoter methylation decreases from stage to stage. Integrating our methylation results with a high-throughput copy number alteration dataset, local correlations were detected in the MYB and EYA4 genes. With regard to the effects of DNA hypermethylation on melanoma patients' survival, correcting for clinical cofounders, only the KIT gene was associated with a lower overall survival rate. In this study, we demonstrate the strong influence of promoter localized DNA methylation changes on melanoma initiation and show how hypermethylation decreases in melanomas associated with less favourable clinical outcomes. Furthermore, we establish the methylation pattern as part of an integrated apparatus of somatic DNA alterations. PMID:24832207

  10. DNA Methylation Characteristics of Primary Melanomas with Distinct Biological Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Ecsedi, Szilvia; Hernandez-Vargas, Hector; Lima, Sheila C.; Vizkeleti, Laura; Toth, Reka; Lazar, Viktoria; Koroknai, Viktoria; Kiss, Timea; Emri, Gabriella; Herceg, Zdenko; Adany, Roza; Balazs, Margit

    2014-01-01

    In melanoma, the presence of promoter related hypermethylation has previously been reported, however, no methylation-based distinction has been drawn among the diverse melanoma subtypes. Here, we investigated DNA methylation changes associated with melanoma progression and links between methylation patterns and other types of somatic alterations, including the most frequent mutations and DNA copy number changes. Our results revealed that the methylome, presenting in early stage samples and associated with the BRAFV600E mutation, gradually decreased in the medium and late stages of the disease. An inverse relationship among the other predefined groups and promoter methylation was also revealed except for histologic subtype, whereas the more aggressive, nodular subtype melanomas exhibited hypermethylation as well. The Breslow thickness, which is a continuous variable, allowed for the most precise insight into how promoter methylation decreases from stage to stage. Integrating our methylation results with a high-throughput copy number alteration dataset, local correlations were detected in the MYB and EYA4 genes. With regard to the effects of DNA hypermethylation on melanoma patients' survival, correcting for clinical cofounders, only the KIT gene was associated with a lower overall survival rate. In this study, we demonstrate the strong influence of promoter localized DNA methylation changes on melanoma initiation and show how hypermethylation decreases in melanomas associated with less favourable clinical outcomes. Furthermore, we establish the methylation pattern as part of an integrated apparatus of somatic DNA alterations. PMID:24832207

  11. DNA methylation Landscape of body size variation in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jiaxue; Wei, Caihong; Liu, Dongming; Wang, Huihua; Wu, Mingming; Xie, Zhiyuan; Capellini, Terence D.; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Fuping; Li, Li; Zhong, Tao; Wang, Linjie; Lu, Jian; Liu, Ruizao; Zhang, Shifang; Du, Yongfei; Zhang, Hongping; Du, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Sub-populations of Chinese Mongolian sheep exhibit significant variance in body mass. In the present study, we sequenced the whole genome DNA methylation in these breeds to detect whether DNA methylation plays a role in determining the body mass of sheep by Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation – sequencing method. A high quality methylation map of Chinese Mongolian sheep was obtained in this study. We identified 399 different methylated regions located in 93 human orthologs, which were previously reported as body size related genes in human genome-wide association studies. We tested three regions in LTBP1, and DNA methylation of two CpG sites showed significant correlation with its RNA expression. Additionally, a particular set of differentially methylated windows enriched in the “development process” (GO: 0032502) was identified as potential candidates for association with body mass variation. Next, we validated small part of these windows in 5 genes; DNA methylation of SMAD1, TSC1 and AKT1 showed significant difference across breeds, and six CpG were significantly correlated with RNA expression. Interestingly, two CpG sites showed significant correlation with TSC1 protein expression. This study provides a thorough understanding of body size variation in sheep from an epigenetic perspective. PMID:26472088

  12. Whole genome DNA methylation analysis based on high throughput sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Ye, Mingzhi; Li, Yingrui; Yan, Zhixiang; Butcher, Lee M; Sun, Jihua; Han, Xu; Chen, Quan; Zhang, Xiuqing; Wang, Jun

    2010-11-01

    There are numerous approaches to decipher a whole genome DNA methylation profile ("methylome"), each varying in cost, throughput and resolution. The gold standard of these methods, whole genome bisulfite-sequencing (BS-seq), involves treatment of DNA with sodium bisulfite combined with subsequent high throughput sequencing. Using BS-seq, we generated a single-base-resolution methylome in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (in press). This BS-seq map was then used as the reference methylome to compare two alternative sequencing-based methylome assays (performed on the same donor of PBMCs): methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP-seq) and methyl-binding protein (MBD-seq). In our analysis, we found that MeDIP-seq and MBD-seq are complementary strategies, with MeDIP-seq more sensitive to highly methylated, high-CpG densities and MDB-seq more sensitive to highly methylated, moderate-CpG densities. Taking into account the size of a mammalian genome and the current expense of sequencing, we feel 3gigabases (Gbp) 45bp paired-end MeDIP-seq or MBD-seq uniquely mapped reads is the minimum requirement and cost-effective strategy for methylome pattern analysis. PMID:20430099

  13. DNA Methylation Errors in Cloned Mouse Sperm by Germ Line Barrier Evasion.

    PubMed

    Koike, Tasuku; Wakai, Takuya; Jincho, Yuko; Sakashita, Akihiko; Kobayashi, Hisato; Mizutani, Eiji; Wakayama, Sayaka; Miura, Fumihito; Ito, Takashi; Kono, Tomohiro

    2016-06-01

    The germ line reprogramming barrier resets parental epigenetic modifications according to sex, conferring totipotency to mammalian embryos upon fertilization. However, it is not known whether epigenetic errors are committed during germ line reprogramming that are then transmitted to germ cells, and consequently to offspring. We addressed this question in the present study by performing a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis using a target postbisulfite sequencing method in order to identify DNA methylation errors in cloned mouse sperm. The sperm genomes of two somatic cell-cloned mice (CL1 and CL7) contained significantly higher numbers of differentially methylated CpG sites (P = 0.0045 and P = 0.0116). As a result, they had higher numbers of differentially methylated CpG islands. However, there was no evidence that these sites were transmitted to the sperm genome of offspring. These results suggest that DNA methylation errors resulting from embryo cloning are transmitted to the sperm genome by evading the germ line reprogramming barrier. PMID:27103445

  14. Tissue-specific patterns of allelically-skewed DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Marzi, Sarah J.; Meaburn, Emma L.; Dempster, Emma L.; Lunnon, Katie; Paya-Cano, Jose L.; Smith, Rebecca G.; Volta, Manuela; Troakes, Claire; Schalkwyk, Leonard C.; Mill, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT While DNA methylation is usually thought to be symmetrical across both alleles, there are some notable exceptions. Genomic imprinting and X chromosome inactivation are two well-studied sources of allele-specific methylation (ASM), but recent research has indicated a more complex pattern in which genotypic variation can be associated with allelically-skewed DNA methylation in cis. Given the known heterogeneity of DNA methylation across tissues and cell types we explored inter- and intra-individual variation in ASM across several regions of the human brain and whole blood from multiple individuals. Consistent with previous studies, we find widespread ASM with > 4% of the ∼220,000 loci interrogated showing evidence of allelically-skewed DNA methylation. We identify ASM flanking known imprinted regions, and show that ASM sites are enriched in DNase I hypersensitivity sites and often located in an extended genomic context of intermediate DNA methylation. We also detect examples of genotype-driven ASM, some of which are tissue-specific. These findings contribute to our understanding of the nature of differential DNA methylation across tissues and have important implications for genetic studies of complex disease. As a resource to the community, ASM patterns across each of the tissues studied are available in a searchable online database: http://epigenetics.essex.ac.uk/ASMBrainBlood. PMID:26786711

  15. Hemi-methylated DNA regulates DNA methylation inheritance through allosteric activation of H3 ubiquitylation by UHRF1.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Joseph S; Cornett, Evan M; Goldfarb, Dennis; DaRosa, Paul A; Li, Zimeng M; Yan, Feng; Dickson, Bradley M; Guo, Angela H; Cantu, Daniel V; Kaustov, Lilia; Brown, Peter J; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Erie, Dorothy A; Major, Michael B; Klevit, Rachel E; Krajewski, Krzysztof; Kuhlman, Brian; Strahl, Brian D; Rothbart, Scott B

    2016-01-01

    The epigenetic inheritance of DNA methylation requires UHRF1, a histone- and DNA-binding RING E3 ubiquitin ligase that recruits DNMT1 to sites of newly replicated DNA through ubiquitylation of histone H3. UHRF1 binds DNA with selectivity towards hemi-methylated CpGs (HeDNA); however, the contribution of HeDNA sensing to UHRF1 function remains elusive. Here, we reveal that the interaction of UHRF1 with HeDNA is required for DNA methylation but is dispensable for chromatin interaction, which is governed by reciprocal positive cooperativity between the UHRF1 histone- and DNA-binding domains. HeDNA recognition activates UHRF1 ubiquitylation towards multiple lysines on the H3 tail adjacent to the UHRF1 histone-binding site. Collectively, our studies are the first demonstrations of a DNA-protein interaction and an epigenetic modification directly regulating E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. They also define an orchestrated epigenetic control mechanism involving modifications both to histones and DNA that facilitate UHRF1 chromatin targeting, H3 ubiquitylation, and DNA methylation inheritance. PMID:27595565

  16. Hemi-methylated DNA regulates DNA methylation inheritance through allosteric activation of H3 ubiquitylation by UHRF1

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Joseph S; Cornett, Evan M; Goldfarb, Dennis; DaRosa, Paul A; Li, Zimeng M; Yan, Feng; Dickson, Bradley M; Guo, Angela H; Cantu, Daniel V; Kaustov, Lilia; Brown, Peter J; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Erie, Dorothy A; Major, Michael B; Klevit, Rachel E; Krajewski, Krzysztof; Kuhlman, Brian; Strahl, Brian D; Rothbart, Scott B

    2016-01-01

    The epigenetic inheritance of DNA methylation requires UHRF1, a histone- and DNA-binding RING E3 ubiquitin ligase that recruits DNMT1 to sites of newly replicated DNA through ubiquitylation of histone H3. UHRF1 binds DNA with selectivity towards hemi-methylated CpGs (HeDNA); however, the contribution of HeDNA sensing to UHRF1 function remains elusive. Here, we reveal that the interaction of UHRF1 with HeDNA is required for DNA methylation but is dispensable for chromatin interaction, which is governed by reciprocal positive cooperativity between the UHRF1 histone- and DNA-binding domains. HeDNA recognition activates UHRF1 ubiquitylation towards multiple lysines on the H3 tail adjacent to the UHRF1 histone-binding site. Collectively, our studies are the first demonstrations of a DNA-protein interaction and an epigenetic modification directly regulating E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. They also define an orchestrated epigenetic control mechanism involving modifications both to histones and DNA that facilitate UHRF1 chromatin targeting, H3 ubiquitylation, and DNA methylation inheritance. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17101.001 PMID:27595565

  17. Actions of human DNA glycosylases on uracil-containing DNA, methylated DNA and their reconstituted chromatins.

    PubMed

    Ishiwata, K; Oikawa, A

    1979-07-26

    Extracts of human lymphoblastoid cells catalyzed complete release of uracil (Ura) from PBS1 DNA, which contains Ura instead of thymine as a normal component (Ura-DNA), and 3-methyladenine (3-MeAde) from DNA methylated with methyl methanesulfonate (Me-DNA). These two activities, Ura-DNA glycosylase and 3-MeAde-DNA glycosylase, differed in heat stability. Cell extracts released Ura more rapidly and 3-MeAde more slowly from alkali-denatured preparations of Ura- and Me-DNA, respectively, than from native DNA's. On incubation with reconstituted chromatins, prepared from Ura-DNA and Me-DNA, respectively, with calf thymus chromosomal protein by salt gradient dialysis, cell extracts released all the Ura but only about half of the 3-MeAde residues, although both these chromatins were degraded by micrococcal nuclease until about half of the nucleotides became acid soluble. The activities of Ura-DNA and 3-MeAde-DNA glycosylase of xeroderma pigmentosum cells were similar to those of normal cells. PMID:465495

  18. Quantitative reconstruction of leukocyte subsets using DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cell lineage-specific DNA methylation patterns distinguish normal human leukocyte subsets and can be used to detect and quantify these subsets in peripheral blood. We have developed an approach that uses DNA methylation to simultaneously quantify multiple leukocyte subsets, enabling investigation of immune modulations in virtually any blood sample including archived samples previously precluded from such analysis. Here we assess the performance characteristics and validity of this approach. Results Using Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27 and VeraCode GoldenGate Methylation Assay microarrays, we measure DNA methylation in leukocyte subsets purified from human whole blood and identify cell lineage-specific DNA methylation signatures that distinguish human T cells, B cells, NK cells, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils and neutrophils. We employ a bioinformatics-based approach to quantify these cell types in complex mixtures, including whole blood, using DNA methylation at as few as 20 CpG loci. A reconstruction experiment confirms that the approach could accurately measure the composition of mixtures of human blood leukocyte subsets. Applying the DNA methylation-based approach to quantify the cellular components of human whole blood, we verify its accuracy by direct comparison to gold standard immune quantification methods that utilize physical, optical and proteomic characteristics of the cells. We also demonstrate that the approach is not affected by storage of blood samples, even under conditions prohibiting the use of gold standard methods. Conclusions Cell mixture distributions within peripheral blood can be assessed accurately and reliably using DNA methylation. Thus, precise immune cell differential estimates can be reconstructed using only DNA rather than whole cells. PMID:24598480

  19. New DNA methylation markers and global DNA hypomethylation are associated with oral cancer development.

    PubMed

    Foy, Jean-Philippe; Pickering, Curtis R; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki A; Jelinek, Jaroslav; Lin, Steven H; William, William N; Frederick, Mitchell J; Wang, Jing; Lang, Wenhua; Feng, Lei; Zhang, Li; Kim, Edward S; Fan, You H; Hong, Waun K; El-Naggar, Adel K; Lee, J Jack; Myers, Jeffrey N; Issa, Jean-Pierre; Lippman, Scott M; Mao, Li; Saintigny, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    DNA promoter methylation of tumor suppressor genes and global DNA hypomethylation are common features of head and neck cancers. Our goal was to identify early DNA methylation changes in oral premalignant lesions (OPL) that may serve as predictive markers of developing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Using high-throughput DNA methylation profiles of 24 OPLs, we found that the top 86 genes differentially methylated between patients who did or did not develop OSCC were simultaneously hypermethylated, suggesting that a CpG island methylation phenotype may occur early during OSCC development. The vast majority of the 86 genes were nonmethylated in normal tissues and hypermethylated in OSCC versus normal mucosa. We used pyrosequencing in a validation cohort of 44 patients to evaluate the degree of methylation of AGTR1, FOXI2, and PENK promoters CpG sites that were included in the top 86 genes and of LINE1 repetitive element methylation, a surrogate of global DNA methylation. A methylation index was developed by averaging the percent methylation of AGTR1, FOXI2, and PENK promoters; patients with a high methylation index had a worse oral cancer-free survival (P = 0.0030). On the other hand, patients with low levels of LINE1 methylation had a significantly worse oral cancer-free survival (P = 0.0153). In conclusion, AGTR1, FOXI2, and PENK promoter methylation and LINE1 hypomethylation may be associated with an increased risk of OSCC development in patients with OPLs. PMID:26342026

  20. Epigenetic Regulation of Myofibroblast Differentiation by DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Biao; Gharaee-Kermani, Mehrnaz; Wu, Zhe; Phan, Sem H.

    2010-01-01

    DNA methylation, a key mechanism of repressing gene expression, is of particular relevance in controlling development and cell differentiation. We analyzed the extent and regulation of DNA methylation of the α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) gene to elucidate its potential role in myofibroblast differentiation. These experiments revealed the presence of three CpG islands that were methylated at different levels in fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, and alveolar epithelial type II cells. Coordinately, these cells expressed low, high, or no α-SMA, respectively. In addition, inhibition of DNA methyltransferase activity or knock down of DNA methyltransferase using specific small interfering RNA caused significant induction of α-SMA in fibroblasts. In contrast, induced overexpression of DNA methyltransferase suppressed α-SMA gene expression. Transforming growth factor β induced myofibroblast differentiation was enhanced or suppressed by knockdown or overexpression of DNA methyltransferase, respectively. Finally, in vitro DNA methylation of the α-SMA promoter suppressed its activity. These findings suggest that DNA methylation mediated by DNA methyltransferase is an important mechanism regulating the α-SMA gene expression during myofibroblast differentiation. PMID:20489138

  1. Label-free and selective photoelectrochemical detection of chemical DNA methylation damage using DNA repair enzymes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yiping; Zhang, Bintian; Guo, Liang-Hong

    2013-07-16

    Exogenous chemicals may produce DNA methylation that is potentially toxic to living systems. Methylated DNA bases are difficult to detect with biosensors because the methyl group is small and chemically inert. In this report, a label-free photoelectrochemical sensor was developed for the selective detection of chemically methylated bases in DNA films. The sensor employed two DNA repair enzymes, human alkyladenine DNA glycosylase and human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease, to convert DNA methylation sites in DNA films on indium tin oxide electrodes into strand breaks. A DNA intercalator, Ru(bpy)2(dppz)(2+) (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine, dppz = dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine) was then used as the photoelectrochemical signal indicator to detect the DNA strand breaks. Its photocurrent signal was found to correlate inversely with the amount of 3-methyladenines (metAde) produced with a methylating agent, methylmethane sulfonate (MMS). The sensor detected the methylated bases produced with as low as 1 mM MMS, at which concentration the amount of metAde on the sensor surface was estimated to be 0.5 pg, or 1 metAde in 1.6 × 10(5) normal bases. Other DNA base modification products, such as 5-methylcytosine and DNA adducts with ethyl and styrene groups did not attenuate the photocurrent, demonstrating good selectivity of the sensor. This strategy can be utilized to develop sensors for the detection of other modified DNA bases with specific DNA repair enzymes. PMID:23777269

  2. High resolution DNA content measurements of mammalian sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkel, D.; Lake, S.; Gledhill, B.L.; Van Dilla, M.A.; Stephenson, D.; Watchmaker, G.

    1982-01-01

    The high condensation and flat shape of the mammalian sperm nucleus present unique difficulties to flow cytometric measurement of DNA content. Chromatin compactness makes quantitative fluorescent staining for DNA difficult and causes a high index of refraction. The refractive index makes optical measurements sensitive to sperm head orientation. We demonstrate that the optical problems can be overcome using the commercial ICP22 epiillumination flow cytometer (Ortho Instruments, Westwood, MA) or a specially built cell orientating flow cytometer (OFCM). The design and operation of the OFCM are described. Measurements of the angular dependence of fluorescence from acriflavine stained rabbit sperm show that it is capable of orienting flat sperm with a tolerance of +-7/sup 0/. Differences in the angular dependence for the similarly shaped bull and rabbit sperm allow discrimination of these cells. We show that DNA staining with 4-6 diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) or an ethidium bromide mithramycin combination allows resolution of the X and Y populations in mouse sperm. They have also been successful with sperm from the bull, ram, rabbit, and boar. Reliable results with human sperm are not obtained. The accuracy of the staining and measurement techniques are verified by the correct determination of the relative content of these two populations in sperm from normal mice and those with the Cattanach (7 to X) translocation. Among the potential uses of these techniques are measurement of DNA content errors induced in sperm due to mutagen exposure, and assessment of the fractions of X and Y sperm in semen that may have one population artifically enriched.

  3. Factors underlying variable DNA methylation in a human community cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Lucia L.; Emberly, Eldon; Fraser, Hunter B.; Neumann, Sarah M.; Chen, Edith; Miller, Gregory E.; Kobor, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetics is emerging as an attractive mechanism to explain the persistent genomic embedding of early-life experiences. Tightly linked to chromatin, which packages DNA into chromosomes, epigenetic marks primarily serve to regulate the activity of genes. DNA methylation is the most accessible and characterized component of the many chromatin marks that constitute the epigenome, making it an ideal target for epigenetic studies in human populations. Here, using peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected from a community-based cohort stratified for early-life socioeconomic status, we measured DNA methylation in the promoter regions of more than 14,000 human genes. Using this approach, we broadly assessed and characterized epigenetic variation, identified some of the factors that sculpt the epigenome, and determined its functional relation to gene expression. We found that the leukocyte composition of peripheral blood covaried with patterns of DNA methylation at many sites, as did demographic factors, such as sex, age, and ethnicity. Furthermore, psychosocial factors, such as perceived stress, and cortisol output were associated with DNA methylation, as was early-life socioeconomic status. Interestingly, we determined that DNA methylation was strongly correlated to the ex vivo inflammatory response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to stimulation with microbial products that engage Toll-like receptors. In contrast, our work found limited effects of DNA methylation marks on the expression of associated genes across individuals, suggesting a more complex relationship than anticipated. PMID:23045638

  4. Horizontal transfer of DNA methylation patterns into bacterial chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung-Eun; Lin, Chris; Lim, Han N

    2016-05-19

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is the non-inherited acquisition of novel DNA sequences. HGT is common and important in bacteria because it enables the rapid generation of new phenotypes such as antibiotic resistance. Here we show that in vivo and in vitro DNA methylation patterns can be horizontally transferred into bacterial chromosomes to program cell phenotypes. The experiments were performed using a synthetic system in Escherichia coli where different DNA methylation patterns within the cis-regulatory sequence of the agn43 gene turn on or off a fluorescent reporter (CFP). With this system we demonstrated that DNA methylation patterns not only accompany the horizontal transfer of genes into the bacterial cytoplasm but can be transferred into chromosomes by: (i) bacteriophage P1 transduction; and (ii) transformation of extracellular synthetic DNA. We also modified the experimental system by replacing CFP with the SgrS small RNA, which regulates glucose and methyl α-D-glucoside uptake, and showed that horizontally acquired DNA methylation patterns can increase or decrease cell fitness. That is, horizontally acquired DNA methylation patterns can result in the selection for and against cells that have HGT. Findings from these proof-of-concept experiments have applications in synthetic biology and potentially broad implications for bacterial adaptation and evolution. PMID:27084942

  5. Horizontal transfer of DNA methylation patterns into bacterial chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jung-Eun; Lin, Chris; Lim, Han N.

    2016-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is the non-inherited acquisition of novel DNA sequences. HGT is common and important in bacteria because it enables the rapid generation of new phenotypes such as antibiotic resistance. Here we show that in vivo and in vitro DNA methylation patterns can be horizontally transferred into bacterial chromosomes to program cell phenotypes. The experiments were performed using a synthetic system in Escherichia coli where different DNA methylation patterns within the cis-regulatory sequence of the agn43 gene turn on or off a fluorescent reporter (CFP). With this system we demonstrated that DNA methylation patterns not only accompany the horizontal transfer of genes into the bacterial cytoplasm but can be transferred into chromosomes by: (i) bacteriophage P1 transduction; and (ii) transformation of extracellular synthetic DNA. We also modified the experimental system by replacing CFP with the SgrS small RNA, which regulates glucose and methyl α-D-glucoside uptake, and showed that horizontally acquired DNA methylation patterns can increase or decrease cell fitness. That is, horizontally acquired DNA methylation patterns can result in the selection for and against cells that have HGT. Findings from these proof-of-concept experiments have applications in synthetic biology and potentially broad implications for bacterial adaptation and evolution. PMID:27084942

  6. An epigenetic switch ensures transposon repression upon dynamic loss of DNA methylation in embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Marius; Teissandier, Aurélie; Pérez-Palacios, Raquel; Bourc'his, Déborah

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is extensively remodeled during mammalian gametogenesis and embryogenesis. Most transposons become hypomethylated, raising the question of their regulation in the absence of DNA methylation. To reproduce a rapid and extensive demethylation, we subjected mouse ES cells to chemically defined hypomethylating culture conditions. Surprisingly, we observed two phases of transposon regulation. After an initial burst of de-repression, various transposon families were efficiently re-silenced. This was accompanied by a reconfiguration of the repressive chromatin landscape: while H3K9me3 was stable, H3K9me2 globally disappeared and H3K27me3 accumulated at transposons. Interestingly, we observed that H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 occupy different transposon families or different territories within the same family, defining three functional categories of adaptive chromatin responses to DNA methylation loss. Our work highlights that H3K9me3 and, most importantly, polycomb-mediated H3K27me3 chromatin pathways can secure the control of a large spectrum of transposons in periods of intense DNA methylation change, ensuring longstanding genome stability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11418.001 PMID:26814573

  7. Research Advances in Pituitary Adenoma and DNA Methylation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhen-Qing; Li, Yang; Li, Wei-Hua; Lou, Jia-Cheng; Zhang, Bo

    2016-08-01

    DNA methylation is closely related to the genesis and development of pituitary adenoma. Studies have shown that high methylation in the promoter region of potassium voltage-gated chanel,shaker related subfamily,beta member 2,O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase,echinoderm microtubule associated protein like 2 ,ras homolog family member D ,homeobox B1 ,NNAT, and P16 inhibits the expression of these genes and regulates of the proliferation of pituitary adenoma. DNA methylation is also closely related to invasive pituitary adenoma. Therefore,further study on molecular mechanism of DNA methylation of pituitary adenoma will offer a new strategy for the diagnosis and treatment of pituitary adenoma. PMID:27594164

  8. DNA methylation studies using twins: what are they telling us?

    PubMed

    Bell, Jordana T; Spector, Tim D

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have identified both heritable DNA methylation effects and differential methylation in disease-discordant identical twins. Larger sample sizes, replication, genetic-epigenetic analyses and longitudinal assays are now needed to establish the role of epigenetic variants in disease. PMID:23078798

  9. Expression of DNA methylation genes in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fagone, Paolo; Mangano, Katia; Di Marco, Roberto; Touil-Boukoffa, Chafia; Chikovan, Tinatin; Signorelli, Santo; Lombardo, Giuseppe A G; Patti, Francesco; Mammana, Santa; Nicoletti, Ferdinando

    2016-01-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immunoinflammatory disease of the central nervous system that seems to be influenced by DNA methylation. We sought to explore the expression pattern of genes involved in the control of DNA methylation in Secondary Progressive (SP) MS patients' PBMCs. We have found that SP MS is characterized by a significant upregulation of two genes belonging to the MBD family genes, MBD2 and MBD4, and by a downregulation of TDG and TET3. PMID:26711572

  10. Methylation interactions in Arabidopsis hybrids require RNA-directed DNA methylation and are influenced by genetic variation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingzhu; Wang, Dong; Lang, Zhaobo; He, Li; Yang, Lan; Zeng, Liang; Li, Yanqiang; Zhao, Cheng; Huang, Huan; Zhang, Heng; Zhang, Huiming; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-07-19

    DNA methylation is a conserved epigenetic mark in plants and many animals. How parental alleles interact in progeny to influence the epigenome is poorly understood. We analyzed the DNA methylomes of Arabidopsis Col and C24 ecotypes, and their hybrid progeny. Hybrids displayed nonadditive DNA methylation levels, termed methylation interactions, throughout the genome. Approximately 2,500 methylation interactions occurred at regions where parental DNA methylation levels are similar, whereas almost 1,000 were at differentially methylated regions in parents. Methylation interactions were characterized by an abundance of 24-nt small interfering RNAs. Furthermore, dysfunction of the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway abolished methylation interactions but did not affect the increased biomass observed in hybrid progeny. Methylation interactions correlated with altered genetic variation within the genome, suggesting that they may play a role in genome evolution. PMID:27382183

  11. The 'golden age' of DNA methylation in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Fuso, Andrea

    2013-03-01

    DNA methylation reactions are regulated, in the first instance, by enzymes and the intermediates that constitute the 'so called' one-carbon metabolism. This is a complex biochemical pathway, also known as the homocysteine cycle, regulated by the presence of B vitamins (folate, B6, B12) and choline, among other metabolites. One of the intermediates of this metabolism is S-adenosylmethionine, which represent the methyl donor in all the DNA methyltransferase reactions in eukaryotes. The one-carbon metabolism therefore produces the substrate necessary for the transferring of a methyl group on the cytosine residues of DNA; S-adenosylmethionine also regulates the activity of the enzymes that catalyze this reaction, namely the DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). Alterations of this metabolic cycle can therefore be responsible for aberrant DNA methylation processes possibly leading to several human diseases. As a matter of fact, increasing evidences indicate that a number of human diseases with multifactorial origin may have an epigenetic basis. This is also due to the great technical advances in the field of epigenetic research. Among the human diseases associated with epigenetic factors, aging-related and neurodegenerative diseases are probably the object of most intense research. This review will present the main evidences linking several human diseases to DNA methylation, with particular focus on neurodegenerative diseases, together with a short description of the state-of-the-art of methylation assays. PMID:23183753

  12. Genome-wide DNA Methylation Profiles in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jing; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Yu-Jing; Kappil, Maya; Wu, Hui-Chen; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Wang, Qiao; Jasmine, Farzana; Ahsan, Habib; Lee, Po-Huang; Yu, Ming-Whei; Chen, Chien-Jen; Santella, Regina M.

    2012-01-01

    Alterations in DNA methylation frequently occur in hepatocellular cancer (HCC). We have previously demonstrated that hypermethylation in candidate genes can be detected in plasma DNA prior to HCC diagnosis. To identify with a genome-wide approach additional genes hypermethylated in HCC that could be used for more accurate analysis of plasma DNA for early diagnosis, we analyzed tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues from 62 Taiwanese HCC cases using Illumina methylation arrays that screen 26,486 autosomal CpG sites. After Bonferroni adjustment, a total of 2,324 CpG sites significantly differed in methylation level, with 684 CpG sites significantly hypermethylated and 1,640 hypomethylated in tumor compared to non-tumor tissues. Array data were validated with pyrosequencing in a subset of 5 of these genes; correlation coefficients ranged from 0.92 to 0.97. Analysis of plasma DNA from 38 cases demonstrated that 37% to 63% of cases had detectable hypermethylated DNA (≥5% methylation) for these 5 genes individually. At least one of these genes was hypermethylated in 87% of cases, suggesting that measurement of DNA methylation in plasma samples is feasible. The panel of methylated genes indentified in the current study will be further tested in large cohort of prospectively collected samples to determine their utility as early biomarkers of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:22234943

  13. DNA methylation and methylation polymorphism in ecotypes of Jatropha curcas L. using methylation-sensitive AFLP markers.

    PubMed

    Mastan, Shaik G; Rathore, Mangal S; Bhatt, Vacha D; Chikara, J; Ghosh, A

    2014-12-01

    We investigated DNA methylation and polymorphism in the methylated DNA using AFLP based methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MS-AFLP) markers in ecotypes of Jatropha curcas L. growing in similar and different geo-ecological conditions. Three ecotypes growing in different geo-ecological conditions with environmental heterogeneity (Group-1) and five ecotypes growing in similar environmental conditions (Group-2) were assessed. In ecotypes growing in group-1, 44.32 % DNA was methylated and of which 93.59 % DNA was polymorphic. While in group-2, 32.27 % DNA was methylated, of which 51.64 % DNA was polymorphic. In site 1 and site 2 of group-1, overall methylation was 18.94 and 22.44 % respectively with difference of 3.5 %, while overall polymorphism was 41.14 and 39.23 % with a difference of 1.91 %. In site 1 and site 2 of group-2, overall methylation was 24.68 and 24.18 % respectively with difference of 0.5 %, while overall polymorphism was 12.19 and 12.65 % with a difference of 0.46 %. The difference of methylation percentage and percentage of methylation polymorphism throughout the genome of J. curcas at site 1 and 2 of group-1 is higher than that of J. curcas at site 1 and 2 of group-2. These results correlated the physico-chemical properties of soil at these sites. The variations of physico-chemical properties of soil at Chorwadla (site 1 in group-1 and site 2 in group-2) compared to the soil at Brahmapur (site 2 in group-1) is higher than that of soil at Neswad (site 1 in group-2). The study suggests that these homologous nucleotide sequences probably play important role in ecotype adaptation to environmental heterogeneity by creating epiallelic variations hence in evolution of ecotypes/clines or forms of species showing phenotypic/genotypic differences in different geographical areas. PMID:25227523

  14. Adiposity is associated with DNA methylation profile in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Agha, Golareh; Houseman, E Andres; Kelsey, Karl T; Eaton, Charles B; Buka, Stephen L; Loucks, Eric B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adiposity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, suggesting an important role for adipose tissue in the development of these conditions. The epigenetic underpinnings of adiposity are not well understood, and studies of DNA methylation in relation to adiposity have rarely focused on target adipose tissue. Objectives were to evaluate whether genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in subcutaneous adipose tissue and peripheral blood leukocytes are associated with measures of adiposity, including central fat mass, body fat distribution and body mass index. Methods: Participants were 106 men and women (mean age 47 years) from the New England Family Study. DNA methylation was evaluated using the Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip. Adiposity phenotypes included dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-assessed android fat mass, android:gynoid fat ratio and trunk:limb fat ratio, as well as body mass index. Results: Adipose tissue genome-wide DNA methylation profiles were associated with all four adiposity phenotypes, after adjusting for race, sex and current smoking (omnibus p-values <0.001). After further adjustment for adipose cell-mixture effects, associations with android fat mass, android:gynoid fat ratio, and trunk:limb fat ratio remained. In gene-specific analyses, adiposity phenotypes were associated with adipose tissue DNA methylation in several genes that are biologically relevant to the development of adiposity, such as AOC3, LIPE, SOD3, AQP7 and CETP. Blood DNA methylation profiles were not associated with adiposity, before or after adjustment for blood leukocyte cell mixture effects. Conclusion: Findings show that DNA methylation patterns in adipose tissue are associated with adiposity. PMID:25541553

  15. Principles Governing DNA Methylation during Neuronal Lineage and Subtype Specification

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ali; Klein, Shifra S.; Barboza, Luendreo; Lohdi, Niraj

    2016-01-01

    Although comprehensively described during early neuronal development, the role of DNA methylation/demethylation in neuronal lineage and subtype specification is not well understood. By studying two distinct neuronal progenitors as they differentiate to principal neurons in mouse hippocampus and striatum, we uncovered several principles governing neuronal DNA methylation during brain development. (1) The program consists of three stages: an initial genome-wide methylation during progenitor proliferation is followed by loss of methylation during the transition of regional progenitors to “young” hippocampal/striatal neurons, which is then reversed by gain in methylation during maturation to subtype-specific neurons. (2) At the first two stages, gain and loss of methylation are limited to CpGs, whereas during the third maturation stage, methylation also occurs at non-CpG sites in both lineages. (3) Methylation/demethylation, similar to transcription, are initially highly similar in the two lineages, whereas diversification in methylation and transcription during maturation creates subtype-specific methylation differences. (4) Initially, methylation targets all genomic locations, whereas later, during early and late differentiation, the preferred targets are intronic/intergenic sequences with enhancer-like activity. (5) Differentially methylated genes are enriched in sequential neurodevelopmental functions (such as progenitor proliferation, migration, neuritogenesis, and synaptic transmission); upregulated genes represent current and consecutive stage-specific functions, and downregulated genes represent preceding functions that are no longer required. The main conclusion of our work is that the neuronal methylation/demethylation program is predominantly developmental with minimal lineage specificity, except in the final stage of development when neuron subtype-specific differences also emerge. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our work is the first to describe a set of

  16. Methylsorb: a simple method for quantifying DNA methylation using DNA-gold affinity interactions.

    PubMed

    Sina, Abu Ali Ibn; Carrascosa, Laura G; Palanisamy, Ramkumar; Rauf, Sakandar; Shiddiky, Muhammad J A; Trau, Matt

    2014-10-21

    The analysis of DNA methylation is becoming increasingly important both in the clinic and also as a research tool to unravel key epigenetic molecular mechanisms in biology. Current methodologies for the quantification of regional DNA methylation (i.e., the average methylation over a region of DNA in the genome) are largely affected by comprehensive DNA sequencing methodologies which tend to be expensive, tedious, and time-consuming for many applications. Herein, we report an alternative DNA methylation detection method referred to as "Methylsorb", which is based on the inherent affinity of DNA bases to the gold surface (i.e., the trend of the affinity interactions is adenine > cytosine ≥ guanine > thymine).1 Since the degree of gold-DNA affinity interaction is highly sequence dependent, it provides a new capability to detect DNA methylation by simply monitoring the relative adsorption of bisulfite treated DNA sequences onto a gold chip. Because the selective physical adsorption of DNA fragments to gold enable a direct read-out of regional DNA methylation, the current requirement for DNA sequencing is obviated. To demonstrate the utility of this method, we present data on the regional methylation status of two CpG clusters located in the EN1 and MIR200B genes in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The methylation status of these regions was obtained from the change in relative mass on gold surface with respect to relative adsorption of an unmethylated DNA source and this was detected using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in a label-free and real-time manner. We anticipate that the simplicity of this method, combined with the high level of accuracy for identifying the methylation status of cytosines in DNA, could find broad application in biology and diagnostics. PMID:25226077

  17. DNA methylation detection based on difference of base content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Shinobu; Ohtsuka, Keiichi; Honda, Satoshi; Sato, Yusuke; Takenaka, Shigeori

    2016-04-01

    Methylation frequently occurs in cytosines of CpG sites to regulate gene expression. The identification of aberrant methylation of certain genes is important for cancer marker analysis. The aim of this study was to determine the methylation frequency in DNA samples of unknown length and/or concentration. Unmethylated cytosine is known to be converted to thymine following bisulfite treatment and subsequent PCR. For this reason, the AT content in DNA increases with an increasing number of methylation sites. In this study, the fluorescein-carrying bis-acridinyl peptide (FKA) molecule was used for the detection of methylation frequency. FKA contains fluorescein and two acridine moieties, which together allow for the determination of the AT content of double-stranded DNA fragments. Methylated and unmethylated human genomes were subjected to bisulfide treatment and subsequent PCR using primers specific for the CFTR, CDH4, DBC1, and NPY genes. The AT content in the resulting PCR products was estimated by FKA, and AT content estimations were found to be in good agreement with those determined by DNA sequencing. This newly developed method may be useful for determining methylation frequencies of many PCR products by measuring the fluorescence in samples excited at two different wavelengths.

  18. Mobile small RNAs regulate genome-wide DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Lewsey, Mathew G.; Hardcastle, Thomas J.; Melnyk, Charles W.; Molnar, Attila; Valli, Adrián; Urich, Mark A.; Nery, Joseph R.; Baulcombe, David C.; Ecker, Joseph R.

    2016-01-01

    RNA silencing at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels regulates endogenous gene expression, controls invading transposable elements (TEs), and protects the cell against viruses. Key components of the mechanism are small RNAs (sRNAs) of 21–24 nt that guide the silencing machinery to their nucleic acid targets in a nucleotide sequence-specific manner. Transcriptional gene silencing is associated with 24-nt sRNAs and RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) at cytosine residues in three DNA sequence contexts (CG, CHG, and CHH). We previously demonstrated that 24-nt sRNAs are mobile from shoot to root in Arabidopsis thaliana and confirmed that they mediate DNA methylation at three sites in recipient cells. In this study, we extend this finding by demonstrating that RdDM of thousands of loci in root tissues is dependent upon mobile sRNAs from the shoot and that mobile sRNA-dependent DNA methylation occurs predominantly in non-CG contexts. Mobile sRNA-dependent non-CG methylation is largely dependent on the DOMAINS REARRANGED METHYLTRANSFERASES 1/2 (DRM1/DRM2) RdDM pathway but is independent of the CHROMOMETHYLASE (CMT)2/3 DNA methyltransferases. Specific superfamilies of TEs, including those typically found in gene-rich euchromatic regions, lose DNA methylation in a mutant lacking 22- to 24-nt sRNAs (dicer-like 2, 3, 4 triple mutant). Transcriptome analyses identified a small number of genes whose expression in roots is associated with mobile sRNAs and connected to DNA methylation directly or indirectly. Finally, we demonstrate that sRNAs from shoots of one accession move across a graft union and target DNA methylation de novo at normally unmethylated sites in the genomes of root cells from a different accession. PMID:26787884

  19. Distinct nuclear localization patterns of DNA methyltransferases in developing and mature mammalian retina.

    PubMed

    Nasonkin, Igor O; Lazo, Kevin; Hambright, Dustin; Brooks, Matthew; Fariss, Robert; Swaroop, Anand

    2011-07-01

    DNA methyltransferases--DNMT1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b--produce methylation patterns that dynamically regulate chromatin remodeling and gene expression. The vertebrate retina provides an ideal model to elucidate molecular control of neurogenesis as all neuronal cell types and Müller glia are generated in a conserved order from common pools of progenitor cells. As a prelude to exploring epigenetic regulation of mammalian retinal development, we investigated the expression of Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, and Dnmt3b in the mouse retina from embryonic day (E) 10.5 to 10 months of age. High levels of transcripts for all three Dnmt genes were observed in early stages of retinal differentiation, with significantly reduced expression after birth. Although DNMT1 protein is abundant in retinal progenitors at E10.5, it becomes restricted to postmitotic cells by E15.5. Most cells in the postnatal retina show nuclear immunostaining of DNMT1; however, the photoreceptors exhibit distinctive patterns. In rods, weak expression of DNMT1 is detected in perinuclear region and in the nucleus, whereas a strong nuclear labeling is evident in cones. DNMT3a and DNMT3b show a discrete pattern in developing retina with high expression at E11.5, little or no immunostaining by E15.5, and then postnatal expression overlapping with DNMT1 in early born neurons (ganglion, amacrine and horizontal cells, and cones). Robust nuclear localization of DNMTs in cones compared to rods suggests a potential role of DNA methylation in differential remodeling of chromatin in these two specialized neurons. Our studies indicate that DNA methyltransferases contribute to the establishment and maturation of cell fates during retinal development. PMID:21452232

  20. DNA methylation changes in epithelial ovarian cancer histotypes

    PubMed Central

    Earp, Madalene A.; Cunningham, Julie M.

