Science.gov

Sample records for mammals increased taxon

  1. Assessing the Value of DNA Barcodes for Molecular Phylogenetics: Effect of Increased Taxon Sampling in Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, John James

    2011-01-01

    Background A common perception is that DNA barcode datamatrices have limited phylogenetic signal due to the small number of characters available per taxon. However, another school of thought suggests that the massively increased taxon sampling afforded through the use of DNA barcodes may considerably increase the phylogenetic signal present in a datamatrix. Here I test this hypothesis using a large dataset of macrolepidopteran DNA barcodes. Methodology/Principal Findings Taxon sampling was systematically increased in datamatrices containing macrolepidopteran DNA barcodes. Sixteen family groups were designated as concordance groups and two quantitative measures; the taxon consistency index and the taxon retention index, were used to assess any changes in phylogenetic signal as a result of the increase in taxon sampling. DNA barcodes alone, even with maximal taxon sampling (500 species per family), were not sufficient to reconstruct monophyly of families and increased taxon sampling generally increased the number of clades formed per family. However, the scores indicated a similar level of taxon retention (species from a family clustering together) in the cladograms as the number of species included in the datamatrix was increased, suggesting substantial phylogenetic signal below the ‘family’ branch. Conclusions/Significance The development of supermatrix, supertree or constrained tree approaches could enable the exploitation of the massive taxon sampling afforded through DNA barcodes for phylogenetics, connecting the twigs resolved by barcodes to the deep branches resolved through phylogenomics. PMID:21931848

  2. Framing the Salmonidae Family Phylogenetic Portrait: A More Complete Picture from Increased Taxon Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Crête-Lafrenière, Alexis; Weir, Laura K.; Bernatchez, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Considerable research efforts have focused on elucidating the systematic relationships among salmonid fishes; an understanding of these patterns of relatedness will inform conservation- and fisheries-related issues, as well as provide a framework for investigating evolutionary mechanisms in the group. However, uncertainties persist in current Salmonidae phylogenies due to biological and methodological factors, and a comprehensive phylogeny including most representatives of the family could provide insight into the causes of these difficulties. Here we increase taxon sampling by including nearly all described salmonid species (n = 63) to present a time-calibrated and more complete portrait of Salmonidae using a combination of molecular markers and analytical techniques. This strategy improved resolution by increasing the signal-to-noise ratio and helped discriminate methodological and systematic errors from sources of difficulty associated with biological processes. Our results highlight novel aspects of salmonid evolution. First, we call into question the widely-accepted evolutionary relationships among sub-families and suggest that Thymallinae, rather than Coregoninae, is the sister group to the remainder of Salmonidae. Second, we find that some groups in Salmonidae are older than previously thought and that the mitochondrial rate of molecular divergence varies markedly among genes and clades. We estimate the age of the family to be 59.1 MY (CI: 63.2-58.1 MY) old, which likely corresponds to the timing of whole genome duplication in salmonids. The average, albeit highly variable, mitochondrial rate of molecular divergence was estimated as ∼0.31%/MY (CI: 0.27–0.36%/MY). Finally, we suggest that some species require taxonomic revision, including two monotypic genera, Stenodus and Salvethymus. In addition, we resolve some relationships that have been notoriously difficult to discern and present a clearer picture of the evolution of the group. Our findings

  3. Intensive removal of signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) from rivers increases numbers and taxon richness of macroinvertebrate species.

    PubMed

    Moorhouse, Tom P; Poole, Alison E; Evans, Laura C; Bradley, David C; Macdonald, David W

    2014-02-01

    Invasive species are a major cause of species extinction in freshwater ecosystems, and crayfish species are particularly pervasive. The invasive American signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus has impacts over a range of trophic levels, but particularly on benthic aquatic macroinvertebrates. Our study examined the effect on the macroinvertebrate community of removal trapping of signal crayfish from UK rivers. Crayfish were intensively trapped and removed from two tributaries of the River Thames to test the hypothesis that lowering signal crayfish densities would result in increases in macroinvertebrate numbers and taxon richness. We removed 6181 crayfish over four sessions, resulting in crayfish densities that decreased toward the center of the removal sections. Conversely in control sections (where crayfish were trapped and returned), crayfish density increased toward the center of the section. Macroinvertebrate numbers and taxon richness were inversely correlated with crayfish densities. Multivariate analysis of the abundance of each taxon yielded similar results and indicated that crayfish removals had positive impacts on macroinvertebrate numbers and taxon richness but did not alter the composition of the wider macroinvertebrate community. Synthesis and applications: Our results demonstrate that non-eradication-oriented crayfish removal programmes may lead to increases in the total number of macroinvertebrates living in the benthos. This represents the first evidence that removing signal crayfish from riparian systems, at intensities feasible during control attempts or commercial crayfishing, may be beneficial for a range of sympatric aquatic macroinvertebrates. PMID:24634733

  4. Intensive removal of signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) from rivers increases numbers and taxon richness of macroinvertebrate species

    PubMed Central

    Moorhouse, Tom P; Poole, Alison E; Evans, Laura C; Bradley, David C; Macdonald, David W

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species are a major cause of species extinction in freshwater ecosystems, and crayfish species are particularly pervasive. The invasive American signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus has impacts over a range of trophic levels, but particularly on benthic aquatic macroinvertebrates. Our study examined the effect on the macroinvertebrate community of removal trapping of signal crayfish from UK rivers. Crayfish were intensively trapped and removed from two tributaries of the River Thames to test the hypothesis that lowering signal crayfish densities would result in increases in macroinvertebrate numbers and taxon richness. We removed 6181 crayfish over four sessions, resulting in crayfish densities that decreased toward the center of the removal sections. Conversely in control sections (where crayfish were trapped and returned), crayfish density increased toward the center of the section. Macroinvertebrate numbers and taxon richness were inversely correlated with crayfish densities. Multivariate analysis of the abundance of each taxon yielded similar results and indicated that crayfish removals had positive impacts on macroinvertebrate numbers and taxon richness but did not alter the composition of the wider macroinvertebrate community. Synthesis and applications: Our results demonstrate that non-eradication-oriented crayfish removal programmes may lead to increases in the total number of macroinvertebrates living in the benthos. This represents the first evidence that removing signal crayfish from riparian systems, at intensities feasible during control attempts or commercial crayfishing, may be beneficial for a range of sympatric aquatic macroinvertebrates. PMID:24634733

  5. Larger brain size indirectly increases vulnerability to extinction in mammals.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; González-Suárez, Manuela; Vilà, Carles; Revilla, Eloy

    2016-06-01

    Although previous studies have addressed the question of why large brains evolved, we have limited understanding of potential beneficial or detrimental effects of enlarged brain size in the face of current threats. Using novel phylogenetic path analysis, we evaluated how brain size directly and indirectly, via its effects on life history and ecology, influences vulnerability to extinction across 474 mammalian species. We found that larger brains, controlling for body size, indirectly increase vulnerability to extinction by extending the gestation period, increasing weaning age, and limiting litter sizes. However, we found no evidence of direct, beneficial, or detrimental effects of brain size on vulnerability to extinction, even when we explicitly considered the different types of threats that lead to vulnerability. Order-specific analyses revealed qualitatively similar patterns for Carnivora and Artiodactyla. Interestingly, for Primates, we found that larger brain size was directly (and indirectly) associated with increased vulnerability to extinction. Our results indicate that under current conditions, the constraints on life history imposed by large brains outweigh the potential benefits, undermining the resilience of the studied mammals. Contrary to the selective forces that have favored increased brain size throughout evolutionary history, at present, larger brains have become a burden for mammals. PMID:27159368

  6. Cross-taxon congruence and environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Diversity patterns of different taxa typically covary in space, a phenomenon called cross-taxon congruence. This pattern has been explained by the effect of one taxon diversity on taxon diversity, shared biogeographic histories of different taxa, and/or common responses to environmental conditions. A meta-analysis of the association between environment and diversity patterns found that in 83 out of 85 studies, more than 60% of the spatial variability in species richness was related to variables representing energy, water or their interaction. The role of the environment determining taxa diversity patterns leads us to hypothesize that this would explain the observed cross-taxon congruence. However, recent analyses reported the persistence of cross-taxon congruence when environmental effect was statistically removed. Here we evaluate this hypothesis, analyzing the cross-taxon congruence between birds and mammals in the Brazilian Cerrado, and assess the environmental role on the spatial covariation in diversity patterns. Results We found a positive association between avian and mammal richness and a positive latitudinal trend for both groups in the Brazilian Cerrado. Regression analyses indicated an effect of latitude, PET, and mean temperature over both biological groups. In addition, we show that NDVI was only associated with avian diversity; while the annual relative humidity, was only correlated with mammal diversity. We determined the environmental effects on diversity in a path analysis that accounted for 73% and 76% of the spatial variation in avian and mammal richness. However, an association between avian and mammal diversity remains significant. Indeed, the importance of this link between bird and mammal diversity was also supported by a significant association between birds and mammal spatial autoregressive model residuals. Conclusion Our study corroborates the main role of environmental conditions on diversity patterns, but suggests that other

  7. Actuarial senescence can increase the risk of extinction of mammal populations.

    PubMed

    Robert, Alexandre; Chantepie, Stéphane; Pavard, Samuel; Sarrazin, François; Teplitsky, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent acknowledgement that senescence can have negative impact on survival and fertility in natural environments across a wide range of animal species, we still do not know if it can reduce the viability of wild endangered populations. Focusing on actuarial senescence (i.e., the decline of survival probabilities at old ages), we use species-specific demographic information to project the extinction risk of wild populations of 58 species of mammals, accounting (or not) for senescence. Our projections reveal potential negative effects of aging on population viability, with an average decrease of 27% of the time to extinction and a potential deterioration of the population-level projected conservation status in 10% of the species. Senescence is associated with particularly strong increases of the extinction risk in species with low mortality rates and long intervals between litters, independently of their place in the phylogeny, indicating that the pace of life history can be used to forecast the detrimental effects of aging on the viability of species. The aim of the various existing systems of classification of threatened species is to set conservation priorities based on assessments of extinction risk. Our results indicate that the quantitative effects of senescence on extinction are highly heterogeneous, which can affect the ranking of species and populations when setting conservation, priorities. In mammals, based on life history traits of a few species, generic patterns of senescence can be incorporated into projection population models to minimize these biases in viability assessments. PMID:26255361

  8. Modeling effectiveness of gradual increases in source level to mitigate effects of sonar on marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Von Benda-Beckmann, Alexander M; Wensveen, Paul J; Kvadsheim, Petter H; Lam, Frans-Peter A; Miller, Patrick J O; Tyack, Peter L; Ainslie, Michael A

    2014-02-01

    Ramp-up or soft-start procedures (i.e., gradual increase in the source level) are used to mitigate the effect of sonar sound on marine mammals, although no one to date has tested whether ramp-up procedures are effective at reducing the effect of sound on marine mammals. We investigated the effectiveness of ramp-up procedures in reducing the area within which changes in hearing thresholds can occur. We modeled the level of sound killer whales (Orcinus orca) were exposed to from a generic sonar operation preceded by different ramp-up schemes. In our model, ramp-up procedures reduced the risk of killer whales receiving sounds of sufficient intensity to affect their hearing. The effectiveness of the ramp-up procedure depended strongly on the assumed response threshold and differed with ramp-up duration, although extending the duration of the ramp up beyond 5 min did not add much to its predicted mitigating effect. The main factors that limited effectiveness of ramp up in a typical antisubmarine warfare scenario were high source level, rapid moving sonar source, and long silences between consecutive sonar transmissions. Our exposure modeling approach can be used to evaluate and optimize mitigation procedures. PMID:24471782

  9. Strong Artificial Selection in Domestic Mammals Did Not Result in an Increased Recombination Rate

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Fuentes, Violeta; Marcet-Ortega, Marina; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Linde Forsberg, Catharina; Morrell, Jane M.; Manzano-Piedras, Esperanza; Söderberg, Arne; Daniel, Katrin; Villalba, Adrian; Toth, Attila; Di Rienzo, Anna; Roig, Ignasi; Vilà, Carles

    2015-01-01

    Recombination rates vary in intensity and location at the species, individual, sex and chromosome levels. Despite the fundamental biological importance of this process, the selective forces that operate to shape recombination rate and patterns are unclear. Domestication offers a unique opportunity to study the interplay between recombination and selection. In domesticates, intense selection for particular traits is imposed on small populations over many generations, resulting in organisms that differ, sometimes dramatically, in morphology and physiology from their wild ancestor. Although earlier studies suggested increased recombination rate in domesticates, a formal comparison of recombination rates between domestic mammals and their wild congeners was missing. In order to determine broad-scale recombination rate, we used immunolabeling detection of MLH1 foci as crossover markers in spermatocytes in three pairs of closely related wild and domestic species (dog and wolf, goat and ibex, and sheep and mouflon). In the three pairs, and contrary to previous suggestions, our data show that contemporary recombination rate is higher in the wild species. Subsequently, we inferred recombination breakpoints in sequence data for 16 genomic regions in dogs and wolves, each containing a locus associated with a dog phenotype potentially under selection during domestication. No difference in the number and distribution of recombination breakpoints was found between dogs and wolves. We conclude that our data indicate that strong directional selection did not result in changes in recombination in domestic mammals, and that both upper and lower bounds for crossover rates may be tightly regulated. PMID:25414125

  10. The influence of taxon sampling on Bayesian divergence time inference under scenarios of rate heterogeneity among lineages.

    PubMed

    Soares, André E R; Schrago, Carlos G

    2015-01-01

    Although taxon sampling is commonly considered an important issue in phylogenetic inference, it is rarely considered in the Bayesian estimation of divergence times. In fact, the studies conducted to date have presented ambiguous results, and the relevance of taxon sampling for molecular dating remains unclear. In this study, we developed a series of simulations that, after six hundred Bayesian molecular dating analyses, allowed us to evaluate the impact of taxon sampling on chronological estimates under three scenarios of among-lineage rate heterogeneity. The first scenario allowed us to examine the influence of the number of terminals on the age estimates based on a strict molecular clock. The second scenario imposed an extreme example of lineage specific rate variation, and the third scenario permitted extensive rate variation distributed along the branches. We also analyzed empirical data on selected mitochondrial genomes of mammals. Our results showed that in the strict molecular-clock scenario (Case I), taxon sampling had a minor impact on the accuracy of the time estimates, although the precision of the estimates was greater with an increased number of terminals. The effect was similar in the scenario (Case III) based on rate variation distributed among the branches. Only under intensive rate variation among lineages (Case II) taxon sampling did result in biased estimates. The results of an empirical analysis corroborated the simulation findings. We demonstrate that taxonomic sampling affected divergence time inference but that its impact was significant if the rates deviated from those derived for the strict molecular clock. Increased taxon sampling improved the precision and accuracy of the divergence time estimates, but the impact on precision is more relevant. On average, biased estimates were obtained only if lineage rate variation was pronounced. PMID:25218869

  11. Contrasting coloration in terrestrial mammals

    PubMed Central

    Caro, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Here I survey, collate and synthesize contrasting coloration in 5000 species of terrestrial mammals focusing on black and white pelage. After briefly reviewing alternative functional hypotheses for coloration in mammals, I examine nine colour patterns and combinations on different areas of the body and for each mammalian taxon to try to identify the most likely evolutionary drivers of contrasting coloration. Aposematism and perhaps conspecific signalling are the most consistent explanations for black and white pelage in mammals; background matching may explain white pelage. Evidence for contrasting coloration is being involved in crypsis through pattern blending, disruptive coloration or serving other functions, such as signalling dominance, lures, reducing eye glare or in temperature regulation has barely moved beyond anecdotal stages of investigation. Sexual dichromatism is limited in this taxon and its basis is unclear. Astonishingly, the functional significance of pelage coloration in most large charismatic black and white mammals that were new to science 150 years ago still remains a mystery. PMID:18990666

  12. Does moonlight increase predation risk? Meta-analysis reveals divergent responses of nocturnal mammals to lunar cycles.

    PubMed

    Prugh, Laura R; Golden, Christopher D

    2014-03-01

    The risk of predation strongly affects mammalian population dynamics and community interactions. Bright moonlight is widely believed to increase predation risk for nocturnal mammals by increasing the ability of predators to detect prey, but the potential for moonlight to increase detection of predators and the foraging efficiency of prey has largely been ignored. Studies have reported highly variable responses to moonlight among species, calling into question the assumption that moonlight increases risk. Here, we conducted a quantitative meta-analysis examining the effects of moonlight on the activity of 59 nocturnal mammal species to test the assumption that moonlight increases predation risk. We examined patterns of lunarphilia and lunarphobia across species in relation to factors such as trophic level, habitat cover preference and visual acuity. Across all species included in the meta-analysis, moonlight suppressed activity. The magnitude of suppression was similar to the presence of a predator in experimental studies of foraging rodents (13.6% and 18.7% suppression, respectively). Contrary to the expectation that moonlight increases predation risk for all prey species, however, moonlight effects were not clearly related to trophic level and were better explained by phylogenetic relatedness, visual acuity and habitat cover. Moonlight increased the activity of prey species that use vision as their primary sensory system and suppressed the activity of species that primarily use other senses (e.g. olfaction, echolocation), and suppression was strongest in open habitat types. Strong taxonomic patterns underlay these relationships: moonlight tended to increase primate activity, whereas it tended to suppress the activity of rodents, lagomorphs, bats and carnivores. These results indicate that visual acuity and habitat cover jointly moderate the effect of moonlight on predation risk, whereas trophic position has little effect. While the net effect of moonlight appears

  13. A Century of Change in Kenya's Mammal Communities: Increased Richness and Decreased Uniqueness in Six Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Anikó B.; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Behrensmeyer, Anna K.

    2014-01-01

    The potential for large-scale biodiversity losses as a result of climate change and human impact presents major challenges for ecology and conservation science. Governments around the world have established national parks and wildlife reserves to help protect biodiversity, but there are few studies on the long-term consequences of this strategy. We use Kenya as a case study to investigate species richness and other attributes of mammal communities in 6 protected areas over the past century. Museum records from African expeditions that comprehensively sampled mammals from these same areas in the early 1900's provide a baseline for evaluating changes in species richness and community structure over time. We compare species lists assembled from archived specimens (1896–1950) to those of corresponding modern protected areas (1950–2013). Species richness in Kenya was stable or increased at 5 out of 6 sites from historical to modern times. Beta-diversity, in contrast, decreased across all sites. Potential biases such as variable historical vs. modern collection effort and detection of small-bodied, rare, and low-visibility species do not account for the observed results. We attribute the pattern of decreased beta diversity primarily to increased site occupancy by common species across all body size classes. Despite a decrease in land area available to wildlife, our data do not show the extinctions predicted by species-area relationships. Moreover, the results indicate that species-area curves based solely on protected areas could underestimate diversity because they do not account for mammal species whose ranges extend beyond protected area boundaries. We conclude that the 6 protected areas have been effective in preserving species richness in spite of continuing conversion of wild grasslands to cropland, but the overall decrease in beta diversity indicates a decline in the uniqueness of mammal communities that historically characterized Kenya's varied landscape

  14. A century of change in Kenya's mammal communities: increased richness and decreased uniqueness in six protected areas.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Anikó B; Lyons, S Kathleen; Behrensmeyer, Anna K

    2014-01-01

    The potential for large-scale biodiversity losses as a result of climate change and human impact presents major challenges for ecology and conservation science. Governments around the world have established national parks and wildlife reserves to help protect biodiversity, but there are few studies on the long-term consequences of this strategy. We use Kenya as a case study to investigate species richness and other attributes of mammal communities in 6 protected areas over the past century. Museum records from African expeditions that comprehensively sampled mammals from these same areas in the early 1900's provide a baseline for evaluating changes in species richness and community structure over time. We compare species lists assembled from archived specimens (1896-1950) to those of corresponding modern protected areas (1950-2013). Species richness in Kenya was stable or increased at 5 out of 6 sites from historical to modern times. Beta-diversity, in contrast, decreased across all sites. Potential biases such as variable historical vs. modern collection effort and detection of small-bodied, rare, and low-visibility species do not account for the observed results. We attribute the pattern of decreased beta diversity primarily to increased site occupancy by common species across all body size classes. Despite a decrease in land area available to wildlife, our data do not show the extinctions predicted by species-area relationships. Moreover, the results indicate that species-area curves based solely on protected areas could underestimate diversity because they do not account for mammal species whose ranges extend beyond protected area boundaries. We conclude that the 6 protected areas have been effective in preserving species richness in spite of continuing conversion of wild grasslands to cropland, but the overall decrease in beta diversity indicates a decline in the uniqueness of mammal communities that historically characterized Kenya's varied landscape. PMID

  15. Can diving-induced tissue nitrogen supersaturation increase the chance of acoustically driven bubble growth in marine mammals?

    PubMed

    Houser, D S; Howard, R; Ridgway, S

    2001-11-21

    The potential for acoustically mediated causes of stranding in cetaceans (whales and dolphins) is of increasing concern given recent stranding events associated with anthropogenic acoustic activity. We examine a potentially debilitating non-auditory mechanism called rectified diffusion. Rectified diffusion causes gas bubble growth, which in an insonified animal may produce emboli, tissue separation and high, localized pressure in nervous tissue. Using the results of a dolphin dive study and a model of rectified diffusion for low-frequency exposure, we demonstrate that the diving behavior of cetaceans prior to an intense acoustic exposure may increase the chance of rectified diffusion. Specifically, deep diving and slow ascent/descent speed contributes to increased gas-tissue saturation, a condition that amplifies the likelihood of rectified diffusion. The depth of lung collapse limits nitrogen uptake per dive and the surface interval duration influences the amount of nitrogen washout from tissues between dives. Model results suggest that low-frequency rectified diffusion models need to be advanced, that the diving behavior of marine mammals of concern needs to be investigated to identify at-risk animals, and that more intensive studies of gas dynamics within diving marine mammals should be undertaken. PMID:11894990

  16. Testing for Depéret's Rule (Body Size Increase) in Mammals using Combined Extinct and Extant Data

    PubMed Central

    Bokma, Folmer; Godinot, Marc; Maridet, Olivier; Ladevèze, Sandrine; Costeur, Loïc; Solé, Floréal; Gheerbrant, Emmanuel; Peigné, Stéphane; Jacques, Florian; Laurin, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Whether or not evolutionary lineages in general show a tendency to increase in body size has often been discussed. This tendency has been dubbed “Cope's rule” but because Cope never hypothesized it, we suggest renaming it after Depéret, who formulated it clearly in 1907. Depéret's rule has traditionally been studied using fossil data, but more recently a number of studies have used present-day species. While several paleontological studies of Cenozoic placental mammals have found support for increasing body size, most studies of extant placentals have failed to detect such a trend. Here, we present a method to combine information from present-day species with fossil data in a Bayesian phylogenetic framework. We apply the method to body mass estimates of a large number of extant and extinct mammal species, and find strong support for Depéret's rule. The tendency for size increase appears to be driven not by evolution toward larger size in established species, but by processes related to the emergence of new species. Our analysis shows that complementary data from extant and extinct species can greatly improve inference of macroevolutionary processes. PMID:26508768

  17. Testing for Depéret's Rule (Body Size Increase) in Mammals using Combined Extinct and Extant Data.

    PubMed

    Bokma, Folmer; Godinot, Marc; Maridet, Olivier; Ladevèze, Sandrine; Costeur, Loïc; Solé, Floréal; Gheerbrant, Emmanuel; Peigné, Stéphane; Jacques, Florian; Laurin, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Whether or not evolutionary lineages in general show a tendency to increase in body size has often been discussed. This tendency has been dubbed "Cope's rule" but because Cope never hypothesized it, we suggest renaming it after Depéret, who formulated it clearly in 1907. Depéret's rule has traditionally been studied using fossil data, but more recently a number of studies have used present-day species. While several paleontological studies of Cenozoic placental mammals have found support for increasing body size, most studies of extant placentals have failed to detect such a trend. Here, we present a method to combine information from present-day species with fossil data in a Bayesian phylogenetic framework. We apply the method to body mass estimates of a large number of extant and extinct mammal species, and find strong support for Depéret's rule. The tendency for size increase appears to be driven not by evolution toward larger size in established species, but by processes related to the emergence of new species. Our analysis shows that complementary data from extant and extinct species can greatly improve inference of macroevolutionary processes. PMID:26508768

  18. Improved phylogenomic taxon sampling noticeably affects nonbilaterian relationships.

    PubMed

    Pick, K S; Philippe, H; Schreiber, F; Erpenbeck, D; Jackson, D J; Wrede, P; Wiens, M; Alié, A; Morgenstern, B; Manuel, M; Wörheide, G

    2010-09-01

    Despite expanding data sets and advances in phylogenomic methods, deep-level metazoan relationships remain highly controversial. Recent phylogenomic analyses depart from classical concepts in recovering ctenophores as the earliest branching metazoan taxon and propose a sister-group relationship between sponges and cnidarians (e.g., Dunn CW, Hejnol A, Matus DQ, et al. (18 co-authors). 2008. Broad phylogenomic sampling improves resolution of the animal tree of life. Nature 452:745-749). Here, we argue that these results are artifacts stemming from insufficient taxon sampling and long-branch attraction (LBA). By increasing taxon sampling from previously unsampled nonbilaterians and using an identical gene set to that reported by Dunn et al., we recover monophyletic Porifera as the sister group to all other Metazoa. This suggests that the basal position of the fast-evolving Ctenophora proposed by Dunn et al. was due to LBA and that broad taxon sampling is of fundamental importance to metazoan phylogenomic analyses. Additionally, saturation in the Dunn et al. character set is comparatively high, possibly contributing to the poor support for some nonbilaterian nodes. PMID:20378579

  19. Improved Phylogenomic Taxon Sampling Noticeably Affects Nonbilaterian Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Pick, K.S.; Philippe, H.; Schreiber, F.; Erpenbeck, D.; Jackson, D.J.; Wrede, P.; Wiens, M.; Alié, A.; Morgenstern, B.; Manuel, M.; Wörheide, G.

    2010-01-01

    Despite expanding data sets and advances in phylogenomic methods, deep-level metazoan relationships remain highly controversial. Recent phylogenomic analyses depart from classical concepts in recovering ctenophores as the earliest branching metazoan taxon and propose a sister-group relationship between sponges and cnidarians (e.g., Dunn CW, Hejnol A, Matus DQ, et al. (18 co-authors). 2008. Broad phylogenomic sampling improves resolution of the animal tree of life. Nature 452:745–749). Here, we argue that these results are artifacts stemming from insufficient taxon sampling and long-branch attraction (LBA). By increasing taxon sampling from previously unsampled nonbilaterians and using an identical gene set to that reported by Dunn et al., we recover monophyletic Porifera as the sister group to all other Metazoa. This suggests that the basal position of the fast-evolving Ctenophora proposed by Dunn et al. was due to LBA and that broad taxon sampling is of fundamental importance to metazoan phylogenomic analyses. Additionally, saturation in the Dunn et al. character set is comparatively high, possibly contributing to the poor support for some nonbilaterian nodes. PMID:20378579

  20. Mean Annual Precipitation Explains Spatiotemporal Patterns of Cenozoic Mammal Beta Diversity and Latitudinal Diversity Gradients in North America

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Danielle; Hassall, Christopher; Gorelick, Root; Rybczynski, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Spatial diversity patterns are thought to be driven by climate-mediated processes. However, temporal patterns of community composition remain poorly studied. We provide two complementary analyses of North American mammal diversity, using (i) a paleontological dataset (2077 localities with 2493 taxon occurrences) spanning 21 discrete subdivisions of the Cenozoic based on North American Land Mammal Ages (36 Ma – present), and (ii) climate space model predictions for 744 extant mammals under eight scenarios of future climate change. Spatial variation in fossil mammal community structure (β diversity) is highest at intermediate values of continental mean annual precipitation (MAP) estimated from paleosols (∼450 mm/year) and declines under both wetter and drier conditions, reflecting diversity patterns of modern mammals. Latitudinal gradients in community change (latitudinal turnover gradients, aka LTGs) increase in strength through the Cenozoic, but also show a cyclical pattern that is significantly explained by MAP. In general, LTGs are weakest when continental MAP is highest, similar to modern tropical ecosystems in which latitudinal diversity gradients are weak or undetectable. Projections under modeled climate change show no substantial change in β diversity or LTG strength for North American mammals. Our results suggest that similar climate-mediated mechanisms might drive spatial and temporal patterns of community composition in both fossil and extant mammals. We also provide empirical evidence that the ecological processes on which climate space models are based are insufficient for accurately forecasting long-term mammalian response to anthropogenic climate change and inclusion of historical parameters may be essential. PMID:25203658

  1. Prolonged food deprivation increases mRNA expression of deiodinase 1 and 2, and thyroid hormone receptor β-1 in a fasting-adapted mammal.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Bridget; Soñanez-Organis, José G; Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Viscarra, Jose A; MacKenzie, Duncan S; Crocker, Daniel E; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2013-12-15

    Food deprivation in mammals is typically associated with reduced thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations and deiodinase content and activity to suppress metabolism. However, in prolonged-fasted, metabolically active elephant seal pups, TH levels are maintained, if not elevated. The functional relevance of this apparent paradox is unknown and demonstrates variability in the regulation of TH levels, metabolism and function in food-deprived mammals. To address our hypothesis that cellular TH-mediated activity is upregulated with fasting duration, we quantified the mRNA expression and protein content of adipose and muscle deiodinase type I (DI1) and type II (DI2), and TH receptor beta-1 (THrβ-1) after 1, 3 and 7 weeks of fasting in northern elephant seal pups (N=5-7 per week). Fasting did not decrease the concentrations of plasma thyroid stimulating hormone, total triiodothyronine (tT3), free T3, total thyroxine (tT4) or free T4, suggesting that the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis is not suppressed, but rather maintained during fasting. Mean mRNA expression of adipose DI1 and DI2 increased threefold and fourfold, respectively, and 20- and 30-fold, respectively, in muscle. With the exception of adipose DI1, protein expression of adipose DI2 and muscle DI1 and DI2 increased twofold to fourfold. Fasting also increased adipose (fivefold) and muscle (fourfold) THrβ-1 mRNA expression, suggesting that the mechanisms mediating cellular TH activity are upregulated with prolonged fasting. The data demonstrate a unique, atypical mechanism of TH activity and regulation in mammals adapted to prolonged food deprivation in which the potential responsiveness of peripheral tissues and cellular TH activity are increased, which may contribute to their lipid-based metabolism. PMID:24307712

  2. Prolonged food deprivation increases mRNA expression of deiodinase 1 and 2, and thyroid hormone receptor β-1 in a fasting-adapted mammal

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Bridget; Soñanez-Organis, José G.; Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Viscarra, Jose A.; MacKenzie, Duncan S.; Crocker, Daniel E.; Ortiz, Rudy M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Food deprivation in mammals is typically associated with reduced thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations and deiodinase content and activity to suppress metabolism. However, in prolonged-fasted, metabolically active elephant seal pups, TH levels are maintained, if not elevated. The functional relevance of this apparent paradox is unknown and demonstrates variability in the regulation of TH levels, metabolism and function in food-deprived mammals. To address our hypothesis that cellular TH-mediated activity is upregulated with fasting duration, we quantified the mRNA expression and protein content of adipose and muscle deiodinase type I (DI1) and type II (DI2), and TH receptor beta-1 (THrβ-1) after 1, 3 and 7 weeks of fasting in northern elephant seal pups (N=5–7 per week). Fasting did not decrease the concentrations of plasma thyroid stimulating hormone, total triiodothyronine (tT3), free T3, total thyroxine (tT4) or free T4, suggesting that the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis is not suppressed, but rather maintained during fasting. Mean mRNA expression of adipose DI1 and DI2 increased threefold and fourfold, respectively, and 20- and 30-fold, respectively, in muscle. With the exception of adipose DI1, protein expression of adipose DI2 and muscle DI1 and DI2 increased twofold to fourfold. Fasting also increased adipose (fivefold) and muscle (fourfold) THrβ-1 mRNA expression, suggesting that the mechanisms mediating cellular TH activity are upregulated with prolonged fasting. The data demonstrate a unique, atypical mechanism of TH activity and regulation in mammals adapted to prolonged food deprivation in which the potential responsiveness of peripheral tissues and cellular TH activity are increased, which may contribute to their lipid-based metabolism. PMID:24307712

  3. A new phylogeny for basal Trechnotheria and Cladotheria and affinities of South American endemic Late Cretaceous mammals.

    PubMed

    Averianov, Alexander O; Martin, Thomas; Lopatin, Alexey V

    2013-04-01

    The endemic South American mammals Meridiolestida, considered previously as dryolestoid cladotherians, are found to be non-cladotherian trechnotherians related to spalacotheriid symmetrodontans based on a parsimony analysis of 137 morphological characters among 44 taxa. Spalacotheriidae is the sister taxon to Meridiolestida, and the latter clade is derived from a primitive spalacolestine that migrated to South America from North America at the beginning of the Late Cretaceous. Meridiolestida survived until the early Paleocene (Peligrotherium) and early Miocene (Necrolestes) in South America, and their extinction is probably linked to the increasing competition with metatherian and eutherian tribosphenic mammals. The clade Meridiolestida plus Spalacotheriidae is the sister taxon to Cladotheria and forms a new clade Alethinotheria. Alethinotheria and its sister taxon Zhangheotheria, new clade (Zhangheotheriidae plus basal taxa), comprise Trechnotheria. Cladotheria is divided into Zatheria (plus stem taxa, including Amphitherium) and Dryolestida, including Dryolestidae and a paraphyletic array of basal dryolestidans (formerly classified as "Paurodontidae"). The South American Vincelestes and Groebertherium are basal dryolestidans. PMID:23494201

  4. Novel symptomatology and changing epidemiology of domoic acid toxicosis in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus): an increasing risk to marine mammal health

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, T; Mazet, J.A.K; Zabka, T.S; Langlois, G; Colegrove, K.M; Silver, M; Bargu, S; Van Dolah, F; Leighfield, T; Conrad, P.A; Barakos, J; Williams, D.C; Dennison, S; Haulena, M; Gulland, F.M.D

    2007-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms are increasing worldwide, including those of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. producing domoic acid off the California coast. This neurotoxin was first shown to cause mortality of marine mammals in 1998. A decade of monitoring California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) health since then has indicated that changes in the symptomatology and epidemiology of domoic acid toxicosis in this species are associated with the increase in toxigenic blooms. Two separate clinical syndromes now exist: acute domoic acid toxicosis as has been previously documented, and a second novel neurological syndrome characterized by epilepsy described here associated with chronic consequences of previous sub-lethal exposure to the toxin. This study indicates that domoic acid causes chronic damage to California sea lions and that these health effects are increasing. PMID:18006409

  5. Foundational issues concerning taxa and taxon names.

    PubMed

    Ereshefsky, Marc

    2007-04-01

    In a series of articles, Rieppel (2005, Biol. Philos. 20:465-487; 2006a, Cladistics 22:186-197; 2006b, Systematist 26:5-9), Keller et al. (2003, Bot. Rev. 69:93-110), and Nixon and Carpenter (2000, Cladistics 16:298-318) criticize the philosophical foundations of the PhyloCode. They argue that species and higher taxa are not individuals, and they reject the view that taxon names are rigid designators. Furthermore, they charge supporters of the individuality thesis and rigid designator theory with assuming essentialism, committing logical inconsistencies, and offering proposals that render taxonomy untestable. These charges are unsound. Such charges turn on confusions over rigid designator theory and the distinction between kinds and individuals. In addition, Rieppel's, Keller et al.'s, and Nixon and Carpenter's proposed alternatives are no better and have their own problems. The individuality thesis and rigid designator theory should not be quickly abandoned. PMID:17464884

  6. Increased Expression of X-Linked Genes in Mammals Is Associated with a Higher Stability of Transcripts and an Increased Ribosome Density

    PubMed Central

    Faucillion, Marie-Line; Larsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian sex chromosomes evolved from the degeneration of one homolog of a pair of ancestral autosomes, the proto-Y. This resulted in a gene dose imbalance that is believed to be restored (partially or fully) through upregulation of gene expression from the single active X-chromosome in both sexes by a dosage compensatory mechanism. We analyzed multiple genome-wide RNA stability data sets and found significantly longer average half-lives for X-chromosome transcripts than for autosomal transcripts in various human cell lines, both male and female, and in mice. Analysis of ribosome profiling data shows that ribosome density is higher on X-chromosome transcripts than on autosomal transcripts in both humans and mice, suggesting that the higher stability is causally linked to a higher translation rate. Our results and observations are in accordance with a dosage compensatory upregulation of expressed X-linked genes. We therefore propose that differential mRNA stability and translation rates of the autosomes and sex chromosomes contribute to an evolutionarily conserved dosage compensation mechanism in mammals. PMID:25786432

  7. Marine Mammals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  8. Interaction between Locale and Taxon Strategies in Human Spatial Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redhead, Edward S.; Hamilton, Derek A.

    2007-01-01

    Three computer-based experiments which tested human participants in a non-immersive virtual watermaze task sought to determine factors which dictate whether the presence of a visual platform disrupts locale learning and taxon learning. In Experiment 1, the visible platform disrupted locale but not taxon learning based on viewpoint-independent and…

  9. Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous–Tertiary boundary

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Mark S.; Murphy, William J.; Eizirik, Eduardo; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2003-01-01

    Competing hypotheses for the timing of the placental mammal radiation focus on whether extant placental orders originated and diversified before or after the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary. Molecular studies that have addressed this issue suffer from single calibration points, unwarranted assumptions about the molecular clock, and/or taxon sampling that lacks representatives of all placental orders. We investigated this problem using the largest available molecular data set for placental mammals, which includes segments of 19 nuclear and three mitochondrial genes for representatives of all extant placental orders. We used the Thorne/Kishino method, which permits simultaneous constraints from the fossil record and allows rates of molecular evolution to vary on different branches of a phylogenetic tree. Analyses that used different sets of fossil constraints, different priors for the base of Placentalia, and different data partitions all support interordinal divergences in the Cretaceous followed by intraordinal diversification mostly after the K/T boundary. Four placental orders show intraordinal diversification that predates the K/T boundary, but only by an average of 10 million years. In contrast to some molecular studies that date the rat–mouse split as old as 46 million years, our results show improved agreement with the fossil record and place this split at 16–23 million years. To test the hypothesis that molecular estimates of Cretaceous divergence times are an artifact of increased body size subsequent to the K/T boundary, we also performed analyses with a “K/T body size” taxon set. In these analyses, interordinal splits remained in the Cretaceous. PMID:12552136

  10. Critical evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyl toxicity in terrestrial and marine mammals: increasing impact of non-ortho and mono-ortho coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls from land to ocean.

    PubMed

    Kannan, N; Tanabe, S; Ono, M; Tatsukawa, R

    1989-11-01

    Residues of potentially toxic non-ortho chlorine substituted coplanar 3,3',4,4'-tetra-,3,3',4,4',5-penta-, 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl and their mono- and di-ortho analogs 2,3',4,4',5-penta, 2,3,3',4,4'-penta-, 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexa- and 2,2',3,3',4,4'-hexa-, 2,2',3,4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl) were determined in humans, dogs, cats (terrestrial), a finless porpoise (Neophocoena phocoenoides--coastal), Dall's porpoises (Phocoenoides dalli, dalli), Baird's beaked whales (Berardius bairdii) and killer whales (Orcinus orca--open ocean). Among the coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, the concentration of the di-ortho congeners was the highest and the non-ortho congeners was the lowest. However, all three coplanar PCBs occurred at significantly higher levels than toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The relative bioconcentration and metabolic capacity of terrestrial and marine mammals to these chemicals, suggest that the toxic threat of coplanar PCBs increases from land to ocean, but the reverse is true for PCDDs and PCDFs. The toxic threat of coplanar PCBs to higher aquatic predators such as cetaceans was principally assessed by 2,3,7,8-T4CDD Toxic Equivalent Analysis which is based on the induction of arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD). Analysis indicates, in particular, that the bioaccumulation of toxic 3,3',4,4',5-penta- and 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyls in carnivorous marine mammals is a cause for considerable concern. PMID:2515809

  11. Invasive mammals.

    PubMed

    Moutou, F; Pastoret, P P

    2010-08-01

    Every region of the world is concerned by potential mammal invasions, as humans are already present on all the world's land masses. All these invasions are a result of species introductions by humans for one reason or another. The authors briefly review the known movements and observed consequences of mammal-related invasions. They take examples from all five continents, as well as from a few island systems. The ancient introduction of game species, and later of domestic species, has been followed more recently by movements of commercial species. We are now seeing the emergence of what are known as entertainment species. In a number of cases, such introductions have led to the establishment of new epidemiological cycles that previously might never have been thought possible. According to current indicators, this phenomenon is not on the wane. PMID:20919577

  12. Audubon Mammal Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    Included are an illustrated student reader, "The Story of Mammals," a leaders' guide, a large wall chart picturing 39 North American mammals, and a separate booklet describing the mammals on the wall chart. The student reader presents these main topics: What Is a Mammal?; How Mammals Differ From Each Other; Where, When, and How To Find Mammals;…

  13. Temporal, spatial and ecological dynamics of speciation among amphi-Beringian small mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hope, Andrew G.; Takebayashi, Naoki; Galbreath, Kurt E.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Cook, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Quaternary climate cycles played an important role in promoting diversification across the Northern Hemisphere, although details of the mechanisms driving evolutionary change are still poorly resolved. In a comparative phylogeographical framework, we investigate temporal, spatial and ecological components of evolution within a suite of Holarctic small mammals. We test a hypothesis of simultaneous divergence among multiple taxon pairs, investigating time to coalescence and demographic change for each taxon in response to a combination of climate and geography.

  14. Mammals of the Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents information on sea mammals, including definitions and characteristics of cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians. Contains descriptions of the teaching activities "Whale Music,""Draw A Whale to Scale,""Adopt a Sea Mammal," and "Sea Mammal Sleuths." (TW)

  15. What Makes a Mammal a Mammal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Describes the distinctive characteristics of mammals and compares modern mammals with their prehistoric relatives as well as with other animal groups. Includes activities and ready-to-copy games, illustrations, and diagrams of wolves, vertebrates, and past and present mammals. (ML)

  16. Anterior commissure versus corpus callosum: A quantitative comparison across mammals.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Ken W S

    2016-04-01

    Mammals rely on two major pathways to transfer information between the two hemispheres of the brain: the anterior commissure and the corpus callosum. Metatheria and monotremes rely exclusively on the anterior commissure for interhemispheric transfer between the isocortices and olfactory allocortices of each side, whereas Eutheria use a combination of the anterior commissure and an additional pathway exclusive to Eutheria, the corpus callosum. Midline cross-sectional area of the anterior commissure and corpus callosum were measured in a range of mammals from all three infraclasses and plotted against brain volume to determine how midline anterior commissure area and its size relative to the corpus callosum vary with brain size and taxon. In Metatheria, the square root of anterior commissure area rises in almost direct proportion with the cube root of brain volume (i.e. the ratio of the two is relatively constant), whereas among Eutheria the ratio of the square root of anterior commissure area to the cube root of brain volume declines slightly with increasing brain size. The total of isocortical and olfactory allocortical commissure area rises more rapidly with increasing brain volume among Eutheria than among Metatheria. This means that the midline isocortical and olfactory allocortical commissural area of metatherians with large brains (about 70 ml) is only about 50% of that among eutherians with similarly sized brains. On the other hand, isocortical and olfactory allocortical commissural area is similar in Metatheria and Eutheria at brain volumes around 1 ml. Among the Eutheria, some groups make less use of the anterior commissure pathway than do others: soricomorphs, rodents and cetaceans have smaller anterior commissures for their brain size than do afrosoricids, erinaceomorphs and proboscideans. The findings suggest that use of the anterior commissural route for isocortical commissural connections may have placed limitations on interhemispheric transfer of

  17. Blood lead concentrations in marine mammals validate estimates of 10{sup 2}- to 10{sup 3}-fold increase in human blood lead concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, B.D.; Flegal, A.R.

    1998-08-01

    Measurements of ultra-low ambient blood lead (PbB) concentrations (mean {+-} SD = 0.13 {+-} 0.06 {micro}g/dL) in Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) validate previous estimates of ultra-low PbB levels in preindustrial humans. These estimates had been unsubstituted, since PbB levels in this range had never been measured in any organisms prior to this study. Similarities in PbB levels among these contemporary and preindustrial mammals are consistent with similarities in their measured and estimated lead exposures, respectively. The marginally higher PbB levels and rates of lead exposure in contemporary marine mammals are, also, consistent with lead isotopic composition analyses that indicate their PbB levels have been elevated from exposure to industrial lead. Consequently, these analyses substantiate concerns that current baseline PbB levels in humans, which are estimated to be two to three orders of magnitude above natural levels, may still constitute public health risks.

  18. [Jaws of primitive mammals].

    PubMed

    Tsubamoto, Takehisa

    2005-06-01

    Some of main osteological differences between mammals and reptiles are seen in the number of bones that constitute lower jaw and in jaw articulation. A lower jaw of mammals consists of only one bone, while in reptiles it consists of several bones (e.g., four to six in lizards and five in crocodiles). The jaw articulation in mammals is performed by squamosal of the skull and the mandible ( = dentary), while in reptiles it is done by quadrate of the skull and articular of the lower jaw. When mammals first appeared about 200 million years ago in the Mesozoic Era, the jaws of primitive mammals were morphologically intermediate between those of reptiles and typical mammals. Here, I briefly introduce the evolution of lower jaw morphology from the reptilian one to the mammalian one, showing lower jaw features of some mammal-like reptiles and primitive mammals. PMID:15930721

  19. Taxonicity of anxiety sensitivity: an empirical test among youth.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Amit; Zvolensky, Michael J; Weems, Carl; Stickle, Timothy; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W

    2005-09-01

    Taxometric coherent cut kinetic analyses were used to test the latent structure of anxiety sensitivity (AS) among 371 youth. Anxiety sensitivity was indexed by the 18-item Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI; Silverman et al., J. Clin. Child Psychol. (1991), 20, 162-168). Two sets of manifest indicators of AS were constructed using the CASI: (1) three item-parcel manifest indicators: disease concerns, unsteady concerns, and mental illness concerns; and (2) nine single-item indicators representing each of these three facets of AS. Results from standard and short-scale MAXCOV procedures, internal consistency tests, analyses of simulated Monte Carlo data, and MAMBAC external consistency tests indicated that the latent structure of anxiety sensitivity among youth was taxonic. Estimated base rate of the observed AS taxon ranged between 13.6 and 16.5%. The present findings are discussed in terms of theoretical implications for the study of AS and vulnerability for anxiety psychopathology. PMID:16005702

  20. Protection of Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Michaela; Ciaccia, Ettore; Dekeling, René; Kvadsheim, Petter; Liddell, Kate; Gunnarsson, Stig-Lennart; Ludwig, Stefan; Nissen, Ivor; Lorenzen, Dirk; Kreimeyer, Roman; Pavan, Gianni; Meneghetti, Nello; Nordlund, Nina; Benders, Frank; van der Zwan, Timo; van Zon, Tim; Fraser, Leanne; Johansson, Torbjörn; Garmelius, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Within the European Defense Agency (EDA), the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project, a comprehensive common marine mammal database essential for risk mitigation tools, was established. The database, built on an extensive dataset collection with the focus on areas of operational interest for European navies, consists of annual and seasonal distribution and density maps, random and systematic sightings, an encyclopedia providing knowledge on the characteristics of 126 marine mammal species, data on marine mammal protection areas, and audio information including numerous examples of various vocalizations. Special investigations on marine mammal acoustics were carried out to improve the detection and classification capabilities. PMID:26611003

  1. A new symmetrodont mammal from China and its implications for mammalian evolution.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y; Wang, Y; Luo, Z; Li, C

    1997-11-13

    A new symmetrodont mammal has been discovered in the Mesozoic era (Late Jurassic or Early Cretaceous period) of Liaoning Province, China. Archaic therian mammals, including symmetrodonts, are extinct relatives of the living marsupial and placental therians. However, these archaic therians have been mostly documented by fragmentary fossils. This newfossil taxon, represented by a nearly complete postcranial skeleton and a partial skull with dentition, is the best-preserved symmetrodont mammal yet discovered. It provides a new insight into the relationships of the major lineages of mammals and the evolution of the mammalian skeleton. Our analysis suggests that this new taxon represents a part of the early therian radiation before the divergence of living marsupials and placentals; that therians and multituberculates are more closely related to each other than either group is to other mammalian lineages; that archaic therians lacked the more parasagittal posture of the forelimb of most living therian mammals; and that archaic therians, such as symmetrodonts, retained the primitive feature of a finger-like promontorium (possibly with a straight cochlea) of the non-therian mammals. The fully coiled cochlea evolved later in more derived therian mammals, and is therefore convergent to the partially coiled cochlea of monotremes. PMID:9367151

  2. Lagenidium giganteum Pathogenicity in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Vilela, Raquel; Taylor, John W.; Walker, Edward D.

    2015-01-01

    Infections of mammals by species in the phylum Oomycota taxonomically and molecularly similar to known Lagenidium giganteum strains have increased. During 2013–2014, we conducted a phylogenetic study of 21 mammalian Lagenidium isolates; we found that 11 cannot be differentiated from L. giganteum strains that the US Environmental Protection Agency approved for biological control of mosquitoes; these strains were later unregistered and are no longer available. L. giganteum strains pathogenic to mammals formed a strongly supported clade with the biological control isolates, and both types experimentally infected mosquito larvae. However, the strains from mammals grew well at 25°C and 37°C, whereas the biological control strains developed normally at 25°C but poorly at higher temperatures. The emergence of heat-tolerant strains of L. giganteum pathogenic to lower animals and humans is of environmental and public health concern. PMID:25625190

  3. Developing terrestrial, multi-taxon indices of biological integrity: An example from coastal sage scrub

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diffendorfer, J.E.; Fleming, G.M.; Duggan, J.M.; Chapman, R.E.; Rahn, M.E.; Mitrovich, M.J.; Fisher, R.N.

    2007-01-01

    We screened 351 species or genera for their response to disturbance in coastal sage scrub (CSS) to develop a 15-metric, 5-taxon Index of Biological Integrity (IBI). We collected data on ants, birds, herpetofauna, small mammals, and plants for two years on 46 sites established across a gradient of disturbance in three reserves. The gradient spanned relatively intact CSS with thick stands of shrubs, to former CSS stands type-converted to exotic grasses. ANOVAs and clustering analyses indicated the IBI could distinguish four levels of disturbance in CSS. General measures of community structure, such as richness, did not show changes across the gradient for most taxa, and responses of taxa across the gradient were varied and rarely correlated. However, turnover in species or genera across the gradient was common across all taxa as shrub-obligate life forms were replaced by those favoring grassy or disturbed habitats. Our data indicate index-based approaches based on data collected across disturbance gradients may outperform more traditional community level metrics when responses to anthropogenic influences are complex and vary across species. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Body weight prediction in early fossil hominids: towards a taxon-"independent" approach.

    PubMed

    Hartwig-Scherer, S

    1993-09-01

    The choice of a model taxon is crucial when investigating fossil hominids that clearly do not resemble any extant species (such as Australopithecus) or show significant differences from modern human proportions (such as Homo habilis OH 62). An "interhominoid" combination is not adequate either, as scaling with body weight is strongly divergent in African apes and humans for most skeletal predictors investigated here. Therefore, in relation to a study of seven long bone dimensions, a new taxon-"independent" approach is suggested. For a given predictor, its taxonomic "independence" is restricted to the size range over which the body weight-predictor relationship for African apes and humans converges. Different predictors produce converging body weight estimates (BWEs) for different size ranges: taxon-"independent" estimates can be calculated for small- and medium-sized hominids (e.g., for weights below 50 kg) using femoral and tibial dimensions, whereas upper limb bones provide converging results for large hominids (above 50 kg). If the remains of Australopithecus afarensis really belong to one species, the relationship of male (above 60 kg) to female body weight (approximately 30 kg) does not fall within the observed range of modern hominoids. Considering Sts 14 (22 kg) to represent a small-sized Australopithecus africanus, the level of encephalization lies well above that of extant apes. If OH 62 (approximately 25 kg), with limb proportions less human-like than those of australopithecines, indeed represents Homo habilis (which has been questioned previously), an increase in relative brain size would have occurred well before full bipedality, an assumption running counter to current assumptions concerning early human evolution. PMID:8238289

  5. Taxonicity of anxiety sensitivity: a multi-national analysis.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Amit; Zvolensky, Michael J; Kotov, Roman; Arrindell, Willem A; Taylor, Steven; Sandin, Bonifacio; Cox, Brian J; Stewart, Sherry H; Bouvard, Martine; Cardenas, Samuel Jurado; Eifert, Georg H; Schmidt, Norman B

    2006-01-01

    Taxometric coherent cut kinetic analyses were used to test the latent structure of anxiety sensitivity in samples from North America (Canada and United States of America), France, Mexico, Spain, and The Netherlands (total n = 2741). Anxiety sensitivity was indexed by the 36-item Anxiety Sensitivity Index--Revised (ASI-R; [J. Anxiety Disord. 12(5) (1998) 463]). Four manifest indicators of anxiety sensitivity were constructed using the ASI-R: fear of cardiovascular symptoms, fear of respiratory symptoms, fear of publicly observable anxiety reactions, and fear of mental incapacitation. Results from MAXCOV-HITMAX, internal consistency tests, analyses of simulated Monte Carlo data, and a MAMBAC external consistency test indicated that the latent structure of anxiety sensitivity was taxonic in each of the samples. The estimated base rate of the anxiety sensitivity taxon differed slightly between nations, ranging from 11.5 to 21.5%. In general, the four ASI-R based manifest indicators showed high levels of validity. Results are discussed in relation to the conceptual understanding of anxiety sensitivity, with specific emphasis on theoretical refinement of the construct. PMID:16325111

  6. Small Mammal Intrigue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cristol, Daniel A.

    1985-01-01

    Gives introductory information about the study of small mammals including the selection and use of harmless live-traps, handling and identification, techniques for observation and trapping in the wild, and safety measures. Suggests useful references for teachers wishing to develop a small mammal study program for their students. (JHZ)

  7. Mammals in Our Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Examines how humans have treated mammals throughout history. Identifies both the problems facing animals and the corrective efforts that are currently underway. Student activities include stories, games, a scavenger hunt, a mural, a puzzle, and a survey focusing on mammals. (ML)

  8. Allometry in dinosaurs and mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Scott

    2015-03-01

    The proportions of the leg bones change as the size of an animal becomes larger since the mass of the animal increases at a faster rate than the cross-sectional area of its leg bones. For the case of elastic similarity (in which the longitudinal stress in the legs remains constant in animals of all sizes), the diameter d and length L of the femur should be related as d = A L3/2. For geometric similarity (in which all dimensions are scaled by the same factor), d = A L. For animals with femora longer than 20 cm, we find the power law relationship to be d = A Lb with b = 1.13 +/- 0.06 for extant mammals (the largest mammal being Loxodonta africana with a 1.00-m-long femur) and b = 1.18 +/- 0.02 for dinosaurs (the largest dinosaur being Brachiosaurus brancai with a 2.03-m-long femur). These data show that extinct dinosaurs and extant animals scale in the same basic manner. The large sauropods (with femora twice as long as found in elephants) scale in a manner consistent with extrapolation of the scaling shown by extant mammals. These results argue that extinct dinosaurs moved in a manner very similar to extant mammals.

