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Sample records for mammary adenocarcinoma cells

  1. Surgical removal of a mammary adenocarcinoma and a granulosa cell tumor in an African pygmy hedgehog

    PubMed Central

    Wellehan, James F.X.; Southorn, Erin; Smith, Dale A.; Taylor, Michael

    2003-01-01

    A 3-year-old, female African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) was referred with a history of hematuria. Hyperglycemia and glucosuria were found at presentation. Mammary adenocarcinoma and a granulosa cell tumor were found and removed surgically. Glucosuria and hematuria resolved, and the hedgehog has done well for 10 mo postoperatively. PMID:12677695

  2. Surgical removal of a mammary adenocarcinoma and a granulosa cell tumor in an African pygmy hedgehog.

    PubMed

    Wellehan, James F X; Southorn, Erin; Smith, Dale A; Taylor, W Michael

    2003-03-01

    A 3-year-old, female African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) was referred with a history of hematuria. Hyperglycemia and glucosuria were found at presentation. Mammary adenocarcinoma and a granulosa cell tumor were found and removed surgically. Glucosuria and hematuria resolved, and the hedgehog has done well for 10 mo postoperatively. PMID:12677695

  3. Expression of prolactin receptors in normal canine mammary tissue, canine mammary adenomas and mammary adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mammary tumors represent the most common neoplastic disease in female dogs. Recently, the promoting role of prolactin (PRL) in the development of human breast carcinoma has been shown. Possible proliferative, anti-apoptotic, migratory and angiogenic effects of PRL on human mammary cancer cells in vitro and in vivo were suggested. The effects of PRL are mediated by its receptor, and alterations in receptor expression are likely to play a role in tumor development. Currently, not much data is available about prolactin receptor (PRLR) expression in canine mammary tumors. To set the basis for investigations on the role of PRL in mammary tumorigenesis in this species, prolactin receptor expression was evaluated by semi-quantitative real time PCR and immunohistochemistry on 10 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples each of canine non-neoplastic mammary tissue, mammary adenomas and adenocarcinomas. Results The highest PRLR expression levels were found in normal mammary tissue, while adenomas, and to an even higher degree adenocarcinomas, showed a significant decrease in prolactin receptor expression. Compared to normal tissue, PRLR mRNA was reduced 2.4 fold (p = 0.0261) in adenomas and 4.8 fold (p = 0.008) in adenocarcinomas. PRLR mRNA expression was significantly lower in malignant than in benign lesions (p = 0.0165). Immunohistochemistry demonstrated PRLR expression in all three tissue types with signals mostly limited to epithelial cells. Conclusions Malignant transformation of mammary tissue was associated with a decline in prolactin receptor expression. Further studies are warranted to address the functional significance of this finding. PMID:22647582

  4. Altered expression of glycosaminoglycans in metastatic 13762NF rat mammary adenocarcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Steck, P.A.; Cheong, P.H.; Nakajima, M.; Yung, W.K.A.; Moser, R.P.; Nicolson, G.L.

    1987-02-24

    A difference in the expression and metabolism of (/sup 35/S)sulfated glycosaminoglycans between rat mammary tumor cells derived from a primary tumor and those from its metastatic lesions has been observed. Cells from the primary tumor possessed about equal quantities of chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate on their cell surfaces but released fourfold more chondroitin sulfate than heparan sulfate into their medium. In contrast, cells from distal metastatic lesions expressed approximately 5 times more heparan sulfate than chondroitin sulfate in both medium and cell surface fractions. This was observed to be the result of differential synthesis of the glycosaminoglycans and not of major structural alterations of the individual glycosaminoglycans. The degree of sulfation and size of heparan sulfate were similar for all cells examined. However, chondroitin sulfate, observed to be only chondroitin 4-sulfate, from the metastases-derived cells had a smaller average molecular weight on gel filtration chromatography and showed a decreased quantity of sulfated disaccharides upon degradation with chondroitin ABC lyase compared to the primary tumor derived cells. Major qualitative or quantitative alterations were not observed for hyaluronic acid among the various 13762NF cells. The metabolism of newly synthesized sulfated glycosaminoglycans was also different between cells from primary tumor and metastases. A pulse-chase kinetics study demonstrated that both heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate were degraded by the metastases-derived cells, whereas the primary tumor derived cells degraded only heparan sulfate and degraded it at a slower rate. These results suggested that altered glycosaminoglycan expression and metabolism may be associated with the metastatic process in 13762NF rat mammary tumor cells.

  5. Glycosaminoglycan synthesis by subpopulations of epithelial cells from a mammary adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Angello, J.C.; Danielson, K.G.; Anderson, L.W.; Hosick, H.L.

    1982-06-01

    Glycosaminoglycan synthesis by two subpopulations of a mouse mammary tumor cell line was compared. The two sublines express distinctly different growth characteristics in vitro and in vivo which indicate differences in growth regulation. Newly made glycosaminoglycans were recovered from the culture media, the cell surfaces, and residual cellular material. The cell population which grows more aggressively in vivo (+SA subline, a subline that grows in soft agarose) incorporated about 8 times more (/sup 14/C)glucosamine per cell into total glycosaminoglycans than did the slower-growing population (-SA subline, which does not grow in soft agarose). Appropriate control experiments indicated that the apparent difference in rates of synthesis was not due to discrepancies in glucosamine uptake. The main residual cellular molecule labeled was heparan sulfate, but the predominant molecule at the cell surface and in the culture fluid was hyaluronic acid. Overall, +SA cells synthesized more hyaluronic acid and -SA cells synthesized more heparan sulfate; in both cell populations, these two molecules accounted for about 90% of total glycosaminoglycans produced.

  6. High and low dose radiation effects on mammary adenocarcinoma cells – an epigenetic connection

    PubMed Central

    Luzhna, Lidia; Filkowski, Jody; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The successful treatment of cancer, including breast cancer, depends largely on radiation therapy and proper diagnostics. The effect of ionizing radiation on cells and tissues depends on the radiation dose and energy level, but there is insufficient evidence concerning how tumor cells respond to the low and high doses of radiation that are often used in medical diagnostic and treatment modalities. The purpose of this study was to investigate radiation-induced gene expression changes in the MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cell line. Using microarray technology tools, we were able to screen the differential gene expressions profiles between various radiation doses applied to MCF-7 cells. Here, we report the substantial alteration in the expression level of genes after high-dose treatment. In contrast, no dramatic gene expression alterations were noticed after the application of low and medium doses of radiation. In response to a high radiation dose, MCF-7 cells exhibited down-regulation of biological pathways such as cell cycle, DNA replication, and DNA repair and activation of the p53 pathway. Similar dose-dependent responses were seen on the epigenetic level, which was tested by a microRNA expression analysis. MicroRNA analysis showed dose-dependent radiation-induced microRNA expression alterations that were associated with cell cycle arrest and cell death. An increased rate of apoptosis was determined by an Annexin V assay. The results of this study showed that high doses of radiation affect gene expression genetically and epigenetically, leading to alterations in cell cycle, DNA replication, and apoptosis. PMID:27226982

  7. Immunohistochemical identification method of tumour cells in the S phase of mitotic cycle and its usefulness in diagnostics of mammary gland adenocarcinomas in bitches.

    PubMed

    Nowak, M; Madej, J A; Dziegiel, P; Kanzawa, H

    2006-01-01

    The studies aimed at identification of neoplastic cells at the S phase of mitotic cycle in mammary gland adenocarcinomas of bitches. The material was sampled from bitches of various races, aging 6 to 12 years, in which the mammary gland tumours developed spontaneously. The tumours were verified histopathologically and, then, immunohistochemical reactions were performed in order to detect cells which had incorporated BrdU (bromodeoxyuridine), contained Ki-67 or PCNA antigen. The histological preparations were photographed and obtained pictures were subjected to computer-assisted image analysis using Axiophot microscope (Carl Zeiss) coupled to a computer and the Multi-ScaneBase V 8.08 software, working under Windows. Fifty percent of sections from mammary gland adenocarcinomas demonstrated BrdU labelling index of 4-5%, 40% of 1-3%, while in the remaining 10% of examined tumours no BrdU incorporation could be demonstrated. No evident relationship could be detected between the presence of BrdU incorporation and Ki-67 or PCNA antigen presence but a significant correlation was demonstrated between the expression of Ki-67 and PCNA. PMID:16573276

  8. Interaction of dimethylbenzanthracene and diethylstilbestrol on mammary adenocarcinoma formation in female ACI rats

    SciTech Connect

    Shellabarger, C.J.; McKnight, B.; Stone, J.P.; Holtzman, S.

    1980-06-01

    It has been reported that x-irradiation and diethylstilbestrol (DES) act synergistically on mammary adenocarcinoma formation in female ACI rats. The physical carcinogen, x-irradiation, was replaced by a chemical carcinogen, dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA), and their interaction was studied in this system. Thirty-three female ACI rats were given 13.3 mg of DMBA per 100 grams of body weight. A total of 10 mammary adenocarcinomas were found, 8 in rats with a single mammary adenocarcinoma and 2 in a single rat, over a 266-day study period. Twenty-nine rats were implanted with a cholesterol pellet containing 5 mg of DES, and a total of 47 mammary adenocarcinomas were found, 5 in rats with a single mammary adenocarcinoma and 42 in 5 rats with 2 or more mammary adenocarcinomas. Twenty-four rats were given a combined treatment of both compounds, DES 2 days before DMBA, and a total of 126 mammary adenocarcinomas were found, 2 in rats with a single mammary adenocarcinoma and 124 in 18 rats with 2 or more mammary adenocarcinomas. The interaction between DMBA and DES was interpreted to be synergistic in regard to the proportion of rats with one or more mammary adenocarcinomas, and the median times of appearance of both first and second mammary adenocarcinomas. These interactions between DMBA and DES resemble the previously reported synergistic interactions between radiation and DES on mammary adenocarcinoma formation in female ACI rats.

  9. Pleural effusion secondary to thoracic metastatic mammary adenocarcinoma in a mare.

    PubMed

    Foreman, J H; Weidner, J P; Parry, B W; Hargis, A

    1990-11-01

    A 17-year-old Quarter Horse mare was examined nearly 3 years after excision and cryotherapy of a papillary mammary gland adenocarcinoma. The mare had been used for pleasure riding since surgery, but had recently developed progressive dyspnea. The mare had clinical evidence of pleural effusion, but died before further clinical examination and treatment were instituted. Necropsy revealed deep mammary masses with similar nodules in the deep inguinal, renal, and mediastinal lymph nodes and in the lungs, pericardium, visceral and parietal pleurae, and left ovary. The masses were identified as papillary mammary gland adenocarcinoma. Large volumes of free pleural and peritoneal fluid were detected. The pleural fluid contained similar neoplastic cells that could have been readily detected by exfoliative cytologic examination had the mare survived. PMID:2254151

  10. Biosynthesis of ascites sialoglycoprotein-1, the major O-linked glycoprotein of 13762 rat mammary adenocarcinoma ascites cells

    SciTech Connect

    Spielman, J.