    2016-01-01

    Survival after a diagnosis of ovarian cancer has not improved, and despite histological differences, treatment is similar for all cases. Understanding the molecular basis for ovarian cancer risk and prognosis is fundamental, and to this end much has been gleaned about genetic changes contributing to risk, and to a lesser extent, survival. There’s considerable evidence for genetic differences between the four pathologically defined histological subtypes; however, the contribution of epigenetics is less well documented. In this report, we review alterations in DNA methylation in ovarian cancer, focusing on histological subtypes, and studies examining the roles of methylation in determining therapy response. As epigenetics is making its way into clinical care, we review the application of cell free DNA methylation to ovarian cancer diagnosis and care. Finally, we comment on recurrent limitations in the DNA methylation literature for ovarian cancer, which can and should be addressed to mature this field. PMID:26363302

  1. DNA methylation markers in the postnatal developing rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Rebecca K.; Stringfellow, Sara A.; Glover, Matthew E.; Wagle, Anjali A.; Clinton, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    In spite of intense interest in how altered epigenetic processes including DNA methylation may contribute to psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders, there is a limited understanding of how methylation processes change during early postnatal brain development. The present study used in situ hybridization to assess mRNA expression for the three major DNA methyltranserases (DNMTs) – DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b – in the developing rat brain at seven developmental timepoints: postnatal days (P) 1, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 75. We also assessed 5-methylcytosine levels (an indicator of global DNA methylation) in selected brain regions during the first three postnatal weeks. DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b mRNAs are widely expressed throughout the adult and postnatal developing rat brain. Overall, DNMT mRNA levels reached their highest point in the first week of life and gradually decreased over the first three postnatal weeks within the hippocampus, amygdala, striatum, cingulate and lateral septum. Global DNA methylation levels did not follow this developmental pattern; methylation levels gradually increased over the first three postnatal weeks in the hippocampus, and remained stable in the developing amygdala and prefrontal cortex. Our results contribute to a growing understanding of how DNA methylation markers unfold in the developing brain, and highlight how these developmental processes may differ within distinct brain regions. PMID:23954679

  2. Evolutionary patterns of genic DNA methylation vary across land plants.

    PubMed

    Takuno, Shohei; Ran, Jin-Hua; Gaut, Brandon S

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about patterns of genic DNA methylation across the plant kingdom or about the evolutionary processes that shape them. To characterize gene-body methylation (gbM) within exons, we have gathered single-base resolution methylome data that span the phylogenetic breadth of land plants. We find that a basal land plant, Marchantia polymorpha, lacks any evident signal of gbM within exons, but conifers have high levels of both CG and CHG (where H is A, C or T) methylation in expressed genes. To begin to understand the evolutionary forces that shape gbM, we first tested for correlations in methylation levels across orthologues(1,2). Genic CG methylation levels, but not CHG or CHH levels, are correlated across orthologues for species as distantly related as ferns and angiosperms. Hence, relative levels of CG methylation are a consistent property across genes, even for species that diverged ∼400 million years ago(3,4). In contrast, genic CHG methylation correlates with genome size, suggesting that the host epigenetic response to transposable elements also affects genes. Altogether, our data indicate that the evolutionary forces acting on DNA methylation vary substantially across species, genes and methylation contexts. PMID:27249194

  3. DNA-Methylation Patterns in Trisomy 21 Using Cells from Monozygotic Twins

    PubMed Central

    Sailani, M. Reza; Santoni, Federico A.; Letourneau, Audrey; Borel, Christelle; Makrythanasis, Periklis; Hibaoui, Youssef; Popadin, Konstantin; Bonilla, Ximena; Guipponi, Michel; Gehrig, Corinne; Vannier, Anne; Carre-Pigeon, Frederique; Feki, Anis; Nizetic, Dean; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is essential in mammalian development. We have hypothesized that methylation differences induced by trisomy 21 (T21) contribute to the phenotypic characteristics and heterogeneity in Down syndrome (DS). In order to determine the methylation differences in T21 without interference of the interindividual genomic variation, we have used fetal skin fibroblasts from monozygotic (MZ) twins discordant for T21. We also used skin fibroblasts from MZ twins concordant for T21, normal MZ twins without T21, and unrelated normal and T21 individuals. Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (RRBS) revealed 35 differentially methylated promoter regions (DMRs) (Absolute methylation differences = 25%, FDR < 0.001) in MZ twins discordant for T21 that have also been observed in comparison between unrelated normal and T21 individuals. The identified DMRs are enriched for genes involved in embryonic organ morphogenesis (FDR = 1.60 e -03) and include genes of the HOXB and HOXD clusters. These DMRs are maintained in iPS cells generated from this twin pair and are correlated with the gene expression changes. We have also observed an increase in DNA methylation level in the T21 methylome compared to the normal euploid methylome. This observation is concordant with the up regulation of DNA methyltransferase enzymes (DNMT3B and DNMT3L) and down regulation of DNA demethylation enzymes (TET2 and TET3) observed in the iPSC of the T21 versus normal twin. Altogether, the results of this study highlight the epigenetic effects of the extra chromosome 21 in T21 on loci outside of this chromosome that are relevant to DS associated phenotypes. PMID:26317209

  4. DNA-Methylation Patterns in Trisomy 21 Using Cells from Monozygotic Twins.

    PubMed

    Sailani, M Reza; Santoni, Federico A; Letourneau, Audrey; Borel, Christelle; Makrythanasis, Periklis; Hibaoui, Youssef; Popadin, Konstantin; Bonilla, Ximena; Guipponi, Michel; Gehrig, Corinne; Vannier, Anne; Carre-Pigeon, Frederique; Feki, Anis; Nizetic, Dean; Antonarakis, Stylianos E

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is essential in mammalian development. We have hypothesized that methylation differences induced by trisomy 21 (T21) contribute to the phenotypic characteristics and heterogeneity in Down syndrome (DS). In order to determine the methylation differences in T21 without interference of the interindividual genomic variation, we have used fetal skin fibroblasts from monozygotic (MZ) twins discordant for T21. We also used skin fibroblasts from MZ twins concordant for T21, normal MZ twins without T21, and unrelated normal and T21 individuals. Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (RRBS) revealed 35 differentially methylated promoter regions (DMRs) (Absolute methylation differences = 25%, FDR < 0.001) in MZ twins discordant for T21 that have also been observed in comparison between unrelated normal and T21 individuals. The identified DMRs are enriched for genes involved in embryonic organ morphogenesis (FDR = 1.60 e -03) and include genes of the HOXB and HOXD clusters. These DMRs are maintained in iPS cells generated from this twin pair and are correlated with the gene expression changes. We have also observed an increase in DNA methylation level in the T21 methylome compared to the normal euploid methylome. This observation is concordant with the up regulation of DNA methyltransferase enzymes (DNMT3B and DNMT3L) and down regulation of DNA demethylation enzymes (TET2 and TET3) observed in the iPSC of the T21 versus normal twin. Altogether, the results of this study highlight the epigenetic effects of the extra chromosome 21 in T21 on loci outside of this chromosome that are relevant to DS associated phenotypes. PMID:26317209

  5. Large conserved domains of low DNA methylation maintained by Dnmt3a

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Mira; Sun, Deqiang; Luo, Min; Huang, Yun; Challen, Grant A.; Rodriguez, Benjamin; Zhang, Xiaotian; Chavez, Lukas; Wang, Hui; Hannah, Rebecca; Kim, Sang-Bae; Yang, Liubin; Ko, Myunggon; Chen, Rui; Göttgens, Berthold; Lee, Ju-Seog; Gunaratne, Preethi; Godley, Lucy A.; Darlington, Gretchen J.; Rao, Anjana; Li, Wei; Goodell, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Gains and losses in DNA methylation are prominent features of mammalian cell types. To gain insight into mechanisms that could promote shifts in DNA methylation and contribute to cell fate changes, including malignant transformation, we performed genome-wide mapping of 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in purified murine hematopoietic stem cells. We discovered extended regions of low methylation (Canyons) that span conserved domains frequently containing transcription factors and are distinct from CpG islands and shores. The genes in about half of these methylation Canyons are coated with repressive histone marks while the remainder are covered by activating histone marks and are highly expressed in HSCs. Canyon borders are demarked by 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and become eroded in the absence of DNA methyltransferase 3a (Dnmt3a). Genes dysregulated in human leukemias are enriched for Canyon-associated genes. The novel epigenetic landscape we describe may provide a mechanism for the regulation of hematopoiesis and may contribute to leukemia development. PMID:24270360

  6. DNA methylation alterations in response to pesticide exposure in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao; Wallace, Andrew D.; Du, Pan; Kibbe, Warren A.; Jafari, Nadereh; Xie, Hehuang; Lin, Simon; Baccarelli, Andrea; Soares, Marcelo Bento; Hou, Lifang

    2013-01-01

    Although pesticides are subject to extensive carcinogenicity testing before regulatory approval, pesticide exposure has repeatedly been associated with various cancers. This suggests that pesticides may cause cancer via non-mutagenicity mechanisms. The present study provides evidence to support the hypothesis that pesticide-induced cancer may be mediated in part by epigenetic mechanisms. We examined whether exposure to 7 commonly used pesticides (i.e., fonofos, parathion, terbufos, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion, and phorate) induces DNA methylation alterations in vitro. We conducted genome-wide DNA methylation analyses on DNA samples obtained from the human hematopoietic K562 cell line exposed to ethanol (control) and several OPs using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip. Bayesian-adjusted t-tests were used to identify differentially methylated gene promoter CpG sites. In this report, we present our results on three pesticides (fonofos, parathion, and terbufos) that clustered together based on principle component analysis and hierarchical clustering. These three pesticides induced similar methylation changes in the promoter regions of 712 genes, while also exhibiting their own OP-specific methylation alterations. Functional analysis of methylation changes specific to each OP, or common to all three OPs, revealed that differential methylation was associated with numerous genes that are involved in carcinogenesis-related processes. Our results provide experimental evidence that pesticides may modify gene promoter DNA methylation levels, suggesting that epigenetic mechanisms may contribute to pesticide-induced carcinogenesis. Further studies in other cell types and human samples are required, as well as determining the impact of these methylation changes on gene expression. PMID:22847954

  7. Dynamic DNA methylation across diverse human cell lines and tissues

    PubMed Central

    Varley, Katherine E.; Gertz, Jason; Bowling, Kevin M.; Parker, Stephanie L.; Reddy, Timothy E.; Pauli-Behn, Florencia; Cross, Marie K.; Williams, Brian A.; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.; Crawford, Gregory E.; Absher, Devin M.; Wold, Barbara J.; Myers, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    As studies of DNA methylation increase in scope, it has become evident that methylation has a complex relationship with gene expression, plays an important role in defining cell types, and is disrupted in many diseases. We describe large-scale single-base resolution DNA methylation profiling on a diverse collection of 82 human cell lines and tissues using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS). Analysis integrating RNA-seq and ChIP-seq data illuminates the functional role of this dynamic mark. Loci that are hypermethylated across cancer types are enriched for sites bound by NANOG in embryonic stem cells, which supports and expands the model of a stem/progenitor cell signature in cancer. CpGs that are hypomethylated across cancer types are concentrated in megabase-scale domains that occur near the telomeres and centromeres of chromosomes, are depleted of genes, and are enriched for cancer-specific EZH2 binding and H3K27me3 (repressive chromatin). In noncancer samples, there are cell-type specific methylation signatures preserved in primary cell lines and tissues as well as methylation differences induced by cell culture. The relationship between methylation and expression is context-dependent, and we find that CpG-rich enhancers bound by EP300 in the bodies of expressed genes are unmethylated despite the dense gene-body methylation surrounding them. Non-CpG cytosine methylation occurs in human somatic tissue, is particularly prevalent in brain tissue, and is reproducible across many individuals. This study provides an atlas of DNA methylation across diverse and well-characterized samples and enables new discoveries about DNA methylation and its role in gene regulation and disease. PMID:23325432

  8. Analysis of DNA Methylation in Various Swine Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Weiping; Yang, Runjun; Zhang, Yonghong; Qiu, Zhengyan; Sun, Boxing; Zhao, Zhihui

    2011-01-01

    DNA methylation is known to play an important role in regulating gene expression during biological development and tissue differentiation in eukaryotes. In this study, we used the fluorescence-labeled methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (F-MSAP) method to assess the extent and pattern of cytosine methylation in muscle, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney and stomach from the swine strain Laiwu, and we also examined specific methylation patterns in the seven tissues. In total, 96,371 fragments, each representing a recognition site cleaved by either or both EcoRI + HpaII and EcoRI + MspI, the HpaII and MspI are isoschizomeric enzymes, were amplified using 16 pairs of selective primers. A total of 50,094 sites were found to be methylated at cytosines in seven tissues. The incidence of DNA methylation was approximately 53.99% in muscle, 51.24% in the heart, 50.18% in the liver, 53.31% in the spleen, 51.97% in the lung, 51.15% in the kidney and 53.39% in the stomach, as revealed by the incidence of differential digestion. Additionally, differences in DNA methylation levels imply that such variations may be related to specific gene expression during tissue differentiation, growth and development. Three types of bands were generated in the F-MSAP profile, the total numbers of these three types of bands in the seven tissues were 46,277, 24,801 and 25,293, respectively. In addition, different methylation patterns were observed in seven tissues from pig, and almost all of the methylation patterns detected by F-MSAP could be confirmed by Southern analysis using the isolated amplified fragments as probes. The results clearly demonstrated that the F-MSAP technique can be adapted for use in large-scale DNA methylation detection in the pig genome. PMID:21283691

  9. Mammalian sperm chromatin as a model for chromatin function in DNA degradation and DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Michael A; Sil, Payel; Ward, W Steven

    2011-02-01

    Reproductive biology is considered a specialty field, however, an argument can be made that it is instead generally applicable to many fields of biology. The one-cell embryo is presented here as a model system for the study of eukaryotic DNA replication, apoptotic DNA degradation, and signaling mechanisms between the cytoplasm and nucleus. Two unique aspects of this system combine to make it particularly useful for the study of chromatin function. First, the evolutionary pressure that lead to the extreme condensation of mammalian sperm DNA resulted in a cell with virtually inert chromatin, no DNA replication or transcription ongoing in the sperm cell, and all of the cells in a G(0) state. This chromatin is suddenly transformed into actively transcribing and replicating DNA upon fertilization. Therefore, the sperm chromatin is poised to become active but does not yet possess sufficient components present in somatic chromatin structure for all these processes. The second unique aspect of this system is that the one cell embryo houses two distinct nuclei, termed pronuclei, through the first round of DNA synthesis. This means the sperm cell can be experimentally manipulated to test the affects of the various treatments on the biological functions of interest. Experimental manipulations of the system have already revealed a certain level of plasticity in the coordination of both the timing of DNA synthesis in the two pronuclei and in the response to cellular signals by each pronucleus involved with the progression through the G1/S checkpoint, including the degradation of DNA in the paternal pronucleus. The fact that two nuclei in the same cytoplasm can undergo different responses infers a level of autonomy in the nuclear control of the cell cycle. Thus, the features of mammalian fertilization can provide unique insights for the normal biology of the cell cycle in somatic cells. PMID:21204750

  10. DNA Methylation Profiling Identifies Global Methylation Differences and Markers of Adrenocortical Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rechache, Nesrin S.; Wang, Yonghong; Stevenson, Holly S.; Killian, J. Keith; Edelman, Daniel C.; Merino, Maria; Zhang, Lisa; Nilubol, Naris; Stratakis, Constantine A.; Meltzer, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    Context: It is not known whether there are any DNA methylation alterations in adrenocortical tumors. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the methylation profile of normal adrenal cortex and benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors. Methods: Genome-wide methylation status of CpG regions were determined in normal (n = 19), benign (n = 48), primary malignant (n = 8), and metastatic malignant (n = 12) adrenocortical tissue samples. An integrated analysis of genome-wide methylation and mRNA expression in benign vs. malignant adrenocortical tissue samples was also performed. Results: Methylation profiling revealed the following: 1) that methylation patterns were distinctly different and could distinguish normal, benign, primary malignant, and metastatic tissue samples; 2) that malignant samples have global hypomethylation; and 3) that the methylation of CpG regions are different in benign adrenocortical tumors by functional status. Normal compared with benign samples had the least amount of methylation differences, whereas normal compared with primary and metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma samples had the greatest variability in methylation (adjusted P ≤ 0.01). Of 215 down-regulated genes (≥2-fold, adjusted P ≤ 0.05) in malignant primary adrenocortical tumor samples, 52 of these genes were also hypermethylated. Conclusions: Malignant adrenocortical tumors are globally hypomethylated as compared with normal and benign tumors. Methylation profile differences may accurately distinguish between primary benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors. Several differentially methylated sites are associated with genes known to be dysregulated in malignant adrenocortical tumors. PMID:22472567

  11. Methylation matters? Decreased methylation status of genomic DNA in the blood of schizophrenic twins.

    PubMed

    Bönsch, Dominikus; Wunschel, Michael; Lenz, Bernd; Janssen, Gesa; Weisbrod, Matthias; Sauer, Heinrich

    2012-08-15

    Studies of schizophrenia inheritance in identical twins show a concordance of about 50%, which supports an epigenetic model. In our present study we investigated methylation of genomic DNA and promoter methylation of Reelin and SOX10 genes in peripheral blood of twins suffering from schizophrenia. Global DNA methylation was reduced (52.3%) in schizophrenic twins if compared with healthy control twins (65.7%). The reduced methylation was significant in males only. We also found a similar hypomethylation in the non-affected twins of discordant pairs and a mixed group of psychiatric controls. In discordant twins there was a relative hypermethylation of the SOX10 promoter. Within-pair-difference of methylation of Reelin promoter was significantly lower in monozygotic twins than in dizygotic twins. PMID:23102571

  12. Studies of the repair of O/sup 6/-alkylguanine and O/sup 4/-alkylthymine in DNA by alkyltransferases from mammalian cells and bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Pegg, A.E.; Dolan, M.E.; Acchitano, D.; Morimoto, K.

    1985-10-01

    O/sup 6/-Methylguanine in DNA is repaired by the action of a protein termed O/sup 6/-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AT) which transfers the methyl group to a cysteine residue in its own sequence. Since the cysteine which is methylated is not regenerated rapidly, if at all, the capacity for repair of O/sup 6/-methylguanine is limited by the number of molecules of the AT available within the cell. The level and inducibility of the AT differed greatly in different mammalian cell types and species with the highest levels in human tissues and in liver and the lowest levels in brain. In E. coli such exposure increased the activity more than 100-fold. The protein isolated from E. coli removed methyl groups much more rapidly than the larger alkyl groups but the mammalian AT isolated from rat liver showed much less difference in rate with adducts of different size. Ethyl and n-propyl groups were removed by the rat liver AT only three to four times more slowly than methyl groups. Another important difference between the bacterial and mammalian ATs is that the bacterial protein was also able to remove methyl groups from the O/sup 4/-position of thymine in methylated DNA or poly(dT) but the AT from rat liver or human fibroblasts did not repair O/sup 4/-methylthymidine. These results indicate that the results obtained with the E. coli system may not be a suitable model for extrapolation to predictions of the effects of alkylating agents in initiating tumors or mutations in mammalian cells.

  13. Effects of cytosine methylation on DNA charge transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hihath, Joshua; Guo, Shaoyin; Zhang, Peiming; Tao, Nongjian

    2012-04-01

    The methylation of cytosine bases in DNA commonly takes place in the human genome and its abnormality can be used as a biomarker in the diagnosis of genetic diseases. In this paper we explore the effects of cytosine methylation on the conductance of DNA. Although the methyl group is a small chemical modification, and has a van der Waals radius of only 2 Å, its presence significantly changes the duplex stability, and as such may also affect the conductance properties of DNA. To determine if charge transport through the DNA stack is sensitive to this important biological modification we perform multiple conductance measurements on a methylated DNA molecule with an alternating G:C sequence and its non-methylated counterpart. From these studies we find a measurable difference in the conductance between the two types of molecules, and demonstrate that this difference is statistically significant. The conductance values of these molecules are also compared with a similar sequence that has been previously studied to help elucidate the charge transport mechanisms involved in direct DNA conductance measurements.

  14. Different sensitivities of cultured mammalian cells towards aphidicolin-enhanced DNA effects in the comet assay.

    PubMed

    Speit, Günter; Schütz, Petra; Bausinger, Julia

    2016-06-01

    The comet assay in combination with the polymerase inhibitor aphidicolin (APC) has been used to measure DNA excision repair activity, DNA repair kinetics and individual DNA repair capacity. Since APC can enhance genotoxic effects of mutagens measured by the comet assay, this approach has been proposed for increasing the sensitivity of the comet assay in human biomonitoring. The APC-modified comet assay has mainly been performed with human blood and it was shown that it not only enhances the detection of DNA damage repaired by nucleotide excision repair (NER) but also damage typically repaired by base excision repair (BER). Recently, we reported that in contrast to blood leukocytes, A549 cells (a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line) seem to be insensitive towards the repair-inhibiting action of APC. To further elucidate the general usefulness of the APC-modified comet assay for studying repair in cultured mammalian cells, we comparatively investigated further cell lines (HeLa, TK6, V79). DNA damage was induced by BPDE (benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide) and MMS (methyl methanesulfonate) in the absence and presence of APC (3 or 15μM). APC was either added for 2h together with the mutagen or cells were pre-incubated for 30min with APC before the mutagen was added. The results indicate that the cell lines tested differ fundamentally with regard to their sensitivity and specificity towards the repair-inhibiting effect of APC. The actual cause for these differences is still unclear but potential molecular explanations are discussed. Irrespective of the underlying mechanism(s), our study revealed practical limitations of the use of the APC-modified comet assay. PMID:27265376

  15. Genetic and environmental impacts on DNA methylation levels in twins.

    PubMed

    Yet, Idil; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Castillo-Fernandez, Juan E; Carnero-Montoro, Elena; Bell, Jordana T

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetics describes the study of cellular modifications that can modify the expression of genes without changing the DNA sequence. DNA methylation is one of the most stable and prevalent epigenetic mechanisms. Twin studies have been a valuable model for unraveling the genetic and epigenetic epidemiology of complex traits, and now offer a potential to dissect the factors that impact DNA methylation variability and its biomedical significance. The twin design specifically allows for the study of genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors, and their potential interactions, on epigenetic profiles. Furthermore, genetically identical twins offer a unique opportunity to assess nongenetic impacts on epigenetic profiles. Here, we summarize recent findings from twin studies of DNA methylation profiles across tissues, to define current knowledge regarding the genetic and nongenetic factors that influence epigenetic variation. PMID:26678685

  16. A DNA target of 30 bp is sufficient for RNA-directed DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Pélissier, T; Wassenegger, M

    2000-01-01

    In higher plants, RNA-DNA interactions can trigger de novo methylation of genomic sequences via a process that is termed RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). In potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd)-infected tobacco plants, this process can potentially lead to methylation of all C residues at symmetrical and nonsymmetrical sites within chromosomal inserts that consist of multimers of the 359-bp-long PSTVd cDNA. Using PSTVd cDNA subfragments, we found that genomic targets with as few as 30 nt of sequence complementarity to the viroid RNA are detected and methylated. Genomic sequencing analyses of genome-integrated 30- and 60-bp-long PSTVd subfragments demonstrated that de novo cytosine methylation is not limited to the canonical CpG, CpNpG sites. Sixty-base-pair-long PSTVd cDNA constructs appeared to be densely methylated in nearly all tobacco leaf cells. With the 30-bp-long PSTVd-specific construct, the proportion of cells displaying dense transgene methylation was significantly reduced, suggesting that a minimal target size of about 30 bp is necessary for RdDM. The methylation patterns observed for two different 60-bp constructs further suggested that the sequence identity of the target may influence the methylation mechanism. Finally, a link between viroid pathogenicity and PSTVd RNA-directed methylation of host sequences is proposed. PMID:10668798

  17. DNA methylation: conducting the orchestra from exposure to phenotype?

    PubMed

    Leenen, Fleur A D; Muller, Claude P; Turner, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation, through 5-methyl- and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5mC and 5hmC), is considered to be one of the principal interfaces between the genome and our environment, and it helps explain phenotypic variations in human populations. Initial reports of large differences in methylation level in genomic regulatory regions, coupled with clear gene expression data in both imprinted genes and malignant diseases, provided easily dissected molecular mechanisms for switching genes on or off. However, a more subtle process is becoming evident, where small (<10 %) changes to intermediate methylation levels are associated with complex disease phenotypes. This has resulted in two clear methylation paradigms. The latter "subtle change" paradigm is rapidly becoming the epigenetic hallmark of complex disease phenotypes, although we are currently hampered by a lack of data addressing the true biological significance and meaning of these small differences. Our initial expectation of rapidly identifying mechanisms linking environmental exposure to a disease phenotype led to numerous observational/association studies being performed. Although this expectation remains unmet, there is now a growing body of literature on specific genes, suggesting wide ranging transcriptional and translational consequences of such subtle methylation changes. Data from the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) has shown that a complex interplay between DNA methylation, extensive 5'UTR splicing, and microvariability gives rise to the overall level and relative distribution of total and N-terminal protein isoforms generated. Additionally, the presence of multiple AUG translation initiation codons throughout the complete, processed mRNA enables translation variability, hereby enhancing the translational isoforms and the resulting protein isoform diversity, providing a clear link between small changes in DNA methylation and significant changes in protein isoforms and cellular locations. Methylation changes in

  18. Epigenetic Basis of Regeneration: Analysis of Genomic DNA Methylation Profiles in the MRL/MpJ Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Górnikiewicz, Bartosz; Ronowicz, Anna; Podolak, Justyna; Madanecki, Piotr; Stanisławska-Sachadyn, Anna; Sachadyn, PaweŁ

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation plays essential role in cell differentiation and dedifferentiation, which are the intrinsic processes involved in regeneration. To investigate the epigenetic basis of regeneration capacity, we choose DNA methylation as one of the most important epigenetic mechanisms and the MRL/MpJ mouse as a model of mammalian regeneration known to exhibit enhanced regeneration response in different organs. We report the comparative analysis of genomic DNA methylation profiles of the MRL/MpJ and the control C57BL/6J mouse. Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation followed by microarray analysis using the Nimblegen ‘3 × 720 K CpG Island Plus RefSeq Promoter’ platform was applied in order to carry out genome-wide DNA methylation profiling covering 20 404 promoter regions. We identified hundreds of hypo- and hypermethylated genes and CpG islands in the heart, liver, and spleen, and 37 of them in the three tissues. Decreased inter-tissue diversification and the shift of DNA methylation balance upstream the genes distinguish the genomic methylation patterns of the MRL/MpJ mouse from the C57BL/6J. Homeobox genes and a number of other genes involved in embryonic morphogenesis are significantly overrepresented among the genes hypomethylated in the MRL/MpJ mouse. These findings indicate that epigenetic patterning might be a likely molecular basis of regeneration capability in the MRL/MpJ mouse. PMID:23929942

  19. Global DNA methylation profiling technologies and the ovarian cancer methylome.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jessica; Fang, Fang; Miller, Dave F; Pilrose, Jay M; Matei, Daniela; Huang, Tim Hui-Ming; Nephew, Kenneth P

    2015-01-01

    Cytosine methylation in DNA constitutes an important epigenetic layer of transcriptional and regulatory control in many eukaryotes. Profiling DNA methylation across the genome is critical to understanding the influence of epigenetics in normal biology and disease, such as cancer. Genome-wide analyses such as arrays and next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have been used to assess large fractions of the methylome at a single-base-pair resolution. However, the range of DNA methylation profiling techniques can make selecting the appropriate protocol a challenge. This chapter discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various methylome detection approaches to assess which is appropriate for the question at hand. Here, we focus on four prominent genome-wide approaches: whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS); methyl-binding domain capture sequencing (MBDCap-Seq); reduced-representation-bisulfite-sequencing (RRBS); and Infinium Methylation450 BeadChips (450 K, Illumina). We discuss some of the requirements, merits, and challenges that should be considered when choosing a methylome technology to ensure that it will be informative. In addition, we show how genome-wide methylation detection arrays and high-throughput sequencing have provided immense insight into ovarian cancer-specific methylation signatures that may serve as diagnostic biomarkers or predict patient response to epigenetic therapy. PMID:25421685

  20. Prenatal antiepileptic exposure associates with neonatal DNA methylation differences.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alicia K; Conneely, Karen N; Newport, D Jeffrey; Kilaru, Varun; Schroeder, James W; Pennell, Page B; Knight, Bettina T; Cubells, Joseph C; Stowe, Zachary N; Brennan, Patricia A

    2012-05-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are used to treat a variety of neuropsychiatric illnesses commonly encountered in women during their reproductive years, including epilepsy and bipolar disorder. Despite their widespread use, the impact of prenatal exposure on fetal development remains obscure. To evaluate whether AEDs taken by pregnant mothers influence DNA methylation patterns in their neonates, DNA was extracted from the umbilical cord blood of 201 neonates whose mothers were treated for neuropsychiatric illness during pregnancy and interrogated across 27,578 CpG sites using the Illumina HumanMethylation27 BeadChip. The association of each methylation value with the cumulative duration of prenatal AED exposure was examined using a linear mixed model. The average methylation level across all CpG sites was calculated for each subject, and this global methylation measure was evaluated similarly. Neonates with a longer duration of AED exposure in pregnancy showed a decrease in average global methylation (p = 0.0045). Further, DNA methylation of CpG sites in 14 genes significantly decreased with the duration of prenatal AED exposure even after adjusting for multiple comparisons (FDR < 0.05). For a small subset (n = 19) of these neonates, a second tissue, placenta, was available in addition to cord blood. Methylation of 3 of these 14 CpG sites was also significantly decreased in placental tissue. These novel data suggest decreased DNA methylation in neonates of mothers who took AEDs during pregnancy. The long-term stability and potential impact of these changes warrant further attention, and caution may be warranted before prescribing AEDs to pregnant women. PMID:22419127

  1. The Potential Role of DNA Methylation in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Ryer, Evan J.; Ronning, Kaitryn E.; Erdman, Robert; Schworer, Charles M.; Elmore, James R.; Peeler, Thomas C.; Nevius, Christopher D.; Lillvis, John H.; Garvin, Robert P.; Franklin, David P.; Kuivaniemi, Helena; Tromp, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a complex disorder that has a significant impact on the aging population. While both genetic and environmental risk factors have been implicated in AAA formation, the precise genetic markers involved and the factors influencing their expression remain an area of ongoing investigation. DNA methylation has been previously used to study gene silencing in other inflammatory disorders and since AAA has an extensive inflammatory component, we sought to examine the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in mononuclear blood cells of AAA cases and matched non-AAA controls. To this end, we collected blood samples and isolated mononuclear cells for DNA and RNA extraction from four all male groups: AAA smokers (n = 11), AAA non-smokers (n = 9), control smokers (n = 10) and control non-smokers (n = 11). Methylation data were obtained using the Illumina 450k Human Methylation Bead Chip and analyzed using the R language and multiple Bioconductor packages. Principal component analysis and linear analysis of CpG island subsets identified four regions with significant differences in methylation with respect to AAA: kelch-like family member 35 (KLHL35), calponin 2 (CNN2), serpin peptidase inhibitor clade B (ovalbumin) member 9 (SERPINB9), and adenylate cyclase 10 pseudogene 1 (ADCY10P1). Follow-up studies included RT-PCR and immunostaining for CNN2 and SERPINB9. These findings are novel and suggest DNA methylation may play a role in AAA pathobiology. PMID:25993294

  2. Associations between Serum Perfluoroalkyl Acids and LINE-1 DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Deborah J.; Wellenius, Gregory A.; Butler, Rondi A.; Bartell, Scott M.; Fletcher, Tony; Kelsey, Karl T.

    2014-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are persistent, synthetic compounds that are used in a number of consumer products. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been associated with cardiovascular risk factors, and changes in gene expression and DNA methylation in animals and cellular systems. However, whether PFAA exposure is associated with LINE-1 DNA methylation, a potential marker of cardiovascular risk, in humans remains unknown. We sought to evaluate the cross-sectional associations between serum PFAAs and LINE-1 DNA methylation in a population highly exposed to PFOA. We measured serum PFAAs twice four to five years apart in 685 adult participants (47% male, mean age ± SD=42 ± 11 years). We measured percent LINE-1 DNA methylation in peripheral blood leukocytes at the second time point (follow-up), and estimated absolute differences in LINE-1 methylation associated with an interquartile (IQR) shift in mean PFAA serum levels. IQR increases in mean serum PFOA, PFOS, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) were associated with differences of −0.04 (p=0.16), 0.20 (p=0.001), 0.06 (p=0.19), and 0.02 (p=0.57), respectively, in % LINE-1 methylation at follow-up after adjustment for potential confounders. We observed a monotonic increase in LINE-1 DNA methylation across tertiles of PFOS and PFNA (ptrend=0.02 for both associations), but not across tertiles of PFOA or PFHxS (ptrend=0.71 and 0.44, respectively). In summary, serum PFOS was associated with LINE-1 methylation, while serum PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA were not. Additional research is needed to more precisely determine whether these compounds are epigenetically active. PMID:24263140

  3. Accounting for population stratification in DNA methylation studies.

    PubMed

    Barfield, Richard T; Almli, Lynn M; Kilaru, Varun; Smith, Alicia K; Mercer, Kristina B; Duncan, Richard; Klengel, Torsten; Mehta, Divya; Binder, Elisabeth B; Epstein, Michael P; Ressler, Kerry J; Conneely, Karen N

    2014-04-01

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism that has been linked to complex diseases and is of great interest to researchers as a potential link between genome, environment, and disease. As the scale of DNA methylation association studies approaches that of genome-wide association studies, issues such as population stratification will need to be addressed. It is well-documented that failure to adjust for population stratification can lead to false positives in genetic association studies, but population stratification is often unaccounted for in DNA methylation studies. Here, we propose several approaches to correct for population stratification using principal components (PCs) from different subsets of genome-wide methylation data. We first illustrate the potential for confounding due to population stratification by demonstrating widespread associations between DNA methylation and race in 388 individuals (365 African American and 23 Caucasian). We subsequently evaluate the performance of our PC-based approaches and other methods in adjusting for confounding due to population stratification. Our simulations show that (1) all of the methods considered are effective at removing inflation due to population stratification, and (2) maximum power can be obtained with single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based PCs, followed by methylation-based PCs, which outperform both surrogate variable analysis and genomic control. Among our different approaches to computing methylation-based PCs, we find that PCs based on CpG sites chosen for their potential to proxy nearby SNPs can provide a powerful and computationally efficient approach to adjust for population stratification in DNA methylation studies when genome-wide SNP data are unavailable. PMID:24478250

  4. Allele-specific DNA methylation reinforces PEAR1 enhancer activity.

    PubMed

    Izzi, Benedetta; Pistoni, Mariaelena; Cludts, Katrien; Akkor, Pinar; Lambrechts, Diether; Verfaillie, Catherine; Verhamme, Peter; Freson, Kathleen; Hoylaerts, Marc F

    2016-08-18

    Genetic variation in the PEAR1 locus is linked to platelet reactivity and cardiovascular disease. The major G allele of rs12041331, an intronic cytosine guanine dinucleotide-single-nucleotide polymorphism (CpG-SNP), is associated with higher PEAR1 expression in platelets and endothelial cells than the minor A allele. The molecular mechanism underlying this difference remains elusive. We have characterized the histone modification profiles of the intronic region surrounding rs12041331 and identified H3K4Me1 enhancer-specific enrichment for the region that covers the CpG-SNP. Interestingly, methylation studies revealed that the CpG site is fully methylated in leukocytes of GG carriers. Nuclear protein extracts from megakaryocytes, endothelial cells, vs control HEK-293 cells show a 3-fold higher affinity for the methylated G allele compared with nonmethylated G or A alleles in a gel electrophoretic mobility shift assay. To understand the positive relationship between methylation and gene expression, we studied DNA methylation at 4 different loci of PEAR1 during in vitro megakaryopoiesis. During differentiation, the CpG-SNP remained fully methylated, while we observed rapid methylation increases at the CpG-island overlapping the first 5'-untranslated region exon, paralleling the increased PEAR1 expression. In the same region, A-allele carriers of rs12041331 showed significantly lower DNA methylation at CGI1 compared with GG homozygote. This CpG-island contains binding sites for the methylation-sensitive transcription factor CTCF, whose binding is known to play a role in enhancer activation and/or repression. In conclusion, we report the molecular characterization of the first platelet function-related CpG-SNP, a genetic predisposition that reinforces PEAR1 enhancer activity through allele-specific DNA methylation. PMID:27313330

  5. Salt stress alters DNA methylation levels in alfalfa (Medicago spp).

    PubMed

    Al-Lawati, A; Al-Bahry, S; Victor, R; Al-Lawati, A H; Yaish, M W

    2016-01-01

    Modification of DNA methylation status is one of the mechanisms used by plants to adjust gene expression at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels when plants are exposed to suboptimal conditions. Under abiotic stress, different cultivars often show heritable phenotypic variation accompanied by epigenetic polymorphisms at the DNA methylation level. This variation may provide the raw materials for plant breeding programs that aim to enhance abiotic stress tolerance, including salt tolerance. In this study, methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis was used to assess cytosine methylation levels in alfalfa (Medicago spp) roots exposed to increasing NaCl concentrations (0.0, 8.0, 12.0, and 20.0 dS/m). Eleven indigenous landraces were analyzed, in addition to a salt-tolerant cultivar that was used as a control. There was a slight increase in DNA methylation upon exposure to high levels of soil salinity. Phylogenetic analysis using MSAP showed epigenetic variation within and between the alfalfa landraces when exposed to saline conditions. Based on MSAP and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results, we found that salinity increased global DNA methylation status, particularly in plants exposed to the highest level of salinity (20 dS/m). Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction indicated that this might be mediated by the overexpression of methyltransferase homolog genes after exposure to saline conditions. DNA demethylation using 5-azacytidine reduced seedling lengths and dry and fresh weights, indicating a possible decrease in salinity tolerance. These results suggest that salinity affects DNA methylation flexibility. PMID:26985924

  6. Extra-coding RNAs regulate neuronal DNA methylation dynamics.

    PubMed

    Savell, Katherine E; Gallus, Nancy V N; Simon, Rhiana C; Brown, Jordan A; Revanna, Jasmin S; Osborn, Mary Katherine; Song, Esther Y; O'Malley, John J; Stackhouse, Christian T; Norvil, Allison; Gowher, Humaira; Sweatt, J David; Day, Jeremy J

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation are essential regulators of the function and information storage capacity of neurons. DNA methylation is highly dynamic in the developing and adult brain, and is actively regulated by neuronal activity and behavioural experiences. However, it is presently unclear how methylation status at individual genes is targeted for modification. Here, we report that extra-coding RNAs (ecRNAs) interact with DNA methyltransferases and regulate neuronal DNA methylation. Expression of ecRNA species is associated with gene promoter hypomethylation, is altered by neuronal activity, and is overrepresented at genes involved in neuronal function. Knockdown of the Fos ecRNA locus results in gene hypermethylation and mRNA silencing, and hippocampal expression of Fos ecRNA is required for long-term fear memory formation in rats. These results suggest that ecRNAs are fundamental regulators of DNA methylation patterns in neuronal systems, and reveal a promising avenue for therapeutic targeting in neuropsychiatric disease states. PMID:27384705

  7. Extra-coding RNAs regulate neuronal DNA methylation dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Savell, Katherine E.; Gallus, Nancy V. N.; Simon, Rhiana C.; Brown, Jordan A.; Revanna, Jasmin S.; Osborn, Mary Katherine; Song, Esther Y.; O'Malley, John J.; Stackhouse, Christian T.; Norvil, Allison; Gowher, Humaira; Sweatt, J. David; Day, Jeremy J.