  9. A Standardized Reference Data Set for Vertebrate Taxon Name Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Zermoglio, Paula F.; Guralnick, Robert P.; Wieczorek, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Taxonomic names associated with digitized biocollections labels have flooded into repositories such as GBIF, iDigBio and VertNet. The names on these labels are often misspelled, out of date, or present other problems, as they were often captured only once during accessioning of specimens, or have a history of label changes without clear provenance. Before records are reliably usable in research, it is critical that these issues be addressed. However, still missing is an assessment of the scope of the problem, the effort needed to solve it, and a way to improve effectiveness of tools developed to aid the process. We present a carefully human-vetted analysis of 1000 verbatim scientific names taken at random from those published via the data aggregator VertNet, providing the first rigorously reviewed, reference validation data set. In addition to characterizing formatting problems, human vetting focused on detecting misspelling, synonymy, and the incorrect use of Darwin Core. Our results reveal a sobering view of the challenge ahead, as less than 47% of name strings were found to be currently valid. More optimistically, nearly 97% of name combinations could be resolved to a currently valid name, suggesting that computer-aided approaches may provide feasible means to improve digitized content. Finally, we associated names back to biocollections records and fit logistic models to test potential drivers of issues. A set of candidate variables (geographic region, year collected, higher-level clade, and the institutional digitally accessible data volume) and their 2-way interactions all predict the probability of records having taxon name issues, based on model selection approaches. We strongly encourage further experiments to use this reference data set as a means to compare automated or computer-aided taxon name tools for their ability to resolve and improve the existing wealth of legacy data. PMID:26760296

  10. A Standardized Reference Data Set for Vertebrate Taxon Name Resolution.

    PubMed

    Zermoglio, Paula F; Guralnick, Robert P; Wieczorek, John R

    2016-01-01

    Taxonomic names associated with digitized biocollections labels have flooded into repositories such as GBIF, iDigBio and VertNet. The names on these labels are often misspelled, out of date, or present other problems, as they were often captured only once during accessioning of specimens, or have a history of label changes without clear provenance. Before records are reliably usable in research, it is critical that these issues be addressed. However, still missing is an assessment of the scope of the problem, the effort needed to solve it, and a way to improve effectiveness of tools developed to aid the process. We present a carefully human-vetted analysis of 1000 verbatim scientific names taken at random from those published via the data aggregator VertNet, providing the first rigorously reviewed, reference validation data set. In addition to characterizing formatting problems, human vetting focused on detecting misspelling, synonymy, and the incorrect use of Darwin Core. Our results reveal a sobering view of the challenge ahead, as less than 47% of name strings were found to be currently valid. More optimistically, nearly 97% of name combinations could be resolved to a currently valid name, suggesting that computer-aided approaches may provide feasible means to improve digitized content. Finally, we associated names back to biocollections records and fit logistic models to test potential drivers of issues. A set of candidate variables (geographic region, year collected, higher-level clade, and the institutional digitally accessible data volume) and their 2-way interactions all predict the probability of records having taxon name issues, based on model selection approaches. We strongly encourage further experiments to use this reference data set as a means to compare automated or computer-aided taxon name tools for their ability to resolve and improve the existing wealth of legacy data. PMID:26760296

  11. A new Cretaceous Metatherian mammal from Henan, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuo; Du, Tianming

    2015-01-01

    We report a new deltatheroidan mammal from the Upper Cretaceous of Henna, China. The new taxon, Lotheridium mengi, is based on a nearly complete skull and associated lower jaws with full adult dentition. Deltatheroidans are known mostly from fragmentary specimens from Asia and North America. Previous views on deltatheroidan relationships were diverse, but recent studies favored their metatherian affinity. The new specimen represents the most complete skull known for deltatheroidans and provides additional evidence that deltatheroidans already had the distinctive metatherian dental formula and replacement pattern and several other derived metatherian features, supporting the metatherian status for this clade. The new species also indicates that deltatheroidan mammals were more diverse and had broader geographical distributions than previously thought. PMID:25893149

  12. Ecotoxicology of wild mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Shore, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    An international group of 32 scientists has critically reviewed the scientific literature on exposure and effects of environmental contaminants in wild mammals. Although the absolute number of toxicological studies in domesticated and wild mammals eclipses that for birds, a detailed examination of scientific publications and databases reveal that information for 'wild' birds is actually greater than that for 'wild' mammals. Of the various taxa of mammals, ecotoxicological data is most noticeably lacking for marsupials and monotremes. In contrast, rodents (comprising 43% of all mammal species) have been studied extensively, despite evidence of their tolerance to some organochlorine compounds, rodenticides, and even radionuclides. Mammalian species at greatest risk of exposure include those that consume a high percentage of their body weight on a daily basis (e.g., shrews, moles and bats). Aquatic mammals tend to bioaccumulate tremendous burdens of lipophilic contaminants, although storage in their fat depots may actually limit toxicity. Carnivores appear to be more sensitive to adverse effects of environmental contaminants than herbivores. Remarkably few of the thousands of compounds manufactured worldwide have been toxicologically evaluated in wild mammals, and concentrations of even fewer have been monitored in tissues. Overarching research needs include: development of new exposure/effects models and better methods for estimation of species sensitivities; generation of comparative data on contaminant bioavailability, sublethal responses and detoxication mechanisms; enhanced understanding of pesticide, industrial contaminant and metal interactions; identification of endocrine disruptive contaminants and their overall ecological significance; and finally, estimating the relative contribution of environmental contamination as a factor affecting wild mammal populations.

  13. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the Administrator to have a...

  14. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the Administrator to have a...

  15. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the Administrator to have a...

  16. 7 CFR 360.501 - Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.501 Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists. A person may petition the Administrator to remove...

  17. 7 CFR 360.501 - Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.501 Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists. A person may petition the Administrator to remove...

  18. 7 CFR 360.501 - Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.501 Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists. A person may petition the Administrator to remove...

  19. 7 CFR 360.501 - Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.501 Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists. A person may petition the Administrator to remove...

  20. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the Administrator to have a...

  1. Recovery Trends in Marine Mammal Populations

    PubMed Central

    Magera, Anna M.; Mills Flemming, Joanna E.; Kaschner, Kristin; Christensen, Line B.; Lotze, Heike K.

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammals have greatly benefitted from a shift from resource exploitation towards conservation. Often lauded as symbols of conservation success, some marine mammal populations have shown remarkable recoveries after severe depletions. Others have remained at low abundance levels, continued to decline, or become extinct or extirpated. Here we provide a quantitative assessment of (1) publicly available population-level abundance data for marine mammals worldwide, (2) abundance trends and recovery status, and (3) historic population decline and recent recovery. We compiled 182 population abundance time series for 47 species and identified major data gaps. In order to compare across the largest possible set of time series with varying data quality, quantity and frequency, we considered an increase in population abundance as evidence of recovery. Using robust log-linear regression over three generations, we were able to classify abundance trends for 92 spatially non-overlapping populations as Significantly Increasing (42%), Significantly Decreasing (10%), Non-Significant Change (28%) and Unknown (20%). Our results were comparable to IUCN classifications for equivalent species. Among different groupings, pinnipeds and other marine mammals (sirenians, polar bears and otters) showed the highest proportion of recovering populations, likely benefiting from relatively fast life histories and nearshore habitats that provided visibility and protective management measures. Recovery was less frequent among cetaceans, but more common in coastal than offshore populations. For marine mammals with available historical abundance estimates (n = 47), larger historical population declines were associated with low or variable recent recoveries so far. Overall, our results show that many formerly depleted marine mammal populations are recovering. However, data-deficient populations and those with decreasing and non-significant trends require attention. In particular, increased

  2. Oxymonads are closely related to the excavate taxon Trimastix.

    PubMed

    Dacks, J B; Silberman, J D; Simpson, A G; Moriya, S; Kudo, T; Ohkuma, M; Redfield, R J

    2001-06-01

    Despite intensive study in recent years, large-scale eukaryote phylogeny remains poorly resolved. This is particularly problematic among the groups considered to be potential early branches. In many recent systematic schemes for early eukaryotic evolution, the amitochondriate protists oxymonads and Trimastix have figured prominently, having been suggested as members of many of the putative deep-branching higher taxa. However, they have never before been proposed as close relatives of each other. We amplified, cloned, and sequenced small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes from the oxymonad Pyrsonympha and from several Trimastix isolates. Rigorous phylogenetic analyses indicate that these two protist groups are sister taxa and are not clearly related to any currently established eukaryotic lineages. This surprising result has important implications for our understanding of cellular evolution and high-level eukaryotic phylogeny. Given that Trimastix contains small, electron-dense bodies strongly suspected to be derived mitochondria, this study constitutes the best evidence to date that oxymonads are not primitively amitochondriate. Instead, Trimastix and oxymonads may be useful organisms for investigations into the evolution of the secondary amitochondriate condition. All higher taxa involving either oxymonads or Trimastix may require modification or abandonment. Affected groups include four contemporary taxa given the rank of phylum (Metamonada, Loukozoa, Trichozoa, Percolozoa), and the informal excavate taxa. A new "phylum-level" taxon may be warranted for oxymonads and Trimastix. PMID:11371592

  3. Two issues in archaeological phylogenetics: taxon construction and outgroup selection.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Michael J; Lyman, R Lee; Saab, Youssef; Saab, Elias; Darwent, John; Glover, Daniel S

    2002-03-21

    Cladistics is widely used in biology and paleobiology to construct phylogenetic hypotheses, but rarely has it been applied outside those disciplines. There is, however, no reason to suppose that cladistics is not applicable to anything that evolves by cladogenesis and produces a nested hierarchy of taxa. This includes cultural phenomena such as languages and tools recovered from archaeological contexts. Two methodological issues assume primacy in attempts to extend cladistics to archaeological materials: the construction of analytical taxa and the selection of appropriate outgroups. In biology the species is the primary taxonomic unit used, irrespective of the debates that have arisen in phylogenetic theory over the nature of species. Also in biology the phylogenetic history of a group of taxa usually is well enough known that an appropriate taxon can be selected as an outgroup. No analytical unit parallel to the species exists in archaeology, and thus taxa have to be constructed specifically for phylogenetic analysis. One method of constructing taxa is paradigmatic classification, which defines classes (taxa) on the basis of co-occurring, unweighted character states. Once classes have been created, a form of occurrence seriation-an archaeological method based on the theory of cultural transmission and heritability-offers an objective basis for selecting an outgroup. PMID:12051970

  4. Global Patterns of Zoonotic Disease in Mammals.

    PubMed

    Han, Barbara A; Kramer, Andrew M; Drake, John M

    2016-07-01

    As the frequency and prevalence of zoonotic diseases increase worldwide, investigating how mammal host distributions determine patterns of human disease and predicting which regions are at greatest risk for future zoonotic disease emergence are two goals which both require better understanding of the current distributions of zoonotic hosts and pathogens. We review here the existing data about mammalian host species, comparing and contrasting these patterns against global maps of zoonotic hosts from all 27 orders of terrestrial mammals. We discuss the zoonotic potential of host species from the top six most species-rich mammal groups, and review the literature to identify analytical and conceptual gaps that must be addressed to improve our ability to generate testable predictions about zoonotic diseases originating from wild mammals. PMID:27316904

  5. Ecotoxicology of Wild Mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2001-01-01

    An international group of 32 scientists has critically reviewed the scientific literature on exposure and effects of environmental contaminants in wild mammals. The underlying theme of this text is encompassed by the following four questions: What exactly do we know about environmental contaminants in mammals? What are the commonalities and differences between mammal orders/species in the effects that contaminants have? How and to what degree of accuracy can we predict the adverse effects of environmental contaminants on mammalian wildlife? How significant are contaminant insults compared with other density-independent and -dependent factors such as habitat loss, climatic factors and disease? The book is organized three topical sections including introductory chapters that provide a background on environmental contaminants and the mammalian orders, eight taxonomic chapters discussing all aspects of the exposure to and effects of contaminants in mammalian orders, and four thematic chapters that review and discuss generic issues including biomarkers, prediction and extrapolation of exposure and effects, hazard and risk assessment, and the relative significance of contaminants on mammals compared with other commonly encountered stressors. A final a summary chapter identifies phylogenetic trends, critical data gaps, and overarching research needs. Although the absolute number of toxicological studies in domesticated and wild mammals eclipses that wildlife species, a detailed examination of our knowledge base reveals that information for 'wild' birds is actually greater than that for 'wild' mammals. Of the various mammalian taxa, ecotoxicological data is most noticeably lacking for marsupials and monotremes. In contrast, rodents (comprising 43% of all mammal species) have been studied extensively, despite evidence of their tolerance to some organochlorine compounds, rodenticides, and even radionuclides. Mammalian species at greatest risk of exposure include those that

  6. Osmoregulation in marine mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Osmoregulation in marine mammals has been investigated for over a century; however, a review of recent advances in our understanding of water and electrolyte balance and of renal function in marine mammals is warranted. The following topics are discussed: (i) kidney structure and urine concentrating ability, (ii) sources of water, (iii) the effects of feeding, fasting and diving, (iv) the renal responses to infusions of varying salinity and (v) hormonal regulation. The kidneys of pinnipeds and cetaceans are reniculate in structure, unlike those of terrestrial mammals (except bears), but this difference does not confer any greater concentrating ability. Pinnipeds, cetaceans, manatees and sea otters can concentrate their urine above the concentration of sea water, but only pinnipeds and otters have been shown to produce urine concentrations of Na+ and Cl- that are similar to those in sea water. This could afford them the capacity to drink sea water and not lose fresh water. However, with few exceptions, drinking is not a common behavior in pinnipeds and cetaceans. Water balance is maintained in these animals via metabolic and dietary water, while incidental ingestion and dietary salt may help maintain electrolyte homeostasis. Unlike most other aquatic mammals, sea otters commonly drink sea water and manatees frequently drink fresh water. Among the various taxonomic groups of marine mammals, the sensitivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system appears to be influenced by the availability of Na+. The antidiuretic role of vasopressin remains inconclusive in marine mammals, while the natriuretic function of atrial natriuretic peptide has yet to be examined. Ideas on the direction of future studies are presented.

  7. Evolution of cyclin B3 shows an abrupt three-fold size increase, due to the extension of a single exon in placental mammals, allowing for new protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Jean-Claude; Vergé, Valérie; Schatt, Philippe; Juengel, Jennifer L; Peaucellier, Gérard

    2012-12-01

    Cyclin B3 evolution has the unique peculiarity of an abrupt 3-fold increase of the protein size in the mammalian lineage due to the extension of a single exon. We have analyzed the evolution of the gene to define the modalities of this event and the possible consequences on the function of the protein. Database searches can trace the appearance of the gene to the origin of metazoans. Most introns were already present in early metazoans, and the intron-exon structure as well as the protein size were fairly conserved in invertebrates and nonmammalian vertebrates. Although intron gains are considered as rare events, we identified two cases, one at the prochordate-chordate transition and one in murids, resulting from different mechanisms. At the emergence of mammals, the gene was relocated from chromosome 6 of platypus to the X chromosome in marsupials, but the exon extension occurred only in placental mammals. A repetitive structure of 18 amino acids, of uncertain origin, is detectable in the 3,000-nt mammalian exon-encoded sequence, suggesting an extension by multiple internal duplications, some of which are still detectable in the primate lineage. Structure prediction programs suggest that the repetitive structure has no associated three-dimensional structure but rather a tendency for disorder. Splice variant isoforms were detected in several mammalian species but without conserved pattern, notably excluding the constant coexistence of premammalian-like transcripts, without the extension. The yeast two-hybrid method revealed that, in human, the extension allowed new interactions with ten unrelated proteins, most of them with specific three-dimensional structures involved in protein-protein interactions, and some highly expressed in testis, as is cyclin B3. The interactions with activator of cAMP-responsive element modulator in testis (ACT), germ cell-less homolog 1, and chromosome 1 open reading frame 14 remain to be verified in vivo since they may not be expressed

  8. Mammals With Hooves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents information about mammals that have hooves, including definitions and descriptions of their characteristics. Contains teaching activities such as "Build a Paper Pachyderm,""Do the Funky Trunk Dance,""A Horse of a Different Color," and "Horns and Antlers." A reproducible quiz is also provided. (TW)

  9. Early Cretaceous mammal from North America and the evolution of marsupial dental characters.

    PubMed Central

    Cifelli, R L

    1993-01-01

    A mammal from the Early Cretaceous of the western United States, represented by a lower jaw exceptional in its completeness, presents unambiguous evidence of postcanine dental formula in an Early Cretaceous marsupial-like mammal, and prompts a reconsideration of the early evolution of marsupial dental characters. A marsupial postcanine dental formula (three premolars and four molars) and several marsupial-like features of the lower molars are present in the new taxon, but a hallmark specialization of marsupials (twinning of the hypoconulid and entoconid on lower molars) is lacking. This, coupled with recent evidence from the Late Cretaceous of the western United States, suggests that the distinctive marsupial dental formula evolved prior to the most characteristic specialization of lower molars and that apomorphies presumed to be diagnostic of the upper molars (such as auxiliary stylar cusps) were relatively more recent developments in marsupial history. Dental evidence supports the monophyly of higher (tribosphenic) mammals and suggests that the predominantly Old World Deltatheroida, recently proposed as a sister taxon to marsupials, represents a primitive and unrelated group of higher mammals; by this interpretation, early marsupials and their presumed close relatives are restricted to North America. This, together with the hypothesized relationships of South American/Australian marsupials (in the context of the North American Cretaceous radiation) and evidence from the fossil record of South America, in turn supports a North American origin for the group. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8415715

  10. The impact of taxon sampling on phylogenetic inference: a review of two decades of controversy

    PubMed Central

    Nabhan, Ahmed Ragab

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, there has been a long-standing debate about the impact of taxon sampling on phylogenetic inference. Studies have been based on both real and simulated data sets, within actual and theoretical contexts, and using different inference methods, to study the impact of taxon sampling. In some cases, conflicting conclusions have been drawn for the same data set. The main questions explored in studies to date have been about the effects of using sparse data, adding new taxa, including more characters from genome sequences and using different (or concatenated) locus regions. These questions can be reduced to more fundamental ones about the assessment of data quality and the design guidelines of taxon sampling in phylogenetic inference experiments. This review summarizes progress to date in understanding the impact of taxon sampling on the accuracy of phylogenetic analysis. PMID:21436145

  11. 77 FR 9627 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB005 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine.../2\\ W. 4th Avenue, Olympia, WA 98501, has applied in due form for a permit to take marine mammals in... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as...

  12. 77 FR 2512 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA905 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine...; receipt of application. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that Dorian Houser, Ph.D., National Marine Mammal... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et...

  13. The changing fates of the world's mammals.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Michael; Belant, Jerrold L; Chanson, Janice S; Cox, Neil A; Lamoreux, John; Rodrigues, Ana S L; Schipper, Jan; Stuart, Simon N

    2011-09-27

    A recent complete assessment of the conservation status of 5487 mammal species demonstrated that at least one-fifth are at risk of extinction in the wild. We retrospectively identified genuine changes in extinction risk for mammals between 1996 and 2008 to calculate changes in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List Index (RLI). Species-level trends in the conservation status of mammalian diversity reveal that extinction risk in large-bodied species is increasing, and that the rate of deterioration has been most accelerated in the Indomalayan and Australasian realms. Expanding agriculture and hunting have been the main drivers of increased extinction risk in mammals. Site-based protection and management, legislation, and captive-breeding and reintroduction programmes have led to improvements in 24 species. We contextualize these changes, and explain why both deteriorations and improvements may be under-reported. Although this study highlights where conservation actions are leading to improvements, it fails to account for instances where conservation has prevented further deteriorations in the status of the world's mammals. The continued utility of the RLI is dependent on sustained investment to ensure repeated assessments of mammals over time and to facilitate future calculations of the RLI and measurement against global targets. PMID:21844039

  14. The changing fates of the world's mammals

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Michael; Belant, Jerrold L.; Chanson, Janice S.; Cox, Neil A.; Lamoreux, John; Rodrigues, Ana S. L.; Schipper, Jan; Stuart, Simon N.

    2011-01-01

    A recent complete assessment of the conservation status of 5487 mammal species demonstrated that at least one-fifth are at risk of extinction in the wild. We retrospectively identified genuine changes in extinction risk for mammals between 1996 and 2008 to calculate changes in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List Index (RLI). Species-level trends in the conservation status of mammalian diversity reveal that extinction risk in large-bodied species is increasing, and that the rate of deterioration has been most accelerated in the Indomalayan and Australasian realms. Expanding agriculture and hunting have been the main drivers of increased extinction risk in mammals. Site-based protection and management, legislation, and captive-breeding and reintroduction programmes have led to improvements in 24 species. We contextualize these changes, and explain why both deteriorations and improvements may be under-reported. Although this study highlights where conservation actions are leading to improvements, it fails to account for instances where conservation has prevented further deteriorations in the status of the world's mammals. The continued utility of the RLI is dependent on sustained investment to ensure repeated assessments of mammals over time and to facilitate future calculations of the RLI and measurement against global targets. PMID:21844039

  15. A Chinese triconodont mammal and mosaic evolution of the mammalian skeleton.

    PubMed

    Ji, Q; Luo, Z X; Ji, S A; Luo, Z

    1999-03-25

    Here we describe a new triconodont mammal from the Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous period of Liaoning, China. This new mammal is represented by the best-preserved skeleton known so far for triconodonts which form one of the earliest Mesozoic mammalian groups with high diversity. The postcranial skeleton of this new triconodont shows a mosaic of characters, including a primitive pelvic girdle and hindlimb but a very derived pectoral girdle that is closely comparable to those of derived therians. Given the basal position of this taxon in mammalian phylogeny, its derived pectoral girdle indicates that homoplasies (similarities resulting from independent evolution among unrelated lineages) are as common in the postcranial skeleton as they are in the skull and dentition in the evolution of Mesozoic mammals. Limb structures of the new triconodont indicate that it was probably a ground-dwelling animal. PMID:10192332

  16. Carnitine biosynthesis in mammals.

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Frédéric M; Wanders, Ronald J A

    2002-01-01

    Carnitine is indispensable for energy metabolism, since it enables activated fatty acids to enter the mitochondria, where they are broken down via beta-oxidation. Carnitine is probably present in all animal species, and in numerous micro-organisms and plants. In mammals, carnitine homoeostasis is maintained by endogenous synthesis, absorption from dietary sources and efficient tubular reabsorption by the kidney. This review aims to cover the current knowledge of the enzymological, molecular, metabolic and regulatory aspects of mammalian carnitine biosynthesis, with an emphasis on the human and rat. PMID:11802770

  17. The maximum rate of mammal evolution.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alistair R; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G; Brown, James H; Costa, Daniel P; Ernest, S K Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L; Hamilton, Marcus J; Harding, Larisa E; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G; Saarinen, Juha J; Sibly, Richard M; Smith, Felisa A; Stephens, Patrick R; Theodor, Jessica M; Uhen, Mark D

    2012-03-13

    How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes. PMID:22308461

  18. The maximum rate of mammal evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Alistair R.; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Saarinen, Juha J.; Sibly, Richard M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Uhen, Mark D.

    2012-03-01

    How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes.

  19. Heterothermy in large mammals: inevitable or implemented?

    PubMed

    Hetem, Robyn S; Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea; Mitchell, Duncan

    2016-02-01

    Advances in biologging techniques over the past 20 years have allowed for the remote and continuous measurement of body temperatures in free-living mammals. While there is an abundance of literature on heterothermy in small mammals, fewer studies have investigated the daily variability of body core temperature in larger mammals. Here we review measures of heterothermy and the factors that influence heterothermy in large mammals in their natural habitats, focussing on large mammalian herbivores. The mean 24 h body core temperatures for 17 species of large mammalian herbivores (>10 kg) decreased by ∼1.3°C for each 10-fold increase in body mass, a relationship that remained significant following phylogenetic correction. The degree of heterothermy, as measured by the 24 h amplitude of body core temperature rhythm, was independent of body mass and appeared to be driven primarily by energy and water limitations. When faced with the competing demands of osmoregulation, energy acquisition and water or energy use for thermoregulation, large mammalian herbivores appear to relax the precision of thermoregulation thereby conserving body water and energy. Such relaxation may entail a cost in that an animal moves closer to its thermal limits for performance. Maintaining homeostasis requires trade-offs between regulated systems, and homeothermy apparently is not accorded the highest priority; large mammals are able to maintain optimal homeothermy only if they are well nourished, hydrated, and not compromised energetically. We propose that the amplitude of the 24 h rhythm of body core temperature provides a useful index of any compromise experienced by a free-living large mammal and may predict the performance and fitness of an animal. PMID:25522232

  20. The evolution of mammal body sizes: responses to Cenozoic climate change in North American mammals.

    PubMed

    Lovegrove, B G; Mowoe, M O

    2013-06-01

    Explanations for the evolution of body size in mammals have remained surprisingly elusive despite the central importance of body size in evolutionary biology. Here, we present a model which argues that the body sizes of Nearctic mammals were moulded by Cenozoic climate and vegetation changes. Following the early Eocene Climate Optimum, forests retreated and gave way to open woodland and savannah landscapes, followed later by grasslands. Many herbivores that radiated in these new landscapes underwent a switch from browsing to grazing associated with increased unguligrade cursoriality and body size, the latter driven by the energetics and constraints of cellulose digestion (fermentation). Carnivores also increased in size and digitigrade, cursorial capacity to occupy a size distribution allowing the capture of prey of the widest range of body sizes. With the emergence of larger, faster carnivores, plantigrade mammals were constrained from evolving to large body sizes and most remained smaller than 1 kg throughout the middle Cenozoic. We find no consistent support for either Cope's Rule or Bergmann's Rule in plantigrade mammals, the largest locomotor guild (n = 1186, 59% of species in the database). Some cold-specialist plantigrade mammals, such as beavers and marmots, showed dramatic increases in body mass following the Miocene Climate Optimum which may, however, be partially explained by Bergmann's rule. This study reemphasizes the necessity of considering the evolutionary history and resultant form and function of mammalian morphotypes when attempting to understand contemporary mammalian body size distributions. PMID:23675820

  1. Unraveling the sequence information in COI barcode to achieve higher taxon assignment based on Indian freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Mohua; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Efficacy of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) DNA barcode in higher taxon assignment is still under debate in spite of several attempts, using the conventional DNA barcoding methods, to assign higher taxa. Here we try to understand whether nucleotide and amino acid sequence in COI gene carry sufficient information to assign species to their higher taxonomic rank, using 160 species of Indian freshwater fishes. Our results reveal that with increase in the taxonomic rank, sequence conservation decreases for both nucleotides and amino acids. Order level exhibits lowest conservation with 50% of the nucleotides and amino acids being conserved. Among the variable sites, 30-50% were found to carry high information content within an order, while it was 70-80% within a family and 80-99% within a genus. High information content shows sites with almost conserved sequence but varying at one or two locations, which can be due to variations at species or population level. Thus, the potential of COI gene in higher taxon assignment is revealed with validation of ample inherent signals latent in the gene. PMID:24409929

  2. Road zone effects in small-mammal communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bissonette, J.A.; Rosa, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Our study focused on the putative effects of roads on small-mammal communities in a high desert region of southern Utah. Specifically, we tested whether or not roads create adjacent zones characterized by lower small- mammal densities, abundance, and diversity. We sampled abundance of small mammals at increasing distances from Interstate 15 during two summers. We recorded 11 genera and 13 species. We detected no clear abundance, density, or diversity effects relative to distance from the road. Only two of 13 species were never captured near roads. The abundance of the remaining 11 small mammal species was either similar at different distances from the road or higher closer to the road. We conclude that although roads may act as barriers and possible sources of mortality, adjacent zones of vegetation often provide favorable microhabitat in the desert landscape for many small mammals. ?? 2009 by the author(s).

  3. Communication masking in marine mammals: A review and research strategy.

    PubMed

    Erbe, Christine; Reichmuth, Colleen; Cunningham, Kane; Lucke, Klaus; Dooling, Robert

    2016-02-15

    Underwater noise, whether of natural or anthropogenic origin, has the ability to interfere with the way in which marine mammals receive acoustic signals (i.e., for communication, social interaction, foraging, navigation, etc.). This phenomenon, termed auditory masking, has been well studied in humans and terrestrial vertebrates (in particular birds), but less so in marine mammals. Anthropogenic underwater noise seems to be increasing in parts of the world's oceans and concerns about associated bioacoustic effects, including masking, are growing. In this article, we review our understanding of masking in marine mammals, summarise data on marine mammal hearing as they relate to masking (including audiograms, critical ratios, critical bandwidths, and auditory integration times), discuss masking release processes of receivers (including comodulation masking release and spatial release from masking) and anti-masking strategies of signalers (e.g. Lombard effect), and set a research framework for improved assessment of potential masking in marine mammals. PMID:26707982

  4. Genomic Imprinting in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Denise P.

    2014-01-01

    Genomic imprinting affects a subset of genes in mammals and results in a monoallelic, parental-specific expression pattern. Most of these genes are located in clusters that are regulated through the use of insulators or long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). To distinguish the parental alleles, imprinted genes are epigenetically marked in gametes at imprinting control elements through the use of DNA methylation at the very least. Imprinted gene expression is subsequently conferred through lncRNAs, histone modifications, insulators, and higher-order chromatin structure. Such imprints are maintained after fertilization through these mechanisms despite extensive reprogramming of the mammalian genome. Genomic imprinting is an excellent model for understanding mammalian epigenetic regulation. PMID:24492710

  5. NORTHERN PUGET SOUND MARINE MAMMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A baseline study of the marine mammals of northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca was undertaken from November 1977 to September 1979 emphasizing certain aspects of the biology of the harbor seal, which is the most abundant marine mammal in this area. The local abunda...

  6. 75 FR 77616 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). Permit No. 14334, issued on August 17, 2009 (74 FR... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XP18 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing...

  7. 76 FR 72680 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... December 9, 2010, notice was published in the Federal Register (75 FR 76703) that a request for a permit... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA078 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine.... Environmental Research and Services, Fairbanks, AK, to conduct research on marine mammals in Alaska....

  8. 76 FR 76949 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). Permit No. 14534, issued on July 2, 2010 (75 FR 39665... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XR52 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing...

  9. Protection of mammal diversity in Central America.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Clinton N; Giri, Chandra

    2008-08-01

    Central America is exceptionally rich in biodiversity, but varies widely in the attention its countries devote to conservation. Protected areas, widely considered the cornerstone of conservation, were not always created with the intent of conserving that biodiversity. We assessed how well the protected-area system of Central America includes the region's mammal diversity. This first required a refinement of existing range maps to reduce their extensive errors of commission (i.e., predicted presences in places where species do not occur). For this refinement, we used the ecological limits of each species to identify and remove unsuitable areas from the range. We then compared these maps with the locations of protected areas to measure the habitat protected for each of the region's 250 endemic mammals. The species most vulnerable to extinction-those with small ranges-were largely outside protected areas. Nevertheless, the most strictly protected areas tended toward areas with many small-ranged species. To improve the protection coverage of mammal diversity in the region, we identified a set of priority sites that would best complement the existing protected areas. Protecting these new sites would require a relatively small increase in the total area protected, but could greatly enhance mammal conservation. PMID:18616739

  10. Climate and Species Richness Predict the Phylogenetic Structure of African Mammal Communities

    PubMed Central

    Kamilar, Jason M.; Beaudrot, Lydia; Reed, Kaye E.

    2015-01-01

    We have little knowledge of how climatic variation (and by proxy, habitat variation) influences the phylogenetic structure of tropical communities. Here, we quantified the phylogenetic structure of mammal communities in Africa to investigate how community structure varies with respect to climate and species richness variation across the continent. In addition, we investigated how phylogenetic patterns vary across carnivores, primates, and ungulates. We predicted that climate would differentially affect the structure of communities from different clades due to between-clade biological variation. We examined 203 communities using two metrics, the net relatedness (NRI) and nearest taxon (NTI) indices. We used simultaneous autoregressive models to predict community phylogenetic structure from climate variables and species richness. We found that most individual communities exhibited a phylogenetic structure consistent with a null model, but both climate and species richness significantly predicted variation in community phylogenetic metrics. Using NTI, species rich communities were composed of more distantly related taxa for all mammal communities, as well as for communities of carnivorans or ungulates. Temperature seasonality predicted the phylogenetic structure of mammal, carnivoran, and ungulate communities, and annual rainfall predicted primate community structure. Additional climate variables related to temperature and rainfall also predicted the phylogenetic structure of ungulate communities. We suggest that both past interspecific competition and habitat filtering have shaped variation in tropical mammal communities. The significant effect of climatic factors on community structure has important implications for the diversity of mammal communities given current models of future climate change. PMID:25875361

  11. Dimensionality vs Taxonicity of Schizotypy: Some New Data and Challenges Ahead

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Kirsty V.; Linscott, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneity in the expression of schizotypy may arise from underlying dimensional processes or a taxonic population structure. In a 2-phase study, we tested the taxonicity of self-reported schizotypy within a general psychiatric sample (n = 109) and examined taxon validity by testing its association with clinical schizotaxia in follow-up subsamples. Taxometric analyses indicated a taxonic structure (schizotypy prevalence = 38.8%) provided the best description of the underlying population distribution. After a year, schizotypal (n = 14) and nonschizotypal (n = 14) subsamples returned for diagnosis of clinical schizotaxia by assessment of executive functioning, attention, memory, and negative symptoms. Seven patients met diagnostic criteria, all members of the schizotypy class. Schizotypy was associated with impaired attention and memory, more negative symptoms, poorer global functioning, and more extensive psychiatric histories. We reconcile inconsistencies in the literature by discussing threats to the validity of this and similar research on Meehl’s taxonomic model of schizotypy, including conceptual limitations of the lexical hypothesis and conventions of factor analysis. Scrutiny of Meehl’s model should involve disambiguation and better measurement of the schizotaxia-schizotypy phenotype. PMID:25810059

  12. Psychopathy as a Taxon: Evidence That Psychopaths Are a Discrete Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Grant T.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Applied taxometric analyses to construct of psychopathy (as measured by Psychopathy Checklist) and to several variables reflecting antisocial childhood, adult criminality, and criminal recidivism. Findings from 653 serious offenders assessed or treated in maximum-security institution supported existence of taxon underlying psychopathy. Childhood…

  13. Dimensionality vs taxonicity of schizotypy: some new data and challenges ahead.

    PubMed

    Everett, Kirsty V; Linscott, Richard J

    2015-03-01

    Heterogeneity in the expression of schizotypy may arise from underlying dimensional processes or a taxonic population structure. In a 2-phase study, we tested the taxonicity of self-reported schizotypy within a general psychiatric sample (n = 109) and examined taxon validity by testing its association with clinical schizotaxia in follow-up subsamples. Taxometric analyses indicated a taxonic structure (schizotypy prevalence = 38.8%) provided the best description of the underlying population distribution. After a year, schizotypal (n = 14) and nonschizotypal (n = 14) subsamples returned for diagnosis of clinical schizotaxia by assessment of executive functioning, attention, memory, and negative symptoms. Seven patients met diagnostic criteria, all members of the schizotypy class. Schizotypy was associated with impaired attention and memory, more negative symptoms, poorer global functioning, and more extensive psychiatric histories. We reconcile inconsistencies in the literature by discussing threats to the validity of this and similar research on Meehl's taxonomic model of schizotypy, including conceptual limitations of the lexical hypothesis and conventions of factor analysis. Scrutiny of Meehl's model should involve disambiguation and better measurement of the schizotaxia-schizotypy phenotype. PMID:25810059

  14. Life history consequences of mammal sibling rivalry.

    PubMed

    Stockley, P; Parker, G A

    2002-10-01

    Mammal life history traits relating to growth and reproduction are extremely diverse. Sibling rivalry may contribute to selection pressures influencing this diversity, because individuals that are relatively large at birth typically have an advantage in competition for milk. However, selection for increased growth rate is likely to be constrained by kin selection and physiological costs. Here, we present and test a model examining the ESS (evolutionarily stable strategy) balance between these constraints and advantages associated with increased prenatal growth in mammal sibling rivalry. Predictions of the model are supported by results of comparative analyses for the Carnivora and Insectivora, which demonstrate an increase in prenatal growth rate with increasing intensity of postnatal scramble competition, and a decrease in postnatal growth rate relative to size at birth. Because increased prenatal growth rates are predicted to select for reduced gestation length under certain conditions, our study also indicates that sibling rivalry may contribute to selection pressures influencing variation in altriciality and precociality among mammals. PMID:12237403

  15. Marine mammal harvests and other interactions with humans.

    PubMed

    Hovelsrud, Grete K; McKenna, Meghan; Huntington, Henry P

    2008-03-01

    The Arctic is currently undergoing rapid social and environmental changes, and while the peoples of the north have a long history of adapting, the current changes in climate pose unprecedented challenges to the marine mammal-human interactions in the Arctic regions. Arctic marine mammals have been and remain an important resource for many of the indigenous and nonindigenous people of the north. Changes in climate are likely to bring about profound changes to the environment in which these animals live and subsequently to the hunting practices and livelihoods of the people who hunt them. Climate change will lead to reduction in the sea ice extent and thickness and will likely increase shipping through the Northern Sea Route and the Northwest Passage and oil and gas activities in Arctic areas previously inaccessible. Such activities will lead to more frequent interactions between humans and marine mammals. These activities may also change the distribution of marine mammals, affecting the hunters. This paper has three parts. First, an overview of marine mammal harvesting activities in the different circumpolar regions provides a snapshot of current practices and conditions. Second, case studies of selected Arctic regions, indigenous groups, and species provide insight into the manner in which climate change is already impacting marine mammal harvesting activities in the Arctic. Third, we describe how climate change is likely to affect shipping and oil and gas exploration and production activities in the Arctic and describe the possible implications of these changes for the marine mammal populations. We conclude that many of the consequences of climate change are likely to be negative for marine mammal hunters and for marine mammals. Lack of adequate baseline data, however, makes it difficult to identify specific causal mechanisms and thus to develop appropriate conservation measures. Nonetheless, the future of Arctic marine mammals and human uses of them depends on

  16. Assessing Phylogenetic Relationships among Galliformes: A Multigene Phylogeny with Expanded Taxon Sampling in Phasianidae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ning; Kimball, Rebecca T.; Braun, Edward L.; Liang, Bin; Zhang, Zhengwang

    2013-01-01

    Galliform birds (relatives of the chicken and turkey) have attracted substantial attention due to their importance to society and value as model systems. This makes understanding the evolutionary history of Galliformes, especially the species-rich family Phasianidae, particularly interesting and important for comparative studies in this group. Previous studies have differed in their conclusions regarding galliform phylogeny. Some of these studies have suggested that specific clades within this order underwent rapid radiations, potentially leading to the observed difficulty in resolving their phylogenetic relationships. Here we presented analyses of six nuclear intron sequences and two mitochondrial regions, an amount of sequence data larger than many previous studies, and expanded taxon sampling by collecting data from 88 galliform species and four anseriform outgroups. Our results corroborated recent studies describing relationships among the major families, and provided further evidence that the traditional division of the largest family, the Phasianidae into two major groups (“pheasants” and “partridges”) is not valid. Within the Phasianidae, relationships among many genera have varied among studies and there has been little consensus for the placement of many taxa. Using this large dataset, with substantial sampling within the Phasianidae, we obtained strong bootstrap support to confirm some previously hypothesized relationships and we were able to exclude others. In addition, we added the first nuclear sequence data for the partridge and quail genera Ammoperdix, Caloperdix, Excalfactoria, and Margaroperdix, placing these taxa in the galliform tree of life with confidence. Despite the novel insights obtained by combining increased sampling of taxa and loci, our results suggest that additional data collection will be necessary to solve the remaining uncertainties. PMID:23741315

  17. Inner architecture of vertebral centra in terrestrial and aquatic mammals: a two-dimensional comparative study.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Maitena; Laurin, Michel; Jacques, Florian; Pellé, Eric; Dabin, Willy; de Buffrénil, Vivian

    2013-05-01

    Inner vertebral architecture is poorly known, except in human and laboratory animals. In order to document this topic at a broad comparative level, a 2D-histomorphometric study of vertebral centra was conducted in a sample of 98 therian mammal species, spanning most of the size range and representing the main locomotor adaptations known in therian taxa. Eleven variables relative to the development and geometry of trabecular networks were extracted from CT scan mid-sagittal sections. Phylogeny-informed statistical tests were used to reveal the respective influences of phylogeny, size, and locomotion adaptations on mammalian vertebral structure. The use of random taxon reshuffling and squared change parsimony reveals that 9 of the 11 characteristics (the two exceptions are total sectional area and structural polarization) contain a phylogenetic signal. Linear discriminant analyses suggest that the sampled taxa can be arranged into three categories with respect to locomotion mode: a) terrestrial + flying + digging + amphibious forms, b) coastal oscillatory aquatic taxa, and c) pelagic oscillatory aquatic forms represented by oceanic cetaceans. Pairwise comparison tests and linear regressions show that, when specific size increases, the length of trabecular network (Tt.Tb.Le), as well as trabecular proliferation in total sections (Pr.Tb.Tt), increase with positive allometry. This process occurs in all locomotion categories but is particularly pronounced in pelagic oscillators. Conversely, mean trabecular width has a lesser increase with size in pelagic oscillators. Trabecular orientation is not influenced by size. All tests were corrected for multiple testing. By using six structural variables or indices, locomotion mode can be predicted with a 97.4% success rate for terrestrial forms, 66.7% for coastal oscillatory, and 81.3% for pelagic oscillatory. The possible functional meaning of these results and their potential use for paleobiological inference of locomotion in

  18. Species Richness Responses to Structural or Compositional Habitat Diversity between and within Grassland Patches: A Multi-Taxon Approach.

    PubMed

    Lengyel, Szabolcs; Déri, Eszter; Magura, Tibor

    2016-01-01

    Habitat diversity (spatial heterogeneity within and between habitat patches in a landscape, HD) is often invoked as a driver of species diversity at small spatial scales. However, the effect of HD on species richness (SR) of multiple taxa is not well understood. We quantified HD and SR in a wet-dry gradient of open grassland habitats in Hortobágy National Park (E-Hungary) and tested the effect of compositional and structural factors of HD on SR of flowering plants, orthopterans, true bugs, spiders, ground beetles and birds. Our dataset on 434 grassland species (170 plants, 264 animals) showed that the wet-dry gradient (compositional HD at the between-patch scale) was primarily related to SR in orthopterans, ground-dwelling arthropods, and all animals combined. The patchiness, or plant association richness, of the vegetation (compositional HD at the within-patch scale) was related to SR of vegetation-dwelling arthropods, whereas vegetation height (structural HD at the within-patch scale) was related to SR of ground-dwelling arthropods and birds. Patch area was related to SR only in birds, whereas management (grazing, mowing, none) was related to SR of plants and true bugs. All relationships between HD and SR were positive, indicating increasing SR with increasing HD. However, total SR was not related to HD because different taxa showed similar positive responses to different HD variables. Our findings, therefore, show that even though HD positively influences SR in a wide range of grassland taxa, each taxon responds to different compositional or structural measures of HD, resulting in the lack of a consistent relationship between HD and SR when taxon responses are pooled. The idiosyncratic responses shown here exemplify the difficulties in detecting general HD-SR relationships over multiple taxa. Our results also suggest that management and restoration aimed specifically to sustain or increase the diversity of habitats are required to conserve biodiversity in

  19. Species Richness Responses to Structural or Compositional Habitat Diversity between and within Grassland Patches: A Multi-Taxon Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lengyel, Szabolcs; Déri, Eszter; Magura, Tibor

    2016-01-01

    Habitat diversity (spatial heterogeneity within and between habitat patches in a landscape, HD) is often invoked as a driver of species diversity at small spatial scales. However, the effect of HD on species richness (SR) of multiple taxa is not well understood. We quantified HD and SR in a wet-dry gradient of open grassland habitats in Hortobágy National Park (E-Hungary) and tested the effect of compositional and structural factors of HD on SR of flowering plants, orthopterans, true bugs, spiders, ground beetles and birds. Our dataset on 434 grassland species (170 plants, 264 animals) showed that the wet-dry gradient (compositional HD at the between-patch scale) was primarily related to SR in orthopterans, ground-dwelling arthropods, and all animals combined. The patchiness, or plant association richness, of the vegetation (compositional HD at the within-patch scale) was related to SR of vegetation-dwelling arthropods, whereas vegetation height (structural HD at the within-patch scale) was related to SR of ground-dwelling arthropods and birds. Patch area was related to SR only in birds, whereas management (grazing, mowing, none) was related to SR of plants and true bugs. All relationships between HD and SR were positive, indicating increasing SR with increasing HD. However, total SR was not related to HD because different taxa showed similar positive responses to different HD variables. Our findings, therefore, show that even though HD positively influences SR in a wide range of grassland taxa, each taxon responds to different compositional or structural measures of HD, resulting in the lack of a consistent relationship between HD and SR when taxon responses are pooled. The idiosyncratic responses shown here exemplify the difficulties in detecting general HD-SR relationships over multiple taxa. Our results also suggest that management and restoration aimed specifically to sustain or increase the diversity of habitats are required to conserve biodiversity in

  20. SUMAC: Constructing Phylogenetic Supermatrices and Assessing Partially Decisive Taxon Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Freyman, William A.

    2015-01-01

    The amount of phylogenetically informative sequence data in GenBank is growing at an exponential rate, and large phylogenetic trees are increasingly used in research. Tools are needed to construct phylogenetic sequence matrices from GenBank data and evaluate the effect of missing data. Supermatrix Constructor (SUMAC) is a tool to data-mine GenBank, construct phylogenetic supermatrices, and assess the phylogenetic decisiveness of a matrix given the pattern of missing sequence data. SUMAC calculates a novel metric, Missing Sequence Decisiveness Scores (MSDS), which measures how much each individual missing sequence contributes to the decisiveness of the matrix. MSDS can be used to compare supermatrices and prioritize the acquisition of new sequence data. SUMAC constructs supermatrices either through an exploratory clustering of all GenBank sequences within a taxonomic group or by using guide sequences to build homologous clusters in a more targeted manner. SUMAC assembles supermatrices for any taxonomic group recognized in GenBank and is optimized to run on multicore computer systems by parallelizing multiple stages of operation. SUMAC is implemented as a Python package that can run as a stand-alone command-line program, or its modules and objects can be incorporated within other programs. SUMAC is released under the open source GPLv3 license and is available at https://github.com/wf8/sumac. PMID:26648681

  1. SUMAC: Constructing Phylogenetic Supermatrices and Assessing Partially Decisive Taxon Coverage.

    PubMed

    Freyman, William A

    2015-01-01

    The amount of phylogenetically informative sequence data in GenBank is growing at an exponential rate, and large phylogenetic trees are increasingly used in research. Tools are needed to construct phylogenetic sequence matrices from GenBank data and evaluate the effect of missing data. Supermatrix Constructor (SUMAC) is a tool to data-mine GenBank, construct phylogenetic supermatrices, and assess the phylogenetic decisiveness of a matrix given the pattern of missing sequence data. SUMAC calculates a novel metric, Missing Sequence Decisiveness Scores (MSDS), which measures how much each individual missing sequence contributes to the decisiveness of the matrix. MSDS can be used to compare supermatrices and prioritize the acquisition of new sequence data. SUMAC constructs supermatrices either through an exploratory clustering of all GenBank sequences within a taxonomic group or by using guide sequences to build homologous clusters in a more targeted manner. SUMAC assembles supermatrices for any taxonomic group recognized in GenBank and is optimized to run on multicore computer systems by parallelizing multiple stages of operation. SUMAC is implemented as a Python package that can run as a stand-alone command-line program, or its modules and objects can be incorporated within other programs. SUMAC is released under the open source GPLv3 license and is available at https://github.com/wf8/sumac. PMID:26648681

  2. Multispectral observations of marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoonmaker, Jon; Dirbas, Joseph; Podobna, Yuliya; Wells, Tami; Boucher, Cynthia; Oakley, Daniel

    2008-10-01

    Multispectral visible and infrared observations of various species of whales were made in the St. Lawrence Seaway near Quebec, Canada and Papawai Point in Maui, Hawaii. The Multi-mission Adaptable Narrowband Imaging System (MANTIS) was deployed in two configurations: airborne looking down, and bluff mounted looking at low-grazing angles. An Infrared (IR) sensor was also deployed in the bluff mounted configuration. Detections of marine mammals were made with these systems of submerged mammals and surface mammals at ranges up to 8 miles. Automatic detection algorithms are being explored to detect, track and monitor the behavior of individuals and pods of whales. This effort is part of a United States Navy effort to insure that marine mammals are not injured during the testing of the US Navy's acoustic Anti-submarine Warfare (ASW) systems.

  3. Invasive mammal eradication on islands results in substantial conservation gains.

    PubMed

    Jones, Holly P; Holmes, Nick D; Butchart, Stuart H M; Tershy, Bernie R; Kappes, Peter J; Corkery, Ilse; Aguirre-Muñoz, Alfonso; Armstrong, Doug P; Bonnaud, Elsa; Burbidge, Andrew A; Campbell, Karl; Courchamp, Franck; Cowan, Philip E; Cuthbert, Richard J; Ebbert, Steve; Genovesi, Piero; Howald, Gregg R; Keitt, Bradford S; Kress, Stephen W; Miskelly, Colin M; Oppel, Steffen; Poncet, Sally; Rauzon, Mark J; Rocamora, Gérard; Russell, James C; Samaniego-Herrera, Araceli; Seddon, Philip J; Spatz, Dena R; Towns, David R; Croll, Donald A

    2016-04-12

    More than US$21 billion is spent annually on biodiversity conservation. Despite their importance for preventing or slowing extinctions and preserving biodiversity, conservation interventions are rarely assessed systematically for their global impact. Islands house a disproportionately higher amount of biodiversity compared with mainlands, much of which is highly threatened with extinction. Indeed, island species make up nearly two-thirds of recent extinctions. Islands therefore are critical targets of conservation. We used an extensive literature and database review paired with expert interviews to estimate the global benefits of an increasingly used conservation action to stem biodiversity loss: eradication of invasive mammals on islands. We found 236 native terrestrial insular faunal species (596 populations) that benefitted through positive demographic and/or distributional responses from 251 eradications of invasive mammals on 181 islands. Seven native species (eight populations) were negatively impacted by invasive mammal eradication. Four threatened species had their International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List extinction-risk categories reduced as a direct result of invasive mammal eradication, and no species moved to a higher extinction-risk category. We predict that 107 highly threatened birds, mammals, and reptiles on the IUCN Red List-6% of all these highly threatened species-likely have benefitted from invasive mammal eradications on islands. Because monitoring of eradication outcomes is sporadic and limited, the impacts of global eradications are likely greater than we report here. Our results highlight the importance of invasive mammal eradication on islands for protecting the world's most imperiled fauna. PMID:27001852

  4. Invasive mammal eradication on islands results in substantial conservation gains

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Holly P.; Holmes, Nick D.; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Tershy, Bernie R.; Kappes, Peter J.; Corkery, Ilse; Aguirre-Muñoz, Alfonso; Armstrong, Doug P.; Bonnaud, Elsa; Burbidge, Andrew A.; Campbell, Karl; Courchamp, Franck; Cowan, Philip E.; Cuthbert, Richard J.; Ebbert, Steve; Genovesi, Piero; Howald, Gregg R.; Keitt, Bradford S.; Kress, Stephen W.; Miskelly, Colin M.; Oppel, Steffen; Poncet, Sally; Rauzon, Mark J.; Rocamora, Gérard; Russell, James C.; Samaniego-Herrera, Araceli; Seddon, Philip J.; Spatz, Dena R.; Towns, David R.; Croll, Donald A.

    2016-01-01

    More than US$21 billion is spent annually on biodiversity conservation. Despite their importance for preventing or slowing extinctions and preserving biodiversity, conservation interventions are rarely assessed systematically for their global impact. Islands house a disproportionately higher amount of biodiversity compared with mainlands, much of which is highly threatened with extinction. Indeed, island species make up nearly two-thirds of recent extinctions. Islands therefore are critical targets of conservation. We used an extensive literature and database review paired with expert interviews to estimate the global benefits of an increasingly used conservation action to stem biodiversity loss: eradication of invasive mammals on islands. We found 236 native terrestrial insular faunal species (596 populations) that benefitted through positive demographic and/or distributional responses from 251 eradications of invasive mammals on 181 islands. Seven native species (eight populations) were negatively impacted by invasive mammal eradication. Four threatened species had their International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List extinction-risk categories reduced as a direct result of invasive mammal eradication, and no species moved to a higher extinction-risk category. We predict that 107 highly threatened birds, mammals, and reptiles on the IUCN Red List—6% of all these highly threatened species—likely have benefitted from invasive mammal eradications on islands. Because monitoring of eradication outcomes is sporadic and limited, the impacts of global eradications are likely greater than we report here. Our results highlight the importance of invasive mammal eradication on islands for protecting the world's most imperiled fauna. PMID:27001852

  5. The taxonicity of schizotypy: does the same taxonic class structure emerge from analyses of different attributes of schizotypy and from fundamentally different statistical methods?

    PubMed

    Linscott, Richard J

    2013-12-15

    Findings on the population distribution of schizotypy consistently point toward an underlying class structure. However, past research is methodologically homogeneous, chiefly involving analysis of attribute-specific indicators and coherent cut kinetic methods such as maximum covariance (MAXCOV) analysis. Two questions are examined. Are different or overlapping classes identified from different attributes of the schizophrenia phenotype? Do fundamentally different approaches to analysis yield consistent results? Participants (n=1074) completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). Following item screening, MAXCOV analyses were conducted iteratively on attribute-specific item sets (cognitive-perceptual, interpersonal, and disorganized) and a general item set. Latent variable modeling (factor analysis, latent class analysis, and factor-mixture modeling) was used to examine the consistency of the MAXCOV results using items retained in the general set following MAXCOV analysis. Attribute-specific and general item sets gave taxonic MAXCOV curves and base rates of 8.4-10.4% and 3.6%, respectively. Classes were not independent. No latent variable model emerged as uniquely superior but five models distinguished a small high-scoring class populated by members of the MAXCOV general class. Different attributes distinguished overlapping yet nonredundant taxa, and a general schizotypy taxon identified with MAXCOV was also identified in latent variable modeling. PMID:23932839

  6. A cryptic taxon of Galápagos tortoise in conservation peril

    PubMed Central

    Russello, Michael A; Glaberman, Scott; Gibbs, James P; Marquez, Cruz; Powell, Jeffrey R; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2005-01-01

    As once boldly stated, ‘bad taxonomy can kill’, highlighting the critical importance of accurate taxonomy for the conservation of endangered taxa. The concept continues to evolve almost 15 years later largely because most legal protections aimed at preserving biological diversity are based on formal taxonomic designations. In this paper we report unrecognized genetic divisions within the giant tortoises of the Galápagos. We found three distinct lineages among populations formerly considered a single taxon on the most populous and accessible island of Santa Cruz; their diagnosability, degree of genetic divergence and phylogenetic placement merit the recognition of at least one new taxon. These results demonstrate the fundamental importance of continuing taxonomic investigations to recognize biological diversity and designate units of conservation, even within long-studied organisms such as Galápagos tortoises, whose evolutionary heritage and contribution to human intellectual history warrant them special attention. PMID:17148189

  7. Comparative genomics of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis reveals a strict monophyletic bifidobacterial taxon.

    PubMed

    Milani, Christian; Duranti, Sabrina; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Bottacini, Francesca; Strati, Francesco; Arioli, Stefania; Foroni, Elena; Turroni, Francesca; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco

    2013-07-01

    Strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis are extensively exploited by the food industry as health-promoting bacteria, although the genetic variability of members belonging to this taxon has so far not received much scientific attention. In this article, we describe the complete genetic makeup of the B. animalis subsp. lactis Bl12 genome and discuss the genetic relatedness of this strain with other sequenced strains belonging to this taxon. Moreover, a detailed comparative genomic analysis of B. animalis subsp. lactis genomes was performed, which revealed a closely related and isogenic nature of all currently available B. animalis subsp. lactis strains, thus strongly suggesting a closed pan-genome structure of this bacterial group. PMID:23645200

  8. 50 CFR 18.25 - Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.25 Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products. (a) The provisions of the Act and these regulations shall not apply:...

  9. 50 CFR 18.25 - Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.25 Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products. (a) The provisions of the Act and these regulations shall not apply:...

  10. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.25 Exempted marine mammals and marine...

  11. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.25 Exempted marine mammals and marine...

  12. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.25 Exempted marine mammals and marine...

  13. 50 CFR 18.25 - Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.25 Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products. (a) The provisions of the Act and these regulations shall not apply:...

  14. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.25 Exempted marine mammals and marine...

  15. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.25 Exempted marine mammals and marine...

  16. 50 CFR 18.25 - Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.25 Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products. (a) The provisions of the Act and these regulations shall not apply:...

  17. 50 CFR 18.25 - Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.25 Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products. (a) The provisions of the Act and these regulations shall not apply:...