    1987-01-01

    The present studies were undertaken to determine the timing of the major events in biosynthesis, and to characterize the contributions of chain initiation and elongation in maturation of the glycoprotein. Initiation of the earliest O-linked chains was detected by analysis of conversion of {sup 3}H-thr to {sup 3}H 2-aminobutyrate following mild alkaline borohydride elimination of O-linked sugars from peanut lectin-precipitated ASGP-1. Initiation was detected within 5 min of translation; amino sugar analysis of GlcNH{sub 2}-labeled, trypsinized cells also showed that GalNAc was added as late as 5 min prior to arrival of ASGP-1 at the cell surface. Thus initiation occurs throughout biosynthesis. Maturation of the glycoprotein from a lightly-glycosylated immature form to the heavily-glycosylated mature from involved both continued initiation of new chains and chain elongation, and occurred with a half-time of about 30 min. Analysis of labeled ASGP-1 released from the cell surface by trypsinization showed that although some newly-synthesized ASGP-1 reached the cell surface within 70-80 min of protein synthesis, the half-time for appearance of mature glycoprotein was in excess of 4 hr, indicating that most molecules reside in an intracellular compartment(s) for a considerable time.

  11. Feline mammary adenocarcinoma: tumor size as a prognostic indicator

    PubMed Central

    Viste, Jodi R.; Myers, Sherry L.; Singh, Baljit; Simko, Elemir

    2002-01-01

    Mammary carcinomas and adenocarcinomas (MACs) are relatively common tumors in cats. The postexcisional survival period of affected cats is inversely proportional to tumor size, but the reported median survival periods for different tumor size categories is quite variable. This variability diminishes the prognostic value of reported data. In our study, cats with MACs greater than 3 cm in diameter had a 12-month median survival period, whereas those with MACs less than 3 cm in diameter had a 21-month survival period. Survival periods for cats with MACs smaller than 3 cm ranged from 3 to 54 months; therefore, tumor size alone is of limited prognostic value in cats with MACs smaller than 3 cm in diameter. In cats with MACs larger than 3 cm in diameter, tumor size appears to have much higher prognostic relevance, because this study, as well as others, have indicated that cats with MACs greater than 3 cm in diameter have a poor prognosis, with median survival periods ranging from 4 to 12 months. PMID:11802667

  12. Study of aggressiveness prediction of mammary adenocarcinoma by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade Bitar, Renata; da Silva Martinho, Herculano; Zambelli Ramalho, Leandra Náira; dos Santos Junior, Arnaldo Rodrigues; Silva Ramalho, Fernando; Raniero, Leandro; Martin, Airton A.

    2012-01-01

    Although there are many articles focused on in vivo or ex vivo Raman analysis for cancer diagnosis, to the best of our knowledge its potential to predict the aggressiveness of tumor has not been fully explored yet. In this work Raman spectra in the finger print region of ex vivo breast tissues of both healthy mice (normal) and mice with induced mammary gland tumors (abnormal) were measured and associated to matrix metalloproteinase-19 (MMP-19) immunohistochemical exam. It was possible to verify that normal breast, benign lesions, and adenocarcinomas spectra, including the subtypes (cribriform, papillary and solid) could have their aggressiveness diagnosed by vibrational Raman bands. By using MMP- 19 exam it was possible to classify the samples by malignant graduation in accordance to the classification results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The spectra NM /MH were classified correctly in 100% of cases; CA/CPA group had 60 % of spectra correctly classified and for PA/AS 54% of the spectra were correctly classified.

  13. Tarantula cubensis extract alters the degree of apoptosis and mitosis in canine mammary adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Gultiken, Nilgun; Guvenc, Tolga; Kaya, Duygu; Agaoglu, Ali Reha; Ay, Serhan Serhat; Kucukaslan, Ibrahim; Emre, Birten; Findik, Murat; Schäfer-Somi, Sabine; Aslan, Selim

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, 13 clinical cases of canine mammary adenocarcinoma were evaluated in order to understand the effect of Tarantula cubensis extract (TCE) on tumor tissue. Punch biopsies were taken from the tumors before treatment with TCE. Subcutaneous injections of TCE were administered three times at weekly intervals (3 mL per dog). Between days 7 and 10 after the third injection, the tumor masses were extirpated by complete unilateral mastectomy. Pre- and post-treatment tumor tissues were immunohistochemically assessed. The expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) was found to be higher in pre-treatment compared to post-treatment tissues (p < 0.01) whereas Ki-67 expression was lower in post-treatment tissues (p < 0.01). No significant differences in fibroblast growth factor or vascular endothelial growth factor expression were observed between pre- and post-treatment tissues (p > 0.05). The apoptotic index was determined to be low before treatment and increased during treatment. These results suggest that TCE may be effective for controlling the local growth of canine mammary adenocarcinoma by regulating apoptosis. PMID:25549212

  14. Tarantula cubensis extract alters the degree of apoptosis and mitosis in canine mammary adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Guvenc, Tolga; Kaya, Duygu; Agaoglu, Ali Reha; Ay, Serhan Serhat; Kucukaslan, Ibrahim; Emre, Birten; Findik, Murat; Schäfer-Somi, Sabine; Aslan, Selim

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, 13 clinical cases of canine mammary adenocarcinoma were evaluated in order to understand the effect of Tarantula cubensis extract (TCE) on tumor tissue. Punch biopsies were taken from the tumors before treatment with TCE. Subcutaneous injections of TCE were administered three times at weekly intervals (3 mL per dog). Between days 7 and 10 after the third injection, the tumor masses were extirpated by complete unilateral mastectomy. Pre- and post-treatment tumor tissues were immunohistochemically assessed. The expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) was found to be higher in pre-treatment compared to post-treatment tissues (p < 0.01) whereas Ki-67 expression was lower in post-treatment tissues (p < 0.01). No significant differences in fibroblast growth factor or vascular endothelial growth factor expression were observed between pre- and post-treatment tissues (p > 0.05). The apoptotic index was determined to be low before treatment and increased during treatment. These results suggest that TCE may be effective for controlling the local growth of canine mammary adenocarcinoma by regulating apoptosis. PMID:25549212

  15. Characterization of mammary adenocarcinomas in male rats after N-methyl-N-nitrosourea exposure-Potential for human male breast cancer model.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Yuki, Michiko; Kinoshita, Yuichi; Emoto, Yuko; Yuri, Takashi; Shikata, Nobuaki; Elmore, Susan A; Tsubura, Airo

    2016-05-01

    The frequency of breast cancer in men is extremely rare, reported to be less than 1% and there is currently no available animal model for male mammary tumors. We compared the characteristics of various immunohistochemical markers in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mammary adenocarcinomas in male and female Crj:CD(SD)IGS rats including: estrogen receptor α (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), androgen receptor (AR), receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2 (HER2), GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Female mammary adenocarcinomas were strongly positive in the nuclei of tumor cells for PCNA and ER (100%) with only 60% and 53% expressing PgR and GATA3, respectively. 100% of male adenocarcinomas also exhibited strongly positive expression in the nuclei of tumor cells for PCNA, with 25% expressing AR and only 8% showing positivity for ER. Male carcinomas did not express PgR or GATA3 and none of the tumors, male or female, were positive for HER2. Based on the observed ER and PgR positivity and HER2 negativity within these tumors, MNU-induced mammary adenocarcinomas in female rats appear to be hormonally dependent, similar to human luminal A type breast cancer. In contrast, MNU-induced mammary adenocarcinomas in male rats showed no reactivity for ER, PgR, HER2 or GATA3, suggesting no hormonal dependency. Both male and female adenocarcinomas showed high proliferating activity by PCNA immunohistochemistry. Based on our literature review, human male breast cancers are mainly dependent on ER and/or PgR, therefore the biological pathogenesis of MNU-induced male mammary cancer in rats may differ from that of male breast cancer in humans. PMID:26852374

  16. Mammary-like adenocarcinoma of the vulva associated to Paget's disease: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Meddeb, Sawsen; Rhim, Mohamed Salah; Mestiri, Sarra; Kouira, Mouna; Bibi, Mohamed; Khairi, Hedi; Yacoubi, Mohamed Tahar

    2014-01-01

    Mammary-like adenocarcinoma of the vulva associated to Paget's disease is exceedingly rare. So, it is very important to perform all the pathological and immunohistochemical investigations to achieve differential diagnosis from both a metastatic lesion from an orthotopic breast cancer and a vulvar adnexal tumor. This report describes a case of vulvar Paget's disease associated with underlying mammary-like adenocarcinoma diagnosed in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Farhat Hached university hospital of Sousse in Tunisia. We also review previously reported cases of primary breast-like carcinoma of the vulva with or without Paget's disease. PMID:25848451

  17. Multiple Delivery of siRNA against Endoglin into Murine Mammary Adenocarcinoma Prevents Angiogenesis and Delays Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Dolinsek, Tanja; Markelc, Bostjan; Sersa, Gregor; Coer, Andrej; Stimac, Monika; Lavrencak, Jaka; Brozic, Andreja; Kranjc, Simona; Cemazar, Maja

    2013-01-01

    Endoglin is a transforming growth factor-β (TGF- β) co-receptor that participates in the activation of a signaling pathway that mediates endothelial cell proliferation and migration in angiogenic tumor vasculature. Therefore, silencing of endoglin expression is an attractive approach for antiangiogenic therapy of tumors. The aim of our study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules against endoglin in vitro and in vivo. Therapeutic potential in vitro was assessed in human and murine endothelial cells (HMEC-1, 2H11) by determining endoglin expression level, cell proliferation and tube formation. In vivo, the therapeutic potential of siRNA molecules was evaluated in TS/A mammary adenocarcinoma growing in BALB/c mice. Results of our study showed that siRNA molecules against endoglin have a good antiangiogenic therapeutic potential in vitro, as expression of endoglin mRNA and protein levels in mouse and human microvascular endothelial cells after lipofection were efficiently reduced, which resulted in the inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation and tube formation. In vivo, silencing of endoglin with triple electrotransfer of siRNA molecules into TS/A mammary adenocarcinoma also significantly reduced the mRNA levels, number of tumor blood vessels and the growth of tumors. The obtained results demonstrate that silencing of endoglin is a promising antiangiogenic therapy of tumors that could not be used as single treatment, but as an adjunct to the established cytotoxic treatment approaches. PMID:23593103