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation are essential regulators of the function and information storage capacity of neurons. DNA methylation is highly dynamic in the developing and adult brain, and is actively regulated by neuronal activity and behavioural experiences. However, it is presently unclear how methylation status at individual genes is targeted for modification. Here, we report that extra-coding RNAs (ecRNAs) interact with DNA methyltransferases and regulate neuronal DNA methylation. Expression of ecRNA species is associated with gene promoter hypomethylation, is altered by neuronal activity, and is overrepresented at genes involved in neuronal function. Knockdown of the Fos ecRNA locus results in gene hypermethylation and mRNA silencing, and hippocampal expression of Fos ecRNA is required for long-term fear memory formation in rats. These results suggest that ecRNAs are fundamental regulators of DNA methylation patterns in neuronal systems, and reveal a promising avenue for therapeutic targeting in neuropsychiatric disease states. PMID:27384705

  8. DNA methylation perspectives in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bao; Hu, Lei; Luo, Zhi-Ying; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Zhang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    DNA methylation is now widely recognized as being critical to maintain the function of immune cells. Recent studies suggest that aberrant DNA methylation levels not only can result in immune cells autoreactivity in vitro, but also are related to autoimmunity in vivo. Environmental factors and genetic polymorphisms cause abnormal methylation, which affects the expression of certain immune-related genes, being becoming hot spot of explaining the mechanism of autoimmune diseases. This paper reviews the importance of abnormal methylation during the development of common autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes, aiming at a better understanding of the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and providing new ideas for the treatment of these diseases. PMID:26821302

  9. Non-symmetrical cytosine methylation in tobacco pollen DNA.

    PubMed

    Oakeley, E J; Jost, J P

    1996-07-01

    We have detected sequence-specific non-symmetrical cytosine methylation within a 140 bp region of the promoter for the tobacco auxin-binding protein gene T85 in pollen DNA. Direct sequencing of the population of bisulphite reaction products showed that, in this region. 10 out of a possible 49 cytosine residues were methylated at a high frequency in pollen whereas the corresponding region from somatic cells (leaf DNA) did not show a detectable level of methylation. The context of these sites was 1 x m5CpTpC, 1 x m5CpGpT, 1 x m5CpCpT, 2 x m5CpTpT, 2 x m5CpGpG, and 3 x m5CpApT of which only m5CpGpG and m5CpGpT fitted the consensus sequence for symmetrical methylation in plants. PMID:8806424

  10. Predicting DNA methylation level across human tissues

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Baoshan; Wilker, Elissa H.; Willis-Owen, Saffron A. G.; Byun, Hyang-Min; Wong, Kenny C. C.; Motta, Valeria; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Schwartz, Joel; Cookson, William O. C. M.; Khabbaz, Kamal; Mittleman, Murray A.; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Liang, Liming

    2014-01-01

    Differences in methylation across tissues are critical to cell differentiation and are key to understanding the role of epigenetics in complex diseases. In this investigation, we found that locus-specific methylation differences between tissues are highly consistent across individuals. We developed a novel statistical model to predict locus-specific methylation in target tissue based on methylation in surrogate tissue. The method was evaluated in publicly available data and in two studies using the latest IlluminaBeadChips: a childhood asthma study with methylation measured in both peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and lymphoblastoid cell lines; and a study of postoperative atrial fibrillation with methylation in PBL, atrium and artery. We found that our method can greatly improve accuracy of cross-tissue prediction at CpG sites that are variable in the target tissue [R2 increases from 0.38 (original R2 between tissues) to 0.89 for PBL-to-artery prediction; from 0.39 to 0.95 for PBL-to-atrium; and from 0.81 to 0.98 for lymphoblastoid cell line-to-PBL based on cross-validation, and confirmed using cross-study prediction]. An extended model with multiple CpGs further improved performance. Our results suggest that large-scale epidemiology studies using easy-to-access surrogate tissues (e.g. blood) could be recalibrated to improve understanding of epigenetics in hard-to-access tissues (e.g. atrium) and might enable non-invasive disease screening using epigenetic profiles. PMID:24445802

  11. Predicting DNA methylation level across human tissues.

    PubMed

    Ma, Baoshan; Wilker, Elissa H; Willis-Owen, Saffron A G; Byun, Hyang-Min; Wong, Kenny C C; Motta, Valeria; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Schwartz, Joel; Cookson, William O C M; Khabbaz, Kamal; Mittleman, Murray A; Moffatt, Miriam F; Liang, Liming

    2014-04-01

    Differences in methylation across tissues are critical to cell differentiation and are key to understanding the role of epigenetics in complex diseases. In this investigation, we found that locus-specific methylation differences between tissues are highly consistent across individuals. We developed a novel statistical model to predict locus-specific methylation in target tissue based on methylation in surrogate tissue. The method was evaluated in publicly available data and in two studies using the latest IlluminaBeadChips: a childhood asthma study with methylation measured in both peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and lymphoblastoid cell lines; and a study of postoperative atrial fibrillation with methylation in PBL, atrium and artery. We found that our method can greatly improve accuracy of cross-tissue prediction at CpG sites that are variable in the target tissue [R(2) increases from 0.38 (original R(2) between tissues) to 0.89 for PBL-to-artery prediction; from 0.39 to 0.95 for PBL-to-atrium; and from 0.81 to 0.98 for lymphoblastoid cell line-to-PBL based on cross-validation, and confirmed using cross-study prediction]. An extended model with multiple CpGs further improved performance. Our results suggest that large-scale epidemiology studies using easy-to-access surrogate tissues (e.g. blood) could be recalibrated to improve understanding of epigenetics in hard-to-access tissues (e.g. atrium) and might enable non-invasive disease screening using epigenetic profiles. PMID:24445802

  12. DNA methylation dynamics in plants and mammals: overview of regulation and dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Elhamamsy, Amr Rafat

    2016-07-01

    DNA methylation is a major epigenetic marking mechanism regulating various biological functions in mammals and plant. The crucial role of DNA methylation has been observed in cellular differentiation, embryogenesis, genomic imprinting and X-chromosome inactivation. Furthermore, DNA methylation takes part in disease susceptibility, responses to environmental stimuli and the biodiversity of natural populations. In plant, different types of environmental stress have demonstrated the ability to alter the archetype of DNA methylation through the genome, change gene expression and confer a mechanism of adaptation. DNA methylation dynamics are regulated by three processes de novo DNA methylation, methylation maintenance and DNA demethylation. These processes have their similarities and differences between mammals and plants. Furthermore, the dysregulation of DNA methylation dynamics represents one of the primary molecular mechanisms of developing diseases in mammals. This review discusses the regulation and dysregulation of DNA methylation in plants and mammals. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27003927

  13. High-frequency aberrantly methylated targets in pancreatic adenocarcinoma identified via global DNA methylation analysis using methylCap-seq

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Extensive reprogramming and dysregulation of DNA methylation is an important characteristic of pancreatic cancer (PC). Our study aimed to characterize the genomic methylation patterns in various genomic contexts of PC. The methyl capture sequencing (methylCap-seq) method was used to map differently methylated regions (DMRs) in pooled samples from ten PC tissues and ten adjacent non-tumor (PN) tissues. A selection of DMRs was validated in an independent set of PC and PN samples using methylation-specific PCR (MSP), bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP), and methylation sensitive restriction enzyme-based qPCR (MSRE-qPCR). The mRNA and expressed sequence tag (EST) expression of the corresponding genes was investigated using RT-qPCR. Results A total of 1,131 PC-specific and 727 PN-specific hypermethylated DMRs were identified in association with CpG islands (CGIs), including gene-associated CGIs and orphan CGIs; 2,955 PC-specific and 2,386 PN-specific hypermethylated DMRs were associated with gene promoters, including promoters containing or lacking CGIs. Moreover, 1,744 PC-specific and 1,488 PN-specific hypermethylated DMRs were found to be associated with CGIs or CGI shores. These results suggested that aberrant hypermethylation in PC typically occurs in regions surrounding the transcription start site (TSS). The BSP, MSP, MSRE-qPCR, and RT-qPCR data indicated that the aberrant DNA methylation in PC tissue and in PC cell lines was associated with gene (or corresponding EST) expression. Conclusions Our study characterized the genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in PC and identified DMRs that were distributed among various genomic contexts that might influence the expression of corresponding genes or transcripts to promote PC. These DMRs might serve as diagnostic biomarkers or therapeutic targets for PC. PMID:25276247

  14. Mitochondrial regulation of cancer associated nuclear DNA methylation

    SciTech Connect

    Xie Chenghui; Naito, Akihiro; Mizumachi, Takatsugu; Evans, Teresa T.; Douglas, Michael G.; Cooney, Craig A.; Fan Chunyang; Higuchi, Masahiro

    2007-12-21

    The onset and progression of cancer is associated with the methylation-dependent silencing of specific genes, however, the mechanism and its regulation have not been established. We previously demonstrated that reduction of mitochondrial DNA content induces cancer progression. Here we found that mitochondrial DNA-deficient LN{rho}0-8 activates the hypermethylation of the nuclear DNA promoters including the promoter CpG islands of the endothelin B receptor, O{sup 6}-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, and E-cadherin. These are unmethylated and the corresponding gene products are expressed in the parental LNCaP containing mitochondrial DNA. The absence of mitochondrial DNA induced DNA methyltransferase 1 expression which was responsible for the methylation patterns observed. Inhibition of DNA methyltransferase eliminated hypermethylation and expressed gene products in LN{rho}0-8. These studies demonstrate loss or reduction of mitochondrial DNA resulted in the induction of DNA methyltransferase 1, hypermethylation of the promoters of endothelin B receptor, O{sup 6}-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, and E-cadherin, and reduction of the corresponding gene products.

  15. Cytosine methylation of sperm DNA in horse semen after cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Aurich, Christine; Schreiner, Bettina; Ille, Natascha; Alvarenga, Marco; Scarlet, Dragos

    2016-09-15

    Semen processing may contribute to epigenetic changes in spermatozoa. We have therefore addressed changes in sperm DNA cytosine methylation induced by cryopreservation of stallion semen. The relative amount of 5-methylcytosine relative to the genomic cytosine content of sperm DNA was analyzed by ELISA. In experiment 1, raw semen (n = 6 stallions, one ejaculate each) was shock-frozen. Postthaw semen motility and membrane integrity were completely absent, whereas DNA methylation was similar in raw (0.4 ± 0.2%) and shock-frozen (0.3 ± 0.1%) semen (not significant). In experiment 2, three ejaculates per stallion (n = 6) were included. Semen quality and DNA methylation was assessed before addition of the freezing extender and after freezing-thawing with either Ghent (G) or BotuCrio (BC) extender. Semen motility, morphology, and membrane integrity were significantly reduced by cryopreservation but not influenced by the extender (e.g., total motility: G 69.5 ± 2.0, BC 68.4 ± 2.2%; P < 0.001 vs. centrifugation). Cryopreservation significantly (P < 0.01) increased the level of DNA methylation (before freezing 0.6 ± 0.1%, postthaw G 6.4 ± 3.7, BC 4.4 ± 1.5%; P < 0.01), but no differences between the freezing extenders were seen. The level of DNA methylation was not correlated to semen motility, morphology, or membrane integrity. The results demonstrate that semen processing for cryopreservation increases the DNA methylation level in stallion semen. We conclude that assessment of sperm DNA methylation allows for evaluation of an additional parameter characterizing semen quality. The lower fertility rates of mares after insemination with frozen-thawed semen may at least in part be explained by cytosine methylation of sperm-DNA induced by the cryopreservation procedure. PMID:27242182

  16. RNA-directed DNA methylation and demethylation in plants

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, CHINNUSAMY; Jian-Kang, ZHU

    2011-01-01

    RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) is a nuclear process in which small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) direct the cytosine methylation of DNA sequences that are complementary to the siRNAs. In plants, double stranded-RNAs (dsRNAs) generated by RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 2 (RDR2) serve as precursors for Dicer-like 3 dependent biogenesis of 24-nt siRNAs. Plant specific RNA polymerase IV (Pol IV) is presumed to generate the initial RNA transcripts that are substrates for RDR2. siRNAs are loaded onto an argonaute4-containing RISC (RNA-induced silencing complex) that targets the de novo DNA methyltransferase DRM2 to RdDM target loci. Nascent RNA transcripts from the target loci are generated by another plant-specific RNA polymerase, Pol V, and these transcripts help recruit complementary siRNAs and the associated RdDM effector complex to the target loci in a transcription-coupled DNA methylation process. Small RNA binding proteins such as ROS3 may direct target-specific DNA demethylation by the ROS1 family of DNA demethylases. Chromatin remodeling enzymes and histone modifying enzymes also participate in DNA methylation and possibly demethylation. One of the well studied functions of RdDM is transposon silencing and genome stability. In addition, RdDM is important for paramutation, imprinting, gene regulation, and plant development. Locus-specific DNA methylation and demethylation, and transposon activation under abiotic stresses suggest that RdDM is also important in stress responses of plants. Further studies will help illuminate the functions of RdDM in the dynamic control of epigenomes during development and environmental stress responses. PMID:19381459

  17. The DNA methylation profile of activated human natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Wiencke, John K; Butler, Rondi; Hsuang, George; Eliot, Melissa; Kim, Stephanie; Sepulveda, Manuel A; Siegel, Derick; Houseman, E Andres; Kelsey, Karl T

    2016-05-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are now recognized to exhibit characteristics akin to cells of the adaptive immune system. The generation of adaptive memory is linked to epigenetic reprogramming including alterations in DNA methylation. The study herein found reproducible genome wide DNA methylation changes associated with human NK cell activation. Activation led predominately to CpG hypomethylation (81% of significant loci). Bioinformatics analysis confirmed that non-coding and gene-associated differentially methylated sites (DMS) are enriched for immune related functions (i.e., immune cell activation). Known DNA methylation-regulated immune loci were also identified in activated NK cells (e.g., TNFA, LTA, IL13, CSF2). Twenty-one loci were designated high priority and further investigated as potential markers of NK activation. BHLHE40 was identified as a viable candidate for which a droplet digital PCR assay for demethylation was developed. The assay revealed high demethylation in activated NK cells and low demethylation in naïve NK, T- and B-cells. We conclude the NK cell methylome is plastic with potential for remodeling. The differentially methylated region signature of activated NKs revealed similarities with T cell activation, but also provided unique biomarker candidates of NK activation, which could be useful in epigenome-wide association studies to interrogate the role of NK subtypes in global methylation changes associated with exposures and/or disease states. PMID:26967308

  18. DNA methylation age of human tissues and cell types

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is not yet known whether DNA methylation levels can be used to accurately predict age across a broad spectrum of human tissues and cell types, nor whether the resulting age prediction is a biologically meaningful measure. Results I developed a multi-tissue predictor of age that allows one to estimate the DNA methylation age of most tissues and cell types. The predictor, which is freely available, was developed using 8,000 samples from 82 Illumina DNA methylation array datasets, encompassing 51 healthy tissues and cell types. I found that DNA methylation age has the following properties: first, it is close to zero for embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells; second, it correlates with cell passage number; third, it gives rise to a highly heritable measure of age acceleration; and, fourth, it is applicable to chimpanzee tissues. Analysis of 6,000 cancer samples from 32 datasets showed that all of the considered 20 cancer types exhibit significant age acceleration, with an average of 36 years. Low age-acceleration of cancer tissue is associated with a high number of somatic mutations and TP53 mutations, while mutations in steroid receptors greatly accelerate DNA methylation age in breast cancer. Finally, I characterize the 353 CpG sites that together form an aging clock in terms of chromatin states and tissue variance. Conclusions I propose that DNA methylation age measures the cumulative effect of an epigenetic maintenance system. This novel epigenetic clock can be used to address a host of questions in developmental biology, cancer and aging research. PMID:24138928

  19. Utilizing Gold Nanoparticle Probes to Visually Detect DNA Methylation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kui; Zhang, Mingyi; Chang, Ya-Nan; Xia, Lin; Gu, Weihong; Qin, Yanxia; Li, Juan; Cui, Suxia; Xing, Gengmei

    2016-12-01

    The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect endows gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with the ability to visualize biomolecules. In the present study, we designed and constructed a GNP probe to allow the semi-quantitative analysis of methylated tumor suppressor genes in cultured cells. To construct the probe, the GNP surfaces were coated with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) by forming Au-S bonds. The ssDNA contains a thiolated 5'-end, a regulatory domain of 12 adenine nucleotides, and a functional domain with absolute pairing with methylated p16 sequence (Met-p16). The probe, paired with Met-p16, clearly changed the color of aggregating GNPs probe in 5 mol/L NaCl solution. Utilizing the probe, p16 gene methylation in HCT116 cells was semi-quantified. Further, the methylation of E-cadherin, p15, and p16 gene in Caco2, HepG2, and HCT116 cell lines were detected by the corresponding probes, constructed with three domains. This simple and cost-effective method was useful for the diagnosis of DNA methylation-related diseases. PMID:27325520

  20. Utilizing Gold Nanoparticle Probes to Visually Detect DNA Methylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kui; Zhang, Mingyi; Chang, Ya-Nan; Xia, Lin; Gu, Weihong; Qin, Yanxia; Li, Juan; Cui, Suxia; Xing, Gengmei

    2016-06-01

    The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect endows gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with the ability to visualize biomolecules. In the present study, we designed and constructed a GNP probe to allow the semi-quantitative analysis of methylated tumor suppressor genes in cultured cells. To construct the probe, the GNP surfaces were coated with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) by forming Au-S bonds. The ssDNA contains a thiolated 5'-end, a regulatory domain of 12 adenine nucleotides, and a functional domain with absolute pairing with methylated p16 sequence (Met- p16). The probe, paired with Met- p16, clearly changed the color of aggregating GNPs probe in 5 mol/L NaCl solution. Utilizing the probe, p16 gene methylation in HCT116 cells was semi-quantified. Further, the methylation of E-cadherin, p15, and p16 gene in Caco2, HepG2, and HCT116 cell lines were detected by the corresponding probes, constructed with three domains. This simple and cost-effective method was useful for the diagnosis of DNA methylation-related diseases.

  1. DNA methylation is stable during replication and cell cycle arrest

    PubMed Central

    Vandiver, Amy R.; Idrizi, Adrian; Rizzardi, Lindsay; Feinberg, Andrew P.; Hansen, Kasper D.

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification with important functions in development. Large-scale loss of DNA methylation is a hallmark of cancer. Recent work has identified large genomic blocks of hypomethylation associated with cancer, EBV transformation and replicative senescence, all of which change the proportion of actively proliferating cells within the population measured. We asked if replication or cell-cycle arrest affects the global levels of methylation or leads to hypomethylated blocks as observed in other settings. We used fluorescence activated cell sorting to isolate primary dermal fibroblasts in G0, G1 and G2 based on DNA content and Ki67 staining. We additionally examined G0 cells arrested by contact inhibition for one week to determine the effects of extended arrest. We analyzed genome wide DNA methylation from sorted cells using whole genome bisulfite sequencing. This analysis demonstrated no global changes or large-scale hypomethylated blocks in any of the examined cell cycle phases, indicating that global levels of methylation are stable with replication and arrest. PMID:26648411

  2. Differential DNA Methylation Analysis without a Reference Genome

    PubMed Central

    Klughammer, Johanna; Datlinger, Paul; Printz, Dieter; Sheffield, Nathan C.; Farlik, Matthias; Hadler, Johanna; Fritsch, Gerhard; Bock, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Summary Genome-wide DNA methylation mapping uncovers epigenetic changes associated with animal development, environmental adaptation, and species evolution. To address the lack of high-throughput methods for DNA methylation analysis in non-model organisms, we developed an integrated approach for studying DNA methylation differences independent of a reference genome. Experimentally, our method relies on an optimized 96-well protocol for reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS), which we have validated in nine species (human, mouse, rat, cow, dog, chicken, carp, sea bass, and zebrafish). Bioinformatically, we developed the RefFreeDMA software to deduce ad hoc genomes directly from RRBS reads and to pinpoint differentially methylated regions between samples or groups of individuals (http://RefFreeDMA.computational-epigenetics.org). The identified regions are interpreted using motif enrichment analysis and/or cross-mapping to annotated genomes. We validated our method by reference-free analysis of cell-type-specific DNA methylation in the blood of human, cow, and carp. In summary, we present a cost-effective method for epigenome analysis in ecology and evolution, which enables epigenome-wide association studies in natural populations and species without a reference genome. PMID:26673328

  3. Genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in LSH mutant reveals de-repression of repeat elements and redundant epigenetic silencing pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Weishi; McIntosh, Carl; Lister, Ryan; Zhu, Iris; Han, Yixing; Ren, Jianke; Landsman, David; Lee, Eunice; Briones, Victorino; Terashima, Minoru; Leighty, Robert; Ecker, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Cytosine methylation is critical in mammalian development and plays a role in diverse biologic processes such as genomic imprinting, X chromosome inactivation, and silencing of repeat elements. Several factors regulate DNA methylation in early embryogenesis, but their precise role in the establishment of DNA methylation at a given site remains unclear. We have generated a comprehensive methylation map in fibroblasts derived from the murine DNA methylation mutant Hells−/− (helicase, lymphoid specific, also known as LSH). It has been previously shown that HELLS can influence de novo methylation of retroviral sequences and endogenous genes. Here, we describe that HELLS controls cytosine methylation in a nuclear compartment that is in part defined by lamin B1 attachment regions. Despite widespread loss of cytosine methylation at regulatory sequences, including promoter regions of protein-coding genes and noncoding RNA genes, overall relative transcript abundance levels in the absence of HELLS are similar to those in wild-type cells. A subset of promoter regions shows increases of the histone modification H3K27me3, suggesting redundancy of epigenetic silencing mechanisms. Furthermore, HELLS modulates CG methylation at all classes of repeat elements and is critical for repression of a subset of repeat elements. Overall, we provide a detailed analysis of gene expression changes in relation to DNA methylation alterations, which contributes to our understanding of the biological role of cytosine methylation. PMID:25170028

  4. Conceptual links between DNA methylation reprogramming in the early embryo and primordial germ cells.

    PubMed

    Seisenberger, Stefanie; Peat, Julian R; Reik, Wolf

    2013-06-01

    DNA methylation is a carrier of important regulatory information that undergoes global reprogramming in the mammalian germ line, including pre-implantation embryos and primordial germ cells (PGCs). A flurry of recent studies have employed technical advances to generate global profiles of methylation and hydroxymethylation in these cells, unravelling the dynamics of methylation erasure at single locus resolution. Active demethylation in the zygote, involving extensive oxidation, is followed by passive loss over early cell divisions. Certain gamete-contributed methylation marks appear to have evolved non-canonical mechanisms for targeted maintenance of methylation in the face of these processes. These protected sequences include the imprinting control regions (ICRs) required for parental imprinting but also a surprising number of other regions. Such targeted maintenance mechanisms may also operate at certain sequences during early PGC migration when global passive demethylation occurs. In later gonadal PGCs, imprints must be reset and this may be achieved through the targeting of active mechanisms including oxidation. Thus, emerging evidence paints a complex picture whereby active and passive demethylation pathways operate synergistically and in parallel to ensure robust erasure in the early embryo and PGCs. PMID:23510682

  5. Genome-wide Mapping of Nucleosome Positioning and DNA Methylation Within Individual DNA Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yaping; Lay, Fides D.; Liang, Gangning; Berman, Benjamin P.; Jones, Peter A.; Kelly, Terry

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation and nucleosome positioning work together to generate chromatin structures that regulate gene expression. Nucleosomes are typically mapped using nuclease digestion requiring significant amounts of material and varying enzyme concentrations. We have developed a method that uses a GpC methyltransferase (M.CviPI) and next generation sequencing to footprint nucleosome positioning genome-wide using less than 1 million cells, which does not suffer from sequence based biases associated with MNase digestion and retains endogenous DNA methylation information. Using a novel bioinformatics pipeline we identify chromatin configurations associated with a variety of functional genomic loci including distinct promoter types, enhancers, insulators, X-inactivated and imprinted genes. Importantly, DNA methylation and nucleosome positioning information are obtained from the same DNA molecule, giving the first genome-wide DNA methylation and nucleosome positioning correlation at the single molecule level that can be used to monitor disease progression and response to therapy.

  6. DamID-seq: Genome-wide Mapping of Protein-DNA Interactions by High Throughput Sequencing of Adenine-methylated DNA Fragments.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feinan; Olson, Brennan G; Yao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The DNA adenine methyltransferase identification (DamID) assay is a powerful method to detect protein-DNA interactions both locally and genome-wide. It is an alternative approach to chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). An expressed fusion protein consisting of the protein of interest and the E. coli DNA adenine methyltransferase can methylate the adenine base in GATC motifs near the sites of protein-DNA interactions. Adenine-methylated DNA fragments can then be specifically amplified and detected. The original DamID assay detects the genomic locations of methylated DNA fragments by hybridization to DNA microarrays, which is limited by the availability of microarrays and the density of predetermined probes. In this paper, we report the detailed protocol of integrating high throughput DNA sequencing into DamID (DamID-seq). The large number of short reads generated from DamID-seq enables detecting and localizing protein-DNA interactions genome-wide with high precision and sensitivity. We have used the DamID-seq assay to study genome-nuclear lamina (NL) interactions in mammalian cells, and have noticed that DamID-seq provides a high resolution and a wide dynamic range in detecting genome-NL interactions. The DamID-seq approach enables probing NL associations within gene structures and allows comparing genome-NL interaction maps with other functional genomic data, such as ChIP-seq and RNA-seq. PMID:26862720

  7. Comprehensive Analysis of DNA Methylation Data with RnBeads

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Jörn; Lengauer, Thomas; Bock, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    RnBeads is a software tool for large-scale analysis and interpretation of DNA methylation data, providing a user-friendly analysis workflow that yields detailed hypertext reports (http://rnbeads.mpi-inf.mpg.de). Supported assays include whole genome bisulfite sequencing, reduced representation bisulfite sequencing, Infinium microarrays, and any other protocol that produces high-resolution DNA methylation data. Important applications of RnBeads include the analysis of epigenome-wide association studies and epigenetic biomarker discovery in cancer cohorts. PMID:25262207

  8. VEZF1 Elements Mediate Protection from DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Strogantsev, Ruslan; Gaszner, Miklos; Hair, Alan; Felsenfeld, Gary; West, Adam G.

    2010-01-01

    There is growing consensus that genome organization and long-range gene regulation involves partitioning of the genome into domains of distinct epigenetic chromatin states. Chromatin insulator or barrier elements are key components of these processes as they can establish boundaries between chromatin states. The ability of elements such as the paradigm β-globin HS4 insulator to block the range of enhancers or the spread of repressive histone modifications is well established. Here we have addressed the hypothesis that a barrier element in vertebrates should be capable of defending a gene from silencing by DNA methylation. Using an established stable reporter gene system, we find that HS4 acts specifically to protect a gene promoter from de novo DNA methylation. Notably, protection from methylation can occur in the absence of histone acetylation or transcription. There is a division of labor at HS4; the sequences that mediate protection from methylation are separable from those that mediate CTCF-dependent enhancer blocking and USF-dependent histone modification recruitment. The zinc finger protein VEZF1 was purified as the factor that specifically interacts with the methylation protection elements. VEZF1 is a candidate CpG island protection factor as the G-rich sequences bound by VEZF1 are frequently found at CpG island promoters. Indeed, we show that VEZF1 elements are sufficient to mediate demethylation and protection of the APRT CpG island promoter from DNA methylation. We propose that many barrier elements in vertebrates will prevent DNA methylation in addition to blocking the propagation of repressive histone modifications, as either process is sufficient to direct the establishment of an epigenetically stable silent chromatin state. PMID:20062523

  9. DNA methylation presents distinct binding sites for human transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shaohui; Wan, Jun; Su, Yijing; Song, Qifeng; Zeng, Yaxue; Nguyen, Ha Nam; Shin, Jaehoon; Cox, Eric; Rho, Hee Sool; Woodard, Crystal; Xia, Shuli; Liu, Shuang; Lyu, Huibin; Ming, Guo-Li; Wade, Herschel; Song, Hongjun; Qian, Jiang; Zhu, Heng

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation, especially CpG methylation at promoter regions, has been generally considered as a potent epigenetic modification that prohibits transcription factor (TF) recruitment, resulting in transcription suppression. Here, we used a protein microarray-based approach to systematically survey the entire human TF family and found numerous purified TFs with methylated CpG (mCpG)-dependent DNA-binding activities. Interestingly, some TFs exhibit specific binding activity to methylated and unmethylated DNA motifs of distinct sequences. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we focused on Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), and decoupled its mCpG- and CpG-binding activities via site-directed mutagenesis. Furthermore, KLF4 binds specific methylated or unmethylated motifs in human embryonic stem cells in vivo. Our study suggests that mCpG-dependent TF binding activity is a widespread phenomenon and provides a new framework to understand the role and mechanism of TFs in epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00726.001. PMID:24015356

  10. DNA methylation presents distinct binding sites for human transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shaohui; Wan, Jun; Su, Yijing; Song, Qifeng; Zeng, Yaxue; Nguyen, Ha Nam; Shin, Jaehoon; Cox, Eric; Rho, Hee Sool; Woodard, Crystal; Xia, Shuli; Liu, Shuang; Lyu, Huibin; Ming, Guo-Li; Wade, Herschel; Song, Hongjun; Qian, Jiang; Zhu, Heng

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation, especially CpG methylation at promoter regions, has been generally considered as a potent epigenetic modification that prohibits transcription factor (TF) recruitment, resulting in transcription suppression. Here, we used a protein microarray-based approach to systematically survey the entire human TF family and found numerous purified TFs with methylated CpG (mCpG)-dependent DNA-binding activities. Interestingly, some TFs exhibit specific binding activity to methylated and unmethylated DNA motifs of distinct sequences. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we focused on Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), and decoupled its mCpG- and CpG-binding activities via site-directed mutagenesis. Furthermore, KLF4 binds specific methylated or unmethylated motifs in human embryonic stem cells in vivo. Our study suggests that mCpG-dependent TF binding activity is a widespread phenomenon and provides a new framework to understand the role and mechanism of TFs in epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00726.001 PMID:24015356

  11. DNA Methylation as Surrogate Marker For Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jung-Hwan; Jung, Sung-Hoon; Hong, Seung-Jin; Rhyu, Mun-Gan

    2015-01-01

    Stomach cancer remains, stubbornly, highly prevalent in East Asia. Still, stomach cancer has few biomarkers by which it can be predicted. Helicobacter pylori infection, a known carcinogen of stomach cancer, usually goes undetected prior to cancer diagnosis, due to the poor mucosal environments that its related gastric atrophy causes. We propose, herein, an endoscopic-biopsy-based cancer-predicting DNA methylation marker. We semi-quantitatively examined the methylation-variable sites near the CpG-island margins by radioisotope-labeling methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction in association with H. pylori, which increases age-related over-methylation in CpG islands of gastric mucosa. These age-related methylation patterns of the transitional-CpG sites are proposed as useful surrogate markers for stomach cancer. It would be helpful for setting the optimal screening interval for high-risk subjects as well as for estimating the prognosis and the predictability for recurrence of early gastric cancer in patients having undergone endoscopic submucosal dissection. New screening-interval guidelines for gastric cancer should be suggested considering individual risk based on age, severity of atrophy, H. pylori status, and DNA methylation pattern. PMID:26473155

  12. siRNA-directed DNA Methylation in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Meng; Yu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    DNA cytosine methylationis an important epigenetic process that is correlated with transgene silencing, transposon suppression, and gene imprinting. In plants, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can trigger DNA methylation at loci containing their homolog sequences through a process called RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). In canonical RdDM, 24 nucleotide (nt) siRNAs (ra-siRNAs) will be loaded into their effector protein called ARGONAUTE 4 (AGO4) and subsequently targeted to RdDM loci through base-pairing with the non-coding transcripts produced by DNA-directed RNA Polymerase V. Then, the AGO4-ra-siRNA will recruit the DNA methyltransferase to catalyze de novo DNA methylation. Recent studies also identified non-canonical RdDM pathways that involve microRNAs or 21 nt siRNAs. These RdDM pathways are biologically important since they control responses biotic and abiotic stresses, maintain genome stability and regulate development. Here, we summarize recent pro-gresses of mechanisms governing canonical and non-canonical RdDM pathways. PMID:25937811

  13. Regulation of DNA methylation using different tensions of double strands constructed in a defined DNA nanostructure.

    PubMed

    Endo, Masayuki; Katsuda, Yousuke; Hidaka, Kumi; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2010-02-10

    A novel strategy for regulation of an enzymatic DNA modification reaction has been developed by employing a designed nanoscale DNA scaffold. DNA modification using enzymes often requires bending of specific DNA strands to facilitate the reaction. The DNA methylation enzyme EcoRI methyltransferase (M.EcoRI) bends double helix DNA by 55 degrees-59 degrees during the reaction with flipping out of the second adenine in the GAATTC sequence as the methyl transfer reaction proceeds. In this study, two different double helical tensions, tense and relaxed states of double helices, were created to control the methyl transfer reaction of M.EcoRI and examine the structural effect on the methylation. We designed and prepared a two-dimensional (2D) DNA scaffold named the "DNA frame" using the DNA origami method that accommodates two different lengths of the double-strand DNA fragments, a tense 64mer double strand and a relaxed 74mer double strand. Fast-scanning atomic force microscope (AFM) imaging revealed the different dynamic movement of the double-strand DNAs and complexes of M.EcoRI with 64mer and 74mer double-strand DNAs. After treatment of the double strands in the DNA frame with M.EcoRI and the subsequent digestion with restriction enzyme EcoRI (R.EcoRI), AFM analysis revealed that the 74mer double-strand DNA was not effectively cleaved compared with the 64mer double-strand DNA, indicating that the methylation preferentially occurred in the relaxed 74mer double-strand DNA compared with that in the tense 64mer double strand. Biochemical analysis of the methylation and specific digestion using a real-time PCR also supported the above results. These results indicate the importance of the structural flexibility for bending of the duplex DNA during the methyl transfer reaction with M.EcoRI. Therefore, the DNA methylation can be regulated using the structurally controlled double-strand DNAs constructed in the DNA frame nanostructure. PMID:20078043

  14. Genomic assay reveals tolerance of DNA damage by both translesion DNA synthesis and homology-dependent repair in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Izhar, Lior; Ziv, Omer; Cohen, Isadora S; Geacintov, Nicholas E; Livneh, Zvi

    2013-04-16

    DNA lesions can block replication forks and lead to the formation of single-stranded gaps. These replication complications are mitigated by DNA damage tolerance mechanisms, which prevent deleterious outcomes such as cell death, genomic instability, and carcinogenesis. The two main tolerance strategies are translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), in which low-fidelity DNA polymerases bypass the blocking lesion, and homology-dependent repair (HDR; postreplication repair), which is based on the homologous sister chromatid. Here we describe a unique high-resolution method for the simultaneous analysis of TLS and HDR across defined DNA lesions in mammalian genomes. The method is based on insertion of plasmids carrying defined site-specific DNA lesions into mammalian chromosomes, using phage integrase-mediated integration. Using this method we show that mammalian cells use HDR to tolerate DNA damage in their genome. Moreover, analysis of the tolerance of the UV light-induced 6-4 photoproduct, the tobacco smoke-induced benzo[a]pyrene-guanine adduct, and an artificial trimethylene insert shows that each of these three lesions is tolerated by both TLS and HDR. We also determined the specificity of nucleotide insertion opposite these lesions during TLS in human genomes. This unique method will be useful in elucidating the mechanism of DNA damage tolerance in mammalian chromosomes and their connection to pathological processes such as carcinogenesis. PMID:23530190

  15. A new synthesis in epigenetics: towards a unified function of DNA methylation from invertebrates to vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Mandrioli, M

    2007-10-01

    DNA methylation is generally limited to CpG doublets located at the gene promoter with an involvement in gene silencing. Surprisingly, two recent papers showed an extensive methylation affecting coding portions of transcriptionally active genes in human and plants prompting a rethink of DNA methylation in eukaryotes. Actually, gene body methylation is not surprising since it has been repeatedly reported in invertebrates, where it interferes with transcriptional elongation preventing aberrant transcription initiations. As a whole, the published data suggest that the most ancestral function of DNA methylation is the control of genes that are susceptible to transcriptional interference and not to gene silencing. The recruitment of DNA methylation for silencing represents a successive tinkered use. In view of this additional function, the invertebrate-vertebrate transition has been accompanied by new constraints on DNA methylation that resulted in the strong conservation of the DNA methylation machinery in vertebrates and in the non-viability of mutants lacking DNA methylation. PMID:17712527

  16. Major and Essential Role for the DNA Methylation Mark in Mouse Embryogenesis and Stable Association of DNMT1 with Newly Replicated Regions▿

    PubMed Central

    Takebayashi, Shin-ichiro; Tamura, Takashi; Matsuoka, Chisa; Okano, Masaki

    2007-01-01

    DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) plays an important role in the inheritance of genomic DNA methylation, which is coupled to the DNA replication process. Early embryonic lethality in DNMT1-null mutant (Dnmt1c) mice indicates that DNA methylation is essential for mammalian development. DNMT1, however, interacts with a number of transcriptional regulators and has a transcriptional repressor activity independent of its catalytic activity. To examine the roles of the catalytic activity of DNMT1 in vivo, we generated a Dnmt1ps allele that expresses a point-mutated protein that lacks catalytic activity (DNMT1-C1229S). Dnmt1ps mutant mice showed developmental arrest shortly after gastrulation, near-complete loss of DNA methylation, and an altered distribution of repressive chromatin markers in the nuclei; these phenotypes are quite similar to those of the Dnmt1c mutant. The mutant DNMT1 protein failed to associate with replication foci in Dnmt1ps cells. Reconstitution experiments and replication labeling in Dnmt1−/− Dnmt3a−/− Dnmt3b−/− (i.e., unmethylated) embryonic stem cells revealed that preexisting DNA methylation is a major determinant for the cell cycle-dependent localization of DNMT1. The C-terminal catalytic domain of DNMT1 inhibited its stable association with unmethylated chromatin. Our results reveal essential roles for the DNA methylation mark in mammalian development and in DNMT1 localization. PMID:17893328

  17. DNA methyltransferase 1 mutations and mitochondrial pathology: is mtDNA methylated?

    PubMed Central

    Maresca, Alessandra; Zaffagnini, Mirko; Caporali, Leonardo; Carelli, Valerio; Zanna, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia-deafness and narcolepsy (ADCA-DN) and Hereditary sensory neuropathy with dementia and hearing loss (HSN1E) are two rare, overlapping neurodegenerative syndromes that have been recently linked to allelic dominant pathogenic mutations in the DNMT1 gene, coding for DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). DNMT1 is the enzyme responsible for maintaining the nuclear genome methylation patterns during the DNA replication and repair, thus regulating gene expression. The mutations responsible for ADCA-DN and HSN1E affect the replication foci targeting sequence domain, which regulates DNMT1 binding to chromatin. DNMT1 dysfunction is anticipated to lead to a global alteration of the DNA methylation pattern with predictable downstream consequences on gene expression. Interestingly, ADCA-DN and HSN1E phenotypes share some clinical features typical of mitochondrial diseases, such as optic atrophy, peripheral neuropathy, and deafness, and some biochemical evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction. The recent discovery of a mitochondrial isoform of DNMT1 and its proposed role in methylating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) suggests that DNMT1 mutations may directly affect mtDNA and mitochondrial physiology. On the basis of this latter finding the link between DNMT1 abnormal activity and mitochondrial dysfunction in ADCA-DN and HSN1E appears intuitive, however, mtDNA methylation remains highly debated. In the last years several groups demonstrated the presence of 5-methylcytosine in mtDNA by different approaches, but, on the other end, the opposite evidence that mtDNA is not methylated has also been published. Since over 1500 mitochondrial proteins are encoded by the nuclear genome, the altered methylation of these genes may well have a critical role in leading to the mitochondrial impairment observed in ADCA-DN and HSN1E. Thus, many open questions still remain unanswered, such as why mtDNA should be methylated, and how this process is regulated and

  18. DNA methylation in obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    de Mello, Vanessa Derenji Ferreira; Pulkkinen, Leena; Lalli, Marianne; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Uusitupa, Matti

    2014-05-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms related to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and other degenerative diseases at a molecular level, a better understanding of the changes in the chromatin structure and the corresponding functional changes in molecular pathways is still needed. For example, persons with low birth weight are at a high risk for development of T2D later in life, suggesting that the intrauterine environment contributes to the disease. One of the hypotheses is that epigenetic regulation, including changes in DNA methylation leading to modifications in chromatin structure, are behind metabolic alterations, e.g. leading to the phenomenon termed metabolic memory. Altered DNA methylation has been shown to affect healthy aging and also to promote age-related health problems. There is suggestive evidence that lifestyle changes including weight loss can have an impact on DNA methylation and consequently gene expression. In this review we provide an overview of human studies investigating DNA methylation in obesity and T2D and associated risk factors behind these diseases. PMID:24779963

  19. Dnmt2-dependent methylomes lack defined DNA methylation patterns

    PubMed Central

    Raddatz, Günter; Guzzardo, Paloma M.; Olova, Nelly; Fantappié, Marcelo Rosado; Rampp, Markus; Schaefer, Matthias; Reik, Wolf; Hannon, Gregory J.; Lyko, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Several organisms have retained methyltransferase 2 (Dnmt2) as their only candidate DNA methyltransferase gene. However, information about Dnmt2-dependent methylation patterns has been limited to a few isolated loci and the results have been discussed controversially. In addition, recent studies have shown that Dnmt2 functions as a tRNA methyltransferase, which raised the possibility that Dnmt2-only genomes might be unmethylated. We have now used whole-genome bisulfite sequencing to analyze the methylomes of Dnmt2-only organisms at single-base resolution. Our results show that the genomes of Schistosoma mansoni and Drosophila melanogaster lack detectable DNA methylation patterns. Residual unconverted cytosine residues shared many attributes with bisulfite deamination artifacts and were observed at comparable levels in Dnmt2-deficient flies. Furthermore, genetically modified Dnmt2-only mouse embryonic stem cells lost the DNA methylation patterns found in wild-type cells. Our results thus uncover fundamental differences among animal methylomes and suggest that DNA methylation is dispensable for a considerable number of eukaryotic organisms. PMID:23641003

  20. The interplay between DNA methylation, folate and neurocognitive development.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Rachelle E; Pentieva, Kristina; Cassidy, Tony; Lees-Murdock, Diane J; McLaughlin, Marian; Prasad, Girijesh; McNulty, Helene; Walsh, Colum P

    2016-06-01

    DNA methylation provides an attractive possible means for propagating the effects of environmental inputs during fetal life and impacting subsequent adult mental health, which is leading to increasing collaboration between molecular biologists, nutritionists and psychiatrists. An area of interest is the potential role of folate, not just in neural tube closure in early pregnancy, but in later major neurodevelopmental events, with consequences for later sociocognitive maturation. Here, we set the scene for recent discoveries by reviewing the major events of neural development during fetal life, with an emphasis on tissues and structures where dynamic methylation changes are known to occur. Following this, we give an indication of some of the major classes of genes targeted by methylation and important for neurological and behavioral development. Finally, we highlight some cognitive disorders where methylation changes are implicated as playing an important role. PMID:27319574

  1. 1999 Gordon Research Conference on Mammalian DNA Repair. Final Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-12

    This Conference will examine DNA repair as the key component in genomic surveillance that is so crucial to the overall integrity and function of mammalian cells. Recent discoveries have catapulted the field of DNA repair into a pivotal position for fundamental investigations into oncology, aging, environmental health, and developmental biology. We hope to highlight the most promising and exciting avenues of research in robust discussions at this conference. This Mammalian DNA Repair Gordon Conference differs from the past conferences in this series, in which the programs were broader in scope, with respect to topics and biological systems covered. A conference sponsored by the Genetics Society in April 1998 emphasized recombinational mechanisms for double-strand break repair and the role of mismatch repair deficiency in colorectal cancer. These topics will therefore receive somewhat less emphasis in the upcoming Conference. In view of the recent mechanistic advances in mammalian DNA repair, an upcoming comprehensive DNA repair meeting next autumn at Hilton Head; and the limited enrollment for Gordon Conferences we have decided to focus session-by-session on particular areas of controversy and/or new developments specifically in mammalian systems. Thus, the principal presentations will draw upon results from other cellular systems only to the extent that they impact our understanding of mammalian DNA repair.