  18. Distribution of wild mammal assemblages along an urban-rural-forest landscape gradient in warm-temperate East Asia.

    PubMed

    Saito, Masayuki; Koike, Fumito

    2013-01-01

    Urbanization may alter mammal assemblages via habitat loss, food subsidies, and other factors related to human activities. The general distribution patterns of wild mammal assemblages along urban-rural-forest landscape gradients have not been studied, although many studies have focused on a single species or taxon, such as rodents. We quantitatively evaluated the effects of the urban-rural-forest gradient and spatial scale on the distributions of large and mid-sized mammals in the world's largest metropolitan area in warm-temperate Asia using nonspecific camera-trapping along two linear transects spanning from the urban zone in the Tokyo metropolitan area to surrounding rural and forest landscapes. Many large and mid-sized species generally decreased from forest landscapes to urban cores, although some species preferred anthropogenic landscapes. Sika deer (Cervus nippon), Reeves' muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi), Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata), Japanese squirrel (Sciurus lis), Japanese marten (Martes melampus), Japanese badger (Meles anakuma), and wild boar (Sus scrofa) generally dominated the mammal assemblage of the forest landscape. Raccoon (Procyon lotor), raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), and Japanese hare (Lepus brachyurus) dominated the mammal assemblage in the intermediate zone (i.e., rural and suburban landscape). Cats (feral and free-roaming housecats; Felis catus) were common in the urban assemblage. The key spatial scales for forest species were more than 4000-m radius, indicating that conservation and management plans for these mammal assemblages should be considered on large spatial scales. However, small green spaces will also be important for mammal conservation in the urban landscape, because an indigenous omnivore (raccoon dog) had a smaller key spatial scale (500-m radius) than those of forest mammals. Urbanization was generally the most important factor in the distributions of mammals, and it is necessary to consider the spatial scale of

  19. Additional material of the enigmatic Early Miocene mammal Kelba and its relationship to the order Ptolemaiida

    PubMed Central

    Cote, Susanne; Werdelin, Lars; Seiffert, Erik R.; Barry, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Kelba quadeemae, a fossil mammal from the Early Miocene of East Africa, was originally named on the basis of three isolated upper molars. Kelba has previously been interpreted as a creodont, a pantolestid, an insectivoran, and a hemigaline viverrid. The true affinities of this taxon have remained unclear because of the limited material and its unique morphology relative to other Miocene African mammals. New material of Kelba from several East African Miocene localities, most notably a skull from the Early Miocene locality of Songhor in Western Kenya, permits analysis of the affinities of Kelba and documents the lower dentition of this taxon. Morphological comparison of this new material clearly demonstrates that Kelba is a member of the order Ptolemaiida, a poorly understood group whose fossil record was previously restricted to the Oligocene Fayum deposits of northern Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis supports the monophyly of the Ptolemaiida, including Kelba, and recovers two monophyletic clades within the order. We provide new family names for these groups and an emended diagnosis for the order. The discovery of ptolemaiidans from the Miocene of East Africa is significant because it extends the known temporal range of the order by >10 million years and the geographic range by >3,200 km. Although the higher-level affinities of the Ptolemaiida remain obscure, their unique morphology and distribution through a larger area of Africa (and exclusively Africa) lend support to the idea that Ptolemaiida may have an ancient African origin. PMID:17372202

  20. Use of cross-taxon congruence for hotspot identification at a regional scale.

    PubMed

    Fattorini, Simone; Dennis, Roger L H; Cook, Laurence M

    2012-01-01

    One of the most debated problems in conservation biology is the use of indicator (surrogate) taxa to predict spatial patterns in other taxa. Cross-taxon congruence in species richness patterns is of paramount importance at regional scales to disclose areas of high conservation value that are significant in a broader biogeographical context but yet placed in the finer, more practical, political context of decision making. We analysed spatial patterns of diversity in six arthropod taxa from the Turkish fauna as a regional case study relevant to global conservation of the Mediterranean basin. Although we found high congruence in cross-taxon comparisons of species richness (0.241taxon to capture diversity of other taxa was usually modest (on average, 50 percent of diversity of non-target taxa), limiting the use of hotspots for effective conservation of non-target groups. Nevertheless, our study demonstrates that a given group may partially stand in for another with similar ecological needs and biogeographical histories. We therefore advocate the use of multiple sets of taxa, chosen so as to be representative of animals with different ecological needs and biogeographical histories. PMID:22761947

  1. Evidence of taxon cycles in an Indo-Pacific passerine bird radiation (Aves: Pachycephala)

    PubMed Central

    Jønsson, Knud Andreas; Irestedt, Martin; Christidis, Les; Clegg, Sonya M.; Holt, Ben G.; Fjeldså, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Many insular taxa possess extraordinary abilities to disperse but may differ in their abilities to diversify and compete. While some taxa are widespread across archipelagos, others have disjunct (relictual) populations. These types of taxa, exemplified in the literature by selections of unrelated taxa, have been interpreted as representing a continuum of expansions and contractions (i.e. taxon cycles). Here, we use molecular data of 35 out of 40 species of the avian genus Pachycephala (including 54 out of 66 taxa in Pachycephala pectoralis (sensu lato), to assess the spatio-temporal evolution of the group. We also include data on species distributions, morphology, habitat and elevational ranges to test a number of predictions associated with the taxon-cycle hypothesis. We demonstrate that relictual species persist on the largest and highest islands across the Indo-Pacific, whereas recent archipelago expansions resulted in colonization of all islands in a region. For co-occurring island taxa, the earliest colonists generally inhabit the interior and highest parts of an island, with little spatial overlap with later colonists. Collectively, our data support the idea that taxa continuously pass through phases of expansions and contractions (i.e. taxon cycles). PMID:24403319

  2. Merging ancient and modern DNA: extinct seabird taxon rediscovered in the North Tasman Sea.

    PubMed

    Steeves, Tammy E; Holdaway, Richard N; Hale, Marie L; McLay, Emma; McAllan, Ian A W; Christian, Margaret; Hauber, Mark E; Bunce, Michael

    2010-02-23

    Ancient DNA has revolutionized the way in which evolutionary biologists research both extinct and extant taxa, from the inference of evolutionary history to the resolution of taxonomy. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first study to report the rediscovery of an 'extinct' avian taxon, the Tasman booby (Sula tasmani), using classical palaeontological data combined with ancient and modern DNA data. Contrary to earlier work, we show an overlap in size between fossil and modern birds in the North Tasman Sea (classified currently as S. tasmani and Sula dactylatra fullagari, respectively). In addition, we show that Holocene fossil birds have mitochondrial control region sequences that are identical to those found in modern birds. These results indicate that the Tasman booby is not an extinct taxon: S. dactylatra fullagari O'Brien & Davies, 1990 is therefore a junior synonym of Sula tasmani van Tets, Meredith, Fullagar & Davidson, 1988 and all North Tasman Sea boobies should be known as S. d. tasmani. In addition to reporting the rediscovery of an extinct avian taxon, our study highlights the need for researchers to be cognizant of multidisciplinary approaches to understanding taxonomy and past biodiversity. PMID:19675005

  3. Impact of non-native terrestrial mammals on the structure of the terrestrial mammal food web of Newfoundland, Canada.

    PubMed

    Strong, Justin S; Leroux, Shawn J

    2014-01-01

    The island of Newfoundland is unique because it has as many non-native terrestrial mammals as native ones. The impacts of non-native species on native flora and fauna can be profound and invasive species have been identified as one of the primary drivers of species extinction. Few studies, however, have investigated the effects of a non-native species assemblage on community and ecosystem properties. We reviewed the literature to build the first terrestrial mammal food web for the island of Newfoundland and then used network analyses to investigate how the timing of introductions and trophic position of non-native species has affected the structure of the terrestrial mammal food web in Newfoundland. The first non-native mammals (house mouse and brown rat) became established in Newfoundland with human settlement in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. Coyotes and southern red-backed voles are the most recent mammals to establish themselves on the island in 1985 and 1998, respectively. The fraction of intermediate species increased with the addition of non-native mammals over time whereas the fraction of basal and top species declined over time. This increase in intermediate species mediated by non-native species arrivals led to an overall increase in the terrestrial mammal food web connectance and generality (i.e. mean number of prey per predator). This diverse prey base and sources of carrion may have facilitated the natural establishment of coyotes on the island. Also, there is some evidence that the introduction of non-native prey species such as the southern red-backed vole has contributed to the recovery of the threatened American marten. Long-term monitoring of the food web is required to understand and predict the impacts of the diverse novel interactions that are developing in the terrestrial mammal food web of Newfoundland. PMID:25170923

  4. Impact of Non-Native Terrestrial Mammals on the Structure of the Terrestrial Mammal Food Web of Newfoundland, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Strong, Justin S.; Leroux, Shawn J.

    2014-01-01

    The island of Newfoundland is unique because it has as many non-native terrestrial mammals as native ones. The impacts of non-native species on native flora and fauna can be profound and invasive species have been identified as one of the primary drivers of species extinction. Few studies, however, have investigated the effects of a non-native species assemblage on community and ecosystem properties. We reviewed the literature to build the first terrestrial mammal food web for the island of Newfoundland and then used network analyses to investigate how the timing of introductions and trophic position of non-native species has affected the structure of the terrestrial mammal food web in Newfoundland. The first non-native mammals (house mouse and brown rat) became established in Newfoundland with human settlement in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. Coyotes and southern red-backed voles are the most recent mammals to establish themselves on the island in 1985 and 1998, respectively. The fraction of intermediate species increased with the addition of non-native mammals over time whereas the fraction of basal and top species declined over time. This increase in intermediate species mediated by non-native species arrivals led to an overall increase in the terrestrial mammal food web connectance and generality (i.e. mean number of prey per predator). This diverse prey base and sources of carrion may have facilitated the natural establishment of coyotes on the island. Also, there is some evidence that the introduction of non-native prey species such as the southern red-backed vole has contributed to the recovery of the threatened American marten. Long-term monitoring of the food web is required to understand and predict the impacts of the diverse novel interactions that are developing in the terrestrial mammal food web of Newfoundland. PMID:25170923

  5. Marine Mammal Impacts in Exploited Ecosystems: Would Large Scale Culling Benefit Fisheries?

    PubMed Central

    Morissette, Lyne; Christensen, Villy; Pauly, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Competition between marine mammals and fisheries for marine resources—whether real or perceived—has become a major issue for several countries and in international fora. We examined trophic interactions between marine mammals and fisheries based on a resource overlap index, using seven Ecopath models including marine mammal groups. On a global scale, most food consumed by marine mammals consisted of prey types that were not the main target of fisheries. For each ecosystem, the primary production required (PPR) to sustain marine mammals was less than half the PPR to sustain fisheries catches. We also developed an index representing the mean trophic level of marine mammal's consumption (TLQ) and compared it with the mean trophic level of fisheries' catches (TLC). Our results showed that overall TLQ was lower than TLC (2.88 versus 3.42). As fisheries increasingly exploit lower-trophic level species, the competition with marine mammals may become more important. We used mixed trophic impact analysis to evaluate indirect trophic effects of marine mammals, and in some cases found beneficial effects on some prey. Finally, we assessed the change in the trophic structure of an ecosystem after a simulated extirpation of marine mammal populations. We found that this lead to alterations in the structure of the ecosystems, and that there was no clear and direct relationship between marine mammals' predation and the potential catch by fisheries. Indeed, total biomass, with no marine mammals in the ecosystem, generally remained surprisingly similar, or even decreased for some species. PMID:22970153

  6. Marine mammal neoplasia: a review.

    PubMed

    Newman, S J; Smith, S A

    2006-11-01

    A review of the published literature indicates that marine mammal neoplasia includes the types and distributions of tumors seen in domestic species. A routine collection of samples from marine mammal species is hampered, and, hence, the literature is principally composed of reports from early whaling expeditions, captive zoo mammals, and epizootics that affect larger numbers of animals from a specific geographic location. The latter instances are most important, because many of these long-lived, free-ranging marine mammals may act as environmental sentinels for the health of the oceans. Examination of large numbers of mortalities reveals incidental proliferative and neoplastic conditions and, less commonly, identifies specific malignant cancers that can alter population dynamics. The best example of these is the presumptive herpesvirus-associated metastatic genital carcinomas found in California sea lions. Studies of tissues from St. Lawrence estuary beluga whales have demonstrated a high incidence of neoplasia and produced evidence that environmental contamination with high levels of polychlorinated biphenols and dichlorophenyl trichloroethane might be the cause. In addition, viruses are suspected to be the cause of gastric papillomas in belugas and cutaneous papillomas in Florida manatees and harbor porpoises. While experimental laboratory procedures can further elucidate mechanisms of neoplasia, continued pathologic examination of marine mammals will also be necessary to follow trends in wild populations. PMID:17099143

  7. [Wild is not really wild: brain weight of wild domestic mammals].

    PubMed

    Röhrs, M; Ebinger, P

    1999-01-01

    Domestication leads to the reduction of brain weight, decreases reach from 8.1% in laboratory rats up to 33.6% in domesticated pigs. The question is: Do brain weights increase by feralization? We compared the brain weights of domesticated mammals (cat, dog, pig, goat, ass) with their feral forms. In none of the cases studied, brain weight is increased in wild domestic mammals. So, feral mammals do not return back to the status of their wild species. PMID:10472721

  8. Adaptive evolution toward larger size in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Joanna; Meade, Andrew; Pagel, Mark; Venditti, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The notion that large body size confers some intrinsic advantage to biological species has been debated for centuries. Using a phylogenetic statistical approach that allows the rate of body size evolution to vary across a phylogeny, we find a long-term directional bias toward increasing size in the mammals. This pattern holds separately in 10 of 11 orders for which sufficient data are available and arises from a tendency for accelerated rates of evolution to produce increases, but not decreases, in size. On a branch-by-branch basis, increases in body size have been more than twice as likely as decreases, yielding what amounts to millions and millions of years of rapid and repeated increases in size away from the small ancestral mammal. These results are the first evidence, to our knowledge, from extant species that are compatible with Cope’s rule: the pattern of body size increase through time observed in the mammalian fossil record. We show that this pattern is unlikely to be explained by several nonadaptive mechanisms for increasing size and most likely represents repeated responses to new selective circumstances. By demonstrating that it is possible to uncover ancient evolutionary trends from a combination of a phylogeny and appropriate statistical models, we illustrate how data from extant species can complement paleontological accounts of evolutionary history, opening up new avenues of investigation for both. PMID:25848031

  9. Competitive growth in a cooperative mammal.

    PubMed

    Huchard, Elise; English, Sinead; Bell, Matt B V; Thavarajah, Nathan; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2016-05-26

    In many animal societies where hierarchies govern access to reproduction, the social rank of individuals is related to their age and weight and slow-growing animals may lose their place in breeding queues to younger 'challengers' that grow faster. The threat of being displaced might be expected to favour the evolution of competitive growth strategies, where individuals increase their own rate of growth in response to increases in the growth of potential rivals. Although growth rates have been shown to vary in relation to changes in the social environment in several vertebrates including fish and mammals, it is not yet known whether individuals increase their growth rates in response to increases in the growth of particular reproductive rivals. Here we show that, in wild Kalahari meerkats (Suricata suricatta), subordinates of both sexes respond to experimentally induced increases in the growth of same-sex rivals by raising their own growth rate and food intake. In addition, when individuals acquire dominant status, they show a secondary period of accelerated growth whose magnitude increases if the difference between their own weight and that of the heaviest subordinate of the same sex in their group is small. Our results show that individuals adjust their growth to the size of their closest competitor and raise the possibility that similar plastic responses to the risk of competition may occur in other social mammals, including domestic animals and primates. PMID:27225127

  10. Ocean noise and marine mammals: A tutorial lecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Spain, Gerald; Wartzok, Douglas

    2004-10-01

    The effect of man-made sound on marine mammals has been surrounded by controversy over the past decade. Much of this controversy stems from our lack of knowledge of the effects of noise on marine life. Ocean sound is produced during activities of great benefit to humans: commerce, exploration for energy reserves, national defense, and the study of the ocean environment itself. However, some recent strandings of marine mammals have been associated with the occurrence of human-generated sound. The documented increase of man-made sound in the ocean suggests the potential for more extensive though subtler effects than those observed in the mass strandings. The purpose of this tutorial is to present the scientific issues pertaining to ocean noise and marine mammals. Basic physics of sound in the ocean and long term trends of ocean sound will be presented. The biology of marine mammals, particularly their production, reception and use of sound in monitoring their environment, social interactions, and echolocation, will be reviewed. This background information sets the stage for understanding the effects of man-made sound on marine mammals. The extensive gaps in current knowledge with respect to marine mammal distribution and behavioral and physiological responses to sound will highlight research needs.

  11. Burst of Young Retrogenes and Independent Retrogene Formation in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Deng; Zhang, Liqing

    2009-01-01

    Retroposition and retrogenes gain increasing attention as recent studies show that they play an important role in human new gene formation. Here we examined the patterns of retrogene distribution in 8 mammalian genomes using 4 non-mammalian genomes as a contrast. There has been a burst of young retrogenes not only in primate lineages as suggested in a recent study, but also in other mammalian lineages. In mammals, most of the retrofamilies (the gene families that have retrogenes) are shared between species. In these shared retrofamilies, 14%–18% of functional retrogenes may have originated independently in multiple mammalian species. Notably, in the independently originated retrogenes, there is an enrichment of ribosome related gene function. In sharp contrast, none of these patterns hold in non-mammals. Our results suggest that the recruitment of the specific L1 retrotransposons in mammals might have been an important evolutionary event for the split of mammals and non-mammals and retroposition continues to be an important active process in shaping the dynamics of mammalian genomes, as compared to being rather inert in non-mammals. PMID:19325906

  12. Glucosylceramidases and malignancies in mammals.

    PubMed

    Astudillo, Leonardo; Therville, Nicole; Colacios, Céline; Ségui, Bruno; Andrieu-Abadie, Nathalie; Levade, Thierry

    2016-06-01

    Sphingolipids represent a major class of lipids that are essential constituents of eukaryotic cells. They are predominantly located in plasma membrane microdomains, and play an important structural role in regulating membrane fluidity. They are also bioactive effectors involved in diverse key cellular functions such as apoptosis and proliferation. The implication of some sphingolipids in cancer is well established whereas that of some others is still a matter of intense investigation. Glucosylceramide is the backbone of more than 300 structurally different glycosphingolipids including gangliosides and sulfatides, and is essential for mammalian development. Therefore, glucosylceramidases (also named GBA1, GBA2 and GBA3 β-glucosidases), the enzymes that hydrolyse β-glucosylceramide, play important functions. GBA1 is a lysosomal hydrolase whose deficiency causes Gaucher disease, the most prevalent inherited lysosomal storage disorder. GBA2 is a ubiquitous non-lysosomal glucosylceramidase whose mutations have been associated with some forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia. GBA3 is a cytosolic β-glucosidase, mostly present in the kidney, liver, spleen, intestine and lymphocytes of mammals, the function of which is still unclear. Whereas glucosylceramide synthase is implicated in multidrug resistance, the role of glucosylceramide breakdown in cancer is not yet fully appreciated. Defective GBA1 enzyme activity in humans, i.e., Gaucher disease, is associated with an increased risk of multiple myeloma and other malignancies. Putative molecular links between Gaucher disease and cancer, which might implicate the malignant cell and/or its microenvironment, are reviewed. The functions of GBA2 and GBA3 in cancer progression are also discussed. PMID:26582417

  13. Blood Rheology in Marine Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Castellini, Michael A.; Baskurt, Oguz; Castellini, Judith M.; Meiselman, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    The field of blood oxygen transport and delivery to tissues has been studied by comparative physiologists for many decades. Within this general area, the particular differences in oxygen delivery between marine and terrestrial mammals has focused mainly on oxygen supply differences and delivery to the tissues under low blood flow diving conditions. Yet, the study of the inherent flow properties of the blood itself (hemorheology) is rarely discussed when addressing diving. However, hemorheology is important to the study of marine mammals because of the critical nature of the oxygen stores that are carried in the blood during diving periods. This review focuses on the essential elements of hemorheology, how they are defined and on fundamental rheological applications to marine mammals. While the comparative rationale used throughout the review is much broader than the particular problems associated with diving, the basic concepts focus on how changes in the flow properties of whole blood would be critical to oxygen delivery during diving. This review introduces the reader to most of the major rheological concepts that are relevant to the unique and unusual aspects of the diving physiology of marine mammals. PMID:21423386

  14. 76 FR 75524 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... No. 14241, issued on July 15, 2009 (74 FR 3668), authorizes the permit holder to conduct research on...) issued on July 27, 2010 (75 FR 47779): (1) Included authorization for collection of a skin and blubber... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XO45 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National...

  15. 75 FR 76399 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... (75 FR 68757), notice of receipt of an application to amend Permit No. 781-1824 was published... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XZ66 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National...

  16. 75 FR 76399 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). On May 20, 2010 (75 FR 28236), notice was published that an amendment to Permit No. 13602, issued on September 4, 2009 (74 FR 46569), had been requested by the permit... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XK54 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National...

  17. DNA Barcode Sequence Identification Incorporating Taxonomic Hierarchy and within Taxon Variability

    PubMed Central

    Little, Damon P.

    2011-01-01

    For DNA barcoding to succeed as a scientific endeavor an accurate and expeditious query sequence identification method is needed. Although a global multiple–sequence alignment can be generated for some barcoding markers (e.g. COI, rbcL), not all barcoding markers are as structurally conserved (e.g. matK). Thus, algorithms that depend on global multiple–sequence alignments are not universally applicable. Some sequence identification methods that use local pairwise alignments (e.g. BLAST) are unable to accurately differentiate between highly similar sequences and are not designed to cope with hierarchic phylogenetic relationships or within taxon variability. Here, I present a novel alignment–free sequence identification algorithm–BRONX–that accounts for observed within taxon variability and hierarchic relationships among taxa. BRONX identifies short variable segments and corresponding invariant flanking regions in reference sequences. These flanking regions are used to score variable regions in the query sequence without the production of a global multiple–sequence alignment. By incorporating observed within taxon variability into the scoring procedure, misidentifications arising from shared alleles/haplotypes are minimized. An explicit treatment of more inclusive terminals allows for separate identifications to be made for each taxonomic level and/or for user–defined terminals. BRONX performs better than all other methods when there is imperfect overlap between query and reference sequences (e.g. mini–barcode queries against a full–length barcode database). BRONX consistently produced better identifications at the genus–level for all query types. PMID:21857897

  18. Evaluating and interpreting cross-taxon congruence: Potential pitfalls and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioria, Margherita; Bacaro, Giovanni; Feehan, John

    2011-05-01

    Characterizing the relationship between different taxonomic groups is critical to identify potential surrogates for biodiversity. Previous studies have shown that cross-taxa relationships are generally weak and/or inconsistent. The difficulties in finding predictive patterns have often been attributed to the spatial and temporal scales of these studies and on the differences in the measure used to evaluate such relationships (species richness versus composition). However, the choice of the analytical approach used to evaluate cross-taxon congruence inevitably represents a major source of variation. Here, we described the use of a range of methods that can be used to comprehensively assess cross-taxa relationships. To do so, we used data for two taxonomic groups, wetland plants and water beetles, collected from 54 farmland ponds in Ireland. Specifically, we used the Pearson correlation and rarefaction curves to analyse patterns in species richness, while Mantel tests, Procrustes analysis, and co-correspondence analysis were used to evaluate congruence in species composition. We compared the results of these analyses and we described some of the potential pitfalls associated with the use of each of these statistical approaches. Cross-taxon congruence was moderate to strong, depending on the choice of the analytical approach, on the nature of the response variable, and on local and environmental conditions. Our findings indicate that multiple approaches and measures of community structure are required for a comprehensive assessment of cross-taxa relationships. In particular, we showed that selection of surrogate taxa in conservation planning should not be based on a single statistic expressing the degree of correlation in species richness or composition. Potential solutions to the analytical issues associated with the assessment of cross-taxon congruence are provided and the implications of our findings in the selection of surrogates for biodiversity are discussed.

  19. SMALL MAMMAL USE OF MICROHABITAT REVIEWED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small mammal microhabitat research has greatly influenced vertebrate community ecologists. There exists a "microhabitat paradigm" that states that sympatry among small mammal species is enabled by differential use of microhabitat (i.e., microhabitat partitioning). However, seve...

  20. Quantifying the curvilinear metabolic scaling in mammals.

    PubMed

    Packard, Gary C

    2015-10-01

    A perplexing problem confronting students of metabolic allometry concerns the convex curvature that seemingly occurs in log-log plots of basal metabolic rate (BMR) vs. body mass in mammals. This putative curvilinearity has typically been interpreted in the context of a simple power function, Y=a*Xb, on the arithmetic scale, with the allometric exponent, b, supposedly increasing steadily as a dependent function of body size. The relationship can be quantified in arithmetic domain by exponentiating a quadratic equation fitted to logarithmic transformations of the original data, but the resulting model is not in the form of a power function and it is unlikely to describe accurately the pattern in the original distribution. I therefore re-examined a dataset for 636 species of mammal and discovered that the relationship between BMR and body mass is well-described by a power function with an explicit, non-zero intercept and lognormal, heteroscedastic error. The model has an invariant allometric exponent of 0.75, so the appearance in prior investigations of a steadily increasing exponent probably was an aberration resulting from undue reliance on logarithmic transformations to estimate statistical models in arithmetic domain. Theoretical constructs relating BMR to body mass in mammals may need to be modified to accommodate a positive intercept in the statistical model, but they do not need to be revised, or rejected, at present time on grounds that the allometric exponent varies with body size. New data from planned experiments will be needed to confirm any hypothesis based on data currently available. PMID:26173580

  1. 50 CFR 14.18 - Marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... with the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 and implementing regulations (50 CFR parts 18 and 216... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine mammals. 14.18 Section 14.18....18 Marine mammals. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has lawfully...

  2. 50 CFR 14.18 - Marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... with the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 and implementing regulations (50 CFR parts 18 and 216... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine mammals. 14.18 Section 14.18....18 Marine mammals. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has lawfully...

  3. 50 CFR 14.18 - Marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... with the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 and implementing regulations (50 CFR parts 18 and 216... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine mammals. 14.18 Section 14.18....18 Marine mammals. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has lawfully...

  4. 50 CFR 14.18 - Marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... with the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 and implementing regulations (50 CFR parts 18 and 216... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine mammals. 14.18 Section 14.18....18 Marine mammals. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has lawfully...

  5. 50 CFR 14.18 - Marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... with the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 and implementing regulations (50 CFR parts 18 and 216... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine mammals. 14.18 Section 14.18....18 Marine mammals. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has lawfully...

  6. Marine mammals of Hawaii: a bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, S.F.

    1981-08-01

    This bibliography is a product of a literature survey on marine mammals at proposed OTEC sites in the Hawaiian Islands. Emphasis is on publications about abundance and distribution, migration routes, and feeding ecology of the marine mammals known to inhabit the main and leeward Hawaiian Islands. Some works on the general biology of marine mammals are also included. 214 references.

  7. PATHOBIOLOGY OF SELECTED MARINE MAMMAL DISEASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine mammals are the subset of true mammals that have evolved unique characteristics for survival in an aquatic environment. he five major groups of marine mammals, cetacea, pinnipeds, mustelids, sirenia, and ursids, did not descend from a common phylogenetic line, and therefor...

  8. Behavioral thermoregulation in mammals: a review.

    PubMed

    Terrien, Jeremy; Perret, Martine; Aujard, Fabienne

    2011-01-01

    In mammals, thermoregulation is a key feature in the maintenance of homeostasis. Thermoregulatory capacities are strongly related to energy balance and animals are constantly seeking to limit the energy costs of normothermia. In case of thermal changes, physiological mechanisms are enhanced, increasing rates of energy expenditure. However, behavioral adjustments are available for species to lower the autonomic work, and thus reduce the energy costs of thermoregulatory responses. Hence, thermogenesis-induced metabolic costs can be reduced during cold exposure, and hyperthermia associated to dehydration can be avoided during heat exposure. Hypothermia avoidance consists in a concomitant decrease in heat dissipation and increase in heat production. Inversely, heat exchange is enhanced and body heat production is reduced when avoiding hyperthermia. The different behavioral strategies available for mammal species to cope with both decreased and increased levels of ambient temperature are reviewed. Moreover, thermoregulation function is under the control of central, metabolic, energetic and endocrine systems, which induces that parameters such as hour of the day, season, gender or aging may affect thermoregulatory adjustments. Some examples will be given. PMID:21196240

  9. First cranial remains of a gondwanatherian mammal reveal remarkable mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Krause, David W; Hoffmann, Simone; Wible, John R; Kirk, E Christopher; Schultz, Julia A; von Koenigswald, Wighart; Groenke, Joseph R; Rossie, James B; O'Connor, Patrick M; Seiffert, Erik R; Dumont, Elizabeth R; Holloway, Waymon L; Rogers, Raymond R; Rahantarisoa, Lydia J; Kemp, Addison D; Andriamialison, Haingoson

    2014-11-27

    Previously known only from isolated teeth and lower jaw fragments recovered from the Cretaceous and Palaeogene of the Southern Hemisphere, the Gondwanatheria constitute the most poorly known of all major mammaliaform radiations. Here we report the discovery of the first skull material of a gondwanatherian, a complete and well-preserved cranium from Upper Cretaceous strata in Madagascar that we assign to a new genus and species. Phylogenetic analysis strongly supports its placement within Gondwanatheria, which are recognized as monophyletic and closely related to multituberculates, an evolutionarily successful clade of Mesozoic mammals known almost exclusively from the Northern Hemisphere. The new taxon is the largest known mammaliaform from the Mesozoic of Gondwana. Its craniofacial anatomy reveals that it was herbivorous, large-eyed and agile, with well-developed high-frequency hearing and a keen sense of smell. The cranium exhibits a mosaic of primitive and derived features, the disparity of which is extreme and probably reflective of a long evolutionary history in geographic isolation. PMID:25383528

  10. First cranial remains of a gondwanatherian mammal reveal remarkable mosaicism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, David W.; Hoffmann, Simone; Wible, John R.; Kirk, E. Christopher; Schultz, Julia A.; von Koenigswald, Wighart; Groenke, Joseph R.; Rossie, James B.; O'Connor, Patrick M.; Seiffert, Erik R.; Dumont, Elizabeth R.; Holloway, Waymon L.; Rogers, Raymond R.; Rahantarisoa, Lydia J.; Kemp, Addison D.; Andriamialison, Haingoson

    2014-11-01

    Previously known only from isolated teeth and lower jaw fragments recovered from the Cretaceous and Palaeogene of the Southern Hemisphere, the Gondwanatheria constitute the most poorly known of all major mammaliaform radiations. Here we report the discovery of the first skull material of a gondwanatherian, a complete and well-preserved cranium from Upper Cretaceous strata in Madagascar that we assign to a new genus and species. Phylogenetic analysis strongly supports its placement within Gondwanatheria, which are recognized as monophyletic and closely related to multituberculates, an evolutionarily successful clade of Mesozoic mammals known almost exclusively from the Northern Hemisphere. The new taxon is the largest known mammaliaform from the Mesozoic of Gondwana. Its craniofacial anatomy reveals that it was herbivorous, large-eyed and agile, with well-developed high-frequency hearing and a keen sense of smell. The cranium exhibits a mosaic of primitive and derived features, the disparity of which is extreme and probably reflective of a long evolutionary history in geographic isolation.

  11. Delineating Species with DNA Barcodes: A Case of Taxon Dependent Method Performance in Moths

    PubMed Central

    Kekkonen, Mari; Mutanen, Marko; Kaila, Lauri; Nieminen, Marko; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2015-01-01

    The accelerating loss of biodiversity has created a need for more effective ways to discover species. Novel algorithmic approaches for analyzing sequence data combined with rapidly expanding DNA barcode libraries provide a potential solution. While several analytical methods are available for the delineation of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), few studies have compared their performance. This study compares the performance of one morphology-based and four DNA-based (BIN, parsimony networks, ABGD, GMYC) methods on two groups of gelechioid moths. It examines 92 species of Finnish Gelechiinae and 103 species of Australian Elachistinae which were delineated by traditional taxonomy. The results reveal a striking difference in performance between the two taxa with all four DNA-based methods. OTU counts in the Elachistinae showed a wider range and a relatively low (ca. 65%) OTU match with reference species while OTU counts were more congruent and performance was higher (ca. 90%) in the Gelechiinae. Performance rose when only monophyletic species were compared, but the taxon-dependence remained. None of the DNA-based methods produced a correct match with non-monophyletic species, but singletons were handled well. A simulated test of morphospecies-grouping performed very poorly in revealing taxon diversity in these small, dull-colored moths. Despite the strong performance of analyses based on DNA barcodes, species delineated using single-locus mtDNA data are best viewed as OTUs that require validation by subsequent integrative taxonomic work. PMID:25849083

  12. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma malaysianum', a novel taxon associated with virescence and phyllody of Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus).

    PubMed

    Nejat, Naghmeh; Vadamalai, Ganesan; Davis, Robert E; Harrison, Nigel A; Sijam, Kamaruzaman; Dickinson, Matthew; Abdullah, Siti Nor Akmar; Zhao, Yan

    2013-02-01

    This study addressed the taxonomic position and group classification of a phytoplasma responsible for virescence and phyllody symptoms in naturally diseased Madagascar periwinkle plants in western Malaysia. Unique regions in the 16S rRNA gene from the Malaysian periwinkle virescence (MaPV) phytoplasma distinguished the phytoplasma from all previously described 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' species. Pairwise sequence similarity scores, calculated through alignment of full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences, revealed that the MaPV phytoplasma 16S rRNA gene shared 96.5 % or less sequence similarity with that of previously described 'Ca. Phytoplasma' species, justifying the recognition of the MaPV phytoplasma as a reference strain of a novel taxon, 'Candidatus Phytoplasma malaysianum'. The 16S rRNA gene F2nR2 fragment from the MaPV phytoplasma exhibited a distinct restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) profile and the pattern similarity coefficient values were lower than 0.85 with representative phytoplasmas classified in any of the 31 previously delineated 16Sr groups; therefore, the MaPV phytoplasma was designated a member of a new 16Sr group, 16SrXXXII. Phytoplasmas affiliated with this novel taxon and the new group included diverse strains infecting periwinkle, coconut palm and oil palm in Malaysia. Three phytoplasmas were characterized as representatives of three distinct subgroups, 16SrXXXII-A, 16SrXXXII-B and 16SrXXXII-C, respectively. PMID:22523165

  13. Detection and Polarization of Introgression in a Five-Taxon Phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Pease, James B; Hahn, Matthew W

    2015-07-01

    When multiple speciation events occur rapidly in succession, discordant genealogies due to incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) can complicate the detection of introgression. A variety of methods, including the [Formula: see text]-statistic (a.k.a. the "ABBA-BABA test"), have been proposed to infer introgression in the presence of ILS for a four-taxon clade. However, no integrated method exists to detect introgression using allelic patterns for more complex phylogenies. Here we explore the issues associated with previous systems of applying [Formula: see text]-statistics to a larger tree topology, and propose new [Formula: see text] tests as an integrated framework to infer both the taxa involved in and the direction of introgression for a symmetric five-taxon phylogeny. Using theory and simulations, we show that the [Formula: see text] statistics correctly identify the introgression donor and recipient lineages, even at low rates of introgression. [Formula: see text] is also shown to have extremely low false-positive rates. The [Formula: see text] tests are computationally inexpensive to calculate and can easily be applied to phylogenomic data sets, both genome-wide and in windows of the genome. In addition, we explore both the principles and problems of introgression detection in even more complex phylogenies. PMID:25888025

  14. OXYGEN POISONING IN MAMMALS.

    PubMed

    Binger, C A; Faulkner, J M; Moore, R L

    1927-04-30

    1. Oxygen in concentrations of over 70 per cent of an atmosphere is poisonous to dogs, rabbits, guinea pigs and mice. 2. The poisonous effects manifest themselves in drowsiness, anorexia, loss of weight, increasing dyspnea, cyanosis and death from oxygen want. 3. The cause of oxygen want is a destructive lesion of the lungs. 4. The lesion may be characterized grossly as an hemorrhagic edema. Microscopically there is to be seen in varying degrees of intensity (a) capillary engorgement with hemorrhage, (b) the presence of interstitial and intraalveolar serum, (c) hypertrophy and desquamation of alveolar cells, (d) interstitial and alveolar infiltration of mononuclear cells. 5. The type of tissue reaction is not characteristic of an infectious process and no organisms have been recovered at autopsy from the heart's blood or from lung puncture. 6. The poisonous effects of inhalations of oxygen-rich mixtures do not appear to be related to impurities in the oxygen, nor are they related to faulty ventilation, excessive moisture or increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of the chambers in which the experimental animals were confined. PMID:19869294

  15. Dietary characterization of terrestrial mammals.

    PubMed

    Pineda-Munoz, Silvia; Alroy, John

    2014-08-22

    Understanding the feeding behaviour of the species that make up any ecosystem is essential for designing further research. Mammals have been studied intensively, but the criteria used for classifying their diets are far from being standardized. We built a database summarizing the dietary preferences of terrestrial mammals using published data regarding their stomach contents. We performed multivariate analyses in order to set up a standardized classification scheme. Ideally, food consumption percentages should be used instead of qualitative classifications. However, when highly detailed information is not available we propose classifying animals based on their main feeding resources. They should be classified as generalists when none of the feeding resources constitute over 50% of the diet. The term 'omnivore' should be avoided because it does not communicate all the complexity inherent to food choice. Moreover, the so-called omnivore diets actually involve several distinctive adaptations. Our dataset shows that terrestrial mammals are generally highly specialized and that some degree of food mixing may even be required for most species. PMID:25009067

  16. Nomenclature and placental mammal phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    An issue arising from recent progress in establishing the placental mammal Tree of Life concerns the nomenclature of high-level clades. Fortunately, there are now several well-supported clades among extant mammals that require unambiguous, stable names. Although the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature does not apply above the Linnean rank of family, and while consensus on the adoption of competing systems of nomenclature does not yet exist, there is a clear, historical basis upon which to arbitrate among competing names for high-level mammalian clades. Here, we recommend application of the principles of priority and stability, as laid down by G.G. Simpson in 1945, to discriminate among proposed names for high-level taxa. We apply these principles to specific cases among placental mammals with broad relevance for taxonomy, and close with particular emphasis on the Afrotherian family Tenrecidae. We conclude that no matter how reconstructions of the Tree of Life change in years to come, systematists should apply new names reluctantly, deferring to those already published and maximizing consistency with existing nomenclature. PMID:20406454

  17. Dietary characterization of terrestrial mammals

    PubMed Central

    Pineda-Munoz, Silvia; Alroy, John

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the feeding behaviour of the species that make up any ecosystem is essential for designing further research. Mammals have been studied intensively, but the criteria used for classifying their diets are far from being standardized. We built a database summarizing the dietary preferences of terrestrial mammals using published data regarding their stomach contents. We performed multivariate analyses in order to set up a standardized classification scheme. Ideally, food consumption percentages should be used instead of qualitative classifications. However, when highly detailed information is not available we propose classifying animals based on their main feeding resources. They should be classified as generalists when none of the feeding resources constitute over 50% of the diet. The term ‘omnivore’ should be avoided because it does not communicate all the complexity inherent to food choice. Moreover, the so-called omnivore diets actually involve several distinctive adaptations. Our dataset shows that terrestrial mammals are generally highly specialized and that some degree of food mixing may even be required for most species. PMID:25009067

  18. The nocturnal bottleneck and the evolution of activity patterns in mammals.

    PubMed

    Gerkema, Menno P; Davies, Wayne I L; Foster, Russell G; Menaker, Michael; Hut, Roelof A

    2013-08-22

    In 1942, Walls described the concept of a 'nocturnal bottleneck' in placental mammals, where these species could survive only by avoiding daytime activity during times in which dinosaurs were the dominant taxon. Walls based this concept of a longer episode of nocturnality in early eutherian mammals by comparing the visual systems of reptiles, birds and all three extant taxa of the mammalian lineage, namely the monotremes, marsupials (now included in the metatherians) and placentals (included in the eutherians). This review describes the status of what has become known as the nocturnal bottleneck hypothesis, giving an overview of the chronobiological patterns of activity. We review the ecological plausibility that the activity patterns of (early) eutherian mammals were restricted to the night, based on arguments relating to endothermia, energy balance, foraging and predation, taking into account recent palaeontological information. We also assess genes, relating to light detection (visual and non-visual systems) and the photolyase DNA protection system that were lost in the eutherian mammalian lineage. Our conclusion presently is that arguments in favour of the nocturnal bottleneck hypothesis in eutherians prevail. PMID:23825205

  19. Checklist of helminths found in Patagonian wild mammals.

    PubMed

    Fugassa, Martin H

    2015-01-01

    Using available reports, a checklist of the recorded helminth parasites of wild mammals from Patagonia was generated. Records of parasites found in Patagonia were included, together with records from mammals in áreas outside of Patagonia but whose range extends into Patagonia. Information about the host, localities, and references were also included. A total of 1323 records (224 Cestoda, 167 Trematoda, 894 Nematoda, 34 Acanthocephala, and 4 Pentastomida) belonging to 452 helminth species (77 Cestoda, 76 Trematoda, 277 Nematoda, 21 Acanthocephala, and 1 Pentastomida) found in 57 native mammals (22 Rodentia, 4 Didelphimorphia 1 Microbiotheria, 7 Chiroptera, 5 Cingulata, and 13 Carnivora) were listed. However, only 10.6 % of the reports were conducted on samples from Patagonia and corresponded to 25% of mammals in the region. In addition, many studies were made on a few species and, for example, 52% corresponded to studies made on Lama guanicoe. This suggests the need to increase efforts to know the parasitic fauna in a peculiar region as is the Patagonia. This is the first compilation of the helminth parasites of mammals in Argentine Patagonia and is important for parasitological and paleoparasitological studies. PMID:26623857

  20. The Marine Mammal Protection Act at 40: status, recovery, and future of U.S. marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Roman, Joe; Altman, Irit; Dunphy-Daly, Meagan M; Campbell, Caitlin; Jasny, Michael; Read, Andrew J

    2013-05-01

    Passed in 1972, the Marine Mammal Protection Act has two fundamental objectives: to maintain U.S. marine mammal stocks at their optimum sustainable populations and to uphold their ecological role in the ocean. The current status of many marine mammal populations is considerably better than in 1972. Take reduction plans have been largely successful in reducing direct fisheries bycatch, although they have not been prepared for all at-risk stocks, and fisheries continue to place marine mammals as risk. Information on population trends is unknown for most (71%) stocks; more stocks with known trends are improving than declining: 19% increasing, 5% stable, and 5% decreasing. Challenges remain, however, and the act has generally been ineffective in treating indirect impacts, such as noise, disease, and prey depletion. Existing conservation measures have not protected large whales from fisheries interactions or ship strikes in the northwestern Atlantic. Despite these limitations, marine mammals within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone appear to be faring better than those outside, with fewer species in at-risk categories and more of least concern. PMID:23521536

  1. Macrochaete gen. nov. (Nostocales, Cyanobacteria), a taxon morphologically and molecularly distinct from Calothrix.

    PubMed

    Berrendero Gómez, Esther; Johansen, Jeffrey R; Kaštovský, Jan; Bohunická, Markéta; Čapková, Kateřina

    2016-08-01

    Historically, the genus Calothrix included all noncolonial, tapered, heterocytous filaments within the cyanobacteria. However, recent molecular phylogenies show that "Calothrix" defined in this sense represents five distinct clades. The type species of Calothrix is marine, with solitary basal heterocytes, no akinetes, and distal ends tapering abruptly into short hairs. We examined the morphology and phylogeny of 45 tapering cyanobacteria in the Rivulariaceae, including freshwater and marine representatives of both Calothrix (35 strains) and its sister taxon Rivularia (10 strains). The marine Calothrix fall into two lineages, but we lack the generitype and so cannot identify the clade corresponding to the type species. The freshwater and soil Calothrix fall into the C. parietina clade and are characterized by having a basal heterocyte, no akinetes, and gradual tapering-but not into a long hyaline hair. Macrochaete gen. nov. is a freshwater taxon sister to the Calothrix lineages but clearly separated from Rivularia. The species in this genus differ morphologically from Calothrix by their ability to produce two heteromorphic basal heterocytes and specific secondary structures of the 16S-23S ITS. An additional feature present in most species is the presence of a distal, long hyaline hair, but this character has incomplete penetrance due to its expression only under specific environmental conditions (low phosphate), and in one species appears to be lost. We recognize three species: M. psychrophila (type species) from cold environments (high mountains, Antarctica), M. santannae from wet walls of subtropical South America, and M. lichenoides, a phycobiont of lichens from Europe. PMID:27136320

  2. On the Complexity of the Saccharomyces bayanus Taxon: Hybridization and Potential Hybrid Speciation

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Través, Laura; Lopes, Christian A.; Querol, Amparo; Barrio, Eladio

    2014-01-01

    Although the genus Saccharomyces has been thoroughly studied, some species in the genus has not yet been accurately resolved; an example is S. bayanus, a taxon that includes genetically diverse lineages of pure and hybrid strains. This diversity makes the assignation and classification of strains belonging to this species unclear and controversial. They have been subdivided by some authors into two varieties (bayanus and uvarum), which have been raised to the species level by others. In this work, we evaluate the complexity of 46 different strains included in the S. bayanus taxon by means of PCR-RFLP analysis and by sequencing of 34 gene regions and one mitochondrial gene. Using the sequence data, and based on the S. bayanus var. bayanus reference strain NBRC 1948, a hypothetical pure S. bayanus was reconstructed for these genes that showed alleles with similarity values lower than 97% with the S. bayanus var. uvarum strain CBS 7001, and of 99–100% with the non S. cerevisiae portion in S. pastorianus Weihenstephan 34/70 and with the new species S. eubayanus. Among the S. bayanus strains under study, different levels of homozygosity, hybridization and introgression were found; however, no pure S. bayanus var. bayanus strain was identified. These S. bayanus hybrids can be classified into two types: homozygous (type I) and heterozygous hybrids (type II), indicating that they have been originated by different hybridization processes. Therefore, a putative evolutionary scenario involving two different hybridization events between a S. bayanus var. uvarum and unknown European S. eubayanus-like strains can be postulated to explain the genomic diversity observed in our S. bayanus var. bayanus strains. PMID:24705561

  3. On the complexity of the Saccharomyces bayanus taxon: hybridization and potential hybrid speciation.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Través, Laura; Lopes, Christian A; Querol, Amparo; Barrio, Eladio

    2014-01-01

    Although the genus Saccharomyces has been thoroughly studied, some species in the genus has not yet been accurately resolved; an example is S. bayanus, a taxon that includes genetically diverse lineages of pure and hybrid strains. This diversity makes the assignation and classification of strains belonging to this species unclear and controversial. They have been subdivided by some authors into two varieties (bayanus and uvarum), which have been raised to the species level by others. In this work, we evaluate the complexity of 46 different strains included in the S. bayanus taxon by means of PCR-RFLP analysis and by sequencing of 34 gene regions and one mitochondrial gene. Using the sequence data, and based on the S. bayanus var. bayanus reference strain NBRC 1948, a hypothetical pure S. bayanus was reconstructed for these genes that showed alleles with similarity values lower than 97% with the S. bayanus var. uvarum strain CBS 7001, and of 99-100% with the non S. cerevisiae portion in S. pastorianus Weihenstephan 34/70 and with the new species S. eubayanus. Among the S. bayanus strains under study, different levels of homozygosity, hybridization and introgression were found; however, no pure S. bayanus var. bayanus strain was identified. These S. bayanus hybrids can be classified into two types: homozygous (type I) and heterozygous hybrids (type II), indicating that they have been originated by different hybridization processes. Therefore, a putative evolutionary scenario involving two different hybridization events between a S. bayanus var. uvarum and unknown European S. eubayanus-like strains can be postulated to explain the genomic diversity observed in our S. bayanus var. bayanus strains. PMID:24705561

  4. Development of taxon-specific sequences of common wheat for the detection of genetically modified wheat.

    PubMed

    Iida, Mayu; Yamashiro, Satomi; Yamakawa, Hirohito; Hayakawa, Katsuyuki; Kuribara, Hideo; Kodama, Takashi; Furui, Satoshi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Maitani, Tamio; Hino, Akihiro

    2005-08-10

    Qualitative and quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) systems aimed at the specific detection and quantification of common wheat DNA are described. Many countries have issued regulations to label foods that include genetically modified organisms (GMOs). PCR technology is widely recognized as a reliable and useful technique for the qualitative and quantitative detection of GMOs. Detection methods are needed to amplify a target GM gene, and the amplified results should be compared with those of the corresponding taxon-specific reference gene to obtain reliable results. This paper describes the development of a specific DNA sequence in the waxy-D1 gene for common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and the design of a specific primer pair and TaqMan probe on the waxy-D1 gene for PCR analysis. The primers amplified a product (Wx012) of 102 bp. It is indicated that the Wx012 DNA sequence is specific to common wheat, showing homogeneity in qualitative PCR results and very similar quantification accuracy along 19 distantly related common wheat varieties. In Southern blot and real-time PCR analyses, this sequence showed either a single or a low number of copy genes. In addition, by qualitative and quantitative PCR using wx012 primers and a wx012-T probe, the limits of detection of the common wheat genome were found to be about 15 copies, and the reproducibility was reliable. In consequence, the PCR system using wx012 primers and wx012-T probe is considered to be suitable for use as a common wheat-specific taxon-specific reference gene in DNA analyses, including GMO tests. PMID:16076109

  5. Taxon interactions control the distributions of cryoconite bacteria colonizing a High Arctic ice cap.

    PubMed

    Gokul, Jarishma K; Hodson, Andrew J; Saetnan, Eli R; Irvine-Fynn, Tristram D L; Westall, Philippa J; Detheridge, Andrew P; Takeuchi, Nozomu; Bussell, Jennifer; Mur, Luis A J; Edwards, Arwyn

    2016-08-01

    Microbial colonization of glacial ice surfaces incurs feedbacks which affect the melting rate of the ice surface. Ecosystems formed as microbe-mineral aggregates termed cryoconite locally reduce ice surface albedo and represent foci of biodiversity and biogeochemical cycling. Consequently, greater understanding the ecological processes in the formation of functional cryoconite ecosystems upon glacier surfaces is sought. Here, we present the first bacterial biogeography of an ice cap, evaluating the respective roles of dispersal, environmental and biotic filtration occurring at local scales in the assembly of cryoconite microbiota. 16S rRNA gene amplicon semiconductor sequencing of cryoconite colonizing a Svalbard ice cap coupled with digital elevation modelling of physical parameters reveals the bacterial community is dominated by a ubiquitous core of generalist taxa, with evidence for a moderate pairwise distance-decay relationship. While geographic position and melt season duration are prominent among environmental predictors of community structure, the core population of taxa appears highly influential in structuring the bacterial community. Taxon co-occurrence network analysis reveals a highly modular community structured by positive interactions with bottleneck taxa, predominantly Actinobacteria affiliated to isolates from soil humus. In contrast, the filamentous cyanobacterial taxon (assigned to Leptolyngbya/Phormidesmis pristleyi) which dominates the community and binds together granular cryoconite are poorly connected to other taxa. While our study targeted one ice cap, the prominent role of generalist core taxa with close environmental relatives across the global cryosphere indicate discrete roles for cosmopolitan Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria as respective keystone taxa and ecosystem engineers of cryoconite ecosystems colonizing ice caps. PMID:27261672

  6. Problems with the claim of ecotype and taxon status of the wolf in the Great Lakes region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, Matthew A.; Mech, L. David

    2009-01-01

    Koblmuller et al. (2009) analysed molecular genetic data of the wolf in the Great Lakes (GL) region of the USA and concluded that the animal was a unique ecotype of grey wolf and that genetic data supported the population as a discrete wolf taxon. However, some of the literature that the researchers used to support their position actually did not, and additional confusion arises from indefinite use of terminology. Herein, we discuss the problems with designation of a wolf population as a taxon or ecotype without proper definition and assessment of criteria.

  7. Dental eruption in afrotherian mammals

    PubMed Central

    Asher, Robert J; Lehmann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background Afrotheria comprises a newly recognized clade of mammals with strong molecular evidence for its monophyly. In contrast, morphological data uniting its diverse constituents, including elephants, sea cows, hyraxes, aardvarks, sengis, tenrecs and golden moles, have been difficult to identify. Here, we suggest relatively late eruption of the permanent dentition as a shared characteristic of afrotherian mammals. This characteristic and other features (such as vertebral anomalies and testicondy) recall the phenotype of a human genetic pathology (cleidocranial dysplasia), correlations with which have not been explored previously in the context of character evolution within the recently established phylogeny of living mammalian clades. Results Although data on the absolute timing of eruption in sengis, golden moles and tenrecs are still unknown, craniometric comparisons for ontogenetic series of these taxa show that considerable skull growth takes place prior to the complete eruption of the permanent cheek teeth. Specimens showing less than half (sengis, golden moles) or two-thirds (tenrecs, hyraxes) of their permanent cheek teeth reach or exceed the median jaw length of conspecifics with a complete dentition. With few exceptions, afrotherians are closer to median adult jaw length with fewer erupted, permanent cheek teeth than comparable stages of non-afrotherians. Manatees (but not dugongs), elephants and hyraxes with known age data show eruption of permanent teeth late in ontogeny relative to other mammals. While the occurrence of delayed eruption, vertebral anomalies and other potential afrotherian synapomorphies resemble some symptoms of a human genetic pathology, these characteristics do not appear to covary significantly among mammalian clades. Conclusion Morphological characteristics shared by such physically disparate animals such as elephants and golden moles are not easy to recognize, but are now known to include late eruption of permanent teeth, in

  8. A new symmetrodont mammal (Trechnotheria: Zhangheotheriidae) from the Early Cretaceous of China and trechnotherian character evolution.

    PubMed

    Bi, Shundong; Zheng, Xiaoting; Meng, Jin; Wang, Xiaoli; Robinson, Nicole; Davis, Brian

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of Anebodon luoi, a new genus and species of zhangheotheriid symmetrodont mammal from the Lujiatun site of the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation, China. The fossil is represented by an associated partial skull and dentaries with a nearly complete dentition, and with a dental formula of I4/3 C1/1 P5/4 M3/4. This new taxon lacks the high molar count typical of derived symmetrodonts, differing from the well-represented zhangheotheriids Zhangheotherium and Maotherium in having a postcanine dental formula that resembles more primitive tinodontid symmetrodonts on the one hand, and sister taxa to therians such as Peramus on the other. Upper and lower distal premolars are strongly molariform and are captured undergoing replacement, clarifying positional homology among related taxa. We also describe the rostrum and, for the first time in a symmetrodont, much of the orbital mosaic. Importantly, our new taxon occupies a basal position within the Zhangheotheriidae and permits discussion of trechnotherian character evolution, ultimately shedding additional light on the evolution of therians. PMID:27215593

  9. A new symmetrodont mammal (Trechnotheria: Zhangheotheriidae) from the Early Cretaceous of China and trechnotherian character evolution

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Shundong; Zheng, Xiaoting; Meng, Jin; Wang, Xiaoli; Robinson, Nicole; Davis, Brian

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of Anebodon luoi, a new genus and species of zhangheotheriid symmetrodont mammal from the Lujiatun site of the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation, China. The fossil is represented by an associated partial skull and dentaries with a nearly complete dentition, and with a dental formula of I4/3 C1/1 P5/4 M3/4. This new taxon lacks the high molar count typical of derived symmetrodonts, differing from the well-represented zhangheotheriids Zhangheotherium and Maotherium in having a postcanine dental formula that resembles more primitive tinodontid symmetrodonts on the one hand, and sister taxa to therians such as Peramus on the other. Upper and lower distal premolars are strongly molariform and are captured undergoing replacement, clarifying positional homology among related taxa. We also describe the rostrum and, for the first time in a symmetrodont, much of the orbital mosaic. Importantly, our new taxon occupies a basal position within the Zhangheotheriidae and permits discussion of trechnotherian character evolution, ultimately shedding additional light on the evolution of therians. PMID:27215593

  10. Endogenized viral sequences in mammals.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Nicholas F; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2016-06-01

    Reverse-transcribed RNA molecules compose a significant portion of the human genome. Many of these RNA molecules were retrovirus genomes either infecting germline cells or having done so in a previous generation but retaining transcriptional activity. This mechanism itself accounts for a quarter of the genomic sequence information of mammals for which there is data. We understand relatively little about the causes and consequences of retroviral endogenization. This review highlights functions ascribed to sequences of viral origin endogenized into mammalian genomes and suggests some of the most pressing questions raised by these observations. PMID:27128186

  11. Marine mammals of Puerto Rico: a bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, S.F.

    1981-08-01

    This bibliography is the product of a literature survey on marine mammals at a proposed OTEC site near Punta Tuna, Puerto Rico. Included are reports of mammal sightings and strandings from Puerto Rico and adjacent Caribbean islands, reports containing information on distribution and abundance migration routes, and feeding ecology of those species known from the area. A few works on the general biology of marine mammals are also included. 96 references.