  18. Myoepithelial cells in canine mammary tumours.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Céspedes, Raquel; Millán, Yolanda; Guil-Luna, Silvia; Reymundo, Carlos; Espinosa de Los Monteros, Antonio; Martín de Las Mulas, Juana

    2016-01-01

    Mammary tumours are the most common neoplasms of female dogs. Compared to mammary tumours of humans and cats, myoepithelial (ME) cell involvement is common in canine mammary tumours (CMT) of any subtype. Since ME cell involvement in CMT influences both histogenetic tumour classification and prognosis, correct identification of ME cells is important. This review describes immunohistochemical methods for identification of canine mammary ME cells used in vivo. In addition, phenotypic and genotypic methods to isolate ME cells for in vitro studies to analyse tumour-suppressor protein production and gene expression are discussed. The contribution of ME cells to both histogenetic classifications and the prognosis of CMT is compared with other species and the potential use of ME cells as a method to identify carcinoma in situ is discussed. PMID:26639832

  19. A mammary adenocarcinoma murine model suitable for the study of cancer immunoediting

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancer immunoediting is a dynamic process composed of three phases: elimination (EL), equilibrium (EQ) and escape (ES) that encompasses the potential host-protective and tumor-sculpting functions of the immune system throughout tumor development. Animal models are useful tools for studying diseases such as cancer. The present study was designed to characterize the interaction between mammary adenocarcinoma M-406 and CBi, CBi− and CBi/L inbred mice lines. Results The mammary adenocarcinoma M-406 developed spontaneously in a CBi mouse. CBi/L and CBi− mice were artificially selected for body conformation from CBi. When CBi mice are s.c. challenged with M-406, tumor growths exponentially in 100% of animals, while in CBi− the tumor growths briefly and then begins a rejection process in 100% of the animals. In CBi/L the growth of the tumor shows the three phases: 51.6% in ES, 18.5% in EQ and 29.8% in EL. Conclusions The results obtained support the conclusion that the system M-406 plus the inbred mouse lines CBi, CBi− and CBi/L, is a good murine model to study the process of tumor immunoediting. PMID:24885995

  20. Migrastatin Analogues Inhibit Canine Mammary Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Majchrzak, Kinga; Lo Re, Daniele; Gajewska, Małgorzata; Bulkowska, Małgorzata; Homa, Agata; Pawłowski, Karol; Motyl, Tomasz; Murphy, Paul V.; Król, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer spread to other organs is the main cause of death of oncological patients. Migration of cancer cells from a primary tumour is the crucial step in the complex process of metastasis, therefore blocking this process is currently the main treatment strategy. Metastasis inhibitors derived from natural products, such as, migrastatin, are very promising anticancer agents. Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of six migrastatin analogues (MGSTA-1 to 6) on migration and invasion of canine mammary adenocarcinoma cell lines isolated from primary tumours and their metastases to the lungs. Canine mammary tumours constitute a valuable tool for studying multiple aspect of human cancer. Results Our results showed that two of six fully synthetic analogues of migrastatin: MGSTA-5 and MGSTA-6 were potent inhibitors of canine mammary cancer cells migration and invasion. These data were obtained using the wound healing test, as well as trans-well migration and invasion assays. Furthermore, the treatment of cancer cells with the most effective compound (MGSTA-6) disturbed binding between filamentous F-actin and fascin1. Confocal microscopy analyses revealed that treatment with MGSTA-6 increased the presence of unbound fascin1 and reduced co-localization of F-actin and fascin1 in canine cancer cells. Most likely, actin filaments were not cross-linked by fascin1 and did not generate the typical filopodial architecture of actin filaments in response to the activity of MGSTA-6. Thus, administration of MGSTA-6 results in decreased formation of filopodia protrusions and stress fibres in canine mammary cancer cells, causing inhibition of cancer migration and invasion. Conclusion Two synthetic migrastatin analogues (MGSTA-5 and MGSTA-6) were shown to be promising compounds for inhibition of cancer metastasis. They may have beneficial therapeutic effects in cancer therapy in dogs, especially in combination with other anticancer drugs. However, further in

  1. Immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 in canine simple mammary gland adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dissi, Ahmad N.; Haines, Deborah M.; Singh, Baljit; Kidney, Beverly A.

    2010-01-01

    The expression of 5 markers associated with angiogenesis, proliferation, and apoptosis was studied in 26 canine simple mammary gland adenocarcinomas (SMGAs). The adenocarcinomas were graded histologically, and tissue sections were immunohistochemically stained for the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), intra-tumor microvessel density, and tumor proliferation (PI) using antibodies against VEGF, VEGFR-2, von Willebrand factor, and Ki-67 antigen, respectively. Apoptotic indices (AI) were determined by an apoptosis assay. Markers VEGF and VEGFR-2 were detected in 96% and 100% of SMGAs, respectively. A high correlation between histologic grade and PI (r = 0.73), a moderate correlation between VEGF and histologic grade (r = 0.33), and between VEGF and PI (r = 0.42) were found. There was a significant difference in median PI among the 3 histologic grade groups (r < 0.05). Vascular endothelial growth factor may stimulate tumor cell proliferation through an autocrine loop, since VEGF and VEGFR-2 were expressed in most tumors. PMID:21197202

  2. Of Microenvironments and Mammary Stem Cells

    SciTech Connect

    LaBarge, Mark A; Petersen, Ole W; Bissell, Mina J

    2007-06-01

    In most adult tissues there reside pools of stem and progenitor cells inside specialized microenvironments referred to as niches. The niche protects the stem cells from inappropriate expansion and directs their critical functions. Thus guided, stem cells are able to maintain tissue homeostasis throughout the ebb and flow of metabolic and physical demands encountered over a lifetime. Indeed, a pool of stem cells maintains mammary gland structure throughout development, and responds to the physiological demands associated with pregnancy. This review discusses how stem cells were identified in both human and mouse mammary glands; each requiring different techniques that were determined by differing biological needs and ethical constraints. These studies together create a robust portrait of mammary gland biology and identify the location of the stem cell niche, elucidate a developmental hierarchy, and suggest how the niche might be manipulated for therapeutic benefit.

  3. The antitumor effect of locoregional magnetic cobalt ferrite in dog mammary adenocarcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şincai, Mariana; Gângǎ, Diana; Bica, Doina; Vékás, Ladislau

    2001-01-01

    The endocytosis of nanosized magnetic particles by tumor cells led to numerous tests to establish the use of this phenomenon in antitumor therapy. The direct antitumor effect of a biocompatible cobalt-ferrite-based magnetic fluid directly inoculated in bitch mammary tumors was studied. A direct correlation between tumor cell lysis and cobalt ferrite was established in tumors. Massive endocytosis of magnetic particles was observed 1 h after the contact of magnetic fluid with tumor cells.

  4. In vivo diagnosis of mammary adenocarcinoma using Raman spectroscopy: an animal model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitar, R. A.; Ribeiro, D. G.; dos Santos, E. A. P.; Ramalho, L. N. Z.; Ramalho, F. S.; Martin, A. A.; Martinho, H. S.

    2010-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer type in women Worldwide. Sensitivity and specificity of clinical breast examinations have been estimated from clinical trials to be approximately 54 % and 94 %, respectively. Further, approximately 95 % of all positive breast cancer screenings turn out to be false-positive. The optimal method for early detection should be both highly sensitive to ensure that all cancers are detected, and also highly specific to avoid the humanistic and economic costs associated with false-positive results. In vivo optical spectroscopy techniques, Raman in particular, have been pointed out as promising tools to improve the accuracy of screening mammography. The aim of the present study was to apply FT-Raman spectroscopy to discriminate normal and adenocarcinoma breast tissues of Sprague-Dawley female rats. The study was performed on 32 rats divided in the control (N=5) and experimental (N=27) groups. Histological analysis indicated that mammary hyperplasia, cribriform, papillary and solid adenocarcinomas were found in the experimental group subjects. The spectral collection was made using a commercial FT-Raman Spectrometer (Bruker RFS100) equipped with fiber-optic probe (RamProbe) and the spectral region between 900 and 1800 cm-1 was analyzed. Principal Components Analysis, Cluster Analysis, and Linear Discriminant Analysis with cross-validation were applied as spectral classification algorithm. As concluding remarks it is show that normal and adenocarcinoma tissues discriminations was possible (correct proportion for Transcutaneous collection mode was 80.80% and for "Open Sky" mode was 91.70%); however, a conclusive diagnosis among the four lesion subtypes was not possible.

  5. B and T cells are required for mouse mammary tumor virus spread within the mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Golovkina, T V; Dudley, J P; Ross, S R

    1998-09-01

    Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is an infectious retrovirus transmitted through milk from mother to newborns. MMTV encodes a superantigen (SAg) whose activity is indispensable for the virus life cycle, since a genetically engineered virus with a mutation in the sag gene neither amplified in cells of the immune system of suckling pups nor infected their mammary glands. When wild-type MMTV was injected directly into the mammary glands of uninfected pubescent mice, their lymphoid as well as mammary gland cells became virus infected. To test whether this infection of lymphoid cells was dependent on SAg activity and required for virus spread within the mammary gland, we performed mammary gland injections of wild-type MMTV(C3H) into two strains of transgenic mice that lacked SAg-cognate, V beta 14+ T cells. Neither the MTV-ORF or LEL strains showed infection of their mammary glands. Moreover, no MMTV infection of their peripheral lymphocytes was detected. Similar experiments with mice lacking B cells (mu-chain knockouts) showed no detectable virus spread in the mammary glands or lymphoid tissues. These data suggest that SAg activity and MMTV-infected lymphocytes are required, not only for initial steps of viral infection, but also for virus spread within the mammary gland. Virus spread at late times in infection determines whether MMTV induces mammary tumors. PMID:9725233

  6. The Mammary Gland Microenvironment Directs Progenitor Cell Fate In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bussard, Karen M.; Smith, Gilbert H.

    2011-01-01

    The mammary gland is a unique organ that continually undergoes postnatal developmental changes. In mice, the mammary gland is formed via signals from terminal end buds, which direct ductal growth and elongation. Intriguingly, it is likely that the entire cellular repertoire of the mammary gland is formed from a single antecedent cell. Furthermore, in order to produce progeny of varied lineages (e.g., luminal and myoepithelial cells), signals from the local tissue microenvironment influence mammary stem/progenitor cell fate. Data have shown that cells from the mammary gland microenvironment reprogram adult somatic cells from other organs (testes, nerve) into cells that produce milk and express mammary epithelial cell proteins. Similar results were found for human tumorigenic epithelial carcinoma cells. Presently, it is unclear how the deterministic power of the mammary gland microenvironment controls epithelial cell fate. Regardless, signals generated by the microenvironment have a profound influence on progenitor cell differentiation in vivo. PMID:21647291

  7. Bovine mammary stem cells: Cell biology meets production agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mammary stem cells (MaSC) provide for net growth, renewal and turnover of mammary epithelial cells, and are therefore potential targets for strategies to increase production efficiency. Appropriate regulation of MaSC can potentially benefit milk yield, persistency, dry period management and tissue ...