  2. Ancestry dependent DNA methylation and influence of maternal nutrition.

    PubMed

    Mozhui, Khyobeni; Smith, Alicia K; Tylavsky, Frances A

    2015-01-01

    There is extensive variation in DNA methylation between individuals and ethnic groups. These differences arise from a combination of genetic and non-genetic influences and potential modifiers include nutritional cues, early life experience, and social and physical environments. Here we compare genome-wide DNA methylation in neonatal cord blood from African American (AA; N = 112) and European American (EA; N = 91) participants of the CANDLE Study (Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood). Our goal is to determine if there are replicable ancestry-specific methylation patterns that may implicate risk factors for diseases that have differential prevalence between populations. To identify the most robust ancestry-specific CpG sites, we replicate our results in lymphoblastoid cell lines from Yoruba African and CEPH European panels of HapMap. We also evaluate the influence of maternal nutrition--specifically, plasma levels of vitamin D and folate during pregnancy--on methylation in newborns. We define stable ancestry-dependent methylation of genes that include tumor suppressors and cell cycle regulators (e.g., APC, BRCA1, MCC). Overall, there is lower global methylation in African ancestral groups. Plasma levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D are also considerably lower among AA mothers and about 60% of AA and 40% of EA mothers have concentrations below 20 ng/ml. Using a weighted correlation analysis, we define a network of CpG sites that is jointly modulated by ancestry and maternal vitamin D. Our results show that differences in DNA methylation patterns are remarkably stable and maternal micronutrients can exert an influence on the child epigenome. PMID:25742137

  3. Aberrant DNA Methylation of rDNA and PRIMA1 in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    PubMed

    Teschler, Stefanie; Gotthardt, Julia; Dammann, Gerhard; Dammann, Reinhard H

    2016-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a serious psychic disease with a high risk for suicide. DNA methylation is a hallmark for aberrant epigenetic regulation and could be involved in the etiology of BPD. Previously, it has been reported that increased DNA methylation of neuropsychiatric genes is found in the blood of patients with BPD compared to healthy controls. Here, we analyzed DNA methylation patterns of the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA promoter region and 5'-external transcribed spacer/5'ETS) and the promoter of the proline rich membrane anchor 1 gene (PRIMA1) in peripheral blood samples of 24 female patients (mean age (33 ± 11) years) diagnosed with DSM-IV BPD and in 11 female controls (mean age (32 ± 7) years). A significant aberrant methylation of rDNA and PRIMA1 was revealed for BPD patients using pyrosequencing. For the promoter of PRIMA1, the average methylation of six CpG sites was 1.6-fold higher in BPD patients compared to controls. In contrast, the methylation levels of the rDNA promoter region and the 5'ETS were significantly lower (0.9-fold) in patients with BPD compared to controls. Thus, for nine CpGs located in the rDNA promoter region and for four CpGs at the 5'ETS decreased methylation was found in peripheral blood of patients compared to controls. Our results suggest that aberrant methylation of rDNA and PRIMA1 is associated with the pathogenesis of BPD. PMID:26742039

  4. Aberrant DNA Methylation of rDNA and PRIMA1 in Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Teschler, Stefanie; Gotthardt, Julia; Dammann, Gerhard; Dammann, Reinhard H.

    2016-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a serious psychic disease with a high risk for suicide. DNA methylation is a hallmark for aberrant epigenetic regulation and could be involved in the etiology of BPD. Previously, it has been reported that increased DNA methylation of neuropsychiatric genes is found in the blood of patients with BPD compared to healthy controls. Here, we analyzed DNA methylation patterns of the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA promoter region and 5′-external transcribed spacer/5′ETS) and the promoter of the proline rich membrane anchor 1 gene (PRIMA1) in peripheral blood samples of 24 female patients (mean age (33 ± 11) years) diagnosed with DSM-IV BPD and in 11 female controls (mean age (32 ± 7) years). A significant aberrant methylation of rDNA and PRIMA1 was revealed for BPD patients using pyrosequencing. For the promoter of PRIMA1, the average methylation of six CpG sites was 1.6-fold higher in BPD patients compared to controls. In contrast, the methylation levels of the rDNA promoter region and the 5′ETS were significantly lower (0.9-fold) in patients with BPD compared to controls. Thus, for nine CpGs located in the rDNA promoter region and for four CpGs at the 5′ETS decreased methylation was found in peripheral blood of patients compared to controls. Our results suggest that aberrant methylation of rDNA and PRIMA1 is associated with the pathogenesis of BPD. PMID:26742039

  5. Damage proneness induced by genomic DNA demethylation in mammalian cells cultivated in vitro.

    PubMed

    Perticone, P; Gensabella, G; Cozzi, R

    1997-07-01

    Variations in the genomic DNA methylation level have been shown to be an epigenetic inheritable modification affecting, among other targets, the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) rate in mammalian cells in vitro. The inheritable increase in SCE rate in affected cell populations appears as a puzzling phenomenon in view of the well established relation between SCE and both mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. In the present work we demonstrate that, in a treated cell population, demethylation could be responsible for the inheritable induction of damage proneness affecting both damage induction and repair. Normal and ethionine or azacytidine treated Chinese hamster ovary cells, subclone K1 (CHO-K1), were challenged with UV light (UV) or mitomycin-C (MMC) at different times from the demethylating treatment. The SCE rate was measured with two main objects in view: (i) the induction of synergism or additivity in combined treatments, where mutagen (UV or MMC) pulse is supplied from 0 to 48 h after the end of the demethylating treatment; and (ii) the pattern of damage extinction, for the duration of up to six cell cycles after the end of the combined (demethylating agent + mutagen) treatment. Results indicate both a synergism in SCE induction by mutagens in demethylated cells even if supplied up to four cell cycles after the end of the demethylation treatment and a delay in recovery of induced damage, compared with normally methylated cells. These data are discussed in the light of the supposed mechanism of SCE increase and of the possible biological significance in terms of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. PMID:9237771

  6. Transcription Driven Somatic DNA Methylation within the Imprinted Gnas Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Stuti; Williamson, Christine M.; Ball, Simon; Tibbit, Charlotte; Beechey, Colin; Fray, Martin; Peters, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Differential marking of genes in female and male gametes by DNA methylation is essential to genomic imprinting. In female gametes transcription traversing differentially methylated regions (DMRs) is a common requirement for de novo methylation at DMRs. At the imprinted Gnas cluster oocyte specific transcription of a protein-coding transcript, Nesp, is needed for methylation of two DMRs intragenic to Nesp, namely the Nespas-Gnasxl DMR and the Exon1A DMR, thereby enabling expression of the Gnas transcript and repression of the Gnasxl transcript. On the paternal allele, Nesp is repressed, the germline DMRs are unmethylated, Gnas is repressed and Gnasxl is expressed. Using mutant mouse models, we show that on the paternal allele, ectopic transcription of Nesp traversing the intragenic Exon1A DMR (which regulates Gnas expression) results in de novo methylation of the Exon1A DMR and de-repression of Gnas just as on the maternal allele. However, unlike the maternal allele, methylation on the mutant paternal allele occurs post-fertilisation, i.e. in somatic cells. This, to our knowledge is the first example of transcript/transcription driven DNA methylation of an intragenic CpG island, in somatic tissues, suggesting that transcription driven de novo methylation is not restricted to the germline in the mouse. Additionally, Gnasxl is repressed on a paternal chromosome on which Nesp is ectopically expressed. Thus, a paternally inherited Gnas cluster showing ectopic expression of Nesp is “maternalised” in terms of Gnasxl and Gnas expression. We show that these mice have a phenotype similar to mutants with two expressed doses of Gnas and none of Gnasxl. PMID:25659103

  7. DNA methylation and differential gene regulation in photoreceptor cell death

    PubMed Central

    Farinelli, P; Perera, A; Arango-Gonzalez, B; Trifunovic, D; Wagner, M; Carell, T; Biel, M; Zrenner, E; Michalakis, S; Paquet-Durand, F; Ekström, P A R

    2014-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) defines a group of inherited degenerative retinal diseases causing progressive loss of photoreceptors. To this day, RP is still untreatable and rational treatment development will require a thorough understanding of the underlying cell death mechanisms. Methylation of the DNA base cytosine by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) is an important epigenetic factor regulating gene expression, cell differentiation, cell death, and survival. Previous studies suggested an involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in RP, and in this study, increased cytosine methylation was detected in dying photoreceptors in the rd1, rd2, P23H, and S334ter rodent models for RP. Ultrastructural analysis of photoreceptor nuclear morphology in the rd1 mouse model for RP revealed a severely altered chromatin structure during retinal degeneration that coincided with an increased expression of the DNMT isozyme DNMT3a. To identify disease-specific differentially methylated DNA regions (DMRs) on a genomic level, we immunoprecipitated methylated DNA fragments and subsequently analyzed them with a targeted microarray. Genome-wide comparison of DMRs between rd1 and wild-type retina revealed hypermethylation of genes involved in cell death and survival as well as cell morphology and nervous system development. When correlating DMRs with gene expression data, we found that hypermethylation occurred alongside transcriptional repression. Consistently, motif analysis showed that binding sites of several important transcription factors for retinal physiology were hypermethylated in the mutant model, which also correlated with transcriptional silencing of their respective target genes. Finally, inhibition of DNMTs in rd1 organotypic retinal explants using decitabine resulted in a substantial reduction of photoreceptor cell death, suggesting inhibition of DNA methylation as a potential novel treatment in RP. PMID:25476906

  8. Arsenic exposure and DNA methylation among elderly men

    PubMed Central

    Lambrou, Angeliki; Baccarelli, Andrea; Wright, Robert O.; Weisskopf, Marc; Bollati, Valentina; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Arsenic exposure has been linked to epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation in in vitro and animal studies. This association has also been explored in highly exposed human populations, but studies among populations environmentally exposed to low arsenic levels are lacking. METHODS We evaluated the association between exposure to arsenic, measured in toenails, and blood DNA methylation in Alu and Long Interspersed Nucleotide Element-1 (LINE-1) repetitive elements in elderly men environmentally exposed to low levels of arsenic. We also explored potential effect modification by plasma folate, cobalamin (vitamin B12), and pyridoxine (vitamin B6). The study population was 581 participants from the Normative Aging Study in Boston, of whom 434, 140, and 7 had 1, 2, and 3 visits, respectively, between 1999-2002 and 2006-2007. We used mixed-effects models and included interaction terms to assess potential effect modification by nutritional factors. RESULTS There was a trend of increasing Alu and decreasing LINE-1 DNA methylation as arsenic exposure increased. In subjects with plasma folate below the median (< 14.1 ng/ml), arsenic was positively associated with Alu DNA methylation (β=0.08 [95% confidence interval = 0.03 to 0.13] for one interquartile range [0.06μg/g] increase in arsenic) while a negative association was observed in subjects with plasma folate above the median (β=-0.08 [-0.17 to 0.01]). CONCLUSIONS We found an association between arsenic exposure and DNA methylation in Alu repetitive elements that varied by folate level. This suggests a potential role for nutritional factors in arsenic toxicity. PMID:22833016

  9. DNA methylation and differential gene regulation in photoreceptor cell death.

    PubMed

    Farinelli, P; Perera, A; Arango-Gonzalez, B; Trifunovic, D; Wagner, M; Carell, T; Biel, M; Zrenner, E; Michalakis, S; Paquet-Durand, F; Ekström, P A R

    2014-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) defines a group of inherited degenerative retinal diseases causing progressive loss of photoreceptors. To this day, RP is still untreatable and rational treatment development will require a thorough understanding of the underlying cell death mechanisms. Methylation of the DNA base cytosine by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) is an important epigenetic factor regulating gene expression, cell differentiation, cell death, and survival. Previous studies suggested an involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in RP, and in this study, increased cytosine methylation was detected in dying photoreceptors in the rd1, rd2, P23H, and S334ter rodent models for RP. Ultrastructural analysis of photoreceptor nuclear morphology in the rd1 mouse model for RP revealed a severely altered chromatin structure during retinal degeneration that coincided with an increased expression of the DNMT isozyme DNMT3a. To identify disease-specific differentially methylated DNA regions (DMRs) on a genomic level, we immunoprecipitated methylated DNA fragments and subsequently analyzed them with a targeted microarray. Genome-wide comparison of DMRs between rd1 and wild-type retina revealed hypermethylation of genes involved in cell death and survival as well as cell morphology and nervous system development. When correlating DMRs with gene expression data, we found that hypermethylation occurred alongside transcriptional repression. Consistently, motif analysis showed that binding sites of several important transcription factors for retinal physiology were hypermethylated in the mutant model, which also correlated with transcriptional silencing of their respective target genes. Finally, inhibition of DNMTs in rd1 organotypic retinal explants using decitabine resulted in a substantial reduction of photoreceptor cell death, suggesting inhibition of DNA methylation as a potential novel treatment in RP. PMID:25476906

  10. methylKit: a comprehensive R package for the analysis of genome-wide DNA methylation profiles.

    PubMed

    Akalin, Altuna; Kormaksson, Matthias; Li, Sheng; Garrett-Bakelman, Francine E; Figueroa, Maria E; Melnick, Ari; Mason, Christopher E

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is a chemical modification of cytosine bases that is pivotal for gene regulation, cellular specification and cancer development. Here, we describe an R package, methylKit, that rapidly analyzes genome-wide cytosine epigenetic profiles from high-throughput methylation and hydroxymethylation sequencing experiments. methylKit includes functions for clustering, sample quality visualization, differential methylation analysis and annotation features, thus automating and simplifying many of the steps for discerning statistically significant bases or regions of DNA methylation. Finally, we demonstrate methylKit on breast cancer data, in which we find statistically significant regions of differential methylation and stratify tumor subtypes. methylKit is available at http://code.google.com/p/methylkit. PMID:23034086

  11. methylKit: a comprehensive R package for the analysis of genome-wide DNA methylation profiles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is a chemical modification of cytosine bases that is pivotal for gene regulation, cellular specification and cancer development. Here, we describe an R package, methylKit, that rapidly analyzes genome-wide cytosine epigenetic profiles from high-throughput methylation and hydroxymethylation sequencing experiments. methylKit includes functions for clustering, sample quality visualization, differential methylation analysis and annotation features, thus automating and simplifying many of the steps for discerning statistically significant bases or regions of DNA methylation. Finally, we demonstrate methylKit on breast cancer data, in which we find statistically significant regions of differential methylation and stratify tumor subtypes. methylKit is available at http://code.google.com/p/methylkit. PMID:23034086

  12. Genome-wide mapping of nucleosome positioning and DNA methylation within individual DNA molecules

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Theresa K.; Liu, Yaping; Lay, Fides D.; Liang, Gangning; Berman, Benjamin P.; Jones, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation and nucleosome positioning work together to generate chromatin structures that regulate gene expression. Nucleosomes are typically mapped using nuclease digestion requiring significant amounts of material and varying enzyme concentrations. We have developed a method (NOMe-seq) that uses a GpC methyltransferase (M.CviPI) and next generation sequencing to generate a high resolution footprint of nucleosome positioning genome-wide using less than 1 million cells while retaining endogenous DNA methylation information from the same DNA strand. Using a novel bioinformatics pipeline, we show a striking anti-correlation between nucleosome occupancy and DNA methylation at CTCF regions that is not present at promoters. We further show that the extent of nucleosome depletion at promoters is directly correlated to expression level and can accommodate multiple nucleosomes and provide genome-wide evidence that expressed non-CpG island promoters are nucleosome-depleted. Importantly, NOMe-seq obtains DNA methylation and nucleosome positioning information from the same DNA molecule, giving the first genome-wide DNA methylation and nucleosome positioning correlation at the single molecule, and thus, single cell level, that can be used to monitor disease progression and response to therapy. PMID:22960375

  13. Predictors and Consequences of Global DNA Methylation in Cord Blood and at Three Years

    PubMed Central

    Herbstman, Julie B.; Wang, Shuang; Perera, Frederica P.; Lederman, Sally A.; Vishnevetsky, Julia; Rundle, Andrew G.; Hoepner, Lori A.; Qu, Lirong; Tang, Deliang

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation changes have been implicated in many common chronic diseases leading to the hypothesis that environmental and age-related DNA methylation changes within individuals are involved in disease etiology. Few studies have examined DNA methylation changes within an individual over time and all of these studies have been conducted in adults. Here, we aim to characterize how global DNA methylation changes from birth to age three within a longitudinal birth cohort study and to determine whether there are consistent predictors of DNA methylation levels measured three years apart. We measured global DNA methylation in the same children at birth (cord blood) and again at three years of age among 165 children, using an immunoassay. We found that on average, DNA methylation was significantly higher in blood at age 3-years than in cord blood (p<0.01). However, for any individual child, the difference was less than would be expected by chance. We found that pre-pregnancy BMI was negatively predictive of both cord and three-year DNA methylation, even after statistical adjustment to account for the correlation between cord blood and three-year DNA methylation. The biologic implications of small changes in global DNA methylation are unknown. However, the observation that global DNA methylation levels persist within an individual from birth to age three supports the belief that factors that influence global DNA methylation, including pre-pregnancy BMI, may confer long-term effects. PMID:24023780

  14. Histone H1 Limits DNA Methylation in Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Michael; Ji, Lexiang; Santos, Alex M.; Kamei, Masayuki; Sasaki, Takahiko; Basenko, Evelina Y.; Schmitz, Robert J.; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Lewis, Zachary A.

    2016-01-01

    Histone H1 variants, known as linker histones, are essential chromatin components in higher eukaryotes, yet compared to the core histones relatively little is known about their in vivo functions. The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa encodes a single H1 protein that is not essential for viability. To investigate the role of N. crassa H1, we constructed a functional FLAG-tagged H1 fusion protein and performed genomic and molecular analyses. Cell fractionation experiments showed that H1-3XFLAG is a chromatin binding protein. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation combined with sequencing (ChIP-seq) revealed that H1-3XFLAG is globally enriched throughout the genome with a subtle preference for promoters of expressed genes. In mammals, the stoichiometry of H1 impacts nucleosome repeat length. To determine if H1 impacts nucleosome occupancy or nucleosome positioning in N. crassa, we performed micrococcal nuclease digestion in the wild-type and the ΔhH1 strain followed by sequencing (MNase-seq). Deletion of hH1 did not significantly impact nucleosome positioning or nucleosome occupancy. Analysis of DNA methylation by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (MethylC-seq) revealed a modest but global increase in DNA methylation in the ΔhH1 mutant. Together, these data suggest that H1 acts as a nonspecific chromatin binding protein that can limit accessibility of the DNA methylation machinery in N. crassa. PMID:27172195

  15. Histone H1 Limits DNA Methylation in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Michael; Ji, Lexiang; Santos, Alex M; Kamei, Masayuki; Sasaki, Takahiko; Basenko, Evelina Y; Schmitz, Robert J; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Lewis, Zachary A

    2016-01-01

    Histone H1 variants, known as linker histones, are essential chromatin components in higher eukaryotes, yet compared to the core histones relatively little is known about their in vivo functions. The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa encodes a single H1 protein that is not essential for viability. To investigate the role of N. crassa H1, we constructed a functional FLAG-tagged H1 fusion protein and performed genomic and molecular analyses. Cell fractionation experiments showed that H1-3XFLAG is a chromatin binding protein. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation combined with sequencing (ChIP-seq) revealed that H1-3XFLAG is globally enriched throughout the genome with a subtle preference for promoters of expressed genes. In mammals, the stoichiometry of H1 impacts nucleosome repeat length. To determine if H1 impacts nucleosome occupancy or nucleosome positioning in N. crassa, we performed micrococcal nuclease digestion in the wild-type and the [Formula: see text]hH1 strain followed by sequencing (MNase-seq). Deletion of hH1 did not significantly impact nucleosome positioning or nucleosome occupancy. Analysis of DNA methylation by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (MethylC-seq) revealed a modest but global increase in DNA methylation in the [Formula: see text]hH1 mutant. Together, these data suggest that H1 acts as a nonspecific chromatin binding protein that can limit accessibility of the DNA methylation machinery in N. crassa. PMID:27172195

  16. Structural basis of asymmetric DNA methylation and ATP-triggered long-range diffusion by EcoP15I

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Yogesh K.; Chan, Siu-Hong; Xu, Shuang-yong; Aggarwal, Aneel K.

    2015-01-01

    Type III R–M enzymes were identified >40 years ago and yet there is no structural information on these multisubunit enzymes. Here we report the structure of a Type III R–M system, consisting of the entire EcoP15I complex (Mod2Res1) bound to DNA. The structure suggests how ATP hydrolysis is coupled to long-range diffusion of a helicase on DNA, and how a dimeric methyltransferase functions to methylate only one of the two DNA strands. We show that the EcoP15I motor domains are specifically adapted to bind double-stranded DNA and to facilitate DNA sliding via a novel ‘Pin' domain. We also uncover unexpected ‘division of labour', where one Mod subunit recognizes DNA, while the other Mod subunit methylates the target adenine—a mechanism that may extend to adenine N6 RNA methylation in mammalian cells. Together the structure sheds new light on the mechanisms of both helicases and methyltransferases in DNA and RNA metabolism. PMID:26067164

  17. Structural basis of asymmetric DNA methylation and ATP-triggered long-range diffusion by EcoP15I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Yogesh K.; Chan, Siu-Hong; Xu, Shuang-Yong; Aggarwal, Aneel K.

    2015-06-01

    Type III R-M enzymes were identified >40 years ago and yet there is no structural information on these multisubunit enzymes. Here we report the structure of a Type III R-M system, consisting of the entire EcoP15I complex (Mod2Res1) bound to DNA. The structure suggests how ATP hydrolysis is coupled to long-range diffusion of a helicase on DNA, and how a dimeric methyltransferase functions to methylate only one of the two DNA strands. We show that the EcoP15I motor domains are specifically adapted to bind double-stranded DNA and to facilitate DNA sliding via a novel `Pin' domain. We also uncover unexpected `division of labour', where one Mod subunit recognizes DNA, while the other Mod subunit methylates the target adenine--a mechanism that may extend to adenine N6 RNA methylation in mammalian cells. Together the structure sheds new light on the mechanisms of both helicases and methyltransferases in DNA and RNA metabolism.

  18. Distinct DNA methylation patterns in cirrhotic liver and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ammerpohl, Ole; Pratschke, Johann; Schafmayer, Clemens; Haake, Andrea; Faber, Wladimir; von Kampen, Oliver; Brosch, Mario; Sipos, Bence; von Schönfels, Witigo; Balschun, Katharina; Röcken, Christoph; Arlt, Alexander; Schniewind, Bodo; Grauholm, Jonas; Kalthoff, Holger; Neuhaus, Peter; Stickel, Felix; Schreiber, Stefan; Becker, Thomas; Siebert, Reiner; Hampe, Jochen

    2012-03-15

    Abberrant DNA methylation is one of the hallmarks of cancerogenesis. Our study aims to delineate differential DNA methylation in cirrhosis and hepatic cancerogenesis. Patterns of methylation of 27,578 individual CpG loci in 12 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), 15 cirrhotic controls and 12 normal liver samples were investigated using an array-based technology. A supervised principal component analysis (PCA) revealed 167 hypomethylated loci and 100 hypermethylated loci in cirrhosis and HCC as compared to normal controls. Thus, these loci show a "cirrhotic" methylation pattern that is maintained in HCC. In pairwise supervised PCAs between normal liver, cirrhosis and HCC, eight loci were significantly changed in all analyses differentiating the three groups (p < 0.0001). Of these, five loci showed highest methylation levels in HCC and lowest in control tissue (LOC55908, CELSR1, CRMP1, GNRH2, ALOX12 and ANGPTL7), whereas two loci showed the opposite direction of change (SPRR3 and TNFSF15). Genes hypermethylated between normal liver to cirrhosis, which maintain this methylation pattern during the development of HCC, are depleted for CpG islands, high CpG content promoters and polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) targets in embryonic stem cells. In contrast, genes selectively hypermethylated in HCC as compared to nonmalignant samples showed an enrichment of CpG islands, high CpG content promoters and PRC2 target genes (p < 0.0001). Cirrhosis and HCC show distinct patterns of differential methylation with regards to promoter structure, PRC2 targets and CpG islands. PMID:21500188

  19. Infant sex-specific placental cadmium and DNA methylation associations

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanty, April F.; Farin, Fred M.; Bammler, Theo K.; MacDonald, James W.; Afsharinejad, Zahra; Burbacher, Thomas M.; Siscovick, David S.; and others

    2015-04-15

    Background: Recent evidence suggests that maternal cadmium (Cd) burden and fetal growth associations may vary by fetal sex. However, mechanisms contributing to these differences are unknown. Objectives: Among 24 maternal-infant pairs, we investigated infant sex-specific associations between placental Cd and placental genome-wide DNA methylation. Methods: We used ANOVA models to examine sex-stratified associations of placental Cd (dichotomized into high/low Cd using sex-specific Cd median cutoffs) with DNA methylation at each cytosine-phosphate-guanine site or region. Statistical significance was defined using a false discovery rate cutoff (<0.10). Results: Medians of placental Cd among females and males were 5 and 2 ng/g, respectively. Among females, three sites (near ADP-ribosylation factor-like 9 (ARL9), siah E3 ubiquitin protein ligase family member 3 (SIAH3), and heparin sulfate (glucosamine) 3-O-sulfotransferase 4 (HS3ST4) and one region on chromosome 7 (including carnitine O-octanoyltransferase (CROT) and TP5S target 1 (TP53TG1)) were hypomethylated in high Cd placentas. Among males, high placental Cd was associated with methylation of three sites, two (hypomethylated) near MDS1 and EVI1 complex locus (MECOM) and one (hypermethylated) near spalt-like transcription factor 1 (SALL1), and two regions (both hypomethylated, one on chromosome 3 including MECOM and another on chromosome 8 including rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 10 (ARHGEF10). Differentially methylated sites were at or close to transcription start sites of genes involved in cell damage response (SIAH3, HS3ST4, TP53TG1) in females and cell differentiation, angiogenesis and organ development (MECOM, SALL1) in males. Conclusions: Our preliminary study supports infant sex-specific placental Cd-DNA methylation associations, possibly accounting for previously reported differences in Cd-fetal growth associations across fetal sex. Larger studies are needed to replicate and extend these

  20. Minimal evidence for consistent changes in maize DNA methylation patterns following environmental stress

    PubMed Central

    Eichten, Steven R.; Springer, Nathan M.

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is a chromatin modification that is sometimes associated with epigenetic regulation of gene expression. As DNA methylation can be reversible at some loci, it is possible that methylation patterns may change within an organism that is subjected to environmental stress. In order to assess the effects of abiotic stress on DNA methylation patterns in maize (Zea mays), seeding plants were subjected to heat, cold, and UV stress treatments. Tissue was later collected from individual adult plants that had been subjected to stress or control treatments and used to perform DNA methylation profiling to determine whether there were consistent changes in DNA methylation triggered by specific stress treatments. DNA methylation profiling was performed by immunoprecipitation of methylated DNA followed by microarray hybridization to allow for quantitative estimates of DNA methylation abundance throughout the low-copy portion of the maize genome. By comparing the DNA methylation profiles of each individual plant to the average of the control plants it was possible to identify regions of the genome with variable DNA methylation. However, we did not find evidence of consistent DNA methylation changes resulting from the stress treatments used in this study. Instead, the data suggest that there is a low-rate of stochastic variation that is present in both control and stressed plants. PMID:25999972

  1. Dynamic DNA methylation regulates neuronal intrinsic membrane excitability.

    PubMed

    Meadows, Jarrod P; Guzman-Karlsson, Mikael C; Phillips, Scott; Brown, Jordan A; Strange, Sarah K; Sweatt, J David; Hablitz, John J

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA cytosine methylation, contribute to the mechanisms underlying learning and memory by coordinating adaptive gene expression and neuronal plasticity. Transcription-dependent plasticity regulated by DNA methylation includes synaptic plasticity and homeostatic synaptic scaling. Memory-related plasticity also includes alterations in intrinsic membrane excitability mediated by changes in the abundance or activity of ion channels in the plasma membrane, which sets the threshold for action potential generation. We found that prolonged inhibition of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity increased intrinsic membrane excitability of cultured cortical pyramidal neurons. Knockdown of the cytosine demethylase TET1 or inhibition of RNA polymerase blocked the increased membrane excitability caused by DNMT inhibition, suggesting that this effect was mediated by subsequent cytosine demethylation and de novo transcription. Prolonged DNMT inhibition blunted the medium component of the after-hyperpolarization potential, an effect that would increase neuronal excitability, and was associated with reduced expression of the genes encoding small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channels. Furthermore, the specific SK channel blocker apamin increased neuronal excitability but was ineffective after DNMT inhibition. Our results suggested that DNMT inhibition enables transcriptional changes that culminate in decreased expression of SK channel-encoding genes and decreased activity of SK channels, thus providing a mechanism for the regulation of neuronal intrinsic membrane excitability by dynamic DNA cytosine methylation. This study has implications for human neurological and psychiatric diseases associated with dysregulated intrinsic excitability. PMID:27555660

  2. Compendium of aberrant DNA methylation and histone modifications in cancer.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Naoko; Ushijima, Toshikazu

    2014-12-01

    Epigenetics now refers to the study or research field related to DNA methylation and histone modifications. Historically, global DNA hypomethylation was first revealed in 1983, and, after a decade, silencing of a tumor suppressor gene by regional DNA hypermethylation was reported. After the proposal of the histone code in the 2000s, alterations of histone methylation were also identified in cancers. Now, it is established that aberrant epigenetic alterations are involved in cancer development and progression, along with mutations and chromosomal losses. Recent cancer genome analyses have revealed a large number of mutations of epigenetic modifiers, supporting their important roles in cancer pathogenesis. Taking advantage of the reversibility of epigenetic alterations, drugs targeting epigenetic regulators and readers have been developed for restoration of normal pattern of the epigenome, and some have already demonstrated clinical benefits. In addition, DNA methylation of specific marker genes can be used as a biomarker for cancer diagnosis, including risk diagnosis, detection of cancers, and pathophysiological diagnosis. In this paper, we will summarize the major concepts of cancer epigenetics, placing emphasis on history. PMID:25194808

  3. Aberrant DNA Methylation: Implications in Racial Health Disparity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuefeng; Ji, Ping; Zhang, Yuanhao; LaComb, Joseph F.; Tian, Xinyu; Li, Ellen; Williams, Jennie L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) are higher in African Americans (AAs) than in Caucasian Americans (CAs). Deficient micronutrient intake due to dietary restrictions in racial/ethnic populations can alter genetic and molecular profiles leading to dysregulated methylation patterns and the inheritance of somatic to germline mutations. Materials and Methods Total DNA and RNA samples of paired tumor and adjacent normal colon tissues were prepared from AA and CA CRC specimens. Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (RRBS) and RNA sequencing were employed to evaluate total genome methylation of 5’-regulatory regions and dysregulation of gene expression, respectively. Robust analysis was conducted using a trimming-and-retrieving scheme for RRBS library mapping in conjunction with the BStool toolkit. Results DNA from the tumor of AA CRC patients, compared to adjacent normal tissues, contained 1,588 hypermethylated and 100 hypomethylated differentially methylated regions (DMRs). Whereas, 109 hypermethylated and 4 hypomethylated DMRs were observed in DNA from the tumor of CA CRC patients; representing a 14.6-fold and 25-fold change, respectively. Specifically; CHL1, 4 anti-inflammatory genes (i.e., NELL1, GDF1, ARHGEF4, and ITGA4), and 7 miRNAs (of which miR-9-3p and miR-124-3p have been implicated in CRC) were hypermethylated in DNA samples from AA patients with CRC. From the same sample set, RNAseq analysis revealed 108 downregulated genes (including 14 ribosomal proteins) and 34 upregulated genes (including POLR2B and CYP1B1 [targets of miR-124-3p]) in AA patients with CRC versus CA patients. Conclusion DNA methylation profile and/or products of its downstream targets could serve as biomarker(s) addressing racial health disparity. PMID:27111221

  4. Comprehensive Analysis of Preeclampsia-Associated DNA Methylation in the Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Tianjiao; Bunce, Kimberly; Shaw, Patricia; Shridhar, Varsha; Althouse, Andrew; Hubel, Carl; Peters, David

    2014-01-01

    Background A small number of recent reports have suggested that altered placental DNA methylation may be associated with early onset preeclampsia. It is important that further studies be undertaken to confirm and develop these findings. We therefore undertook a systematic analysis of DNA methylation patterns in placental tissue from 24 women with preeclampsia and 24 with uncomplicated pregnancy outcome. Methods We analyzed the DNA methylation status of approximately 27,000 CpG sites in placental tissues in a massively parallel fashion using an oligonucleotide microarray. Follow up analysis of DNA methylation at specific CpG loci was performed using the Epityper MassArray approach and high-throughput bisulfite sequencing. Results Preeclampsia-specific DNA methylation changes were identified in placental tissue samples irrespective of gestational age of delivery. In addition, we identified a group of CpG sites within specific gene sequences that were only altered in early onset-preeclampsia (EOPET) although these DNA methylation changes did not correlate with altered mRNA transcription. We found evidence that fetal gender influences DNA methylation at autosomal loci but could find no clear association between DNA methylation and gestational age. Conclusion Preeclampsia is associated with altered placental DNA methylation. Fetal gender should be carefully considered during the design of future studies in which placental DNA is analyzed at the level of DNA methylation. Further large-scale analyses of preeclampsia-associated DNA methylation are necessary. PMID:25247495

  5. Unraveling the Interaction of Silver Nanoparticles with Mammalian and Bacterial DNA.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Srikrishna; Chatterjee, Sabyasachi; Saha, Arindam; Devi, Parukuttyamma Sujatha; Suresh Kumar, Gopinatha

    2016-06-23

    The focus of this study was to understand and unravel the interaction of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with different types of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), mammalian and bacterial, having different base pair compositions. Binding of spherical silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to Calf thymus (CT) DNA, Escherichia coli (EC) DNA and Micrococcus lysodeikticus (ML) DNA has been studied to gain insights into their mode of interaction and specificity. Interaction of AgNPs with synthetic DNA has also been carried out. On the basis of absorption, thermal melting, isothermal calorimetry and viscosity studies, we could establish the mode of binding and specificity of the synthesized silver nanoparticles with mammalian and bacterial DNA. Thermal melting (Tm) studies indicated a decrease in the Tm of all the DNAs, confirming the destabilization of DNA stacks on interaction with AgNPs. Comparative interaction studies with single stranded (ss) and double stranded (ds) DNAs further confirmed the specificity of the particles toward ds DNA. On the basis of the results we could confirm that the synthesized AgNPs could be used for selective detection of DNA through their DNA binding mechanism. In addition, the AgNPs-DNA complexes exhibited distinct differences in the SERS spectra making it an interesting SERS platform for identifying ds DNA. The optical and physical properties of AgNPs help in differentiating the DNAs of different base pair compositions through their binding affinity and specificity. PMID:27294883

  6. Structure of DNMT1-DNA Complex Reveals a Role for Autoinhibition in Maintenance DNA Methylation

    SciTech Connect

    J Song; O Rechkoblit; T Bestor; D Patel

    2011-12-31

    Maintenance of genomic methylation patterns is mediated primarily by DNA methyltransferase-1 (DNMT1). We have solved structures of mouse and human DNMT1 composed of CXXC, tandem bromo-adjacent homology (BAH1/2), and methyltransferase domains bound to DNA-containing unmethylated CpG sites. The CXXC specifically binds to unmethylated CpG dinucleotide and positions the CXXC-BAH1 linker between the DNA and the active site of DNMT1, preventing de novo methylation. In addition, a loop projecting from BAH2 interacts with the target recognition domain (TRD) of the methyltransferase, stabilizing the TRD in a retracted position and preventing it from inserting into the DNA major groove. Our studies identify an autoinhibitory mechanism, in which unmethylated CpG dinucleotides are occluded from the active site to ensure that only hemimethylated CpG dinucleotides undergo methylation.

  7. Cell-specific DNA methylation patterns of retina-specific genes.

    PubMed

    Merbs, Shannath L; Khan, Miriam A; Hackler, Laszlo; Oliver, Verity F; Wan, Jun; Qian, Jiang; Zack, Donald J

    2012-01-01

    correlates inversely with their expression level. Furthermore, these cell-specific patterns suggest that DNA methylation may play an important role in modulating photoreceptor gene expression in the developing mammalian retina. PMID:22403679

  8. 5-Azacytidine Induces Transgene Silencing by DNA Methylation in Chinese Hamster Cells

    PubMed Central

    Broday, Limor; Lee, Yong-Woo; Costa, Max

    1999-01-01

    The cytosine analog 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC) is a demethylating agent that is also known to induce mutagenesis in mammalian cells. In this study, the mutagenic potential of this drug was tested in the G10 and G12 transgenic Chinese hamster cell lines, which have a single bacterial gpt gene integrated into the genome at different sites, with its expression driven by a simian virus 40 (SV40) promoter. We show that the mutation frequencies following a 48-h exposure to different concentrations of 5-AzaC were 10 to 20 times higher than those of any of the other numerous mutagens that have been tested in the G10-G12 system. Moreover, the mutation frequencies were much higher in the G10 cell line than in the G12 cells. Detailed molecular analysis of the 6-thioguanine (6-TG)-resistant variants demonstrated that transgene silencing by de novo DNA methylation and increased chromatin condensation in the SV40 promoter was the major factor responsible for this high level of 6-TG resistance. As would be expected, exposure to 5-AzaC lowered the overall genomic DNA methylation levels, but it unexpectedly caused hypermethylation and increased chromatin condensation of the transgene in both the G10 and G12 cell lines. These results provide the first evidence that 5-AzaC may also induce transgene-specific DNA methylation, a phenomenon that can further be used for the elucidation of the mechanism that controls silencing of foreign DNA. PMID:10082586

  9. DNA methylation and histone modification patterns during the late embryonic and early postnatal development of chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Changwu; Guo, Shuangshuang; Zhang, Ming; Gao, Jing; Guo, Yuming

    2015-04-01

    Early mammalian embryonic cells have been proven to be essential for embryonic development and the health of neonates. A series of epigenetic reprogramming events, including DNA methylation and histone modifications, occur during early embryonic development. However, epigenetic marks in late embryos and neonates are not well understood, especially in avian species. To investigate the epigenetic patterns of developing embryos and posthatched chicks, embryos at embryonic day 5 (E5), E8, E11, E14, E17, and E20 and newly hatched chicks on day of life 1 (D1), D7, D14, D21 were collected. The levels of global DNA methylation and histone H3 at lysine 9 residue (H3K9) modifications were measured in samples of liver, jejunum, and breast skeletal muscles by Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. According to our data, decreased levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression were found in the liver and a V-shaped pattern of proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression was found in the jejunum. The level of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in muscle was relatively stable. Caspase 3 expression gradually decreased over time in liver, was stable in the jejunum, and increased in muscle. Levels of DNA methylation and H3K9 acetylation decreased in liver over time, while the pattern was N-shaped in jejunal tissue and W-shaped in pectoral muscles, and these changes were accompanied by dynamic changes of DNA methyltransferases, histone acetyltransferases 1, and histone deacetylase 2. Moreover, dimethylation, trimethylation, and acetylation of H3K9 were expressed in a time- and tissue-dependent manner. After birth, epigenetic marks were relatively stable and found at lower levels. These results indicate that spatiotemporal specific epigenetic alterations could be critical for the late development of chick embryos and neonates. PMID:25691759

  10. Structural organization of replicon domains during DNA synthetic phase in the mammalian nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, H.; Morita, T.; Sato, C.

    1986-01-01

    In mammalian cells, it has been shown that adjacent multiple DNA replicons, termed a replicon cluster or a replicon domain, are replicated coordinately in a defined temporal order during the DNA synthetic (S) phase. However, no intranuclear structure of this replicon domain has been revealed in the nucleus labelled with (/sup 3/H)thymidine at the limited resolution level of autoradiography. Bu immunofluorescent staining with antibody against 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), we succeeded in detecting novel, intranuclear ring-like structures of replicating replicon domains that were organized temporarily during the S phase of mammalian cells with incorporated BrdU.

  11. Dissecting the role of aberrant DNA methylation in human leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Amabile, Giovanni; Di Ruscio, Annalisa; Müller, Fabian; Welner, Robert S; Yang, Henry; Ebralidze, Alexander K; Zhang, Hong; Levantini, Elena; Qi, Lihua; Martinelli, Giovanni; Brummelkamp, Thijn; Le Beau, Michelle M; Figueroa, Maria E; Bock, Christoph; Tenen, Daniel G

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by the genetic translocation t(9;22)(q34;q11.2) encoding for the BCR-ABL fusion oncogene. However, many molecular mechanisms of the disease progression still remain poorly understood. A growing body of evidence suggests that epigenetic abnormalities are involved in tyrosine kinase resistance in CML, leading to leukemic clone escape and disease propagation. Here we show that, by applying cellular reprogramming to primary CML cells, aberrant DNA methylation contributes to the disease evolution. Importantly, using a BCR-ABL inducible murine model, we demonstrate that a single oncogenic lesion triggers DNA methylation changes which in turn act as a precipitating event in leukemia progression. PMID:25997600

  12. Emerging technologies for studying DNA methylation for the molecular diagnosis of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marzese, Diego M.; Hoon, Dave S.B.

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that plays a key role in regulating gene expression and other functions. Although this modification is seen in different sequence contexts, the most frequently detected DNA methylation in mammals involves cytosine-guanine dinucleotides. Pathological alterations in DNA methylation patterns are described in a variety of human diseases, including cancer. Unlike genetic changes, DNA methylation is heavily influenced by subtle modifications in the cellular microenvironment. In all cancers, aberrant DNA methylation is involved in the alteration of a large number of oncological pathways with relevant theranostic utility. Several technologies for DNA methylation mapping were recently developed and successfully applied in cancer studies. The scope of these technologies varies from assessing a single cytosine-guanine locus to genome-wide distribution of DNA methylation. Here, we review the strengths and weaknesses of these approaches in the context of clinical utility for the molecular diagnosis of human cancers. PMID:25797072

  13. DNA methylation dynamics during in vivo differentiation of blood and skin stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Bock, Christoph; Beerman, Isabel; Lien, Wen-Hui; Smith, Zachary D.; Gu, Hongcang; Boyle, Patrick; Gnirke, Andreas; Fuchs, Elaine; Rossi, Derrick J.; Meissner, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is a mechanism of epigenetic regulation that is common to all vertebrates. Functional studies underscore its relevance for tissue homeostasis, but the global dynamics of DNA methylation during in vivo differentiation remain underexplored. Here we report high-resolution DNA methylation maps of adult stem cell differentiation in mouse, focusing on 19 purified cell populations of the blood and skin lineages. DNA methylation changes were locus-specific and relatively modest in magnitude. They frequently overlapped with lineage-associated transcription factors and their binding sites, suggesting that DNA methylation may protect cells from aberrant transcription factor activation. DNA methylation and gene expression provided complementary information, and combining the two enabled us to infer the cellular differentiation hierarchy of the blood lineage directly from genomic data. In summary, these results demonstrate that in vivo differentiation of adult stem cells is associated with small but informative changes in the genomic distribution of DNA methylation. PMID:22841485

  14. DNA Polymorphism Among American Watermelon Cultivars Based on DNA Methylation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    American watermelon heirlooms are diverse in their growth habits, fruit qualities and responses to biotic and abiotic stress. Wide ranging DNA marker tools resolved a narrow molecular diversity among these collections. The current research explored additional insights such as extent of diversity a...