  12. Comparison between the antioxidant status of terrestrial and diving mammals.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm Filho, D; Sell, F; Ribeiro, L; Ghislandi, M; Carrasquedo, F; Fraga, C G; Wallauer, J P; Simões-Lopes, P C; Uhart, M M

    2002-11-01

    Many diving mammals are known for their ability to deal with nitrogen supersaturation and to tolerate apnea for extended periods. They are all characterized by high oxygen-carrying capacity in blood together with high oxygen storage in their muscle mass due to large myoglobin concentrations. The above properties theoretically also imply a high tissue antioxidant defenses (AD) to counteract reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation associated with the rapid transition from apnea to reoxygenation. Different enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase), and non-enzymatic (levels of glutathione) AD as well as cellular damage (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances contents, as a measure of lipoperoxidation) were measured in blood samples obtained from anesthetized animals, and also in blood obtained from recently dead diving mammals, and compared to some terrestrial mammals (n=5 in both groups). The results confirmed that diving mammals have, in general, higher antioxidant status compared to non-diving mammals. Apparently, to avoid exposure of tissues to changing high oxygen levels, and therefore to avoid an oxidative stress condition related to antioxidant consumption and increased ROS generation, diving mammals possess constitutive high levels of antioxidants in tissues. These data are in agreement with short-term AD adaptations related to torpor and to animals that experience large daily changes in oxygen consumption. These data are similar to the long-term adaptations of animals that undergo hibernation, estivation, freezing-thawing and dehydration-rehydration processes. In summary, animals that routinely face high changes in oxygen availability and/or consumption seem to show a general strategy to prevent oxidative damage by having either appropriate high constitutive AD and/or the ability to undergo arrested states, where depressed metabolic rates minimize the oxidative challenge. PMID

  13. 78 FR 28411 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Marine Seismic... Marine Seismic Survey in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... occur in the seismic survey area include nine cetacean species, beluga whale (Delphinapterus...

  14. Influence of alternative silviculture on small mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldien, David L.; Hayes, John P.

    2006-01-01

    HIGHLIGHT: A variety of harvest methods promote diversity within forests while still generating income. For example, recent studies have shown that when dead wood is left on the forest floor during harvest, biodiversity increases. A new Cooperative Forest Ecosystem Research (CFER) program fact sheet summarizes how small mammals respond to dead wood in forests that are harvested with alternative methods. CFER is developing a series of fact sheets about responses to changes in young western Oregon forests. The fact sheets are designed to help resource managers balance management needs, including timber and wildlife. The USGS provides a primary source of financial support for CFER, a consortium of federal and state partners conducting research in support of the Northwest Forest Plan.

  15. Mammal extinctions, body size, and paleotemperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bown, T.M.; Holroyd, P.A.; Rose, K.D.

    1994-01-01

    There is a general inverse relationship between the natural logarithm of tooth area (a body size indicator) of some fossil mammals and paleotemperature during approximately 2.9 million years of the early Eocene in the Bighorn Basin of northwest Wyoming. When mean temperatures became warmer, tooth areas tended to become smaller. During colder times, larger species predominated; these generally became larger or remained the same size. Paleotemperature trends also markedly affected patterns of local (and, perhaps, regional) extinction and immigration. New species appeared as immigrants during or near the hottest (smaller forms) and coldest (larger forms) intervals. Paleotemperature trend reversals commonly resulted in the ultimate extinction of both small forms (during cooling intervals) and larger forms (during warming intervals). These immigrations and extinctions mark faunal turnovers that were also modulated by sharp increases in sediment accumulation rate.

  16. The Genome Sequence of Bifidobacterium moukalabense DSM 27321 Highlights the Close Phylogenetic Relatedness with the Bifidobacterium dentium Taxon.

    PubMed

    Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Duranti, Sabrina; Milani, Christian; Turroni, Francesca; Viappiani, Alice; Mangifesta, Marta; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Bifidobacterium moukalabense DSM 27321 is the reference strain for a recently described new bifidobacterial species that has been isolated from a wild west lowland gorilla. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence of DSM 27321, which supports very close phylogenetic relatedness with members of the Bifidobacterium adolescentis phylogenetic group and, in particular, the Bifidobacterium dentium taxon. PMID:24558236

  17. Fatty Acid use in Diving Mammals: More than Merely Fuel

    PubMed Central

    Trumble, Stephen J.; Kanatous, Shane B.

    2012-01-01

    Diving mammals, are under extreme pressure to conserve oxygen as well as produce adequate energy through aerobic pathways during breath-hold diving. Typically a major source of energy, lipids participate in structural and regulatory roles and have an important influence on the physiological functions of an organism. At the stoichiometric level, the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) utilizes less oxygen than metabolizing either monounsaturated fatty acids or saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and yields fewer ATP per same length fatty acid. However, there is evidence that indicates the cellular metabolic rate is directly correlated to the lipid composition of the membranes such that the greater the PUFA concentration in the membranes the greater the metabolic rate. These findings appear to be incompatible with diving mammals that ingest and metabolize high levels of unsaturated fatty acids while relying on stored oxygen. Growing evidence from birds to mammals including recent evidence in Weddell seals also indicates that at the whole animal level the utilization of PUFAs to fuel their metabolism actually conserves oxygen. In this paper, we make an initial attempt to ascertain the beneficial adaptations or limitations of lipids constituents and potential trade-offs in diving mammals. We discuss how changes in Antarctic climate are predicted to have numerous different environmental effects; such potential shifts in the availability of certain prey species or even changes in the lipid composition (increased SFA) of numerous fish species with increasing water temperatures and how this may impact the diving ability of Weddell seals. PMID:22707938

  18. 77 FR 49921 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... from ION Geophysical (ION) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by... comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to ION to take, by harassment, nine species of marine mammals... March 1, 2012, from ION for the taking, by harassment, of marine mammals incidental to a marine...

  19. 50 CFR 216.37 - Marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine mammal parts. 216.37 Section 216... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.37 Marine mammal parts. With respect to marine mammal parts acquired...

  20. 50 CFR 216.37 - Marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine mammal parts. 216.37 Section 216... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.37 Marine mammal parts. With respect to marine mammal parts acquired...

  1. 50 CFR 216.37 - Marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine mammal parts. 216.37 Section 216... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.37 Marine mammal parts. With respect to marine mammal parts acquired...

  2. 50 CFR 216.83 - Importation of birds or mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Importation of birds or mammals. 216.83... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.83 Importation of birds or mammals. No mammals or...

  3. 50 CFR 216.37 - Marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine mammal parts. 216.37 Section 216.37..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.37 Marine mammal parts. With respect to marine mammal parts acquired by take...

  4. 50 CFR 216.83 - Importation of birds or mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Importation of birds or mammals. 216.83... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.83 Importation of birds or mammals. No mammals or...

  5. 50 CFR 216.37 - Marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine mammal parts. 216.37 Section 216.37..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.37 Marine mammal parts. With respect to marine mammal parts acquired by take...

  6. 50 CFR 216.83 - Importation of birds or mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Importation of birds or mammals. 216.83... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.83 Importation of birds or mammals. No mammals or...

  7. 50 CFR 216.83 - Importation of birds or mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Importation of birds or mammals. 216.83... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.83 Importation of birds or mammals. No mammals or...

  8. 50 CFR 216.83 - Importation of birds or mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Importation of birds or mammals. 216.83... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.83 Importation of birds or mammals. No mammals or...

  9. Report on marine mammal stranding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) released a report on 27 April indicating that U.S. Navy sonar transmissions may have played a role in the stranding of more than 150 melon-headed whales on 3 July 2004 off the coast of Kauai, Hawaii. At the time of the stranding, which resulted in one whale death, the Navy was preparing to conduct sonar activities as part of a military exercise. The report notes that six naval surface vessels transiting to the area on the previous night intermittenly transmitted mid-frequency active sonar. That activity is ``a plausible, if not likely, contributing factor'' to the stranding event. There was no significant weather, natural oceanographic event, or known biological factors that would explain the animals' movement into the bay nor the group's continued presence in the bay, according to report lead author Teri Rowles, NOAA marine mammal veterinarian.

  10. MARINE MAMMAL DISEASES: PATHOGENS AND PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this chapter is to provide a concise overview of the pathogens and processes that alter the health of marine mammals. Viral disease is the most common etiology of significant mortality events in marine mammals. Discussion of viral disease focuses on effects in the ...

  11. Single-taxon field measurements of bacterial gene regulation controlling DMSP fate.

    PubMed

    Varaljay, Vanessa A; Robidart, Julie; Preston, Christina M; Gifford, Scott M; Durham, Bryndan P; Burns, Andrew S; Ryan, John P; Marin, Roman; Kiene, Ronald P; Zehr, Jonathan P; Scholin, Christopher A; Moran, Mary Ann

    2015-07-01

    The 'bacterial switch' is a proposed regulatory point in the global sulfur cycle that routes dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) to two fundamentally different fates in seawater through genes encoding either the cleavage or demethylation pathway, and affects the flux of volatile sulfur from ocean surface waters to the atmosphere. Yet which ecological or physiological factors might control the bacterial switch remains a topic of considerable debate. Here we report the first field observations of dynamic changes in expression of DMSP pathway genes by a single marine bacterial species in its natural environment. Detection of taxon-specific gene expression in Roseobacter species HTCC2255 during a month-long deployment of an autonomous ocean sensor in Monterey Bay, CA captured in situ regulation of the first gene in each DMSP pathway (dddP and dmdA) that corresponded with shifts in the taxonomy of the phytoplankton community. Expression of the demethylation pathway was relatively greater during a high-DMSP-producing dinoflagellate bloom, and expression of the cleavage pathway was greater in the presence of a mixed diatom and dinoflagellate community [corrected].These field data fit the prevailing hypothesis for bacterial DMSP gene regulation based on bacterial sulfur demand, but also suggest a modification involving oxidative stress response, evidenced as upregulation of catalase via katG, when DMSP is demethylated. PMID:25700338

  12. Taxon-specific PCR for DNA barcoding arthropod prey in bat faeces.

    PubMed

    Zeale, Matt R K; Butlin, Roger K; Barker, Gary L A; Lees, David C; Jones, Gareth

    2011-03-01

    The application of DNA barcoding to dietary studies allows prey taxa to be identified in the absence of morphological evidence and permits a greater resolution of prey identity than is possible through direct examination of faecal material. For insectivorous bats, which typically eat a great diversity of prey and which chew and digest their prey thoroughly, DNA-based approaches to diet analysis may provide the only means of assessing the range and diversity of prey within faeces. Here, we investigated the effectiveness of DNA barcoding in determining the diets of bat species that specialize in eating different taxa of arthropod prey. We designed and tested a novel taxon-specific primer set and examined the performance of short barcode sequences in resolving prey species. We recovered prey DNA from all faecal samples and subsequent cloning and sequencing of PCR products, followed by a comparison of sequences to a reference database, provided species-level identifications for 149/207 (72%) clones. We detected a phylogenetically broad range of prey while completely avoiding detection of nontarget groups. In total, 37 unique prey taxa were identified from 15 faecal samples. A comparison of DNA data with parallel morphological analyses revealed a close correlation between the two methods. However, the sensitivity and taxonomic resolution of the DNA method were far superior. The methodology developed here provides new opportunities for the study of bat diets and will be of great benefit to the conservation of these ecologically important predators. PMID:21429129

  13. Single-taxon field measurements of bacterial gene regulation controlling DMSP fate

    PubMed Central

    Varaljay, Vanessa A; Robidart, Julie; Preston, Christina M; Gifford, Scott M; Durham, Bryndan P; Burns, Andrew S; Ryan, John P; Marin III, Roman; Kiene, Ronald P; Zehr, Jonathan P; Scholin, Christopher A; Ann Moran, Mary

    2015-01-01

    The ‘bacterial switch' is a proposed regulatory point in the global sulfur cycle that routes dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) to two fundamentally different fates in seawater through genes encoding either the cleavage or demethylation pathway, and affects the flux of volatile sulfur from ocean surface waters to the atmosphere. Yet which ecological or physiological factors might control the bacterial switch remains a topic of considerable debate. Here we report the first field observations of dynamic changes in expression of DMSP pathway genes by a single marine bacterial species in its natural environment. Detection of taxon-specific gene expression in Roseobacter species HTCC2255 during a month-long deployment of an autonomous ocean sensor in Monterey Bay, CA captured in situ regulation of the first gene in each DMSP pathway (dddP and dmdA) that corresponded with shifts in the taxonomy of the phytoplankton community. Expression of the cleavage pathway was relatively greater during a high-DMSP-producing dinoflagellate bloom, and expression of the demethylation pathway was greater in the presence of a mixed diatom and dinoflagellate community. These field data fit the prevailing hypothesis for bacterial DMSP gene regulation based on bacterial sulfur demand, but also suggest a modification involving oxidative stress response, evidenced as upregulation of catalase via katG, when DMSP is demethylated. PMID:25700338

  14. Negevirus: a Proposed New Taxon of Insect-Specific Viruses with Wide Geographic Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Vasilakis, Nikos; Forrester, Naomi L.; Palacios, Gustavo; Nasar, Farooq; Savji, Nazir; Rossi, Shannan L.; Guzman, Hilda; Wood, Thomas G.; Popov, Vsevolod; Gorchakov, Rodion; González, Ana Vázquez; Haddow, Andrew D.; Watts, Douglas M.; da Rosa, Amelia P. A. Travassos; Weaver, Scott C.; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2013-01-01

    Six novel insect-specific viruses, isolated from mosquitoes and phlebotomine sand flies collected in Brazil, Peru, the United States, Ivory Coast, Israel, and Indonesia, are described. Their genomes consist of single-stranded, positive-sense RNAs with poly(A) tails. By electron microscopy, the virions appear as spherical particles with diameters of ∼45 to 55 nm. Based on their genome organization and phylogenetic relationship, the six viruses, designated Negev, Ngewotan, Piura, Loreto, Dezidougou, and Santana, appear to form a new taxon, tentatively designated Negevirus. Their closest but still distant relatives are citrus leposis virus C (CiLV-C) and viruses in the genus Cilevirus, which are mite-transmitted plant viruses. The negeviruses replicate rapidly and to high titer (up to 1010 PFU/ml) in mosquito cells, producing extensive cytopathic effect and plaques, but they do not appear to replicate in mammalian cells or mice. A discussion follows on their possible biological significance and effect on mosquito vector competence for arboviruses. PMID:23255793

  15. Negevirus: a proposed new taxon of insect-specific viruses with wide geographic distribution.

    PubMed

    Vasilakis, Nikos; Forrester, Naomi L; Palacios, Gustavo; Nasar, Farooq; Savji, Nazir; Rossi, Shannan L; Guzman, Hilda; Wood, Thomas G; Popov, Vsevolod; Gorchakov, Rodion; González, Ana Vázquez; Haddow, Andrew D; Watts, Douglas M; da Rosa, Amelia P A Travassos; Weaver, Scott C; Lipkin, W Ian; Tesh, Robert B

    2013-03-01

    Six novel insect-specific viruses, isolated from mosquitoes and phlebotomine sand flies collected in Brazil, Peru, the United States, Ivory Coast, Israel, and Indonesia, are described. Their genomes consist of single-stranded, positive-sense RNAs with poly(A) tails. By electron microscopy, the virions appear as spherical particles with diameters of ∼45 to 55 nm. Based on their genome organization and phylogenetic relationship, the six viruses, designated Negev, Ngewotan, Piura, Loreto, Dezidougou, and Santana, appear to form a new taxon, tentatively designated Negevirus. Their closest but still distant relatives are citrus leposis virus C (CiLV-C) and viruses in the genus Cilevirus, which are mite-transmitted plant viruses. The negeviruses replicate rapidly and to high titer (up to 10(10) PFU/ml) in mosquito cells, producing extensive cytopathic effect and plaques, but they do not appear to replicate in mammalian cells or mice. A discussion follows on their possible biological significance and effect on mosquito vector competence for arboviruses. PMID:23255793

  16. A New Taxon of Basal Ceratopsian from China and the Early Evolution of Ceratopsia.

    PubMed

    Han, Fenglu; Forster, Catherine A; Clark, James M; Xu, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Ceratopsia is one of the best studied herbivorous ornithischian clades, but the early evolution of Ceratopsia, including the placement of Psittacosaurus, is still controversial and unclear. Here, we report a second basal ceratopsian, Hualianceratops wucaiwanensis gen. et sp. nov., from the Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian) Shishugou Formation of the Junggar Basin, northwestern China. This new taxon is characterized by a prominent caudodorsal process on the subtemporal ramus of the jugal, a robust quadrate with an expansive quadratojugal facet, a prominent notch near the ventral region of the quadrate, a deep and short dentary, and strongly rugose texturing on the lateral surface of the dentary. Hualianceratops shares several derived characters with both Psittacosaurus and the basal ceratopsians Yinlong, Chaoyangsaurus, and Xuanhuaceratops. A new comprehensive phylogeny of ceratopsians weakly supports both Yinlong and Hualianceratops as chaoyangsaurids (along with Chaoyangsaurus and Xuanhuaceratops), as well as the monophyly of Chaoyangosauridae + Psittacosaurus. This analysis also weakly supports the novel hypothesis that Chaoyangsauridae + Psittacosaurus is the sister group to the rest of Neoceratopsia, suggesting a basal split between these clades before the Late Jurassic. This phylogeny and the earliest Late Jurassic age of Yinlong and Hualianceratops imply that at least five ceratopsian lineages (Yinlong, Hualianceratops, Chaoyangsaurus + Xuanhuaceratops, Psittacosaurus, Neoceratopsia) were present at the beginning of the Late Jurassic. PMID:26649770

  17. Biological richness of a large urban cemetery in Berlin. Results of a multi-taxon approach

    PubMed Central

    Blick, Theo; Hannig, Karsten; Kowarik, Ingo; Lemke, Andreas; Otte, Volker; Scharon, Jens; Schönhofer, Axel; Teige, Tobias; von der Lippe, Moritz; Seitz, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Urban green spaces can harbor a considerable species richness of plants and animals. A few studies on single species groups indicate important habitat functions of cemeteries, but this land use type is clearly understudied compared to parks. Such data are important as they (i) illustrate habitat functions of a specific, but ubiquitous urban land-use type and (ii) may serve as a basis for management approaches. New information We sampled different groups of plants and animals in the Weißensee Jewish Cemetery in Berlin (WJC) which is one of the largest Jewish cemeteries in Europe. With a total of 608 species of plants and animals, this first multi-taxon survey revealed a considerable biological richness in the WJC. In all, 363 wild-growing vascular plant, 72 lichen and 26 bryophyte taxa were recorded. The sampling also yielded 34 bird and 5 bat species as well as 39 ground beetle, 5 harvestman and 64 spider species. Some species are new records for Berlin. PMID:27099549

  18. A New Taxon of Basal Ceratopsian from China and the Early Evolution of Ceratopsia

    PubMed Central

    Han, Fenglu; Forster, Catherine A.; Clark, James M.; Xu, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Ceratopsia is one of the best studied herbivorous ornithischian clades, but the early evolution of Ceratopsia, including the placement of Psittacosaurus, is still controversial and unclear. Here, we report a second basal ceratopsian, Hualianceratops wucaiwanensis gen. et sp. nov., from the Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian) Shishugou Formation of the Junggar Basin, northwestern China. This new taxon is characterized by a prominent caudodorsal process on the subtemporal ramus of the jugal, a robust quadrate with an expansive quadratojugal facet, a prominent notch near the ventral region of the quadrate, a deep and short dentary, and strongly rugose texturing on the lateral surface of the dentary. Hualianceratops shares several derived characters with both Psittacosaurus and the basal ceratopsians Yinlong, Chaoyangsaurus, and Xuanhuaceratops. A new comprehensive phylogeny of ceratopsians weakly supports both Yinlong and Hualianceratops as chaoyangsaurids (along with Chaoyangsaurus and Xuanhuaceratops), as well as the monophyly of Chaoyangosauridae + Psittacosaurus. This analysis also weakly supports the novel hypothesis that Chaoyangsauridae + Psittacosaurus is the sister group to the rest of Neoceratopsia, suggesting a basal split between these clades before the Late Jurassic. This phylogeny and the earliest Late Jurassic age of Yinlong and Hualianceratops imply that at least five ceratopsian lineages (Yinlong, Hualianceratops, Chaoyangsaurus + Xuanhuaceratops, Psittacosaurus, Neoceratopsia) were present at the beginning of the Late Jurassic. PMID:26649770

  19. The first multituberculate mammal from India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmar, Varun; Prasad, Guntupalli V. R.; Kumar, Deepak

    2013-06-01

    Mesozoic deposits of the former Gondwanaland are depauperate in early mammals, in general, and multituberculate mammals, in particular. Until now, the oldest multituberculate mammals known from the Gondwanan continents come from the Early Cretaceous of Morocco, NW Africa. Here, we report the presence of a new multituberculate mammal, Indobaatar zofiae gen. et sp. nov., from the Lower/Middle Jurassic Kota Formation, Pranhita-Godavari valley in peninsular India. This is the first record of a multituberculate from the Mesozoic rocks of India and possibly predates the oldest known multituberculates from Gondwanan continents. The new specimen, representing an upper premolar (P4), compares well with the upper premolar morphology of Eobaatariinae multituberculates known from the Early Cretaceous of Mongolia, China, England, and Spain. Together with the recent findings of cimolodontan multituberculates from the Early Cretaceous of Australia and Late Cretaceous of South America, the new discovery indicates a wide temporal and spatial distribution for multituberculate mammals in the former Gondwanaland.

  20. The inner ear of Diacodexis, the oldest artiodactyl mammal

    PubMed Central

    Orliac, M J; Benoit, J; O'Leary, M A

    2012-01-01

    We provide the first detailed description of the inner ear of the oldest artiodactyl, Diacodexis, based on a three-dimensional reconstruction extracted from computed tomography imagery of a skull of Diacodexis ilicis of earliest Wasatchian age (ca. 55 Ma). This description provides new anatomical data for the earliest artiodactyls, and reveals that the bony labyrinth of Diacodexis differs greatly from that of modern artiodactyls described so far. The bony labyrinth of Diacodexis presents a weakly coiled cochlea (720 °), a secondary common crus, a dorsal extension of the anterior semicircular canal more pronounced than that of the posterior one, and a small angle between the basal turn of the bony cochlear canal and the lateral semicircular canal. This suite of characters also occurs in basal eutherian mammals. Diacodexis strongly resembles small living tragulid ruminants in its overall body shape and hindlimb proportions. Comparison of the bony labyrinth of Diacodexis to that of the tragulid Moschiola meminna (Indian mouse deer) reveals great morphological difference in cochlear shape and semicircular canal disposition. The shape of the cochlea suggests that Diacodexis was a high-frequency hearing specialist, with a high low-frequency hearing limit (543 Hz at 60 dB). By comparison, the estimated low-frequency limit of Moschiola meminna is much lower (186.0 Hz at 60 dB). We also assess the locomotor agility of Diacodexis based on measurements of the semicircular canals. Locomotor agility estimates for Diacodexis range between 3.62 and 3.93, and suggest a degree of agility compatible with a nimble, fast running to jumping animal. These results are congruent with the postcranial functional analysis for this extinct taxon. PMID:22938073

  1. Limits to captive breeding of mammals in zoos.

    PubMed

    Alroy, John

    2015-06-01

    Captive breeding of mammals in zoos is the last hope for many of the best-known endangered species and has succeeded in saving some from certain extinction. However, the number of managed species selected is relatively small and focused on large-bodied, charismatic mammals that are not necessarily under strong threat and not always good candidates for reintroduction into the wild. Two interrelated and more fundamental questions go unanswered: have the major breeding programs succeeded at the basic level of maintaining and expanding populations, and is there room to expand them? I used published counts of births and deaths from 1970 to 2011 to quantify rates of growth of 118 captive-bred mammalian populations. These rates did not vary with body mass, contrary to strong predictions made in the ecological literature. Most of the larger managed mammalian populations expanded consistently and very few programs failed. However, growth rates have declined dramatically. The decline was predicted by changes in the ratio of the number of individuals within programs to the number of mammal populations held in major zoos. Rates decreased as the ratio of individuals in programs to populations increased. In other words, most of the programs that could exist already do exist. It therefore appears that debates over the general need for captive-breeding programs and the best selection of species are moot. Only a concerted effort could create room to manage a substantially larger number of endangered mammals. PMID:25736919

  2. A new perspective on adiposity in a naturally obese mammal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, R. M.; Noren, D. P.; Litz, B.; Ortiz, C. L.

    2001-01-01

    Many mammals seasonally reduce body fat due to inherent periods of fasting, which is associated with decreased leptin concentrations. However, no data exist on the correlation between fat mass (FM) and circulating leptin in marine mammals, which have evolved large fat stores as part of their adaptation to periods of prolonged fasting. Therefore, FM was estimated (by tritiated water dilution), and serum leptin and cortisol were measured in 40 northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups early (<1 wk postweaning) and late (6-8 wk postweaning) during their natural, postweaning fast. Body mass (BM) and FM were reduced late; however, percent FM (early: 43.9 +/- 0.5, late: 45.5 +/- 0.5%) and leptin [early: 2.9 +/- 0.1 ng/ml human equivalents (HE), late: 3.0 +/- 0.1 ng/ml HE] did not change. Cortisol increased between early (9.2 +/- 0.5 microg/dl) and late (16.3 +/- 0.9 microg/dl) periods and was significantly and negatively correlated with BM (r = 0.426; P < 0.0001) and FM (r = 0.328; P = 0.003). FM and percent FM were not correlated (P > 0.10) with leptin at either period. The present study suggests that these naturally obese mammals appear to possess a novel cascade for regulating body fat that includes cortisol. The lack of a correlation between leptin and FM may reflect the different functions of fat between terrestrial and marine mammals.

  3. Immunotoxic effects of environmental pollutants in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre W; Sonne, Christian; Levin, Milton; Siebert, Ursula; De Guise, Sylvain; Dietz, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Due to their marine ecology and life-history, marine mammals accumulate some of the highest levels of environmental contaminants of all wildlife. Given the increasing prevalence and severity of diseases in marine wildlife, it is imperative to understand how pollutants affect the immune system and consequently disease susceptibility. Advancements and adaptations of analytical techniques have facilitated marine mammal immunotoxicology research. Field studies, captive-feeding experiments and in vitro laboratory studies with marine mammals have associated exposure to environmental pollutants, most notable polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals, to alterations of both the innate and adaptive arms of immune systems, which include aspects of cellular and humoral immunity. For marine mammals, reported immunotoxicology endpoints fell into several major categories: immune tissue histopathology, haematology/circulating immune cell populations, functional immune assays (lymphocyte proliferation, phagocytosis, respiratory burst, and natural killer cell activity), immunoglobulin production, and cytokine gene expression. Lymphocyte proliferation is by far the most commonly used immune assay, with studies using different organic pollutants and metals predominantly reporting immunosuppressive effects despite the many differences in study design and animal life history. Using combined field and laboratory data, we determined effect threshold levels for suppression of lymphocyte proliferation to be between b0.001-10 ppm for PCBs, 0.002-1.3 ppm for Hg, 0.009-0.06 for MeHg, and 0.1-2.4 for cadmium in polar bears and several pinniped and cetacean species. Similarly, thresholds for suppression of phagocytosis were 0.6-1.4 and 0.08-1.9 ppm for PCBs and mercury, respectively. Although data are lacking for many important immune endpoints and mechanisms of specific immune alterations are not well understood, this review revealed a systemic suppression of

  4. NITROGEN OUTPUTS OF SMALL MAMMALS FROM FECAL AND URINE DEPOSITION: IMPLICATIONS FOR NITROGEN CYCLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of small mammals in nitrogen cycling is poorly understood and could have reverberations back to the producer community by maintaining or even magnifying increased nitrogen availability. Our objective was to model nitrogen outputs (deposition of feces and urine) ...

  5. Implications of invasion by Juniperus virginiana on small mammals in the southern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horncastle, V.J.; Hellgren, E.C.; Mayer, P.M.; Ganguli, A.C.; Engle, David M.; Leslie, David M., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Changes in landscape cover in the Great Plains are resulting from the range expansion and invasion of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana). By altering the landscape and local vegetation, red cedar is changing the structure and function of habitat for small mammals. We examined effects of invasion by eastern red cedar on small mammals in 3 plant communities (tallgrass prairie, old field, and cross-timbers forest) in the cross-timbers ecoregion in Oklahoma. We sampled small mammals seasonally from May 2001 to August 2002 by using Sherman live traps and mark-recapture techniques on 3.24-ha, 450-trap grids in each plant community. We sampled vegetation in two hundred twenty-five 12 x 12-m cells within each grid. The structure of the small-mammal community differed among the 3 habitat types, with higher species diversity and richness in the tallgrass-prairie and old-field sites. Overall, the small-mammal community shifted along a gradient of increasing eastern red cedar. In the old-field and tallgrass-prairie plots, occurrence of grassland mammals decreased with increasing red cedar, whereas only 1 woodland mammal species increased. In the cross-timbers forest site, percent woody cover (<1 m in height), rather than cover of red cedar, was the most important factor affecting woodland mammal species. Examination of our data suggests that an increase in overstory cover from 0% to 30% red cedar can change a species-rich prairie community to a depauperate community dominated by 1 species, Peromyscus leucopus. Losses in species diversity and changes in mammal distribution paralleled those seen in avian communities invaded by eastern red cedar. Our results highlight ecological effects of invasion by eastern red cedar on diversity and function at multiple trophic levels. ?? 2005 American Society of Mammalogists.

  6. The predictability of extinction: biological and external correlates of decline in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Cardillo, Marcel; Mace, Georgina M; Gittleman, John L; Jones, Kate E; Bielby, Jon; Purvis, Andy

    2008-01-01

    Extinction risk varies among species, and comparative analyses can help clarify the causes of this variation. Here we present a phylogenetic comparative analysis of species-level extinction risk across nearly the whole of the class Mammalia. Our aims were to examine systematically the degree to which general predictors of extinction risk can be identified, and to investigate the relative importance of different types of predictors (life history, ecological, human impact and environmental) in determining extinction risk. A single global model explained 27.3% of variation in mammal extinction risk, but explanatory power was lower for region-specific models (median R2=0.248) and usually higher for taxon-specific models (median R2=0.383). Geographical range size, human population density and latitude were the most consistently significant predictors of extinction risk, but otherwise there was little evidence for general, prescriptive indicators of high extinction risk across mammals. Our results therefore support the view that comparative models of relatively narrow taxonomic scope are likely to be the most precise. PMID:18367443

  7. Reconsidering the evolution of brain, cognition, and behavior in birds and mammals

    PubMed Central

    Willemet, Romain

    2013-01-01

    Despite decades of research, some of the most basic issues concerning the extraordinarily complex brains and behavior of birds and mammals, such as the factors responsible for the diversity of brain size and composition, are still unclear. This is partly due to a number of conceptual and methodological issues. Determining species and group differences in brain composition requires accounting for the presence of taxon-cerebrotypes and the use of precise statistical methods. The role of allometry in determining brain variables should be revised. In particular, bird and mammalian brains appear to have evolved in response to a variety of selective pressures influencing both brain size and composition. “Brain” and “cognition” are indeed meta-variables, made up of the variables that are ecologically relevant and evolutionarily selected. External indicators of species differences in cognition and behavior are limited by the complexity of these differences. Indeed, behavioral differences between species and individuals are caused by cognitive and affective components. Although intra-species variability forms the basis of species evolution, some of the mechanisms underlying individual differences in brain and behavior appear to differ from those between species. While many issues have persisted over the years because of a lack of appropriate data or methods to test them; several fallacies, particularly those related to the human brain, reflect scientists' preconceptions. The theoretical framework on the evolution of brain, cognition, and behavior in birds and mammals should be reconsidered with these biases in mind. PMID:23847570

  8. The use of seismic signals by fossorial southern African mammals: a neuroethological gold mine.

    PubMed

    Narins, P M; Lewis, E R; Jarvis, J J; O'Riain, J

    1997-01-01

    Behavioral adaptations exhibited by two African fossorial mammals for the reception of vibrational signals are discussed. The Namib Desert golden mole (Eremitalpa granti namibensis) is a functionally blind, nocturnal insectivore in the family Chrysochloridae that surface forages nightly in the Namib desert. Both geophone and microphone recordings in the substrate suggest that the golden mole is able to detect termite colonies and other prey items solely using seismic cues. This animal exhibits a hypertrophied malleus, an adaptation favoring detection of low-frequency signals. In a field study of the Cape mole-rat (Georychus capensis), a subterranean rodent in the family Bathyergidae, both seismic and auditory signals were tested for their propagation characteristics. This solitary animal is entirely fossorial and apparently communicates with its conspecifics by drumming its hind legs on the burrow floor. Auditory signals attenuate rapidly in the substrate, whereas vibratory signals generated in one burrow are easily detectable in neighboring burrows. The sensitivity to substrate vibrations in two orders of burrowing mammals suggests that this sense is likely to be widespread within this taxon and may serve as a neuroethological model for understanding the evolution of vibrational communication. Neuroethological implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:9365810

  9. Reconsidering the evolution of brain, cognition, and behavior in birds and mammals.

    PubMed

    Willemet, Romain

    2013-01-01

    Despite decades of research, some of the most basic issues concerning the extraordinarily complex brains and behavior of birds and mammals, such as the factors responsible for the diversity of brain size and composition, are still unclear. This is partly due to a number of conceptual and methodological issues. Determining species and group differences in brain composition requires accounting for the presence of taxon-cerebrotypes and the use of precise statistical methods. The role of allometry in determining brain variables should be revised. In particular, bird and mammalian brains appear to have evolved in response to a variety of selective pressures influencing both brain size and composition. "Brain" and "cognition" are indeed meta-variables, made up of the variables that are ecologically relevant and evolutionarily selected. External indicators of species differences in cognition and behavior are limited by the complexity of these differences. Indeed, behavioral differences between species and individuals are caused by cognitive and affective components. Although intra-species variability forms the basis of species evolution, some of the mechanisms underlying individual differences in brain and behavior appear to differ from those between species. While many issues have persisted over the years because of a lack of appropriate data or methods to test them; several fallacies, particularly those related to the human brain, reflect scientists' preconceptions. The theoretical framework on the evolution of brain, cognition, and behavior in birds and mammals should be reconsidered with these biases in mind. PMID:23847570

  10. 76 FR 3615 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14259

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ..., receive, possess, analyze, and archive marine mammal parts for scientific research. DATES: Written... requesting authorization to import, export, receive, possess, analyze and archive marine mammal...

  11. A new phylogeny of the Cephalaspidea (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia) based on expanded taxon sampling and gene markers.

    PubMed

    Oskars, Trond R; Bouchet, Philippe; Malaquias, Manuel António E

    2015-08-01

    The Cephalaspidea is a diverse marine clade of euthyneuran gastropods with many groups still known largely from shells or scant anatomical data. The definition of the group and the relationships between members has been hampered by the difficulty of establishing sound synapomorphies, but the advent of molecular phylogenetics is helping to change significantly this situation. Yet, because of limited taxon sampling and few genetic markers employed in previous studies, many questions about the sister relationships and monophyletic status of several families remained open. In this study 109 species of Cephalaspidea were included covering 100% of traditional family-level diversity (12 families) and 50% of all genera (33 genera). Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetics analyses based on two mitochondrial (COI, 16S rRNA) and two nuclear gene markers (28S rRNA and Histone-3) were used to infer the relationships of Cephalaspidea. The monophyly of the Cephalaspidea was confirmed. The families Cylichnidae, Diaphanidae, Haminoeidae, Philinidae, and Retusidae were found non-monophyletic. This result suggests that the family level taxonomy of the Cephalaspidea warrants a profound revision and several new family and genus names are required to reflect the new phylogenetic hypothesis presented here. We propose a new classification of the Cephalaspidea including five new families (Alacuppidae, Colinatydidae, Colpodaspididae, Mnestiidae, Philinorbidae) and one new genus (Alacuppa). Two family names (Acteocinidae, Laonidae) and two genera (Laona, Philinorbis) are reinstated as valid. An additional lineage with family rank (Philinidae "Clade 4") was unravelled, but no genus and species names are available to reflect the phylogeny and formal description will take place elsewhere. PMID:25916189

  12. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma cirsii', a novel taxon from creeping thistle [Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop].

    PubMed

    Šafárová, Dana; Zemánek, Tomáš; Válová, Pavla; Navrátil, Milan

    2016-04-01

    Creeping thistle [Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.] and dahlia (Dahlia sp.) plants showing typical symptoms of phytoplasma infection including yellowing, stunting, inflorescence and proliferation, were sampled; the presence of phytoplasma was confirmed by standard PCR using universal primers. RFLP analysis allowed classification of the detected phytoplasma strains CirYS, CirYS1 and DahlP within the 16SrXI group, the unique restriction profile F2nR2 fragment obtained in silico by iPhyClassifier indicated that they belong to the new 16SrXI-E subgroup. Genetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that the studied strains shared less than 97.5% similarity with all of the previously described 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' species. The closest relatives are 'Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis' and 'Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae' with 96.8% and 96.6% similarity. All strains studied bear three specific regions in the 16S rRNA gene, discriminating them from the other phytoplasma species. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA and secA genes confirmed this specificity, as the creeping thistle and dahlia phytoplasma strains clustered in a distinguishable lineage group. The uniqueness of the genetic analysis agrees with the biological characterization of the studied phytoplasma strains, their host range, and geographical distribution. The strains only infect dicotyledonous plants in Europe, contrary to their closest relatives. Based on their unique properties, it could be concluded that the studied phytoplasma strains represent a discrete group that is proposed as a novel taxon 'Candidatus Phytoplasma cirsii', with strain CirYS as a reference strain. PMID:26849880

  13. Two new cytotypes reinforce that Micronycteris hirsuta Peters, 1869 does not represent a monotypic taxon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The genus Micronycteris is a diverse group of phyllostomid bats currently comprising 11 species, with diploid number (2n) ranging from 26 to 40 chromosomes. The karyotypic relationships within Micronycteris and between Micronycteris and other phyllostomids remain poorly understood. The karyotype of Micronycteris hirsuta is of particular interest: three different diploid numbers were reported for this species in South and Central Americas with 2n = 26, 28 and 30 chromosomes. Although current evidence suggests some geographic differentiation among populations of M. hirsuta based on chromosomal, morphological, and nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, the recognition of new species or subspecies has been avoided due to the need for additional data, mainly chromosomal data. Results We describe two new cytotypes for Micronycteris hirsuta (MHI) (2n = 26 and 25, NF = 32), whose differences in diploid number are interpreted as the products of Robertsonian rearrangements. C-banding revealed a small amount of constitutive heterochromatin at the centromere and the NOR was located in the interstitial portion of the short arm of a second pair, confirmed by FISH. Telomeric probes hybridized to the centromeric regions and weakly to telomeric regions of most chromosomes. The G-banding analysis and chromosome painting with whole chromosome probes from Carollia brevicauda (CBR) and Phyllostomus hastatus (PHA) enabled the establishment of genome-wide homologies between MHI, CBR and PHA. Conclusions The karyotypes of Brazilian specimens of Micronycteris hirsuta described here are new to Micronycteris and reinforce that M. hirsuta does not represent a monotypic taxon. Our results corroborate the hypothesis of karyotypic megaevolution within Micronycteris, and strong evidence for this is that the entire chromosome complement of M. hirsuta was shown to be derivative with respect to species compared in this study. PMID:24359225

  14. Marine mammals from the Miocene of Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhen, Mark D.; Coates, Anthony G.; Jaramillo, Carlos A.; Montes, Camilo; Pimiento, Catalina; Rincon, Aldo; Strong, Nikki; Velez-Juarbe, Jorge

    2010-12-01

    Panama has produced an abundance of Neogene marine fossils both invertebrate (mollusks, corals, microfossils etc.) and vertebrate (fish, land mammals etc.), but marine mammals have not been previously reported. Here we describe a cetacean thoracic vertebra from the late Miocene Tobabe Formation, a partial cetacean rib from the late Miocene Gatun Formation, and a sirenian caudal vertebra and rib fragments from the early Miocene Culebra Formation. These finds suggest that Central America may yet provide additional fossil marine mammal specimens that will help us to understand the evolution, and particularly the biogeography of these groups.

  15. Habitat patterns in a small mammal community

    SciTech Connect

    Kitchings, J.T.; Levy, D.J.

    1981-11-01

    Microhabitat relationships between four sympatric small mammal species (Peromyscus leucopus, Ochrotomys nuttalli, Blarina brevicauda, and Tamias striatus) were examined to determine if their discriminant analysis of small mammal habitat represented a unique habitat utilization pattern for a specific small mammal community. The authors concluded that habitat is only one of many dimensions to be considered when studying the interactions of sympatric species. Reproductive strategy, activity patterns, and other factors make up the n-dimensional hyperspace of an animal's niche. Thus differences in habitat usage alone cannot be used to determine niche overlap and competition between species. (JMT)

  16. Multiple Continental Radiations and Correlates of Diversification in Lupinus (Leguminosae): Testing for Key Innovation with Incomplete Taxon Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Christopher S.; Eastwood, Ruth J.; Miotto, Silvia T. S.; Hughes, Colin E.

    2012-01-01

    Replicate radiations provide powerful comparative systems to address questions about the interplay between opportunity and innovation in driving episodes of diversification and the factors limiting their subsequent progression. However, such systems have been rarely documented at intercontinental scales. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis of multiple radiations in the genus Lupinus (Leguminosae), which exhibits some of the highest known rates of net diversification in plants. Given that incomplete taxon sampling, background extinction, and lineage-specific variation in diversification rates can confound macroevolutionary inferences regarding the timing and mechanisms of cladogenesis, we used Bayesian relaxed clock phylogenetic analyses as well as MEDUSA and BiSSE birth–death likelihood models of diversification, to evaluate the evolutionary patterns of lineage accumulation in Lupinus. We identified 3 significant shifts to increased rates of net diversification (r) relative to background levels in the genus (r = 0.18–0.48 lineages/myr). The primary shift occurred approximately 4.6 Ma (r = 0.48–1.76) in the montane regions of western North America, followed by a secondary shift approximately 2.7 Ma (r = 0.89–3.33) associated with range expansion and diversification of allopatrically distributed sister clades in the Mexican highlands and Andes. We also recovered evidence for a third independent shift approximately 6.5 Ma at the base of a lower elevation eastern South American grassland and campo rupestre clade (r = 0.36–1.33). Bayesian ancestral state reconstructions and BiSSE likelihood analyses of correlated diversification indicated that increased rates of speciation are strongly associated with the derived evolution of perennial life history and invasion of montane ecosystems. Although we currently lack hard evidence for “replicate adaptive radiations” in the sense of convergent morphological and ecological trajectories among species in different

  17. Passive electroreception in aquatic mammals.

    PubMed

    Czech-Damal, Nicole U; Dehnhardt, Guido; Manger, Paul; Hanke, Wolf

    2013-06-01

    Passive electroreception is a sensory modality in many aquatic vertebrates, predominantly fishes. Using passive electroreception, the animal can detect and analyze electric fields in its environment. Most electric fields in the environment are of biogenic origin, often produced by prey items. These electric fields can be relatively strong and can be a highly valuable source of information for a predator, as underlined by the fact that electroreception has evolved multiple times independently. The only mammals that possess electroreception are the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and the echidnas (Tachyglossidae) from the monotreme order, and, recently discovered, the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) from the cetacean order. Here we review the morphology, function and origin of the electroreceptors in the two aquatic species, the platypus and the Guiana dolphin. The morphology shows certain similarities, also similar to ampullary electroreceptors in fishes, that provide cues for the search for electroreceptors in more vertebrate and invertebrate species. The function of these organs appears to be very similar. Both species search for prey animals in low-visibility conditions or while digging in the substrate, and sensory thresholds are within one order of magnitude. The electroreceptors in both species are innervated by the trigeminal nerve. The origin of the accessory structures, however, is completely different; electroreceptors in the platypus have developed from skin glands, in the Guiana dolphin, from the vibrissal system. PMID:23187861

  18. Running and Breathing in Mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

  19. Impacts of roads and hunting on central African rainforest mammals.

    PubMed

    Laurance, William E; Croes, Barbara M; Tchignoumba, Landry; Lahm, Sally A; Alonso, Alfonso; Lee, Michelle E; Campbell, Patrick; Ondzeano, Claude

    2006-08-01

    Road expansion and associated increases in bunting pressure are a rapidly growing threat to African tropical wildlife. In the rainforests of southern Gabon, we compared abundances of larger (>1 kg) mammal species at varying distances from forest roads and between hunted and unhunted treatments (comparing a 130-km2 oil concession that was almost entirely protected from bunting with nearby areas outside the concession that had moderate hunting pressure). At each of 12 study sites that were evenly divided between hunted and unhunted areas, we established standardized 1-km transects at five distances (50, 300, 600, 900, and 1200 m) from an unpaved road, and then repeatedly surveyed mammals during the 2004 dry and wet seasons. Hunting had the greatest impact on duikers (Cephalophus spp.), forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus), and red river hogs (Potamochoerus porcus), which declined in abundance outside the oil concession, and lesser effects on lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and carnivores. Roads depressed abundances of duikers, sitatungas (Tragelaphus spekei gratus), and forest elephants (Loxondonta africana cyclotis), with avoidance of roads being stronger outside than inside the concession. Five monkey species showed little response to roads or hunting, whereas some rodents and pangolins increased in abundance outside the concession, possibly in response to greater forest disturbance. Our findings suggest that even moderate hunting pressure can markedly alter the structure of mammal communities in central Africa. Roads had the greatest impacts on large and small ungulates, with the magnitude of road avoidance increasing with local hunting pressure. PMID:16922241

  20. Microparasites and Placental Invasiveness in Eutherian Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Capellini, Isabella; Nunn, Charles L.; Barton, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Placental invasiveness—the number of maternal tissue layers separating fetal tissues from maternal blood—is variable across mammalian species. Although this diversity is likely to be functionally important, variation in placental invasiveness remains unexplained. Here we test the hypothesis that increased risk of transplacental transmission of pathogens from the mother to the fetus promotes the evolution of non-invasive placentation, the most likely derived condition in eutherian mammals. Specifically, we predict that non-invasive placentation is associated with increased microparasite species richness relative to more invasive placental types, based on the assumption that higher numbers of microparasites in a population reflects greater risk of transplacental transmission to fetuses. As predicted, higher bacteria species richness is associated with non-invasive placentation. Protozoa species richness, however, shows the opposite pattern. Because invasive placentae facilitate the transfer of maternal antibodies to the fetus, we propose that the ancestral condition of invasive placentation is retained under selection for protection of newborns from higher risk of postnatal protozoan infection. Hence, our findings suggest that a tradeoff exists between protection against bacterial infection prenatally and protozoan infection postnatally. Future studies are needed to investigate how maternal prevalence of infection and the relative pre- versus postnatal risk of fetal infection by different microparasite groups vary among mammalian hosts in relation to placental invasiveness. PMID:26168031

  1. Central control of thermogenesis in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Shaun F.; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Madden, Christopher J.

    2008-01-01

    Thermogenesis, the production of heat energy, is an essential component of the homeostatic repertoire to maintain body temperature in mammals and birds during the challenge of low environmental temperature and plays a key role in elevating body temperature during the febrile response to infection. The primary sources of neurally regulated metabolic heat production are mitochondrial oxidation in brown adipose tissue, increases in heart rate and shivering in skeletal muscle. Thermogenesis is regulated in each of these tissues by parallel networks in the central nervous system, which respond to feedforward afferent signals from cutaneous and core body thermoreceptors and to feedback signals from brain thermosensitive neurons to activate the appropriate sympathetic and somatic efferents. This review summarizes the research leading to a model of the feedforward reflex pathway through which environmental cold stimulates thermogenesis and discusses the influence on this thermoregulatory network of the pyrogenic mediator, prostaglandin E2, to increase body temperature. The cold thermal afferent circuit from cutaneous thermal receptors ascends via second-order thermosensory neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord to activate neurons in the lateral parabrachial nucleus, which drive GABAergic interneurons in the preoptic area to inhibit warm-sensitive, inhibitory output neurons of the preoptic area. The resulting disinhibition of thermogenesis-promoting neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus and possibly of sympathetic and somatic premotor neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla, including the raphe pallidus, activates excitatory inputs to spinal sympathetic and somatic motor circuits to drive thermogenesis. PMID:18469069

  2. A Mesozoic gliding mammal from northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jin; Hu, Yaoming; Wang, Yuanqing; Wang, Xiaolin; Li, Chuankui

    2006-12-14

    Gliding flight has independently evolved many times in vertebrates. Direct evidence of gliding is rare in fossil records and is unknown in mammals from the Mesozoic era. Here we report a new Mesozoic mammal from Inner Mongolia, China, that represents a previously unknown group characterized by a highly specialized insectivorous dentition and a sizable patagium (flying membrane) for gliding flight. The patagium is covered with dense hair and supported by an elongated tail and limbs; the latter also bear many features adapted for arboreal life. This discovery extends the earliest record of gliding flight for mammals to at least 70 million years earlier in geological history, and demonstrates that early mammals were diverse in their locomotor strategies and lifestyles; they had experimented with an aerial habit at about the same time as, if not earlier than, when birds endeavoured to exploit the sky. PMID:17167478

  3. How do food passage rate and assimilation differ between herbivorous lizards and nonruminant mammals?

    PubMed

    Karasov, W H; Petrossian, E; Rosenberg, L; Diamond, J M

    1986-01-01

    What digestive adaptations permit herbivorous nonruminant mammals to sustain much higher metabolic rates than herbivorous lizards, despite gross similarity in digestive anatomy and physiology? We approached this question by comparing four herbivorous species eating the same diet of alfalfa pellets: two lizards (chuckwalla and desert iugana) and two mammals (desert woodrat and laboratory mouse). The mammals had longer small and large intestines, greater intestinal surface area, much higher (by an order of magnitude) food intake normalized to metabolic live mass, and much faster food passage times (a few hours instead of a few days). Among both reptiles and mammals, passage times increase with body size and are longer for herbivores than for carnivores. The herbivorous lizards, despite these much slower passage times, had slightly lower apparent digestive efficiencies than the mammals. At least for chuckwallas, this difference from mammals was not due to differences in body temperature regime. Comparisons of chuckwallas and woodrats in their assimilation of various dietary components showed that the woodrat's main advantage lay in greater assimilation of the dietary fiber fraction. Woodrats achieved greater fiber digestion despite shorter residence time, but possibly because of a larger fermentation chamber, coprophagy, and/or different conditions for microbial fermentation. We conclude with a comparative overview of digestive function in herbivorous lizards and mammals, and with a list of four major unsolved questions. PMID:3734193

  4. Mammals of Red Slough Wildlife Management Area, with comments on McCurtain County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roehrs, Zachary P.; Lack, Justin B.; Stanley, Craig E., Jr.; Seiden, Christopher J.; Bastarache, Robert; Arbour, W. David; Hamilton, Meredith J.; Leslie,, David M., Jr.; Van Den Bussche, Ronald A.

    2012-01-01

    Red Slough Wildlife Management Area (RSWMA) is located in the southeastern corner of Oklahoma, McCurtain County, and represents the extreme northwestern extent of the South Central Plains (SCP) ecoregion. Previous mammal research in southeastern Oklahoma has focused mostly on the Ouachita Mountains to the north of RSWMA. As a result, of the 69 species of mammals potentially occurring in McCurtain County, only 48 species represented by 599 voucher specimens reside in natural history collections. We present results from a mammal survey of RSWMA conducted from December 2009 to August 2010. We captured 574 non-volant small mammals in 9,115 trap-nights, 11 bats in 17 net-nights, and seven salvaged meso-mammals resulting in 157 voucher specimens of 22 mammal species, including the first specimen of Castor canadensis for McCurtain County, and photographic vouchers for eight additional species from RSWMA. These results provide a baseline for future studies on RSWMA and substantially increase our natural history knowledge for many relatively under-studied mammals in southeastern Oklahoma

  5. Negative Effects of an Exotic Grass Invasion on Small-Mammal Communities

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Eric D.; Sharp, Tiffanny R.; Larsen, Randy T.; Knight, Robert N.; Slater, Steven J.; McMillan, Brock R.