  8. A human gallbladder adenocarcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Johzaki, H; Iwasaki, H; Nishida, T; Isayama, T; Kikuchi, M

    1989-12-01

    A cell strain (FU-GBC-1) was established from cancerous ascites of a 68-year-old male patient with well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder. By light and electron microscopy, the cultured cells showed the morphologic features of adenocarcinoma characterized by gland-like structures, intracellular microcystic spaces, and mucous production. Immunoperoxidase stains showed that FU-GBC-1 cells expressed several epithelial tumor antigens including CA 19-9, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA). The cell strain has been in continuous culture up to passage 44 for 1 1/2 years, with the population doubling time of 120 hours. The cytogenetic analysis by a G-band technique showed a constant loss of chromosome Y in FU-GBC-1 cells. The modal chromosome number at passage 12 was 82 with a range of 77 to 85. Flow cytometry with an ethidium bromide technique additionally confirmed aneuploid DNA content (4C) in the cultured cells at passage 12 and 35. Inoculation of FU-GBC-1 cells into the dermis of BALB/c nude mice produced transplantable adenocarcinoma identical to the original tumor. Because no continuous cell lines of the well-differentiated type of gallbladder adenocarcinoma have been reported in the literature currently, the newly established cell strain we report may yield a useful system for studying the morphologic and biologic characteristics of gallbladder adenocarcinoma. PMID:2680052

  9. Mammary stem cells: expansion and animal productivity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Identification and characterization of mammary stem cells and progenitor cells from dairy animals is important in the understanding of mammogenesis, tissue turnover, lactation persistency and regenerative therapy. It has been realized by many investigators that altered lactation, long dry periods (non-milking period between two consecutive lactation cycles), abrupt cessation of lactation (common in water buffaloes) and disease conditions like mastitis, greatly reduce milk yield thus render huge financial losses within the dairy sector. Cellular manipulation of specialized cell types within the mammary gland, called mammary stem cells (MaSCs)/progenitor cells, might provide potential solutions to these problems and may improve milk production. In addition, MaSCs/progenitor cells could be used in regenerative therapy against tissue damage caused by mastitis. This review discusses methods of MaSC/progenitor cell manipulation and their mechanisms in bovine and caprine animals. Author believes that intervention of MaSCs/progenitor cells could lessen the huge financial losses to the dairy industry globally. PMID:25057352

  10. In-vitro depth-dependent hyperthermia of human mammary gland adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Andrew W; Zhang, Yu; Mast, David; Pauletti, Giovanni M; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Jiaming; Ewing, Rodney C; Shi, Donglu

    2016-12-01

    Nanoparticle mediated photothermal ablation of cancerous tissue shows promising results and applicability as a highly efficacious treatment method. As a majority of the photothermal work has been conducted with minimal attenuation of the laser before reaching the nanoparticles within surface seeded tumors in-vivo or through buffered media in-vitro, it is important to understand the effects of greater laser attenuation on photothermal efficacy mediated by changes in the scattering and absorption of the laser. Photothermal efficacy using a near infrared (NIR) 785nm laser irradiating polystyrene (PS) stabilized magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (PS-Fe3O4) is examined on MDA-MB-231 human mammary gland adenocarcinoma in-vitro. Agarose gel columns of various heights were created to simulate soft tissue and subsequently used for NIR laser attenuation. Polystyrene was found to significantly improve magnetite nanoparticle stability in serum containing media and modified Hank's Balanced Salt Solution and was able to induce significant hyperthermic ablation at mass concentrations which also did not elicit significant innate toxicity. Furthermore it was found that the polystyrene coating significantly reduced innate toxicity over 48h compared to uncoated magnetite. Agar gel layers provided similar optical attenuation in the NIR region to skin and prostate. PMID:27612683

  11. Mammary Adipose Tissue-Derived Lysophospholipids Promote Estrogen Receptor-Negative Mammary Epithelial Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Volden, Paul A; Skor, Maxwell N; Johnson, Marianna B; Singh, Puneet; Patel, Feenalie N; McClintock, Martha K; Brady, Matthew J; Conzen, Suzanne D

    2016-05-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), acting in an autocrine or paracrine fashion through G protein-coupled receptors, has been implicated in many physiologic and pathologic processes, including cancer. LPA is converted from lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) by the secreted phospholipase autotaxin (ATX). Although various cell types can produce ATX, adipocyte-derived ATX is believed to be the major source of circulating ATX and also to be the major regulator of plasma LPA levels. In addition to ATX, adipocytes secrete numerous other factors (adipokines); although several adipokines have been implicated in breast cancer biology, the contribution of mammary adipose tissue-derived LPC/ATX/LPA (LPA axis) signaling to breast cancer is poorly understood. Using murine mammary fat-conditioned medium, we investigated the contribution of LPA signaling to mammary epithelial cancer cell biology and identified LPA signaling as a significant contributor to the oncogenic effects of the mammary adipose tissue secretome. To interrogate the role of mammary fat in the LPA axis during breast cancer progression, we exposed mammary adipose tissue to secreted factors from estrogen receptor-negative mammary epithelial cell lines and monitored changes in the mammary fat pad LPA axis. Our data indicate that bidirectional interactions between mammary cancer cells and mammary adipocytes alter the local LPA axis and increase ATX expression in the mammary fat pad during breast cancer progression. Thus, the LPC/ATX/LPA axis may be a useful target for prevention in patients at risk of ER-negative breast cancer. Cancer Prev Res; 9(5); 367-78. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26862086

  12. Spleen tyrosine kinase regulates mammary epithelial cell proliferation in mammary glands of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaoming; Lin, Lin; Xing, Weinan; Yang, Yang; Duan, Xiaoyu; Li, Qingzhang; Gao, Xuejun; Lin, Ye

    2016-05-01

    Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that has been considered a hematopoietic cell-specific signal transducer involved in cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the role of SYK in normal mammary gland is still poorly understood. Here we show that SYK is expressed in mammary glands of dairy cows. Expression of SYK was higher in dry period mammary tissues than in lactating mammary tissues. Knockdown and overexpression of SYK affected dairy cow mammary epithelial cell proliferation as well as the expression of signal molecules involved in proliferation, including protein kinase B (PKB, also known as AKT1), p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5). Dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that SYK increased the transcriptional activity of the AKT1 promoter, and cis-elements within the AKT1 promoter region from -439 to -84 bp mediated this regulation. These results suggest that SYK affects mammary epithelial cell proliferation by activating AKT1 at the transcriptional level in mammary glands of dairy cows, which is important for the mammary remodeling process in dry cows as well as for increasing persistency of lactation in lactating cows. PMID:26947307

  13. Morphological and histological characteristics of mammary dysplasias occurring in cell dissociation-derived murine mammary outgrowths

    SciTech Connect

    Ethier, S.P.; Adams, L.M.; Ullrich, R.L.

    1984-10-01

    The morphological and histological characteristics of ductal dysplasias that were observed in mammary outgrowths derived from monodispersed mammary cells of carcinogen-treated mice are described. Mammary outgrowths were derived by injecting either 10(4) or 10(5) enzymatically dissociated mammary cells, obtained from control or carcinogen-treated BALB/c mice, into gland-free mammary fat pads of syngeneic hosts. The mammary dysplasias observed varied considerably in morphological and histological characteristics. The majority of the lesions were ductal in origin and were associated with epithelial hyperplasia which ranged from mild hyperplasia, in which only a few extra layers of epithelium were present, to severe hyperplasia, in which the ducts and end buds were occluded and distended with epithelial cells. In addition, papillary and lobular lesions were observed which were also associated with varying degrees of hyperplasia. The range of mammary dysplasias observed in these outgrowths closely resembles that of lesions associated with the pathogenesis of mammary carcinoma in mice, rats, and humans.

  14. Progesterone induces adult mammary stem cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Purna A; Jackson, Hartland W; Beristain, Alexander G; Di Grappa, Marco A; Mote, Patricia A; Clarke, Christine L; Stingl, John; Waterhouse, Paul D; Khokha, Rama

    2010-06-10

    Reproductive history is the strongest risk factor for breast cancer after age, genetics and breast density. Increased breast cancer risk is entwined with a greater number of ovarian hormone-dependent reproductive cycles, yet the basis for this predisposition is unknown. Mammary stem cells (MaSCs) are located within a specialized niche in the basal epithelial compartment that is under local and systemic regulation. The emerging role of MaSCs in cancer initiation warrants the study of ovarian hormones in MaSC homeostasis. Here we show that the MaSC pool increases 14-fold during maximal progesterone levels at the luteal dioestrus phase of the mouse. Stem-cell-enriched CD49fhi cells amplify at dioestrus, or with exogenous progesterone, demonstrating a key role for progesterone in propelling this expansion. In aged mice, CD49fhi cells display stasis upon cessation of the reproductive cycle. Progesterone drives a series of events where luminal cells probably provide Wnt4 and RANKL signals to basal cells which in turn respond by upregulating their cognate receptors, transcriptional targets and cell cycle markers. Our findings uncover a dynamic role for progesterone in activating adult MaSCs within the mammary stem cell niche during the reproductive cycle, where MaSCs are putative targets for cell transformation events leading to breast cancer. PMID:20445538

  15. CLINICOPATHOLOGIC FEATURES OF MAMMARY MASSES IN CAPTIVE LIONS (PANTHERA LEO).

    PubMed

    Sadler, Ryan A; Craig, Linden E; Ramsay, Edward C; Helmick, Kelly; Collins, Darin; Garner, Michael M

    2016-03-01

    A multi-institutional retrospective analysis of 330 pathology accessions from 285 different lions found 15 captive, female African lions (Panthera leo) with confirmed mammary masses. Aside from the presence of a mammary mass, the most common initial clinical sign was inappetence. Histologic diagnoses were predominantly adenocarcinoma (n = 12), though two benign masses (mammary hyperplasia and a mammary cyst) and one squamous cell carcinoma were identified. Nine of 13 malignant tumors had metastasized to lymph nodes or viscera at the time of necropsy. Six lions with adenocarcinoma and two lions with benign mammary masses had received hormonal contraception, though little evidence of mammary lobular hyperplasia was seen in association with the adenocarcinomas. The most common concurrent disease processes found at necropsy were chronic urinary tract disease and other malignancies. These cases demonstrate that mammary malignancies occur in captive lions and frequently metastasize. PMID:27010273

  16. Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cell Lineages and Parenchymal Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mammary development proceeds from an aggregation of cells in the ventral ectoderm to the establishment of an elaborate tree of alveoli, ducts, and cisternae. However, despite abundant data on endocrine regulation of ruminant mammary growth, we know comparatively little about cell lineages, express...