  15. A genome-wide DNA methylation study in colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We performed a genome-wide scan of 27,578 CpG loci covering 14,475 genes to identify differentially methylated loci (DML) in colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Methods We used Illumina's Infinium methylation assay in paired DNA samples extracted from 24 fresh frozen CRC tissues and their corresponding normal colon tissues from 24 consecutive diagnosed patients at a tertiary medical center. Results We found a total of 627 DML in CRC covering 513 genes, of which 535 are novel DML covering 465 genes. We also validated the Illumina Infinium methylation data for top-ranking genes by non-bisulfite conversion q-PCR-based methyl profiler assay in a subset of the same samples. We also carried out integration of genome-wide copy number and expression microarray along with methylation profiling to see the functional effect of methylation. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) showed that among the major "gene sets" that are hypermethylated in CRC are the sets: "inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity by G-protein signaling", "Rac guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity", "regulation of retinoic acid receptor signaling pathway" and "estrogen receptor activity". Two-level nested cross validation showed that DML-based predictive models may offer reasonable sensitivity (around 89%), specificity (around 95%), positive predictive value (around 95%) and negative predictive value (around 89%), suggesting that these markers may have potential clinical application. Conclusion Our genome-wide methylation study in CRC clearly supports most of the previous findings; additionally we found a large number of novel DML in CRC tissue. If confirmed in future studies, these findings may lead to identification of genomic markers for potential clinical application. PMID:21699707

  16. DNA methylation dynamics in human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Koichiro; Umezawa, Akihiro

    2016-07-01

    Indeed human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are considered to be powerful tools in regenerative medicine. To enable the use of hiPSCs in the field of regenerative medicine, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms of reprogramming during the transformation of somatic cells into hiPSCs. Genome-wide epigenetic modification constitutes a critical event in the generation of iPSCs. In other words, to analyze epigenetic changes in iPSCs means to elucidate reprogramming processes. We have established a large number of hiPSCs derived from various human tissues and have obtained their DNA methylation profiles. Comparison analyses indicated that the epigenetic patterns of various hiPSCs, irrespective of their source tissue, were very similar to one another and were similar to those of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). However, the profiles of hiPSCs and hESCs exhibited epigenetic differences, which were caused by random aberrant hypermethylation at early passages. Interestingly, continuous passaging of the hiPSCs diminished the differences between DNA methylation profiles of hiPSCs and hESCs. The number of aberrant DNA methylation regions may thus represent a useful epigenetic index for evaluating hiPSCs in the context of therapeutic applications. PMID:27083573

  17. DNA methylation in Huntington's disease: Implications for transgenerational effects.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Elizabeth A

    2016-06-20

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating, neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat mutation in the HTT gene. A growing body of evidence suggests that epigenetic modifications play a key role in HD pathogenesis. Expression of the disease protein, huntingtin, leads to extensive transcriptional dysregulation due to disruption of histone-modifying complexes and altered interactions with chromatin-related factors. Such epigenetic mechanisms also readily respond to environmental factors, which are now thought to influence the risk, onset and progression of neurodegenerative disorders, including HD. DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that has been studied intensively, however, its role in HD is just emerging. In this review, DNA methylation differences associated with HD will be summarized, as well as the role of environmental factors to alter DNA methylation in a manner that could alter disease phenotypes. Further, transgenerational epigenetic inheritance will be discussed in the context of relevant environmental factors and their potential links to HD. The study of epigenetic states in HD presents an opportunity to gain new insights into risk factors and pathogenic mechanisms associated with HD, as well as to inform about treatment options. PMID:26522374

  18. DNA nucleoside composition and methylation in several species of microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvis, E.E.; Dunahay, T.G.; Brown, L.M. )

    1992-06-01

    Total DNA was isolated from 10 species of microalgae, including representatives of the Chlorophyceae (Chlorella ellipsoidea, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and Monoraphidium minutum), Bacillariophyceae (Cyclotella cryptica, Navicula saprophila, Nitzschia pusilla, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum), Charophyceae (Stichococcus sp.), Dinophyceae (Crypthecodinium cohnii), and Prasinophyceae (Tetraselmis suecica). Control samples of Escherichia coli and calf thymus DNA were also analyzed. The nucleoside base composition of each DNA sample was determined by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. All samples contained 5-methyldeoxycytidine, although at widely varying levels. In M. minutum, about one-third of the cytidine residues were methylated. Restriction analysis supported this high degree of methylation in M. minutum and suggested that methylation is biased toward 5[prime]-CG dinucleotides. The guanosine + cytosine (GC) contents of the green algae were, with the exception of Stichococcus sp., consistently higher than those of the diatoms. Monoraphidium minutum exhibited an extremely high GC content of 71%. Such a value is rare among eukaryotic organisms and might indicate an unusual codon usage. This work is important for developing strategies for transformation and gene cloning in these algae. 46 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  19. DNA methylation profiling of primary neuroblastoma tumors using methyl-CpG-binding domain sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Decock, Anneleen; Ongenaert, Maté; Van Criekinge, Wim; Speleman, Frank; Vandesompele, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive genome-wide DNA methylation studies in neuroblastoma (NB), a childhood tumor that originates from precursor cells of the sympathetic nervous system, are scarce. Recently, we profiled the DNA methylome of 102 well-annotated primary NB tumors by methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) sequencing, in order to identify prognostic biomarker candidates. In this data descriptor, we give details on how this data set was generated and which bioinformatics analyses were applied during data processing. Through a series of technical validations, we illustrate that the data are of high quality and that the sequenced fragments represent methylated genomic regions. Furthermore, genes previously described to be methylated in NB are confirmed. As such, these MBD sequencing data are a valuable resource to further study the association of NB risk factors with the NB methylome, and offer the opportunity to integrate methylome data with other -omic data sets on the same tumor samples such as gene copy number and gene expression, also publically available. PMID:26836295

  20. Quantitative PCR-Based Measurement of Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Damage and Repair in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Furda, Amy; Santos, Janine H.; Meyer, Joel N.; Van Houten, Bennett

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe a gene-specific quantitative PCR (QPCR)-based assay for the measurement of DNA damage, using amplification of long DNA targets. This assay has been used extensively to measure the integrity of both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes exposed to different genotoxins and has proven to be particularly valuable in identifying reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial DNA damage. QPCR can be used to quantify both the formation of DNA damage as well as the kinetics of damage removal. One of the main strengths of the assay is that it permits monitoring the integrity of mtDNA directly from total cellular DNA without the need for isolating mitochondria or a separate step of mitochondrial DNA purification. Here we discuss advantages and limitations of using QPCR to assay DNA damage in mammalian cells. In addition, we give a detailed protocol of the QPCR assay that helps facilitate its successful deployment in any molecular biology laboratory. PMID:24623245

  1. Choline nutrition programs brain development via DNA and histone methylation.

    PubMed

    Blusztajn, Jan Krzysztof; Mellott, Tiffany J

    2012-06-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient for humans. Metabolically choline is used for the synthesis of membrane phospholipids (e.g. phosphatidylcholine), as a precursor of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and, following oxidation to betaine, choline functions as a methyl group donor in a pathway that produces S-adenosylmethionine. As a methyl donor choline influences DNA and histone methylation--two central epigenomic processes that regulate gene expression. Because the fetus and neonate have high demands for choline, its dietary intake during pregnancy and lactation is particularly important for normal development of the offspring. Studies in rodents have shown that high choline intake during gestation improves cognitive function in adulthood and prevents memory decline associated with old age. These behavioral changes are accompanied by electrophysiological, neuroanatomical, and neurochemical changes and by altered patterns of expression of multiple cortical and hippocampal genes including those encoding key proteins that contribute to the biochemical mechanisms of learning and memory. These actions of choline are observed long after the exposure to the nutrient ended (months) and correlate with fetal hepatic and cerebral cortical choline-evoked changes in global- and gene-specific DNA cytosine methylation and with dramatic changes of the methylation pattern of lysine residues 4, 9 and 27 of histone H3. Moreover, gestational choline modulates the expression of DNA (Dnmt1, Dnmt3a) and histone (G9a/Ehmt2/Kmt1c, Suv39h1/Kmt1a) methyltransferases. In addition to the central role of DNA and histone methylation in brain development, these processes are highly dynamic in adult brain, modulate the expression of genes critical for synaptic plasticity, and are involved in mechanisms of learning and memory. A recent study documented that in a cohort of normal elderly people, verbal and visual memory function correlated positively with the amount of dietary choline consumption

  2. New strategy to address DNA-methyl transferase activity in ovarian cancer cell cultures by monitoring the formation of 5-methylcytosine using HPLC-UV.

    PubMed

    Iglesias González, T; Blanco-González, E; Montes-Bayón, M

    2016-08-15

    Methylation of mammalian genomic DNA is catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). Aberrant expression and activity of these enzymes has been reported to play an important role in the initiation and progression of tumors and its response to chemotherapy. Therefore, there is a great interest in developing strategies to detect human DNMTs activity. We propose a simple, antibody-free, label-free and non-radioactive analytical strategy in which methyltransferase activity is measured trough the determination of the 5-methylcytosine (5mC) content in DNA by a chromatographic method (HPLC-UV) previously developed. For this aim, a correlation between the enzyme activity and the concentration of 5mC obtained by HPLC-UV is previously obtained under optimized conditions using both, un-methylated and hemi-methylated DNA substrates and the prokaryotic methyltransferase M.SssI as model enzyme. The evaluation of the methylation yield in un-methylated known sequences (a 623bp PCR-amplicon) turned to be quantitative (110%) in experiments conducted in-vitro. Methylation of hemi-methylated and low-methylated sequences could be also detected with the proposed approach. The application of the methodology to the determination of the DNMTs activity in nuclear extracts from human ovarian cancer cells has revealed the presence of matrix effects (also confirmed by standard additions) that hampered quantitative enzyme recovery. The obtained results showed the high importance of adequate sample clean-up steps. PMID:27318640

  3. Purification of mammalian DNA repair protein XRCC1

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, I.

    1995-11-01

    Malfunctioning DNA repair systems lead to cancer mutations, and cell death. XRCC1 (X-ray Repair Cross Complementing) is a human DNA repair gene that has been found to fully correct the x-ray repair defect in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutant EM9. The corresponding protein (XRCC1) encoded by this gene has been linked to a DNA repair pathway known as base excision repair, and affects the activity of DNA ligase III. Previously, an XRCC1 cDNA minigene (consisting of the uninterrupted coding sequence for XRCC1 protein followed by a decahistidine tag) was constructed and cloned into vector pET-16b for the purpose of: (1) overproduction of XRCC1 in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; and (2) to facilitate rapid purification of XRCC1 from these systems. A vector is basically a DNA carrier that allows recombinant protein to be cloned and overexpressed in host cells. In this study, XRCC1 protein was overexpressed in E. coli and purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Currently, the XRCC1 minigene is being inserted into a new vector [pET-26b(+)] in hopes to increase overexpression and improve purification. Once purified XRCC1 can be crystallized for structural studies, or studied in vitro for its biological function.

  4. Complexes of DNA with cationic peptides: conditions of formation and factors effecting internalization by mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Dizhe, E B; Ignatovich, I A; Burov, S V; Pohvoscheva, A V; Akifiev, B N; Efremov, A M; Perevozchikov, A P; Orlov, S V

    2006-12-01

    This work was devoted to the study of conditions of the formation of DNA/K8 complex and analysis of factors effecting the entry of DNA/K8 complex into mammalian cells in comparison with DNA complexes with arginine-rich fragment (47-57) of human immunodeficiency virus (type 1) transcription factor Tat (Tat peptide). The stoichiometry of positively charged DNA/K8 complexes has been studied for the first time. Non-cooperative character of DNA-K8 interaction was revealed. It has been shown that along with the positive charge of such complexes, the presence of an excess of free K8 peptide in the culture medium is a necessary condition for maximal efficiency of cell transfection with DNA/K8 complexes. A stimulatory effect of free K8 peptide on the efficiency of mammalian cell transfection by DNA/K8 complexes is likely to be mediated by the interactions of cationic peptide K8 with negatively charged proteoglycans on the cell surface, which leads to protection of DNA/K8 complexes from disruption by cellular heparan sulfates. However, the protective role of free cationic peptides depends not only on their positive charge, but also on the primary structure of the peptide. In contrast with the results obtained for DNA complexes with molecular conjugates based on poly-L-lysine, the aggregation of DNA/K8 complexes leads to a significant increase in the expression of transferred gene. PMID:17223788

  5. Characterization of Dnmt1 Binding and DNA Methylation on Nucleosomes and Nucleosomal Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Thalhammer, Verena; Längst, Gernot

    2015-01-01

    The packaging of DNA into nucleosomes and the organisation into higher order structures of chromatin limits the access of sequence specific DNA binding factors to DNA. In cells, DNA methylation is preferentially occuring in the linker region of nucleosomes, suggesting a structural impact of chromatin on DNA methylation. These observations raise the question whether DNA methyltransferases are capable to recognize the nucleosomal substrates and to modify the packaged DNA. Here, we performed a detailed analysis of nucleosome binding and nucleosomal DNA methylation by the maintenance DNA methyltransferase Dnmt1. Our binding studies show that Dnmt1 has a DNA length sensing activity, binding cooperatively to DNA, and requiring a minimal DNA length of 20 bp. Dnmt1 needs linker DNA to bind to nucleosomes and most efficiently recognizes nucleosomes with symmetric DNA linkers. Footprinting experiments reveal that Dnmt1 binds to both DNA linkers exiting the nucleosome core. The binding pattern correlates with the efficient methylation of DNA linkers. However, the enzyme lacks the ability to methylate nucleosomal CpG sites on mononucleosomes and nucleosomal arrays, unless chromatin remodeling enzymes create a dynamic chromatin state. In addition, our results show that Dnmt1 functionally interacts with specific chromatin remodeling enzymes to enable complete methylation of hemi-methylated DNA in chromatin. PMID:26496704

  6. Heavy ion induced DNA-DSB in yeast and mammalian cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loebrich, M.; Ikpeme, S.; Kiefer, J.

    1994-01-01

    Molecular changes at the DNA are assumed to be the main cause for radiation effects in a number of organisms. During the course of the last decades techniques have been developed for measuring DNA double-strand breaks (dsb), generally assumed to be the most critical DNA lesions. The outcome of all those different approaches portrays a collection of data useful for a theoretical description of radiation action mechanisms. However, in the case of heavy ion induced DNA dsb the picture is not quite clear yet and further projects and strategies have to be developed. The biological systems studied in our group are yeast and mammalian cells. While in the case of yeast cells technical and methodical reasons highlight these organisms mammalian cells reach greater importance when dsb repair studies are performed. In both types of organisms the technique of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is applied, although with different modifications and evaluation procedures mainly due to the different genome sizes.

  7. Nuclear reorganization of mammalian DNA synthesis prior to cell cycle exit.

    PubMed

    Barbie, David A; Kudlow, Brian A; Frock, Richard; Zhao, Jiyong; Johnson, Brett R; Dyson, Nicholas; Harlow, Ed; Kennedy, Brian K

    2004-01-01

    In primary mammalian cells, DNA replication initiates in a small number of perinucleolar, lamin A/C-associated foci. During S-phase progression in proliferating cells, replication foci distribute to hundreds of sites throughout the nucleus. In contrast, we find that the limited perinucleolar replication sites persist throughout S phase as cells prepare to exit the cell cycle in response to contact inhibition, serum starvation, or replicative senescence. Proteins known to be involved in DNA synthesis, such as PCNA and DNA polymerase delta, are concentrated in perinucleolar foci throughout S phase under these conditions. Moreover, chromosomal loci are redirected toward the nucleolus and overlap with the perinucleolar replication foci in cells poised to undergo cell cycle exit. These same loci remain in the periphery of the nucleus during replication under highly proliferative conditions. These results suggest that mammalian cells undergo a large-scale reorganization of chromatin during the rounds of DNA replication that precede cell cycle exit. PMID:14701733

  8. Global and gene-specific DNA methylation pattern discriminates cholecystitis from gallbladder cancer patients in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Kagohara, Luciane Tsukamoto; Schussel, Juliana L; Subbannayya, Tejaswini; Sahasrabuddhe, Nandini; Lebron, Cynthia; Brait, Mariana; Maldonado, Leonel; Valle, Blanca L; Pirini, Francesca; Jahuira, Martha; Lopez, Jaime; Letelier, Pablo; Brebi-Mieville, Priscilla; Ili, Carmen; Pandey, Akhilesh; Chatterjee, Aditi; Sidransky, David; Guerrero-Preston, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of global and gene-specific DNA methylation changes as potential biomarkers for gallbladder cancer (GBC) in a cohort from Chile. Material & methods DNA methylation was analyzed through an ELISA-based technique and quantitative methylation-specific PCR. Results Global DNA Methylation Index (p = 0.02) and promoter methylation of SSBP2 (p = 0.01) and ESR1 (p = 0.05) were significantly different in GBC when compared with cholecystitis. Receiver curve operator analysis revealed promoter methylation of APC, CDKN2A, ESR1, PGP9.5 and SSBP2, together with the Global DNA Methylation Index, had 71% sensitivity, 95% specificity, a 0.97 area under the curve and a positive predictive value of 90%. Conclusion Global and gene-specific DNA methylation may be useful biomarkers for GBC clinical assessment. PMID:25066711

  9. Is There a Relationship between DNA Methylation and Phenotypic Plasticity in Invertebrates?

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Steven B.; Gavery, Mackenzie R.

    2011-01-01

    There is a significant amount of variation in DNA methylation characteristics across organisms. Likewise, the biological role of DNA methylation varies across taxonomic lineages. The complexity of DNA methylation patterns in invertebrates has only recently begun to be characterized in-depth. In some invertebrate species that have been examined to date, methylated DNA is found primarily within coding regions and patterning is closely associated with gene function. Here we provide a perspective on the potential role of DNA methylation in these invertebrates with a focus on how limited methylation may contribute to increased phenotypic plasticity in highly fluctuating environments. Specifically, limited methylation could facilitate a variety of transcriptional opportunities including access to alternative transcription start sites, increasing sequence mutations, exon skipping, and transient methylation. PMID:22232607

  10. Role of DNA methylation and the DNA methyltransferases in learning and memory

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Michael J.; Monteggia, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic regulation of chromatin structure in postmitotic neurons plays an important role in learning and memory. Methylation of cytosine nucleotides has historically been considered the strongest and least modifiable of epigenetic marks. Accumulating recent data suggest that rapid and dynamic methylation and demethylation of specific genes in the brain may play a fundamental role in learning, memory formation, and behavioral plasticity. The current review focuses on the emergence of data that support the role of DNA methylation and demethylation, and its molecular mediators in memory formation. PMID:25364286

  11. Novel features of telomere biology revealed by the absence of telomeric DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Vega-Vaquero, Alejandro; Bonora, Giancarlo; Morselli, Marco; Vaquero-Sedas, María I; Rubbi, Liudmilla; Pellegrini, Matteo; Vega-Palas, Miguel A

    2016-08-01

    Cytosine methylation regulates the length and stability of telomeres, which can affect a wide variety of biological features, including cell differentiation, development, or illness. Although it is well established that subtelomeric regions are methylated, the presence of methylated cytosines at telomeres has remained controversial. Here, we have analyzed multiple bisulfite sequencing studies to address the methylation status of Arabidopsis thaliana telomeres. We found that the levels of estimated telomeric DNA methylation varied among studies. Interestingly, we estimated higher levels of telomeric DNA methylation in studies that produced C-rich telomeric strands with lower efficiency. However, these high methylation estimates arose due to experimental limitations of the bisulfite technique. We found a similar phenomenon for mitochondrial DNA: The levels of mitochondrial DNA methylation detected were higher in experiments with lower mitochondrial read production efficiencies. Based on experiments with high telomeric C-rich strand production efficiencies, we concluded that Arabidopsis telomeres are not methylated, which was confirmed by methylation-dependent restriction enzyme analyses. Thus, our studies indicate that telomeres are refractory to de novo DNA methylation by the RNA-directed DNA methylation machinery. This result, together with previously reported data, reveals that subtelomeric DNA methylation controls the homeostasis of telomere length. PMID:27405804

  12. Transcriptional Regulation in Mammalian Cells by Sequence-Specific DNA Binding Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Pamela J.; Tjian, Robert

    1989-07-01

    The cloning of genes encoding mammalian DNA binding transcription factors for RNA polymerase II has provided the opportunity to analyze the structure and function of these proteins. This review summarizes recent studies that define structural domains for DNA binding and transcriptional activation functions in sequence-specific transcription factors. The mechanisms by which these factors may activate transcriptional initiation and by which they may be regulated to achieve differential gene expression are also discussed.

  13. Adeno-associated Virus as a Mammalian DNA Vector

    PubMed Central

    SALGANIK, MAX; HIRSCH, MATTHEW L.; SAMULSKI, RICHARD JUDE

    2015-01-01

    In the nearly five decades since its accidental discovery, adeno-associated virus (AAV) has emerged as a highly versatile vector system for both research and clinical applications. A broad range of natural serotypes, as well as an increasing number of capsid variants, has combined to produce a repertoire of vectors with different tissue tropisms, immunogenic profiles and transduction efficiencies. The story of AAV is one of continued progress and surprising discoveries in a viral system that, at first glance, is deceptively simple. This apparent simplicity has enabled the advancement of AAV into the clinic, where despite some challenges it has provided hope for patients and a promising new tool for physicians. Although a great deal of work remains to be done, both in studying the basic biology of AAV and in optimizing its clinical application, AAV vectors are currently the safest and most efficient platform for gene transfer in mammalian cells. PMID:26350320

  14. Elucidating the Landscape of Aberrant DNA Methylation in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Song, Min-Ae; Tiirikainen, Maarit; Kwee, Sandi; Okimoto, Gordon; Yu, Herbert; Wong, Linda L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers and frequently presents with an advanced disease at diagnosis. There is only limited knowledge of genome-scale methylation changes in HCC. Methods and Findings We performed genome-wide methylation profiling in a total of 47 samples including 27 HCC and 20 adjacent normal liver tissues using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. We focused on differential methylation patterns in the promoter CpG islands as well as in various less studied genomic regions such as those surrounding the CpG islands, i.e. shores and shelves. Of the 485,577 loci studied, significant differential methylation (DM) was observed between HCC and adjacent normal tissues at 62,692 loci or 13% (p<1.03e-07). Of them, 61,058 loci (97%) were hypomethylated and most of these loci were located in the intergenic regions (43%) or gene bodies (33%). Our analysis also identified 10,775 differentially methylated (DM) loci (17% out of 62,692 loci) located in or surrounding the gene promoters, 4% of which reside in known Differentially Methylated Regions (DMRs) including reprogramming specific DMRs and cancer specific DMRs, while the rest (10,315) involving 4,106 genes could be potential new HCC DMR loci. Interestingly, the promoter-related DM loci occurred twice as frequently in the shores than in the actual CpG islands. We further characterized 982 DM loci in the promoter CpG islands to evaluate their potential biological function and found that the methylation changes could have effect on the signaling networks of Cellular development, Gene expression and Cell death (p = 1.0e-38), with BMP4, CDKN2A, GSTP1, and NFATC1 on the top of the gene list. Conclusion Substantial changes of DNA methylation at a genome-wide level were observed in HCC. Understanding epigenetic changes in HCC will help to elucidate the pathogenesis and may eventually lead to identification of molecular markers for liver cancer diagnosis, treatment and

  15. Effects of TET2 mutations on DNA methylation in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TET2 enzymatically converts 5-methyl-cytosine to 5-hydroxymethyl-cytosine, possibly leading to loss of DNA methylation. TET2 mutations are common in myeloid leukemia and were proposed to contribute to leukemogenesis through DNA methylation. To expand on this concept, we studied chronic myelomonocyti...

  16. DNA damage in mammalian cells following heavy-ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Rosander, K.; Frankel, K.A.; Cerda, H.; Phillips, M.H.; Lo, E.H.; Fabrikant, I.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Levy, R.P.

    1989-09-01

    In our laboratory we have been investigating DNA damage and repair in the endothelial and oligodendroglial cells of the mouse brain after irradiation using two different types of heavy ions, helium and neon. The method used, the unwinding technique with subsequent staining of the DNA with acridine orange, has been proven to be useful for nondividing cells and analysis using a microscope photometric technique. Our primary goal has been to obtain a measure of RBE, in the dose range used in clinical treatment of various brain disorders using heavy charged particle radiosurgery. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  17. CHST11 gene expression and DNA methylation in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    HERMAN, DAMIR; LEAKEY, TATIANA I.; BEHRENS, ALICE; YAO-BORENGASSER, AIWEI; COONEY, CRAIG A.; JOUSHEGHANY, FARIBA; PHANAVANH, BOUNLEUT; SIEGEL, ERIC R.; SAFAR, A. MAZIN; KOROURIAN, SOHEILA; KIEBER-EMMONS, THOMAS; MONZAVI-KARBASSI, BEHJATOLAH

    2015-01-01

    Our previously published data link P-selectin-reactive chondroitin sulfate structures on the surface of breast cancer cells to metastatic behavior of cells. We have shown that a particular sulfation pattern mediated by the expression of carbohydrate (chondroitin 4) sulfotransferase-11 (CHST11) correlates with P-selectin binding and aggressiveness of human breast cancer cell lines. The present study was performed to evaluate the prognostic value of CHST11 expression and determine whether aberrant DNA methylation controls CHST11 expression in breast cancer. Publicly available datasets were used to examine the association of CHST11 expression to aggressiveness and progression of breast cancer. Methylation status was analyzed using bisulfite genomic sequencing. 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5AzadC) was used for DNA demethylation. Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing was performed in the CpG island of CHST11 with a minimum coverage of 10. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was employed to confirm the expression profile of CHST11 in breast cancer cell lines. Flow cytometry was also used to confirm the expression of the CHST11 product, chondroitin sulfate A (CS-A). The expression of CHST11 was significantly higher in basal-like and Her2-amplified cell lines compared to luminal cell lines. CHST11 was also highly expressed in cancer tissues compared to normal tissues and the expression levels were significantly associated with tumor progression. We observed very low levels of DNA methylation in a CpG island of CHST11 in basal-like cells but very high levels in the same region in luminal cells. Treatment of MCF7 cells, a luminal cell line with very low expression of CHST11, with 5AzadC increased the expression of CHST11 and its immediate product, CS-A, in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that CHST11 may play a direct role in progression of breast cancer and that its expression is controlled by DNA methylation. Therefore, in addition to CHST11 mRNA levels, the

  18. Impact of Methylation on the Physical Properties of DNA

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Alberto; Castellazzi, Chiara Lara; Battistini, Federica; Collinet, Kathryn; Flores, Oscar; Deniz, Ozgen; Ruiz, Maria Luz; Torrents, David; Eritja, Ramon; Soler-López, Montserrat; Orozco, Modesto

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for the presence of an alternative code imprinted in the genome that might contribute to gene expression regulation through an indirect reading mechanism. In mammals, components of this coarse-grained regulatory mechanism include chromatin structure and epigenetic signatures, where d(CpG) nucleotide steps are key players. We report a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of d(CpG) steps that provides a detailed description of their physical characteristics and the impact of cytosine methylation on these properties. We observed that methylation changes the physical properties of d(CpG) steps, having a dramatic effect on enriched CpG segments, such as CpG islands. We demonstrate that methylation reduces the affinity of DNA to assemble into nucleosomes, and can affect nucleosome positioning around transcription start sites. Overall, our results suggest a mechanism by which the basic physical properties of the DNA fiber can explain parts of the cellular epigenetic regulatory mechanisms. PMID:22824278

  19. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Nobuhisa; Yasui, Kohichiroh; Dohi, Osamu; Gen, Yasuyuki; Tomie, Akira; Kitaichi, Tomoko; Iwai, Naoto; Mitsuyoshi, Hironori; Sumida, Yoshio; Moriguchi, Michihisa; Yamaguchi, Kanji; Nishikawa, Taichiro; Umemura, Atsushi; Naito, Yuji; Tanaka, Shinji; Arii, Shigeki; Itoh, Yoshito

    2016-04-01

    Epigenetic changes as well as genetic changes are mechanisms of tumorigenesis. We aimed to identify novel genes that are silenced by DNA hypermethylation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We screened for genes with promoter DNA hypermethylation using a genome-wide methylation microarray analysis in primary HCC (the discovery set). The microarray analysis revealed that there were 2,670 CpG sites that significantly differed in regards to the methylation level between the tumor and non-tumor liver tissues; 875 were significantly hypermethylated and 1,795 were significantly hypomethylated in the HCC tumors compared to the non‑tumor tissues. Further analyses using methylation-specific PCR, combined with expression analysis, in the validation set of primary HCC showed that, in addition to three known tumor-suppressor genes (APC, CDKN2A, and GSTP1), eight genes (AKR1B1, GRASP, MAP9, NXPE3, RSPH9, SPINT2, STEAP4, and ZNF154) were significantly hypermethylated and downregulated in the HCC tumors compared to the non-tumor liver tissues. Our results suggest that epigenetic silencing of these genes may be associated with HCC. PMID:26883180

  20. Enhanced Genotoxicity of Silver Nanoparticles in DNA Repair Deficient Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hui Kheng; Asharani, P. V.; Hande, M. Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-np) have been used in medicine and commercially due to their anti-microbial properties. Therapeutic potentials of these nanoparticles are being explored extensively despite the lack of information on their mechanism of action at molecular and cellular level. Here, we have investigated the DNA damage response and repair following Ag-np treatment in mammalian cells. Studies have shown that Ag-np exerts genotoxicity through double-strand breaks (DSBs). DNA-PKcs, the catalytic subunit of DNA dependent protein kinase, is an important caretaker of the genome which is known to be the main player mediating Non-homologous End-Joining (NHEJ) repair pathway. We hypothesize that DNA-PKcs is responsible for the repair of Ag-np induced DNA damage. In vitro studies have been carried out to investigate both cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by Ag-np in normal human cells, DNA-PKcs proficient, and deficient mammalian cells. Chemical inhibition of DNA-PKcs activity with NU7026, an ATP-competitive inhibitor of DNA-PKcs, has been performed to further validate the role of DNA-PKcs in this model. Our results suggest that Ag-np induced more prominent dose-dependent decrease in cell viability in DNA-PKcs deficient or inhibited cells. The deficiency or inhibition of DNA-PKcs renders the cells with higher susceptibility to DNA damage and genome instability which in turn contributed to greater cell cycle arrest/cell death. These findings support the fact that DNA-PKcs is involved in the repair of Ag-np induced genotoxicity and NHEJ repair pathway and DNA-PKcs particularly is activated to safeguard the genome upon Ag-np exposure. PMID:22707954

  1. DNA methylation, an epigenetic mechanism connecting folate to healthy embryonic development and aging

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyong-chol; Friso, Simonetta; Choi, Sang-Woon

    2009-01-01

    Experimental studies demonstrated that maternal exposure to certain environmental and dietary factors during early embryonic development can influence the phenotype of offspring as well as the risk of disease development at the later life. DNA methylation, an epigenetic phenomenon, has been suggested as a mechanism by which maternal nutrients affect the phenotype of their offspring in both honeybee and agouti mouse models. Phenotypic changes through DNA methylation can be linked to folate metabolism by the knowledge that folate, a coenzyme of one-carbon metabolism, is directly involved in methyl group transfer for DNA methylation. During the fetal period, organ-specific DNA methylation patterns are established through epigenetic reprogramming. However, established DNA methylation patterns are not immutable and can be modified during our life time by the environment. Aberrant changes in DNA methylation with diet may lead to the development of age-associated diseases including cancer. It is also known that the aging process by itself is accompanied by alterations in DNA methylation. Diminished activity of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) can be a potential mechanism for the decreased genomic DNA methylation during aging, along with reduced folate intake and altered folate metabolism. Progressive hypermethylation in promoter regions of certain genes is observed throughout aging and repression of tumor suppressors induced by this epigenetic mechanism appears to be associated with cancer development. In this review we address the effect of folate on early development and aging through an epigenetic mechanism, DNA methylation. PMID:19733471

  2. Common DNA methylation alterations in multiple brain regions in autism

    PubMed Central

    Ladd-Acosta, Christine; Hansen, Kasper D.; Briem, Eirikur; Fallin, M. Daniele; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Feinberg, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are increasingly common neurodevelopmental disorders defined clinically by a triad of features including impairment in social interaction, impairment in communication in social situations, and restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior and interests, with considerable phenotypic heterogeneity among individuals. Although heritability estimates for ASD are high, conventional genetic-based efforts to identify genes involved in ASD have yielded only few reproducible candidate genes that account for only a small proportion of ASDs. There is mounting evidence to suggest environmental and epigenetic factors play a stronger role in the etiology of ASD than previously thought. To begin to understand the contribution of epigenetics to ASD, we have examined DNA methylation (DNAm) in a pilot study of post-mortem brain tissue from 19 autism cases and 21 unrelated controls, among three brain regions including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, temporal cortex, and cerebellum. We measured over 485,000 CpG loci across a diverse set of functionally relevant genomic regions using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip and identified 4 genome-wide significant differentially methylated regions (DMRs) using a novel bumphunting approach and a permutation-based multiple testing correction method. We replicated 3/4 DMRs identified in our genome-wide screen in a different set of samples and across different brain regions. The DMRs identified in this study represent suggestive evidence for commonly altered methylation sites in ASD and provide several promising new candidate genes. PMID:23999529

  3. Cell-Wide DNA De-Methylation and Re-Methylation of Purkinje Neurons in the Developing Cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Feng C; Resendiz, Marisol; Lo, Chiao-Ling; Chen, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Global DNA de-methylation is thought to occur only during pre-implantation and gametogenesis in mammals. Scalable, cell-wide de-methylation has not been demonstrated beyond totipotent stages. Here, we observed a large scale de-methylation and subsequent re-methylation (CDR) (including 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxylmethylcytosine (5hmC)) in post-mitotic cerebellar Purkinje cells (PC) through the course of normal development. Through single cell immuno-identification and cell-specific quantitative methylation assays, we demonstrate that the CDR event is an intrinsically scheduled program, occurring in nearly every PC. Meanwhile, cerebellar granule cells and basket interneurons adopt their own DNA methylation program, independent of PCs. DNA de-methylation was further demonstrated at the gene level, on genes pertinent to PC development. The PC, being one of the largest neurons in the brain, may showcase an amplified epigenetic cycle which may mediate stage transformation including cell cycle arrest, vast axonal-dendritic growth, and synaptogenesis at the onset of neuronal specificity. This discovery is a key step toward better understanding the breadth and role of DNA methylation and de-methylation during neural ontology. PMID:27583369

  4. A neutrality test for detecting selection on DNA methylation using single methylation polymorphism frequency spectrum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Fan, Chuanzhu

    2015-01-01

    Inheritable epigenetic mutations (epimutations) can contribute to transmittable phenotypic variation. Thus, epimutations can be subject to natural selection and impact the fitness and evolution of organisms. Based on the framework of the modified Tajima's D test for DNA mutations, we developed a neutrality test with the statistic "D(m)" to detect selection forces on DNA methylation mutations using single methylation polymorphisms. With computer simulation and empirical data analysis, we compared the D(m) test with the original and modified Tajima's D tests and demonstrated that the D(m) test is suitable for detecting selection on epimutations and outperforms original/modified Tajima's D tests. Due to the higher resetting rate of epimutations, the interpretation of D(m) on epimutations and Tajima's D test on DNA mutations could be different in inferring natural selection. Analyses using simulated and empirical genome-wide polymorphism data suggested that genes under genetic and epigenetic selections behaved differently. We applied the D(m) test to recently originated Arabidopsis and human genes, and showed that newly evolved genes contain higher level of rare epialleles, suggesting that epimutation may play a role in origination and evolution of genes and genomes. Overall, we demonstrate the utility of the D(m) test to detect whether the loci are under selection regarding DNA methylation. Our analytical metrics and methodology could contribute to our understanding of evolutionary processes of genes and genomes in the field of epigenetics. The Perl script for the "D(m)" test is available at http://fanlab.wayne.edu/ (last accessed December 18, 2014). PMID:25539727

  5. Epigenetic features in the oyster Crassostrea gigas suggestive of functionally relevant promoter DNA methylation in invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Rivière, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is evolutionarily conserved. Vertebrates exhibit high, widespread DNA methylation whereas invertebrate genomes are less methylated, predominantly within gene bodies. DNA methylation in invertebrates is associated with transcription level, alternative splicing, and genome evolution, but functional outcomes of DNA methylation remain poorly described in lophotrochozoans. Recent genome-wide approaches improve understanding in distant taxa such as molluscs, where the phylogenetic position, and life traits of Crassostrea gigas make this bivalve an ideal model to study the physiological and evolutionary implications of DNA methylation. We review the literature about DNA methylation in invertebrates and focus on DNA methylation features in the oyster. Indeed, though our MeDIP-seq results confirm predominant intragenic methylation, the profiles depend on the oyster's developmental and reproductive stage. We discuss the perspective that oyster DNA methylation could be biased toward the 5'-end of some genes, depending on physiological status, suggesting important functional outcomes of putative promoter methylation from cell differentiation during early development to sustained adaptation of the species to the environment. PMID:24778620

  6. Epigenetic features in the oyster Crassostrea gigas suggestive of functionally relevant promoter DNA methylation in invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Rivière, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is evolutionarily conserved. Vertebrates exhibit high, widespread DNA methylation whereas invertebrate genomes are less methylated, predominantly within gene bodies. DNA methylation in invertebrates is associated with transcription level, alternative splicing, and genome evolution, but functional outcomes of DNA methylation remain poorly described in lophotrochozoans. Recent genome-wide approaches improve understanding in distant taxa such as molluscs, where the phylogenetic position, and life traits of Crassostrea gigas make this bivalve an ideal model to study the physiological and evolutionary implications of DNA methylation. We review the literature about DNA methylation in invertebrates and focus on DNA methylation features in the oyster. Indeed, though our MeDIP-seq results confirm predominant intragenic methylation, the profiles depend on the oyster's developmental and reproductive stage. We discuss the perspective that oyster DNA methylation could be biased toward the 5′-end of some genes, depending on physiological status, suggesting important functional outcomes of putative promoter methylation from cell differentiation during early development to sustained adaptation of the species to the environment. PMID:24778620

  7. Purified canola lutein selectively inhibits specific isoforms of mammalian DNA polymerases and reduces inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Horie, Sho; Okuda, Chiaki; Yamashita, Takatoshi; Watanabe, Kenichi; Kuramochi, Kouji; Hosokawa, Masashi; Takeuchi, Toshifumi; Kakuda, Makiko; Miyashita, Kazuo; Sugawara, Fumio; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2010-08-01

    In the screening of DNA polymerase (pol) inhibitor, we isolated lutein, a carotenoid, from the crude (unrefined) pressed oil of canola (low erucic acid rapeseed, Brassica napus L.). Commercially prepared carotenoids such as lutein (1), zeaxanthin (2), beta-cryptoxanthin (3), astaxanthin (4), canthaxanthin (5), beta-carotene (6), lycopene (7), capsanthin (8), fucoxanthin (9) and fucoxanthinol (10), were investigated for the inhibitory activities of pols. Compounds 1, 2 and 8 exhibited strong inhibition of the activities of mammalian pols beta and lambda, which are DNA repair- and/or recombination-related pols. On the other hand, all carotenoids tested had no influence on the activity of a mammalian pol alpha, which is a DNA replicative pol. Lutein (1) was the strongest pol inhibitor of mammalian pols beta and lambda in the prepared ten carotenoids tested, but did not influence of the activities of mammalian pols alpha, gamma, delta and epsilon. The tendency for pols beta and lambda inhibition by these carotenoids showed a positive correlation with the suppression of TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate)-induced inflammation. These results suggest that cold pressed unrefined canola/rapeseed oil, or other oils with high levels of lutein and other carotenoids, may be useful for their anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:20669052

  8. Evolutionary Transition of Promoter and Gene Body DNA Methylation across Invertebrate–Vertebrate Boundary

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Thomas E.; Han, Priscilla; Yi, Soojin V.