    2014-01-01

    Exotic invasive species can directly and indirectly influence natural ecological communities. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) is non-native to the western United States and has invaded large areas of the Great Basin. Changes to the structure and composition of plant communities invaded by cheatgrass likely have effects at higher trophic levels. As a keystone guild in North American deserts, granivorous small mammals drive and maintain plant diversity. Our objective was to assess potential effects of invasion by cheatgrass on small-mammal communities. We sampled small-mammal and plant communities at 70 sites (Great Basin, Utah). We assessed abundance and diversity of the small-mammal community, diversity of the plant community, and the percentage of cheatgrass cover and shrub species. Abundance and diversity of the small-mammal community decreased with increasing abundance of cheatgrass. Similarly, cover of cheatgrass remained a significant predictor of small-mammal abundance even after accounting for the loss of the shrub layer and plant diversity, suggesting that there are direct and indirect effects of cheatgrass. The change in the small-mammal communities associated with invasion of cheatgrass likely has effects through higher and lower trophic levels and has the potential to cause major changes in ecosystem structure and function. PMID:25269073

  6. Negative effects of an exotic grass invasion on small-mammal communities.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Eric D; Sharp, Tiffanny R; Larsen, Randy T; Knight, Robert N; Slater, Steven J; McMillan, Brock R

    2014-01-01

    Exotic invasive species can directly and indirectly influence natural ecological communities. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) is non-native to the western United States and has invaded large areas of the Great Basin. Changes to the structure and composition of plant communities invaded by cheatgrass likely have effects at higher trophic levels. As a keystone guild in North American deserts, granivorous small mammals drive and maintain plant diversity. Our objective was to assess potential effects of invasion by cheatgrass on small-mammal communities. We sampled small-mammal and plant communities at 70 sites (Great Basin, Utah). We assessed abundance and diversity of the small-mammal community, diversity of the plant community, and the percentage of cheatgrass cover and shrub species. Abundance and diversity of the small-mammal community decreased with increasing abundance of cheatgrass. Similarly, cover of cheatgrass remained a significant predictor of small-mammal abundance even after accounting for the loss of the shrub layer and plant diversity, suggesting that there are direct and indirect effects of cheatgrass. The change in the small-mammal communities associated with invasion of cheatgrass likely has effects through higher and lower trophic levels and has the potential to cause major changes in ecosystem structure and function. PMID:25269073

  7. Deconstructing mammal dispersals and faunal dynamics in SW Europe during the Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palombo, Maria Rita

    2014-07-01

    This research aims to investigate the relationships between climate change and faunal dynamics in south-west Europe, disentangling the asynchronous and diachronous dispersal bioevents of large mammals across geographical and ecological boundaries, analysing biodiversity and its changes through time. The analysis of local versus regional biological dynamics may shed new light on whether turnovers and ecological and evolutionary changes developed because of global climate changes and related phenomena, or because of intrinsic biological factors. The SW European Quaternary fossil record is particularly suitable for studying the role of climate change at local and regional levels because of the complex physiographic and climatic heterogeneity of the study area, the presence of important geographical/ecological barriers and the complex history of invasions of species of varying geographical origin and provenance. The data base consists of taxonomically revised lists of large mammal species from selected SW European local faunal assemblages ranging in age from the Early to the late Middle Pleistocene (middle Villafranchian to early Aurelian European Land Mammal Ages). The new biochronological scheme proposed here allows for the comparison of local turnovers and biodiversity trends, yielding a better understanding of the action of geographical/ecological barriers that either prevented the range of some taxa from reaching some regions or caused delays in the dispersal of a taxon in some territories. The results obtained provide evidence that major environmental perturbations, triggering dispersal events and removing keystone species, modified the structure of the pre-existing mammalian faunas, merging previously independently-evolved taxa into new palaeo-communities. The coupled action of climatic changes and internal biotic dynamics thus caused the Quaternary SW European faunal complexes to significantly restructure. Diachroneity in local turnover across the study area

  8. Video Otoscopy in Exotic Companion Mammals.

    PubMed

    Jekl, Vladimir; Hauptman, Karel; Knotek, Zdenek

    2015-09-01

    Ear disease is a common disorder seen in exotic companion mammals, especially in ferrets, rabbits, and rats. This article describes patient preparation, equipment, and video otoscopy technique in exotic companion mammals. This noninvasive technique facilitates accurate diagnosis of diseases affecting the external ear canal or middle ear. Moreover, therapeutic otoscopic evaluation of the external ear facilitates foreign body removal, external ear canal flushing, intralesional drug administration, myringotomy, and middle ear cavity flushing. PMID:26117517

  9. Climate change and seasonal reproduction in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Bronson, F. H.

    2009-01-01

    Seasonal reproduction is common among mammals at all latitudes, even in the deep tropics. This paper (i) discusses the neuroendocrine pathways via which foraging conditions and predictive cues such as photoperiod enforce seasonality, (ii) considers the kinds of seasonal challenges mammals actually face in natural habitats, and (iii) uses the information thus generated to suggest how seasonal reproduction might be influenced by global climate change. Food availability and ambient temperature determine energy balance, and variation in energy balance is the ultimate cause of seasonal breeding in all mammals and the proximate cause in many. Photoperiodic cueing is common among long-lived mammals from the highest latitudes down to the mid-tropics. It is much less common in shorter lived mammals at all latitudes. An unknown predictive cue triggers reproduction in some desert and dry grassland species when it rains. The available information suggests that as our climate changes the small rodents of the world may adapt rather easily but the longer lived mammals whose reproduction is regulated by photoperiod may not do so well. A major gap in our knowledge concerns the tropics; that is where most species live and where we have the least understanding of how reproduction is regulated by environmental factors. PMID:19833645

  10. A Jurassic mammal from South America.

    PubMed

    Rauhut, Oliver W M; Martin, Thomas; Ortiz-Jaureguizar, Edgardo; Puerta, Pablo

    2002-03-14

    The Jurassic period is an important stage in early mammalian evolution, as it saw the first diversification of this group, leading to the stem lineages of monotremes and modern therian mammals. However, the fossil record of Jurassic mammals is extremely poor, particularly in the southern continents. Jurassic mammals from Gondwanaland are so far only known from Tanzania and Madagascar, and from trackway evidence from Argentina. Here we report a Jurassic mammal represented by a dentary, which is the first, to our knowledge, from South America. The tiny fossil from the Middle to Late Jurassic of Patagonia is a representative of the recently termed Australosphenida, a group of mammals from Gondwanaland that evolved tribosphenic molars convergently to the Northern Hemisphere Tribosphenida, and probably gave rise to the monotremes. Together with other mammalian evidence from the Southern Hemisphere, the discovery of this new mammal indicates that the Australosphenida had diversified and were widespread in Gondwanaland well before the end of the Jurassic, and that mammalian faunas from the Southern Hemisphere already showed a marked distinction from their northern counterparts by the Middle to Late Jurassic. PMID:11894091

  11. Species longevity in North American fossil mammals.

    PubMed

    Prothero, Donald R

    2014-08-01

    Species longevity in the fossil record is related to many paleoecological variables and is important to macroevolutionary studies, yet there are very few reliable data on average species durations in Cenozoic fossil mammals. Many of the online databases (such as the Paleobiology Database) use only genera of North American Cenozoic mammals and there are severe problems because key groups (e.g. camels, oreodonts, pronghorns and proboscideans) have no reliable updated taxonomy, with many invalid genera and species and/or many undescribed genera and species. Most of the published datasets yield species duration estimates of approximately 2.3-4.3 Myr for larger mammals, with small mammals tending to have shorter species durations. My own compilation of all the valid species durations in families with updated taxonomy (39 families, containing 431 genera and 998 species, averaging 2.3 species per genus) yields a mean duration of 3.21 Myr for larger mammals. This breaks down to 4.10-4.39 Myr for artiodactyls, 3.14-3.31 Myr for perissodactyls and 2.63-2.95 Myr for carnivorous mammals (carnivorans plus creodonts). These averages are based on a much larger, more robust dataset than most previous estimates, so they should be more reliable for any studies that need species longevity to be accurately estimated. PMID:25236413

  12. Asymmetric hybridization in Rhododendron agastum: a hybrid taxon comprising mainly F1s in Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Zha, Hong-Guang; Milne, Richard I.; Sun, Hang

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Rhododendron (Ericaceae) is a large woody genus in which hybridization is thought to play an important role in evolution and speciation, particularly in the Sino-Himalaya region where many interfertile species often occur sympatrically. Rhododendron agastum, a putative hybrid species, occurs in China, western Yunnan Province, in mixed populations with R. irroratum and R. delavayi. Methods Material of these taxa from two sites 400 km apart (ZhuJianYuan, ZJY and HuaDianBa, HDB) was examined using cpDNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) loci, to test the possibility that R. agastum was in fact a hybrid between two of the other species. Chloroplast trnL-F and trnS-trnG sequences together distinguished R. irroratum, R. delavayi and some material of R. decorum, which is also considered a putative parent of R. agastum. Key Results All 14 R. agastum plants from the HDB site had the delavayi cpDNA haplotype, whereas at the ZJY site 17 R. agastum plants had this haplotype and four had the R. irroratum haplotype. R. irroratum and R. delavayi are distinguished by five unequivocal point mutations in their ITS sequences; every R. agastum accession had an additive pattern (double peaks) at each of these sites. Data from AFLP loci were acquired for between ten and 21 plants of each taxon from each site, and were analysed using a Bayesian approach implemented by the program NewHybrids. The program confirmed the identity of all accessions of R. delavayi, and all R. irroratum except one, which was probably a backcross. All R. agastum from HDB and 19 of 21 from ZJY were classified as F1 hybrids; the other two could not be assigned a class. Conclusions Rhododendron agastum represents populations of hybrids between R. irroratum and R. delavayi, which comprise mostly or only F1s, at the two sites examined. The sites differ in that at HDB there was no detected variation in cpDNA type or hybrid class

  13. Snake mitochondrial genomes: phylogenetic relationships and implications of extended taxon sampling for interpretations of mitogenomic evolution

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    alethinophidians. Conclusions Mitochondrial gene sequence data alone may not be able to robustly resolve basal divergences among alethinophidian snakes. Taxon sampling plays an important role in identifying mitogenomic evolutionary events within snakes, and in testing hypotheses explaining their origin. Dramatic rate shifts in mitogenomic evolution occur within Scolecophidia as well as Alethinophidia, thus falsifying the hypothesis that these shifts in snakes are associated exclusively with evolution of a non-burrowing lifestyle, macrostomatan feeding ecology and/or duplication of the control region, both restricted to alethinophidians among living snakes. PMID:20055998

  14. Enamel structure in some therapsids and mesozoic mammals.

    PubMed

    Osborn, J W; Hillman, J

    1979-11-01

    The distribution of enamel tubules, the shapes and arrangements of prisms, and the orientation of crystals in ground sections from several therapsids and mesozoic mammals have been investigated by conventional and polarizing microscopy. Along each of three separate phylogenetic lines which evolved occluding teeth, there was a progressive increase in the numbers of enamel tubules. In the investigation, the arcade-shaped prisms typical of recent mammals were first seen in material from the Cretaceous period. All the enamels investigated from the Triassic contained columns of crystals, which were deduced as hexagonal. The inner ends of the crystals within each column deviated towards the center of the column. It is concluded that the existence of an interprismatic region provides the most important distinction between prismatic enamels and the hexagonal columns of crystals in the Triassic material. PMID:116744

  15. The evolution of acoustic size exaggeration in terrestrial mammals.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Benjamin D; Reby, David

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that some mammals possess adaptations that enable them to produce vocal signals with much lower fundamental frequency (F0) and formant frequency spacing (ΔF) than expected for their size. Although these adaptations are assumed to reflect selection pressures for males to lower frequency components and exaggerate body size in reproductive contexts, this hypothesis has not been tested across a broad range of species. Here we show that male terrestrial mammals produce vocal signals with lower ΔF (but not F0) than expected for their size in mating systems with greater sexual size dimorphism. We also reveal that males produce calls with higher than expected F0 and ΔF in species with increased sperm competition. This investigation confirms that sexual selection favours the use of ΔF as an acoustic size exaggerator and supports the notion of an evolutionary trade-off between pre-copulatory signalling displays and sperm production. PMID:27598835

  16. Wet mammals shake at tuned frequencies to dry

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Andrew K.; Mills, Zachary G.; Hu, David L.

    2012-01-01

    In cold wet weather, mammals face hypothermia if they cannot dry themselves. By rapidly oscillating their bodies, through a process similar to shivering, furry mammals can dry themselves within seconds. We use high-speed videography and fur particle tracking to characterize the shakes of 33 animals (16 animals species and five dog breeds), ranging over four orders of magnitude in mass from mice to bears. We here report the power law relationship between shaking frequency f and body mass M to be f ∼ M−0.22, which is close to our prediction of f ∼ M−0.19 based upon the balance of centrifugal and capillary forces. We also observe a novel role for loose mammalian dermal tissue: by whipping around the body, it increases the speed of drops leaving the animal and the ensuing dryness relative to tight dermal tissue. PMID:22904256

  17. Stress physiology in marine mammals: how well do they fit the terrestrial model?

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Shannon; Crocker, Daniel; Houser, Dorian; Mashburn, Kendall

    2015-07-01

    Stressors are commonly accepted as the causal factors, either internal or external, that evoke physiological responses to mediate the impact of the stressor. The majority of research on the physiological stress response, and costs incurred to an animal, has focused on terrestrial species. This review presents current knowledge on the physiology of the stress response in a lesser studied group of mammals, the marine mammals. Marine mammals are an artificial or pseudo grouping from a taxonomical perspective, as this group represents several distinct and diverse orders of mammals. However, they all are fully or semi-aquatic animals and have experienced selective pressures that have shaped their physiology in a manner that differs from terrestrial relatives. What these differences are and how they relate to the stress response is an efflorescent topic of study. The identification of the many facets of the stress response is critical to marine mammal management and conservation efforts. Anthropogenic stressors in marine ecosystems, including ocean noise, pollution, and fisheries interactions, are increasing and the dramatic responses of some marine mammals to these stressors have elevated concerns over the impact of human-related activities on a diverse group of animals that are difficult to monitor. This review covers the physiology of the stress response in marine mammals and places it in context of what is known from research on terrestrial mammals, particularly with respect to mediator activity that diverges from generalized terrestrial models. Challenges in conducting research on stress physiology in marine mammals are discussed and ways to overcome these challenges in the future are suggested. PMID:25913694

  18. Absorption and ocular deposition of dietary lutein in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Koutsos, Elizabeth A; Schmitt, Todd; Colitz, Carmen M H; Mazzaro, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Cataracts and ocular disease are common lesions of marine mammals in zoological collections. Lutein, an oxygenated carotenoid, may have therapeutic or prophylactic effects on ocular disorder. Therefore, this study examined the ability of marine mammals to absorb dietary lutein. Two preliminary trials examined lutein in two forms (beadlet or ester) in a small sample size of marine mammals representing pinnipeds and cetaceans. Lutein was fed daily in tablets providing 0.89-3.6 mg lutein/kg body weight(0.75) per day for 15 days to 2 years. A third study was conducted using lutein beadlet fed at 3.6 mg lutein/kg body weight(0.75) per day for 15-21 days. Blood was analyzed for lutein pre- and postsupplementation. In the preliminary trials, lutein beadlet was observed to result in greater blood lutein levels than lutein esters, and cetaceans had more noticeable responses than pinnipeds. In Study 3, serum lutein and zeaxanthin increased postsupplementation in beluga whales (P < 0.05), and serum lutein tended to increase postsupplementation in dolphins (P < 0.10), but little change was seen in serum lutein in pinnipeds or manatee. Opportunistic retinal samples demonstrated some detectable lutein in the retina of a dolphin and several harp seals. The lutein levels in dolphins after supplementation are similar to those reported in free-ranging animals. Ocular lutein in harp seals demonstrates that ocular deposition occurs despite low circulating lutein levels. PMID:22753123

  19. Corridors and olfactory predator cues affect small mammal behavior.

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkerhoff, Robert Jory; Haddad, Nick M.; Orrock, John L.

    2005-03-30

    Abstract The behavior of prey individuals is influenced by a variety of factors including, but not limited to, habitat configuration, risk of predation, and availability of resources, and these habitat-dependent factors may have interactive effects. We studied the responses of mice to an increase in perceived predation risk in a patchy environment to understand how habitat corridors might affect interactions among species in a fragmented landscape. We used a replicated experiment to investigate corridor-mediated prey responses to predator cues in a network of open habitat patches surrounded by a matrix of planted pine forest. Some of the patches were connected by corridors. We used mark–recapture techniques and foraging trays to monitor the movement, behavior, and abundance of small mammals. Predation threat was manipulated in one-half of the replicates by applying an olfactory predator cue. Corridors synchronized small mammal foraging activity among connected patches. Foraging also was inhibited in the presence of an olfactory predator cue but apparently increased in adjacent connected patches. Small mammal abundance did not change as a result of the predator manipulation and was not influenced by the presence of corridors. This study is among the 1st to indicate combined effects of landscape configuration and predation risk on prey behavior. These changes in prey behavior may, in turn, have cascading effects on community dynamics where corridors and differential predation risk influence movement and patch use.

  20. Isotope analyses of fossil small mammals in karstic sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Alix, Antonio; Delgado Huertas, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Fossil skeletal accumulations in kartstic complexes, such as caves, are quite common, especially during the Pliocene and Quaternary. These fossil assemblages are sometimes difficult to study, as specimens from different ages can be found together (time averaging). The traditional approach to study this kind of paleontological sites was taphonomic (understanding the origin and other factors affecting the bone accumulation) and/or taxonomic (systematic description of the remains). However, other kinds of analyses, such as biogeochemical techniques to reconstruct past diets and environments, are being more frequently used. Small-mammals have a wide geographical distribution, and their remains (bones and teeth) are extensively represented in the fossil record; therefore, isotopic analyses in fossil small-mammals are a powerful tool to reconstruct paleoenvironments. Field samples for small-mammal studies yield large amounts of sediment-residues that need to be reduced in the laboratory (usually by means of diluted hydrochloric or acetic acid). Therefore, samples of fossil small-mammal for isotopic analyses usually receive two different acid treatments: one to reduce the carbonate residue of the sediment, and afterwards another one to remove digenetic carbonates from the ground sample. Those treatments, along with the small size of the remains, may increase the probability of chemical fractionation during those pre-treatment stages. Those acid treatments are even more aggressive in kasrtic fossil localities, as limestone has to be dissolved to extract the small mammal remains. In this abstract, we present the results of two different treatments carried out in limestone from the Pliocene karstic locality of Moreda (Guadix Basin, Spain) and a control sample. One batch of samples were treated with a solution of 1M acetic acid-acetate calcium buffer (ph 4,5), and the rest with diluted acetic acid (at 15% concentration, Ph 2,2), which is the most used to reduce the sediments

  1. Adult neurogenesis and reproductive functions in mammals.

    PubMed

    Migaud, Martine; Butruille, Lucile; Duittoz, Anne; Pillon, Delphine; Batailler, Martine

    2016-07-01

    During adulthood, the mammalian brain retains the capacity to generate new cells and new neurons in particular. It is now well established that the birth of these new neurons occurs in well-described sites: the hippocampus and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle, as well as in other brain regions including the hypothalamus. In this review, we describe the canonical neurogenic niches and illustrate the functional relevance of adult-born neurons of each neurogenic niche in the reproductive physiology. More specifically, we highlight the effect of reproductive social stimuli on the neurogenic processes and conversely, the contributions of adult-born neurons to the reproductive physiology and behavior. We next review the recent discovery of a novel neurogenic niche located in the hypothalamus and the median eminence and the compelling evidence of the link existing between the new-born hypothalamic neurons and the regulation of metabolism. In addition, new perspectives on the possible involvement of hypothalamic neurogenesis in the control of photoperiodic reproductive physiology in seasonal mammals are discussed. Altogether, the studies highlighted in this review demonstrate the potential role of neurogenesis in reproductive function and emphasize the importance of increasing our knowledge on the regulation processes and the physiological relevance of these adult-born neurons. This constitutes a necessary step toward a potential manipulation of these plasticity mechanisms. PMID:27177964

  2. Apparatus for enhancing tissue repair in mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Parker, Clayton R. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    An apparatus is disclosed for enhancing tissue repair in mammals, with the apparatus comprising: a sleeve for encircling a portion of a mammalian body part, said sleeve comprising an electrically conductive coil capable of generating an electromagnetic field when an electrical current is applied thereto, means for supporting the sleeve on the mammalian body part; and means for supplying the electrically conductive coil with a square wave time varying electrical current sufficient to create a time varying electromagnetic force of from approximately 0.05 gauss to 0.05 gauss within the interior of the coil in order that when the sleeve is placed on a mammalian body part and the time varying electromagnetic force of from approximately 0.05 gauss to 0.05 gauss is generated on the mammalian body part for an extended period of time, tissue regeneration within the mammalian body part is increased to a rate in excess of the normal tissue regeneration rate that would occur without application of the time varying electromagnetic force.

  3. Effects of corridors on home range sizes and interpatch movements of three small mammal species.

    SciTech Connect

    Mabry, Karen, E.; Barrett, Gary, W.

    2002-04-30

    Mabry, K.E., and G.W. Barrett. 2002. Effects of corridors on home range sizes and interpatch movements of three small mammal species. Landscape Ecol. 17:629-636. Corridors are predicted to benefit populations in patchy habitats by promoting movement, which should increase population densities, gene flow, and recolonization of extinct patch populations. However, few investigators have considered use of the total landscape, particularly the possibility of interpatch movement through matrix habitat, by small mammals. This study compares home range sizes of 3 species of small mammals, the cotton mouse, old field mouse and cotton rat between patches with and without corridors. Corridor presence did not have a statistically significant influence on average home range size. Habitat specialization and sex influenced the probability of an individual moving between 2 patches without corridors. The results of this study suggest that small mammals may be more capable of interpatch movement without corridors than is frequently assumed.

  4. 76 FR 68973 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ...NMFS received an application from Shell Offshore Inc. (Shell) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the Beaufort Sea, Alaska. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to Shell to take, by......

  5. 78 FR 12541 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ...NMFS received an application from ConocoPhillips Company (COP) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to COP to take, by......

  6. 75 FR 25729 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ...NMFS received an application from Shell Offshore Inc. (Shell) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to Shell to take, by......

  7. 75 FR 20481 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ...NMFS received an application from Shell Offshore Inc. (Shell) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the Beaufort Sea, Alaska. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to Shell to take, by......

  8. 76 FR 62778 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ...In accordance with the regulations implementing the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) as amended, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to the Northeast Gateway[supreg] Energy BridgeTM L.P. (Northeast Gateway or NEG) to incidentally harass, by Level B harassment only, small numbers of marine mammals during operation of an......

  9. 75 FR 49709 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to Shell Offshore Inc. (Shell) to take, by harassment, small numbers of 8 species of marine mammals incidental to a marine survey program, which includes site clearance and shallow hazards, ice gouge, and strudel scour surveys,......

  10. 76 FR 69957 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ...NMFS received an application from Shell Offshore Inc. (Shell) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to Shell to take, by......

  11. 78 FR 37209 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC564 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Marine Seismic Survey in the Beaufort Sea,...

  12. 78 FR 25703 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Fisheries Research

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Fisheries Research AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... to take small numbers of marine mammals incidental to conducting fisheries research, over the course... their fisheries research. A copy of the draft EA, which would also support our proposed rulemaking...

  13. 78 FR 64918 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... to PISCO to take marine mammals incidental to these same proposed activities (77 FR 72327, December 5... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC893 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; proposed incidental harassment...

  14. 78 FR 77433 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... to PISCO to take marine mammals incidental to these same proposed activities (77 FR 72327, December 5... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC893 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; proposed incidental harassment...

  15. Hazards of disease transfer from marine mammals to land mammals: review and recent findings.

    PubMed

    Smith, A W; Vedros, N A; Akers, T G; Gilmartin, W G

    1978-11-01

    In a 5-year study (1972-1977) of microbial agents isolated from both clinically normal and diseased marine mammals, it was shown that certain disease agents are widespread in a diversity of ocean populations and that some are also transmissible to a number of terrestrial mammal species. Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona has been isolated repeatedly from 2 species of pinnipeds (Zalophus californianus califonianus and Callorhinus ursinus). Some of the more important bacterial pathogens for land mammals that were isolated from wild marine mammals are Pseudomonas mallei, Clostridium chauvoei, C novyi, Neisseria mucosa var heidelbergensis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella spp, and Pasteurella multocida. Numerous serotypes of viruses classified as caliciviruses were isolated from a variety of marine mammals. Some of these are known to infect several land mammal species including swine horses, and primates. For this reason., precautions should be taken to ensure that disease agents shed by captive marine mammals are not transmitted to susceptible terrestrial mammals, including animal handlers and other human beings. PMID:738931

  16. 78 FR 1205 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Hydrographic Surveys

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ...NMFS' Office of Protected Resources has received a request from the NOAA Office of Coast Survey (OCS) for authorization to take small numbers of marine mammals incidental to conducting hydrographic surveys, over the course of 5 years from the date of issuance. Pursuant to regulations implementing the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is announcing receipt of OCS's request under the......

  17. 76 FR 35995 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Federal Register (76 FR 34157; FR Doc. 2011-14614). The period of effectiveness in that notice is listed... preamble, FR Doc. 2011-14614, published June 13, 2011, at 76 FR 34157, is corrected as follows: 0 1. On... Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation and Maintenance of the Neptune Liquefied...

  18. 78 FR 22095 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Replacement of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ...NMFS has received a request from the Seattle Department of Transportation (SDOT), on behalf of the City of Seattle (City), for authorization to take marine mammals incidental to construction associated with the replacement of the Elliott Bay Seawall in Seattle, Washington, for the period September 2013 to September 2018. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is proposing......

  19. 77 FR 64961 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Replacement of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-BC69 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking... of 5-year regulations governing the incidental taking of marine mammals and inviting information... Commerce to allow, upon request, the incidental, but not intentional, taking of small numbers of...

  20. 77 FR 46733 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Training Exercises...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), as amended, and implementing regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued a Letter of Authorization (LOA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to the U.S. Navy's training exercises within the Navy's Mariana Islands Range Complex (MIRC) in the Pacific...

  1. 75 FR 38991 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Missile Launch Operations at Kodiak Launch Complex, Alaska... Corporation (AAC) for authorization to take marine mammals incidental to launching space launch vehicles, long...), incidental to space vehicle and missile launch activities from KLC for a period of 5 years. These...

  2. 77 FR 25829 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Marine Seismic... Marine Seismic Survey in the Beaufort Sea, Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... only, incidental to a proposed 3- dimensional (3D) ocean bottom cable (OBC) seismic survey in...

  3. 78 FR 35507 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ...NMFS received an application from TGS-NOPEC Geophysical Company ASA (TGS) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment only, incidental to a marine 2- dimensional (2D) seismic survey program in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska, during the open water season of 2013. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal......

  4. 76 FR 58473 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ...NMFS received an application from Apache Alaska Corporation (Apache) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to a proposed 3D seismic survey in Cook Inlet, Alaska, between November 2011 and November 2012. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS requests comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to Apache to take, by......

  5. 77 FR 40007 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to BP Exploration (Alaska), Inc. (BP) to take, by harassment, small numbers of 10 species of marine mammals incidental to ocean bottom cable (OBC) seismic surveys in the Simpson Lagoon area of the Beaufort Sea, Alaska, during the......

  6. 78 FR 51147 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to TGS-NOPEC Geophysical Company ASA (TGS) to take, by harassment, small numbers of marine mammals incidental to a marine 2-dimensional (2D) seismic survey program in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska, during the 2013 Arctic open-water......

  7. SPECIATION IN MAMMALS AND THE GENETIC SPECIES CONCEPT.

    PubMed

    Baker, Robert J; Bradley, Robert D

    2006-08-01

    , the extent to which the integrity of the gene pool is protected, nature of hybridization (if present), and introgression. Genetic data are unique in understanding species because the use of genetic data 1) can quantify genetic divergence from different aspects of the genome (mitochondrial and nuclear genes, protein coding genes, regulatory genes, mobile DNA, microsatellites, chromosomal rearrangements, heterochromatin, etc.); 2) can provide divergence values that increase with time, providing an estimate of time since divergence; 3) can provide a population genetics perspective; 4) is less subject to convergence and parallelism relative to other sets of characters; 5) can identify monophyly, sister taxa, and presence or absence of introgression; and 6) can accurately identify hybrid individuals (kinship and source of hybrid individuals, F(1)s, backcrosses, direction of hybridization, and in concert with other data identify which hybrids are sterile or fertile). The proposed definition of the Genetic Species Concept is more compatible with a description of biodiversity of mammals than is "reproductively isolated species." Genetic profiles of mammalian species will result in a genetic description of species and mammalian diversity, and such studies are being accelerated by technological advances that reduce cost and increase speed and efficiency of generating genetic data. We propose that this genetic revolution remain museum- and voucher specimen-based and that new names are based on a holotype (including associated tissues) deposited in an accredited museum. PMID:19890476

  8. Disentangling effects of abiotic factors and biotic interactions on cross-taxon congruence in species turnover patterns of plants, moths and beetles

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Meichun; Liu, Yunhui; Yu, Zhenrong; Baudry, Jacques; Li, Liangtao; Wang, Changliu; Axmacher, Jan C.

    2016-01-01

    High cross-taxon congruence in species diversity patterns is essential for the use of surrogate taxa in biodiversity conservation, but presence and strength of congruence in species turnover patterns, and the relative contributions of abiotic environmental factors and biotic interaction towards this congruence, remain poorly understood. In our study, we used variation partitioning in multiple regressions to quantify cross-taxon congruence in community dissimilarities of vascular plants, geometrid and arciinid moths and carabid beetles, subsequently investigating their respective underpinning by abiotic factors and biotic interactions. Significant cross-taxon congruence observed across all taxon pairs was linked to their similar responses towards elevation change. Changes in the vegetation composition were closely linked to carabid turnover, with vegetation structure and associated microclimatic conditions proposed causes of this link. In contrast, moth assemblages appeared to be dominated by generalist species whose turnover was weakly associated with vegetation changes. Overall, abiotic factors exerted a stronger influence on cross-taxon congruence across our study sites than biotic interactions. The weak congruence in turnover observed particularly between plants and moths highlights the importance of multi-taxon approaches based on groupings of taxa with similar turnovers, rather than the use of single surrogate taxa or environmental proxies, in biodiversity assessments. PMID:27032533

  9. Disentangling effects of abiotic factors and biotic interactions on cross-taxon congruence in species turnover patterns of plants, moths and beetles.

    PubMed

    Duan, Meichun; Liu, Yunhui; Yu, Zhenrong; Baudry, Jacques; Li, Liangtao; Wang, Changliu; Axmacher, Jan C

    2016-01-01

    High cross-taxon congruence in species diversity patterns is essential for the use of surrogate taxa in biodiversity conservation, but presence and strength of congruence in species turnover patterns, and the relative contributions of abiotic environmental factors and biotic interaction towards this congruence, remain poorly understood. In our study, we used variation partitioning in multiple regressions to quantify cross-taxon congruence in community dissimilarities of vascular plants, geometrid and arciinid moths and carabid beetles, subsequently investigating their respective underpinning by abiotic factors and biotic interactions. Significant cross-taxon congruence observed across all taxon pairs was linked to their similar responses towards elevation change. Changes in the vegetation composition were closely linked to carabid turnover, with vegetation structure and associated microclimatic conditions proposed causes of this link. In contrast, moth assemblages appeared to be dominated by generalist species whose turnover was weakly associated with vegetation changes. Overall, abiotic factors exerted a stronger influence on cross-taxon congruence across our study sites than biotic interactions. The weak congruence in turnover observed particularly between plants and moths highlights the importance of multi-taxon approaches based on groupings of taxa with similar turnovers, rather than the use of single surrogate taxa or environmental proxies, in biodiversity assessments. PMID:27032533

  10. Phosphatidylcholine composition of pulmonary surfactant from terrestrial and marine diving mammals

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Danielle B.; Fahlman, Andreas; Gardner, Manuela; Kleinhenz, Danielle; Piscitelli, Marina; Raverty, Stephen; Haulena, Martin; Zimba, Paul V.

    2015-01-01

    Marine mammals are repeatedly exposed to elevated extra-thoracic pressure and alveolar collapse during diving and readily experience alveolar expansion upon inhalation – a unique capability as compared to terrestrial mammals. How marine mammal lungs overcome the challenges of frequent alveolar collapse and recruitment remains unknown. Recent studies indicate that pinniped lung surfactant has more anti-adhesive components compared to terrestrial mammals, which would aid in alveolar opening. However, pulmonary surfactant composition has not yet been investigated in odontocetes, whose physiology and diving behavior differ from pinnipeds. The aim of this study was to investigate the phosphatidylcholine (PC) composition of lung surfactants from various marine mammals and compare these to a terrestrial mammal. We found an increase in anti-adhesive PC species in harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) compared to dog (Canus lupus familiaris), as well as an increase in the fluidizing PCs 16:0/14:0 and 16:0/16:1 in pinnipeds compared to odontocetes. The harbor porpoise (a representative of the odontocetes) did not have higher levels of fluidizing PCs compared to dog. Our preliminary results support previous findings that pinnipeds may have adapted unique surfactant compositions that allow them to dive at high pressures for extended periods without adverse effects. Future studies will need to investigate the differences in other surfactant components to fully assess the surfactant composition in odontocetes. PMID:25812797

  11. Phosphatidylcholine composition of pulmonary surfactant from terrestrial and marine diving mammals.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Danielle B; Fahlman, Andreas; Gardner, Manuela; Kleinhenz, Danielle; Piscitelli, Marina; Raverty, Stephen; Haulena, Martin; Zimba, Paul V

    2015-06-01

    Marine mammals are repeatedly exposed to elevated extra-thoracic pressure and alveolar collapse during diving and readily experience alveolar expansion upon inhalation - a unique capability as compared to terrestrial mammals. How marine mammal lungs overcome the challenges of frequent alveolar collapse and recruitment remains unknown. Recent studies indicate that pinniped lung surfactant has more anti-adhesive components compared to terrestrial mammals, which would aid in alveolar opening. However, pulmonary surfactant composition has not yet been investigated in odontocetes, whose physiology and diving behavior differ from pinnipeds. The aim of this study was to investigate the phosphatidylcholine (PC) composition of lung surfactants from various marine mammals and compare these to a terrestrial mammal. We found an increase in anti-adhesive PC species in harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) compared to dog (Canus lupus familiaris), as well as an increase in the fluidizing PCs 16:0/14:0 and 16:0/16:1 in pinnipeds compared to odontocetes. The harbor porpoise (a representative of the odontocetes) did not have higher levels of fluidizing PCs compared to dog. Our preliminary results support previous findings that pinnipeds may have adapted unique surfactant compositions that allow them to dive at high pressures for extended periods without adverse effects. Future studies will need to investigate the differences in other surfactant components to fully assess the surfactant composition in odontocetes. PMID:25812797

  12. Evidence for a Mid-Jurassic Adaptive Radiation in Mammals.

    PubMed

    Close, Roger A; Friedman, Matt; Lloyd, Graeme T; Benson, Roger B J

    2015-08-17

    A series of spectacular discoveries have transformed our understanding of Mesozoic mammals in recent years. These finds reveal hitherto-unsuspected ecomorphological diversity that suggests that mammals experienced a major adaptive radiation during the Middle to Late Jurassic. Patterns of mammalian macroevolution must be reinterpreted in light of these new discoveries, but only taxonomic diversity and limited aspects of morphological disparity have been quantified. We assess rates of morphological evolution and temporal patterns of disparity using large datasets of discrete characters. Rates of morphological evolution were significantly elevated prior to the Late Jurassic, with a pronounced peak occurring during the Early to Middle Jurassic. This intense burst of phenotypic innovation coincided with a stepwise increase in apparent long-term standing diversity and the attainment of maximum disparity, supporting a "short-fuse" model of early mammalian diversification. Rates then declined sharply, and remained significantly low until the end of the Mesozoic, even among therians. This supports the "long-fuse" model of diversification in Mesozoic therians. Our findings demonstrate that sustained morphological innovation in Triassic stem-group mammals culminated in a global adaptive radiation of crown-group members during the Early to Middle Jurassic. PMID:26190074

  13. Ecological predictors of extinction risks of endemic mammals of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, You-Hua

    2014-07-01

    In this brief report, we analyzed ecological correlates of risk of extinction for mammals endemic to China using phylogenetic eigenvector methods to control for the effect of phylogenetic inertia. Extinction risks were based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List and ecological explanatory attributes that include range size and climatic variables. When the effect of phylogenetic inertia were controlled, climate became the best predictor for quantifying and evaluating extinction risks of endemic mammals in China, accounting for 13% of the total variation. Range size seems to play a trivial role, explaining ~1% of total variation; however, when non-phylogenetic variation partitioning analysis was done, the role of range size then explained 7.4% of total variation. Consequently, phylogenetic inertia plays a substantial role in increasing the explanatory power of range size on the extinction risks of mammals endemic to China. Limitations of the present study are discussed, with a focus on under-represented sampling of endemic mammalian species. PMID:25017756

  14. Cold and hunger induce diurnality in a nocturnal mammal.

    PubMed

    van der Vinne, Vincent; Riede, Sjaak J; Gorter, Jenke A; Eijer, Willem G; Sellix, Michael T; Menaker, Michael; Daan, Serge; Pilorz, Violetta; Hut, Roelof A

    2014-10-21

    The mammalian circadian system synchronizes daily timing of activity and rest with the environmental light-dark cycle. Although the underlying molecular oscillatory mechanism is well studied, factors that influence phenotypic plasticity in daily activity patterns (temporal niche switching, chronotype) are presently unknown. Molecular evidence suggests that metabolism may influence the circadian molecular clock, but evidence at the level of the organism is lacking. Here we show that a metabolic challenge by cold and hunger induces diurnality in otherwise nocturnal mice. Lowering ambient temperature changes the phase of circadian light-dark entrainment in mice by increasing daytime and decreasing nighttime activity. This effect is further enhanced by simulated food shortage, which identifies metabolic balance as the underlying common factor influencing circadian organization. Clock gene expression analysis shows that the underlying neuronal mechanism is downstream from or parallel to the main circadian pacemaker (the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus) and that the behavioral phenotype is accompanied by phase adjustment of peripheral tissues. These findings indicate that nocturnal mammals can display considerable plasticity in circadian organization and may adopt a diurnal phenotype when energetically challenged. Our previously defined circadian thermoenergetics hypothesis proposes that such circadian plasticity, which naturally occurs in nocturnal mammals, reflects adaptive maintenance of energy balance. Quantification of energy expenditure shows that diurnality under natural conditions reduces thermoregulatory costs in small burrowing mammals like mice. Metabolic feedback on circadian organization thus provides functional benefits by reducing energy expenditure. Our findings may help to clarify relationships between sleep-wake patterns and metabolic phenotypes in humans. PMID:25288753

  15. Current and future patterns of global marine mammal biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Kaschner, Kristin; Tittensor, Derek P; Ready, Jonathan; Gerrodette, Tim; Worm, Boris

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying the spatial distribution of taxa is an important prerequisite for the preservation of biodiversity, and can provide a baseline against which to measure the impacts of climate change. Here we analyse patterns of marine mammal species richness based on predictions of global distributional ranges for 115 species, including all extant pinnipeds and cetaceans. We used an environmental suitability model specifically designed to address the paucity of distributional data for many marine mammal species. We generated richness patterns by overlaying predicted distributions for all species; these were then validated against sightings data from dedicated long-term surveys in the Eastern Tropical Pacific, the Northeast Atlantic and the Southern Ocean. Model outputs correlated well with empirically observed patterns of biodiversity in all three survey regions. Marine mammal richness was predicted to be highest in temperate waters of both hemispheres with distinct hotspots around New Zealand, Japan, Baja California, the Galapagos Islands, the Southeast Pacific, and the Southern Ocean. We then applied our model to explore potential changes in biodiversity under future perturbations of environmental conditions. Forward projections of biodiversity using an intermediate Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) temperature scenario predicted that projected ocean warming and changes in sea ice cover until 2050 may have moderate effects on the spatial patterns of marine mammal richness. Increases in cetacean richness were predicted above 40° latitude in both hemispheres, while decreases in both pinniped and cetacean richness were expected at lower latitudes. Our results show how species distribution models can be applied to explore broad patterns of marine biodiversity worldwide for taxa for which limited distributional data are available. PMID:21625431

  16. Adaptive radiation of multituberculate mammals before the extinction of dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Gregory P; Evans, Alistair R; Corfe, Ian J; Smits, Peter D; Fortelius, Mikael; Jernvall, Jukka

    2012-03-22

    The Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction approximately 66 million years ago is conventionally thought to have been a turning point in mammalian evolution. Prior to that event and for the first two-thirds of their evolutionary history, mammals were mostly confined to roles as generalized, small-bodied, nocturnal insectivores, presumably under selection pressures from dinosaurs. Release from these pressures, by extinction of non-avian dinosaurs at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, triggered ecological diversification of mammals. Although recent individual fossil discoveries have shown that some mammalian lineages diversified ecologically during the Mesozoic era, comprehensive ecological analyses of mammalian groups crossing the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary are lacking. Such analyses are needed because diversification analyses of living taxa allow only indirect inferences of past ecosystems. Here we show that in arguably the most evolutionarily successful clade of Mesozoic mammals, the Multituberculata, an adaptive radiation began at least 20 million years before the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs and continued across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. Disparity in dental complexity, which relates to the range of diets, rose sharply in step with generic richness and disparity in body size. Moreover, maximum dental complexity and body size demonstrate an adaptive shift towards increased herbivory. This dietary expansion tracked the ecological rise of angiosperms and suggests that the resources that were available to multituberculates were relatively unaffected by the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. Taken together, our results indicate that mammals were able to take advantage of new ecological opportunities in the Mesozoic and that at least some of these opportunities persisted through the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. Similar broad-scale ecomorphological inventories of other radiations may help to constrain the possible causes of mass extinctions

  17. Responses of large mammals to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Hetem, Robyn S; Fuller, Andrea; Maloney, Shane K; Mitchell, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    Most large terrestrial mammals, including the charismatic species so important for ecotourism, do not have the luxury of rapid micro-evolution or sufficient range shifts as strategies for adjusting to climate change. The rate of climate change is too fast for genetic adaptation to occur in mammals with longevities of decades, typical of large mammals, and landscape fragmentation and population by humans too widespread to allow spontaneous range shifts of large mammals, leaving only the expression of latent phenotypic plasticity to counter effects of climate change. The expression of phenotypic plasticity includes anatomical variation within the same species, changes in phenology, and employment of intrinsic physiological and behavioral capacity that can buffer an animal against the effects of climate change. Whether that buffer will be realized is unknown, because little is known about the efficacy of the expression of plasticity, particularly for large mammals. Future research in climate change biology requires measurement of physiological characteristics of many identified free-living individual animals for long periods, probably decades, to allow us to detect whether expression of phenotypic plasticity will be sufficient to cope with climate change.

  18. Responses of large mammals to climate change.

    PubMed

    Hetem, Robyn S; Fuller, Andrea; Maloney, Shane K; Mitchell, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    Most large terrestrial mammals, including the charismatic species so important for ecotourism, do not have the luxury of rapid micro-evolution or sufficient range shifts as strategies for adjusting to climate change. The rate of climate change is too fast for genetic adaptation to occur in mammals with longevities of decades, typical of large mammals, and landscape fragmentation and population by humans too widespread to allow spontaneous range shifts of large mammals, leaving only the expression of latent phenotypic plasticity to counter effects of climate change. The expression of phenotypic plasticity includes anatomical variation within the same species, changes in phenology, and employment of intrinsic physiological and behavioral capacity that can buffer an animal against the effects of climate change. Whether that buffer will be realized is unknown, because little is known about the efficacy of the expression of plasticity, particularly for large mammals. Future research in climate change biology requires measurement of physiological characteristics of many identified free-living individual animals for long periods, probably decades, to allow us to detect whether expression of phenotypic plasticity will be sufficient to cope with climate change. PMID:27583293

  19. New Specimens of the Rare Taeniodont Wortmania (Mammalia: Eutheria) from the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and Comments on the Phylogeny and Functional Morphology of “Archaic” Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Thomas E.; Brusatte, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Taeniodonta is a clade of Late Cretaceous – Paleogene mammals remarkable for their relatively extreme cranial, dental, and postcranial adaptations and notable for being among the first mammals to achieve relatively large size following the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. Previous workers have hypothesized that taeniodonts can be divided into two clades: Conoryctidae, a group of small-bodied taeniodonts with supposedly “generalized” postcranial skeletons, and Stylinodontidae, a group of large-bodied, robust animals with massive forelimbs and claws adapted for scratch-digging. However, many taeniodont taxa are poorly known and few are represented by postcranial material, leaving many details about their anatomy, biology, and evolution ambiguous. Methodology/Principal Findings In this paper, we describe three new specimens of the rare taxon Wortmaniaotariidens from the early Paleocene (Puercan) of New Mexico. Among these specimens is one that includes remarkably complete cranial and dental material, including associated upper and lower teeth, and another that consists of partial forelimbs. These specimens allow for an updated anatomical description of this unusual taxon, supply new data for phylogenetic analyses, and enable a more constrained discussion of taeniodont biology and functional morphology. Conclusions/Significance The new specimen of Wortmania that includes associated upper and lower teeth indicates that previous interpretations of the upper dentition of this taxon were not accurate and the taxon Robertschochiasullivani is a junior synonym of W. otariidens. New specimens that include partial forelimbs indicate that Wortmania is very similar to later, large-bodied taeniodonts, with marked and distinctive adaptations for scratch-digging. Comparisons with other taeniodont taxa that include postcranial material suggest that all taeniodonts may have had scratch-digging adaptations. A phylogenetic analysis shows that Schowalteria and

  20. Influenza Virus Infection of Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Fereidouni, Sasan; Munoz, Olga; Von Dobschuetz, Sophie; De Nardi, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Interspecies transmission may play a key role in the evolution and ecology of influenza A viruses. The importance of marine mammals as hosts or carriers of potential zoonotic pathogens such as highly pathogenic H5 and H7 influenza viruses is not well understood. The fact that influenza viruses are some of the few zoonotic pathogens known to have caused infection in marine mammals, evidence for direct transmission of influenza A virus H7N7 subtype from seals to man, transmission of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses to seals and also limited evidence for long-term persistence of influenza B viruses in seal populations without significant genetic change, makes monitoring of influenza viruses in marine mammal populations worth being performed. In addition, such monitoring studies could be a great tool to better understand the ecology of influenza viruses in nature. PMID:25231137

  1. Extant mammal body masses suggest punctuated equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Tiina M; Bokma, Folmer

    2008-10-01

    Is gradual microevolutionary change within species simultaneously the source of macroevolutionary differentiation between species? Since its first publication, Darwin's original idea that phenotypic differences between species develop gradually over time, as the accumulation of small selection-induced changes in successive generations has been challenged by palaeontologists claiming that, instead, new species quickly acquire their phenotypes to remain virtually unchanged until going extinct again. This controversy, widely known as the 'punctuated equilibrium' debate, remained unresolved, largely owing to the difficulty of distinguishing biological species from fossil remains. We analysed body masses of 2143 existing mammal species on a phylogeny comprising 4510 (i.e. nearly all) extant species to estimate rates of gradual (anagenetic) and speciational (cladogenetic) evolution. Our Bayesian estimates from mammals as well as separate sub-clades such as primates and carnivores suggest that gradual evolution is responsible for only a small part of body size variation between mammal species. PMID:18595835

  2. Climate directly influences Eocene mammal faunal dynamics in North America

    PubMed Central

    Woodburne, Michael O.; Gunnell, Gregg F.; Stucky, Richard K.

    2009-01-01

    The modern effect of climate on plants and animals is well documented. Some have cautioned against assigning climate a direct role in Cenozoic land mammal faunal changes. We illustrate 3 episodes of significant mammalian reorganization in the Eocene of North America that are considered direct responses to dramatic climatic events. The first episode occurred during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), beginning the Eocene (55.8 Ma), and earliest Wasatchian North American Land Mammal Age (NALMA). The PETM documents a short (<170 k.y.) global temperature increase of ≈5 °C and a substantial increase in first appearances of mammals traced to climate-induced immigration. A 4-m.y. period of climatic and evolutionary stasis then ensued. The second climate episode, the late early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO, 53–50 Ma), is marked by a temperature increase to the highest prolonged Cenozoic ocean temperature and a similarly distinctive continental interior mean annual temperature (MAT) of 23 °C. This MAT increase [and of mean annual precipitation (MAP) to 150 cm/y) promoted a major increase in floral diversity and habitat complexity under temporally unique, moist, paratropical conditions. Subsequent climatic deterioration in a third interval, from 50 to 47 Ma, resulted in major faunal diversity loss at both continental and local scales. In this Bridgerian Crash, relative abundance shifted from very diverse, evenly represented, communities to those dominated by the condylarth Hyopsodus. Rather than being “optimum,” the EECO began the greatest episode of faunal turnover of the first 15 m.y. of the Cenozoic. PMID:19666605

  3. Climate directly influences Eocene mammal faunal dynamics in North America.

    PubMed

    Woodburne, Michael O; Gunnell, Gregg F; Stucky, Richard K

    2009-08-11

    The modern effect of climate on plants and animals is well documented. Some have cautioned against assigning climate a direct role in Cenozoic land mammal faunal changes. We illustrate 3 episodes of significant mammalian reorganization in the Eocene of North America that are considered direct responses to dramatic climatic events. The first episode occurred during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), beginning the Eocene (55.8 Ma), and earliest Wasatchian North American Land Mammal Age (NALMA). The PETM documents a short (<170 k.y.) global temperature increase of approximately 5 degrees C and a substantial increase in first appearances of mammals traced to climate-induced immigration. A 4-m.y. period of climatic and evolutionary stasis then ensued. The second climate episode, the late early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO, 53-50 Ma), is marked by a temperature increase to the highest prolonged Cenozoic ocean temperature and a similarly distinctive continental interior mean annual temperature (MAT) of 23 degrees C. This MAT increase [and of mean annual precipitation (MAP) to 150 cm/y) promoted a major increase in floral diversity and habitat complexity under temporally unique, moist, paratropical conditions. Subsequent climatic deterioration in a third interval, from 50 to 47 Ma, resulted in major faunal diversity loss at both continental and local scales. In this Bridgerian Crash, relative abundance shifted from very diverse, evenly represented, communities to those dominated by the condylarth Hyopsodus. Rather than being "optimum," the EECO began the greatest episode of faunal turnover of the first 15 m.y. of the Cenozoic. PMID:19666605

  4. Predicting small mammal and flea abundance using landform and soil properties in a plague endemic area in Lushoto District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Meliyo, Joel L; Kimaro, Didas N; Msanya, Balthazar M; Mulungu, Loth S; Hieronimo, Proches; Kihupi, Nganga I; Gulinck, Hubert; Deckers, Jozef A

    2014-07-01

    Small mammals particularly rodents, are considered the primary natural hosts of plague. Literature suggests that plague persistence in natural foci has a root cause in soils. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between on the one hand landforms and associated soil properties, and on the other hand small mammals and fleas in West Usambara Mountains in Tanzania, a plague endemic area. Standard field survey methods coupled with Geographical Information System (GIS) technique were used to examine landform and soils characteristics. Soil samples were analysed in the laboratory for physico-chemical properties. Small mammals were trapped on pre-established landform positions and identified to genus/species level. Fleas were removed from the trapped small mammals and counted. Exploration of landform and soil data was done using ArcGIS Toolbox functions and descriptive statistical analysis. The relationships between landforms, soils, small mammals and fleas were established by generalised linear regression model (GLM) operated in R statistics software. Results show that landforms and soils influence the abundance of small mammals and fleas and their spatial distribution. The abundance of small mammals and fleas increased with increase in elevation. Small mammal species richness also increases with elevation. A landform-soil model shows that available phosphorus, slope aspect and elevation were statistically significant predictors explaining richness and abundance of small mammals. Fleas' abundance and spatial distribution were influenced by hill-shade, available phosphorus and base saturation. The study suggests that landforms and soils have a strong influence on the richness and evenness of small mammals and their fleas' abundance hence could be used to explain plague dynamics in the area. PMID:26867276

  5. Advances in exotic mammal clinical therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Michelle G

    2015-05-01

    It is important that veterinarians treating exotic companion mammals stay abreast of the latest developments relating to medications and drug delivery approaches for safety, efficacy and welfare issues. Sustained release formulations of commonly used drugs as well as newer routes for administration of therapeutic agents allow the veterinarian treating exotic companion mammals to reduce the stress associated with drug administration. Interactions can occur between vehicle and drugs when formulations are compounded, therefore research studies are warranted regarding potential problems associated with these formulations. PMID:25902274

  6. A multiscale network analysis of protected-area connectivity for mammals in the United States.

    PubMed

    Minor, Emily S; Lookingbill, Todd R

    2010-12-01

    Protected areas must be close, or connected, enough to allow for the preservation of large-scale ecological and evolutionary processes, such as gene flow, migration, and range shifts in response to climate change. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether the network of protected areas in the United States is connected in a way that will preserve biodiversity over large temporal and spatial scales. It is also unclear whether protected-area networks that function for larger species will function for smaller species. We assessed the connectivity of protected areas in the three largest biomes in the United States. With methods from graph theory--a branch of mathematics that deals with connectivity and flow--we identified and measured networks of protected areas for three different groups of mammals. We also examined the value of using umbrella species (typically large-bodied, far-ranging mammals) in designing large-scale networks of protected areas. Although the total amount of protected land varied greatly among biomes in the United States, overall connectivity did not. In general, protected-area networks were well connected for large mammals but not for smaller mammals. Additionally, it was not possible to predict connectivity for small mammals on the basis of connectivity for large mammals, which suggests the umbrella species approach may not be an appropriate design strategy for conservation networks intended to protect many species. Our findings indicate different strategies should be used to increase the likelihood of persistence for different groups of species. Strategic linkages of existing lands should be a conservation priority for smaller mammals, whereas conservation of larger mammals would benefit most from the protection of more land. PMID:20666801

  7. Effects of cattle grazing on small mammal communities in the Hulunber meadow steppe

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Zhi-Tao; Song, Yan-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Small mammals play important roles in many ecosystems, and understanding their response to disturbances such as cattle grazing is fundamental for developing sustainable land use strategies. However, how small mammals respond to cattle grazing remains controversial. A potential cause is that most of previous studies adopt rather simple experimental designs based solely on the presence/absence of grazing, and are thus unable to detect any complex relationships between diversity and grazing intensity. In this study, we conducted manipulated experiments in the Hulunber meadow steppe to survey small mammal community structures under four levels of grazing intensities. We found dramatic changes in species composition in native small mammal communities when grazing intensity reached intermediate levels (0.46 animal unit/ha). As grazing intensity increased, Spermophilus dauricus gradually became the single dominant species. Species richness and diversity of small mammals in ungrazed and lightly grazed (0.23 animal unit/ha) area were much higher than in intermediately and heavily grazed area. We did not detect a humped relationship between small mammal diversity and disturbance levels predicted by the intermediate disturbance hypothesis (IDH). Our study highlighted the necessity of conducting manipulated experiments under multiple grazing intensities.

  8. Scenarios of large mammal loss in Europe for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Rondinini, Carlo; Visconti, Piero

    2015-08-01

    Distributions and populations of large mammals are declining globally, leading to an increase in their extinction risk. We forecasted the distribution of extant European large mammals (17 carnivores and 10 ungulates) based on 2 Rio+20 scenarios of socioeconomic development: business as usual and reduced impact through changes in human consumption of natural resources. These scenarios are linked to scenarios of land-use change and climate change through the spatial allocation of land conversion up to 2050. We used a hierarchical framework to forecast the extent and distribution of mammal habitat based on species' habitat preferences (as described in the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List database) within a suitable climatic space fitted to the species' current geographic range. We analyzed the geographic and taxonomic variation of habitat loss for large mammals and the potential effect of the reduced impact policy on loss mitigation. Averaging across scenarios, European large mammals were predicted to lose 10% of their habitat by 2050 (25% in the worst-case scenario). Predicted loss was much higher for species in northwestern Europe, where habitat is expected to be lost due to climate and land-use change. Change in human consumption patterns was predicted to substantially improve the conservation of habitat for European large mammals, but not enough to reduce extinction risk if species cannot adapt locally to climate change or disperse. PMID:25999066

  9. The impact of buffer strips and stream-side grazing on small mammals in southwestern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Erik W.; Ribic, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    The practice of continuously grazing cattle along streams has caused extensive degradation of riparian habitats. Buffer strips and managed intensive rotational grazing (MIRG) have been proposed to protect and restore stream ecosystems in Wisconsin. However, the ecological implications of a switch from traditional livestock management to MIRG or buffer strip establishment have not been investigated. Differences in small mammal communities associated with riparian areas on continuously grazed and MIRG pastures, as well as vegetative buffer strips adjacent to row crops, were investigated in southwestern Wisconsin during May-September 1997 and 1998. More species (mean of 6-7) were found on the buffer sites than on the pasture sites (mean of 2-5). Total small mammal abundance on buffer sites was greater than on the pastures as well: there were 3-5 times as many animals on the buffer sites compared to the pasture sites, depending on year. There were no differences in species richness or total abundance between MIRG and continuously grazed pastures in either year. Total small mammal abundance was greater near the stream than away from the stream, regardless of farm management practice but there were no differences in species richness. Buffer strips appear to support a particularly rich and abundant small mammal community. Although results did not detect a difference in small mammal use between pasture types, farm-wide implications of a conversion from continuous to MIRG styles of grazing may benefit small mammals indirectly by causing an increase in the prevalence of pasture in the agricultural landscape.