  17. Mammary Development and Breast Cancer: The Role of Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ercan, C.; van Diest, P.J.; Vooijs, M.

    2014-01-01

    The mammary gland is a highly regenerative organ that can undergo multiple cycles of proliferation, lactation and involution, a process controlled by stem cells. The last decade much progress has been made in the identification of signaling pathways that function in these stem cells to control self-renewal, lineage commitment and epithelial differentiation in the normal mammary gland. The same signaling pathways that control physiological mammary development and homeostasis are also often found deregulated in breast cancer. Here we provide an overview on the functional and molecular identification of mammary stem cells in the context of both normal breast development and breast cancer. We discuss the contribution of some key signaling pathways with an emphasis on Notch receptor signaling, a cell fate determination pathway often deregulated in breast cancer. A further understanding of the biological roles of the Notch pathway in mammary stem cell behavior and carcinogenesis might be relevant for the development of future therapies. PMID:21506923

  18. Huntingtin regulates mammary stem cell division and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Elias, Salah; Thion, Morgane S; Yu, Hua; Sousa, Cristovao Marques; Lasgi, Charlène; Morin, Xavier; Humbert, Sandrine

    2014-04-01

    Little is known about the mechanisms of mitotic spindle orientation during mammary gland morphogenesis. Here, we report the presence of huntingtin, the protein mutated in Huntington's disease, in mouse mammary basal and luminal cells throughout mammogenesis. Keratin 5-driven depletion of huntingtin results in a decreased pool and specification of basal and luminal progenitors, and altered mammary morphogenesis. Analysis of mitosis in huntingtin-depleted basal progenitors reveals mitotic spindle misorientation. In mammary cell culture, huntingtin regulates spindle orientation in a dynein-dependent manner. Huntingtin is targeted to spindle poles through its interaction with dynein and promotes the accumulation of NUMA and LGN. Huntingtin is also essential for the cortical localization of dynein, dynactin, NUMA, and LGN by regulating their kinesin 1-dependent trafficking along astral microtubules. We thus suggest that huntingtin is a component of the pathway regulating the orientation of mammary stem cell division, with potential implications for their self-renewal and differentiation properties. PMID:24749073

  19. Developmental biology: cell fate in the mammary gland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most breast cancers have their origin in the luminal epithelial cells of the mammary gland. Defining how a master regulator controls the development of this cell lineage could provide important hints about why this should be. ...

  20. Enrichment of Mammary Basal and Luminal Cells for Cell-of-Origin Metastasis Studies.

    PubMed

    Kabeer, Farhia; Podsypanina, Katrina; Darrasse-Jèze, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    The mammary gland is an important model system in metastasis research. Mammary epithelial stem cells are of particular interest because of their capacity for regeneration and their role in cancer initiation. This protocol describes how to enrich for mammary basal and luminal epithelial cells using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). PMID:26832681

  1. A human gallbladder adenocarcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Morgan, R T; Woods, L K; Moore, G E; McGavran, L; Quinn, L A; Semple, T U

    1981-06-01

    A continuous cell line, COLO 346, was established from a liver metastasis in a patient with adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder. COLO 346 grew as an adherent monolayer of pleomorphic epithelioid cells. COLO 346 cells produced esterone, but no estradiol, progesterone, or cortisol. No adrenocorticotropic hormones, beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin, carcinoembryonic antigen, or alpha-fetoprotein production by the cells was detected. Cell doubling time was 36 h. Seven allelic isozymes were assayed. COLO 346 had a chromosome mode of 74 at 21 months postestablishment with 6 marker chromosomes present in 100% of the cells analyzed. COLO 346 has been in continuous culture for over 2 yr and is available to other investigators for their studies. PMID:7262900

  2. STAT signaling in mammary gland differentiation, cell survival and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Haricharan, S; Li, Y

    2013-01-01

    The mammary gland is a unique organ that undergoes extensive and profound changes during puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, lactation and involution. The changes that take place during puberty involve large-scale proliferation and invasion of the fat-pad. During pregnancy and lactation, the mammary cells are exposed to signaling pathways that inhibit apoptosis, induce proliferation and invoke terminal differentiation. Finally, during involution the mammary gland is exposed to milk stasis, programed cell death and stromal reorganization to clear the differentiated milk-producing cells. Not surprisingly, the signaling pathways responsible for bringing about these changes in breast cells are often subverted during the process of tumorigenesis. The STAT family of proteins is involved in every stage of mammary gland development, and is also frequently implicated in breast tumorigenesis. While the roles of STAT3 and STAT5 during mammary gland development and tumorigenesis are well studied, others members, e.g. STAT1 and STAT6, have only recently been observed to play a role in mammary gland biology. Continued investigation into the STAT protein network in the mammary gland will likely yield new biomarkers and risk factors for breast cancer, and may also lead to novel prophylactic or therapeutic strategies against breast cancer. PMID:23541951

  3. Technical note: Isolation and characterization of porcine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Dahanayaka, S; Rezaei, R; Porter, W W; Johnson, G A; Burghardt, R C; Bazer, F W; Hou, Y Q; Wu, Z L; Wu, G

    2015-11-01

    Within the mammary gland, functional synthesis of milk is performed by its epithelial (alveolar) cells. The availability of a stable mammary epithelial cell line is essential for biochemical studies to elucidate cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for nutritional regulation of lactation. Therefore, porcine mammary epithelial cells (PMEC) were isolated from mammary glands of a 9-mo-old nonpregnant and nonlactating gilt and cultured to establish a nonimmortalized cell line. These cells were characterized by expression of cytokeratin-18 (an intermediate filament specific for epithelial cells), β-casein (a specific marker for mammary epithelial cells), and α-lactalbumin. In culture, the PMEC doubled in number every 24 h and maintained a cobblestone morphology, typical for cultured epithelial cells, for at least 15 passages. Addition of 0.2 to 2 μg/mL prolactin to culture medium for 3 d induced the production of β-casein and α-lactalbumin by PMEC in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, we have successfully developed a useful PMEC line for future studies of cellular and molecular regulation of milk synthesis by mammary epithelial cells of the sow. PMID:26641038

  4. Bovine mammary stem cells: Transcriptome profiling and the stem cell niche

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification and transcriptome analysis of mammary stem cells (MaSC) are important steps toward understanding the molecular basis of mammary epithelial growth, homeostasis and tissue repair. Our objective was to evaluate the molecular profiles of four categories of cells within the bovine mammary ...

  5. Anti-tumour efficacy of calusterone against DMBA-induced rat mammary adenocarcinoma in vivo and in organ culture.

    PubMed Central

    Horn, H.; Erlichman, I.; Levij, I. S.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of calusterone (7beta,17alpha-dimethyltestosterone) on rat mammary DMBA-induced adenocarcinoma was studied both in vivo and in organ culture. In vivo all 8 tumours with a diameter of less than 30 mm regressed following calusterone injection (10 mg/day for 2-3 weeks). In organ culture calusterone (20 mug/ml medium) inhibited the synthesis of DNA and RNA in all 7 cases examined. Testosterone also inhibited the synthesis of DNA and RNA in organ culture in 12 out of 14 and 10 out of 14 tumours respectively. Oestradiol-17beta on the other hand had no effect on DNA and RNA synthesis in organ culture although 70% of the tumours examined were ovarian dependent, i.e. regressed following castration. This could be explained by the direct effect of calusterone on rat adenocarcinoma compared with the indirect effect of oestradiol-17beta which probably exerts its action by activating the secretion of prolactin which acts on the tumour. PMID:131571

  6. Expression of E-cadherin, beta-catenin and Ki-67 antigen and their reciprocal relationships in mammary adenocarcinomas in bitches.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Marcin; Madej, Janusz A; Dziegiel, Piotr

    2007-01-01

    In progression of tumours, resulting from, i.e., release of cells from the parental tumour and development of metastases, expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAM) plays a significant role. CAM, including E-cadherin and the linked to it beta-catenin, determine the extent of adhesion between normal and neoplastically altered cells. Moreover, the unbound form of beta-catenin in a cell nucleus may affect the rate of cell proliferation This study aimed at demonstrating intensity and localisation of E-cadherin and beta-catenin expression as related to expression of the proliferation-associated antigen, Ki-67 in mammary adenocarcinomas of bitches. The study was performed on 35 cases of the above mentioned tumours. On paraffin sections immunohistochemical reactions were performed using monoclonal antibodies directed against E-cadherin, beta-catenin and Ki-67 antigen. In the studies a membranous expression of E-cadherin, a cytoplasmic-nuclear expression of beta-catenin and nuclear expression of Ki-67 antigen were demonstrated. Statistical calculations using Spearman's test demonstrated a pronounced positive correlation between expression of beta-catenin and Ki-67 antigen and absence of correlation between expression of E-cadherin and Ki-67 antigen. No correlation could be detected between expression intensities of E-cadherin and beta-catenin. PMID:17951173

  7. TCDD exposure disrupts mammary epithelial cell differentiation and function

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Loretta L.; Lew, Betina J.; Lawrence, B. Paige

    2011-01-01

    Mammary gland growth and differentiation during pregnancy is a developmental process that is sensitive to the toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). TCDD is a widespread environmental contaminant and a potent ligand for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We demonstrate reduced β-casein protein induction in mouse mammary glands and in cultured SCp2 mammary epithelial cells following exposure to TCDD. SCp2 cells exposed to TCDD also show reduced cell clustering and less alveolar-like structure formation. SCp2 cells express transcriptionally active AhR, and exposure to TCDD induces expression of the AhR target gene CYP1B1. Exposure to TCDD during pregnancy reduced expression of the cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin in the mammary gland and decreased phosphorylation of STAT5, a known regulator of β-casein gene expression. These data provide morphological and molecular evidence that TCDD-mediated AhR activation disrupts structural and functional differentiation of the mammary gland, and present an in vitro model for studying the effects of TCDD on mammary epithelial cell function. PMID:19490989

  8. Mammary stem cell research in veterinary science: an update.

    PubMed

    Borena, Bizunesh M; Bussche, Leen; Burvenich, Christian; Duchateau, Luc; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R

    2013-06-15

    The mammary gland is an organ with a remarkable regenerative capacity that can undergo multiple cycles of proliferation, lactation, and involution. Growing evidence suggests that these changes are driven by the coordinated division and differentiation of mammary stem cell populations (MaSC). Whereas information regarding MaSC and their role in comparative mammary gland physiology is readily available in human and mice, such information remains scarce in most veterinary mammal species such as cows, horses, sheep, goats, pigs, and dogs. We believe that a better knowledge on the MaSC in these species will not only help to gain more insights into mammary gland (patho) physiology in veterinary medicine, but will also be of value for human medicine. Therefore, this review summarizes the current knowledge on stem cell isolation and characterization in different mammals of veterinary importance. PMID:23360296

  9. Sensitivity of locally recurrent rat mammary tumour cell lines to syngeneic polymorphonuclear cell, macrophage and natural killer cell cytolysis.