    2016-01-01

    Genomes of invertebrates and vertebrates exhibit highly divergent patterns of DNA methylation. Invertebrate genomes tend to be sparsely methylated, and DNA methylation is mostly targeted to a subset of transcription units (gene bodies). In a drastic contrast, vertebrate genomes are generally globally and heavily methylated, punctuated by the limited local hypo-methylation of putative regulatory regions such as promoters. These genomic differences also translate into functional differences in DNA methylation and gene regulation. Although promoter DNA methylation is an important regulatory component of vertebrate gene expression, its role in invertebrate gene regulation has been little explored. Instead, gene body DNA methylation is associated with expression of invertebrate genes. However, the evolutionary steps leading to the differentiation of invertebrate and vertebrate genomic DNA methylation remain unresolved. Here we analyzed experimentally determined DNA methylation maps of several species across the invertebrate–vertebrate boundary, to elucidate how vertebrate gene methylation has evolved. We show that, in contrast to the prevailing idea, a substantial number of promoters in an invertebrate basal chordate Ciona intestinalis are methylated. Moreover, gene expression data indicate significant, epigenomic context-dependent associations between promoter methylation and expression in C. intestinalis. However, there is no evidence that promoter methylation in invertebrate chordate has been evolutionarily maintained across the invertebrate–vertebrate boundary. Rather, body-methylated invertebrate genes preferentially obtain hypo-methylated promoters among vertebrates. Conversely, promoter methylation is preferentially found in lineage- and tissue-specific vertebrate genes. These results provide important insights into the evolutionary origin of epigenetic regulation of vertebrate gene expression. PMID:26715626

  9. Human age estimation from blood using mRNA, DNA methylation, DNA rearrangement, and telomere length.

    PubMed

    Zubakov, Dmitry; Liu, Fan; Kokmeijer, Iris; Choi, Ying; van Meurs, Joyce B J; van IJcken, Wilfred F J; Uitterlinden, André G; Hofman, Albert; Broer, Linda; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Lewin, Jörn; Kayser, Manfred

    2016-09-01

    Establishing the age of unknown persons, or persons with unknown age, can provide important leads in police investigations, disaster victim identification, fraud cases, and in other legal affairs. Previous methods mostly relied on morphological features available from teeth or skeletal parts. The development of molecular methods for age estimation allowing to use human specimens that possess no morphological age information, such as bloodstains, is extremely valuable as this type of samples is commonly found at crime scenes. Recently, we introduced a DNA-based approach for human age estimation from blood based on the quantification of T-cell specific DNA rearrangements (sjTRECs), which achieves accurate assignment of blood DNA samples to one of four 20-year-interval age categories. Aiming at improving the accuracy of molecular age estimation from blood, we investigated different types of biomarkers. We started out by systematic genome-wide surveys for new age-informative mRNA and DNA methylation markers in blood from the same young and old individuals using microarray technologies. The obtained candidate markers were validated in independent samples covering a wide age range using alternative technologies together with previously proposed DNA methylation, sjTREC, and telomere length markers. Cross-validated multiple regression analysis was applied for estimating and validating the age predictive power of various sets of biomarkers within and across different marker types. We found that DNA methylation markers outperformed mRNA, sjTREC, and telomere length in age predictive power. The best performing model included 8 DNA methylation markers derived from 3 CpG islands reaching a high level of accuracy (cross-validated R(2)=0.88, SE±6.97 years, mean absolute deviation 5.07 years). However, our data also suggest that mRNA markers can provide independent age information: a model using a combined set of 5 DNA methylation markers and one mRNA marker could provide

  10. Elevations in Circulating Methylated and Unmethylated Preproinsulin DNA in New-Onset Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Marisa M; Watkins, Renecia A; Blum, Janice; Evans-Molina, Carmella; Chalasani, Naga; DiMeglio, Linda A; Mather, Kieren J; Tersey, Sarah A; Mirmira, Raghavendra G

    2015-11-01

    Elevated ratios of circulating unmethylated to methylated preproinsulin (INS) DNA have been suggested to reflect β-cell death in type 1 diabetes (T1D). We tested the hypothesis that absolute levels (rather than ratios) of unmethylated and methylated INS DNA differ between subjects with new-onset T1D and control subjects and assessed longitudinal changes in these parameters. We used droplet digital PCR to measure levels of unmethylated and methylated INS DNA in serum from subjects at T1D onset and at 8 weeks and 1 year post-onset. Compared with control subjects, levels of both unmethylated and methylated INS DNA were elevated at T1D onset. At 8 weeks post-onset, methylated INS DNA remained elevated, but unmethylated INS DNA fell. At 1 year postonset, both unmethylated and methylated INS DNA returned to control levels. Subjects with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and autoimmune hepatitis exhibited lower levels of unmethylated and methylated INS compared with subjects with T1D at onset and no differences compared with control subjects. Our study shows that elevations in both unmethylated and methylated INS DNA occurs in new-onset T1D and that levels of these DNA species change during T1D evolution. Our work emphasizes the need to consider absolute levels of differentially methylated DNA species as potential biomarkers of disease. PMID:26216854

  11. Detection and characterization of mammalian DNA polymerase beta mutants by functional complementation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Sweasy, J B; Loeb, L A

    1993-01-01

    We have designed and utilized a bacterial complementation system to identify and characterize mammalian DNA polymerase beta mutants. In this complementation system, wild-type rat DNA polymerase beta replaces both the replicative and repair functions of DNA polymerase I in the Escherichia coli recA718 polA12 double mutant; our 263 DNA polymerase beta mutants replace E. coli polymerase I less efficiently or not at all. Of the 10 mutants that have been shown to contain DNA sequence alterations, 2 exhibit a split phenotype with respect to complementation of the growth defect and methylmethanesulfonate sensitivity of the double mutant; one is a null mutant. The mutants possessing a split phenotype contain amino acid residue alterations within a putative nucleotide binding site of DNA polymerase beta. This approach for the isolation and evaluation of mutants of a mammalian DNA polymerase in E. coli may ultimately lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of action of this enzyme and to precisely defining its role in vertebrate cells. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8506308

  12. Locus-specific DNA methylation analysis of retrotransposons in ES, somatic and cancer cells using High-Throughput Targeted Repeat Element Bisulfite Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Bakshi, Arundhati; Ekram, Muhammad B.; Kim, Joomyeong

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is a major epigenetic mark associated with multiple aspects of retrotransposons within the mammalian genome. In order to study DNA methylation of a large number of retrotransposons on an individual-locus basis, we have developed a new protocol termed High-Throughput Targeted Repeat Element Bisulfite Sequencing (HT-TREBS) (Ekram and Kim, 2014 [1]). We have used this technique to characterize the locus-specific patterns of DNA methylation of 4799 members of the mouse IAP LTR (Intracisternal A Particle Long Terminal Repeat) retrotransposon family in embryonic stem, somatic and Neuro2A cells (Bakshi and Kim, 2014 [2]). Here we describe in detail the sample preparation and bioinformatics analyses used for these studies. The somatic cell data may be accessed under GEO accession number GSE49222. The ES and Neuro2A data are deposited under GEO accession number GSE60007. PMID:25554740

  13. Genome-Wide Divergence of DNA Methylation Marks in Cerebral and Cerebellar Cortices

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Yurong; Chanrion, Benjamin; Liu, Meng-Min; Galfalvy, Hanga; Costa, Ramiro; Ilievski, Boro; Rosoklija, Gorazd; Arango, Victoria; Dwork, Andrew J.; Mann, J. John; Tycko, Benjamin; Haghighi, Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence suggests that DNA methylation plays an expansive role in the central nervous system (CNS). Large-scale whole genome DNA methylation profiling of the normal human brain offers tremendous potential in understanding the role of DNA methylation in brain development and function. Methodology/Significant Findings Using methylation-sensitive SNP chip analysis (MSNP), we performed whole genome DNA methylation profiling of the prefrontal, occipital, and temporal regions of cerebral cortex, as well as cerebellum. These data provide an unbiased representation of CpG sites comprising 377,509 CpG dinucleotides within both the genic and intergenic euchromatic region of the genome. Our large-scale genome DNA methylation profiling reveals that the prefrontal, occipital, and temporal regions of the cerebral cortex compared to cerebellum have markedly different DNA methylation signatures, with the cerebral cortex being hypermethylated and cerebellum being hypomethylated. Such differences were observed in distinct genomic regions, including genes involved in CNS function. The MSNP data were validated for a subset of these genes, by performing bisulfite cloning and sequencing and confirming that prefrontal, occipital, and temporal cortices are significantly more methylated as compared to the cerebellum. Conclusions These findings are consistent with known developmental differences in nucleosome repeat lengths in cerebral and cerebellar cortices, with cerebrum exhibiting shorter repeat lengths than cerebellum. Our observed differences in DNA methylation profiles in these regions underscores the potential role of DNA methylation in chromatin structure and organization in CNS, reflecting functional specialization within cortical regions. PMID:20596539

  14. Correlation of DNA methylation levels in blood and saliva DNA in young girls of the LEGACY Girls study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hui-Chen; Wang, Qiao; Chung, Wendy K; Andrulis, Irene L; Daly, Mary B; John, Esther M; Keegan, Theresa HM; Knight, Julia; Bradbury, Angela R; Kappil, Maya A; Gurvich, Irina; Santella, Regina M; Terry, Mary Beth

    2014-01-01

    Many epidemiologic studies of environmental exposures and disease susceptibility measure DNA methylation in white blood cells (WBC). Some studies are also starting to use saliva DNA as it is usually more readily available in large epidemiologic studies. However, little is known about the correlation of methylation between WBC and saliva DNA. We examined DNA methylation in three repetitive elements, Sat2, Alu, and LINE-1, and in four CpG sites, including AHRR (cg23576855, cg05575921), cg05951221 at 2q37.1, and cg11924019 at CYP1A1, in 57 girls aged 6–15 years with blood and saliva collected on the same day. We measured all DNA methylation markers by bisulfite-pyrosequencing, except for Sat2 and Alu, which were measured by the MethyLight assay. Methylation levels measured in saliva DNA were lower than those in WBC DNA, with differences ranging from 2.8% for Alu to 14.1% for cg05575921. Methylation levels for the three repetitive elements measured in saliva DNA were all positively correlated with those in WBC DNA. However, there was a wide range in the Spearman correlations, with the smallest correlation found for Alu (0.24) and the strongest correlation found for LINE-1 (0.73). Spearman correlations for cg05575921, cg05951221, and cg11924019 were 0.33, 0.42, and 0.79, respectively. If these findings are replicated in larger studies, they suggest that, for selected methylation markers (e.g., LINE-1), methylation levels may be highly correlated between blood and saliva, while for others methylation markers, the levels may be more tissue specific. Thus, in studies that differ by DNA source, each interrogated site should be separately examined in order to evaluate the correlation in DNA methylation levels across DNA sources. PMID:24756002

  15. Correlation of DNA methylation levels in blood and saliva DNA in young girls of the LEGACY Girls study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui-Chen; Wang, Qiao; Chung, Wendy K; Andrulis, Irene L; Daly, Mary B; John, Esther M; Keegan, Theresa H M; Knight, Julia; Bradbury, Angela R; Kappil, Maya A; Gurvich, Irina; Santella, Regina M; Terry, Mary Beth

    2014-07-01

    Many epidemiologic studies of environmental exposures and disease susceptibility measure DNA methylation in white blood cells (WBC). Some studies are also starting to use saliva DNA as it is usually more readily available in large epidemiologic studies. However, little is known about the correlation of methylation between WBC and saliva DNA. We examined DNA methylation in three repetitive elements, Sat2, Alu, and LINE-1, and in four CpG sites, including AHRR (cg23576855, cg05575921), cg05951221 at 2q37.1, and cg11924019 at CYP1A1, in 57 girls aged 6-15 years with blood and saliva collected on the same day. We measured all DNA methylation markers by bisulfite-pyrosequencing, except for Sat2 and Alu, which were measured by the MethyLight assay. Methylation levels measured in saliva DNA were lower than those in WBC DNA, with differences ranging from 2.8% for Alu to 14.1% for cg05575921. Methylation levels for the three repetitive elements measured in saliva DNA were all positively correlated with those in WBC DNA. However, there was a wide range in the Spearman correlations, with the smallest correlation found for Alu (0.24) and the strongest correlation found for LINE-1 (0.73). Spearman correlations for cg05575921, cg05951221, and cg11924019 were 0.33, 0.42, and 0.79, respectively. If these findings are replicated in larger studies, they suggest that, for selected methylation markers (e.g., LINE-1), methylation levels may be highly correlated between blood and saliva, while for others methylation markers, the levels may be more tissue specific. Thus, in studies that differ by DNA source, each interrogated site should be separately examined in order to evaluate the correlation in DNA methylation levels across DNA sources. PMID:24756002

  16. Sperm global DNA methylation level: association with semen parameters and genome integrity.

    PubMed

    Montjean, D; Zini, A; Ravel, C; Belloc, S; Dalleac, A; Copin, H; Boyer, P; McElreavey, K; Benkhalifa, M

    2015-03-01

    Sperm DNA methylation abnormalities have been detected in oligozoospermic men. However, the association between sperm DNA methylation defects, sperm parameters and sperm DNA, and chromatin integrity remains poorly understood. This study was designed to clarify this issue. We recruited a cohort of 92 men (62 normozoospermic and 30 oligoasthenozoospermic) presenting for infertility evaluation during a 1-year period. Sperm global DNA methylation was evaluated by an ELISA-like method, DNA fragmentation was evaluated by flow cytometry-based terminal transferase dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay (reported as DNA fragmentation index or DFI), and sperm denaturation was evaluated by aniline blue staining (reported as sperm denaturation index or SDI, a marker of chromatin compaction). We found a significant positive association between sperm global DNA methylation level and conventional sperm parameters (sperm concentration and motility), supported by the results of methylation analysis on H19-DMR. We also identified significant inverse relationships between sperm global DNA methylation, and, both DFI and SDI. However, sperm global DNA methylation level was not related to sperm vitality or morphology. Our findings suggest that global sperm DNA methylation levels are related to conventional sperm parameters, as well as, sperm chromatin and DNA integrity. PMID:25755112

  17. Naturally occurring H-DNA-forming sequences are mutagenic in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guliang; Vasquez, Karen M.

    2004-01-01

    Naturally occurring DNA sequences can form noncanonical structures such as H-DNA, which are abundant and regulate the expression of several disease-linked genes. Here, we show that H-DNA-forming sequences are intrinsically mutagenic in mammalian cells. This finding suggests that DNA is a causative factor in mutagenesis and not just the end product. By using the endogenous H-DNA-forming sequence found in the human c-myc promoter, mutation frequencies in a reporter gene were increased ≈20-fold over background in COS-7 cells. H-DNA-induced double-strand breaks (DSBs) were detected near the H-DNA locus. The structures of the mutants revealed microhomologies at the breakpoints, consistent with a nonhomologous end-joining repair of the DSBs. These results implicate H-DNA-induced DSBs in c-myc gene translocations in diseases such as Burkitt's lymphoma and t(12;15) BALB/c plasmacytomas, where most breakpoints are found near the H-DNA-forming site. Thus, our findings suggest that H-DNA is a source of genetic instability resulting from DSBs and demonstrate that naturally occurring DNA sequences are mutagenic in mammals, perhaps contributing to genetic evolution and disease. PMID:15342911

  18. Enhancing polyethylenimine's delivery of plasmid DNA into mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Mini; Klibanov, Alexander M.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of various chemical modifications of nitrogen atoms on the efficiency of polyethylenimines (PEIs) as synthetic vectors for the delivery of plasmid DNA into monkey kidney cells in vitro has been systematically investigated. The resultant structure–activity relationship has both provided mechanistic insights and led to PEI derivatives with markedly enhanced performance. For example, N-acylation of PEI with the molecular mass of 25 kDa (PEI25, one of the most potent polycationic gene delivery vectors) with alanine nearly doubles its transfection efficiency in the presence of serum and also lowers its toxicity. Furthermore, dodecylation of primary amino groups of 2-kDa PEI yields a nontoxic polycation whose transfection efficiency in the presence of serum is 400 times higher than the parent's and which exceeds 5-fold even that of PEI25. PMID:12403826

  19. Cytometric analysis of shape and DNA content in mammalian sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Gledhill, B.L.

    1983-10-10

    Male germ cells respond dramatically to a variety of insults and are important reproductive dosimeters. Semen analyses are very useful in studies on the effects of drugs, chemicals, and environmental hazards on testicular function, male fertility and heritable germinal mutations. Sperm were analyzed by flow cytometry and slit-scan flow analysis for injury following the exposure of testes to mutagens. The utility of flow cytometry in genotoxin screening and monitoring of occupational exposure was evaluated. The technique proved valuable in separation of X- and Y-chromosome bearing sperm and the potential applicability of this technique in artificial insemination and a solution, of accurately assessing the DNA content of sperm were evaluated-with reference to determination of X- and Y-chromosome bearing sperm.

  20. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiles Indicate CD8+ T Cell Hypermethylation in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Steffan D.; Page, Christian M.; Andreassen, Bettina K.; Elboudwarej, Emon; Gustavsen, Marte W.; Briggs, Farren; Quach, Hong; Leikfoss, Ingvild S.; Bjølgerud, Anja; Berge, Tone; Harbo, Hanne F.; Barcellos, Lisa F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Determine whether MS-specific DNA methylation profiles can be identified in whole blood or purified immune cells from untreated MS patients. Methods Whole blood, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell DNA from 16 female, treatment naïve MS patients and 14 matched controls was profiled using the HumanMethylation450K BeadChip. Genotype data were used to assess genetic homogeneity of our sample and to exclude potential SNP-induced DNA methylation measurement errors. Results As expected, significant differences between CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and whole blood DNA methylation profiles were observed, regardless of disease status. Strong evidence for hypermethylation of CD8+ T cell, but not CD4+ T cell or whole blood DNA in MS patients compared to controls was observed. Genome-wide significant individual CpG-site DNA methylation differences were not identified. Furthermore, significant differences in gene DNA methylation of 148 established MS-associated risk genes were not observed. Conclusion While genome-wide significant DNA methylation differences were not detected for individual CpG-sites, strong evidence for DNA hypermethylation of CD8+ T cells for MS patients was observed, indicating a role for DNA methylation in MS. Further, our results suggest that large DNA methylation differences for CpG-sites tested here do not contribute to MS susceptibility. In particular, large DNA methylation differences for CpG-sites within 148 established MS candidate genes tested in our study cannot explain missing heritability. Larger studies of homogenous MS patients and matched controls are warranted to further elucidate the impact of CD8+ T cell and more subtle DNA methylation changes in MS development and pathogenesis. PMID:25734800

  1. Towards an understanding of the role of DNA methylation in rheumatoid arthritis: therapeutic and diagnostic implications

    PubMed Central

    Cribbs, Adam; Feldmann, Marc; Oppermann, Udo

    2015-01-01

    The term ‘epigenetics’ loosely describes DNA-templated processes leading to heritable changes in gene activity and expression, which are independent of the underlying DNA sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms comprise of post-translational modifications of chromatin, methylation of DNA, nucleosome positioning as well as expression of noncoding RNAs. Major advances in understanding the role of DNA methylation in regulating chromatin functions have been made over the past decade, and point to a role of this epigenetic mechanism in human disease. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder where altered DNA methylation patterns have been identified in a number of different disease-relevant cell types. However, the contribution of DNA methylation changes to RA disease pathogenesis is at present poorly understood and in need of further investigation. Here we review the current knowledge regarding the role of DNA methylation in rheumatoid arthritis and indicate its potential therapeutic implications. PMID:26425149

  2. DNA methylation in placentas of interspecies mouse hybrids.

    PubMed Central

    Schütt, Sabine; Florl, Andrea R; Shi, Wei; Hemberger, Myriam; Orth, Annie; Otto, Sabine; Schulz, Wolfgang A; Fundele, Reinald H

    2003-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization in the genus Mus results in several hybrid dysgenesis effects, such as male sterility and X-linked placental dysplasia (IHPD). The genetic or molecular basis for the placental phenotypes is at present not clear. However, an extremely complex genetic system that has been hypothesized to be caused by major epigenetic changes on the X chromosome has been shown to be active. We have investigated DNA methylation of several single genes, Atrx, Esx1, Mecp2, Pem, Psx1, Vbp1, Pou3f4, and Cdx2, and, in addition, of LINE-1 and IAP repeat sequences, in placentas and tissues of fetal day 18 mouse interspecific hybrids. Our results show some tendency toward hypomethylation in the late gestation mouse placenta. However, no differential methylation was observed in hyper- and hypoplastic hybrid placentas when compared with normal-sized littermate placentas or intraspecific Mus musculus placentas of the same developmental stage. Thus, our results strongly suggest that generalized changes in methylation patterns do not occur in trophoblast cells of such hybrids. PMID:14504229

  3. Unique DNA Methylation Patterns in Offspring of Hypertensive Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Julian, Colleen G; Pedersen, Brent S; Salmon, Carlos Salinas; Yang, Ivana V; Gonzales, Marcelino; Vargas, Enrique; Moore, Lorna G; Schwartz, David A

    2015-12-01

    Epigenomic processes are believed to play a pivotal role for the effect of environmental exposures in early life to modify disease risk throughout the lifespan. Offspring of women with hypertensive complications of pregnancy (HTNPREG ) have an increased risk of developing systemic and pulmonary vascular dysfunction in adulthood. In this preliminary report, we sought to determine whether epigenetic modifications of genes involved in the regulation of vascular function were present in HTNPREG offspring. We contrasted DNA methylation and gene expression patterns of peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from young male offspring of HTNPREG (n = 5) to those of normotensive controls (n = 19). In HTNPREG offspring we identified six differentially methylated regions (DMRs) including three genes (SMOC2, ARID1B and CTRHC1) relevant to vascular function. The transcriptional activity of ARID1B and CTRCH1 was inversely related to methylation status. HTNPREG offspring had higher systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPPA ) versus controls. Our findings demonstrate that epigenetic marks are altered in offspring of HTNPREG with a modest elevation of sPPA and introduce novel epigenomic targets for further study. On the basis of these findings we speculate that epigenomic mechanisms may be involved in mediating the effect of HTNPREG to raise the risk of vascular disease later in life. PMID:26546417

  4. Establishing an analytic pipeline for genome-wide DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle L; Dozmorov, Mikhail G; Wolen, Aaron R; Jackson-Cook, Colleen; Starkweather, Angela R; Lyon, Debra E; York, Timothy P

    2016-01-01

    The need for research investigating DNA methylation (DNAm) in clinical studies has increased, leading to the evolution of new analytic methods to improve accuracy and reproducibility of the interpretation of results from these studies. The purpose of this article is to provide clinical researchers with a summary of the major data processing steps routinely applied in clinical studies investigating genome-wide DNAm using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450K BeadChip. In most studies, the primary goal of employing DNAm analysis is to identify differential methylation at CpG sites among phenotypic groups. Experimental design considerations are crucial at the onset to minimize bias from factors related to sample processing and avoid confounding experimental variables with non-biological batch effects. Although there are currently no de facto standard methods for analyzing these data, we review the major steps in processing DNAm data recommended by several research studies. We describe several variations available for clinical researchers to process, analyze, and interpret DNAm data. These insights are applicable to most types of genome-wide DNAm array platforms and will be applicable for the next generation of DNAm array technologies (e.g., the 850K array). Selection of the DNAm analytic pipeline followed by investigators should be guided by the research question and supported by recently published methods. PMID:27127542

  5. PcG Proteins, DNA Methylation, and Gene Repression by Chromatin Looping

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Vijay K; McGarvey, Kelly M; Licchesi, Julien D.F; Ohm, Joyce E; Herman, James G; Schübeler, Dirk; Baylin, Stephen B

    2008-01-01

    Many DNA hypermethylated and epigenetically silenced genes in adult cancers are Polycomb group (PcG) marked in embryonic stem (ES) cells. We show that a large region upstream (∼30 kb) of and extending ∼60 kb around one such gene, GATA-4, is organized—in Tera-2 undifferentiated embryonic carcinoma (EC) cells—in a topologically complex multi-loop conformation that is formed by multiple internal long-range contact regions near areas enriched for EZH2, other PcG proteins, and the signature PcG histone mark, H3K27me3. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)–mediated depletion of EZH2 in undifferentiated Tera-2 cells leads to a significant reduction in the frequency of long-range associations at the GATA-4 locus, seemingly dependent on affecting the H3K27me3 enrichments around those chromatin regions, accompanied by a modest increase in GATA-4 transcription. The chromatin loops completely dissolve, accompanied by loss of PcG proteins and H3K27me3 marks, when Tera-2 cells receive differentiation signals which induce a ∼60-fold increase in GATA-4 expression. In colon cancer cells, however, the frequency of the long-range interactions are increased in a setting where GATA-4 has no basal transcription and the loops encompass multiple, abnormally DNA hypermethylated CpG islands, and the methyl-cytosine binding protein MBD2 is localized to these CpG islands, including ones near the gene promoter. Removing DNA methylation through genetic disruption of DNA methyltransferases (DKO cells) leads to loss of MBD2 occupancy and to a decrease in the frequency of long-range contacts, such that these now more resemble those in undifferentiated Tera-2 cells. Our findings reveal unexpected similarities in higher order chromatin conformation between stem/precursor cells and adult cancers. We also provide novel insight that PcG-occupied and H3K27me3-enriched regions can form chromatin loops and physically interact in cis around a single gene in mammalian cells. The loops associate with a

  6. Reference Materials for Calibration of Analytical Biases in Quantification of DNA Methylation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hannah; Hahn, Yoonsoo; Yang, Inchul

    2015-01-01

    Most contemporary methods for the quantification of DNA methylation employ bisulfite conversion and PCR amplification. However, many reports have indicated that bisulfite-mediated PCR methodologies can result in inaccurate measurements of DNA methylation owing to amplification biases. To calibrate analytical biases in quantification of gene methylation, especially those that arise during PCR, we utilized reference materials that represent exact bisulfite-converted sequences with 0% and 100% methylation status of specific genes. After determining relative quantities using qPCR, pairs of plasmids were gravimetrically mixed to generate working standards with predefined DNA methylation levels at 10% intervals in terms of mole fractions. The working standards were used as controls to optimize the experimental conditions and also as calibration standards in melting-based and sequencing-based analyses of DNA methylation. Use of the reference materials enabled precise characterization and proper calibration of various biases during PCR and subsequent methylation measurement processes, resulting in accurate measurements. PMID:26368560

  7. Genome-Wide Discriminatory Information Patterns of Cytosine DNA Methylation.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Robersy; Mackenzie, Sally A

    2016-01-01

    Cytosine DNA methylation (CDM) is a highly abundant, heritable but reversible chemical modification to the genome. Herein, a machine learning approach was applied to analyze the accumulation of epigenetic marks in methylomes of 152 ecotypes and 85 silencing mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. In an information-thermodynamics framework, two measurements were used: (1) the amount of information gained/lost with the CDM changes I R and (2) the uncertainty of not observing a SNP L C R . We hypothesize that epigenetic marks are chromosomal footprints accounting for different ontogenetic and phylogenetic histories of individual populations. A machine learning approach is proposed to verify this hypothesis. Results support the hypothesis by the existence of discriminatory information (DI) patterns of CDM able to discriminate between individuals and between individual subpopulations. The statistical analyses revealed a strong association between the topologies of the structured population of Arabidopsis ecotypes based on I R and on LCR, respectively. A statistical-physical relationship between I R and L C R was also found. Results to date imply that the genome-wide distribution of CDM changes is not only part of the biological signal created by the methylation regulatory machinery, but ensures the stability of the DNA molecule, preserving the integrity of the genetic message under continuous stress from thermal fluctuations in the cell environment. PMID:27322251

  8. Genome-Wide Discriminatory Information Patterns of Cytosine DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Robersy; Mackenzie, Sally A.

    2016-01-01

    Cytosine DNA methylation (CDM) is a highly abundant, heritable but reversible chemical modification to the genome. Herein, a machine learning approach was applied to analyze the accumulation of epigenetic marks in methylomes of 152 ecotypes and 85 silencing mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. In an information-thermodynamics framework, two measurements were used: (1) the amount of information gained/lost with the CDM changes IR and (2) the uncertainty of not observing a SNP LCR. We hypothesize that epigenetic marks are chromosomal footprints accounting for different ontogenetic and phylogenetic histories of individual populations. A machine learning approach is proposed to verify this hypothesis. Results support the hypothesis by the existence of discriminatory information (DI) patterns of CDM able to discriminate between individuals and between individual subpopulations. The statistical analyses revealed a strong association between the topologies of the structured population of Arabidopsis ecotypes based on IR and on LCR, respectively. A statistical-physical relationship between IR and LCR was also found. Results to date imply that the genome-wide distribution of CDM changes is not only part of the biological signal created by the methylation regulatory machinery, but ensures the stability of the DNA molecule, preserving the integrity of the genetic message under continuous stress from thermal fluctuations in the cell environment. PMID:27322251

  9. In situ analysis of repair processes for oxidative DNA damage in mammalian cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Li; Nakajima, Satoshi; Oohata, Yoshitsugu; Takao, Masashi; Okano, Satoshi; Masutani, Mitsuko; Wilson, Samuel H.; Yasui, Akira

    2004-09-01

    Oxidative DNA damage causes blocks and errors in transcription and replication, leading to cell death and genomic instability. Although repair mechanisms of the damage have been extensively analyzed in vitro, the actual in vivo repair processes remain largely unknown. Here, by irradiation with an UVA laser through a microscope lens, we have conditionally produced single-strand breaks and oxidative base damage at restricted nuclear regions of mammalian cells. We showed, in real time after irradiation by using antibodies and GFP-tagged proteins, rapid and ordered DNA repair processes of oxidative DNA damage in human cells. Furthermore, we characterized repair pathways by using repair-defective mammalian cells and found that DNA polymerase accumulated at single-strand breaks and oxidative base damage by means of its 31- and 8-kDa domains, respectively, and that XRCC1 is essential for both polymerase -dependent and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-dependent repair pathways of single-strand breaks. Thus, the repair of oxidative DNA damage is based on temporal and functional interactions among various proteins operating at the site of DNA damage in living cells.

  10. Anti-Tumor Effects of Novel 5-O-Acyl Plumbagins Based on the Inhibition of Mammalian DNA Replicative Polymerase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Moe; Kuriyama, Isoko; Maruo, Sayako; Kuramochi, Kouji; Tsubaki, Kazunori; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    We previously found that vitamin K3 (menadione, 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) inhibits the activity of human mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (pol γ). In this study, we focused on plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone), and chemically synthesized novel plumbagins conjugated with C2:0 to C22:6 fatty acids (5-O-acyl plumbagins). These chemically modified plumbagins enhanced mammalian pol inhibition and their cytotoxic activity. Plumbagin conjugated with chains consisting of more than C18-unsaturated fatty acids strongly inhibited the activities of calf pol α and human pol γ. Plumbagin conjugated with oleic acid (C18:1-acyl plumbagin) showed the strongest suppression of human colon carcinoma (HCT116) cell proliferation among the ten synthesized 5-O-acyl plumbagins. The inhibitory activity on pol α, a DNA replicative pol, by these compounds showed high correlation with their cancer cell proliferation suppressive activity. C18:1-Acyl plumbagin selectively inhibited the activities of mammalian pol species, but did not influence the activities of other pols and DNA metabolic enzymes tested. This compound inhibited the proliferation of various human cancer cell lines, and was the cytotoxic inhibitor showing strongest inhibition towards HT-29 colon cancer cells (LD50 = 2.9 µM) among the nine cell lines tested. In an in vivo anti-tumor assay conducted on nude mice bearing solid tumors of HT-29 cells, C18:1-acyl plumbagin was shown to be a promising tumor suppressor. These data indicate that novel 5-O-acyl plumbagins act as anti-cancer agents based on mammalian DNA replicative pol α inhibition. Moreover, the results suggest that acylation of plumbagin is an effective chemical modification to improve the anti-cancer activity of vitamin K3 derivatives, such as plumbagin. PMID:24520419

  11. Shotgun Bisulfite Sequencing of the Betula platyphylla Genome Reveals the Tree’s DNA Methylation Patterning

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chang; Wang, Chao; He, Lin; Yang, Chuanping; Wang, Yucheng

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression. Most studies of DNA methylation have been performed in herbaceous plants, and little is known about the methylation patterns in tree genomes. In the present study, we generated a map of methylated cytosines at single base pair resolution for Betula platyphylla (white birch) by bisulfite sequencing combined with transcriptomics to analyze DNA methylation and its effects on gene expression. We obtained a detailed view of the function of DNA methylation sequence composition and distribution in the genome of B. platyphylla. There are 34,460 genes in the whole genome of birch, and 31,297 genes are methylated. Conservatively, we estimated that 14.29% of genomic cytosines are methylcytosines in birch. Among the methylation sites, the CHH context accounts for 48.86%, and is the largest proportion. Combined transcriptome and methylation analysis showed that the genes with moderate methylation levels had higher expression levels than genes with high and low methylation. In addition, methylated genes are highly enriched for the GO subcategories of binding activities, catalytic activities, cellular processes, response to stimulus and cell death, suggesting that methylation mediates these pathways in birch trees. PMID:25514241

  12. Patterns of DNA methylation in the normal colon vary by anatomical location, gender, and age

    PubMed Central

    Kaz, Andrew M; Wong, Chao-Jen; Dzieciatkowski, Slavomir; Luo, Yanxin; Schoen, Robert E; Grady, William M

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in DNA methylation have been proposed to create a field cancerization state in the colon, where molecular alterations that predispose cells to transformation occur in histologically normal tissue. However, our understanding of the role of DNA methylation in field cancerization is limited by an incomplete characterization of the methylation state of the normal colon. In order to determine the colon’s normal methylation state, we extracted DNA from normal colon biopsies from the rectum, sigmoid, transverse, and ascending colon and assessed the methylation status of the DNA by pyrosequencing candidate loci as well as with HumanMethylation450 arrays. We found that methylation levels of repetitive elements LINE-1 and SAT-α showed minimal variability throughout the colon in contrast to other loci. Promoter methylation of EVL was highest in the rectum and progressively lower in the proximal segments, whereas ESR1 methylation was higher in older individuals. Genome-wide methylation analysis of normal DNA revealed 8388, 82, and 93 differentially methylated loci that distinguished right from left colon, males from females, and older vs. younger individuals, respectively. Although variability in methylation between biopsies and among different colon segments was minimal for repetitive elements, analyses of specific cancer-related genes as well as a genome-wide methylation analysis demonstrated differential methylation based on colon location, individual age, and gender. These studies advance our knowledge regarding the variation of DNA methylation in the normal colon, a prerequisite for future studies aimed at understanding methylation differences indicative of a colon field effect. PMID:24413027

  13. Intraindividual dynamics of transcriptome and genome-wide stability of DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Ryohei; Hachiya, Tsuyoshi; Ohmomo, Hideki; Shiwa, Yuh; Ono, Kanako; Suzuki, Sadafumi; Satoh, Mamoru; Hitomi, Jiro; Sobue, Kenji; Shimizu, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Cytosine methylation at CpG dinucleotides is an epigenetic mechanism that affects the gene expression profiles responsible for the functional differences in various cells and tissues. Although gene expression patterns are dynamically altered in response to various stimuli, the intraindividual dynamics of DNA methylation in human cells are yet to be fully understood. Here, we investigated the extent to which DNA methylation contributes to the dynamics of gene expression by collecting 24 blood samples from two individuals over a period of 3 months. Transcriptome and methylome association analyses revealed that only ~2% of dynamic changes in gene expression could be explained by the intraindividual variation of DNA methylation levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and purified monocytes. These results showed that DNA methylation levels remain stable for at least several months, suggesting that disease-associated DNA methylation markers are useful for estimating the risk of disease manifestation. PMID:27192970

  14. Intraindividual dynamics of transcriptome and genome-wide stability of DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Ryohei; Hachiya, Tsuyoshi; Ohmomo, Hideki; Shiwa, Yuh; Ono, Kanako; Suzuki, Sadafumi; Satoh, Mamoru; Hitomi, Jiro; Sobue, Kenji; Shimizu, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Cytosine methylation at CpG dinucleotides is an epigenetic mechanism that affects the gene expression profiles responsible for the functional differences in various cells and tissues. Although gene expression patterns are dynamically altered in response to various stimuli, the intraindividual dynamics of DNA methylation in human cells are yet to be fully understood. Here, we investigated the extent to which DNA methylation contributes to the dynamics of gene expression by collecting 24 blood samples from two individuals over a period of 3 months. Transcriptome and methylome association analyses revealed that only ~2% of dynamic changes in gene expression could be explained by the intraindividual variation of DNA methylation levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and purified monocytes. These results showed that DNA methylation levels remain stable for at least several months, suggesting that disease-associated DNA methylation markers are useful for estimating the risk of disease manifestation. PMID:27192970

  15. Mammalian ribonucleotide reductase subunit p53R2 is required for mitochondrial DNA replication and DNA repair in quiescent cells.

    PubMed

    Pontarin, Giovanna; Ferraro, Paola; Bee, Leonardo; Reichard, Peter; Bianchi, Vera

    2012-08-14

    In postmitotic mammalian cells, protein p53R2 substitutes for protein R2 as a subunit of ribonucleotide reductase. In human patients with mutations in RRM2B, the gene for p53R2, mitochondrial (mt) DNA synthesis is defective, and skeletal muscle presents severe mtDNA depletion. Skin fibroblasts isolated from a patient with a lethal homozygous missense mutation of p53R2 grow normally in culture with an unchanged complement of mtDNA. During active growth, the four dNTP pools do not differ in size from normal controls, whereas during quiescence, the dCTP and dGTP pools decrease to 50% of the control. We investigate the ability of these mutated fibroblasts to synthesize mtDNA and repair DNA after exposure to UV irradiation. Ethidium bromide depleted both mutant and normal cells of mtDNA. On withdrawal of the drug, mtDNA recovered equally well in cycling mutant and control cells, whereas during quiescence, the mutant fibroblasts remained deficient. Addition of deoxynucleosides to the medium increased intracellular dNTP pools and normalized mtDNA synthesis. Quiescent mutant fibroblasts were also deficient in the repair of UV-induced DNA damage, as indicated by delayed recovery of dsDNA analyzed by fluorometric analysis of DNA unwinding and the more extensive and prolonged phosphorylation of histone H2AX after irradiation. Supplementation by deoxynucleosides improved DNA repair. Our results show that in nontransformed cells only during quiescence, protein p53R2 is required for maintenance of mtDNA and for optimal DNA repair after UV damage. PMID:22847445

  16. Roles of Distal and Genic Methylation in the Development of Prostate Tumorigenesis Revealed by Genome-wide DNA Methylation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yao; Jadhav, Rohit Ramakant; Liu, Joseph; Wilson, Desiree; Chen, Yidong; Thompson, Ian M.; Troyer, Dean A.; Hernandez, Javier; Shi, Huidong; Leach, Robin J.; Huang, Tim H.-M.; Jin, Victor X.

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation at promoters is often linked to tumorigenesis. But many aspects of DNA methylation remain unexplored, including the individual roles of distal and gene body methylation, as well as their collaborative roles with promoter methylation. Here we performed a MBD-seq analysis on prostate specimens classified into low, high, and very high risk group based on Gleason score and TNM stages. We identified gene sets with differential methylation regions (DMRs) in Distal, TSS, gene body and TES. To understand the collaborative roles, TSS was compared with the other three DMRs, resulted in 12 groups of genes with collaborative differential methylation patterns (CDMPs). We found several groups of genes that show opposite methylation patterns in Distal and Genic regions compared to TSS region, and in general they are differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in tumors in TCGA RNA-seq data. IPA (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis) reveals AR/TP53 signaling network to be a major signaling pathway, and survival analysis indicates genes subsets significantly associated with prostate cancer recurrence. Our results suggest that DNA methylation in Distal and Genic regions also plays critical roles in contributing to prostate tumorigenesis, and may act either positively or negatively with TSSs to alter gene regulation in tumors. PMID:26924343

  17. Temporal Stability of Epigenetic Markers: Sequence Characteristics and Predictors of Short-Term DNA Methylation Variations

    PubMed Central

    Coull, Brent A.; Tarantini, Letizia; Hou, Lifang; Bonzini, Matteo; Apostoli, Pietro; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Baccarelli, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Background DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that has been increasingly investigated in observational human studies, particularly on blood leukocyte DNA. Characterizing the degree and determinants of DNA methylation stability can provide critical information for the design and conduction of human epigenetic studies. Methods We measured DNA methylation in 12 gene-promoter regions (APC, p16, p53, RASSF1A, CDH13, eNOS, ET-1, IFNγ, IL-6, TNFα, iNOS, and hTERT) and 2 of non-long terminal repeat elements, i.e., L1 and Alu in blood samples obtained from 63 healthy individuals at baseline (Day 1) and after three days (Day 4). DNA methylation was measured by bisulfite-PCR-Pyrosequencing. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) to measure the within-individual stability of DNA methylation between Day 1 and 4, subtracted of pyrosequencing error and adjusted for multiple covariates. Results Methylation markers showed different temporal behaviors ranging from high (IL-6, ICC = 0.89) to low stability (APC, ICC = 0.08) between Day 1 and 4. Multiple sequence and marker characteristics were associated with the degree of variation. Density of CpG dinucleotides nearby the sequence analyzed (measured as CpG(o/e) or G+C content within ±200bp) was positively associated with DNA methylation stability. The 3′ proximity to repeat elements and range of DNA methylation on Day 1 were also positively associated with methylation stability. An inverted U-shaped correlation was observed between mean DNA methylation on Day 1 and stability. Conclusions The degree of short-term DNA methylation stability is marker-dependent and associated with sequence characteristics and methylation levels. PMID:22745719

  18. Prenatal Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Benzo[a]pyrene–DNA Adducts, and Genomic DNA Methylation in Cord Blood

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Deliang; Zhu, Deguang; Qu, Lirong; Sjödin, Andreas; Li, Zheng; Camann, David; Perera, Frederica P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are carcinogenic environmental pollutants generated during incomplete combustion. After exposure and during metabolism, PAHs can form reactive epoxides that can covalently bind to DNA. These PAH–DNA adducts are established markers of cancer risk. PAH exposure has been associated with epigenetic alterations, including genomic cytosine methylation. Both global hypomethylation and hypermethylation of specific genes have been associated with cancer and other diseases in humans. Experimental evidence suggests that PAH–DNA adduct formation may preferentially target methylated genomic regions. Early embryonic development may be a particularly susceptible period for PAH exposure, resulting in both increased PAH–DNA adducts and altered DNA methylation. Objective: We explored whether prenatal exposure to PAHs is associated with genomic DNA methylation in cord blood and whether methylation levels are associated with the presence of detectable PAH–DNA adducts. Methods: In a longitudinal cohort study of nonsmoking women in New York City, we measured PAH exposure during pregnancy using personal air monitors, assessed PAH internal dose using prenatal urinary metabolites (in a subset), and quantified benzo[a]pyrene–DNA adducts and genomic DNA methylation in cord blood DNA among 164 participants. Results: Prenatal PAH exposure was associated with lower global methylation in umbilical cord white blood cells (p = 0.05), but global methylation levels were positively associated with the presence of detectable adducts in cord blood (p = 0.01). Conclusions: These observations suggest that PAH exposure was adequate to alter global methylation in our study population. Additional epidemiologic studies that can measure site-specific cytosine methylation and adduct formation will improve our ability to understand this complex molecular pathway in vivo. PMID:22256332

  19. Genome-wide DNA methylation detection by MethylCap-seq and Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips: an independent large-scale comparison

    PubMed Central

    De Meyer, Tim; Bady, Pierre; Trooskens, Geert; Kurscheid, Sebastian; Bloch, Jocelyne; Kros, Johan M.; Hainfellner, Johannes A.; Stupp, Roger; Delorenzi, Mauro; Hegi, Monika E.; Van Criekinge, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Two cost-efficient genome-scale methodologies to assess DNA-methylation are MethylCap-seq and Illumina’s Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips (HM450). Objective information regarding the best-suited methodology for a specific research question is scant. Therefore, we performed a large-scale evaluation on a set of 70 brain tissue samples, i.e. 65 glioblastoma and 5 non-tumoral tissues. As MethylCap-seq coverages were limited, we focused on the inherent capacity of the methodology to detect methylated loci rather than a quantitative analysis. MethylCap-seq and HM450 data were dichotomized and performances were compared using a gold standard free Bayesian modelling procedure. While conditional specificity was adequate for both approaches, conditional sensitivity was systematically higher for HM450. In addition, genome-wide characteristics were compared, revealing that HM450 probes identified substantially fewer regions compared to MethylCap-seq. Although results indicated that the latter method can detect more potentially relevant DNA-methylation, this did not translate into the discovery of more differentially methylated loci between tumours and controls compared to HM450. Our results therefore indicate that both methodologies are complementary, with a higher sensitivity for HM450 and a far larger genome-wide coverage for MethylCap-seq, but also that a more comprehensive character does not automatically imply more significant results in biomarker studies. PMID:26482909

  20. Mood Stabilizers and the Influence on Global Leukocyte DNA Methylation in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Backlund, Lena; Wei, Ya Bin; Martinsson, Lina; Melas, Philippe A.; Liu, Jia Jia; Mu, Ninni; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Ekström, Tomas J.; Schalling, Martin; Lavebratt, Catharina

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between treatments for bipolar disorder (BD), their therapeutic responses and the DNA methylation status. We investigated whether global DNA methylation levels differ between healthy controls and bipolar patients under different treatments. Global DNA methylation was measured in leukocyte DNA from bipolar patients under lithium monotherapy (n = 29) or combination therapy (n = 32) and from healthy controls (n = 26). Lithium response was assessed using the Alda scale. Lithium in monotherapy was associated with hypomethylation (F = 4.63, p = 0.036). Lithium + valproate showed a hypermethylated pattern compared to lithium alone (F = 7.27, p = 0.011). Lithium response was not associated with DNA methylation levels. These data suggest that the choice of treatment in BD may lead to different levels of global DNA methylation. However, further research is needed to understand its clinical significance.