  10. Ongoing unraveling of a continental fauna: decline and extinction of Australian mammals since European settlement.

    PubMed

    Woinarski, John C Z; Burbidge, Andrew A; Harrison, Peter L

    2015-04-14

    The highly distinctive and mostly endemic Australian land mammal fauna has suffered an extraordinary rate of extinction (>10% of the 273 endemic terrestrial species) over the last ∼200 y: in comparison, only one native land mammal from continental North America became extinct since European settlement. A further 21% of Australian endemic land mammal species are now assessed to be threatened, indicating that the rate of loss (of one to two extinctions per decade) is likely to continue. Australia's marine mammals have fared better overall, but status assessment for them is seriously impeded by lack of information. Much of the loss of Australian land mammal fauna (particularly in the vast deserts and tropical savannas) has been in areas that are remote from human population centers and recognized as relatively unmodified at global scale. In contrast to general patterns of extinction on other continents where the main cause is habitat loss, hunting, and impacts of human development, particularly in areas of high and increasing human population pressures, the loss of Australian land mammals is most likely due primarily to predation by introduced species, particularly the feral cat, Felis catus, and European red fox, Vulpes vulpes, and changed fire regimes. PMID:25675493

  11. Ongoing unraveling of a continental fauna: Decline and extinction of Australian mammals since European settlement

    PubMed Central

    Woinarski, John C. Z.; Burbidge, Andrew A.; Harrison, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    The highly distinctive and mostly endemic Australian land mammal fauna has suffered an extraordinary rate of extinction (>10% of the 273 endemic terrestrial species) over the last ∼200 y: in comparison, only one native land mammal from continental North America became extinct since European settlement. A further 21% of Australian endemic land mammal species are now assessed to be threatened, indicating that the rate of loss (of one to two extinctions per decade) is likely to continue. Australia’s marine mammals have fared better overall, but status assessment for them is seriously impeded by lack of information. Much of the loss of Australian land mammal fauna (particularly in the vast deserts and tropical savannas) has been in areas that are remote from human population centers and recognized as relatively unmodified at global scale. In contrast to general patterns of extinction on other continents where the main cause is habitat loss, hunting, and impacts of human development, particularly in areas of high and increasing human population pressures, the loss of Australian land mammals is most likely due primarily to predation by introduced species, particularly the feral cat, Felis catus, and European red fox, Vulpes vulpes, and changed fire regimes. PMID:25675493

  12. The postcranial skeletons of the Triassic mammals Eozostrodon, Megazostrodon and Erythrotherium.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, F A; Parrington, F R

    1976-02-26

    The purposes of this monograph are to describe the postcranial skeletons of the earliest known mammals, and to probe, in so far as possible by osteological study, biological questions concerning the habits and adaptations of these late Triassic forms. In this context, information on the background of this investigation is useful. Studies of Mesozoic mammals, begun some 150 years ago, are based on rare and fragmentary fossils, principally jaws and teeth. These investigations have yielded a bare outline of some 120 million years of mammalian evolution-about two-thirds of mammalian history. No assessment of the important biological changes occurring during this time can ever be complete, but major advances are possible as new discoveries provide material that is more complete or that represents a previously unknown evolutionary stage. So tenuous is the evidence that at least some concepts are re-evaluated with each discovery. Postcranial anatomy offers especially intriguing prospects for investigation because associated material (that can be positively assigned to a taxon below subclass) has been for the most part unknown, and indeed even dissociated bones are a rarity. Since G.G. Simpson's monographs of 1928 and 1929, progress in the study of Mesozoic mammals has been largely dependent on new finds. A major impetus to renewed investigation came from the discoveries of Mesozoic mammals by Walter Kühne in 1939 and during the immediate post-war years. Kühne first worked on fissures in the Carboniferous limestone quarries at Frome, Somerset, in southwest England where he collected a series of teeth of the problematical form Haramiya and two triconodont teeth which were placed in the genus Eozostrodon (Parrington 1941, 1946). The fissure faunas are generally thought to be of Upper Triassic (Rhaetic) age (Kühne 1946), although Kermack, Musset & Rigney (1973) believe that the evidence is insufficient to determine whether the deposits are Rhaetic or Lower Liassic. After

  13. Temporal niche overlap among insectivorous small mammals.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Emerson M; Paise, Gabriela

    2011-12-01

    Being active in the same environment at different times exposes animals to the effects of very different environmental factors, both biotic and abiotic. In the present study, we used live traps equipped with timing devices to evaluate the potential role of biotic factors (competition and food abundance) on overall overlap in the temporal niche axis of 4 insectivorous small mammals in high-elevation grassland fields ('campos de altitude') of southern Brazil. Based on resources availability (invertebrates), data on animal captures were pooled in 2 seasons: 'scarcity' (June 2001-September 2001) and 'abundance' (November 2001-May 2002) seasons. We tested for non-random structure in temporal niche overlap among the species in each season. These species were the rodents Oxymycterus nasutus (Waterhouse, 1837), Deltamys sp., Akodon azarae (Fischer, 1829), and the marsupial Monodelphis brevicaudis Olfers, 1818. The studied community was mainly diurnal with crepuscular peaks. Simulations using the Pianka index of niche overlap indicated that the empirical assemblage-wide overlap was not significantly different from randomly generated patterns in the abundance season but significantly greater than expected by chance alone in the scarcity season. All the species showed an increase in temporal niche breadth during the abundance season, which appears to be related to longer daylength and high nocturnal temperatures. Patterns on both temporal niche overlap and temporal niche breadth were the opposite to those that we were expecting in the case of diel activity patterns determined by competition for dietary resources. Therefore, we conclude that competition did not seem to be preponderant for determining patterns of temporal niche overlap by the studied community. PMID:22182329

  14. Challenges to natural resource monitoring in a small border park: terrestrial mammals at Coronado National Memorial, Cochise County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swann, Don E.; Bucci, Melanie; Kuenzi, Amy J.; Alberti, Barbara N.; Schwalbe, Cecil R.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term monitoring in national parks is essential to meet National Park Service and other important public goals. Terrestrial mammals are often proposed for monitoring because large mammals are of interest to visitors and small mammals are important as prey. However, traditional monitoring strategies for mammals are often too expensive and complex to sustain for long periods, particularly in small parks. To evaluate potential strategies for long-term monitoring in small parks, we conducted an intensive one-year inventory of terrestrial mammals at Coronado National Memorial, located in Arizona on the U.S.-Mexico international border, then continued less-intensive monitoring at the site for 7 additional years. During 1996-2003 we confirmed 44 species of terrestrial mammals. Most species (40) were detected in the intensive first year of the study, but we continued to detect new species in later years. Mark-recapture data on small mammals indicated large inter-annual fluctuations in population size, but no significant trend over the 7-year period. Issues associated with the international border affected monitoring efforts and increased sampling costs. Our study confirms that sustained annual monitoring of mammals is probably not feasible in small park units like Coronado. However, comparisons of our data with past studies provide insight into important changes in the mammal community since the 1970s, including an increase in abundance and diversity of grassland rodents. Our results suggest that intensive inventories every 10-20 years may be a valuable and cost-effective approach for detecting long-term trends in terrestrial mammal communities in small natural areas.

  15. Mammal assemblages in forest fragments and landscapes occupied by black howler monkeys.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Negrín, Ariadna; Coyohua-Fuentes, Alejandro; Canales-Espinosa, Domingo; Dias, Pedro Américo D

    2014-07-01

    Species assemblages in disturbed habitats vary as a function of the interaction between species requirements and the spatial configuration of the habitat. There are many reports accounting for the presence of howler monkeys in fragments where other mammals are absent, suggesting that they are more resilient. In the present study we explored this idea and predicted that if howler monkeys were more resilient to habitat loss and fragmentation than other mammals, mammal assemblages in fragments occupied by howler monkeys should include fewer species with decreasing amount of habitat (smaller fragment size and less habitat in the landscape) and increasing number of forest fragments. We explored these relationships by additionally considering the feeding and life habits of mammal species, as well as the isolation and proximity of each fragment to human settlements and roads. We sampled the presence of mammals in five fragments occupied by black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) in the Mexican state of Campeche. Through direct sights performed during 240 h in each fragment, we observed 23 species. At the landscape scale, higher fragmentation was associated with a decrease in herbivores, omnivores and total number of species. At the fragment scale semiarboreal, omnivore, and total number of species increased with increasing fragment size. This study supports the idea that howler monkeys are more resilient to forest loss and fragmentation than other native mammals, and our exploratory analyses suggest that the specific mammal assemblages that are found in fragments are related to both landscape and fragment scale spatial attributes, as well as with species-specific characteristics. PMID:24619385

  16. Solid modeling of fossil small mammal teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschallinger, Robert; Hofmann, Peter; Daxner-Höck, Gudrun; Ketcham, Richard A.

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents an approach to create solid models of fossil small mammal teeth using a combination of microcomputed tomography, object based image analysis and voxel modeling. Small mammal teeth, because of their durability, are widely found in Cenozioc sediments the world over and play a key role in stratigraphy as well as in researching the rapid evolution and the paleogeographic spreading of small mammals. Recent advances in microcomputed tomography make this non-destructive analysis method an ideal data source for high-resolution 3D models of fossil small animal teeth. To derive internally consistent solid models of such fossils from micro-CT imagery, we propose a combination of 3D object based image analysis and solid modeling. Incorporating paleontological expert knowledge in the image processing cycle, object based image analysis yields topologically consistent image stacks classified by the main tooth components—enamel, dentine and pulp. Forwarding these data to a voxel modeling system, they can be quantitatively analyzed in an unprecedented manner: going beyond the possibilities of the state-of-art surface models, solid models are capable of unambiguously portraying the entire object volume—teeth can be peeled by material properties, subvolumes can be extracted and automatically analyzed by Boolean operations. The proposed method, which can be flexibly extended to handle a range of paleontological and geological micro-objects, is demonstrated with two typical fossil small mammal teeth.

  17. [Current views on vision of mammals].

    PubMed

    Khokhlova, T V

    2012-01-01

    In the review, research data are presented on mammals' vision including visual pigments, color and contrast vision, and visual behaviour in different species. It is shown that in course of evolution mammals were gradually losing the elements of daylight cone vision system that are typical of other vertebrates. In monotremes, visual pigments SWS2 (cone blue-sensitive 2) and MWS/LWS (green/red-sensitive) are still present, as well as rod RH1. Theria, except some primates, also have two cone visual pigments: SWS1 (ultraviolet/violet or blue-sensitive 1) and MWS/LWS along with rod RH1. Humans and some other higher primates evolved the new visual pigment, MWS, and acquired trichromatic vision. Marine mammals (cetaceans and pinnipeds) and some species of other orders have lost also the visual pigment SWS1, probably due to specificity of processing the information received by these cones. Current view on mammals' vision with two cone pigments and rods is presented. Data on maximum spectral sensitivity of visual pigments in different species and orders are given along with data on spatial contrast sensation. High visual acuity has been acquired by ungulates, artiodactyls, and primates, while the highest one--by humans with their specialized fovea. PMID:23330397

  18. Mammals of the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Cothran, E.G.; Smith, M.H.; Wolff, J.O.; Gentry, J.B.

    1991-12-31

    This book is designed to be used as a field guide, reference book, bibliography, and introduction to the basic biology and ecology of the 54 mammal species that currently or potentially exist on or near the Savannah River Site (SRS). For 50 of these species, we present basic descriptions, distinguishing morphological features, distribution and habitat preferences, food habits, reproductive biology, social behavior, ecological relationships with other species, and economic importance to man. For those species that have been studied on the SRS, we summarize the results of these studies. Keys and illustrations are provided for whole body and skull identification. A selected glossary defines technical terminology. Illustrations of tracks of the more common larger mammals will assist in field identifications. We also summarize the results of two major long-term SRS studies, ``The Forbearer Census`` and ``White-tailed Deer Studies``. A cross-indexed list of over 300 SRS publications on mammals classifies each publication by 23 categories such as habitat, reproduction, genetics, etc., and also for each mammal species. The 149 Master`s theses and Ph.D. dissertations that have been conducted at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory are provided as additional references.

  19. Mammals of the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Cothran, E.G.; Smith, M.H.; Wolff, J.O.; Gentry, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    This book is designed to be used as a field guide, reference book, bibliography, and introduction to the basic biology and ecology of the 54 mammal species that currently or potentially exist on or near the Savannah River Site (SRS). For 50 of these species, we present basic descriptions, distinguishing morphological features, distribution and habitat preferences, food habits, reproductive biology, social behavior, ecological relationships with other species, and economic importance to man. For those species that have been studied on the SRS, we summarize the results of these studies. Keys and illustrations are provided for whole body and skull identification. A selected glossary defines technical terminology. Illustrations of tracks of the more common larger mammals will assist in field identifications. We also summarize the results of two major long-term SRS studies, The Forbearer Census'' and White-tailed Deer Studies''. A cross-indexed list of over 300 SRS publications on mammals classifies each publication by 23 categories such as habitat, reproduction, genetics, etc., and also for each mammal species. The 149 Master's theses and Ph.D. dissertations that have been conducted at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory are provided as additional references.

  20. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS: MARINE MAMMALS AND SEA TURTLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the description of the Arthur Kill biological features presented in Chapter 1, marine mammals and sea turtles are not discussed since they are not regular residents of this area. owever, marine turtles, seals, and cetaccans are occasionally sighted in the Arthur Kill, and they...

  1. Introducing EzTaxon-e: a prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene sequence database with phylotypes that represent uncultured species.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ok-Sun; Cho, Yong-Joon; Lee, Kihyun; Yoon, Seok-Hwan; Kim, Mincheol; Na, Hyunsoo; Park, Sang-Cheol; Jeon, Yoon Seong; Lee, Jae-Hak; Yi, Hana; Won, Sungho; Chun, Jongsik

    2012-03-01

    Despite recent advances in commercially optimized identification systems, bacterial identification remains a challenging task in many routine microbiological laboratories, especially in situations where taxonomically novel isolates are involved. The 16S rRNA gene has been used extensively for this task when coupled with a well-curated database, such as EzTaxon, containing sequences of type strains of prokaryotic species with validly published names. Although the EzTaxon database has been widely used for routine identification of prokaryotic isolates, sequences from uncultured prokaryotes have not been considered. Here, the next generation database, named EzTaxon-e, is formally introduced. This new database covers not only species within the formal nomenclatural system but also phylotypes that may represent species in nature. In addition to an identification function based on Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (blast) searches and pairwise global sequence alignments, a new objective method of assessing the degree of completeness in sequencing is proposed. All sequences that are held in the EzTaxon-e database have been subjected to phylogenetic analysis and this has resulted in a complete hierarchical classification system. It is concluded that the EzTaxon-e database provides a useful taxonomic backbone for the identification of cultured and uncultured prokaryotes and offers a valuable means of communication among microbiologists who routinely encounter taxonomically novel isolates. The database and its analytical functions can be found at http://eztaxon-e.ezbiocloud.net/. PMID:22140171

  2. Adaptive features of aquatic mammals' eye.

    PubMed

    Mass, Alla M; Supin, Alexander Ya

    2007-06-01

    The eye of aquatic mammals demonstrates several adaptations to both underwater and aerial vision. This study offers a review of eye anatomy in four groups of aquatic animals: cetaceans (toothed and baleen whales), pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses), sirenians (manatees and dugongs), and sea otters. Eye anatomy and optics, retinal laminar morphology, and topography of ganglion cell distribution are discussed with particular reference to aquatic specializations for underwater versus aerial vision. Aquatic mammals display emmetropia (i.e., refraction of light to focus on the retina) while submerged, and most have mechanisms to achieve emmetropia above water to counter the resulting aerial myopia. As underwater vision necessitates adjusting to wide variations in luminosity, iris muscle contractions create species-specific pupil shapes that regulate the amount of light entering the pupil and, in pinnipeds, work in conjunction with a reflective optic tapetum. The retina of aquatic mammals is similar to that of nocturnal terrestrial mammals in containing mainly rod photoreceptors and a minor number of cones (however, residual color vision may take place). A characteristic feature of the cetacean and pinniped retina is the large size of ganglion cells separated by wide intercellular spaces. Studies of topographic distribution of ganglion cells in the retina of cetaceans revealed two areas of ganglion cell concentration (the best-vision areas) located in the temporal and nasal quadrants; pinnipeds, sirenians, and sea otters have only one such area. In general, the visual system of marine mammals demonstrates a high degree of development and several specific features associated with adaptation for vision in both the aquatic and aerial environments. PMID:17516421

  3. Effects of roads on small mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, L.W.; Geis, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    (1) The study was designed to determine the effects of roads on the diversity, spatial distribution, and density of small mammals. (2) Forty species of small mammal (5859 individuals) were snap-trapped in the study. Data resulted from 144 360 trap-nights of effort for an average of 4.06 captures per 100 trap-nights. (3) Small mammal community structure and density were both influenced by roads. Community structure in right-of-way (ROW) habitat was different from that in adjacent habitat. Five species did not prefer ROW habitat: the golden mouse, dusky-footed woodrat, brush mouse, pinon mouse, and California red-backed vole. However, there were more species present in ROW habitat than in adjacent habitat. Grassland species generally preferred ROW habitat and many less habitat-specific species were distributed in ROW and adjacent habitat. (4) Small mammal density (all species combined) was greater in interstate ROW habitat than in adjacent habitat. This was also true individually for the eastern harvest mouse, white-footed mouse, meadow vole, prairie vole, vagrant shrew. Townsend's vole, and California vole. Small mammal density was less in county road ROWs than in adjacent habitat, probably because of the small size of these areas. The data indicate that ROW habitat and its accompanying edge are attractive no: only to grassland species but also to many less habitat-specific species that make use of the ROW-edge-adjacent habitat complex. (5) Mortality on interstate highways was greatest for those species with highest densities in ROW habitat, and did not appear to be detrimental to populations of these species.

  4. 77 FR 29969 - Marine Mammal Stock Assessment Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ...As required by the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS has incorporated public comments into revisions of marine mammal stock assessment reports (SARs). The 2011 reports are final and available to the...

  5. 76 FR 7824 - Marine Mammals; File No. 978-1791

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The original permit, issued on February 9, 2006 (71 FR 8279...D, Marine Mammal Research Program Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, P.O. Box 1106, Kailua,...

  6. Effects of tillage practices and carbofuran exposure on small mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Linder, G.; Nichols, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    We compared population estimates, body mass, movement, and blood chemistry of small mammals between conventionally tilled and no-till cornfields in Maryland and Pennsylvania to evaluate the effects of tillage practices and carbofuran exposure on small mammals.

  7. Comparative seroprevalence of Leptospira interrogans in Colombian mammals along a climatic gradient.

    PubMed

    Astudillo, Viviana González; Hernández, Dave Wehdeking; Stadlin, Juliana Peña; Bernal, Leonardo Arias; Rodríguez, Dora Adriana Lombo; Hernández, Miryam Astudillo

    2012-12-01

    Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonotic disease with well-established impacts on human health in tropical and subtropical regions. Although Leptospira spp. are known to readily infect many wildlife species, the understanding of interspecies and climatic variability in patterns of infection in Neotropical mammals is limited. To improve the understanding of this interplay, 85 mammals representing 17 species were sampled from four Colombian zoos along a climatic gradient. Prevalence of the 21 primary serovars against Leptospira interrogans was determined using the microagglutination test. Individuals were considered positive for a given serovar if antibodies were observable at a 1:100 dilution or greater. Overall prevalence was 9.52%, with positive titers to serovar hurstbridge in Carnivora (Canidae); serovar sarmin in Primata (Atelidae); and serovars australis, mini, autumnalis, pomona, icterohaemorrhagiae, and seramanga in Primata (Cebidae). Prevalence was positively correlated with humidity and temperature, with significantly higher prevalence at the site characterized by high humidity, severe flooding because of rainfall, and warm weather throughout the year. All positive animals were classified as clinically asymptomatic, meaning that antibodies from a current or past infection were detected but no overt symptoms were apparent. The diversity of serovars observed and the taxon-specific nature of these associations suggest that the epidemiology of Leptospira transmission is likely to be complex and multidimensional. The strong association observed between prevalence and climate suggests that the important role of climate as an indicator of Leptospira infection risk in humans may also be applicable to wildlife. Future studies in both wild and captive populations of Neotropical wildlife will further elucidate this disease interplay. PMID:23272343

  8. 76 FR 39705 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation of Offshore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ...NMFS has received a request from BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. (BP) for authorization for the take of marine mammals incidental to operation of offshore oil and gas facilities in the U.S. Beaufort Sea, Alaska, for the period 2011-2016. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is proposing to issue regulations to govern that take and requesting information, suggestions, and......

  9. 75 FR 12734 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation of Offshore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ...NMFS has received a request from BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. (BP) for authorization for the take of marine mammals incidental to operation of offshore oil and gas facilities in the U.S. Beaufort Sea, AK, for the period April 2011 - April 2016. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is announcing receipt of BP's request for the development and implementation of new 5-year......

  10. 77 FR 51773 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ...NMFS has received an application from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to a bird mitigation research trial in the Farallon National Wildlife Refuge. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to the USFWS to take, by......

  11. Molecular adaptation of telomere associated genes in mammals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Placental mammals display a huge range of life history traits, including size, longevity, metabolic rate and germ line generation time. Although a number of general trends have been proposed between these traits, there are exceptions that warrant further investigation. Species such as naked mole rat, human and certain bat species all exhibit extreme longevity with respect to body size. It has long been established that telomeres and telomere maintenance have a clear role in ageing but it has not yet been established whether there is evidence for adaptation in telomere maintenance proteins that could account for increased longevity in these species. Results Here we carry out a molecular investigation of selective pressure variation, specifically focusing on telomere associated genes across placental mammals. In general we observe a large number of instances of positive selection acting on telomere genes. Although these signatures of selection overall are not significantly correlated with either longevity or body size we do identify positive selection in the microbat species Myotis lucifugus in functionally important regions of the telomere maintenance genes DKC1 and TERT, and in naked mole rat in the DNA repair gene BRCA1. Conclusion These results demonstrate the multifarious selective pressures acting across the mammal phylogeny driving lineage-specific adaptations of telomere associated genes. Our results show that regardless of the longevity of a species, these proteins have evolved under positive selection thereby removing increased longevity as the single selective force driving this rapid rate of evolution. However, evidence of molecular adaptations specific to naked mole rat and Myotis lucifugus highlight functionally significant regions in genes that may alter the way in which telomeres are regulated and maintained in these longer-lived species. PMID:24237966

  12. 77 FR 60107 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17298

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC218 Marine Mammals; File No. 17298 AGENCY..., Connecticut 06355 , has applied in due form for a permit to collect, import, export, and receive marine mammal... requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C....

  13. 77 FR 31585 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16388

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB154 Marine Mammals; File No. 16388 AGENCY... Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as...

  14. 50 CFR 16.11 - Importation of live wild mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Importation of live wild mammals. 16.11... mammals. (a) The importation, transportation, or acquisition is prohibited of live specimens of: (1) Any... mammals under the terms and conditions set forth in § 16.22. (b) Upon the filing of a written...

  15. 78 FR 66336 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17030

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC956 Marine Mammals; File No. 17030 AGENCY...., Oregon State University, Marine Mammal Institute, Hatfield Marine Science Center, 2030 SE ] Marine... marine mammals specimens for scientific research. DATES: Written, telefaxed, or email comments must...

  16. 77 FR 32081 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17236

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC050 Marine Mammals; File No. 17236 AGENCY.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection... importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The purpose of the research is to evaluate how...

  17. 50 CFR 16.11 - Importation of live wild mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Importation of live wild mammals. 16.11... mammals. (a) The importation, transportation, or acquisition is prohibited of live specimens of: (1) Any... mammals under the terms and conditions set forth in § 16.22. (b) Upon the filing of a written...

  18. 77 FR 19646 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17178

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB139 Marine Mammals; File No. 17178 AGENCY... permit to import marine mammal parts for scientific research. DATES: Written, telefaxed, or email.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal...

  19. 76 FR 10560 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15530

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA160 Marine Mammals; File No. 15530 AGENCY... Research, 218 W. 4th Avenue, Olympia, WA 98501, has applied in due form for a permit to take marine mammals... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et...

  20. 77 FR 19645 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16111

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA626 Marine Mammals; File No. 16111 AGENCY... form for a permit to conduct research on marine mammals. DATES: Written, telefaxed, or email comments... Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing...

  1. 78 FR 21113 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17845

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC599 Marine Mammals; File No. 17845 AGENCY... Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as...

  2. 77 FR 36488 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17350

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC067 Marine Mammals; File No. 17350 AGENCY... receive marine mammal parts for scientific research. DATES: Written, telefaxed, or email comments must be... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et...

  3. 77 FR 3744 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17029

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA938 Marine Mammals; File No. 17029 AGENCY... applied in due form for a permit to receive, import, export, possess, and conduct analyses marine mammal... is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16...

  4. 77 FR 58357 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17355

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC239 Marine Mammals; File No. 17355 AGENCY... to conduct research on marine mammals and sea turtles. DATES: Written, telefaxed, or email comments... INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of...

  5. 77 FR 268 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16998

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA914 Marine Mammals; File No. 16998 AGENCY... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the...

  6. 77 FR 26513 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15777

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC014 Marine Mammals; File No. 15777 AGENCY... to take marine mammals during scientific research in coastal waters and adjacent waters off the... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et...

  7. 78 FR 51146 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17429

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC766 Marine Mammals; File No. 17429 AGENCY... requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216),...

  8. 77 FR 55456 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17410

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC210 Marine Mammals; File No. 17410 AGENCY... applied in due form for a permit to import, export, collect, and receive marine mammal parts for.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal...

  9. 50 CFR 16.11 - Importation of live wild mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Importation of live wild mammals. 16.11... mammals. (a) The importation, transportation, or acquisition is prohibited of live specimens of: (1) Any... mammals under the terms and conditions set forth in § 16.22. (b) Upon the filing of a written...

  10. 50 CFR 16.11 - Importation of live wild mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Importation of live wild mammals. 16.11... mammals. (a) The importation, transportation, or acquisition is prohibited of live specimens of: (1) Any... mammals under the terms and conditions set forth in § 16.22. (b) Upon the filing of a written...

  11. 77 FR 2513 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA936 Marine Mammals; File No. 17011 AGENCY... INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972... marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). Section 104(c)(6) provides for photography for educational...

  12. 76 FR 4091 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15510

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA165 Marine Mammals; File No. 15510 AGENCY... form for a permit to receive, import, and export marine mammal parts for scientific research. DATES... authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.),...

  13. 76 FR 79155 - Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA880 Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY... Scientific Research on marine mammals. See SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION for a list of names and address of... the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.),...

  14. 76 FR 45232 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16443

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA597 Marine Mammals; File No. 16443 AGENCY... analyses marine mammal specimens for scientific research. DATES: Written, telefaxed, or e-mail comments... the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the...

  15. 77 FR 267 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16621

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA915 Marine Mammals; File No. 16621 AGENCY... Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The applicant requests a...

  16. 50 CFR 16.11 - Importation of live wild mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Importation of live wild mammals. 16.11... mammals. (a) The importation, transportation, or acquisition is prohibited of live specimens of: (1) Any... mammals under the terms and conditions set forth in § 16.22. (b) Upon the filing of a written...

  17. 78 FR 66681 - Draft 2013 Marine Mammal Stock Assessment Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ...NMFS reviewed the Alaska, Atlantic, and Pacific regional marine mammal stock assessment reports (SARs) in accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act. SARs for marine mammals in the Alaska, Atlantic, and Pacific regions were revised according to new information. NMFS solicits public comments on the draft 2013...

  18. 75 FR 28239 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15537

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW51 Marine Mammals; File No. 15537 AGENCY.... 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part... marine mammals; that the proposed activity by itself, or in combination with other activities, will...

  19. 75 FR 76956 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15415

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA076 Marine Mammals; File No. 15415 AGENCY... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of...

  20. Pathophysiological analyses of cortical malformation using gyrencephalic mammals.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Kosuke; Toda, Tomohisa; Shinmyo, Yohei; Ebisu, Haruka; Hoshiba, Yoshio; Wakimoto, Mayu; Ichikawa, Yoshie; Kawasaki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    One of the most prominent features of the cerebral cortex of higher mammals is the presence of gyri. Because malformations of the cortical gyri are associated with severe disability in brain function, the mechanisms underlying malformations of the cortical gyri have been of great interest. Combining gyrencephalic carnivore ferrets and genetic manipulations using in utero electroporation, here we successfully recapitulated the cortical phenotypes of thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) by expressing fibroblast growth factor 8 in the ferret cerebral cortex. Strikingly, in contrast to TD mice, our TD ferret model showed not only megalencephaly but also polymicrogyria. We further uncovered that outer radial glial cells (oRGs) and intermediate progenitor cells (IPs) were markedly increased. Because it has been proposed that increased oRGs and/or IPs resulted in the appearance of cortical gyri during evolution, it seemed possible that increased oRGs and IPs underlie the pathogenesis of polymicrogyria. Our findings should help shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation and malformation of cortical gyri in higher mammals. PMID:26482531

  1. Pathophysiological analyses of cortical malformation using gyrencephalic mammals

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Kosuke; Toda, Tomohisa; Shinmyo, Yohei; Ebisu, Haruka; Hoshiba, Yoshio; Wakimoto, Mayu; Ichikawa, Yoshie; Kawasaki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    One of the most prominent features of the cerebral cortex of higher mammals is the presence of gyri. Because malformations of the cortical gyri are associated with severe disability in brain function, the mechanisms underlying malformations of the cortical gyri have been of great interest. Combining gyrencephalic carnivore ferrets and genetic manipulations using in utero electroporation, here we successfully recapitulated the cortical phenotypes of thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) by expressing fibroblast growth factor 8 in the ferret cerebral cortex. Strikingly, in contrast to TD mice, our TD ferret model showed not only megalencephaly but also polymicrogyria. We further uncovered that outer radial glial cells (oRGs) and intermediate progenitor cells (IPs) were markedly increased. Because it has been proposed that increased oRGs and/or IPs resulted in the appearance of cortical gyri during evolution, it seemed possible that increased oRGs and IPs underlie the pathogenesis of polymicrogyria. Our findings should help shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation and malformation of cortical gyri in higher mammals. PMID:26482531

  2. 76 FR 6406 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA116 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to... Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice..., earthquakes, ice, and atmospheric noise. Biological noise includes sounds produced by marine mammals,...

  3. Late Cretaceous relatives of rabbits, rodents, and other extant eutherian mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archibald, J. David; Averianov, Alexander O.; Ekdale, Eric G.

    2001-11-01

    Extant eutherian mammals and their most recent common ancestor constitute the crown group Placentalia. This taxon, plus all extinct taxa that share a more recent common ancestor with placentals than they do with Metatheria (including marsupials), constitute Eutheria. The oldest well documented eutherian-dominated fauna in the world is Dzharakuduk, Uzbekistan. Among eutherians that it yields is Kulbeckia, an 85-90-Myr-old member of Zalambdalestidae (a family of Late Cretaceous Asian eutherians). This extends Zalambdalestidae back by some 10 million years from sites in the Gobi Desert, Mongolia. A phylogenetic analysis of well described Late Cretaceous eutherians strongly supports Zalambdalestidae, less strongly supports `Zhelestidae' (a Late Cretaceous clade related to Tertiary ungulates), but does not support Asioryctitheria (a group of Late Cretaceous Asian eutherians). A second analysis incorporating placentals from clades that include rodents (Tribosphenomys), lagomorphs (Mimotona) and archaic ungulates (Protungulatum and Oxyprimus) strongly supports Zalambdalestidae in a clade with Glires (rabbits, rodents and extinct relatives) and less strongly `Zhelestidae' within a clade that includes archaic ungulates (`condylarths'). This argues that some Late Cretaceous eutherians belong within the crown group Placentalia. The ages of these taxa are in line with molecularly based estimates of 64-104Myr ago (median 84Myr ago) for the superordinal diversification of some placentals, but provide no support for a Late Cretaceous diversification of extant placental orders.

  4. Reconstructing the migration patterns of late Pleistocene mammals from northern Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppe, Kathryn A.; Koch, Paul L.

    2007-11-01

    We used analyses of the strontium isotope ( 87Sr/ 86Sr) ratios of tooth enamel to reconstruct the migration patterns of fossil mammals collected along the Aucilla River in northern Florida. Specimens date to the late-glacial period and before the last glacial maximum (pre-LGM). Deer and tapir displayed low 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios that were similar to the ratios of Florida environments, which suggest that these taxa did not migrate long distance outside of the Florida region. Mastodons, mammoths, and equids all displayed a wide range of 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios. Some individuals in each taxon displayed low 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios that suggest they ranged locally, while other animals had high 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios that suggest they migrated long distances (> 150 km) outside of the Florida region. Mastodons were the only taxa from this region that provided enough well-dated specimens to compare changes in migration patterns over time. Pre-LGM mastodons displayed significantly lower 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios than late-glacial mastodons, which suggests that late-glacial mastodons from Florida migrated longer distances than their earlier counterparts. This change in movement patterns reflects temporal changes in regional vegetation patterns.

  5. Rensch's rule in large herbivorous mammals derived from metabolic scaling.

    PubMed

    Sibly, Richard M; Zuo, Wenyun; Kodric-Brown, Astrid; Brown, James H

    2012-02-01

    Rensch's rule, which states that the magnitude of sexual size dimorphism tends to increase with increasing body size, has evolved independently in three lineages of large herbivorous mammals: bovids (antelopes), cervids (deer), and macropodids (kangaroos). This pattern can be explained by a model that combines allometry, life-history theory, and energetics. The key features are that female group size increases with increasing body size and that males have evolved under sexual selection to grow large enough to control these groups of females. The model predicts relationships among body size and female group size, male and female age at first breeding, death and growth rates, and energy allocation of males to produce body mass and weapons. Model predictions are well supported by data for these megaherbivores. The model suggests hypotheses for why some other sexually dimorphic taxa, such as primates and pinnipeds (seals and sea lions), do or do not conform to Rensh's rule. PMID:22218307

  6. C-values of seven marine mammal species determined by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Du, Bo; Wang, Ding

    2006-11-01

    C-values, which estimate genome size, have puzzled geneticists for years because they bear no relationship to organismal complexity. Though C-values have been estimated for thousands of species, considerably more data are required in order to better understanding genome evolution. This is particularly true for mammals, in which C-values are known for less than 8% of the total number of mammalian species. Among marine mammals, a C-value has been estimated only for the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Thus examination of additional species of marine mammals is necessary for comparative purposes. It will enable a better understanding of marine mammal genome evolution, and it is also relevant to conservation, because larger genome size has been linked to increased likelihood of extinction in some plant and animal groups. Our study presents C-values of seven marine mammal species, including five cetacean species that are endangered to varying degrees. Similarly to the results for other groups, our results suggest that larger genome size in cetaceans is related to an increased likelihood of extinction. PMID:17189914

  7. Molecular evidence for a single taxon, Anopheles nuneztovari s. l., from two endemic malaria regions in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Luz Marina; Gutiérrez, Lina A; Luckhart, Shirley; Conn, Jan E; Correa, Margarita M

    2012-01-01

    To elucidate the Anopheles nuneztovari s.l. taxonomic status at a microgeographic level in four malaria endemic localities from Antioquia and Córdoba, Colombia, fragments of the Cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and the white gene were used. The COI analysis showed low genetic differentiation with FST levels between −0.02 and 0.137 and Nm values between 3 and infinity, indicating the presence of high gene flow among An. nuneztovari s.l. populations from the four localities. The COI network showed a single most common haplotype, 1 (n=55), present in all localities, as the likely ancestral haplotype. Analysis of the white gene showed that An. nuneztovari s.l. populations from both departments grouped with haplotypes 19 and 20, which are part of lineage 3 previously reported. The results of the present study suggest that An. nuneztovari s.l. is a single taxon in the area of the present study. PMID:22241127

  8. Trends in North American small mammals found in common barn-owl (Tyto alba) dietary studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; Bunck, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Data on mammals were compiled from published studies of common barn-owl (Tyto alba) pellets. Mammalian composition of pellet samples was analyzed within geographic regions in regard to year, mean annual precipitation, latitude, and number of individual mammals in the sample. Percentages of individuals in pellets that were shrews increased whereas the percentages of rodents decreased with greater mean annual precipitation, especially in northern and western areas of North America. From the 1920s through 1980s, in northern and eastern areas the percentage of species that was shrews decreased, and in northern and central areas the percentage of individuals that was murid rats and mice increased. Human alterations of habitats during these seven decades are postulated to have caused changes in available small mammals, leading to changes in the barn-owl diet.

  9. Taxon-rich phylogenomic analyses resolve the eukaryotic tree of life and reveal the power of subsampling by sites.

    PubMed

    Katz, Laura A; Grant, Jessica R

    2015-05-01

    Most eukaryotic lineages are microbial, and many have only recently been sampled for phylogenetic studies or remain in the "dark area" of the tree of life where there are no molecular data. To assess relationships among eukaryotic lineages, we perform a taxon-rich phylogenomic analysis including 232 eukaryotes selected to maximize taxonomic diversity and up to 1554 genes chosen as vertically inherited based on their broad distribution among eukaryotes. We also include sequences from 486 bacteria and 84 archaea to assess the impact of endosymbiotic gene transfer (EGT) from plastids and to detect contamination. Overall, our analyses are consistent with other less taxon-rich estimates of the eukaryotic tree of life, and we recover strong support for five major clades: Amoebozoa, Excavata (without the genus Malawimonas), Opisthokonta, Archaeplastida, and SAR (Stramenopila, Alveolata, and Rhizaria). Our analyses also highlight the existence of "orphan" lineages, lineages that lack robust placement in the eukaryotic tree of life, and indicate the possibility of as yet undiscovered diversity. In analyses including bacteria and archaea, we find that approximately 10% of the 1554 genes, which we choose because they are found in four or five of the five major eukaryotic clades and hence may be more likely to be inherited vertically, appear to have been acquired from cyanobacteria through EGT in photosynthetic lineages. Removing these EGT genes places the green algae as sister to the glaucophytes instead of the red algae, suggesting that unknowingly including genes of plastid origin, and combining them with genes of nuclear origin, may mislead phylogenetic estimates. Finally, the large size of our data set allows comparative analyses of subsets of data; alignments built from randomly sampled sites provide greater support, particularly for deep relationships, than do equivalent-sized data sets built from randomly sampled genes. PMID:25540455

  10. How to Handle Speciose Clades? Mass Taxon-Sampling as a Strategy towards Illuminating the Natural History of Campanula (Campanuloideae)

    PubMed Central

    Mansion, Guilhem; Parolly, Gerald; Crowl, Andrew A.; Mavrodiev, Evgeny; Cellinese, Nico; Oganesian, Marine; Fraunhofer, Katharina; Kamari, Georgia; Phitos, Dimitrios; Haberle, Rosemarie; Akaydin, Galip; Ikinci, Nursel; Raus, Thomas; Borsch, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background Speciose clades usually harbor species with a broad spectrum of adaptive strategies and complex distribution patterns, and thus constitute ideal systems to disentangle biotic and abiotic causes underlying species diversification. The delimitation of such study systems to test evolutionary hypotheses is difficult because they often rely on artificial genus concepts as starting points. One of the most prominent examples is the bellflower genus Campanula with some 420 species, but up to 600 species when including all lineages to which Campanula is paraphyletic. We generated a large alignment of petD group II intron sequences to include more than 70% of described species as a reference. By comparison with partial data sets we could then assess the impact of selective taxon sampling strategies on phylogenetic reconstruction and subsequent evolutionary conclusions. Methodology/Principal Findings Phylogenetic analyses based on maximum parsimony (PAUP, PRAP), Bayesian inference (MrBayes), and maximum likelihood (RAxML) were first carried out on the large reference data set (D680). Parameters including tree topology, branch support, and age estimates, were then compared to those obtained from smaller data sets resulting from “classification-guided” (D088) and “phylogeny-guided sampling” (D101). Analyses of D088 failed to fully recover the phylogenetic diversity in Campanula, whereas D101 inferred significantly different branch support and age estimates. Conclusions/Significance A short genomic region with high phylogenetic utility allowed us to easily generate a comprehensive phylogenetic framework for the speciose Campanula clade. Our approach recovered 17 well-supported and circumscribed sub-lineages. Knowing these will be instrumental for developing more specific evolutionary hypotheses and guide future research, we highlight the predictive value of a mass taxon-sampling strategy as a first essential step towards illuminating the detailed evolutionary

  11. Selfish sentinels in cooperative mammals.

    PubMed

    Clutton-Brock, T H; O'Riain, M J; Brotherton, P N; Gaynor, D; Kansky, R; Griffin, A S; Manser, M

    1999-06-01

    Like humans engaged in risky activities, group members of some animal societies take turns acting as sentinels. Explanations of the evolution of sentinel behavior have frequently relied on kin selection or reciprocal altruism, but recent models suggest that guarding may be an individual's optimal activity once its stomach is full if no other animal is on guard. This paper provides support for this last explanation by showing that, in groups of meerkats (Suricata suricatta), animals guard from safe sites, and solitary individuals as well as group members spend part of their time on guard. Though individuals seldom take successive guarding bouts, there is no regular rota, and the provision of food increases contributions to guarding and reduces the latency between bouts by the same individual. PMID:10356387

  12. 76 FR 38361 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... intentional, taking by harassment of small numbers of marine mammals of a species or population stock, by... provided to the public for review. Authorization for incidental taking of small numbers of marine mammals... incidental harassment of small numbers of marine mammals. Within 45 days of the close of the public...

  13. An Analysis of Marine Mammal Self-Reports and Observer Reports from 1996-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarland, M. H.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past two decades commercial fishing vessel owners have been reporting their interactions with marine mammals in accordance with Section 118 of the Marine Mammal Protection Act. The objective of this study is to analyze marine mammal fisheries interactions data from fishermen self-reports and observer reports. We analyzed self-reports from 1996 - 2014 and Pacific Islands observer data from 2001 - 2014, and Northeast observer data from 1996 - 2014. We identify trends in the national marine mammal mortality/injury (M/I) self-report dataset; identify presence of complementary reports between self-reports and observer reports; and determine the compliance rate of self-reports and observer reports. The results of the self-report analysis indicate that the Greater Atlantic Region (GAR) receives the most M/I reports of the five National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) regional offices. The rate of animals reported as killed is three times higher than the rate for animals injured. Dolphins and porpoises are the most frequently reported species and gillnets are the most frequently reported gear type. This study will provide fisheries managers a greater understanding of the effectiveness of the requirement for fishermen to report moralities and injuries of marine mammals incidentally taken during commercial fishing operations. Refinements to the Marine Mammal Authorization Program (MMAP) reporting form will provide more accurate estimates of the M/I rate of marine mammals in each region and will help address the challenges with collecting self-reported incidental take data. Furthermore, the results can be used by managers to determine if self-reporting is informative and should be continued, with form improvements made to increase accuracy, or if the corresponding observer reports serve as sufficient data by themselves.

  14. Collaborating to conserve large mammals in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, Robert; Chutipong, Wanlop; Seuaturien, Naret

    2006-10-01

    Depressed mammal densities characterize the interior of many Southeast Asian protected areas, and are the result of commercial and subsistence hunting. Local people are part of this problem but can participate in solutions through improved partnerships that incorporate local knowledge into problem diagnosis. The process of involving local people helps build a constituency that is more aware of its role (positive and negative) in a protected area and generates site-specific conservation assessments for management planning. We illustrate the practical details of initiating such a partnership through our work in a Thai wildlife sanctuary. Many protected areas in Southeast Asia present similar opportunities. In local workshops, village woodsmen were led through ranking exercises to develop a spatially explicit picture of 20-year trends in the abundance of 31 mammal species and to compare species-specific causes for declines. Within five taxonomic groups, leaf monkeys (primates), porcupines (rodents), tigers (large carnivores), civets (small carnivores), and elephants (ungulates) had declined most severely (37-74%). Commercial hunting contributed heavily to extensive population declines for most species, and subsistence hunting was locally significant for some small carnivores, leaf monkeys, and deer. Workshops thus clarified which species were at highest risk of local extinction, where the most threatened populations were, and causes for these patterns. Most important, they advanced a shared problem definition, thereby unlocking opportunities for collaboration. As a result, local people and sanctuary managers have increased communication, initiated joint monitoring and patrolling, and established wildlife recovery zones. Using local knowledge has limitations, but the process of engaging local people promotes collaborative action that large mammals in Southeast Asia need. PMID:17002757

  15. Functional constraints on tooth morphology in carnivorous mammals

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The range of potential morphologies resulting from evolution is limited by complex interacting processes, ranging from development to function. Quantifying these interactions is important for understanding adaptation and convergent evolution. Using three-dimensional reconstructions of carnivoran and dasyuromorph tooth rows, we compared statistical models of the relationship between tooth row shape and the opposing tooth row, a static feature, as well as measures of mandibular motion during chewing (occlusion), which are kinetic features. This is a new approach to quantifying functional integration because we use measures of movement and displacement, such as the amount the mandible translates laterally during occlusion, as opposed to conventional morphological measures, such as mandible length and geometric landmarks. By sampling two distantly related groups of ecologically similar mammals, we study carnivorous mammals in general rather than a specific group of mammals. Results Statistical model comparisons demonstrate that the best performing models always include some measure of mandibular motion, indicating that functional and statistical models of tooth shape as purely a function of the opposing tooth row are too simple and that increased model complexity provides a better understanding of tooth form. The predictors of the best performing models always included the opposing tooth row shape and a relative linear measure of mandibular motion. Conclusions Our results provide quantitative support of long-standing hypotheses of tooth row shape as being influenced by mandibular motion in addition to the opposing tooth row. Additionally, this study illustrates the utility and necessity of including kinetic features in analyses of morphological integration. PMID:22899809

  16. Comparative dendritic cell biology of veterinary mammals.

    PubMed

    Summerfield, Artur; Auray, Gael; Ricklin, Meret

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) have a main function in innate immunity in that they sense infections and environmental antigens at the skin and mucosal surfaces and thereby critically influence decisions about immune activation or tolerance. As professional antigen-presenting cells, they are essential for induction of adaptive immune responses. Consequently, knowledge on this cell type is required to understand the immune systems of veterinary mammals, including cattle, sheep, pigs, dogs, cats, and horses. Recent ontogenic studies define bona fide DC as an independent lineage of hematopoietic cells originating from a common precursor. Distinct transcription factors control the development into the two subsets of classical DC and plasmacytoid DC. These DC subsets express a distinguishable transcriptome, which differs from that of monocyte-derived DC. Using a comparative approach based on phenotype and function, this review attempts to classify DC of veterinary mammals and to describe important knowledge gaps. PMID:25387110

  17. Bartonella spp. in Small Mammals, Benin.

    PubMed

    Martin-Alonso, Aarón; Houemenou, Gualbert; Abreu-Yanes, Estefanía; Valladares, Basilio; Feliu, Carlos; Foronda, Pilar

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella organisms in small mammals in Cotonou, Benin. We captured 163 rodents and 12 insectivores and successfully detected Bartonella DNA from 13 of the 175 small mammal individuals. Bartonella spp., identical or closely related to Bartonella elizabethae, Bartonella tribocorum, and Bartonella rochalimae, was detected. A potential new Bartonella species, proposed as Candidatus Bartonella mastomydis, was found in three Mastomys individuals and genetically characterized by targeting two housekeeping genes (rpoB and gltA) and the intergenic species region. However, 20.8% of gray rats were found to be infected with Bartonella spp., and none of the black rats analyzed was positive. This work may be important from a public health point of view due to the zoonotic nature of the Bartonella species detected and warrants further investigation on the unknown zoonotic potential of this newly proposed Bartonella species. PMID:26910412

  18. Prioritizing conservation investments for mammal species globally

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Kerrie A.; Evans, Megan C.; Di Marco, Moreno; Green, David C.; Boitani, Luigi; Possingham, Hugh P.; Chiozza, Federica; Rondinini, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    We need to set priorities for conservation because we cannot do everything, everywhere, at the same time. We determined priority areas for investment in threat abatement actions, in both a cost-effective and spatially and temporally explicit way, for the threatened mammals of the world. Our analysis presents the first fine-resolution prioritization analysis for mammals at a global scale that accounts for the risk of habitat loss, the actions required to abate this risk, the costs of these actions and the likelihood of investment success. We evaluated the likelihood of success of investments using information on the past frequency and duration of legislative effectiveness at a country scale. The establishment of new protected areas was the action receiving the greatest investment, while restoration was never chosen. The resolution of the analysis and the incorporation of likelihood of success made little difference to this result, but affected the spatial location of these investments. PMID:21844046

  19. Evolution of climate niches in European mammals?

    PubMed

    Dormann, Carsten F; Gruber, Bernd; Winter, Marten; Herrmann, Dirk

    2010-04-23

    Our ability to predict consequences of climate change is severely impaired by the lack of knowledge on the ability of species to adapt to changing environmental conditions. We used distribution data for 140 mammal species in Europe, together with data on climate, land cover and topography, to derive a statistical description of their realized climate niche. We then compared climate niche overlap of pairs of species, selected on the basis of phylogenetic information. In contrast to expectations, related species were not similar in their climate niche. Rather, even species pairs that had a common ancestor less than 1 Ma already display very high climate niche distances. We interpret our finding as a strong interspecific competitive constraint on the realized niche, rather than a rapid evolution of the fundamental niche. If correct, our results imply a very limited usefulness of climate niche models for the prediction of future mammal distributions. PMID:19828492

  20. Elk herbivory alters small mammal assemblages in high-elevation drainages.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Elliott W R; Maron, John L; Martin, Thomas E

    2013-03-01

    Heavy herbivory by ungulates can substantially alter habitat, but the indirect consequences of habitat modification for animal assemblages that rely on that habitat are not well studied. This is a particularly important topic given that climate change can alter plant-herbivore interactions. We explored short-term responses of small mammal communities to recent exclusion of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) in high-elevation riparian drainages in northern Arizona, where elk impacts on vegetation have increased over the past quarter century associated with climate change. We used 10-ha elk exclosures paired with unfenced control drainages to examine how browsing influenced the habitat use, relative abundance, richness and diversity of a small mammal assemblage. We found that the small mammal assemblage changed significantly after 5 years of elk exclusion. Relative abundance of voles (Microtus mexicanus) increased in exclosure drainages, likely due to an increase in habitat quality. The relative abundances of woodrats (Neotoma neomexicana) and two species of mice (Peromyscus maniculatus and P. boylii) decreased in the controls, while remaining stable in exclosures. The decline of mice in control drainages was likely due to the decline in shrub cover that they use. Thus, elk exclusion may have maintained or improved habitat for mice inside the exclosures while habitat quality and mouse abundance both declined outside the fences. Finally, small mammal species richness increased in the exclosures relative to the controls while species diversity showed no significant trends. Together, our results show that relaxation of heavy herbivore pressure by a widespread native ungulate can lead to rapid changes in small mammal assemblages. Moreover, exclusion of large herbivores can yield rapid responses by vegetation that may enhance or maintain habitat quality for small mammal populations. PMID:23163813

  1. Paternal care and litter size coevolution in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Hobson, Liane

    2016-01-01

    Biparental care of offspring occurs in diverse mammalian genera and is particularly common among species with socially monogamous mating systems. Despite numerous well-documented examples, however, the evolutionary causes and consequences of paternal care in mammals are not well understood. Here, we investigate the evolution of paternal care in relation to offspring production. Using comparative analyses to test for evidence of evolutionary associations between male care and life-history traits, we explore if biparental care is likely to have evolved because of the importance of male care to offspring survival, or if evolutionary increases in offspring production are likely to result from the evolution of biparental care. Overall, we find no evidence that paternal care has evolved in response to benefits of supporting females to rear particularly costly large offspring or litters. Rather, our findings suggest that increases in offspring production are more likely to follow the evolution of paternal care, specifically where males contribute depreciable investment such as provisioning young. Through coevolution with litter size, we conclude that paternal care in mammals is likely to play an important role in stabilizing monogamous mating systems and could ultimately promote the evolution of complex social behaviours. PMID:27097924

  2. Sperm competition drives the evolution of suicidal reproduction in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Diana O.; Dickman, Christopher R.; Jones, Menna E.; Blomberg, Simon P.

    2013-01-01

    Suicidal reproduction (semelparity) has evolved in only four genera of mammals. In these insectivorous marsupials, all males die after mating, when failure of the corticosteroid feedback mechanism elevates stress hormone levels during the mating season and causes lethal immune system collapse (die-off). We quantitatively test and resolve the evolutionary causes of this surprising and extreme life history strategy. We show that as marsupial predators in Australia, South America, and Papua New Guinea diversified into higher latitudes, seasonal predictability in abundance of their arthropod prey increased in multiple habitats. More-predictable prey peaks were associated with shorter annual breeding seasons, consistent with the suggestion that females accrue fitness benefits by timing peak energy demands of reproduction to coincide with maximum food abundance. We demonstrate that short mating seasons intensified reproductive competition between males, increasing male energy investment in copulations and reducing male postmating survival. However, predictability of annual prey cycles alone does not explain suicidal reproduction, because unlike insect abundance, peak ovulation dates in semelparous species are often synchronized to the day among years, triggered by a species-specific rate of change of photoperiod. Among species with low postmating male survival, we show that those with suicidal reproduction have shorter mating seasons and larger testes relative to body size. This indicates that lethal effort is adaptive in males because females escalate sperm competition by further shortening and synchronizing the annual mating period and mating promiscuously. We conclude that precopulatory sexual selection by females favored the evolution of suicidal reproduction in mammals. PMID:24101455

  3. The Grinnell Project; Small Mammal Responses to Climate in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conroy, C. C.; Koo, M.; Monahan, B.; Parra, J.; Moritz, C.

    2006-12-01

    Between 1915 and 1920, Joseph Grinnell and colleagues investigated the diversity of mammals, reptiles, amphibians and birds across what they termed the Yosemite Transect, an area spanning portions of the San Joaquin Valley, the Sierra Nevada, including about 1/3 of Yosemite National Park, and ending at Mono Lake. Their data collection included preservation of series of specimens at a large number of locations, point counts of birds, photography and extensive natural history notes, all of which are still archived at the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology at UC Berkeley. Beginning in 2003, researchers from the MVZ began retracing this work, collecting specimens, using point counts, and retaking some photographs. The comparison of the two periods indicates that some mammals have shifted their ranges greatly. Most taxa show an elevation increase, either an increase at the top for middle elevation species, or a retraction at the bottom for higher elevation species. However, not all species moved, and one high elevation species moved down. To further investigate how changes observed in Yosemite might also apply to larger spatial scales, our group has been using historic climate surfaces, historic specimen localities, and a variety of modeling methods to predict statewide changes in species' distributions. Other potential sites to be revisited include the Lassen Transect in Northern California, the Colorado River, and the San Bernardino Mountains.