    PubMed

    Aeed, P A; Welch, D R

    1988-12-01

    Using a recently developed model for studying the biology of locally recurrent (LR) mammary tumours in the 13762NF rat mammary adenocarcinoma system, we examined the sensitivity to polymorphonuclear cell, macrophage and natural killer cell cytolysis. The parental MTF7(T20) cell line; the 'primary' tumours which arose following subcutaneous inoculation into the mammary fat pad, sc1 and sc3; and the local recurrences (following surgical excision) LR1 and LR1a from sc1, and LR3 from sc3 were all cells generally resistant to specific PMN cytolysis. LPS-activated macrophages caused 25.1%, 38.7% and 58.8% specific cytolysis in MTF7, sc1 and LR1 cells, respectively at E:T of 20:1 and 72 h co-incubation. LR1a, sc3 and LR3 lysis ranged from 0-4.4% under the same conditions. Non-activated macrophages did not lyse any of the cell lines. Locally recurrent and 'primary' tumour cell lines were also not lysed by naive NK cells (range 0.5-4.0% cytolysis). NK cells activated with bropirimine, a potent immunomodulator currently being studied in clinical trials, and/or interleukin-2 were mildly more effective at killing LR cells. Our results show that locally recurrent tumours exhibit heterogeneous sensitivities and are different from 'primary' tumour cells in sensitivities to immune cell killing, but they are not necessarily more or less sensitive. Results with bropirimine-activated or IL-2-activated NK cells emphasize that nonspecific activation is insufficient to eliminate all tumour subpopulations. PMID:3224080

  10. Consumption of silibinin, a flavonolignan from milk thistle, and mammary cancer development in the C3(1) SV40 T,t antigen transgenic multiple mammary adenocarcinoma (TAg) mouse.

    PubMed

    Verschoyle, Richard D; Brown, Karen; Steward, William P; Gescher, Andreas J

    2008-07-01

    Silibinin is a flavonolignan extracted from milk thistle with cancer chemopreventive activity in preclinical models of prostate and colorectal cancer. A milk thistle extract, of which silibin is a major component, has recently been shown to exacerbate mammary carcinogenesis in two rodent models. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of silibinin or silipide, a silibinin formulation with pharmaceutical properties superior to the unformulated agent, affect breast cancer development in the C3(1) SV40 T,t antigen transgenic multiple mammary adenocarcinoma mouse model. Mice received silibinin or silipide (0.2% silibinin equivalents) with their diet from weaning, and tumour development was monitored by weekly palpation and the number and weight of neoplasms at the end of the experiment. Intervention neither promoted, nor interfered with, tumour development. The result suggests that promotion of carcinogenesis is not a feature of silibinin consistent across rodent models of mammary carcinogenesis. PMID:17909802

  11. Targeting cancer cell metabolism in pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Romain; Neuzillet, Cindy; Tijeras-Raballand, Annemilaï; Faivre, Sandrine; de Gramont, Armand; Raymond, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is expected to become the second leading cause of cancer death by 2030. Current therapeutic options are limited, warranting an urgent need to explore innovative treatment strategies. Due to specific microenvironment constraints including an extensive desmoplastic stroma reaction, PDAC faces major metabolic challenges, principally hypoxia and nutrient deprivation. Their connection with oncogenic alterations such as KRAS mutations has brought metabolic reprogramming to the forefront of PDAC therapeutic research. The Warburg effect, glutamine addiction, and autophagy stand as the most important adaptive metabolic mechanisms of cancer cells themselves, however metabolic reprogramming is also an important feature of the tumor microenvironment, having a major impact on epigenetic reprogramming and tumor cell interactions with its complex stroma. We present a comprehensive overview of the main metabolic adaptations contributing to PDAC development and progression. A review of current and future therapies targeting this range of metabolic pathways is provided. PMID:26164081

  12. Effect of anthralin on cell viability in human prostate adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Raevskaya, A A; Gorbunova, S L; Savvateeva, M V; Severin, S E; Kirpichnikov, M P

    2012-07-01

    The study revealed the key role of serine protease hepsin activity in transition of in situ prostate adenocarcinoma into the metastasizing form. Inhibition of hepsin activity suppresses the invasive growth of the tumor. Hepsin is an convenient target for pharmacological agents, so the study of its inhibitory mechanisms is a promising avenue in drug development. Assay of proteolytic activity in various tumor cell lines in vitro showed that this activity in prostate adenocarcinoma cells significantly surpasses proteolytic activity in other examined tumor cell lines. Selective cytotoxic action of anthralin, an inhibitor of hepsin activity, on human adenocarcinoma cells was demonstrated in comparison with other tumor cell lines. PMID:22866312

  13. Clear cell adenocarcinoma arising from adenomyosis.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Kenichi; Yasuda, Masanori; Kajiwara, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Naoya; Sato, Shigeru; Nishijima, Yoshihiro; Mikami, Mikio; Osamura, Robert Yoshiyuki

    2009-05-01

    A 73-year-old postmenopausal Japanese woman presented with a complaint of slight fever and weight loss. An elevated level of CA125 in the blood favored a diagnosis of malignant uterine body tumor, but was not confirmed by endometrial cytology and biopsy. Resection of the uterus revealed a solid whitish tumor in the myometrium that was diagnosed as clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCA) arising from adenomyosis. There were transitions between endometrial epithelium of adenomyosis, noninvasive CCA, and invasive CCA. Immunohistochemical expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta supported the diagnosis of CCA. Only one other English language document pertaining to CCA arising from adenomyosis exists. Malignant tumor arising from adenomyosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis when the serum level of tumor markers such as CA125 is high and when the tumor is intramyometrial. PMID:19620944

  14. Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and vascular density in mammary adenomas and adenocarcinomas in bitches

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The study aimed at examining hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)1α expression in adenocarcinomas and adenomas in bitches in regard to tumour malignancy grade, proliferation, apoptosis and vascularisation. Therefore, paraffin sections of 15 adenomas and 64 adenocarcinomas sampled from 79 dogs aged 6 to 16 years were analysed. Results A significantly higher HIF-1α expression was noted in adenocarcinomas in comparison to adenomas (P < 0.0004). Moreover, HIF-1α expression in adenocarcinomas correlated positively with tumour malignancy grade (r = 0.59, P < 0.05), Ki-67 antigen expression (r = 0.43; P < 0.0005), TUNEL-positive cells (r = 0.62, P < 0001) and tumour vascularity measured by quantification of vessels characterized by the expression of von Willebrand Factor (r = 0.57, P < 0.05). Conclusion Results of this study indicate a similar biological role of HIF-1α in dogs and in humans, which may confirm suitability of the animal model in investigations on progression of tumours in humans. PMID:24153191

  15. Mammary epithelial cells isolated from milk are a valuable, non-invasive source of mammary transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Boutinaud, Marion; Herve, Lucile; Lollivier, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Milk is produced in the udder by mammary epithelial cells (MEC). Milk contains MEC, which are gradually exfoliated from the epithelium during lactation. Isolation of MEC from milk using immunomagnetic separation may be a useful non-invasive method to investigate transcriptional regulations in ruminants’ udder. This review aims to describe the process of isolating MEC from milk, to provide an overview on the studies that use this method to analyze gene expression by qRT PCR and to evaluate the validity of this method by analyzing and comparing the results between studies. In several goat and cow studies, consistent reductions in alpha-lactalbumin mRNA levels during once-daily milking (ODM) and in SLC2A1 mRNA level during feed restriction are observed. The effect of ODM on alpha-lactalbumin mRNA level was similarly observed in milk isolated MEC and mammary biopsy. Moreover, we and others showed decreasing alpha-lactalbumin and increasing BAX mRNA levels with advanced stages of lactation in dairy cows and buffalo. The relevance of using the milk-isolated MEC method to analyze mammary gene expression is proven, as the transcript variations were also consistent with milk yield and composition variations under the effect of different factors such as prolactin inhibition or photoperiod. However, the RNA from milk-isolated MEC is particularly sensitive to degradation. This could explain the differences obtained between milk-isolated MEC and mammary biopsy in two studies where gene expression was compared using qRT-PCR or RNA Sequencing analyses. As a conclusion, when the RNA quality is conserved, MEC isolated from milk are a valuable, non-invasive source of mammary mRNA to study various factors that impact milk yield and composition (ODM, feeding level, endocrine status, photoperiod modulation, and stage of lactation). PMID:26579195

  16. Oxytocin binding by myoepithelial cell membranes from involuted mammary tissue.

    PubMed

    Ruberti, A; Olins, G M; Eakle, K A; Bremel, R D

    1983-04-29

    Oxytocin binding activity of myoepithelial cell membranes from mammary tissue was measured under a variety of different experimental conditions. Mammary tissue from non-lactating rats bound oxytocin with a Kd of 9.2 +/- 1.6 nM (+/- S.E.) and indicates that receptors are retained by the myoepithelial cells in a non-lactating state. Ovariectomy of non-lactating rats did not depress the binding activity of the membranes. Administration of the estrogenic compounds estradiol-17 beta and diethylstibestrol at doses which affect uterine weight and are known to increase uterine oxytocin binding did not influence the binding activity of the myoepithelial cells. This indicates that the oxytocin receptors of the mammary gland are not under the same endocrine control as the uterine receptors. PMID:6303330

  17. Inhibitory effects of a polypeptide thymic factor on the development of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthragene-induced mammary adenocarcinoma in female rats

    SciTech Connect

    Anisimov, V.N.; Danetskaya, E.V.; Morozov, V.G.; Khavinson, V.Kh.

    1980-01-01

    It has come to be recognized that tumor growth is accompanied by inhibition of cellular immunity and the function of the T lymphocytes. Restitution of T lymphocyte function by means of several pharmacologic agents such as levamisole, phenformin, or epithalamin (an epiphyseal factor) has, in a number of cases, been accompanied by growth inhibition of both spontaneous and induced tumors. In addition, the importance of the thymus in the regulation of T lymphocytes and in antitumor immunity has been recognized. Several indicators point to the fact that the thymus contains physiologically active substances which stimulate T cell-dependent immunity and prevent the occurrence of neoplasms. These considerations have led to attempts at isolation of active thymic factors and studies on their effects on the appearance and growth of tumors. Previously, a thymic factor - thymarin - had been isolated which imparted immunocompetence to the T lymphocytes. This factor differs from other thymic preparations, including thymosine, in terms of a number of physicochemical characteristics and is a polypeptide with a molecular weight of 5000. This study is concerned with its effects on tumor development - mammary gland adenocarcinoma induced in animals with a chemical carcinogen.