  1. Genome-wide Mapping Reveals Conservation of Promoter DNA Methylation Following Chicken Domestication

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qinghe; Wang, Yuanyuan; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Zhao, Yaofeng; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    It is well-known that environment influences DNA methylation, however, the extent of heritable DNA methylation variation following animal domestication remains largely unknown. Using meDIP-chip we mapped the promoter methylomes for 23,316 genes in muscle tissues of ancestral and domestic chickens. We systematically examined the variation of promoter DNA methylation in terms of different breeds, differentially expressed genes, SNPs and genes undergo genetic selection sweeps. While considerable changes in DNA sequence and gene expression programs were prevalent, we found that the inter-strain DNA methylation patterns were highly conserved in promoter region between the wild and domestic chicken breeds. Our data suggests a global preservation of DNA methylation between the wild and domestic chicken breeds in either a genome-wide or locus-specific scale in chick muscle tissues. PMID:25735894

  2. Complex interactions between the DNA-damage response and mammalian telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Arnoult, Nausica; Karlseder, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Natural chromosome ends resemble double-stranded DNA breaks, but they do not activate a damage response in healthy cells. Telomeres therefore have evolved to solve the ‘end-protection problem’ by inhibiting multiple DNA damage–response pathways. During the past decade, the view of telomeres has progressed from simple caps that hide chromosome ends to complex machineries that have an active role in organizing the genome. Here we focus on mammalian telomeres and summarize and interpret recent discoveries in detail, focusing on how repair pathways are inhibited, how resection and replication are controlled and how these mechanisms govern cell fate during senescence, crisis and transformation. PMID:26581520

  3. FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF A MAMMALIAN DNA ALKALINE UNWINDING BIOASSAY WITH POTENTIAL APPLICATION TO HAZARD IDENTIFICATION FOR CONTAMINANTS FROM ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, the authors detailed a DNA alkaline unwinding assay (DAUA) that can be used to rapidly measure chemically induced strand breaks in mammalian cells. Further developments of the assay include: studies on the relationship between DNA adducts and DNA strand breaks; evaluati...

  4. Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation and high-throughput sequencing (MeDIP-seq) using low amounts of genomic DNA.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming-Tao; Whyte, Jeffrey J; Hopkins, Garrett M; Kirk, Mark D; Prather, Randall S

    2014-06-01

    DNA modifications, such as methylation and hydroxymethylation, are pivotal players in modulating gene expression, genomic imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation, and silencing repetitive sequences during embryonic development. Aberrant DNA modifications lead to embryonic and postnatal abnormalities and serious human diseases, such as cancer. Comprehensive genome-wide DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation studies provide a way to thoroughly understand normal development and to identify potential epigenetic mutations in human diseases. Here we established a working protocol for methylated DNA immunoprecipitation combined with next-generation sequencing [methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP)-seq] for low starting amounts of genomic DNA. By using spike-in control DNA sets with standard cytosine, 5-methylcytosine (5mC), and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), we demonstrate the preferential binding of antibodies to 5mC and 5hmC, respectively. MeDIP-PCRs successfully targeted highly methylated genomic loci with starting genomic DNA as low as 1 ng. The enrichment efficiency declined for constant spiked-in controls but increased for endogenous methylated regions. A MeDIP-seq library was constructed starting with 1 ng of DNA, with the majority of fragments between 250 bp and 600 bp. The MeDIP-seq reads showed higher quality than the Input control. However, after being preprocessed by Cutadapt, MeDIP (97.53%) and Input (94.98%) reads showed comparable alignment rates. SeqMonk visualization tools indicated MeDIP-seq reads were less uniformly distributed across the genome than Input reads. Several commonly known unmethylated and methylated genomic loci showed consistent methylation patterns in the MeDIP-seq data. Thus, we provide proof-of-principle that MeDIP-seq technology is feasible to profile genome-wide DNA methylation in minute DNA samples, such as oocytes, early embryos, and human biopsies. PMID:24773292

  5. Divergence of Gene Body DNA Methylation and Evolution of Plant Duplicate Genes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Marowsky, Nicholas C.; Fan, Chuanzhu

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that gene body DNA methylation is associated with gene expression. However, whether and how deviation of gene body DNA methylation between duplicate genes can influence their divergence remains largely unexplored. Here, we aim to elucidate the potential role of gene body DNA methylation in the fate of duplicate genes. We identified paralogous gene pairs from Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica) genomes and reprocessed their single-base resolution methylome data. We show that methylation in paralogous genes nonlinearly correlates with several gene properties including exon number/gene length, expression level and mutation rate. Further, we demonstrated that divergence of methylation level and pattern in paralogs indeed positively correlate with their sequence and expression divergences. This result held even after controlling for other confounding factors known to influence the divergence of paralogs. We observed that methylation level divergence might be more relevant to the expression divergence of paralogs than methylation pattern divergence. Finally, we explored the mechanisms that might give rise to the divergence of gene body methylation in paralogs. We found that exonic methylation divergence more closely correlates with expression divergence than intronic methylation divergence. We show that genomic environments (e.g., flanked by transposable elements and repetitive sequences) of paralogs generated by various duplication mechanisms are associated with the methylation divergence of paralogs. Overall, our results suggest that the changes in gene body DNA methylation could provide another avenue for duplicate genes to develop differential expression patterns and undergo different evolutionary fates in plant genomes. PMID:25310342

  6. Association of Global DNA Methylation and Global DNA Hydroxymethylation with Metals and Other Exposures in Human Blood DNA Samples

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wan-yee; Shang, Yan; Umans, Jason G.; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Ledesma, Marta; Leon, Montserrat; Laclaustra, Martin; Pollak, Jonathan; Guallar, Eliseo; Cole, Shelley A.; Fallin, M. Dani; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Background: The association between human blood DNA global methylation and global hydroxymethylation has not been evaluated in population-based studies. No studies have evaluated environmental determinants of global DNA hydroxymethylation, including exposure to metals. Objective: We evaluated the association between global DNA methylation and global DNA hydroxymethylation in 48 Strong Heart Study participants for which selected metals had been measured in urine at baseline and DNA was available from 1989–1991 (visit 1) and 1998–1999 (visit 3). Methods: We measured the percentage of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) in samples using capture and detection antibodies followed by colorimetric quantification. We explored the association of participant characteristics (i.e., age, adiposity, smoking, and metal exposure) with both global DNA methylation and global DNA hydroxymethylation. Results: The Spearman’s correlation coefficient for 5-mC and 5-hmC levels was 0.32 (p = 0.03) at visit 1 and 0.54 (p < 0.001) at visit 3. Trends for both epigenetic modifications were consistent across potential determinants. In cross-sectional analyses, the odds ratios of methylated and hydroxymethylated DNA were 1.56 (95% CI: 0.95, 2.57) and 1.76 (95% CI: 1.07, 2.88), respectively, for the comparison of participants above and below the median percentage of dimethylarsinate. The corresponding odds ratios were 1.64 (95% CI: 1.02, 2.65) and 1.16 (95% CI: 0.70, 1.94), respectively, for the comparison of participants above and below the median cadmium level. Arsenic exposure and metabolism were consistently associated with both epigenetic markers in cross-sectional and prospective analyses. The positive correlation of 5-mC and 5-hmC levels was confirmed in an independent study population. Conclusions: Our findings support that both epigenetic measures are related at the population level. The consistent trends in the associations between these two epigenetic

  7. Characterization and directed evolution of a methyl-binding domain protein for high-sensitivity DNA methylation analysis.

    PubMed

    Heimer, Brandon W; Tam, Brooke E; Sikes, Hadley D

    2015-12-01

    Methyl-binding domain (MBD) family proteins specifically bind double-stranded, methylated DNA which makes them useful for DNA methylation analysis. We displayed three of the core members MBD1, MBD2 and MBD4 on the surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Using the yeast display platform, we determined the equilibrium dissociation constant of human MBD2 (hMBD2) to be 5.9 ± 1.3 nM for binding to singly methylated DNA. The measured affinity for DNA with two methylated sites varied with the distance between the sites. We further used the yeast display platform to evolve the hMBD2 protein for improved binding affinity. Affecting five amino acid substitutions doubled the affinity of the wild-type protein to 3.1 ± 1.0 nM. The most prevalent of these mutations, K161R, occurs away from the DNA-binding site and bridges the N- and C-termini of the protein by forming a new hydrogen bond. The F208Y and L170R mutations added new non-covalent interactions with the bound DNA strand. We finally concatenated the high-affinity MBD variant and expressed it in Escherichia coli as a green fluorescent protein fusion. Concatenating the protein from 1× to 3× improved binding 6-fold for an interfacial binding application. PMID:26384511

  8. DNA methylation directs functional maturation of pancreatic β cells

    PubMed Central

    Dhawan, Sangeeta; Tschen, Shuen-Ing; Zeng, Chun; Guo, Tingxia; Hebrok, Matthias; Matveyenko, Aleksey; Bhushan, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic β cells secrete insulin in response to postprandial increases in glucose levels to prevent hyperglycemia and inhibit insulin secretion under fasting conditions to protect against hypoglycemia. β cells lack this functional capability at birth and acquire glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) during neonatal life. Here, we have shown that during postnatal life, the de novo DNA methyltransferase DNMT3A initiates a metabolic program by repressing key genes, thereby enabling the coupling of insulin secretion to glucose levels. In a murine model, β cell–specific deletion of Dnmt3a prevented the metabolic switch, resulting in loss of GSIS. DNMT3A bound to the promoters of the genes encoding hexokinase 1 (HK1) and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) — both of which regulate the metabolic switch — and knockdown of these two key DNMT3A targets restored the GSIS response in islets from animals with β cell–specific Dnmt3a deletion. Furthermore, DNA methylation–mediated repression of glucose-secretion decoupling genes to modulate GSIS was conserved in human β cells. Together, our results reveal a role for DNA methylation to direct the acquisition of pancreatic β cell function. PMID:26098213

  9. A novel methyl-binding domain protein enrichment method for identifying genome-wide tissue-specific DNA methylation from nanogram DNA samples

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Growing evidence suggests that DNA methylation plays a role in tissue-specific differentiation. Current approaches to methylome analysis using enrichment with the methyl-binding domain protein (MBD) are restricted to large (≥1 μg) DNA samples, limiting the analysis of small tissue samples. Here we present a technique that enables characterization of genome-wide tissue-specific methylation patterns from nanogram quantities of DNA. Results We have developed a methodology utilizing MBD2b/MBD3L1 enrichment for methylated DNA, kinase pre-treated ligation-mediated PCR amplification (MeKL) and hybridization to the comprehensive high-throughput array for relative methylation (CHARM) customized tiling arrays, which we termed MeKL-chip. Kinase modification in combination with the addition of PEG has increased ligation-mediated PCR amplification over 20-fold, enabling >400-fold amplification of starting DNA. We have shown that MeKL-chip can be applied to as little as 20 ng of DNA, enabling comprehensive analysis of small DNA samples. Applying MeKL-chip to the mouse retina (a limited tissue source) and brain, 2,498 tissue-specific differentially methylated regions (T-DMRs) were characterized. The top five T-DMRs (Rgs20, Hes2, Nfic, Cckbr and Six3os1) were validated by pyrosequencing. Conclusions MeKL-chip enables genome-wide methylation analysis of nanogram quantities of DNA with a wide range of observed-to-expected CpG ratios due to the binding properties of the MBD2b/MBD3L1 protein complex. This methodology enabled the first analysis of genome-wide methylation in the mouse retina, characterizing novel T-DMRs. PMID:23759032

  10. Mitochondrial DNA structure and expression in specialized subtypes of mammalian striated muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Annex, B H; Williams, R S

    1990-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) in cells of vertebrate organisms can assume an unusual triplex DNA structure known as the displacement loop (D loop). This triplex DNA structure forms when a partially replicated heavy strand of mtDNA (7S mtDNA) remains annealed to the light strand, displacing the native heavy strand in this region. The D-loop region contains the promoters for both heavy- and light-strand transcription as well as the origin of heavy-strand replication. However, the distribution of triplex and duplex forms of mtDNA in relation to respiratory activity of mammalian tissues has not been systematically characterized, and the functional significance of the D-loop structure is unknown. In comparisons of specialized muscle subtypes within the same species and of the same muscle subtype in different species, the relative proportion of D-loop versus duplex forms of mtDNA in striated muscle tissues of several mammalian species demonstrated marked variation, ranging from 1% in glycolytic fast skeletal fibers of the rabbit to 65% in the mouse heart. There was a consistent and direct correlation between the ratio of triplex to duplex forms of mtDNA and the capacity of these tissues for oxidative metabolism. The proportion of D-loop forms likewise correlated directly with mtDNA copy number, mtRNA abundance, and the specific activity of the mtDNA (gamma) polymerase. The D-loop form of mtDNA does not appear to be transcribed at greater efficiency than the duplex form, since the ratio of mtDNA copy number to mtRNA was unrelated to the proportion of triplex mtDNA genomes. However, tissues with a preponderance of D-loop forms tended to express greater levels of cytochrome b mRNA relative to mitochondrial rRNA transcripts, suggesting that the triplex structure may be associated with variations in partial versus full-length transcription of the heavy strand. Images PMID:1700273

  11. DNA Methylation Assessed by SMRT Sequencing Is Linked to Mutations in Neisseria meningitidis Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Sater, Mohamad R. Abdul; Lamelas, Araceli; Wang, Guilin; Clark, Tyson A.; Röltgen, Katharina; Mane, Shrikant; Korlach, Jonas; Pluschke, Gerd; Schmid, Christoph D.

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Neisseria meningitidis features extensive genetic variability. To present, proposed virulence genotypes are also detected in isolates from asymptomatic carriers, indicating more complex mechanisms underlying variable colonization modes of N. meningitidis. We applied the Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing method from Pacific Biosciences to assess the genome-wide DNA modification profiles of two genetically related N. meningitidis strains, both of serogroup A. The resulting DNA methylomes revealed clear divergences, represented by the detection of shared and of strain-specific DNA methylation target motifs. The positional distribution of these methylated target sites within the genomic sequences displayed clear biases, which suggest a functional role of DNA methylation related to the regulation of genes. DNA methylation in N. meningitidis has a likely underestimated potential for variability, as evidenced by a careful analysis of the ORF status of a panel of confirmed and predicted DNA methyltransferase genes in an extended collection of N. meningitidis strains of serogroup A. Based on high coverage short sequence reads, we find phase variability as a major contributor to the variability in DNA methylation. Taking into account the phase variable loci, the inferred functional status of DNA methyltransferase genes matched the observed methylation profiles. Towards an elucidation of presently incompletely characterized functional consequences of DNA methylation in N. meningitidis, we reveal a prominent colocalization of methylated bases with Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) detected within our genomic sequence collection. As a novel observation we report increased mutability also at 6mA methylated nucleotides, complementing mutational hotspots previously described at 5mC methylated nucleotides. These findings suggest a more diverse role of DNA methylation and Restriction-Modification (RM) systems in the evolution of

  12. POLRMT regulates the switch between replication primer formation and gene expression of mammalian mtDNA

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Inge; Miranda, Maria; Posse, Viktor; Milenkovic, Dusanka; Mourier, Arnaud; Siira, Stefan J.; Bonekamp, Nina A.; Neumann, Ulla; Filipovska, Aleksandra; Polosa, Paola Loguercio; Gustafsson, Claes M.; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are vital in providing cellular energy via their oxidative phosphorylation system, which requires the coordinated expression of genes encoded by both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA). Transcription of the circular mammalian mtDNA depends on a single mitochondrial RNA polymerase (POLRMT). Although the transcription initiation process is well understood, it is debated whether POLRMT also serves as the primase for the initiation of mtDNA replication. In the nucleus, the RNA polymerases needed for gene expression have no such role. Conditional knockout of Polrmt in the heart results in severe mitochondrial dysfunction causing dilated cardiomyopathy in young mice. We further studied the molecular consequences of different expression levels of POLRMT and found that POLRMT is essential for primer synthesis to initiate mtDNA replication in vivo. Furthermore, transcription initiation for primer formation has priority over gene expression. Surprisingly, mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) exists in an mtDNA-free pool in the Polrmt knockout mice. TFAM levels remain unchanged despite strong mtDNA depletion, and TFAM is thus protected from degradation of the AAA+ Lon protease in the absence of POLRMT. Last, we report that mitochondrial transcription elongation factor may compensate for a partial depletion of POLRMT in heterozygous Polrmt knockout mice, indicating a direct regulatory role of this factor in transcription. In conclusion, we present in vivo evidence that POLRMT has a key regulatory role in the replication of mammalian mtDNA and is part of a transcriptional mechanism that provides a switch between primer formation for mtDNA replication and mitochondrial gene expression. PMID:27532055

  13. POLRMT regulates the switch between replication primer formation and gene expression of mammalian mtDNA.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Inge; Miranda, Maria; Posse, Viktor; Milenkovic, Dusanka; Mourier, Arnaud; Siira, Stefan J; Bonekamp, Nina A; Neumann, Ulla; Filipovska, Aleksandra; Polosa, Paola Loguercio; Gustafsson, Claes M; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2016-08-01

    Mitochondria are vital in providing cellular energy via their oxidative phosphorylation system, which requires the coordinated expression of genes encoded by both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA). Transcription of the circular mammalian mtDNA depends on a single mitochondrial RNA polymerase (POLRMT). Although the transcription initiation process is well understood, it is debated whether POLRMT also serves as the primase for the initiation of mtDNA replication. In the nucleus, the RNA polymerases needed for gene expression have no such role. Conditional knockout of Polrmt in the heart results in severe mitochondrial dysfunction causing dilated cardiomyopathy in young mice. We further studied the molecular consequences of different expression levels of POLRMT and found that POLRMT is essential for primer synthesis to initiate mtDNA replication in vivo. Furthermore, transcription initiation for primer formation has priority over gene expression. Surprisingly, mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) exists in an mtDNA-free pool in the Polrmt knockout mice. TFAM levels remain unchanged despite strong mtDNA depletion, and TFAM is thus protected from degradation of the AAA(+) Lon protease in the absence of POLRMT. Last, we report that mitochondrial transcription elongation factor may compensate for a partial depletion of POLRMT in heterozygous Polrmt knockout mice, indicating a direct regulatory role of this factor in transcription. In conclusion, we present in vivo evidence that POLRMT has a key regulatory role in the replication of mammalian mtDNA and is part of a transcriptional mechanism that provides a switch between primer formation for mtDNA replication and mitochondrial gene expression. PMID:27532055

  14. Methylation of cell-free circulating DNA in the diagnosis of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Warton, Kristina; Samimi, Goli

    2015-01-01

    A range of molecular alterations found in tumor cells, such as DNA mutations and DNA methylation, is reflected in cell-free circulating DNA (circDNA) released from the tumor into the blood, thereby making circDNA an ideal candidate for the basis of a blood-based cancer diagnosis test. In many cancer types, mutations driving tumor development and progression are present in a wide range of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. However, even when a gene is consistently mutated in a particular cancer, the mutations can be spread over very large regions of its sequence, making evaluation difficult. This diversity of sequence changes in tumor DNA presents a challenge for the development of blood tests based on DNA mutations for cancer diagnosis. Unlike mutations, DNA methylation that can be consistently measured, as it tends to occur in specific regions of the DNA called CpG islands. Since DNA methylation is reflected within circDNA, detection of tumor-specific DNA methylation in patient plasma is a feasible approach for the development of a blood-based test. Aberrant circDNA methylation has been described in most cancer types and is actively being investigated for clinical applications. A commercial blood test for colorectal cancer based on the methylation of the SEPT9 promoter region in circDNA is under review for approval by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) for clinical use. In this paper, we review the state of research in circDNA methylation as an application for blood-based diagnostic tests in colorectal, breast, lung, pancreatic and ovarian cancers, and we consider some of the future directions and challenges in this field. There are a number of potential circDNA biomarkers currently under investigation, and experience with SEPT9 shows that the time to clinical translation can be relatively rapid, supporting the promise of circDNA as a biomarker. PMID:25988180

  15. Methylomic analysis of salivary DNA in childhood ADHD identifies altered DNA methylation in VIPR2

    PubMed Central

    Wilmot, Beth; Fry, Rebecca; Smeester, Lisa; Musser, Erica D.; Mill, Jonathan; Nigg, Joel T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Peripheral epigenetic marks hold promise for understanding psychiatric illness and may represent fingerprints of gene–environment interactions. We conducted an initial examination of CpG methylation variation in children with or without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods Children age 7–12 were recruited, screened, evaluated and assigned to ADHD or non-ADHD groups by defined research criteria. Two independent age-matched samples were examined, a discovery set (n = 92, all boys, half control, half ADHD) and a confirmation set (n = 20, half ADHD, all boys). 5-methylcytosine levels were quantified in salivary DNA using the Illumina 450 K HumanMethylation array. Genes for which multiple probes were nominally significant and had a beta difference of at least 2% were evaluated for biological relevance and prioritized for confirmation and sequence validation. Gene pathways were explored and described. Results Two genes met the criteria for confirmation testing, VIPR2 and MYT1L; both had multiple probes meeting cutoffs and strong biological relevance. Probes on VIPR2 passed FDR correction in the confirmation set and were confirmed through bisulfite sequencing. Enrichment analysis suggested involvement of gene sets or pathways related to inflammatory processes and modulation of monoamine and cholinergic neurotransmission. Conclusions Although it is unknown to what extent CpG methylation seen in peripheral tissue reflect transcriptomic changes in the brain, these initial results indicate that peripheral DNA methylation markers in ADHD may be promising and suggest targeted hypotheses for future study in larger samples. PMID:26304033

  16. Global DNA methylation loss associated with mercury contamination and aging in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Frances M; Parrott, Benjamin B; Bowden, John A; Kassim, Brittany L; Somerville, Stephen E; Bryan, Teresa A; Bryan, Colleen E; Lange, Ted R; Delaney, J Patrick; Brunell, Arnold M; Long, Stephen E; Guillette, Louis J

    2016-03-01

    Mercury is a widespread environmental contaminant with exposures eliciting a well-documented catalog of adverse effects. Yet, knowledge regarding the underlying mechanisms by which mercury exposures are translated into biological effects remains incomplete. DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that is sensitive to environmental cues, and alterations in DNA methylation at the global level are associated with a variety of diseases. Using a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry-based (LC-MS/MS) approach, global DNA methylation levels were measured in red blood cells of 144 wild American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from 6 sites with variable levels of mercury contamination across Florida's north-south axis. Variation in mercury concentrations measured in whole blood was highly associated with location, allowing the comparison of global DNA methylation levels across different "treatments" of mercury. Global DNA methylation in alligators across all locations was weakly associated with increased mercury exposure. However, a much more robust relationship was observed in those animals sampled from locations more highly contaminated with mercury. Also, similar to other vertebrates, global DNA methylation appears to decline with age in alligators. The relationship between age-associated loss of global DNA methylation and varying mercury exposures was examined to reveal a potential interaction. These findings demonstrate that global DNA methylation levels are associated with mercury exposure, and give insights into interactions between contaminants, aging, and epigenetics. PMID:26748003

  17. Global DNA methylation loss associated with mercury contamination and aging in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis)

    PubMed Central

    Nilsen, Frances M.; Parrott, Benjamin B.; Bowden, John A.; Kassim, Brittany L.; Somerville, Stephen E.; Bryan, Teresa A.; Bryan, Colleen E.; Lange, Ted R.; Delaney, J. Patrick; Brunell, Arnold M.; Long, Stephen E.; Guillette, Louis J.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury is a widespread environmental contaminant with exposures eliciting a well-documented catalog of adverse effects. Yet, knowledge regarding the underlying mechanisms by which mercury exposures are translated into biological effects remains incomplete. DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that is sensitive to environmental cues, and alterations in DNA methylation at the global level are associated with a variety of diseases. Using a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry-based (LC-MS/MS) approach, global DNA methylation levels were measured in red blood cells of 144 wild American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from 6 sites with variable levels of mercury contamination across Florida’s north-south axis. Variation in mercury concentrations measured in whole blood was highly associated with location, allowing the comparison of global DNA methylation levels across different “treatments” of mercury. Global DNA methylation in alligators across all locations was weakly associated with increased mercury exposure. However, a much more robust relationship was observed in those animals sampled from locations more highly contaminated with mercury. Also, similar to other vertebrates, global DNA methylation appears to decline with age in alligators. The relationship between age-associated loss of global DNA methylation and varying mercury exposures was examined to reveal a potential interaction. These findings demonstrate that global DNA methylation levels are associated with mercury exposure, and give insights into interactions between contaminants, aging, and epigenetics. PMID:26748003

  18. Involvement of DNA methylation in memory processing in the honey bee.

    PubMed

    Lockett, Gabrielle A; Helliwell, Paul; Maleszka, Ryszard

    2010-08-23

    DNA methylation, an important and evolutionarily conserved epigenetic mechanism, is implicated in learning and memory processes in vertebrates, but its role in behaviour in invertebrates is unknown. We examined the role of DNA methylation in memory in the honey bee using an appetitive Pavlovian olfactory discrimination task, and by assessing the expression of DNA methyltransferase3, a key driver of epigenetic reprogramming. Here we report that DNA methyltransferase inhibition reduces acquisition retention and alters the extinction depending on treatment time, and DNA methyltransferase3 is upregulated after training. Our findings add to the understanding of epigenetic mechanisms in learning and memory, extending known roles of DNA methylation to appetitive and extinction memory, and for the first time implicate DNA methylation in memory in invertebrates. PMID:20571459

  19. Patterns of integration of DNA microinjected into cultured mammalian cells: evidence for homologous recombination between injected plasmid DNA molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Folger, K R; Wong, E A; Wahl, G; Capecchi, M R

    1982-01-01

    We examined the fate of DNA microinjected into nuclei of cultured mammalian cells. The sequence composition and the physical form of the vector carrying the selectable gene affected the efficiency of DNA-mediated transformation. Introduction of sequences near the simian virus 40 origin of DNA replication or in the long terminal repeat of avian sarcoma provirus into a recombinant plasmid containing the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene. (pBR322/HSV-tk) enhanced the frequency of transformation of LMtk- and RAT-2tk- cells to the TK+ phenotype 20- to 40-fold. In cells receiving injections of only a few plasmid DNA molecules, the transformation frequency was 40-fold higher after injection of linear molecules than after injection of supercoiled molecules. By controlling the number of gene copies injected into a recipient cell, we could obtain transformants containing a single copy or as many as 50 to 100 copies of the selectable gene. Multiple copies of the transforming gene were not scattered throughout the host genome but were integrated as a concatemer at one or a very few sites in the host chromosome. Independent transformants contained the donated genes in different chromosomes. The orientation of the gene copies within the concatemer was not random; rather, the copies were organized as tandem head-to-tail arrays. By analyzing transformants obtained by coinjecting two vectors which were identical except that in one a portion of the vector was inverted, we were able to conclude that the head-to-tail concatemers were generated predominantly by homologous recombination. Surprisingly, these head-to-tail concatemers were found in transformants obtained by injecting either supercoiled or linear plasmid DNA. Even though we demonstrated that cultured mammalian cells contain the enzymes for ligating two DNA molecules very efficiently irrespective of the sequences or topology at their ends, we found that even linear plasmid DNA was recruited into the concatemer by

  20. Detection of circular and linear herpesvirus DNA molecules in mammalian cells by gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Gardella, T; Medveczky, P; Sairenji, T; Mulder, C

    1984-01-01

    A simple gel technique is described for the detection of large, covalently closed, circular DNA molecules in eucaryotic cells. The procedure is based on the electrophoretic technique of Eckhardt (T. Eckhardt, Plasmid 1:584-588, 1978) for detecting bacterial plasmids and has been modified for the detection of circular and linear extrachromosomal herpesvirus genomes in mammalian cells. Gentle lysis of suspended cells in the well of an agarose gel followed by high-voltage electrophoresis allows separation of extrachromosomal DNA from the bulk of cellular DNA. Circular viral DNA from cells which carry the genomes of Epstein-Barr virus, Herpesvirus saimiri, and Herpesvirus ateles can be detected in these gels as sharp bands which comigrate with bacterial plasmid DNA of 208 kilobases. Epstein-Barr virus producer cell lines also show a sharp band of linear 160-kilobase DNA. The kinetics of the appearance of this linear band after induction of viral replication after temperature shift parallels the known kinetics of Epstein-Barr virus production in these cell lines. Hybridization of DNA after transfer to filters shows that the circular and linear DNA bands are virus specific and that as little as 0.25 Epstein-Barr virus genome per cell can be detected. The technique is simple, rapid, and sensitive and requires relatively low amounts of cells (0.5 X 10(6) to 2.5 X 10(6)). Images PMID:6321792

  1. Characterization of DNA Methylation in Circulating Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pixberg, Constantin F.; Schulz, Wolfgang A.; Stoecklein, Nikolas H.; Neves, Rui P. L.

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetics contributes to molecular mechanisms leading to tumor cell transformation and systemic progression of cancer. However, the dynamics of epigenetic remodeling during metastasis remains unexplored. In this context, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) might enable a direct insight into epigenetic mechanisms relevant for metastasis by providing direct access to systemic cancer. CTCs can be used as prognostic markers in cancer patients and are regarded as potential metastatic precursor cells. However, despite substantial technical progress, the detection and molecular characterization of CTCs remain challenging, in particular the analysis of DNA methylation. As recent studies have started to address the epigenetic state of CTCs, we discuss here the potential of such investigations to elucidate mechanisms of metastasis and to develop tumor biomarkers. PMID:26506390

  2. PrEMeR-CG: inferring nucleotide level DNA methylation values from MethylCap-seq data

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jincheol; Zoller, Mike W.; Ganbat, Javkhlan-Ochir; Curfman, John; Byrd, John C.; Lin, Shili; Marcucci, Guido; Yan, Pearlly; Bundschuh, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: DNA methylation is an epigenetic change occurring in genomic CpG sequences that contribute to the regulation of gene transcription both in normal and malignant cells. Next-generation sequencing has been used to characterize DNA methylation status at the genome scale, but suffers from high sequencing cost in the case of whole-genome bisulfite sequencing, or from reduced resolution (inability to precisely define which of the CpGs are methylated) with capture-based techniques. Results: Here we present a computational method that computes nucleotide-resolution methylation values from capture-based data by incorporating fragment length profiles into a model of methylation analysis. We demonstrate that it compares favorably with nucleotide-resolution bisulfite sequencing and has better predictive power with respect to a reference than window-based methods, often used for enrichment data. The described method was used to produce the methylation data used in tandem with gene expression to produce a novel and clinically significant gene signature in acute myeloid leukemia. In addition, we introduce a complementary statistical method that uses this nucleotide-resolution methylation data for detection of differentially methylated features. Availability: Software in the form of Python and R scripts is available at http://bioserv.mps.ohio-state.edu/premer and is free for non-commercial use. Contact: pearlly.yan@osumc.edu; bundschuh@mps.ohio-state.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25178460

  3. DNA Methylation and Methylation Polymorphism in Genetically Stable In vitro Regenerates of Jatropha curcas L. Using Methylation-Sensitive AFLP Markers.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Mangal S; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-03-01

    The present investigation aimed to evaluate the degree and pattern of DNA methylation using methylation-sensitive AFLP (MS-AFLP) markers in genetically stable in vitro regenerates of Jatropha curcas L.. The genetically stable in vitro regenerates were raised through direct organogenesis via enhanced axillary shoot bud proliferation (Protocol-1) and in vitro-derived leaf regeneration (Protocol-2). Ten selective combinations of MS-AFLP primers produced 462 and 477 MS-AFLP bands in Protocol-1 (P-1) and Protocol-2 (P-2) regenerates, respectively. In P-1 regenerates, 15.8-31.17 % DNA was found methylated with an average of 25.24 %. In P-2 regenerates, 15.93-32.7 % DNA was found methylated with an average of 24.11 %. Using MS-AFLP in P-1 and P-2 regenerates, 11.52-25.53 % and 13.33-25.47 % polymorphism in methylated DNA was reported, respectively. Compared to the mother plant, P-1 regenerates showed hyper-methylation while P-2 showed hypo-methylation. The results clearly indicated alternation in degree and pattern of DNA methylation; hence, epigenetic instability in the genetically stable in vitro regenerates of J. curcas, developed so far using two different regeneration systems and explants of two different origins. The homologous nucleotide fragments in genomes of P-1 and P-2 regenerates showing methylation re-patterning might be involved in immediate adaptive responses and developmental processes through differential regulation of transcriptome under in vitro conditions. PMID:26588922

  4. Detection of Cytosine Methylation in Ancient DNA from Five Native American Populations Using Bisulfite Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rick W. A.; Monroe, Cara; Bolnick, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    While cytosine methylation has been widely studied in extant populations, relatively few studies have analyzed methylation in ancient DNA. Most existing studies of epigenetic marks in ancient DNA have inferred patterns of methylation in highly degraded samples using post-mortem damage to cytosines as a proxy for cytosine methylation levels. However, this approach limits the inference of methylation compared with direct bisulfite sequencing, the current gold standard for analyzing cytosine methylation at single nucleotide resolution. In this study, we used direct bisulfite sequencing to assess cytosine methylation in ancient DNA from the skeletal remains of 30 Native Americans ranging in age from approximately 230 to 4500 years before present. Unmethylated cytosines were converted to uracils by treatment with sodium bisulfite, bisulfite products of a CpG-rich retrotransposon were pyrosequenced, and C-to-T ratios were quantified for a single CpG position. We found that cytosine methylation is readily recoverable from most samples, given adequate preservation of endogenous nuclear DNA. In addition, our results indicate that the precision of cytosine methylation estimates is inversely correlated with aDNA preservation, such that samples of low DNA concentration show higher variability in measures of percent methylation than samples of high DNA concentration. In particular, samples in this study with a DNA concentration above 0.015 ng/μL generated the most consistent measures of cytosine methylation. This study presents evidence of cytosine methylation in a large collection of ancient human remains, and indicates that it is possible to analyze epigenetic patterns in ancient populations using direct bisulfite sequencing approaches. PMID:26016479

  5. Detection of Cytosine methylation in ancient DNA from five native american populations using bisulfite sequencing.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rick W A; Monroe, Cara; Bolnick, Deborah A

    2015-01-01

    While cytosine methylation has been widely studied in extant populations, relatively few studies have analyzed methylation in ancient DNA. Most existing studies of epigenetic marks in ancient DNA have inferred patterns of methylation in highly degraded samples using post-mortem damage to cytosines as a proxy for cytosine methylation levels. However, this approach limits the inference of methylation compared with direct bisulfite sequencing, the current gold standard for analyzing cytosine methylation at single nucleotide resolution. In this study, we used direct bisulfite sequencing to assess cytosine methylation in ancient DNA from the skeletal remains of 30 Native Americans ranging in age from approximately 230 to 4500 years before present. Unmethylated cytosines were converted to uracils by treatment with sodium bisulfite, bisulfite products of a CpG-rich retrotransposon were pyrosequenced, and C-to-T ratios were quantified for a single CpG position. We found that cytosine methylation is readily recoverable from most samples, given adequate preservation of endogenous nuclear DNA. In addition, our results indicate that the precision of cytosine methylation estimates is inversely correlated with aDNA preservation, such that samples of low DNA concentration show higher variability in measures of percent methylation than samples of high DNA concentration. In particular, samples in this study with a DNA concentration above 0.015 ng/μL generated the most consistent measures of cytosine methylation. This study presents evidence of cytosine methylation in a large collection of ancient human remains, and indicates that it is possible to analyze epigenetic patterns in ancient populations using direct bisulfite sequencing approaches. PMID:26016479

  6. Dual Functions of the RFTS Domain of Dnmt1 in Replication-Coupled DNA Methylation and in Protection of the Genome from Aberrant Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Hironobu; Sharif, Jafar; Muto, Masahiro; Koseki, Haruhiko; Takahashi, Saori; Suetake, Isao; Tajima, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, DNA methylation plays important roles in embryogenesis and terminal differentiation via regulation of the transcription-competent chromatin state. The methylation patterns are propagated to the next generation during replication by maintenance DNA methyltransferase, Dnmt1, in co-operation with Uhrf1. In the N-terminal regulatory region, Dnmt1 contains proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-binding and replication foci targeting sequence (RFTS) domains, which are thought to contribute to maintenance methylation during replication. To determine the contributions of the N-terminal regulatory domains to the DNA methylation during replication, Dnmt1 lacking the RFTS and/or PCNA-binding domains was ectopically expressed in embryonic stem cells, and then the effects were analyzed. Deletion of both the PCNA-binding and RFTS domains did not significantly affect the global DNA methylation level. However, replication-dependent DNA methylation of the differentially methylated regions of three imprinted genes, Kcnq1ot1/Lit1, Peg3, and Rasgrf1, was impaired in cells expressing the Dnmt1 with not the PCNA-binding domain alone but both the PCNA-binding and RFTS domains deleted. Even in the absence of Uhrf1, which is a prerequisite factor for maintenance DNA methylation, Dnmt1 with both the domains deleted apparently maintained the global DNA methylation level, whilst the wild type and the forms containing the RFTS domain could not perform global DNA methylation under the conditions used. This apparent maintenance of the global DNA methylation level by the Dnmt1 lacking the RFTS domain was dependent on its own DNA methylation activity as well as the presence of de novo-type DNA methyltransferases. We concluded that the RFTS domain, not the PCNA-binding domain, is solely responsible for the replication-coupled DNA methylation. Furthermore, the RFTS domain acts as a safety lock by protecting the genome from replication-independent DNA methylation. PMID:26383849

  7. Mitochondrial DNA methylation as a next-generation biomarker and diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Iacobazzi, Vito; Castegna, Alessandra; Infantino, Vittoria; Andria, Generoso

    2013-01-01

    Recent expansion of our knowledge on epigenetic changes strongly suggests that not only nuclear DNA (nDNA), but also mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) may be subjected to epigenetic modifications related to disease development, environmental exposure, drug treatment and aging. Thus, mtDNA methylation is attracting increasing attention as a potential biomarker for the detection and diagnosis of diseases and the understanding of cellular behavior in particular conditions. In this paper we review the current advances in mtDNA methylation studies with particular attention to the evidences of mtDNA methylation changes in diseases and physiological conditions so far investigated. Technological advances for the analysis of epigenetic variations are promising tools to provide insights into methylation of mtDNA with similar resolution levels as those reached for nDNA. However, many aspects related to mtDNA methylation are still unclear. More studies are needed to understand whether and how changes in mtDNA methylation patterns, global and gene specific, are associated to diseases or risk factors. PMID:23920043

  8. DNA methylation in complex disease: applications in nursing research, practice, and policy.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle L; Ralph, Jody L; Ohm, Joyce E; Anderson, Cindy M

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenomic modification that is essential to normal human development and biological processes. DNA methylation patterns are heritable and dynamic throughout the life span. Environmental exposures can alter DNA methylation patterns, contributing to the development of complex disease. Identification and modulation of environmental factors influencing disease susceptibility through alterations in DNA methylation are amenable to nursing intervention and form the basis for individualized patient care. Here we describe the evidence supporting the translation of DNA methylation analyses as a tool for screening, diagnosis, and treatment of complex disease in nursing research and practice. The ethical, legal, social, and economic considerations of advances in genomics are considered as a model for epigenomic policy. We conclude that contemporary and informed nurse scientists and clinicians are uniquely poised to apply innovations in epigenomic research to clinical populations and develop appropriate policies that guide equitable and ethical use of new strategies to improve patient care. PMID:23849553

  9. Exploring genome wide bisulfite sequencing for DNA methylation analysis in livestock: a technical assessment.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Rachael; Couldrey, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances made in "omics" technologies are contributing to a revolution in livestock selection and breeding practices. Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation are important determinants for the control of gene expression in mammals. DNA methylation research will help our understanding of how environmental factors contribute to phenotypic variation of complex production and health traits. High-throughput sequencing is a vital tool for the comprehensive analysis of DNA methylation, and bisulfite-based strategies coupled with DNA sequencing allows for quantitative, site-specific methylation analysis at the genome level or genome wide. Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) and more recently whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) have proven to be effective techniques for studying DNA methylation in both humans and mice. Here we report the development of RRBS and WGBS for use in sheep, the first application of this technology in livestock species. Important technical issues associated with these methodologies including fragment size selection and sequence depth are examined and discussed. PMID:24860595