  4. Paternal care and litter size coevolution in mammals.

    PubMed

    Stockley, Paula; Hobson, Liane

    2016-04-27

    Biparental care of offspring occurs in diverse mammalian genera and is particularly common among species with socially monogamous mating systems. Despite numerous well-documented examples, however, the evolutionary causes and consequences of paternal care in mammals are not well understood. Here, we investigate the evolution of paternal care in relation to offspring production. Using comparative analyses to test for evidence of evolutionary associations between male care and life-history traits, we explore if biparental care is likely to have evolved because of the importance of male care to offspring survival, or if evolutionary increases in offspring production are likely to result from the evolution of biparental care. Overall, we find no evidence that paternal care has evolved in response to benefits of supporting females to rear particularly costly large offspring or litters. Rather, our findings suggest that increases in offspring production are more likely to follow the evolution of paternal care, specifically where males contribute depreciable investment such as provisioning young. Through coevolution with litter size, we conclude that paternal care in mammals is likely to play an important role in stabilizing monogamous mating systems and could ultimately promote the evolution of complex social behaviours. PMID:27097924

  5. Obesity Gene Atlas in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Kunej, Tanja; Jevsinek Skok, Dasa; Zorc, Minja; Ogrinc, Ana; Michal, Jennifer J.; Kovac, Milena; Jiang, Zhihua

    2013-01-01

    Obesity in humans has increased at an alarming rate over the past two decades and has become one of the leading public health problems worldwide. Studies have revealed a large number of genes/markers that are associated with obesity and/or obesity-related phenotypes, indicating an urgent need to develop a central database for helping the community understand the genetic complexity of obesity. In the present study, we collected a total of 1,736 obesity associated loci and created a freely available obesity database, including 1,515 protein-coding genes and 221 microRNAs (miRNAs) collected from four mammalian species: human, cattle, rat, and mouse. These loci were integrated as orthologs on comparative genomic views in human, cattle, and mouse. The database and genomic views are freely available online at: http://www.integratomics-time.com/fat_deposition. Bioinformatics analyses of the collected data revealed some potential novel obesity related molecular markers which represent focal points for testing more targeted hypotheses and designing experiments for further studies. We believe that this centralized database on obesity and adipogenesis will facilitate development of comparative systems biology approaches to address this important health issue in human and their potential applications in animals. PMID:25031655

  6. Future hotspots of terrestrial mammal loss.

    PubMed

    Visconti, Piero; Pressey, Robert L; Giorgini, Daniele; Maiorano, Luigi; Bakkenes, Michel; Boitani, Luigi; Alkemade, Rob; Falcucci, Alessandra; Chiozza, Federica; Rondinini, Carlo

    2011-09-27

    Current levels of endangerment and historical trends of species and habitats are the main criteria used to direct conservation efforts globally. Estimates of future declines, which might indicate different priorities than past declines, have been limited by the lack of appropriate data and models. Given that much of conservation is about anticipating and responding to future threats, our inability to look forward at a global scale has been a major constraint on effective action. Here, we assess the geography and extent of projected future changes in suitable habitat for terrestrial mammals within their present ranges. We used a global earth-system model, IMAGE, coupled with fine-scale habitat suitability models and parametrized according to four global scenarios of human development. We identified the most affected countries by 2050 for each scenario, assuming that no additional conservation actions other than those described in the scenarios take place. We found that, with some exceptions, most of the countries with the largest predicted losses of suitable habitat for mammals are in Africa and the Americas. African and North American countries were also predicted to host the most species with large proportional global declines. Most of the countries we identified as future hotspots of terrestrial mammal loss have little or no overlap with the present global conservation priorities, thus confirming the need for forward-looking analyses in conservation priority setting. The expected growth in human populations and consumption in hotspots of future mammal loss mean that local conservation actions such as protected areas might not be sufficient to mitigate losses. Other policies, directed towards the root causes of biodiversity loss, are required, both in Africa and other parts of the world. PMID:21844048

  7. Future hotspots of terrestrial mammal loss

    PubMed Central

    Visconti, Piero; Pressey, Robert L.; Giorgini, Daniele; Maiorano, Luigi; Bakkenes, Michel; Boitani, Luigi; Alkemade, Rob; Falcucci, Alessandra; Chiozza, Federica; Rondinini, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Current levels of endangerment and historical trends of species and habitats are the main criteria used to direct conservation efforts globally. Estimates of future declines, which might indicate different priorities than past declines, have been limited by the lack of appropriate data and models. Given that much of conservation is about anticipating and responding to future threats, our inability to look forward at a global scale has been a major constraint on effective action. Here, we assess the geography and extent of projected future changes in suitable habitat for terrestrial mammals within their present ranges. We used a global earth-system model, IMAGE, coupled with fine-scale habitat suitability models and parametrized according to four global scenarios of human development. We identified the most affected countries by 2050 for each scenario, assuming that no additional conservation actions other than those described in the scenarios take place. We found that, with some exceptions, most of the countries with the largest predicted losses of suitable habitat for mammals are in Africa and the Americas. African and North American countries were also predicted to host the most species with large proportional global declines. Most of the countries we identified as future hotspots of terrestrial mammal loss have little or no overlap with the present global conservation priorities, thus confirming the need for forward-looking analyses in conservation priority setting. The expected growth in human populations and consumption in hotspots of future mammal loss mean that local conservation actions such as protected areas might not be sufficient to mitigate losses. Other policies, directed towards the root causes of biodiversity loss, are required, both in Africa and other parts of the world. PMID:21844048

  8. Global distribution and conservation of marine mammals

    PubMed Central

    Pompa, Sandra; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2011-01-01

    We identified 20 global key conservation sites for all marine (123) and freshwater (6) mammal species based on their geographic ranges. We created geographic range maps for all 129 species and a Geographic Information System database for a 46,184 1° x 1° grid-cells, ∼10,000-km2. Patterns of species richness, endemism, and risk were variable among all species and species groups. Interestingly, marine mammal species richness was correlated strongly with areas of human impact across the oceans. Key conservation sites in the global geographic grid were determined either by their species richness or by their irreplaceability or uniqueness, because of the presence of endemic species. Nine key conservation sites, comprising the 2.5% of the grid cells with the highest species richness, were found, mostly in temperate latitudes, and hold 84% of marine mammal species. In addition, we identified 11 irreplaceable key conservation sites, six of which were found in freshwater bodies and five in marine regions. These key conservation sites represent critical areas of conservation value at a global level and can serve as a first step for adopting global strategies with explicit geographic conservation targets for Marine Protected Areas. PMID:21808012

  9. Global distribution and conservation of marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Pompa, Sandra; Ehrlich, Paul R; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2011-08-16

    We identified 20 global key conservation sites for all marine (123) and freshwater (6) mammal species based on their geographic ranges. We created geographic range maps for all 129 species and a Geographic Information System database for a 46,184 1° x 1° grid-cells, ∼10,000-km(2). Patterns of species richness, endemism, and risk were variable among all species and species groups. Interestingly, marine mammal species richness was correlated strongly with areas of human impact across the oceans. Key conservation sites in the global geographic grid were determined either by their species richness or by their irreplaceability or uniqueness, because of the presence of endemic species. Nine key conservation sites, comprising the 2.5% of the grid cells with the highest species richness, were found, mostly in temperate latitudes, and hold 84% of marine mammal species. In addition, we identified 11 irreplaceable key conservation sites, six of which were found in freshwater bodies and five in marine regions. These key conservation sites represent critical areas of conservation value at a global level and can serve as a first step for adopting global strategies with explicit geographic conservation targets for Marine Protected Areas. PMID:21808012

  10. A comparative analysis of marine mammal tracheas.

    PubMed

    Moore, Colby; Moore, Michael; Trumble, Stephen; Niemeyer, Misty; Lentell, Betty; McLellan, William; Costidis, Alexander; Fahlman, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    In 1940, Scholander suggested that stiffened upper airways remained open and received air from highly compressible alveoli during marine mammal diving. There are few data available on the structural and functional adaptations of the marine mammal respiratory system. The aim of this research was to investigate the anatomical (gross) and structural (compliance) characteristics of excised marine mammal tracheas. Here, we defined different types of tracheal structures, categorizing pinniped tracheas by varying degrees of continuity of cartilage (categories 1-4) and cetacean tracheas by varying compliance values (categories 5A and 5B). Some tracheas fell into more than one category along their length; for example, the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) demonstrated complete rings cranially, and as the trachea progressed caudally, tracheal rings changed morphology. Dolphins and porpoises had less stiff, more compliant spiraling rings while beaked whales had very stiff, less compliant spiraling rings. The pressure-volume (P-V) relationships of isolated tracheas from different species were measured to assess structural differences between species. These findings lend evidence for pressure-induced collapse and re-inflation of lungs, perhaps influencing variability in dive depth or ventilation rates of the species investigated. PMID:24311807

  11. The Evolution of Brains from Early Mammals to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Kaas, Jon H.

    2012-01-01

    The large size and complex organization of the human brain makes it unique among primate brains. In particular, the neocortex constitutes about 80% of the brain, and this cortex is subdivided into a large number of functionally specialized regions, the cortical areas. Such a brain mediates accomplishments and abilities unmatched by any other species. How did such a brain evolve? Answers come from comparative studies of the brains of present-day mammals and other vertebrates in conjunction with information about brain sizes and shapes from the fossil record, studies of brain development, and principles derived from studies of scaling and optimal design. Early mammals were small, with small brains, an emphasis on olfaction, and little neocortex. Neocortex was transformed from the single layer of output pyramidal neurons of the dorsal cortex of earlier ancestors to the six layers of all present-day mammals. This small cap of neocortex was divided into 20–25 cortical areas, including primary and some of the secondary sensory areas that characterize neocortex in nearly all mammals today. Early placental mammals had a corpus callosum connecting the neocortex of the two hemispheres, a primary motor area, M1, and perhaps one or more premotor areas. One line of evolution, Euarchontoglires, led to present-day primates, tree shrews, flying lemurs, rodents and rabbits. Early primates evolved from small-brained, nocturnal, insect-eating mammals with an expanded region of temporal visual cortex. These early nocturnal primates were adapted to the fine branch niche of the tropical rainforest by having an even more expanded visual system that mediated visually guided reaching and grasping of insects, small vertebrates, and fruits. Neocortex was greatly expanded, and included an array of cortical areas that characterize neocortex of all living primates. Specializations of the visual system included new visual areas that contributed to a dorsal stream of visuomotor processing in a

  12. Severe mammal declines coincide with proliferation of invasive Burmese pythons in Everglades National Park

    PubMed Central

    Dorcas, Michael E.; Willson, John D.; Reed, Robert N.; Snow, Ray W.; Rochford, Michael R.; Miller, Melissa A.; Meshaka, Walter E.; Andreadis, Paul T.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Romagosa, Christina M.; Hart, Kristen M.

    2012-01-01

    Invasive species represent a significant threat to global biodiversity and a substantial economic burden. Burmese pythons, giant constricting snakes native to Asia, now are found throughout much of southern Florida, including all of Everglades National Park (ENP). Pythons have increased dramatically in both abundance and geographic range since 2000 and consume a wide variety of mammals and birds. Here we report severe apparent declines in mammal populations that coincide temporally and spatially with the proliferation of pythons in ENP. Before 2000, mammals were encountered frequently during nocturnal road surveys within ENP. In contrast, road surveys totaling 56,971 km from 2003–2011 documented a 99.3% decrease in the frequency of raccoon observations, decreases of 98.9% and 87.5% for opossum and bobcat observations, respectively, and failed to detect rabbits. Road surveys also revealed that these species are more common in areas where pythons have been discovered only recently and are most abundant outside the python's current introduced range. These findings suggest that predation by pythons has resulted in dramatic declines in mammals within ENP and that introduced apex predators, such as giant constrictors, can exert significant top-down pressure on prey populations. Severe declines in easily observed and/or common mammals, such as raccoons and bobcats, bode poorly for species of conservation concern, which often are more difficult to sample and occur at lower densities. PMID:22308381

  13. Terminal Pleistocene change in mammal communities in southeastern Washington State, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyman, R. Lee

    2014-03-01

    Small mammal communities in western North America experienced declines in taxonomic richness across the late Pleistocene to Holocene transition (PHT), a recent natural global warming event. One community also experienced a decline in evenness and others replaced one species with a congener. Variability in response of small mammal communities to PHT warming is apparent. At the presently arid and xeric Marmes site in the Columbia Basin of southeastern Washington State, megafauna were absent by about 13,000 cal yr BP, evenness of small mammals declined about 11,700 cal yr BP and again about 11,400 cal yr BP whereas richness declined about 11,400 cal BP. Regional faunal turnover was, however, minimal among small-bodied taxa. Local mammal communities are depauperate as a result of megafaunal extinctions and subsequent decreases in small-mammal richness and evenness. The latter chronologically corresponds with a decrease in primary productivity driven by increasing warmth and aridity. More faunas must be studied in order to fully document the range of variability in the responses of mammalian communities to PHT warming. Documentation of patterns in those responses will facilitate understanding and enhance predictive accuracy with respect to responses of mammalian communities to modern global warming.

  14. Severe mammal declines coincide with proliferation of invasive Burmese pythons in Everglades National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorcas, Michael E.; Wilson, John D.; Reed, Robert N.; Snow, Ray W.; Rochford, Michael R.; Miller, Melissa A.; Meshaka, Walter E., Jr.; Andreadis, Paul T.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Romagosa, Christina M.; Hart, Kristen M.

    2012-01-01

    Invasive species represent a significant threat to global biodiversity and a substantial economic burden. Burmese pythons, giant constricting snakes native to Asia, now are found throughout much of southern Florida, including all of Everglades National Park (ENP). Pythons have increased dramatically in both abundance and geographic range since 2000 and consume a wide variety of mammals and birds. Here we report severe apparent declines in mammal populations that coincide temporally and spatially with the proliferation of pythons in ENP. Before 2000, mammals were encountered frequently during nocturnal road surveys within ENP. In contrast, road surveys totaling 56,971 km from 2003–2011 documented a 99.3% decrease in the frequency of raccoon observations, decreases of 98.9% and 87.5% for opossum and bobcat observations, respectively, and failed to detect rabbits. Road surveys also revealed that these species are more common in areas where pythons have been discovered only recently and are most abundant outside the python's current introduced range. These findings suggest that predation by pythons has resulted in dramatic declines in mammals within ENP and that introduced apex predators, such as giant constrictors, can exert significant top-down pressure on prey populations. Severe declines in easily observed and/or common mammals, such as raccoons and bobcats, bode poorly for species of conservation concern, which often are more difficult to sample and occur at lower densities.

  15. Severe mammal declines coincide with proliferation of invasive Burmese pythons in Everglades National Park.

    PubMed

    Dorcas, Michael E; Willson, John D; Reed, Robert N; Snow, Ray W; Rochford, Michael R; Miller, Melissa A; Meshaka, Walter E; Andreadis, Paul T; Mazzotti, Frank J; Romagosa, Christina M; Hart, Kristen M

    2012-02-14

    Invasive species represent a significant threat to global biodiversity and a substantial economic burden. Burmese pythons, giant constricting snakes native to Asia, now are found throughout much of southern Florida, including all of Everglades National Park (ENP). Pythons have increased dramatically in both abundance and geographic range since 2000 and consume a wide variety of mammals and birds. Here we report severe apparent declines in mammal populations that coincide temporally and spatially with the proliferation of pythons in ENP. Before 2000, mammals were encountered frequently during nocturnal road surveys within ENP. In contrast, road surveys totaling 56,971 km from 2003-2011 documented a 99.3% decrease in the frequency of raccoon observations, decreases of 98.9% and 87.5% for opossum and bobcat observations, respectively, and failed to detect rabbits. Road surveys also revealed that these species are more common in areas where pythons have been discovered only recently and are most abundant outside the python's current introduced range. These findings suggest that predation by pythons has resulted in dramatic declines in mammals within ENP and that introduced apex predators, such as giant constrictors, can exert significant top-down pressure on prey populations. Severe declines in easily observed and/or common mammals, such as raccoons and bobcats, bode poorly for species of conservation concern, which often are more difficult to sample and occur at lower densities. PMID:22308381

  16. Small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    Talmage, S S; Walton, B T

    1991-01-01

    The merit of using small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants was assessed using data from the published literature. Information was located on 35 species of small mammals from 7 families used to monitor heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals at mine sites, industrial areas, hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites, and agricultural and forested land. To document foodchain transfer of chemicals, concentrations in soil, vegetation, and invertebrates, where available, were included. The most commonly trapped North American species were Peromyscus leucopus, Blarina brevicauda, and Microtus pennsylvanicus. In these species, exposure to chemicals was determined from tissue residue analyses, biochemical assays, and cytogenetic assays. Where enough information was available, suitable target tissues, or biological assays for specific chemicals were noted. In general, there was a relationship between concentrations of contaminants in the soil or food, and concentrations in target tissues of several species. This relationship was most obvious for the nonessential heavy metals, cadmium, lead, and mercury and for fluoride. Kidney was the single best tissue for residue analyses of inorganic contaminants. However, bone should be the tissue of choice for both lead and fluorine. Exposure to lead was also successfully documented using biochemical and histopathological endpoints. Bone was the tissue of choice for exposure to 90Sr, whereas muscle was an appropriate tissue for 137Cs. For organic contaminants, exposure endpoints depended on the chemical(s) of concern. Liver and whole-body residue analyses, as well as enzyme changes, organ histology, genotoxicity, and, in one case, population dynamics, were successfully used to document exposure to these contaminants. Based on information in these studies, each species' suitability as a monitor for a specific contaminant or type of contaminant was evaluated and subsequently ranked. A relationship between

  17. Cone visual pigments of aquatic mammals.

    PubMed

    Newman, Lucy A; Robinson, Phyllis R

    2005-01-01

    It has long been hypothesized that the visual systems of animals are evolutionarily adapted to their visual environment. The entrance many millions of years ago of mammals into the sea gave these new aquatic mammals completely novel visual surroundings with respect to light availability and predominant wavelengths. This study examines the cone opsins of marine mammals, hypothesizing, based on previous studies [Fasick et al. (1998) and Levenson & Dizon (2003)], that the deep-dwelling marine mammals would not have color vision because the pressure to maintain color vision in the dark monochromatic ocean environment has been relaxed. Short-wavelength-sensitive (SWS) and long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) cone opsin genes from two orders (Cetacea and Sirenia) and an additional suborder (Pinnipedia) of aquatic mammals were amplified from genomic DNA (for SWS) and cDNA (for LWS) by PCR, cloned, and sequenced. All animals studied from the order Cetacea have SWS pseudogenes, whereas a representative from the order Sirenia has an intact SWS gene, for which the corresponding mRNA was found in the retina. One of the pinnipeds studied (harp seal) has an SWS pseudogene, while another species (harbor seal) appeared to have an intact SWS gene. However, no SWS cone opsin mRNA was found in the harbor seal retina, suggesting a promoter or splice site mutation preventing transcription of the gene. The LWS opsins from the different species were expressed in mammalian cells and reconstituted with the 11-cis-retinal chromophore in order to determine maximal absorption wavelengths (lambda(max)) for each. The deeper dwelling Cetacean species had blue shifted lambda(max) values compared to shallower-dwelling aquatic species. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that in the monochromatic oceanic habitat, the pressure to maintain color vision has been relaxed and mutations are retained in the SWS genes, resulting in pseudogenes. Additionally, LWS opsins are retained in the

  18. Predation, Competition, and Abiotic Disturbance: Population Dynamics of Small Mammals

    SciTech Connect

    Yunger, John A.; /Northern Illinois U. /Northern Illinois U.

    1996-01-01

    Predation and food availability have been implicated in annual non-cyclic fluctuations of vertebrate prey at mid-latitudes. The timing and magnitude of these factors are unclear due to a lack of large-scale field experiments, little attention to interactions, and a failure to closely link vertebrate predators with their prey. From October 1992 to January 1996, small mammal populations were censused on eight 0.6 ha plots at monthly intervals in a 32-ha prairie restoration at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Illinois. Terrestrial vertebrate predators were excluded after July 1993 from four of the eight plots and canid diets monitored. Both terrestrial and avian vertebrate predators were excluded in March 1994. During 1993 small mammal densities (i.e., Microtus Pennsylvanicus, Peromyscus leucopus, and P. maniculatus) were relatively high. Following peak densities in late summer, Microtus numbers wer 2-3x greater on exclusion plots relative to controls due to preferential selection of Microtus by canids, as reflected in dits. Following an ice-storm and crash in small mammal numbers (particularly Microtus), vertebrate predator exclusion had no detectable effect on P. leucopus numbers, probably due to an abundance of alternative prey (i.e., Sylvilagus floridanus). Meadow vole numbers began to increase in Fall 1995, and a numerical effect of predator exclusion, similar to that in 1993, was observed. Predator exclusion had no detectable effect on the movements and spatial patterns of Microtus during 1993. There was a significant decrease in home range and a significant increase in home range overlap for P. leucopus on the predator exclusion plots. The change in spatial behavior may be due to interspecific competition with Microtus resulting from increased densities on exclusion plots. Thus, predators had an indirect effect on P. leucopus spatial patterns mediated through M. Pennsylvanicus. The role of food limitation was studied using natural and manipulative

  19. Mammals of Australia's tropical savannas: a conceptual model of assemblage structure and regulatory factors in the Kimberley region.

    PubMed

    Radford, Ian J; Dickman, Christopher R; Start, Antony N; Palmer, Carol; Carnes, Karin; Everitt, Corrin; Fairman, Richard; Graham, Gordon; Partridge, Thalie; Thomson, Allan

    2014-01-01

    We construct a state-and-transition model for mammals in tropical savannas in northern Australia to synthesize ecological knowledge and understand mammalian declines. We aimed to validate the existence of alternative mammal assemblage states similar to those in arid Australian grasslands, and to speculate on transition triggers. Based on the arid grassland model, we hypothesized that assemblages are partitioned across rainfall gradients and between substrates. We also predicted that assemblages typical of arid regions in boom periods would be prevalent in savannas with higher and more regular rainfall. Data from eight mammal surveys from the Kimberley region, Western Australia (1994 to 2011) were collated. Survey sites were partitioned across rainfall zones and habitats. Data allowed us to identify three assemblage states: State 0:--low numbers of mammals, State II:--dominated by omnivorous rodents and State III:--dominated by rodents and larger marsupials. Unlike arid grasslands, assemblage dominance by insectivorous dasyurids (State I) did not occur in savannas. Mammal assemblages were partitioned across rainfall zones and between substrates as predicted, but-unlike arid regions-were not related strongly to yearly rainfall. Mammal assemblage composition showed high regional stability, probably related to high annual rainfall and predictable wet season resource pulses. As a consequence, we speculate that perpetually booming assemblages in savannas allow top-down control of the ecosystem, with suppression of introduced cats by the dingo, the region's top predator. Under conditions of low or erratic productivity, imposed increasingly by intense fire regimes and introduced herbivore grazing, dingoes may not limit impacts of cats on native mammals. These interacting factors may explain contemporary declines of savanna mammals as well as historical declines in arid Australia. The cat-ecosystem productivity hypothesis raised here differs from the already-articulated cat

  20. Mammals of Australia's Tropical Savannas: A Conceptual Model of Assemblage Structure and Regulatory Factors in the Kimberley Region

    PubMed Central

    Radford, Ian J.; Dickman, Christopher R.; Start, Antony N.; Palmer, Carol; Carnes, Karin; Everitt, Corrin; Fairman, Richard; Graham, Gordon; Partridge, Thalie; Thomson, Allan

    2014-01-01

    We construct a state-and-transition model for mammals in tropical savannas in northern Australia to synthesize ecological knowledge and understand mammalian declines. We aimed to validate the existence of alternative mammal assemblage states similar to those in arid Australian grasslands, and to speculate on transition triggers. Based on the arid grassland model, we hypothesized that assemblages are partitioned across rainfall gradients and between substrates. We also predicted that assemblages typical of arid regions in boom periods would be prevalent in savannas with higher and more regular rainfall. Data from eight mammal surveys from the Kimberley region, Western Australia (1994 to 2011) were collated. Survey sites were partitioned across rainfall zones and habitats. Data allowed us to identify three assemblage states: State 0:- low numbers of mammals, State II:- dominated by omnivorous rodents and State III:- dominated by rodents and larger marsupials. Unlike arid grasslands, assemblage dominance by insectivorous dasyurids (State I) did not occur in savannas. Mammal assemblages were partitioned across rainfall zones and between substrates as predicted, but—unlike arid regions—were not related strongly to yearly rainfall. Mammal assemblage composition showed high regional stability, probably related to high annual rainfall and predictable wet season resource pulses. As a consequence, we speculate that perpetually booming assemblages in savannas allow top-down control of the ecosystem, with suppression of introduced cats by the dingo, the region's top predator. Under conditions of low or erratic productivity, imposed increasingly by intense fire regimes and introduced herbivore grazing, dingoes may not limit impacts of cats on native mammals. These interacting factors may explain contemporary declines of savanna mammals as well as historical declines in arid Australia. The cat-ecosystem productivity hypothesis raised here differs from the already

  1. Cellular mechanisms of skin repair in humans and other mammals.

    PubMed

    Rittié, Laure

    2016-06-01

    The increased incidence of non-healing skin wounds in developed societies has prompted tremendous research efforts on the complex process known as "wound healing". Unfortunately, the weak relevance of modern wound healing research to human health continues to be a matter of concern. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the cellular mechanisms that mediate wound closure in the skin of humans and laboratory animals. The author highlights the anatomical singularities of human skin vs. the skin of other mammals commonly used for wound healing research (i.e. as mice, rats, rabbits, and pigs), and discusses the roles of stem cells, myofibroblasts, and the matrix environment in the repair process. The majority of this review focuses on reepithelialization and wound closure. Other aspects of wound healing (e.g. inflammation, fibrous healing) are referred to when relevant to the main topic. This review aims at providing the reader with a clear understanding of the similarities and differences that have been reported over the past 100 years between the healing of human wounds and that of other mammals. PMID:27170326

  2. Temporal scaling of molecular evolution in primates and other mammals.

    PubMed

    Gingerich, P D

    1986-05-01

    Molecular clocks are routinely tested for linearity using a relative rate test and routinely calibrated against the geological time scale using a single or average paleontologically determined time of divergence between living taxa. The relative rate test is a test of parallel rate equality, not a test of rate constancy. Temporal scaling provides a test of rates, where scaling coefficients of 1.0 (isochrony) represent stochastic rate constancy. The fossil record of primates and other mammals is now known in sufficient detail to provide several independent divergence times for major taxonomic groups. Molecular difference should scale negatively or isochronically (scaling coefficients less than 1.0) with divergence time: where two or more divergence times are available, molecular difference appears to scale positively (scaling coefficient greater than 1.0). A minimum of four divergence times are required for adequate statistical power in testing the linear model: scaling is significantly nonlinear and positive in six of 11 published investigations meeting this criterion. All groups studied show some slowdown in rates of molecular change over Cenozoic time. The break from constant or increasing rates during the Mesozoic to decreasing rates during the Cenozoic appears to coincide with extraordinary diversification of placental mammals at the beginning of this era. High rates of selectively neutral molecular change may be concentrated in such discrete events of evolutionary diversification. PMID:3444400

  3. Automatic detection of marine mammals using information entropy.

    PubMed

    Erbe, Christine; King, Andrew R

    2008-11-01

    This article describes an automatic detector for marine mammal vocalizations. Even though there has been previous research on optimizing automatic detectors for specific calls or specific species, the detection of any type of call by a diversity of marine mammal species still poses quite a challenge--and one that is faced more frequently as the scope of passive acoustic monitoring studies and the amount of data collected increase. Information (Shannon) entropy measures the amount of information in a signal. A detector based on spectral entropy surpassed two commonly used detectors based on peak-energy detection. Receiver operating characteristic curves were computed for performance comparison. The entropy detector performed considerably faster than real time. It can be used as a first step in an automatic signal analysis yielding potential signals. It should be followed by automatic classification, recognition, and identification algorithms to group and identify signals. Examples are shown from underwater recordings in the Western Canadian Arctic. Calls of a variety of cetacean and pinniped species were detected. PMID:19045771

  4. Major Patterns in the History of Carnivorous Mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Valkenburgh, Blaire

    The history of carnivorous mammals is characterized by a series of rise-and-fall patterns of diversification in which declining clades are replaced by phylogenetically distinct but functionally similar clades. Seven such examples from the last 46 million years are described for North America and Eurasia. In three of the seven turnover events, competition with replacement taxa may have driven the decline of formerly dominant taxa. In the remaining four this is less likely because inferred functional similarity was minimal during the interval of temporal overlap between clades. However, competition still may have been important in producing the rise-and-fall pattern through suppression of evolution within replacement taxa; as long as the large carnivore ecospace was filled, the radiation of new taxa into that ecospace was limited, only occurring after the extinction of the incumbents. The apparently inevitable decline of incumbent taxa may reflect the tendency for clades of large carnivorous mammals to produce more specialized species as they mature, leading to increased vulnerability to extinction when environments change.

  5. Absence of mammals and the evolution of New Zealand grasses

    PubMed Central

    Antonelli, Alexandre; Humphreys, Aelys M.; Lee, William G.; Linder, H. Peter

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic alteration of biotic distributions and disturbance regimes has dramatically changed the evolutionary context for the differentiation of species traits. Some of the most striking examples in recent centuries have been on islands where flightless birds, which evolved in the absence of mammalian carnivores, have been decimated following the widespread introduction of exotic predators. Until now, no equivalent case has been reported for plants. Here, we make use of robust analytical tools and an exceptionally well-sampled molecular phylogeny to show that a majority of New Zealand danthonioid grasses (Poaceae) may have adapted to the relaxed vertebrate herbivore pressure during the late Cenozoic through the development of a distinctive and unusual habit: abscission of old leaves. This feature occurs in only about 3 per cent of the world's roughly 11 000 grass species and has been empirically shown to increase plant productivity but to reduce protection against mammal grazing. This result suggests that release from a selective pressure can lead to species radiations. This seemingly anachronistic adaptation may represent an overlooked factor contributing to the severe decline in the geographical extent and species diversity of New Zealand's indigenous grasslands following the introduction of herbivorous terrestrial mammals in the 19th century. PMID:20826486

  6. Scale Effects between Body Size and Limb Design in Quadrupedal Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Kilbourne, Brandon M.; Hoffman, Louwrens C.

    2013-01-01

    Recently the metabolic cost of swinging the limbs has been found to be much greater than previously thought, raising the possibility that limb rotational inertia influences the energetics of locomotion. Larger mammals have a lower mass-specific cost of transport than smaller mammals. The scaling of the mass-specific cost of transport is partly explained by decreasing stride frequency with increasing body size; however, it is unknown if limb rotational inertia also influences the mass-specific cost of transport. Limb length and inertial properties – limb mass, center of mass (COM) position, moment of inertia, radius of gyration, and natural frequency – were measured in 44 species of terrestrial mammals, spanning eight taxonomic orders. Limb length increases disproportionately with body mass via positive allometry (length ∝ body mass0.40); the positive allometry of limb length may help explain the scaling of the metabolic cost of transport. When scaled against body mass, forelimb inertial properties, apart from mass, scale with positive allometry. Fore- and hindlimb mass scale according to geometric similarity (limb mass ∝ body mass1.0), as do the remaining hindlimb inertial properties. The positive allometry of limb length is largely the result of absolute differences in limb inertial properties between mammalian subgroups. Though likely detrimental to locomotor costs in large mammals, scale effects in limb inertial properties appear to be concomitant with scale effects in sensorimotor control and locomotor ability in terrestrial mammals. Across mammals, the forelimb's potential for angular acceleration scales according to geometric similarity, whereas the hindlimb's potential for angular acceleration scales with positive allometry. PMID:24260117

  7. Scale effects between body size and limb design in quadrupedal mammals.

    PubMed

    Kilbourne, Brandon M; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2013-01-01

    Recently the metabolic cost of swinging the limbs has been found to be much greater than previously thought, raising the possibility that limb rotational inertia influences the energetics of locomotion. Larger mammals have a lower mass-specific cost of transport than smaller mammals. The scaling of the mass-specific cost of transport is partly explained by decreasing stride frequency with increasing body size; however, it is unknown if limb rotational inertia also influences the mass-specific cost of transport. Limb length and inertial properties--limb mass, center of mass (COM) position, moment of inertia, radius of gyration, and natural frequency--were measured in 44 species of terrestrial mammals, spanning eight taxonomic orders. Limb length increases disproportionately with body mass via positive allometry (length ∝ body mass(0.40)); the positive allometry of limb length may help explain the scaling of the metabolic cost of transport. When scaled against body mass, forelimb inertial properties, apart from mass, scale with positive allometry. Fore- and hindlimb mass scale according to geometric similarity (limb mass ∝ body mass(1.0)), as do the remaining hindlimb inertial properties. The positive allometry of limb length is largely the result of absolute differences in limb inertial properties between mammalian subgroups. Though likely detrimental to locomotor costs in large mammals, scale effects in limb inertial properties appear to be concomitant with scale effects in sensorimotor control and locomotor ability in terrestrial mammals. Across mammals, the forelimb's potential for angular acceleration scales according to geometric similarity, whereas the hindlimb's potential for angular acceleration scales with positive allometry. PMID:24260117

  8. 75 FR 44770 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... these activities and L-DEO has requested an authorization to take several marine mammals by Level B... the program in a previous notice for the proposed IHA (75 FR 28568, May 21, ] 2010). The activities to... source level of the array will increase in steps not exceeding six dB per five-minute period over a...

  9. Radiobiological effects of heavy ions and protons. [on cells of mammals, bacteria and viruses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryzhov, N. I.; Vorozhtsova, S. V.; Krasavin, Y. A.; Mashinskaya, T. Y.; Savchenko, N. Y.; Fedorov, B. S.; Khlaponina, V. F.; Shelegedin, V. N.; Gut, L.; Sabo, L.

    1974-01-01

    Radiobiological effects of heavy ions and protons are studied on cells of mammals, bacteria, viruses and DNA of bacteria. Results show that the dose effect dependence bears an exponential character; the reduction of RBE as LET of particle increases reflects the different character of microdistribution of absorbed energy in biological objects with different levels of biological organization.

  10. Relative Effectiveness of Classroom and Documentary Film Presentations on Marine Mammals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W.

    1985-01-01

    Assessed knowledge and attitude changes resulting from home viewing of a Cousteau Society documentary on marine mammals and compares these changes with those resulting from a science teacher's presentation on the documentary's script. Results show increased and retainable knowledge and temporary change in attitudes among ninth-grade students.…

  11. Brain size is correlated with endangerment status in mammals.

    PubMed

    Abelson, Eric S

    2016-02-24

    Increases in relative encephalization (RE), brain size after controlling for body size, comes at a great metabolic cost and is correlated with a host of cognitive traits, from the ability to count objects to higher rates of innovation. Despite many studies examining the implications and trade-offs accompanying increased RE, the relationship between mammalian extinction risk and RE is unknown. I examine whether mammals with larger levels of RE are more or less likely to be at risk of endangerment than less-encephalized species. I find that extant species with large levels of encephalization are at greater risk of endangerment, with this effect being strongest in species with small body sizes. These results suggest that RE could be a valuable asset in estimating extinction vulnerability. Additionally, these findings suggest that the cost-benefit trade-off of RE is different in large-bodied species when compared with small-bodied species. PMID:26888034

  12. DSM-IV Antisocial Personality Disorder and Conduct Disorder: Evidence for Taxonic Structures Among Individuals With and Without Substance Use Disorders in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Kerridge, Bradley T; Saha, Tulshi D; Hasin, Deborah S

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The categorical-dimensional status of DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) conduct disorder (CD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is a source of controversy. This study examined whether the underlying structure of DSM-IV CD and ASPD was dimensional or categorical (taxonic) among individuals with and without substance use disorders. Method: Using a national large representative survey of U.S. adults (n = 43,093), taxometric analyses of DSM-IV CD and ASPD diagnostic criteria were conducted on the total sample and among those with and without substance use disorders. Results: Results of three taxometric procedures were consistent in showing that the structures underlying DSM-IV CD and ASPD were clearly taxonic in the total sample and among individuals with and without substance use disorders. Comparison curve fit indices exceeded 0.57 for each model. Conclusions: Taxonic findings of the present study were in contrast to the dimensional results of prior taxometric research among incarcerated samples with substantial comorbidity of antisocial syndromes and substance use disorders. Results supported the categorical representation and diagnostic thresholds of ASPD and CD as defined in DSM-IV and DSM-5. That the structure of ASPD and CD may be taxonic suggests that further research on these disorders use group comparative designs in which samples with and without these disorders are compared in terms of sociodemographic and clinical correlates, comorbidity, and treatment utilization. The taxonic structure of ASPD and CD may contribute to future research on causal processes through which these antisocial syndromes develop. PMID:24766762

  13. Trypanosomes of Australian mammals: A review.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Craig K; Godfrey, Stephanie S; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2014-08-01

    Approximately 306 species of terrestrial and arboreal mammals are known to have inhabited the mainland and coastal islands of Australia at the time of European settlement in 1788. The exotic Trypanosoma lewisi was the first mammalian trypanosome identified in Australia in 1888, while the first native species, Trypanosoma pteropi, was taxonomically described in 1913. Since these discoveries, about 22% of the indigenous mammalian fauna have been examined during the surveillance of trypanosome biodiversity in Australia, including 46 species of marsupials, 9 rodents, 9 bats and both monotremes. Of those mammals examined, trypanosomes have been identified from 28 host species, with eight native species of Trypanosoma taxonomically described. These native trypanosomes include T. pteropi, Trypanosoma thylacis, Trypanosoma hipposideri, Trypanosoma binneyi, Trypanosoma irwini, Trypanosoma copemani, Trypanosoma gilletti and Trypanosoma vegrandis. Exotic trypanosomes have also been identified from the introduced mammalian fauna of Australia, and include T. lewisi, Trypanosoma melophagium, Trypanosoma theileri, Trypanosoma nabiasi and Trypanosoma evansi. Fortunately, T. evansi was eradicated soon after its introduction and did not establish in Australia. Of these exotic trypanosomes, T. lewisi is the sole representative that has been reported from indigenous Australian mammals; morphological forms were recorded from two indigenous species of rodents (Hydromys chrysogaster and Rattus fuscipes). Numerous Australian marsupial species are potentially at risk from the native T. copemani, which may be chronically pathogenic, while marsupials, rodents and monotremes appear at risk from exotic species, including T. lewisi, Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi. This comprehensive review of trypanosome biodiversity in Australia highlights the negative impact of these parasites upon their mammalian hosts, as well as the threatening biosecurity concerns. PMID:25161902

  14. Trypanosomes of Australian mammals: A review

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Craig K.; Godfrey, Stephanie S.; Thompson, R.C. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 306 species of terrestrial and arboreal mammals are known to have inhabited the mainland and coastal islands of Australia at the time of European settlement in 1788. The exotic Trypanosoma lewisi was the first mammalian trypanosome identified in Australia in 1888, while the first native species, Trypanosoma pteropi, was taxonomically described in 1913. Since these discoveries, about 22% of the indigenous mammalian fauna have been examined during the surveillance of trypanosome biodiversity in Australia, including 46 species of marsupials, 9 rodents, 9 bats and both monotremes. Of those mammals examined, trypanosomes have been identified from 28 host species, with eight native species of Trypanosoma taxonomically described. These native trypanosomes include T. pteropi, Trypanosoma thylacis, Trypanosoma hipposideri, Trypanosoma binneyi, Trypanosoma irwini, Trypanosoma copemani, Trypanosoma gilletti and Trypanosoma vegrandis. Exotic trypanosomes have also been identified from the introduced mammalian fauna of Australia, and include T. lewisi, Trypanosoma melophagium, Trypanosoma theileri, Trypanosoma nabiasi and Trypanosoma evansi. Fortunately, T. evansi was eradicated soon after its introduction and did not establish in Australia. Of these exotic trypanosomes, T. lewisi is the sole representative that has been reported from indigenous Australian mammals; morphological forms were recorded from two indigenous species of rodents (Hydromys chrysogaster and Rattus fuscipes). Numerous Australian marsupial species are potentially at risk from the native T. copemani, which may be chronically pathogenic, while marsupials, rodents and monotremes appear at risk from exotic species, including T. lewisi, Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi. This comprehensive review of trypanosome biodiversity in Australia highlights the negative impact of these parasites upon their mammalian hosts, as well as the threatening biosecurity concerns. PMID:25161902

  15. A Cretaceous Hoofed Mammal from India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, G. V. R.; Verma, O.; Sahni, A.; Parmar, V.; Khosla, A.

    2007-11-01

    The sedimentary record documenting the northward drift of India (Late Cretaceous to late Early Eocene) has recently provided important clues to the evolution, radiation, and dispersal of mammals. Here, we report a definitive Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) archaic ungulate (Kharmerungulatum vanvaleni genus et species nova) from the Deccan volcano-sedimentary sequences exposed near Kisalpuri village in Central India. This find has important implications for the origin and diversification of early ungulates and raises three possible paleobiogeographic scenarios: (i) Were archaic ungulates cosmopolitan in distribution? (ii) Was Kharmerungulatum an immigrant from Western Asia? (iii) Did archaic ungulates originate in India?

  16. Does leptin signal adiposity in the egg-laying mammal, Tachyglossus aculeatus?

    PubMed

    Sprent, Jenny; Jones, Susan M; Nicol, Stewart C

    2012-09-01

    Leptin is a peptide hormone best known for its role in feedback regulation of adiposity in eutherian mammals. Normally an increase in adipose tissue mass leads to an increase in circulating leptin which increases energy expenditure and limits food intake, but in hibernating eutherian mammals this relationship may change to allow prehibernatory fattening. The echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) is a monotreme mammal which accumulates significant fat reserves before entering hibernation, and mates immediately at the end of hibernation. We hypothesised that echidnas would show a strong relationship between body mass and plasma leptin for most of the year which would change during the pre-hibernatory period. We measured plasma leptin and body mass in free-ranging echidnas over several reproductive and hibernation cycles. There were significant seasonal variations in plasma leptin in both sexes, with the highest levels occurring in hibernation and in mating females. The lowest levels were found in males when they were foraging maximally after the reproductive period. We used mass%, body mass at the time of sampling as a percentage of long term mean mass, as a proxy for adiposity. There was a weak negative relationship between mass% and plasma leptin, from which we infer a weak negative relationship between adiposity and plasma leptin as has been found in reptiles and birds, rather than the strong positive relationship found in other mammals. PMID:22750512

  17. 76 FR 3092 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy's Mission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... incidental to the U.S. Navy's RDT&E activities at the NSWC PCD were published on January 21, 2010 (75 FR 3395... the U.S. Gulf of Mexico under the regulations issued on January 21, 2010 (75 FR 3395). The application... Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy's Mission Activities at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama...

  18. 78 FR 24731 - Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ...Notice is hereby given that ConocoPhillips Company (COP) has withdrawn its application for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA). The following action is related to a proposed IHA to COP for the take of small numbers of marine mammals, by Level B harassment, incidental to conducting offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska, during......

  19. 77 FR 43270 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Coastal Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations, notification is hereby given that a 5-year Letter of Authorization (LOA) has been issued to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS) to incidentally take, by Level B harassment only, California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) incidental to professional......

  20. 77 FR 65059 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... FR 49922). That notice described, in detail, ION's proposed activity, the marine mammal species that... Register notice for the proposed IHA (77 FR 49922; August 17, 2012), ION would start its seismic survey... proposed IHA (77 FR 49922; August 17, 2012), ION's in-ice seismic survey would be performed in a...

  1. 78 FR 57368 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Operations of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... operations of SURTASS LFA sonar are in effect through August 15, 2017 (77 FR 50290, August 20, 2012) and are... issued on August 15, 2012 (77 FR 51969, August 28, 2012), for the taking of marine mammals incidental to... the north-central Pacific Ocean under the regulations issued on August 15, 2012 (77 FR 50290,...

  2. 75 FR 53672 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ...In accordance with the regulations implementing the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) as amended, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to the Northeast Gateway Energy BridgeTM LP (Northeast Gateway or NEG) and its partner, Algonquin Gas Transmission, LLC (Algonquin), to incidentally harass, by Level B harassment only, small......

  3. 77 FR 50990 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ...NMFS has received an application from the National Ocean Service's Office of National Marine Sanctuaries Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to rocky intertidal monitoring work and searching for black abalone, components of the Sanctuary Ecosystem Assessment Surveys. Pursuant......

  4. 77 FR 64320 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC283 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; proposed incidental harassment authorization... and to determine if any relationship exists between changing ocean chemistry and the states of two...

  5. 77 FR 23547 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Columbia River Crossing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... North Portland Harbor in which marine mammals may be directly impacted by sound generated by in-water construction activities, i.e., the area in which modeling indicates that underwater sound generated by the project would be greater than 120 dB re: 1 Pa root mean square (rms; all underwater sound discussed...

  6. 77 FR 55645 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Construction and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... marine mammals would occur as a result of the introduction of sound into the marine environment during... water at elevated temperatures), such usage is significantly reduced from that required in an open-loop.... All of the cooling water would be discharged ] at a temperature of approximately 10 C (18 F) above...

  7. 78 FR 12720 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... in Cook Inlet (77 FR 27720). On December 10, 2012, NMFS published a notice in the Federal Register (77 FR 73434) discussing the effects on marine mammals and making preliminary determinations regarding.... In the notice of the proposed IHA (77 FR 73434, December 10, 2012), NMFS described the second area...

  8. 75 FR 27708 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... take small numbers of marine mammals by harassment. Section 101(a)(5)(D) establishes a 45-day time... survey time is expected to take 30 days. The vessel that will be conducting this activity has not been.... The actual survey time is expected to take 45 days. Ice Gouge Survey As part of the feasibility...

  9. 76 FR 62378 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Notice of Proposed IHA (76 FR 43267, July 20, 2011), marine mammal densities were derived from the Navy... complete discussion on the abundance and density data can be found in the Notice of Proposed IHA (76 FR... Notice of Proposed IHA and request for 30-day public comment published on January 23, 2006 (71 FR...

  10. 78 FR 52135 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... AFB, published in the Federal Register on June 4, 2013 (78 FR 33357). During the 30-day public comment... mammal takes was fully explained in the IHA application, the Notice of Proposed IHA (78 FR 33357, June 4... which involved large explosives (65 FR 77546; December 12, 2000). Because no large explosives...

  11. 77 FR 27720 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... notice in the Federal Register (76 FR 58473) discussing the effects on marine mammals and making... the proposed IHA (76 FR 58473, September 21, 2011). The activities to be conducted have not changed... should refer to the proposed IHA notice (76 FR 58473, September 21, 2011), the IHA application...

  12. 77 FR 12246 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... the specified activities was issued to VanBlaricom on September 23, 2003 (68 FR 57427; October 3, 2003); the most recent of these was issued on January 18, 2008 (73 FR 4841; January 28, 2008), expiring... Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Abalone Research on San Nicolas Island,...

  13. 78 FR 63396 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Replacement of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... (78 FR 22096, April 12, 2013). In summary, SDOT proposes to replace the Elliott Bay Seawall from South... frequently referred to in this rulemaking (78 FR 22096, pages 22099-22102). This section also includes a... (78 FR 22096, pages 22102-22108). Table 5--Marine Mammal Species or ESA-Listed Distinct...

  14. 76 FR 330 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... ringed seal (75 FR 77476) and a notice of proposed threatened and not warranted status for subspecies and distinct population segments of the bearded seal (75 FR 77496) in the Federal Register. Neither species is... Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Polar Bear Captures AGENCY: National...

  15. 78 FR 35851 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... encouraged to review NMFS' response to comments on this matter found in 69 FR 74906 (December 14, 2004), 71 FR 43112 (July 31, 2006), 71 FR 50027 (August 24, 2006), and 71 FR 49418 (August 23, 2006). It should... Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Marine Seismic Survey in the Beaufort Sea,...

  16. Comparative Analysis of Mitochondrial Genomes in Diplura (Hexapoda, Arthropoda): Taxon Sampling Is Crucial for Phylogenetic Inferences

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wan-Jun; Koch, Markus; Mallatt, Jon M.; Luan, Yun-Xia

    2014-01-01

    Two-pronged bristletails (Diplura) are traditionally classified into three major superfamilies: Campodeoidea, Projapygoidea, and Japygoidea. The interrelationships of these three superfamilies and the monophyly of Diplura have been much debated. Few previous studies included Projapygoidea in their phylogenetic considerations, and its position within Diplura still is a puzzle from both morphological and molecular points of view. Until now, no mitochondrial genome has been sequenced for any projapygoid species. To fill in this gap, we determined and annotated the complete mitochondrial genome of Octostigma sinensis (Octostigmatidae, Projapygoidea), and of three more dipluran species, one each from the Campodeidae, Parajapygidae, and Japygidae. All four newly sequenced dipluran mtDNAs encode the same set of genes in the same gene order as shared by most crustaceans and hexapods. Secondary structure truncations have occurred in trnR, trnC, trnS1, and trnS2, and the reduction of transfer RNA D-arms was found to be taxonomically correlated, with Campodeoidea having experienced the most reduction. Partitioned phylogenetic analyses, based on both amino acids and nucleotides of the protein-coding genes plus the ribosomal RNA genes, retrieve significant support for a monophyletic Diplura within Pancrustacea, with Projapygoidea more closely related to Campodeoidea than to Japygoidea. Another key finding is that monophyly of Diplura cannot be recovered unless Projapygoidea is included in the phylogenetic analyses; this explains the dipluran polyphyly found by past mitogenomic studies. Including Projapygoidea increased the sampling density within Diplura and probably helped by breaking up a long-branch-attraction artifact. This finding provides an example of how proper sampling is significant for phylogenetic inference. PMID:24391151

  17. Hybridization increases invasive knotweed success

    PubMed Central

    Parepa, Madalin; Fischer, Markus; Krebs, Christine; Bossdorf, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which rapid evolution can occur in exotic species. If hybrids show increased vigour, this could significantly contribute to invasion success. Here, we compared the success of the two invasive knotweeds, Fallopia japonica and F. sachalinensis, and their hybrid, F. × bohemica, in competing against experimental communities of native plants. Using plant material from multiple clones of each taxon collected across a latitudinal gradient in Central Europe, we found that knotweed hybrids performed significantly better in competition with a native community and that they more strongly reduced the growth of the native plants. One of the parental species, F. sachalinensis, regenerated significantly less well from rhizomes, and this difference disappeared if activated carbon was added to the substrate, which suggests allelopathic inhibition of F. sachalinensis regeneration by native plants. We found substantial within-taxon variation in competitive success in all knotweed taxa, but variation was generally greatest in the hybrid. Interestingly, there was also significant variation within the genetically uniform F. japonica, possibly reflecting epigenetic differences. Our study shows that invasive knotweed hybrids are indeed more competitive than their parents and that hybridization increased the invasiveness of the exotic knotweed complex. PMID:24665343

  18. Noteworthy mammal distribution records for the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Medica, P.A. )

    1990-03-01

    Previous reports on the mammals of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, indicate the presence of 46 species (42 terrestrial mammals and 4 bats). Under a new project entitled Basic Environmental Compliance and Monitoring Program at the Nevada Test Site, two previously uncollected species of mammals were obtained, and a range extension for a third species was documented during the 1988 sampling season. Voucher specimens have been deposited at the Nevada State Museum in Las Vegas, Nevada.

  19. Taxon-specific metagenomics of Trichoderma reveals a narrow community of opportunistic species that regulate each other’s development

    PubMed Central

    Friedl, Martina A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the in situ diversity of the mycotrophic fungus Trichoderma (teleomorph Hypocrea, Ascomycota, Dikarya) revealed by a taxon-specific metagenomic approach. We designed a set of genus-specific internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1 and ITS2 rRNA primers and constructed a clone library containing 411 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs). The overall species composition in the soil of the two distinct ecosystems in the Danube floodplain consisted of 15 known species and two potentially novel taxa. The latter taxa accounted for only 1.5 % of all MOTUs, suggesting that almost no hidden or uncultivable Hypocrea/Trichoderma species are present at least in these temperate forest soils. The species were unevenly distributed in vertical soil profiles although no universal factors controlling the distribution of all of them (chemical soil properties, vegetation type and affinity to rhizosphere) were revealed. In vitro experiments simulating infrageneric interactions between the pairs of species that were detected in the same soil horizon showed a broad spectrum of reactions from very strong competition over neutral coexistence to the pronounced synergism. Our data suggest that only a relatively small portion of Hypocrea/Trichoderma species is adapted to soil as a habitat and that the interaction between these species should be considered in a screening for Hypocrea/Trichoderma as an agent(s) of biological control of pests. PMID:22075025

  20. In situ detection of freshwater fungi in an alpine stream by new taxon-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization probes.

    PubMed

    Baschien, Christiane; Manz, Werner; Neu, Thomas R; Marvanová, Ludmila; Szewzyk, Ulrich

    2008-10-01

    New rRNA-targeting oligonucleotide probes permitted the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) identification of freshwater fungi in an Austrian second-order alpine stream. Based on computer-assisted comparative sequence analysis, nine taxon-specific probes were designed and evaluated by whole-fungus hybridizations. Oligonucleotide probe MY1574, specific for a wide range of Eumycota, and the genus (Tetracladium)-specific probe TCLAD1395, as well as the species-specific probes ALacumi1698 (Alatospora acuminata), TRIang322 (Tricladium angulatum), and Alongi340 (Anguillospora longissima), are targeted against 18S rRNA, whereas probes TmarchB10, TmarchC1_1, TmarchC1_2, and AlongiB16 are targeted against the 28S rRNA of Tetracladium marchalianum and Anguillospora longissima, respectively. After 2 weeks and 3 months of exposure of polyethylene slides in the stream, attached germinating conidia and growing hyphae of freshwater fungi were accessible for FISH. Growing hyphae and germinating conidia on leaves and in membrane cages were also visualized by the new FISH probes. PMID:18776035

  1. Genetic distances within and among species in monophyletic lineages of Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota) as a tool for taxon delimitation.

    PubMed

    Del-Prado, Ruth; Cubas, Paloma; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Divakar, Pradeep K; Blanco, Oscar; de Paz, Guillermo Amo; Molina, M Carmen; Crespo, Ana

    2010-07-01

    The species delimitation in fungi is currently in flux. A growing body of evidence shows that the morphology-based species circumscription underestimates the number of existing species. The large and ever growing number of DNA sequence data of fungi makes it possible to use these to identify potential cases of hidden species, which then need to be studied with extensive taxon samplings. We used Parmeliaceae, one of the largest families of lichenized fungi as a model. Intra- and interspecific distances derived from maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees inferred from 491 nuclear ITS rDNA sequences were examined for five major clades of parmelioid lichens. The intra- and interspecific distances were well separated in most cases allowing the calculation of a threshold, with exceptions of highly deviating distances in a few cases. These situations are shown to be taxa in which the current delimitation needs revision. Thus the analysis of the distance distributions is shown to be a powerful tool for identifying species complexes. PMID:20399873

  2. Dispersal and diversity in the earliest North American sauropodomorph dinosaurs, with a description of a new taxon

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Timothy B.; Sues, Hans-Dieter; Reisz, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    Sauropodomorph dinosaurs originated in the Southern Hemisphere in the Middle or Late Triassic and are commonly portrayed as spreading rapidly to all corners of Pangaea as part of a uniform Late Triassic to Early Jurassic cosmopolitan dinosaur fauna. Under this model, dispersal allegedly inhibited dinosaurian diversification, while vicariance and local extinction enhanced it. However, apomorphy-based analyses of the known fossil record indicate that sauropodomorphs were absent in North America until the Early Jurassic, reframing the temporal context of their arrival. We describe a new taxon from the Kayenta Formation of Arizona that comprises the third diagnosable sauropodomorph from the Early Jurassic of North America. We analysed its relationships to test whether sauropodomorphs reached North America in a single sweepstakes event or in separate dispersals. Our finding of separate arrivals by all three taxa suggests dispersal as a chief factor in dinosaurian diversification during at least the early Mesozoic. It questions whether a ‘cosmopolitan’ dinosaur fauna ever existed, and corroborates that vicariance, extinction and dispersal did not operate uniformly in time or under uniform conditions during the Mesozoic. Their relative importance is best measured in narrow time slices and circumscribed geographical regions. PMID:20926438

  3. Dispersal and diversity in the earliest North American sauropodomorph dinosaurs, with a description of a new taxon.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Timothy B; Sues, Hans-Dieter; Reisz, Robert R

    2011-04-01

    Sauropodomorph dinosaurs originated in the Southern Hemisphere in the Middle or Late Triassic and are commonly portrayed as spreading rapidly to all corners of Pangaea as part of a uniform Late Triassic to Early Jurassic cosmopolitan dinosaur fauna. Under this model, dispersal allegedly inhibited dinosaurian diversification, while vicariance and local extinction enhanced it. However, apomorphy-based analyses of the known fossil record indicate that sauropodomorphs were absent in North America until the Early Jurassic, reframing the temporal context of their arrival. We describe a new taxon from the Kayenta Formation of Arizona that comprises the third diagnosable sauropodomorph from the Early Jurassic of North America. We analysed its relationships to test whether sauropodomorphs reached North America in a single sweepstakes event or in separate dispersals. Our finding of separate arrivals by all three taxa suggests dispersal as a chief factor in dinosaurian diversification during at least the early Mesozoic. It questions whether a 'cosmopolitan' dinosaur fauna ever existed, and corroborates that vicariance, extinction and dispersal did not operate uniformly in time or under uniform conditions during the Mesozoic. Their relative importance is best measured in narrow time slices and circumscribed geographical regions. PMID:20926438

  4. Taxon combinations, parsimony analysis (PAUP*), and the taxonomy of the yellow-tailed woolly monkey, Lagothrix flavicauda.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Luke J; Rosenberger, Alfred L

    2008-11-01

    The classifications of primates, in general, and platyrrhine primates, in particular, have been greatly revised subsequent to the rationale for taxonomic decisions shifting from one rooted in the biological species concept to one rooted solely in phylogenetic affiliations. Given the phylogenetic justification provided for revised taxonomies, the scientific validity of taxonomic distinctions can be rightly judged by the robusticity of the phylogenetic results supporting them. In this study, we empirically investigated taxonomic-sampling effects on a cladogram previously inferred from craniodental data for the woolly monkeys (Lagothrix). We conducted the study primarily through much greater sampling of species-level taxa (OTUs) after improving some character codings and under a variety of outgroup choices. The results indicate that alternative selections of species subsets from within genera produce various tree topologies. These results stand even after adjusting the character set and considering the potential role of interobserver disagreement. We conclude that specific taxon combinations, in this case, generic or species pairings, of the primary study group has a biasing effect in parsimony analysis, and that the cladistic rationale for resurrecting the Oreonax generic distinction for the yellow-tailed woolly monkey (Lagothrix flavicauda) is based on an artifact of idiosyncratic sampling within the study group below the genus level. Some recommendations to minimize the problem, which is prevalent in all cladistic analyses, are proposed. PMID:18500746

  5. Taxon-specific metagenomics of Trichoderma reveals a narrow community of opportunistic species that regulate each other's development.

    PubMed

    Friedl, Martina A; Druzhinina, Irina S

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the in situ diversity of the mycotrophic fungus Trichoderma (teleomorph Hypocrea, Ascomycota, Dikarya) revealed by a taxon-specific metagenomic approach. We designed a set of genus-specific internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1 and ITS2 rRNA primers and constructed a clone library containing 411 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs). The overall species composition in the soil of the two distinct ecosystems in the Danube floodplain consisted of 15 known species and two potentially novel taxa. The latter taxa accounted for only 1.5 % of all MOTUs, suggesting that almost no hidden or uncultivable Hypocrea/Trichoderma species are present at least in these temperate forest soils. The species were unevenly distributed in vertical soil profiles although no universal factors controlling the distribution of all of them (chemical soil properties, vegetation type and affinity to rhizosphere) were revealed. In vitro experiments simulating infrageneric interactions between the pairs of species that were detected in the same soil horizon showed a broad spectrum of reactions from very strong competition over neutral coexistence to the pronounced synergism. Our data suggest that only a relatively small portion of Hypocrea/Trichoderma species is adapted to soil as a habitat and that the interaction between these species should be considered in a screening for Hypocrea/Trichoderma as an agent(s) of biological control of pests. PMID:22075025

  6. Phosphorus Availability, Phytoplankton Community Dynamics, and Taxon-Specific Phosphorus Status in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, K. R.; Labiosa, R. G.; Calhoun, M.; Street, J. H.; Post, A. F.; Paytan, A.

    2006-12-01

    The relationships among phytoplankton taxon-specific phosphorus-status, phytoplankton community composition, and nutrient levels were assessed over three seasons in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. During summer and fall, stratified surface waters were depleted of nutrients and picophytoplankton populations comprised the majority of cells (80% and 88% respectively). In winter, surface nutrient concentrations were higher and larger phytoplankton were more abundant (63%). Cell specific alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) derived from enzyme labeled fluorescence was consistently low (less than 5%) in the picophytoplankton throughout the year, whereas larger cells expressed elevated APA during the summer and fall but less in the winter. A nutrient addition bioassay during the fall showed that, relative to control, APA was reduced by half in larger cells following addition of orthophosphate, whereas the APA of picophytoplankton remained low (less than 1%) across all treatments and the control. These results indicate that the most abundant phytoplankton are not limited by orthophosphate and only some subpopulations (particularly of larger cells) exhibit orthophosphate-limitation throughout the year. Our results indicate that orthophosphate availability influences phytoplankton ecology, correlating with shifts in phytoplankton community structure and the nutrient status of individual cells. The role of dissolved organic phosphorus as an important phosphorus source for marine phytoplankton in oligotrophic settings and the need for evaluating nutrient limitation at the taxa and/or single cell level (rather than inferring it from nutrient concentrations and ratios or bulk enzyme activity measurements) are highlighted.