  18. The dynamics of murine mammary stem/progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    DONG, Qiaoxiang; SUN, Lu-Zhe

    2014-01-01

    The stem/progenitor cells in the murine mammary gland are a highly dynamic population of cells that are responsible for ductal elongation in puberty, homeostasis maintenance in adult, and lobulo-alveolar genesis during pregnancy. In recent years understanding the epithelial cell hierarchy within the mammary gland is becoming particularly important as these different stem/progenitor cells were perceived to be the cells of origin for various subtypes of breast cancer. Although significant advances have been made in enrichment and isolation of stem/progenitor cells by combinations of antibodies against cell surface proteins together with flow cytometry, and in identification of stem/progenitor cells with multi-lineage differentiation and self-renewal using mammary fat pad reconstitution assay and in vivo genetic labeling technique, a clear understanding of how these different stem/progenitors are orchestrated in the mammary gland is still lacking. Here we discuss the different in vivo and in vitro methods currently available for stem/progenitor identification, their associated caveats, and a possible new hierarchy model to reconcile various putative stem/progenitor cell populations identified by different research groups. PMID:25580105

  19. An in vitro model of epithelial cell growth stimulation in the rodent mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Ehmann, U K; DeVries, J T; Chen, M S C; Adamos, A A; Guzman, R C; Omary, M B

    2003-08-01

    Mouse mammary epithelial cell cultures previously described bring about extensive proliferation and a cell population with the appropriate markers for luminal ductal epithelial cells, and also the ability to form normal tissue after implantation into mice. This success may result from a culture environment that resembles certain aspects of the environment in the mammary gland. Mouse mammary epithelial cells, whose proliferation is limited when plated alone, can be stimulated to multiply by contact with lethally irradiated cells of the LA7 rat mammary tumour line. Most of the proliferative stimulus is imparted by direct cell contact between LA7 and mouse mammary cells. Junctions, including adherens junctions, form among all cells in the culture, much as junctions form in the mammary gland. LA7 cells secrete TGFalpha and bFGF, factors found in the mammary gland, and factors to which mouse mammary cells respond in culture. Mouse mammary cells express keratins 8 and 18, markers for luminal cells of the mammary duct. LA7 cells express keratin 14 and vimentin, markers for myoepithelial cells. These facts, taken together, fit a model of cell replacement in an epithelial tissue and also imitate the relationship between luminal ductal cells and myoepithelial cells in the mammary gland. This method of culturing cells is useful, not only for in vitro-in vivo carcinogenesis studies, but also for the study of mechanisms by which growth signals are imparted from one cell to another. PMID:12950387

  20. Characteristics and EGFP expression of porcine mammary gland epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yue-Mao; He, Xiao-Ying

    2010-12-01

    The aims of this study were to establish a porcine mammary gland epithelial (PMGE) cell line, and to determine if these PMGE cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing following transfection with a reporter gene, enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP). Primary culture of PMGE cells was achieved by outgrowth of migrating cells from the fragments of the mammary gland tissue of a lactating pig. The passage sixteen PMGE cells were transfected with EGFP gene using lipofection. The expression of Cell keratins of epithelial cells in PMGE cells was tested by immunofluorescence. Βeta-Casein gene mRNA was tested for PMGE cells by RT-PCR. The results showed that PMGE cells could form dome-like structure which looked like nipple, and the cells contained different cell types. The expression of Cell keratins demonstrated the property of epithelial cells, and the PMGE cells could express transcript encoding a Βeta-Casein protein. EGFP gene was successfully transferred into the PMGE cells, and the transfected cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing. In conclusion, we have established a EGFP gene transfected porcine mammary gland epithelial (ET-PMGE) cell line. PMID:20400167

  1. Mechanisms of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid inhibition of mammary cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Said, Thenaa K; Moraes, Ricardo CB; Sinha, Raghu; Medina, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid in cell growth inhibition involved induction of pRb-2/p130 interaction and nuclear translocation with E2F-4, followed by significant repression in E2F-1 and PCNA nuclear levels, which led to inhibition in DNA synthesis in mammary epithelial cell lines. PMID:11250759

  2. Cadherin Cell Adhesion System in Canine Mammary Cancer: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gama, Adelina; Schmitt, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Cadherin-catenin adhesion complexes play important roles by providing cell-cell adhesion and communication in different organ systems. Abnormal expression of cadherin adhesion molecules constitutes a common phenomenon in canine mammary cancer and has been frequently implicated in tumour progression. This paper summarizes the current knowledge on cadherin/catenin adhesion molecules (E-cadherin, β-catenin, and P-cadherin) in canine mammary cancer, focusing on the putative biological functions and clinical significance of these molecules in this disease. This paper highlights the need for further research studies in this setting in order to elucidate the role of these adhesion molecules during tumour progression and metastasis. PMID:22973534

  3. [Physiology of secretory cells in the mouse mammary gland].

    PubMed

    Tolkunov, Iu A; Markov, A G

    2000-08-01

    Secretory cells' membrane potential and transepithelial potential difference in the mouse mammary gland diminish within 2.5 hours following breast-feeding of the litter. The transepithelial resistance for up to 20 hours after the feeding did not drop below 40-70 k omega. The secret pressure in the mammary gland does not grow during this period. Therefore an increase of interval between litter feeding up to 20 hours does not entail any mechanical lesion of the secretory epithelium. The latter's cells seem to secrete organic and inorganic substances in concentrations which do not change significantly during their transfer along the outgoing ducts. PMID:11059022

  4. Amphiregulin mediates self-renewal in an immortal mammary epithelial cell line with stem cell characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, Brian W.; Boulanger, Corinne A.; Anderson, Lisa H.; Jimenez-Rojo, Lucia; Brisken, Cathrin; Smith, Gilbert H.

    2010-02-01

    Amphiregulin (AREG), a ligand for epidermal growth factor receptor, is required for mammary gland ductal morphogenesis and mediates estrogen actions in vivo, emerging as an essential growth factor during mammary gland growth and differentiation. The COMMA-D {beta}-geo (CD{beta}geo) mouse mammary cell line displays characteristics of normal mammary progenitor cells including the ability to regenerate a mammary gland when transplanted into the cleared fat pad of a juvenile mouse, nuclear label retention, and the capacity to form anchorage-independent mammospheres. We demonstrate that AREG is essential for formation of floating mammospheres by CD{beta}geo cells and that the mitogen activated protein kinase signaling pathway is involved in AREG-mediated mammosphere formation. Addition of exogenous AREG promotes mammosphere formation in cells where AREG expression is knocked down by siRNA and mammosphere formation by AREG{sup -/-} mammary epithelial cells. AREG knockdown inhibits mammosphere formation by duct-limited mammary progenitor cells but not lobule-limited mammary progenitor cells. These data demonstrate AREG mediates the function of a subset of mammary progenitor cells in vitro.

  5. Epimorphin Functions as a Key Morphoregulator for Mammary Epithelial Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, H.; Lochter, A.; Galosy, S.; Koshida, S.; Niwa, S.; Bissell, M.J.

    1997-10-13

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and EGF have been reported to promote branching morphogenesis of mammary epithelial cells. We now show that it is epimorphin that is primarily responsible for this phenomenon. In vivo, epimorphin was detected in the stromal compartment but not in lumenal epithelial cells of the mammary gland; in culture, however, a subpopulation of mammary epithelial cells produced significant amounts of epimorphin. When epimorphin-expressing epithelial cell clones were cultured in collagen gels they displayed branching morphogenesis in the presence of HGF, EGF, keratinocyte growth factor, or fibroblast growth factor, a process that was inhibited by anti-epimorphin but not anti-HGF antibodies. The branch length, however, was roughly proportional to the ability of the factors to induce growth. Accordingly, epimorphin-negative epithelial cells simply grew in a cluster in response to the growth factors and failed to branch. When recombinant epimorphin was added to these collagen gels, epimorphin-negative cells underwent branching morphogenesis. The mode of action of epimorphin on morphogenesis of the gland, however, was dependent on how it was presented to the mammary cells. If epimorphin was overexpressed in epimorphin-negative epithelial cells under regulation of an inducible promoter or was allowed to coat the surface of each epithelial cell in a nonpolar fashion, the cells formed globular, alveoli-like structures with a large central lumen instead of branching ducts. This process was enhanced also by addition of HGF, EGF, or other growth factors and was inhibited by epimorphin antibodies. These results suggest that epimorphin is the primary morphogen in the mammary gland but that growth factors are necessary to achieve the appropriate cell numbers for the resulting morphogenesis to be visualized.

  6. Isolation of Cancer Epithelial Cells from Mouse Mammary Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sara; Chen, Hexin; Lo, Pang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    The isolation of cancer epithelial cells from mouse mammary tumor is accomplished by digestion of the solid tumor. Red blood cells and other contaminates are removed using several washing techniques such that primary epithelial cells can further enriched. This procedure yields primary tumor cells that can be used for in vitro tissue culture, fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and a wide variety of other experiments (Lo et al., 2012).

  7. Immortalized bovine mammary epithelial cells express stem cell markers and differentiate in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hu, Han; Zheng, Nan; Gao, Haina; Dai, Wenting; Zhang, Yangdong; Li, Songli; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-08-01

    The bovine mammary epithelial cell is a secretory cell, and its cell number and secretory activity determine milk production. In this study, we immortalized a bovine mammary epithelial cell line by SV40 large T antigen gene using a retrovirus based on Chinese Holstein primary mammary epithelial cells (CMEC) cultured in vitro. An immortalized bovine mammary epithelial cell line surpassed the 50-passage mark and was designated the CMEC-H. The immortalized mammary epithelial cells grew in close contact with each other and exhibited the typical cobblestone morphology characteristic with obvious boundaries. The telomerase expression of CMEC-H has consistently demonstrated the presence of telomerase activity as an immortalized cell line, but the cell line never induced tumor formation in nude mice. CMEC-H expressed epithelial (cytokeratins CK7, CK8, CK18, and CK19), mesenchymal (vimentin), and stem/progenitor (CD44 and p63) cell markers. The induced expression of milk proteins, αS1 -casein, β-casein, κ-casein, and butyrophilin, indicated that CMEC-H maintained the synthesis function of the mammary epithelial cells. The established immortalized bovine mammary epithelial cell line CMEC-H is capable of self-renewal and differentiation and can serve as a valuable reagent for studying the physiological mechanism of the mammary gland. PMID:27189858

  8. In vitro expansion of the mammary stem/progenitor cell population by xanthosinetreatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Mammary stem cells are critical for growth and maintenance of the mammary gland and therefore of considerable interest for improving productivity and efficiency of dairy animals. Xanthosine (Xs) treatment has been demonstrated to promote expansion of putative mammary stem cells in vivo ...