  10. Epigenetic Cross-Talk between DNA Methylation and Histone Modifications in Human Cancers

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    DNA methylation, histone modifications, and the chromatin structure are profoundly altered in human cancers. The silencing of cancer-related genes by these epigenetic regulators is recognized as a key mechanism in tumor formation. Recent findings revealed that DNA methylation and histone modifications appear to be linked to each other. However, it is not clearly understood how the formation of histone modifications may affect DNA methylation and which genes are relevantly involved with tumor formation. The presence of histone modifications does not always link to DNA methylation in human cancers, which suggests that another factor is required to connect these two epigenetic mechanisms. In this review, examples of studies that demonstrated the relationship between histone modifications and DNA methylation in human cancers are presented and the potential implications of these epigenetic mechanisms in human neoplasia are discussed. PMID:19718392

  11. A simple bridging flocculation assay for rapid, sensitive and stringent detection of gene specific DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Wee, Eugene J H; Ha Ngo, Thu; Trau, Matt

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of bringing DNA methylation biomarkers into clinic is the lack of simple methodologies as most current assays have been developed for research purposes. To address the limitations of current methods, we describe herein a novel methyl-protein domain (MBD) enrichment protocol for simple yet rapid and highly stringent selection of highly methylated DNA from limiting input samples. We then coupled this with a DNA-mediated flocculation assay for rapid and low cost naked-eye binary evaluation of highly methylated genes in cell line and blood DNA. The low resource requirements of our method may enable widespread adoption of DNA methylation-based diagnostics in clinic and may be useful for small-scale research. PMID:26458746

  12. A simple bridging flocculation assay for rapid, sensitive and stringent detection of gene specific DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Eugene J. H.; Ha Ngo, Thu; Trau, Matt

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of bringing DNA methylation biomarkers into clinic is the lack of simple methodologies as most current assays have been developed for research purposes. To address the limitations of current methods, we describe herein a novel methyl-protein domain (MBD) enrichment protocol for simple yet rapid and highly stringent selection of highly methylated DNA from limiting input samples. We then coupled this with a DNA-mediated flocculation assay for rapid and low cost naked-eye binary evaluation of highly methylated genes in cell line and blood DNA. The low resource requirements of our method may enable widespread adoption of DNA methylation-based diagnostics in clinic and may be useful for small-scale research. PMID:26458746

  13. Adeno-Associated Viral Vector-Mediated Transgene Expression Is Independent of DNA Methylation in Primate Liver and Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Léger, Adrien; Le Guiner, Caroline; Nickerson, Michael L.; McGee Im, Kate; Ferry, Nicolas; Moullier, Philippe; Snyder, Richard O.; Penaud-Budloo, Magalie

    2011-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors can support long-term transgene expression in quiescent tissues. Intramuscular (IM) administration of a single-stranded AAV vector (ssAAV) in the nonhuman primate (NHP) results in a peak protein level at 2–3 months, followed by a decrease over several months before reaching a steady-state. To investigate transgene expression and vector genome persistence, we previously demonstrated that rAAV vector genomes associate with histones and form a chromatin structure in NHP skeletal muscle more than one year after injection. In the mammalian nucleus, chromatin remodeling via epigenetic modifications plays key role in transcriptional regulation. Among those, CpG hyper-methylation of promoters is a known hallmark of gene silencing. To assess the involvement of DNA methylation on the transgene expression, we injected NHP via the IM or the intravenous (IV) route with a recombinant ssAAV2/1 vector. The expression cassette contains the transgene under the transcriptional control of the constitutive Rous Sarcoma Virus promoter (RSVp). Total DNA isolated from NHP muscle and liver biopsies from 1 to 37 months post-injection was treated with sodium bisulfite and subsequently analyzed by pyrosequencing. No significant CpG methylation of the RSVp was found in rAAV virions or in vector DNA isolated from NHP transduced tissues. Direct de novo DNA methylation appears not to be involved in repressing transgene expression in NHP after gene transfer mediated by ssAAV vectors. The study presented here examines host/vector interactions and the impact on transgene expression in a clinically relevant model. PMID:21687632

  14. A Two-Gene Blood Test for Methylated DNA Sensitive for Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Susanne K.; Baker, Rohan T.; McEvoy, Aidan; Murray, David H.; Thomas, Melissa; Molloy, Peter L.; Mitchell, Sue; Lockett, Trevor; Young, Graeme P.; LaPointe, Lawrence C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Specific genes are methylated with high frequency in colorectal neoplasia, and may leak into blood. Detection of multiple methylated DNA biomarkers in blood may improve assay sensitivity for colorectal cancer (CRC) relative to a single marker. We undertook a case-control study evaluating the presence of two methylation DNA markers, BCAT1 and IKZF1, in circulation to determine if they were complementary for detection of CRC. Methods Methylation-specific PCR assays were developed to measure the level of methylated BCAT1 and IKZF1 in DNA extracted from plasma obtained from colonoscopy-confirmed 144 healthy controls and 74 CRC cases. Results DNA yields ranged from 2 to 730 ng/mL plasma (mean 18.6ng/mL; 95% CI 11-26 ng/mL) and did not correlate with gender, age or CRC status. Methylated BCAT1 and IKZF1 DNA were detected in respectively 48 (65%) and 50 (68%) of the 74 cancers. In contrast, only 5 (4%) and 7 (5%) controls were positive for BCAT1 and IKZF1 DNA methylation, respectively. A two-gene classifier model (“either or” rule) improved segregation of CRC from controls, with 57 of 74 cancers (77%) compared to only 11 of 144 (7.6%) controls being positive for BCAT1 and/or IKZF1 DNA methylation. Increasing levels of methylated DNA were observed as CRC stage progressed. Conclusions Detection of methylated BCAT1 and/or IKZF1 DNA in plasma may have clinical application as a novel blood test for CRC. Combining the results from the two methylation-specific PCR assays improved CRC detection with minimal change in specificity. Further validation of this two-gene blood test with a view to application in screening is now indicated. PMID:25928810

  15. The dynamics of DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation during amelogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Hirotaka; Minamizaki, Tomoko; Yoshiko, Yuji

    2015-11-01

    Amelogenesis is a multistep process that relies on specific temporal and spatial signaling networks between the dental epithelium and mesenchymal tissues. Epigenetic modifications of key developmental genes in this process may be closely linked to a network of molecular events. However, the role of epigenetic regulation in amelogenesis remains unclear. Here, we have uncovered the spatial distributions of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) to determine epigenetic events in the mandibular incisors of mice. Immunohistochemistry and dot blotting showed that 5-hmC in ameloblasts increased from the secretory stage to the later maturation stage. We also demonstrated the distribution of 5-mC-positive ameloblasts with punctate nuclear labeling from sometime after the initiation of the secretory stage to the later maturation stage; however, dot blotting failed to detect this change. No obvious alteration of 5-mC/5-hmC staining in odontoblasts and dental pulp cells was observed. Concomitant with quantitative expression data, immunohistochemistry showed that maintenance DNA methyltransferase DNMT1 was highly expressed in immature dental epithelial cells and subsequently decreased at later stages of development. Meanwhile, de novo DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b and DNA demethylase Tet family genes were universally expressed, except Tet1 that was highly expressed in immature dental epithelial cells. Thus, DNMT1 may sustain the undifferentiated status of dental epithelial cells through the maintenance of DNA methylation, while the hydroxylation of 5-mC may occur through the whole differentiation process by TET activity. Taken together, these data indicate that the dynamic changes of 5-mC and 5-hmC may be critical for the regulation of amelogenesis. PMID:26209269

  16. Germline DNA methylation in reef corals: patterns and potential roles in response to environmental change.

    PubMed

    Dimond, James L; Roberts, Steven B

    2016-04-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mark that plays an inadequately understood role in gene regulation, particularly in nonmodel species. Because it can be influenced by the environment, DNA methylation may contribute to the ability of organisms to acclimatize and adapt to environmental change. We evaluated the distribution of gene body methylation in reef-building corals, a group of organisms facing significant environmental threats. Gene body methylation in six species of corals was inferred from in silico transcriptome analysis of CpG O/E, an estimate of germline DNA methylation that is highly correlated with patterns of methylation enrichment. Consistent with what has been documented in most other invertebrates, all corals exhibited bimodal distributions of germline methylation suggestive of distinct fractions of genes with high and low levels of methylation. The hypermethylated fractions were enriched with genes with housekeeping functions, while genes with inducible functions were highly represented in the hypomethylated fractions. High transcript abundance was associated with intermediate levels of methylation. In three of the coral species, we found that genes differentially expressed in response to thermal stress and ocean acidification exhibited significantly lower levels of methylation. These results support a link between gene body hypomethylation and transcriptional plasticity that may point to a role of DNA methylation in the response of corals to environmental change. PMID:26454152

  17. Global DNA Methylation Level among Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Clinical Isolates of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Yugendran, Thiyagarajan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Fluoroquinolone resistant clinical isolates belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae is a major public health concern in India. Data analysis in JIPMER hospital revealed 10% rise in fluoroquinolone resistance within a span of three years suggestive of the possible involvement of mechanism/s other than QRDR capable of imparting fluoroquinolone resistance. DNA methylation regulates gene expression. Moreover, methylated cytosine is a mutational hotspot. Thus, DNA methylation can alter bacterial gene expression profile as well as facilitate the bacteria in accumulating mutations possibly leading to increased antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, the present study was carried out to identify the potential involvement of DNA methylation in ciprofloxacin resistance. Aim To elucidate and compare the methylation level of genomic and plasmid DNA among clinical isolates of E. coli sensitive and resistant to ciprofloxacin. Materials and Methods The study included 40 clinical E. coli isolates of which, 30 were ciprofloxacin-resistant and 10 were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. Genomic DNA (gDNA) and plasmid DNA were extracted and quantified. Methylation levels were elucidated using 5-mC DNA ELISA kit (Zymoresearch, California, USA) as per kit protocol and guidelines. Statistical Analysis Spearman correlation 2-tailed test. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results The MIC values of sensitive and resistant strains against ciprofloxacin ranged from 0.125 μg/mL – 0.75 μg/mL and 8 μg/mL - >256 μg/mL respectively. No difference was found in plasmid DNA methylation level but, the gDNA methylation level of the resistant strains significantly differed from that of the sensitive strains. Based on Spearman correlation test gDNA methylation level of bacteria was found to be inversely proportional to its MIC against ciprofloxacin with p= -0.956 (p-value < 0.0001). Conclusion The influence of DNA methylation over plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance needs to be

  18. CG gene body DNA methylation changes and evolution of duplicated genes in cassava

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haifeng; Beyene, Getu; Zhai, Jixian; Feng, Suhua; Fahlgren, Noah; Taylor, Nigel J.; Bart, Rebecca; Carrington, James C.; Jacobsen, Steven E.; Ausin, Israel

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is important for the regulation of gene expression and the silencing of transposons in plants. Here we present genome-wide methylation patterns at single-base pair resolution for cassava (Manihot esculenta, cultivar TME 7), a crop with a substantial impact in the agriculture of subtropical and tropical regions. On average, DNA methylation levels were higher in all three DNA sequence contexts (CG, CHG, and CHH, where H equals A, T, or C) than those of the most well-studied model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. As in other plants, DNA methylation was found both on transposons and in the transcribed regions (bodies) of many genes. Consistent with these patterns, at least one cassava gene copy of all of the known components of Arabidopsis DNA methylation pathways was identified. Methylation of LTR transposons (GYPSY and COPIA) was found to be unusually high compared with other types of transposons, suggesting that the control of the activity of these two types of transposons may be especially important. Analysis of duplicated gene pairs resulting from whole-genome duplication showed that gene body DNA methylation and gene expression levels have coevolved over short evolutionary time scales, reinforcing the positive relationship between gene body methylation and high levels of gene expression. Duplicated genes with the most divergent gene body methylation and expression patterns were found to have distinct biological functions and may have been under natural or human selection for cassava traits. PMID:26483493

  19. CG gene body DNA methylation changes and evolution of duplicated genes in cassava.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haifeng; Beyene, Getu; Zhai, Jixian; Feng, Suhua; Fahlgren, Noah; Taylor, Nigel J; Bart, Rebecca; Carrington, James C; Jacobsen, Steven E; Ausin, Israel

    2015-11-01

    DNA methylation is important for the regulation of gene expression and the silencing of transposons in plants. Here we present genome-wide methylation patterns at single-base pair resolution for cassava (Manihot esculenta, cultivar TME 7), a crop with a substantial impact in the agriculture of subtropical and tropical regions. On average, DNA methylation levels were higher in all three DNA sequence contexts (CG, CHG, and CHH, where H equals A, T, or C) than those of the most well-studied model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. As in other plants, DNA methylation was found both on transposons and in the transcribed regions (bodies) of many genes. Consistent with these patterns, at least one cassava gene copy of all of the known components of Arabidopsis DNA methylation pathways was identified. Methylation of LTR transposons (GYPSY and COPIA) was found to be unusually high compared with other types of transposons, suggesting that the control of the activity of these two types of transposons may be especially important. Analysis of duplicated gene pairs resulting from whole-genome duplication showed that gene body DNA methylation and gene expression levels have coevolved over short evolutionary time scales, reinforcing the positive relationship between gene body methylation and high levels of gene expression. Duplicated genes with the most divergent gene body methylation and expression patterns were found to have distinct biological functions and may have been under natural or human selection for cassava traits. PMID:26483493

  20. The detective, prognostic, and predictive value of DNA methylation in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kai; Cao, Baoping; Guo, Mingzhou

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the world. Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for approximately 90 % of esophageal cancer cases. Genetic and epigenetic changes have been found to accumulate during the development of various cancers, including esophageal squamous carcinoma (ESCC). Tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption are two major risk factors for ESCC, and both tobacco and alcohol were found to induce methylation changes in ESCC. Growing evidence demonstrates that aberrant epigenetic changes play important roles in the multiple-step processes of carcinogenesis and tumor progression. DNA methylation may occur in the key components of cancer-related signaling pathways. Aberrant DNA methylation affects genes involved in cell cycle, DNA damage repair, Wnt, TGF-β, and NF-κB signaling pathways, including P16, MGMT, SFRP2, DACH1, and ZNF382. Certain genes methylated in precursor lesions of the esophagus demonstrate that DNA methylation may serve as esophageal cancer early detection marker, such as methylation of HIN1, TFPI-2, DACH1, and SOX17. CHFR methylation is a late stage event in ESCC and is a sensitive marker for taxanes in human ESCC. FHIT methylation is associated with poor prognosis in ESCC. Aberrant DNA methylation changes may serve as diagnostic, prognostic, and chemo-sensitive markers. Characterization of the DNA methylome in ESCC will help to better understand its mechanisms and develop improved therapies. PMID:27110300

  1. Competition between DNA methylation and transcription factors determines binding of NRF1.

    PubMed

    Domcke, Silvia; Bardet, Anaïs Flore; Adrian Ginno, Paul; Hartl, Dominik; Burger, Lukas; Schübeler, Dirk

    2015-12-24

    Eukaryotic transcription factors (TFs) are key determinants of gene activity, yet they bind only a fraction of their corresponding DNA sequence motifs in any given cell type. Chromatin has the potential to restrict accessibility of binding sites; however, in which context chromatin states are instructive for TF binding remains mainly unknown. To explore the contribution of DNA methylation to constrained TF binding, we mapped DNase-I-hypersensitive sites in murine stem cells in the presence and absence of DNA methylation. Methylation-restricted sites are enriched for TF motifs containing CpGs, especially for those of NRF1. In fact, the TF NRF1 occupies several thousand additional sites in the unmethylated genome, resulting in increased transcription. Restoring de novo methyltransferase activity initiates remethylation at these sites and outcompetes NRF1 binding. This suggests that binding of DNA-methylation-sensitive TFs relies on additional determinants to induce local hypomethylation. In support of this model, removal of neighbouring motifs in cis or of a TF in trans causes local hypermethylation and subsequent loss of NRF1 binding. This competition between DNA methylation and TFs in vivo reveals a case of cooperativity between TFs that acts indirectly via DNA methylation. Methylation removal by methylation-insensitive factors enables occupancy of methylation-sensitive factors, a principle that rationalizes hypomethylation of regulatory regions. PMID:26675734

  2. The CHH motif in sugar beet satellite DNA: a modulator for cytosine methylation.

    PubMed

    Zakrzewski, Falk; Schubert, Veit; Viehoever, Prisca; Minoche, André E; Dohm, Juliane C; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Weisshaar, Bernd; Schmidt, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Methylation of DNA is important for the epigenetic silencing of repetitive DNA in plant genomes. Knowledge about the cytosine methylation status of satellite DNAs, a major class of repetitive DNA, is scarce. One reason for this is that arrays of tandemly arranged sequences are usually collapsed in next-generation sequencing assemblies. We applied strategies to overcome this limitation and quantified the level of cytosine methylation and its pattern in three satellite families of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) which differ in their abundance, chromosomal localization and monomer size. We visualized methylation levels along pachytene chromosomes with respect to small satellite loci at maximum resolution using chromosome-wide fluorescent in situ hybridization complemented with immunostaining and super-resolution microscopy. Only reduced methylation of many satellite arrays was obtained. To investigate methylation at the nucleotide level we performed bisulfite sequencing of 1569 satellite sequences. We found that the level of methylation of cytosine strongly depends on the sequence context: cytosines in the CHH motif show lower methylation (44-52%), while CG and CHG motifs are more strongly methylated. This affects the overall methylation of satellite sequences because CHH occurs frequently while CG and CHG are rare or even absent in the satellite arrays investigated. Evidently, CHH is the major target for modulation of the cytosine methylation level of adjacent monomers within individual arrays and contributes to their epigenetic function. This strongly indicates that asymmetric cytosine methylation plays a role in the epigenetic modification of satellite repeats in plant genomes. PMID:24661787

  3. Carcinogen-induced DNA repair in nucleotide-permeable Escherichia coli cells. Induction of DNA repair by the carcinogens methyl and ethyl nitrosourea and methyl methanesulfonate.

    PubMed

    Thielmann, H W; Vosberg, H P; Reygers, U

    1975-08-15

    Ether-permeabilized (nucleotide-permeable) cells of Escherichia coli show excision repair of their DNA after having been exposed to the carcinogens N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MeNOUr), N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (EtNOUr) and methyl methanesulfonate (MeSO2OMe) which are known to bind covalently to DNA. Defect mutations in genes uvrA, uvrB, uvrC, recA, recB, recC and rep did not inhibit this excision repair. Enzymic activities involved in this repair were identified by measuring size reduction of DNA, DNA degradation to acid-soluble nucleotides and repair polymerization. 1. In permeabilized cells methyl and ethyl nitrosourea induced endonucleolytic cleavage of endogenous DNA, as determined by size reduction of denatured DNA in neutral and alkaline sucrose gradients. An enzymic activity from E. coli K-12 cell extracts was purified (greater than 2000-fold) and was found to cleave preferentially methyl-nitrosourea-treated DNA and to convert the methylated supercoiled DNA duplex (RFI) of phage phiX 174 into the nicked circular form. 2. Degradation of alkylated cellular DNA to acid solubility was diminished in a mutant lacking the 5' leads to 3' exonucleolytic activity of DNA polymerase I but was not affected in a mutant which lacked the DNA polymerizing but retained the 5' leads 3' exonucleolytic activity of DNA polymerase I. 3. An easily measurable effect is carcinogen-induced repair polymerization, making it suitable for detection of covalent binding of carcinogens and potentially carcinogenic compounds. PMID:170107

  4. Recent progress towards understanding the role of DNA methylation in human placental development.

    PubMed

    Bianco-Miotto, Tina; Mayne, Benjamin T; Buckberry, Sam; Breen, James; Rodriguez Lopez, Carlos M; Roberts, Claire T

    2016-07-01

    Epigenetic modifications, and particularly DNA methylation, have been studied in many tissues, both healthy and diseased, and across numerous developmental stages. The placenta is the only organ that has a transient life of 9 months and undergoes rapid growth and dynamic structural and functional changes across gestation. Additionally, the placenta is unique because although developing within the mother, its genome is identical to that of the foetus. Given these distinctive characteristics, it is not surprising that the epigenetic landscape affecting placental gene expression may be different to that in other healthy tissues. However, the role of epigenetic modifications, and particularly DNA methylation, in placental development remains largely unknown. Of particular interest is the fact that the placenta is the most hypomethylated human tissue and is characterized by the presence of large partially methylated domains (PMDs) containing silenced genes. Moreover, how and why the placenta is hypomethylated and what role DNA methylation plays in regulating placental gene expression across gestation are poorly understood. We review genome-wide DNA methylation studies in the human placenta and highlight that the different cell types that make up the placenta have very different DNA methylation profiles. Summarizing studies on DNA methylation in the placenta and its relationship with pregnancy complications are difficult due to the limited number of studies available for comparison. To understand the key steps in placental development and hence what may be perturbed in pregnancy complications requires large-scale genome-wide DNA methylation studies coupled with transcriptome analyses. PMID:27026712

  5. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in cohesin mutant human cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinglan; Zhang, Zhe; Bando, Masashige; Itoh, Takehiko; Deardorff, Matthew A.; Li, Jennifer R.; Clark, Dinah; Kaur, Maninder; Tatsuro, Kondo; Kline, Antonie D.; Chang, Celia; Vega, Hugo; Jackson, Laird G.; Spinner, Nancy B.; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Krantz, Ian D.

    2010-01-01

    The cohesin complex has recently been shown to be a key regulator of eukaryotic gene expression, although the mechanisms by which it exerts its effects are poorly understood. We have undertaken a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in cohesin-deficient cell lines from probands with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS). Heterozygous mutations in NIPBL, SMC1A and SMC3 genes account for ∼65% of individuals with CdLS. SMC1A and SMC3 are subunits of the cohesin complex that controls sister chromatid cohesion, whereas NIPBL facilitates cohesin loading and unloading. We have examined the methylation status of 27 578 CpG dinucleotides in 72 CdLS and control samples. We have documented the DNA methylation pattern in human lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) as well as identified specific differential DNA methylation in CdLS. Subgroups of CdLS probands and controls can be classified using selected CpG loci. The X chromosome was also found to have a unique DNA methylation pattern in CdLS. Cohesin preferentially binds to hypo-methylated DNA in control LCLs, whereas the differential DNA methylation alters cohesin binding in CdLS. Our results suggest that in addition to DNA methylation multiple mechanisms may be involved in transcriptional regulation in human cells and in the resultant gene misexpression in CdLS. PMID:20448023

  6. Highly sensitive detection of DNA methylation levels by using a quantum dot-based FRET method.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yunfei; Zhang, Honglian; Liu, Fangming; Wu, Zhenhua; Lu, Shaohua; Jin, Qinghui; Zhao, Jianlong; Zhong, Xinhua; Mao, Hongju

    2015-11-01

    DNA methylation is the most frequently studied epigenetic modification that is strongly involved in genomic stability and cellular plasticity. Aberrant changes in DNA methylation status are ubiquitous in human cancer and the detection of these changes can be informative for cancer diagnosis. Herein, we reported a facile quantum dot-based (QD-based) fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique for the detection of DNA methylation. The method relies on methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes for the differential digestion of genomic DNA based on its methylation status. Digested DNA is then subjected to PCR amplification for the incorporation of Alexa Fluor-647 (A647) fluorophores. DNA methylation levels can be detected qualitatively through gel analysis and quantitatively by the signal amplification from QDs to A647 during FRET. Furthermore, the methylation levels of three tumor suppressor genes, PCDHGB6, HOXA9 and RASSF1A, in 20 lung adenocarcinoma and 20 corresponding adjacent nontumorous tissue (NT) samples were measured to verify the feasibility of the QD-based FRET method and a high sensitivity for cancer detection (up to 90%) was achieved. Our QD-based FRET method is a convenient, continuous and high-throughput method, and is expected to be an alternative for detecting DNA methylation as a biomarker for certain human cancers. PMID:26446775

  7. DNA Methylation as Clinically Useful Biomarkers—Light at the End of the Tunnel

    PubMed Central

    Levenson, Victor V.; Melnikov, Anatoliy A.

    2012-01-01

    A recent expansion of our knowledge about epigenetic changes strongly suggests that epigenetic rather than genetic features better reflect disease development, and consequently, can become more conclusive biomarkers for the detection and diagnosis of different diseases. In this paper we will concentrate on the current advances in DNA methylation studies that demonstrate a direct link between abnormal DNA methylation and a disease. This link can be used to develop diagnostic biomarkers that will precisely identify a particular disease. It also appears that disease-specific DNA methylation patterns undergo unique changes in response to treatment with a particular drug, thus raising the possibility of DNA methylation-based biomarkers for the monitoring of treatment efficacy, for prediction of response to treatment, and for the prognosis of outcome. While biomarkers for oncology are the most obvious applications, other fields of medicine are likely to benefit as well. This potential is demonstrated by DNA methylation-based biomarkers for neurological and psychiatric diseases. A special requirement for a biomarker is the possibility of longitudinal testing. In this regard cell-free circulating DNA from blood is especially interesting because it carries methylation markers specific for a particular disease. Although only a few DNA methylation-based biomarkers have attained clinical relevance, the ongoing efforts to decipher disease-specific methylation patterns are likely to produce additional biomarkers for detection, diagnosis, and monitoring of different diseases in the near future. PMID:24288045

  8. Epigenetic Variation in Monozygotic Twins: A Genome-Wide Analysis of DNA Methylation in Buccal Cells

    PubMed Central

    van Dongen, Jenny; Ehli, Erik A.; Slieker, Roderick C.; Bartels, Meike; Weber, Zachary M.; Davies, Gareth E.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is one of the most extensively studied epigenetic marks in humans. Yet, it is largely unknown what causes variation in DNA methylation between individuals. The comparison of DNA methylation profiles of monozygotic (MZ) twins offers a unique experimental design to examine the extent to which such variation is related to individual-specific environmental influences and stochastic events or to familial factors (DNA sequence and shared environment). We measured genome-wide DNA methylation in buccal samples from ten MZ pairs (age 8–19) using the Illumina 450k array and examined twin correlations for methylation level at 420,921 CpGs after QC. After selecting CpGs showing the most variation in the methylation level between subjects, the mean genome-wide correlation (rho) was 0.54. The correlation was higher, on average, for CpGs within CpG islands (CGIs), compared to CGI shores, shelves and non-CGI regions, particularly at hypomethylated CpGs. This finding suggests that individual-specific environmental and stochastic influences account for more variation in DNA methylation in CpG-poor regions. Our findings also indicate that it is worthwhile to examine heritable and shared environmental influences on buccal DNA methylation in larger studies that also include dizygotic twins. PMID:24802513

  9. Epigenetic variation in monozygotic twins: a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in buccal cells.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, Jenny; Ehli, Erik A; Slieker, Roderick C; Bartels, Meike; Weber, Zachary M; Davies, Gareth E; Slagboom, P Eline; Heijmans, Bastiaan T; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is one of the most extensively studied epigenetic marks in humans. Yet, it is largely unknown what causes variation in DNA methylation between individuals. The comparison of DNA methylation profiles of monozygotic (MZ) twins offers a unique experimental design to examine the extent to which such variation is related to individual-specific environmental influences and stochastic events or to familial factors (DNA sequence and shared environment). We measured genome-wide DNA methylation in buccal samples from ten MZ pairs (age 8-19) using the Illumina 450k array and examined twin correlations for methylation level at 420,921 CpGs after QC. After selecting CpGs showing the most variation in the methylation level between subjects, the mean genome-wide correlation (rho) was 0.54. The correlation was higher, on average, for CpGs within CpG islands (CGIs), compared to CGI shores, shelves and non-CGI regions, particularly at hypomethylated CpGs. This finding suggests that individual-specific environmental and stochastic influences account for more variation in DNA methylation in CpG-poor regions. Our findings also indicate that it is worthwhile to examine heritable and shared environmental influences on buccal DNA methylation in larger studies that also include dizygotic twins. PMID:24802513

  10. DNA-AuNPs based signal amplification for highly sensitive detection of DNA methylation, methyltransferase activity and inhibitor screening.

    PubMed

    Jing, Xiaoying; Cao, Xianqing; Wang, Li; Lan, Tian; Li, Yiyan; Xie, Guoming

    2014-08-15

    A sensitive and selective electrochemical method was developed for the detection of DNA methylation, determination of DNA methyltransferase (MTase) activity and screening of MTase inhibitor. Methylene blue (MB) was employed as electrochemical indicator and DNA-modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were used as signal amplification unit because the DNA strands in this composite have strong adsorption ability for MB. First, the thiolated single-stranded DNA S1 was self-assembled on gold electrode, hybridization between the lower portion of DNA S1 and its complementary DNA S2 formed an identical double-stranded tetranucleotide target sequence for both DNA adenine methylation (Dam) MTase and methylation-resistant endonuclease Mbo I, then the upper portion of DNA S1 was hybridized with its complementary DNA S3 modified on AuNPs to bring the DNA S3-AuNPs amplification units onto the electrode. The DNA S1/S2/S3-AuNPs bioconjugate has lots of DNA strands, and they can adsorb abundant MB. Mbo I endounuclease could not cleave the identical target sequence after it was methylated by Dam MTase. On the contrary, the sequence without methylation could be cleaved, which would decrease the amount of adsorbed MB. The presence of redox-active MB was detected electrochemically by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Thus, the activity of Dam MTase and methylation status were sensitively converted to the DNA S3-AuNPs amplified DPV signals. The DPV signal demonstrated a linear relationship with logarithm of Dam concentration ranging from 0.075 to 30U/mL, achieving a detection limit of 0.02U/mL (S/N=3). Also, screening of Dam MTase inhibitor 5-fluorouracil was successfully investigated using this fabricated sensor. PMID:24613968

  11. BIMMER: a novel algorithm for detecting differential DNA methylation regions from MBDCap-seq data.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zijing; Ma, Chifeng; Huang, Tim H-M; Chen, Yidong; Huang, Yufei

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is a common epigenetic marker that regulates gene expression. A robust and cost-effective way for measuring whole genome methylation is Methyl-CpG binding domain-based capture followed by sequencing (MBDCap-seq). In this study, we proposed BIMMER, a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) for differential Methylation Regions (DMRs) identification, where HMMs were proposed to model the methylation status in normal and cancer samples in the first layer and another HMM was introduced to model the relationship between differential methylation and methylation statuses in normal and cancer samples. To carry out the prediction for BIMMER, an Expectation-Maximization algorithm was derived. BIMMER was validated on the simulated data and applied to real MBDCap-seq data of normal and cancer samples. BIMMER revealed that 8.83% of the breast cancer genome are differentially methylated and the majority are hypo-methylated in breast cancer. PMID:25474268

  12. BIMMER: a novel algorithm for detecting differential DNA methylation regions from MBDCap-seq data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is a common epigenetic marker that regulates gene expression. A robust and cost-effective way for measuring whole genome methylation is Methyl-CpG binding domain-based capture followed by sequencing (MBDCap-seq). In this study, we proposed BIMMER, a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) for differential Methylation Regions (DMRs) identification, where HMMs were proposed to model the methylation status in normal and cancer samples in the first layer and another HMM was introduced to model the relationship between differential methylation and methylation statuses in normal and cancer samples. To carry out the prediction for BIMMER, an Expectation-Maximization algorithm was derived. BIMMER was validated on the simulated data and applied to real MBDCap-seq data of normal and cancer samples. BIMMER revealed that 8.83% of the breast cancer genome are differentially methylated and the majority are hypo-methylated in breast cancer. PMID:25474268

  13. DNA methylation and body mass index: investigating identified methylation sites at HIF3A in a causal framework

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Abigail; Lyttleton, Oliver; McArdle, Wendy L; Ring, Susan M; Gaunt, Tom R; Lawlor, Debbie A; Smith, George Davey; Relton, Caroline L

    2016-01-01

    Multiple differentially methylated sites and regions associated with adiposity have now been identified in large-scale cross sectional studies. We tested for replication of associations between previously identified CpG sites at HIF3A and adiposity in ~1,000 mother-offspring pairs from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Availability of methylation and adiposity measures at multiple time points, as well as genetic data, allowed us to assess the temporal associations between adiposity and methylation and to make inferences regarding causality and directionality. Overall, our results were discordant with those expected if HIF3A methylation has a causal effect on BMI and provided more evidence for causality in the reverse direction i.e. an effect of BMI on HIF3A methylation. These results are based on robust evidence from longitudinal analyses and were also partially supported by Mendelian randomization analysis, although this latter analysis was underpowered to detect a causal effect of BMI on HIF3A methylation. Our results also highlight an apparent long-lasting inter-generational influence of maternal BMI on offspring methylation at this locus, which may confound associations between own adiposity and HIF3A methylation. Further work is required to replicate and uncover the mechanisms underlying both the direct and inter-generational effect of adiposity on DNA methylation. PMID:26861784

  14. Quantitation and visualization of alkyl deoxynucleosides in the DNA of mammalian cells by monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Adamkiewicz, J.; Eberle, G.; Huh, N.; Nehls, P.; Rajewsky, M.F.

    1985-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (Mab) characterized by a high substrate specificity and affinity, in combination with radio- and enzyme-immunoassays, or with immuno-slot-blot techniques, now permit the detection of femtomole to subfemtomole amounts of, e.g., alkyldeoxynucleosides in small samples of DNA isolated from tissues or cultured cells previously exposed to nonradioactive N-nitroso compounds. Furthermore, selected Mab can be used to quantitate by direct immunofluorescence specific alkyldeoxynucleosides in the nuclear DNA of single cells. With this method, the detection limit for the alkylation product O/sup 6/-ethyldeoxyguanosine (O/sup 6/-EtdGuo) is presently of the order of 10/sup 2/-10/sup 3/ O/sup 6/-EtdGuo residues per diploid mammalian genome. Individual cells can thus be monitored for the presence of specific carcinogen-DNA adducts, and with respect to their capacity for enzymatic removal of such modified structures from DNA (as exemplified here by the kinetics of the enzymatic elimination of O/sup 6/-EtdGuo from the DNa of malignant neurogenic rat cell lines). In combination with transmission electron microscopy, Mab also permit direct visualization of specific carcinogen-modified structures in individual DNA molecules. DNA strands of defined nucleotide sequence can thus be analyzed by immuno-electron microscopy for the presence of hot spots of specific structural alterations caused by defined carcinogens/mutagens.

  15. Recombination induced by triple-helix-targeted DNA damage in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Faruqi, A F; Seidman, M M; Segal, D J; Carroll, D; Glazer, P M

    1996-01-01

    Gene therapy has been hindered by the low frequency of homologous recombination in mammalian cells. To stimulate recombination, we investigated the use of triple-helix-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) to target DNA damage to a selected site within cells. By treating cells with TFOs linked to psoralen, recombination was induced within a simian virus 40 vector carrying two mutant copies of the supF tRNA reporter gene. Gene conversion events, as well as mutations at the target site, were also observed. The variety of products suggests that multiple cellular pathways can act on the targeted damage, and data showing that the triple helix can influence these pathways are presented. The ability to specifically induce recombination or gene conversion within mammalian cells by using TFOs may provide a new research tool and may eventually lead to novel applications in gene therapy. PMID:8943337

  16. Isolation of mammalian cell mutants that are X-ray sensitive, impaired in DNA double-strand break repair and defective for V(D)J recombination.

    PubMed

    Lee, S E; Pulaski, C R; He, D M; Benjamin, D M; Voss, M; Um, J; Hendrickson, E A

    1995-05-01

    The Chinese hamster lung V79-4 cell line was infected with a Moloney murine leukemia retrovirus and the infected cells were subsequently screened for mutants that were sensitive to X-rays using a toothpicking/96-well replica plating technique. Four independent mutants that were sensitive to X-irradiation (sxi-1 to sxi-4) were isolated from 9000 retrovirally infected colonies. A pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) assay demonstrated that all of the sxi mutants were impaired in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, thus providing a molecular explanation for the observed X-ray sensitivity. Interestingly, additional PFGE experiments demonstrated that for any given X-ray dose all of the mutants incurred more DNA DSBs than the parental V79-4 cell line indicating there may be some inherent fragility to sxi chromosomes. Cross-sensitivity to other DNA-damaging agents including bleomycin, mitomycin C and methyl methanesulfonate indicated that sxi-2, sxi-3 and sxi-4 appear to be specifically hypersensitive to genotoxic agents that cause DNA DSBs, whereas sxi-1 appeared to be hypersensitive to multiple types of DNA lesions. Lastly, in preliminary experiments all of the sxi mutants demonstrated an inability to carry out V(D)J recombination, a somatic DNA rearrangement process required for the assembly of lymphoid antigen receptor genes. Thus, the sxi cell lines have interesting phenotypes which should make them valuable tools for unraveling the mechanism(s) of DNA DSB repair and recombination in mammalian cells. PMID:7537861

  17. Characteristics of DNA methylation changes induced by traffic-related air pollution.

    PubMed

    Ding, Rui; Jin, Yongtang; Liu, Xinneng; Zhu, Ziyi; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Ting; Xu, Yinchun

    2016-01-15

    Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) is a potential risk factor for numerous respiratory disorders, including lung cancer, while alteration of DNA methylation may be one of the underlying mechanisms. However, the effects of TRAP mixtures on DNA methylation have not been investigated. We have studied the effects of brief or prolonged TRAP exposures on DNA methylation in the rat. The exposures were performed in spring and autumn, with identical study procedures. In each season, healthy Wistar rats were exposed to TRAP at for 4 h, 7 d, 14 d, or 28 d. Global DNA methylation (LINE-1 and Alu) and specific gene methylation (p16(CDKN2A), APC, and iNOS) in the DNA from blood and lung tissues were quantified by pyrosequencing. Multiple linear regression was applied to assess the influence of air pollutants on DNA methylation levels. The levels of PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 in the high and moderate groups were significantly higher than in the control group. The DNA methylation levels were not significantly different between spring and autumn. When spring and autumn data were analyzed together, PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 exposures were associated with changes in%5mC (95% CI) in LINE-1, iNOS, p16(CDKN2A), and APC ranging from -0.088 (-0.150, -0.026) to 0.102 (0.049, 0.154) per 1 μg/m(3) increase in the pollutant concentration. Prolonged exposure to a high level of TRAP was negatively associated with LINE-1 and iNOS methylation, and positively associated with APC methylations in the DNA from lung tissues but not blood. These findings show that TRAP exposure is associated with decreased methylation of LINE-1 and iNOS, and increased methylation of p16(CDKN2A) and APC. PMID:26778509

  18. DNA methylation, early life environment, and health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Colter; Schneper, Lisa M.; Notterman, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetics, and especially DNA methylation, have recently become provocative biological explanations for early-life environmental effects on later health. Despite the large increase in papers on the topic over the last few years, many questions remain with regards to the biological feasibility of this mechanism and the strength of the evidence to date. In this review, we examine the literature on early-life effects on epigenetic patterns, with special emphasis on social environmental influences. First, we review the basic biology of epigenetic modification of DNA and debate the role of early-life stressful, protective, and positive environments on gene-specific, system-specific, and whole-genome epigenetic patterns later in life. Second, we compare the epigenetic literatures of both humans and other animals and review the research linking epigenetic patterns to health in order to complete the mechanistic pathway. Third, we discuss physical environmental and social environmental effects, which have to date, generally not been jointly considered. Finally, we close with a discussion of the current state of the area’s research, its future direction, and its potential use in pediatric health. PMID:26466079

  19. Lack of genotoxic properties of the hair-dye component N-methyl-amino-2-nitro-4-N',N'-bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)-aminobenzene, in mammalian cells in vitro, and in yeasts.

    PubMed

    Loprieno, N; Mariani, L; Rusciano, D

    1983-02-01

    N-Methyl-amino-2-nitro-4-N',N'-bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)-aminobenzene is a hair-dye ingredient. Its potential ability to induce gene mutations, in the yeast S. pombe and in cultured mammalian CH-V79 cells, mitotic gene conversion in the yeast S. cerevisiae, and unscheduled DNA synthesis in cultured human HeLa cells was evaluated. The chemical proved unable to induce detectable genotoxic effects according to these tests. The present data, together with others that show that the chemical is not mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium or Drosophila, and is not clastogenic in mammalian cytogenetic assays (in vitro or in vivo), strongly support the non-genotoxicity of the chemical. PMID:6402693

  20. MethylRAD: a simple and scalable method for genome-wide DNA methylation profiling using methylation-dependent restriction enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shi; Lv, Jia; Zhang, Lingling; Dou, Jinzhuang; Sun, Yan; Li, Xue; Fu, Xiaoteng; Dou, Huaiqian; Mao, Junxia; Hu, Xiaoli; Bao, Zhenmin

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of dynamic DNA methylomes in diverse phylogenetic groups has attracted growing interest for a better understanding of the evolution of DNA methylation as well as its function and biological significance in eukaryotes. Sequencing-based methods are promising in fulfilling this task. However, none of the currently available methods offers the ‘perfect solution’, and they have limitations that prevent their application in the less studied phylogenetic groups. The recently discovered Mrr-like enzymes are appealing for new method development, owing to their ability to collect 32-bp methylated DNA fragments from the whole genome for high-throughput sequencing. Here, we have developed a simple and scalable DNA methylation profiling method (called MethylRAD) using Mrr-like enzymes. MethylRAD allows for de novo (reference-free) methylation analysis, extremely low DNA input (e.g. 1 ng) and adjustment of tag density, all of which are still unattainable for most widely used methylation profiling methods such as RRBS and MeDIP. We performed extensive analyses to validate the power and accuracy of our method in both model (plant Arabidopsis thaliana) and non-model (scallop Patinopecten yessoensis) species. We further demonstrated its great utility in identification of a gene (LPCAT1) that is potentially crucial for carotenoid accumulation in scallop adductor muscle. MethylRAD has several advantages over existing tools and fills a void in the current epigenomic toolkit by providing a universal tool that can be used for diverse research applications, e.g. from model to non-model species, from ordinary to precious samples and from small to large genomes, but at an affordable cost. PMID:26581575