  7. Box-modeling of 15N/14N in mammals.

    PubMed

    Balter, Vincent; Simon, Laurent; Fouillet, Hélène; Lécuyer, Christophe

    2006-03-01

    The 15N/14N signature of animal proteins is now commonly used to understand their physiology and quantify the flows of nutrient in trophic webs. These studies assume that animals are predictably 15N-enriched relative to their food, but the isotopic mechanism which accounts for this enrichment remains unknown. We developed a box model of the nitrogen isotope cycle in mammals in order to predict the 15N/14N ratios of body reservoirs as a function of time, N intake and body mass. Results of modeling show that a combination of kinetic isotope fractionation during the N transfer between amines and equilibrium fractionation related to the reversible conversion of N-amine into ammonia is required to account for the well-established approximately 4 per thousand 15N-enrichment of body proteins relative to the diet. This isotopic enrichment observed in proteins is due to the partial recycling of 15N-enriched urea and the urinary excretion of a fraction of the strongly 15N-depleted ammonia reservoir. For a given body mass and diet delta15N, the isotopic compositions are mainly controlled by the N intake. Increase of the urea turnover combined with a decrease of the N intake lead to calculate a delta15N increase of the proteins, in agreement with the observed increase of collagen delta15N of herbivorous animals with aridity. We further show that the low delta15N collagen values of cave bears cannot be attributed to the dormancy periods as it is commonly thought, but inversely to the hyperphagia behavior. This model highlights the need for experimental investigations performed with large mammals in order to improve our understanding of natural variations of delta15N collagen. PMID:16328553

  8. Small mammal tooth enamel carbon isotope record of C4 grasses in late Neogene China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arppe, Laura; Kaakinen, Anu; Passey, Benjamin H.; Zhang, Zhaoqun; Fortelius, Mikael

    2015-10-01

    The spatiotemporal pattern of the late Cenozoic spread of C4 vegetation is an important indicator of environmental change that is intertwined with the uplift of the Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau, and the development of the East Asian monsoons. To explore the spread of C4 vegetation in China and shed new light on regional climatic evolution, we measured δ13C values of more than 200 small mammal teeth (primarily rodents and lagomorphs) using a laser ablation isotope ratio mass spectrometry approach. Small mammals are highly sensitive indicators of their environment because they have limited spatial ranges and because they have minimal time-averaging of carbon isotope signatures of dietary components. The specimens originate from four classic Late Miocene fossil localities, Lufeng, Yuanmou, Lingtai, and Ertemte, along a southwest-northeast transect from Yunnan Province to Inner Mongolia. In Yunnan (Lufeng, Yuanmou) and on the Loess Plateau (Lingtai), the small mammal δ13C values record nearly pure C3 ecosystems, and mixed but C3-based ecosystems, respectively, in agreement with previous studies based on carbon isotopes of large herbivores and soil carbonates. In Inner Mongolia, the micromammalian tooth enamel δ13C record picks up the presence of C4 vegetation where large mammal samples do not, indicating a mixed yet C3-dominated ecosystem at ~ 6 Ma. As a whole, the results support a scenario of northward increasing C4 grass abundance in a pattern that mirrors northward decreasing precipitation of the summer monsoon system. The results highlight differences between large and small mammals as indicators of C4 vegetation in ancient ecosystems, particularly the ability of small mammal δ13C values to detect the presence of minor components of the vegetation structure.

  9. Behavioral Ecology of Captive Species: Using Bibliographic Information to Assess Pet Suitability of Mammal Species

    PubMed Central

    Koene, Paul; de Mol, Rudi M.; Ipema, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Which mammal species are suitable to be kept as pet? For answering this question many factors have to be considered. Animals have many adaptations to their natural environment in which they have evolved that may cause adaptation problems and/or risks in captivity. Problems may be visible in behavior, welfare, health, and/or human–animal interaction, resulting, for example, in stereotypies, disease, and fear. A framework is developed in which bibliographic information of mammal species from the wild and captive environment is collected and assessed by three teams of animal scientists. Oneliners from literature about behavioral ecology, health, and welfare and human–animal relationship of 90 mammal species are collected by team 1 in a database and strength of behavioral needs and risks is assessed by team 2. Based on summaries of those strengths the suitability of the mammal species is assessed by team 3. Involvement of stakeholders for supplying bibliographic information and assessments was propagated. Combining the individual and subjective assessments of the scientists using statistical methods makes the final assessment of a rank order of suitability as pet of those species less biased and more objective. The framework is dynamic and produces an initial rank ordered list of the pet suitability of 90 mammal species, methods to add new mammal species to the list or remove animals from the list and a method to incorporate stakeholder assessments. A model is developed that allows for provisional classification of pet suitability. Periodical update of the pet suitability framework is expected to produce an updated list with increased reliability and accuracy. Furthermore, the framework could be further developed to assess the pet suitability of additional species of other animal groups, e.g., birds, reptiles, and amphibians. PMID:27243023

  10. Behavioral Ecology of Captive Species: Using Bibliographic Information to Assess Pet Suitability of Mammal Species.

    PubMed

    Koene, Paul; de Mol, Rudi M; Ipema, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Which mammal species are suitable to be kept as pet? For answering this question many factors have to be considered. Animals have many adaptations to their natural environment in which they have evolved that may cause adaptation problems and/or risks in captivity. Problems may be visible in behavior, welfare, health, and/or human-animal interaction, resulting, for example, in stereotypies, disease, and fear. A framework is developed in which bibliographic information of mammal species from the wild and captive environment is collected and assessed by three teams of animal scientists. Oneliners from literature about behavioral ecology, health, and welfare and human-animal relationship of 90 mammal species are collected by team 1 in a database and strength of behavioral needs and risks is assessed by team 2. Based on summaries of those strengths the suitability of the mammal species is assessed by team 3. Involvement of stakeholders for supplying bibliographic information and assessments was propagated. Combining the individual and subjective assessments of the scientists using statistical methods makes the final assessment of a rank order of suitability as pet of those species less biased and more objective. The framework is dynamic and produces an initial rank ordered list of the pet suitability of 90 mammal species, methods to add new mammal species to the list or remove animals from the list and a method to incorporate stakeholder assessments. A model is developed that allows for provisional classification of pet suitability. Periodical update of the pet suitability framework is expected to produce an updated list with increased reliability and accuracy. Furthermore, the framework could be further developed to assess the pet suitability of additional species of other animal groups, e.g., birds, reptiles, and amphibians. PMID:27243023

  11. Bartonella infection in small mammals and their ectoparasites in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Lipatova, Indre; Paulauskas, Algimantas; Puraite, Irma; Radzijevskaja, Jana; Balciauskas, Linas; Gedminas, Vaclovas

    2015-01-01

    The Bartonella pathogen is an emerging zoonotic agent. Epidemiological studies worldwide have demonstrated that small mammals are reservoir hosts of Bartonella spp. and their ectoparasites are potential vectors. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Bartonella infections in small mammals (Rodentia, Insectivora) and their ectoparasites (fleas and ticks) in Lithuania. A total of 430 small mammals representing nine species were captured with live-traps in Lithuania during 2013-2014. A total of 151 fleas representing eight species were collected from 109 (25.8%) small mammals. Five hundred and seventy ticks (Ixodes ricinus) were collected from 68 (16.1%) small mammals. Bartonella DNA was detected in 102 (23.7%) small mammals, 44 (29.1%) fleas and five (3.7%) pooled tick samples. Sequence analysis of 16S-23S rRNA ITS region showed that sequences were identical or similar to Bartonella grahamii, Bartonella taylorii and Bartonella rochalimae. This study is the first investigating the distribution and diversity of Bartonella species in small mammals and their ectoparasites in Lithuania. B. grahamii, B. taylorii, and B. rochalimae were detected in small mammals and their fleas, and B. grahamii in ticks obtained from small mammals. PMID:26344603

  12. Bacteria and fungi of marine mammals: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, R

    2000-01-01

    A list of the different bacterial and fungal agents isolated from marine mammals in different parts of the world is presented. Importance is given to some of the most recently identified bacterial agents, including Actinobacillus delphinicola, A. scotiae, and Brucella spp. A list, in alphabetical order, of bacteria recovered from different tissues or organs from marine mammals is presented for the integumentary, respiratory, digestive, genitourinary, and reticuloendothelial systems. Infectious bacterial agents associated with abscesses and with cases of septicemia are also listed. Information about the different fungal agents recovered from marine mammals is summarized. A section covering some of the zoonotic infectious agents recovered from marine mammals is included. PMID:10723596

  13. Determination of inorganic constituents in marine mammal tissues.

    PubMed

    Zeisler, R; Demiralp, R; Koster, B J; Becker, P R; Burow, M; Ostapczuk, P; Wise, S A

    1993-11-01

    Analyses of selected tissues from the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project (AMMTAP) have provided comprehensive information related to levels of 36 trace elements and methyl-mercury in marine mammal tissues. Liver, kidney and muscle tissues from two northern fur seals, four ringed seals and six belukha whales were analyzed. The bulk of the investigated tissues and additional tissues from a total of 65 marine mammals are banked in the AMMTAP. The results are compared to literature values for trace element concentrations in marine mammal tissues and their relevance to environmental studies is discussed. PMID:8272841

  14. Placentation in mammals once grouped as insectivores.

    PubMed

    Carter, Anthony M; Enders, Allen C

    2010-01-01

    Interest in insectivoran grade mammals has been reawakened by taxonomic changes that place tenrecs and golden moles in a new order and separate hedgehogs from moles, shrews and solenodons. This survey of their placentation shows there is great variation even within families. As an example three subfamilies of tenrec have been examined. The interhemal region is cellular hemomonochorial in Echinops and Microgale but endotheliochorial in Micropotamogale. Golden moles, which are placed in the same order, have hemodichorial placentation. Many insectivores have complex arrangements for histotrophic nutrition involving columnar trophoblast cells. These range from areolae in moles through complexly folded hemophagous regions in tenrecs to the trophoblastic annulus in shrews. Of these placental characters, few offer support to current phylogenies. However, the case for placing hedgehogs and gymnures in a separate order (Erinaceomorpha) is bolstered by the presence of interstitial implantation, amniogenesis by cavitation, a hemochorial barrier and a prominent spongy zone; these features do not occur in shrews, moles or solenodons (Soricomorpha). Three insectivoran grade mammals deserve close attention as they have been selected for genome sequencing. One of these, the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), has not been studied with current methodology and renewed investigation of this or the closely related genus Atelerix should be a priority. PMID:19876821

  15. Earliest known Australian Tertiary mammal fauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godthelp, Henk; Archer, Michael; Cifelli, Richard; Hand, Suzanne J.; Gilkeson, Coral F.

    1992-04-01

    REMAINS of Early Eocene vertebrates from freshwater clays near Murgon, southeastern Queensland, represent Australia's oldest marsupials, bats, non-volant placentals, frogs, madtsoiid snakes, trionychid turtles1and birds. Radiometric dating of illites forming part of the matrix of the mammal-bearing zone has given a minimum age estimate of 54.6 +/- 0.05 x 106 years, which is roughly twice as old as any marsupials previously known from Australia2 and well before the 38 million year (Myr) separation of Australia from Antarctica/South America3. All marsupials so far known from the Tingamarra Local Fauna are more derived (being dilambdodont) than peradectids. None of them is clearly a member of a previously known Australian family, but some could be uniquely plesiomorphic dasyuroids or perameloids. Another is autapomorphically specialized and indicative of at least partial isolation of the Australian portion of Gondwana. Here we report on the discovery of a tooth of the earliest non-volant placental known from Australia, Tingamarra porterorum gen.et sp. nov., which seems to be a condylarth-like placental mammal. The presence of non-volant placentals in the Early Tertiary of Australia challenges a common presumption that marsupials dominated Australia's therian assemblages because of failure of such placentals to reach Australia before the Late Tertiary.

  16. Circannual Testis Changes in Seasonally Breeding Mammals.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Rafael; Burgos, Miguel; Barrionuevo, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    In the non-equatorial zones of the Earth, species concentrate their reproductive effort in the more favorable season. A consequence of seasonal breeding is seasonal testis regression, which implies the depletion of the germinative epithelium, permeation of the blood-testis barrier, and reduced androgenic function. This process has been studied in a number of vertebrates, but the mechanisms controlling it are not yet well understood. Apoptosis was assumed for years to be an important effector of seasonal germ cell depletion in all vertebrates, including mammals, but an alternative mechanism has recently been reported in the Iberian mole as well as in the large hairy armadillo. It is based on the desquamation of meiotic and post-meiotic germ cells as a consequence of altered Sertoli-germ cell adhesion molecule expression and distribution. Desquamated cells are either discarded alive through the epididymis, as in the mole, or subsequently die by apoptosis, as in the armadillo. Also, recent findings on the reproductive cycle of the greater white-toothed shrew at the meridional limits of its distribution area have revealed that the mechanisms controlling seasonal breeding are in fact far more plastic and versatile than initially suspected. Perhaps these higher adaptive capacities place mammals in a better position to face the ongoing climate change. PMID:26375035

  17. Neuroendocrinology and Sexual Differentiation in Eusocial Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Melissa M.; Goldman, Bruce D.; Goldman, Sharry L.; Seney, Marianne L.; Forger, Nancy G.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual differentiation of the mammalian nervous system has been studied intensively for over 25 years. Most of what we know, however, comes from work on relatively non-social species in which direct reproduction (i.e., production of offspring) is virtually the only route to reproductive success. In social species, an individual’s inclusive fitness may include contributions to the gene pool that are achieved by supporting the reproductive efforts of close relatives; this feature is most evident in eusocial organisms. Here, we review what is known about neuroendocrine mechanisms, sexual differentiation, and effects of social status on the brain and spinal cord in two eusocial mammals: the naked mole-rat and Damaraland mole-rat. These small rodents exhibit the most rigidly organized reproductive hierarchy among mammals, with reproduction suppressed in a majority of individuals. Our findings suggest that eusociality may be associated with a relative lack of sex differences and a reduced influence of gonadal hormones on some functions to which these hormones are usually tightly linked. We also identify neural changes accompanying a change in social and reproductive status, and discuss the implications of our findings for understanding the evolution of sex differences and the neuroendocrinology of reproductive suppression. PMID:19416733

  18. Yearlong hibernation in a marsupial mammal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiser, Fritz

    2007-11-01

    Many mammals hibernate each year for about 6 months in autumn and winter and reproduce during spring and summer when they are generally not in torpor. I tested the hypothesis that the marsupial pygmy-possum ( Cercartetus nanus), an opportunistic nonseasonal hibernator with a capacity for substantial fattening, would continue to hibernate well beyond winter. I also quantified how long they were able to hibernate without access to food before their body fat stores were depleted. Pygmy-possums exhibited a prolonged hibernation season lasting on average for 310 days. The longest hibernation season in one individual lasted for 367 days. For much of this time, despite periodic arousals after torpor bouts of ˜12.5 days, energy expenditure was reduced to only ˜2.5% of that predicted for active individuals. These observations represent the first report on body-fat-fuelled hibernation of up to an entire year and provide new evidence that prolonged hibernation is not restricted to placental mammals living in the cold.

  19. Trichinella zimbabwensis in a naturally infected mammal.

    PubMed

    La Grange, L J; Marucci, G; Pozio, E

    2010-03-01

    Trichinella zimbabwensis has been detected in wild and farmed Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) and in wild monitor lizards (Varanus niloticus) of several African countries, but it has never been detected in mammals in nature, in spite of its infectivity to rodents, pigs, foxes and monkeys under laboratory conditions. The aim of this work was to describe the first detection of T. zimbabwensis in a naturally infected lion (Panthera leo) of the Kruger National Park (KNP) of South Africa. The sequence of the expansion segment V, a highly variable non-coding sequence of the large subunit ribosomal RNA of the genus Trichinella, of larvae from the lion was identical to that of larvae of T. zimbabwensis collected from a Nile crocodile originating from the same locality as the lion, suggesting a possible transmission of this parasite between mammals and reptiles. The KNP proves to be a very interesting area for parasites of the genus Trichinella since three taxa (Trichinella nelsoni, Trichinella T8 and T. zimbabwensis) circulate among the wildlife of this protected area. PMID:19580688

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of marine mammal herpesviruses.

    PubMed

    Maness, Heather T D; Nollens, Hendrik H; Jensen, Eric D; Goldstein, Tracey; LaMere, Sarah; Childress, April; Sykes, John; St Leger, Judy; Lacave, Géraldine; Latson, F Ed; Wellehan, James F X

    2011-04-21

    Five novel DNA-dependent DNA polymerase (Dpol) herpesviral sequences were generated using nested consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in clinical samples from a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), orca (Orcinus orca), California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), and a Phocid herpesvirus 2 (PhHV-2) isolate from a harbor seal (used as positive control). These novel sequences and other representative herpesvirus sequences were included in Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood analyses to illustrate the phylogeny of herpesviruses amongst the marine mammal host species and in comparison to those of other animals. All 19 novel and known marine mammal herpesviruses included in the analyses aligned with members of the Alphaherpesvirinae or Gammaherpesvirinae subfamilies. The novel harbor seal herpesvirus clustered with members of the Macavirus genus, subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae. The novel bottlenose dolphin herpesvirus clustered together in a monophyletic group with another delphinid alphaherpesvirus but could not be associated with an established genus. The orca herpesvirus also clustered with a delphinid alphaherpesvirus and formed a separate clade. The sea lion herpesvirus clustered with PhHV-2. PhHV-1 clustered with varicelloviruses and PhHV-2 clustered strongly in the Gammaherpesvirinae genus Percavirus. All cetacean gammaherpesviruses formed a monophyletic clade and could not be associated with an established gammaherpesviral genus. PMID:21055885

  1. Biogeography of time partitioning in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Bennie, Jonathan J.; Duffy, James P.; Inger, Richard; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Many animals regulate their activity over a 24-h sleep–wake cycle, concentrating their peak periods of activity to coincide with the hours of daylight, darkness, or twilight, or using different periods of light and darkness in more complex ways. These behavioral differences, which are in themselves functional traits, are associated with suites of physiological and morphological adaptations with implications for the ecological roles of species. The biogeography of diel time partitioning is, however, poorly understood. Here, we document basic biogeographic patterns of time partitioning by mammals and ecologically relevant large-scale patterns of natural variation in “illuminated activity time” constrained by temperature, and we determine how well the first of these are predicted by the second. Although the majority of mammals are nocturnal, the distributions of diurnal and crepuscular species richness are strongly associated with the availability of biologically useful daylight and twilight, respectively. Cathemerality is associated with relatively long hours of daylight and twilight in the northern Holarctic region, whereas the proportion of nocturnal species is highest in arid regions and lowest at extreme high altitudes. Although thermal constraints on activity have been identified as key to the distributions of organisms, constraints due to functional adaptation to the light environment are less well studied. Global patterns in diversity are constrained by the availability of the temporal niche; disruption of these constraints by the spread of artificial lighting and anthropogenic climate change, and the potential effects on time partitioning, are likely to be critical influences on species’ future distributions. PMID:25225371

  2. Male care and life history traits in mammals.

    PubMed

    West, Hannah E R; Capellini, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Male care has energetic and opportunity costs, and is more likely to evolve when males gain greater certainty of paternity or when future mating opportunities are scarce. However, little is known about the substantial benefits that males may provide to females and offspring. Using phylogenetic comparative methods and a sample of over 500 mammalian species, we show that mammals in which males carry the offspring have shorter lactation periods, which leads to more frequent breeding events. Provisioning the female is associated with larger litters and shorter lactation. Offspring of species with male care have similar weaning mass to those without despite being supported by a shorter lactation period, implying that they grow faster. We propose that males provide an energetic contribution during the most expensive time of female reproduction, lactation, and that different male care behaviours increase female fecundity, which in turn helps males offset the costs of caring. PMID:27299954

  3. Male care and life history traits in mammals

    PubMed Central

    West, Hannah E. R.; Capellini, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Male care has energetic and opportunity costs, and is more likely to evolve when males gain greater certainty of paternity or when future mating opportunities are scarce. However, little is known about the substantial benefits that males may provide to females and offspring. Using phylogenetic comparative methods and a sample of over 500 mammalian species, we show that mammals in which males carry the offspring have shorter lactation periods, which leads to more frequent breeding events. Provisioning the female is associated with larger litters and shorter lactation. Offspring of species with male care have similar weaning mass to those without despite being supported by a shorter lactation period, implying that they grow faster. We propose that males provide an energetic contribution during the most expensive time of female reproduction, lactation, and that different male care behaviours increase female fecundity, which in turn helps males offset the costs of caring. PMID:27299954

  4. The marine mammal dive response is exercise modulated to maximize aerobic dive duration.

    PubMed

    Davis, Randall W; Williams, Terrie M

    2012-08-01

    When aquatically adapted mammals and birds swim submerged, they exhibit a dive response in which breathing ceases, heart rate slows, and blood flow to peripheral tissues and organs is reduced. The most intense dive response occurs during forced submersion which conserves blood oxygen for the brain and heart, thereby preventing asphyxiation. In free-diving animals, the dive response is less profound, and energy metabolism remains aerobic. However, even this relatively moderate bradycardia seems diametrically opposed to the normal cardiovascular response (i.e., tachycardia and peripheral vasodilation) during physical exertion. As a result, there has been a long-standing paradox regarding how aquatic mammals and birds exercise while submerged. We hypothesized based on cardiovascular modeling that heart rate must increase to ensure adequate oxygen delivery to active muscles. Here, we show that heart rate (HR) does indeed increase with flipper or fluke stroke frequency (SF) during voluntary, aerobic dives in Weddell seals (HR = 1.48SF - 8.87) and bottlenose dolphins (HR = 0.99SF + 2.46), respectively, two marine mammal species with different evolutionary lineages. These results support our hypothesis that marine mammals maintain aerobic muscle metabolism while swimming submerged by combining elements of both dive and exercise responses, with one or the other predominating depending on the level of exertion. PMID:22585422

  5. The evolution of Arctic marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Harington, C R

    2008-03-01

    This review deals only with the evolutionary history of core Arctic marine mammals: polar bear (Ursus maritimus), walrus (Odobenus rosmarus), bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus), harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandica), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus), white whale (Delphinapterus leucas), and narwhal (Monodon monoceras). Sections on the evolutionary background of pinnipeds and whales help to provide a better perspective on these core species. Polar bears stemmed from brown bears about the Early to Middle Pleistocene. Fossils are rare; the earliest records are from approximately Early Weichselian deposits of Kew Bridge, London, and Svalbard. Existing Pacific and Atlantic walruses probably arose from splitting of a former Holarctic range during a Pleistocene glacial phase of extensive sea ice in the Canadian Arctic. The earliest known bearded seal remains are from Early to Middle Pleistocene deposits of Norfolk, England, and Cape Deceit, Alaska. Other Pleistocene fossils of this species are recorded from the North Sea, southwestern Sweden, and the Champlain Sea that existed in eastern North America approximately 12 000-10000 BP. The harp seal is the commonest pinniped in the Weichselian deposits of the southern North Sea. The earliest recorded fossil is from about 2 million years ago (2 Ma), from Ocean Point, Alaska. The earliest known Pleistocene ringed seal fossils are from last interglacial deposits near Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska, and Thule, Greenland, although an earlier (3 Ma?) specimen from Malaspina, Alaska, has been reported. This species seems to have been relatively abundant along the coasts of Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, during the Last Glacial Maximum. The bowhead whale probably originated in the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The earliest (mid-Wisconsinan) Canadian remains are from Ellesmere and Devon islands. More than 400 radiocarbon-dated bowhead remains have been used to reconstruct Holocene sea ice history in

  6. Arctic marine mammals and climate change: impacts and resilience.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sue E; Huntington, Henry P

    2008-03-01

    extended foraging periods in formerly ice-covered seas, but (3) they may face increasing competition from seasonally migrant species, which will likely infiltrate Arctic habitats. The means to track and assess Arctic ecosystem change using sentinel marine mammal species are suggested to offer a framework for scientific investigation and responsible resource management. PMID:18494369

  7. Mammals of the Braulio Carrillo- La Selva Complex, Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Timm, Robert M.; Wilson, Don E.; Clauson, Barbara L.; LaVal, Richard K.; Vaughan, Christopher S.

    1989-01-01

    Costa Rica's La Selva-Braulio Carrillo complex encompasses a 60-km protected corridor of Caribbean rain and cloud forest extending from 30 m at the La Selva Biological Station to 2,906 m at the top of Volcán Barva. The 52,000-ha complex covers four life zones and two transitional zones, including tropical wet forest, tropical wet forest cool-transition, tropical premontane wet-transition rain forest, tropical premontane rain forest, lower montane rain forest, and montane rain forest. Located in the northeastern part of the country, the area is representative of Central American Caribbean slope forests that extend from Mexico to Panama. The extensive elevational gradient of the complex provides protected habitat for a variety of altitudinal migrants. With support from the National Geographic Society and Rice Foundation, the Organization for Tropical Studies organized a biological survey of the complex in early 1986. The mammal team worked at six sites along the elevational transect established by the expedition: 300 m, 700 m, 1,000 m, 1,500 m, 2,050 m, and 2,600 m. We supplemented our collecting records with unpublished records made available by colleagues, records in the published literature, and specimens in museum collections. In addition, observations recorded by a variety of observers at the La Selva Biological Station are summarized. The mammal fauna of the complex comprises 142 species including 79 bats, 23 rodents, 15 carnivores, 7 marsupials, 6 edentates, 4 artiodactyls, 3 primates, 2 rabbits, 2 shrews, and 1 perissodactyl. At least 10 additional species are likely to occur there. The only species of mammal likely to have been extirpated from the area is the giant anteater. Recognizing the importance of the area to wildlife and to mankind in general, the government of Costa Rica added 13,500 ha to the complex on 13 April 1986. This area, previously known as the “Zona Protectora,” provided the mid-elevational link between the lowlands of the La Selva

  8. From Forgotten Taxon to a Missing Link? The Position of the Genus Verhuellia (Piperaceae) Revealed by Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Wanke, S.; Vanderschaeve, L.; Mathieu, G.; Neinhuis, C.; Goetghebeur, P.; Samain, M. S.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims The species-poor and little-studied genus Verhuellia has often been treated as a synonym of the genus Peperomia, downplaying its significance in the relationships and evolutionary aspects in Piperaceae and Piperales. The lack of knowledge concerning Verhuellia is largely due to its restricted distribution, poorly known collection localities, limited availability in herbaria and absence in botanical gardens and lack of material suitable for molecular phylogenetic studies until recently. Because Verhuellia has some of the most reduced flowers in Piperales, the reconstruction of floral evolution which shows strong trends towards reduction in all lineages needs to be revised. Methods Verhuellia is included in a molecular phylogenetic analysis of Piperales (trnT-trnL-trnF and trnK/matK), based on nearly 6000 aligned characters and more than 1400 potentially parsimony-informative sites which were partly generated for the present study. Character states for stamen and carpel number are mapped on the combined molecular tree to reconstruct the ancestral states. Key Results The genus Peperomia is generally considered to have the most reduced flowers in Piperales but this study shows that this is only partially true. Verhuellia, with almost equally reduced flowers, is not part of or sister to Peperomia as expected, but is revealed as sister to all other Piperaceae in all analyses, putting character evolution in this family and in the perianthless Piperales in a different light. A robust phylogenetic analysis including all relevant taxa is presented as a framework for inferring patterns and processes of evolution in Piperales and Piperaceae. Conclusions Verhuellia is a further example of how a molecular phylogenetic study can elucidate the relationships of an unplaced taxon. When more material becomes available, it will be possible to investigate character evolution in Piperales more thoroughly and to answer some evolutionary questions concerning Piperaceae

  9. Freshwater Biogeography and Limnological Evolution of the Tibetan Plateau - Insights from a Plateau-Wide Distributed Gastropod Taxon (Radix spp.)

    PubMed Central

    von Oheimb, Parm Viktor; Albrecht, Christian; Riedel, Frank; Du, Lina; Yang, Junxing; Aldridge, David C.; Bößneck, Ulrich; Zhang, Hucai; Wilke, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background The Tibetan Plateau is not only the highest and largest plateau on earth; it is also home to numerous freshwater lakes potentially harbouring endemic faunal elements. As it remains largely unknown whether these lakes have continuously existed during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), questions arise as to whether taxa have been able to exist on the plateau since before the latest Pleistocene, from where and how often the plateau was colonized, and by which mechanisms organisms conquered remote high altitude lentic freshwater systems. In this study, species of the plateau-wide distributed freshwater gastropod genus Radix are used to answer these biogeographical questions. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on a broad spatial sampling of Radix spp. on the Tibetan Plateau, and phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequence data, three probably endemic and one widespread major Radix clade could be identified on the plateau. Two of the endemic clades show a remarkably high genetic diversity, indicating a relatively great phylogenetic age. Phylogeographical analyses of individuals belonging to the most widely distributed clade indicate that intra-plateau distribution cannot be explained by drainage-related dispersal alone. Conclusions/Significance Our study reveals that Radix spp. persisted throughout the LGM on the Tibetan Plateau. Therefore, we assume the continuous existence of suitable water bodies during that time. The extant Radix diversity on the plateau might have been caused by multiple colonization events combined with a relatively long intra-plateau evolution. At least one colonization event has a Palaearctic origin. In contrast to freshwater fishes, passive dispersal, probably by water birds, might be an important mechanism for conquering remote areas on the plateau. Patterns found in Radix spp. are shared with some terrestrial plateau taxa, indicating that Radix may be a suitable model taxon for inferring general patterns of biotic origin, dispersal and

  10. The East Africa Oligocene intertrappean beds: Regional distribution, depositional environments and Afro/Arabian mammal dispersals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbate, Ernesto; Bruni, Piero; Ferretti, Marco Peter; Delmer, Cyrille; Laurenzi, Marinella Ada; Hagos, Miruts; Bedri, Omar; Rook, Lorenzo; Sagri, Mario; Libsekal, Yosief

    2014-11-01

    The extensive outpouring of the Oligocene Trap basalts over eastern Africa and western Arabia was interrupted by a period of quiescence marked by the deposition of terrestrial sediments. These so-called intertrappean beds are often lignitiferous and yield recurrent floras and faunas, sometimes represented by endemic mammals. We intended to highlight the peculiar features of these sedimentary intercalations using a large-scale approach including eastern Africa and the western Arabian peninsula. Starting from a new mapping in the Eritrean highland, the intertrappean beds resulted a continuous level that was a few tens of meters thick and traceable for some tens of kilometers. They consist of fluvial red, green and gray mudstones and siltstones with subordinate channelized pebbly sandstones, and lignite seams. Two new 40Ar-39Ar datings constraint the age of the intertrappean beds between 29.0 Ma and 23.6 Ma. The outcrops near Mendefera have yielded the remains of two proboscidean families, the Deinotheriidae and the Gomphoteriidae. The morphological grade of the two Mendefera proboscideans would suggest a more derived stage than that of representatives of the same families from other Oligocene African sites (e.g., Chilga, Ethiopia). An Oligocene age could be inferred for them. The occurrence of the genus Prodeinotherium at Mai Gobro possibly represents the first occurrence of this taxon, while the Gomphotheirum sp. might represent the oldest occurrence of this taxon in Africa before its dispersal towards Asia and Europe. Proboscideans have also been found in the lowland intertrappean beds of Dogali near Massawa. These sediments were contiguous with the Eritrean highland intertrappean beds during the Oligocene, but are now tectonically displaced from them by two thousand meters of vertical topographical distance. Dogali is also known for the occurrence of possible Deinotheriidae remains and the primitive elephantoid Eritreum. Entering the Ethiopian highland, an

  11. Neanderthal exploitation of marine mammals in Gibraltar

    PubMed Central

    Stringer, C. B.; Finlayson, J. C.; Barton, R. N. E.; Fernández-Jalvo, Y.; Cáceres, I.; Sabin, R. C.; Rhodes, E. J.; Currant, A. P.; Rodríguez-Vidal, J.; Giles-Pacheco, F.; Riquelme-Cantal, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Two coastal sites in Gibraltar, Vanguard and Gorham's Caves, located at Governor's Beach on the eastern side of the Rock, are especially relevant to the study of Neanderthals. Vanguard Cave provides evidence of marine food supply (mollusks, seal, dolphin, and fish). Further evidence of marine mammal remains was also found in the occupation levels at Gorham's Cave associated with Upper Paleolithic and Mousterian technologies [Finlayson C, et al. (2006) Nature 443:850–853]. The stratigraphic sequence of Gibraltar sites allows us to compare behaviors and subsistence strategies of Neanderthals during the Middle Paleolithic observed at Vanguard and Gorham's Cave sites. This evidence suggests that such use of marine resources was not a rare behavior and represents focused visits to the coast and estuaries. PMID:18809913

  12. Marine Mammal Transmitter for porpoise tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, W. G.

    The Marine Mammal Transmitter (MMT) forms part of the equipment to be used in a worldwide Porpoise Tracking System. Knowledge of porpoise migration, distribution characteristics, and population estimates are needed to aid in protection of the porpoise. A major problem is suffocation of porpoises when they are caught in tuna purse seine fishing nets. Location of the porpoise can be determined to within + or - 5 kilometers. The MMT utilizes low power CMOS integrated circuits in timing and control circuits to extend battery life. The MMT with battery pack is contained in two cylinders which are two inches in diameter and 8.5 inches long. The unit is mounted to the porpoise's dorsal fin with a vertical quarter wave monopole antenna extending from one of the cylinders. A signal from the MMT is transmitted to the Nimbus satellite. From there the information is later transmitted to a ground receiver and a data processing facility.

  13. Central and peripheral circadian clocks in mammals.

    PubMed

    Mohawk, Jennifer A; Green, Carla B; Takahashi, Joseph S

    2012-01-01

    The circadian system of mammals is composed of a hierarchy of oscillators that function at the cellular, tissue, and systems levels. A common molecular mechanism underlies the cell-autonomous circadian oscillator throughout the body, yet this clock system is adapted to different functional contexts. In the central suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, a coupled population of neuronal circadian oscillators acts as a master pacemaker for the organism to drive rhythms in activity and rest, feeding, body temperature, and hormones. Coupling within the SCN network confers robustness to the SCN pacemaker, which in turn provides stability to the overall temporal architecture of the organism. Throughout the majority of the cells in the body, cell-autonomous circadian clocks are intimately enmeshed within metabolic pathways. Thus, an emerging view for the adaptive significance of circadian clocks is their fundamental role in orchestrating metabolism. PMID:22483041

  14. Low-exposure tritium radiotoxicity in mammals

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, R.L.

    1982-02-11

    Studies of tritium radiotoxicity involving chronic /sup 3/H0H exposures in mammals demonstrate in both mice and monkeys that biological effects can be measured following remarkably low levels of exposure - levels in the range of serious practical interest to radiation protection. These studies demonstrate also that deleterious effects of /sup 3/H beta radiation do not differ significantly from those of gamma radiation at high exposures. In contrast, however, at low exposures tritium is significantly more effective than gamma rays, rad for rad, by a factor approaching 3. This is important for hazard evaluation and radiation protection because knowledge concerning biological effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure has come mainly from gamma-ray data; and predictions based on gamma-ray data will underestimate tritium effects - especially at low exposures - unless the RBE is fully taken into account.

  15. Transberingian dispersal of cestodes in mammals.

    PubMed

    Rausch, R L

    1994-12-01

    During Pleistocene glaciations, eustatic lowering of sea-level exposed the continental shelf between northeastern Eurasia and northwestern North America. That land in combination with unglaciated areas on the adjacent continents formed a vast region open to the west but bounded on the east by continental ice. Organisms from Eurasia spread into the unglaciated Beringian refugium, which was biotically an eastward extension of the Palaearctic. With rising sea-levels following glacial periods, the Bering Strait was formed and organisms of Eurasian origin were left within the nearctic sector of Beringia. As the continental ice disappeared, plants and animals spread eastward and southward from Beringia, while organisms from beyond the southern margins of the ice extended their ranges northward. The significance of Beringia is discussed with reference to the dispersal of host-specific cestodes in mammals that attained holarctic status during the late Pleistocene. PMID:7729977

  16. 77 FR 25145 - Marine Mammals; File No. 978-1857

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... part 216). The original permit, issued on May 17, 2007 (72 FR 29127) authorizes the permit holder to conduct acoustic studies on captive marine mammals at the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology through May....D., Marine Mammal Research Program, Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, P.O. Box 1106,...

  17. 45 CFR 670.19 - Designation of native mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Designation of native mammals. 670.19 Section 670.19 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Native Mammals, Birds, Plants, and Invertebrates §...

  18. 45 CFR 670.19 - Designation of native mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Designation of native mammals. 670.19 Section 670.19 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Native Mammals, Birds, Plants, and Invertebrates §...

  19. 45 CFR 670.19 - Designation of native mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of native mammals. 670.19 Section 670.19 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Native Mammals, Birds, Plants, and Invertebrates §...

  20. 45 CFR 670.19 - Designation of native mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Designation of native mammals. 670.19 Section 670.19 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Native Mammals, Birds, Plants, and Invertebrates §...

  1. 45 CFR 670.19 - Designation of native mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Designation of native mammals. 670.19 Section 670.19 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Native Mammals, Birds, Plants, and Invertebrates §...

  2. 76 FR 16442 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), have issued the following permits to conduct certain activities with endangered species, marine mammals, or both. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal Protection Act...

  3. 75 FR 50748 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14514

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... Federal Register (75 FR 23241) that a request for a permit to import and export marine mammal parts for..., Aquatic Animal Program, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610 (Ruth Francis-Floyd... histology database and atlas and marine mammal cell lines; and comparative morphology studies. The permit...

  4. 75 FR 23241 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14514

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ..., Aquatic Animal Program, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610 (Ruth Francis-Floyd... brevetoxin studies; develop a marine mammal histology database and atlas, marine mammal cell lines; and... excluding walruses), with unlimited sampling from each animal to maximize use. There would not be...

  5. Epimorphic regeneration approach to tissue replacement in adult mammals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Urodeles and fetal mammals are capable of impressive epimorphic regeneration in a variety of tissues, whereas the typical default response to injury in adult mammals consists of inflammation and scar tissue formation. One component of epimorphic regeneration is the recruitment of resident progenitor...

  6. 76 FR 30309 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16087

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... the Federal Register (76 FR 13603) that a request for a permit to conduct research on marine mammals... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA292 Marine Mammals; File No. 16087 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  7. 75 FR 13730 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14118

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV40 Marine Mammals; File No. 14118 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.),...

  8. West Nile virus associations in wild mammals: a synthesis.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey Root, J

    2013-04-01

    Exposures to West Nile virus (WNV) have been documented in a variety of wild mammals in both the New and Old Worlds. This review tabulates at least 100 mammal species with evidence of WNV exposure. Many of these exposures were detected in free-ranging mammals, while several were noted in captive individuals. In addition to exposures, this review discusses experimental infections in terms of the potential for reservoir competence of select wild mammal species. Overall, few experimental infections have been conducted on wild mammals. As such, the role of most wild mammals as potential amplifying hosts for WNV is, to date, uncertain. In most instances, experimental infections of wild mammals with WNV have resulted in no or low-level viremia. Some recent studies have indicated that certain species of tree squirrels (Sciurus spp.), eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus), and eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) develop viremia sufficient for infecting some mosquito species. Certain mammalian species, such as tree squirrels, mesopredators, and deer have been suggested as useful species for WNV surveillance. In this review article, the information pertaining to wild mammal associations with WNV is synthesized. PMID:23212739

  9. 77 FR 25692 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16479

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... FR 72389) that a request for a permit to conduct research on marine mammals had been submitted by the... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA840 Marine Mammals; File No. 16479 AGENCY... selecting File No. 16479 from the list of available applications. These documents are also available...

  10. 77 FR 12815 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16160

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... Federal Register (76 FR 68161) that a request for a permit to conduct research on marine mammals had been... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA626 Marine Mammals; File No. 16160 AGENCY... selecting File No. 16160 from the list of available applications. These documents are also available...

  11. 75 FR 16076 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15206

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... Agriculture under the Animal Welfare Act (7 U.S.C. Sec. Sec. 2131 - 59). In addition to determining whether... and welfare of marine mammals; that the proposed activity by itself, or in combination with other... accepted standards of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums and the Alliance for Marine Mammal Parks...

  12. 77 FR 19648 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16094

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... on September 20, 2011 (76 FR 61345), authorizes the permit holder to take harbor seals (Phoca... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA599 Marine Mammals; File No. 16094 AGENCY... authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and...

  13. 77 FR 26517 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14118

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... Register (75 FR 13730) that a request for a permit to conduct research on the species identified above had... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV40 Marine Mammals; File No. 14118 AGENCY... of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the...

  14. 77 FR 50472 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15748

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On May 7, 2012, notice was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 26747) that a... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA288 Marine Mammals; File No. 15748 AGENCY... Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing...

  15. 76 FR 19976 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15537

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... INFORMATION: On May 20, 2010, notice was published in the Federal Register (75 FR 28239) that a request for a... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648- XA352 Marine Mammals; File No. 15537 AGENCY... public display permit application received from the Institute for Marine Mammal Studies (IMMS), P.O....

  16. 76 FR 31942 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14329

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... published in the Federal Register (76 FR 21703) that a request for an amendment to Permit No. 14329 to... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Marine Mammals; File No. 14329 AGENCY: National Marine... has been issued to the North Pacific Universities Marine Mammal Research Consortium...

  17. 75 FR 36064 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14186

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ... Register (73 FR 77630) that a request for a permit to conduct enhancement on the species identified above... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XM26 Marine Mammals; File No. 14186 AGENCY... Mammal Protection Act of 1972 as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.). Permit No. 14186 authorizes...

  18. 75 FR 39665 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14534

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ..., 2009, notice was published in the Federal Register (74 FR 46745) that a request for a permit to conduct... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XR52 Marine Mammals; File No. 14534 AGENCY... research on marine mammals in the North Pacific Ocean. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents...

  19. 77 FR 268 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15682

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... the Federal Register (76 FR 18533) that a request for a permit to conduct research on humpback whales... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA888 Marine Mammals; File No. 15682 AGENCY... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et...

  20. 76 FR 31942 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15748

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On March 14, 2011, notice was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 13603) that a... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA288 Marine Mammals; File No. 15748 AGENCY... Alaska SeaLife Center (ASLC), Seward, AK, to conduct research on marine mammals. ADDRESSES: The...

  1. 77 FR 19649 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17029

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... (77 FR 3744) that a request for a permit to import specimens for scientific research had been... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648- XA938 Marine Mammals; File No. 17029 AGENCY... 59851 to receive, import, export, and possess marine mammal specimens for scientific research....

  2. All about Mammals. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    In this videotape, students learn more about the characteristics of common warm-blooded mammals and what makes them different from other animals. Children also find out how humans are more advanced in structure than other mammals, but how they still share the same basic traits. This videotape correlates to the following National Science Education…

  3. 76 FR 48146 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15330

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On February 25, 2011, notice was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 10560) that... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA160 Marine Mammals; File No. 15330 AGENCY... Robin Baird, PhD, Cascadia Research, 218\\1/2\\ W. 4th Avenue, Olympia, WA 98501 to take marine mammals...

  4. 78 FR 29117 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17005

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... in the Federal Register (78 FR 2956) that a request for a permit to conduct research on non-listed... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC439 Marine Mammals; File No. 17005 AGENCY... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et...

  5. 77 FR 58358 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14097

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... INFORMATION: On July 11, 2012, notice was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 40859) that a request for... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX47 Marine Mammals; File No. 14097 AGENCY... has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16...

  6. 76 FR 43988 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14525

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... Federal Register (75 FR 64986) that a request for a permit to import northern fur seal (Callorhinus... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XZ86 Marine Mammals; File No. 14525 AGENCY...), 16111 Plummer St., North Hills, CA 91343, to import and export marine mammal specimens for...

  7. 77 FR 27441 - Marine Mammals; File No. 13927

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... (50 CFR parts 222-226). Permit No. 13927, issued on October 19, 2011 (76 FR 67151), authorizes the... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA774 Marine Mammals; File No. 13927 AGENCY... amendment to Permit No. 13927 is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of...

  8. 77 FR 33444 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17217

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... Register (77 FR 22563) that a request for a public display permit, had been submitted by the above-named... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB159 Marine Mammals; File No. 17217 AGENCY... Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.) and the regulations governing...

  9. 78 FR 3402 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16919

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 27717) that a request for a permit to conduct research on... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB173 Marine Mammals; File No. 16919 AGENCY... the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.),...

  10. 77 FR 20793 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16599

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... the Federal Register (77 FR 2512) that a request for a permit to conduct research on all species of... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA905 Marine Mammals; File No. 16599 AGENCY... Dorian Houser, Ph.D., National Marine Mammal Foundation, 2240 Shelter Island Drive, 200, San Diego,...

  11. 76 FR 329 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14330

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). Permit No. 14330, issued on August 17, 2009 (74 FR... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA122 Marine Mammals; File No. 14330 AGENCY... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing...

  12. West Nile virus antibody prevalence in wild mammals, southern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Docherty, D.E.; Samuel, M.D.; Nolden, C.A.; Egstad, Kristina F.; Griffin, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    Twenty percent prevalence of West Nile virus antibody was found in free-ranging medium-sized Wisconsin mammals. No significant differences were noted in antibody prevalence with regard to sex, age, month of collection, or species. Our results suggest a similar route of infection in these mammals.

  13. Elk herbivory alters small mammal assemblages in high elevation drainages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Elliott W.R.; Maron, John L.; Martin, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Together, our results show that relaxation of heavy herbivore pressure by a widespread native ungulate can lead to rapid changes in small mammal assemblages. Moreover, exclusion of large herbivores can yield rapid responses by vegetation that may enhance or maintain habitat quality for small mammal populations.

  14. Small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Talmage, S.S.; Walton, B.T. )

    1991-01-01

    The merit of using small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants was assessed using data from the published literature. Information was located on 35 species of small mammals from 7 families used to monitor heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals at mine sites, industrial areas, hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites, and agricultural and forested land. To document foodchain transfer of chemicals, concentrations in soil, vegetation, and invertebrates, where available, were included. The most commonly trapped North American species were Peromyscus leucopus, Blarina brevicauda, and Microtus pennsylvanicus. In these species, exposure to chemicals was determined from tissue residue analyses, biochemical assays, and cytogenetic assays. Where enough information was available, suitable target tissues, or biological assays for specific chemicals were noted. In general, there was a relationship between concentrations of contaminants in the soil or food, and concentrations in target tissues of several species. This relationship was most obvious for the nonessential heavy metals, cadmium, lead, and mercury and for fluoride. Kidney was the single best tissue for residue analyses of inorganic contaminants. However, bone should be the tissue of choice for both lead and fluorine. Exposure to lead was also successfully documented using biochemical and histopathological endpoints. Bone was the tissue of choice for exposure to 90Sr, whereas muscle was an appropriate tissue for 137Cs. For organic contaminants, exposure endpoints depended on the chemical(s) of concern. Liver and whole-body residue analyses, as well as enzyme changes, organ histology, genotoxicity, and, in one case, population dynamics, were successfully used to document exposure to these contaminants.

  15. Oxygen sensing strategies in mammals and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Taabazuing, Cornelius Y; Hangasky, John A; Knapp, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    The ability to sense and adapt to changes in pO2 is crucial for basic metabolism in most organisms, leading to elaborate pathways for sensing hypoxia (low pO2). This review focuses on the mechanisms utilized by mammals and bacteria to sense hypoxia. While responses to acute hypoxia in mammalian tissues lead to altered vascular tension, the molecular mechanism of signal transduction is not well understood. In contrast, chronic hypoxia evokes cellular responses that lead to transcriptional changes mediated by the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), which is directly controlled by post-translational hydroxylation of HIF by the non-heme Fe(II)/αKG-dependent enzymes FIH and PHD2. Research on PHD2 and FIH is focused on developing inhibitors and understanding the links between HIF binding and the O2 reaction in these enzymes. Sulfur speciation is a putative mechanism for acute O2-sensing, with special focus on the role of H2S. This sulfur-centered model is discussed, as are some of the directions for further refinement of this model. In contrast to mammals, bacterial O2-sensing relies on protein cofactors that either bind O2 or oxidatively decompose. The sensing modality for bacterial O2-sensors is either via altered DNA binding affinity of the sensory protein, or else due to the actions of a two-component signaling cascade. Emerging data suggests that proteins containing a hemerythrin-domain, such as FBXL5, may serve to connect iron sensing to O2-sensing in both bacteria and humans. As specific molecular machinery becomes identified, these hypoxia sensing pathways present therapeutic targets for diseases including ischemia, cancer, or bacterial infection. PMID:24468676

  16. Oxygen Sensing Strategies in Mammals and Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Taabazuing, Cornelius Y.; Hangasky, John A.; Knapp, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to sense and adapt to changes in pO2 is crucial for basic metabolism in most organisms, leading to elaborate pathways for sensing hypoxia (low pO2). This review focuses on the mechanisms utilized by mammals and bacteria to sense hypoxia. While responses to acute hypoxia in mammalian tissues lead to altered vascular tension, the molecular mechanism of signal transduction is not well understood. In contrast, chronic hypoxia evokes cellular responses that lead to transcriptional changes mediated by the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), which is directly controlled by post-translational hydroxylation of HIF by the non-heme Fe(II)/αKG-dependent enzymes FIH and PHD2. Research on PHD2 and FIH is focused on developing inhibitors and understanding the links between HIF binding and the O2 reaction in these enzymes. Sulfur speciation is a putative mechanism for acute O2-sensing, with special focus on the role of H2S. This sulfur-centered model is discussed, as are some of the directions for further refinement of this model. In contrast to mammals, bacterial O2-sensing relies on protein cofactors that either bind O2 or oxidatively decompose. The sensing modality for bacterial O2-sensors is either via altered DNA binding affinity of the sensory protein, or else due to the actions of a two-component signaling cascade. Emerging data suggests that proteins containing a hemerythrin-domain, such as FBXL5, may serve to connect iron sensing to O2-sensing in both bacteria and humans. As specific molecular machinery becomes identified, these hypoxia sensing pathways present therapeutic targets for diseases including ischemia, cancer, or bacterial infection. PMID:24468676

  17. Mosaic retroposon insertion patterns in placental mammals

    PubMed Central

    Churakov, Gennady; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Baertsch, Robert; Zemann, Anja; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    One and a half centuries after Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace outlined our current understanding of evolution, a new scientific era is dawning that enables direct observations of genetic variation. However, pure sequence-based molecular attempts to resolve the basal origin of placental mammals have so far resulted only in apparently conflicting hypotheses. By contrast, in the mammalian genomes where they were highly active, the insertion of retroelements and their comparative insertion patterns constitute a neutral, virtually homoplasy-free archive of evolutionary histories. The “presence” of a retroelement at an orthologous genomic position in two species indicates their common ancestry in contrast to its “absence” in more distant species. To resolve the placental origin controversy we extracted ∼2 million potentially phylogenetically informative, retroposon-containing loci from representatives of the major placental mammalian lineages and found highly significant evidence challenging all current single hypotheses of their basal origin. The Exafroplacentalia hypothesis (Afrotheria as the sister group to all remaining placentals) is significantly supported by five retroposon insertions, the Epitheria hypothesis (Xenarthra as the sister group to all remaining placentals) by nine insertion patterns, and the Atlantogenata hypothesis (a monophyletic clade comprising Xenarthra and Afrotheria as the sister group to Boreotheria comprising all remaining placentals) by eight insertion patterns. These findings provide significant support for a “soft” polytomy of the major mammalian clades. Ancestral successive hybridization events and/or incomplete lineage sorting associated with short speciation intervals are viable explanations for the mosaic retroposon insertion patterns of recent placental mammals and for the futile search for a clear root dichotomy. PMID:19261842

  18. Mosaic retroposon insertion patterns in placental mammals.

    PubMed

    Churakov, Gennady; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Baertsch, Robert; Zemann, Anja; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2009-05-01

    One and a half centuries after Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace outlined our current understanding of evolution, a new scientific era is dawning that enables direct observations of genetic variation. However, pure sequence-based molecular attempts to resolve the basal origin of placental mammals have so far resulted only in apparently conflicting hypotheses. By contrast, in the mammalian genomes where they were highly active, the insertion of retroelements and their comparative insertion patterns constitute a neutral, virtually homoplasy-free archive of evolutionary histories. The "presence" of a retroelement at an orthologous genomic position in two species indicates their common ancestry in contrast to its "absence" in more distant species. To resolve the placental origin controversy we extracted approximately 2 million potentially phylogenetically informative, retroposon-containing loci from representatives of the major placental mammalian lineages and found highly significant evidence challenging all current single hypotheses of their basal origin. The Exafroplacentalia hypothesis (Afrotheria as the sister group to all remaining placentals) is significantly supported by five retroposon insertions, the Epitheria hypothesis (Xenarthra as the sister group to all remaining placentals) by nine insertion patterns, and the Atlantogenata hypothesis (a monophyletic clade comprising Xenarthra and Afrotheria as the sister group to Boreotheria comprising all remaining placentals) by eight insertion patterns. These findings provide significant support for a "soft" polytomy of the major mammalian clades. Ancestral successive hybridization events and/or incomplete lineage sorting associated with short speciation intervals are viable explanations for the mosaic retroposon insertion patterns of recent placental mammals and for the futile search for a clear root dichotomy. PMID:19261842

  19. Convergence of gut microbiomes in myrmecophagous mammals.

    PubMed

    Delsuc, Frédéric; Metcalf, Jessica L; Wegener Parfrey, Laura; Song, Se Jin; González, Antonio; Knight, Rob

    2014-03-01

    Mammals have diversified into many dietary niches. Specialized myrmecophagous (ant- and termite-eating) placental mammals represent a textbook example of evolutionary convergence driven by extreme diet specialization. Armadillos, anteaters, aardvarks, pangolins and aardwolves thus provide a model system for understanding the potential role of gut microbiota in the convergent adaptation to myrmecophagy. Here, we expand upon previous mammalian gut microbiome studies by using high-throughput barcoded Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize the composition of gut microbiota in 15 species representing all placental myrmecophagous lineages and their close relatives from zoo- and field-collected samples. We confirm that both diet and phylogeny drive the evolution of mammalian gut microbiota, with cases of convergence in global composition, but also examples of phylogenetic inertia. Our results reveal specialized placental myrmecophages as a spectacular case of large-scale convergence in gut microbiome composition. Indeed, neighbour-net networks and beta-diversity plots based on UniFrac distances show significant clustering of myrmecophagous species (anteaters, aardvarks and aardwolves), even though they belong to phylogenetically distant lineages representing different orders. The aardwolf, which diverged from carnivorous hyenas only in the last 10 million years, experienced a convergent shift in the composition of its gut microbiome to become more similar to other myrmecophages. These results confirm diet adaptation to be a major driving factor of convergence in gut microbiome composition over evolutionary timescales. This study sets the scene for future metagenomic studies aiming at evaluating potential convergence in functional gene content in the microbiomes of specialized mammalian myrmecophages. PMID:24118574

  20. The 'individualization' of large North American mammals.

    PubMed

    Ruth, J L; Fain, S R

    1993-01-01

    The enforcement of wildlife laws and the captive breeding of threatened/endangered species requires the ability to identify individual animals. DNA profiles of a variety of large North American mammals, birds, and fish were generated using ten different oligonucleotide probes. The probes tested were four multilocus probes [33.6, 33.15, JE46, and (TGTC)5] and six 'human unilocus' probes [MS1 (D1S7), CMM101 (D14S13), YNH24 (D2S44), EFD52 (D17S26), TBQ7 (D10S28), and MS43 (D12S11). Each of the probes was chemically synthesized, and labeled by the attachment of alkaline phosphatase; after hybridization, the probes were detected by chemiluminescence catalyzed by the enzyme. Initial screening against zoo blots including samples of bear, wolf, large cat, wild sheep, deer, birds, marine mammals, and fish indicated that three multilocus probes [33.15, 33.6, (TGTC)5] gave informative patterns containing 15-40 bands for most or all of the animals tested, as did two of the 'human unilocus' probes (MS1 and CMM101). The other five probes appeared informative only in some species (for example, YNH24 against canids). Subsequent screenings of populations within species were used to determine genetic diversity by analysis of observed bandsharing (S). Large heterologous populations, such as white-tailed deer, exhibited highly diverse band patterns (S < or = 0.2). Geographically isolated and/or genetically constricted animals, such as endangered Mexican wolves, Tule elk, and Columbian white-tailed deer, exhibited much higher frequencies of bandsharing (0.6 < or = S < or = 0.95).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8400711