  9. Characterization of an epithelial cell line from bovine mammary gland.

    PubMed

    German, Tania; Barash, Itamar

    2002-05-01

    Elucidation of the bovine mammary gland's unique characteristics depends on obtaining an authentic cell line that will reproduce its function in vitro. Representative clones from bovine mammary cell populations, differing in their attachment capabilities, were cultured. L-1 cells showed strong attachment to the plate, whereas H-7 cells detached easily. Cultures established from these clones were nontumorigenic upon transplantation to an immunodeficient host; they exhibited the epithelial cell characteristics of positive cytokeratin but not smooth muscle actin staining. Both cell lines depended on fetal calf serum for proliferation. They exhibited distinct levels of differentiation on Matrigel in serum-free, insulin-supplemented medium on the basis of their organization and beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) secretion. H-7 cells organized into mammospheres, whereas L-1 cells arrested in a duct-like morphology. In both cell lines, prolactin activated phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription, Stat5-a regulator of milk protein gene transcription, and of PHAS-I-an inhibitor of translation initiation in its nonphosphorylated form. De novo synthesis and secretion of BLG were detected in differentiated cultures: in L-1 cells, BLG was dependent on lactogenic hormones for maximal induction but was less stringently controlled than was beta-casein in the mouse CID-9 cell line. L-1 cells also encompassed a near-diploid chromosomal karyotype and may serve as a tool for studying functional characteristics of the bovine mammary gland. PMID:12418925

  10. Proliferation of human mammary cancer cells exposed to 27-hydroxycholesterol

    PubMed Central

    CRUZ, PAMELA; TORRES, CRISTIAN; RAMÍREZ, MARÍA EUGENIA; EPUÑÁN, MARÍA JOSÉ; VALLADARES, LUIS EMILIO; SIERRALTA, WALTER DANIEL

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the possible mechanisms by which certain estradiol receptor (ER)-positive mammary tumor cells remain resistant to treatment with anti-estrogens or inhibitors of local estradiol (E2) production. To this end, we compared the proliferative effects on mammary cancer cells of the novel selective ER modulator 27-hydroxycholesterol (27OHC) to those of E2, and evaluated their inhibition by ICI 182,780 (ICI). Analysis of the effects on the cell cycle of 27OHC and E2 in the absence or presence of ICI was conducted. In ER-positive mammary tumor cells, we detected the blocking of 27OHC proliferation-stimulatory activity by simvastatin, as well as the inhibition of E2-stimulated proliferation by an α-fetoprotein-derived cyclic nonapeptide. The effects reported herein may be extrapolated to infiltrating mammary cancer, where the activity of local macrophages may stimulate tumor growth. We suggest that increased breast cancer growth in obese patients may be related to increased 27OHC circulatory levels. PMID:22993572

  11. Transforming growth factor-beta activities in 'in vivo' lines of hormone-dependent and independent mammary adenocarcinomas induced by medroxyprogesterone acetate in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Elizalde, P V; Lanari, C; Kordon, E; Tezón, J; Charreau, E H

    1990-07-01

    We have determined the presence of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)-like polypeptides in mammary adenocarcinomas induced by medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in BALB/c mice. In hormone-dependent tumors (HD) from nontreated and MPA-treated mice a high molecular weight (43 kDa) transforming activity was purified by Bio-Gel P-60 chromatography. This TGF was able to confer the neoplastic phenotype on NRK-49F cells without the addition of epidermal growth factor (EGF), though its activity was potentiated by EGF. It did not compete for binding to the EGF receptor, had no mitogenic activity on monolayer cultures of NRK fibroblasts, and was a potent inhibitor of DNA synthesis induced in these cells by EGF and insulin. In HD and hormone-independent tumors (HI) another TGF with a Mr of 13 kDa was isolated. This transforming activity showed the same biological properties as 43 kDa TGF, with the exception that in the absence of EGF it did not stimulate soft agar growth of NRK-49F cells. The synthesis of both factors in 'in vivo' HD tumors seems to be under MPA control, since it is much lower in HD tumors from MPA-treated mice. Further purification of the 13 and 43 kDa TGFs by hydrophobic interaction HPLC demonstrated that each one eluted in a different position, and that their elution profile differed from the TGF-beta from human platelets. The biological activity of the 13 and 43 kDa TGFs was not neutralized by a specific anti-TGF-beta antibody. PMID:2145045

  12. Three-Dimensional Cultures of Mouse Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mroue, Rana; Bissell, Mina J.

    2013-01-01

    The mammary gland is an ideal “model organism” for studying tissue specificity and gene expression in mammals: it is one of the few organs that develop after birth and it undergoes multiple cycles of growth, differentiation and regression during the animal’s lifetime in preparation for the important function of lactation. The basic “functional differentiation” unit in the gland is the mammary acinus made up of a layer of polarized epithelial cells specialized for milk production surrounded by myoepithelial contractile cells, and the two-layered structure is surrounded by basement membrane. Much knowledge about the regulation of mammary gland development has been acquired from studying the physiology of the gland and of lactation in rodents. Culture studies, however, were hampered by the inability to maintain functional differentiation on conventional tissue culture plastic. We now know that the microenvironment, including the extracellular matrix and tissue architecture, plays a crucial role in directing functional differentiation of organs. Thus, in order for culture systems to be effective experimental models, they need to recapitulate the basic unit of differentiated function in the tissue or organ and to maintain its three-dimensional (3D) structure. Mouse mammary culture models evolved from basic monolayers of cells to an array of complex 3D systems that observe the importance of the microenvironment in dictating proper tissue function and structure. In this chapter, we focus on how 3D mouse mammary epithelial cultures have enabled investigators to gain a better understanding of the organization, development and function of the acinus, and to identify key molecular, structural, and mechanical cues important for maintaining mammary function and architecture. The accompanying chapter of Vidi et al. describes 3D models developed for human cells. Here, we describe how mouse primary epithelial cells and cell lines—essentially those we use in our

  13. Murine mammary stem/progenitor cell isolation: Different method matters?

    PubMed

    Gao, Hui; Dong, Qiaoxiang; Chen, Yuanhong; Zhang, Fuchuang; Wu, Anqi; Shi, Yuanshuo; Bandyopadhyay, Abhik; Daniel, Benjamin J; Huang, Changjiang; Sun, Lu-Zhe

    2016-01-01

    Murine mammary stem/progenitor cell isolation has been routinely used in many laboratories, yet direct comparison among different methods is lacking. In this study, we compared two frequently used digestion methods and three sets of frequently used surface markers for their efficiency in enriching mammary stem and progenitor cells in two commonly used mouse strains, C57BL/6J and FVB. Our findings revealed that the slow overnight digestion method using gentle collagenase/hyaluronidase could be easily adopted and yielded reliable and consistent results in different batches of animals. In contrast, the different fast digestion protocols, as described in published studies, yielded high percent of non-epithelial cells with very few basal epithelial cells liberated in our hands. The three sets of markers tested in our hands reveal rather equally efficiency in separating luminal and basal cells if same fluorochrome conjugations were used. However, the tendency of non-epithelial cell inclusion in the basal cell gate was highest in samples profiled by CD24/CD29 and lowest in samples profiled by CD49f/EpCAM, this is especially true in mammary cells isolated from C57BL/6J mice. This finding will have significant implication when sorted basal cells are used for subsequent gene expression analysis. PMID:26933638

  14. Expression of novel, putative stem cell markers in prepubertal and lactating mammary glands of bovine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mammary stem cells (MaSC) are essential for growth and maintenance of the mammary epithelium. Two main phases of mammary growth include ductal elongation prior to puberty and lobulo-alveolar growth and development during pregnancy. Some studies have utilized morphological characteristics and retenti...

  15. Quantification of regenerative potential in primary human mammary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Linnemann, Jelena R.; Miura, Haruko; Meixner, Lisa K.; Irmler, Martin; Kloos, Uwe J.; Hirschi, Benjamin; Bartsch, Harald S.; Sass, Steffen; Beckers, Johannes; Theis, Fabian J.; Gabka, Christian; Sotlar, Karl; Scheel, Christina H.

    2015-01-01

    We present an organoid regeneration assay in which freshly isolated human mammary epithelial cells are cultured in adherent or floating collagen gels, corresponding to a rigid or compliant matrix environment. In both conditions, luminal progenitors form spheres, whereas basal cells generate branched ductal structures. In compliant but not rigid collagen gels, branching ducts form alveoli at their tips, express basal and luminal markers at correct positions, and display contractility, which is required for alveologenesis. Thereby, branched structures generated in compliant collagen gels resemble terminal ductal-lobular units (TDLUs), the functional units of the mammary gland. Using the membrane metallo-endopeptidase CD10 as a surface marker enriches for TDLU formation and reveals the presence of stromal cells within the CD49fhi/EpCAM− population. In summary, we describe a defined in vitro assay system to quantify cells with regenerative potential and systematically investigate their interaction with the physical environment at distinct steps of morphogenesis. PMID:26071498

  16. Mammary and extramammary Paget's disease

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, J; Flanagan, A

    2000-01-01

    Mammary and extramammary Paget's disease are uncommon intraepithelial adenocarcinomas. Both conditions have similar clinical features, which mimic inflammatory and infective diseases. Histological diagnostic confusion can arise between Paget's disease and other neoplastic conditions affecting the skin, with the most common differential diagnoses being malignant melanoma and atypical squamous disease. The glandular differentiation of both mammary Paget's disease and extramammary Paget's disease is indicated by morphological appearances, the presence of intracellular mucin in many cases, and positive immunohistochemical staining for glandular cytokeratins, epithelial membrane antigen, and carcinoembryonic antigen. This article provides an overview of mammary and extramammary Paget's disease and discusses recent evidence regarding the cell of origin. The concepts of primary and secondary Paget's disease are presented and the differential diagnosis is discussed with reference to immunohistochemical markers that might be of diagnostic value. Key Words: mammary Paget's disease • extramammary Paget's disease PMID:11064666

  17. [Gastric signet ring cell adenocarcinoma: A distinct entity].

    PubMed

    Tabouret, Tessa; Dhooge, Marion; Rouquette, Alexandre; Brezault, Catherine; Beuvon, Frédéric; Chaussade, Stanislas; Coriat, Romain

    2014-04-01

    Gastric signet ring cell carcinoma (GSRC) is a distinct entity. Their incidence is increasing. The pathologist plays a central role in the identification of this entity. Diagnosis is based on an adenocarcinoma containing a majority of signet ring cells (above 50 %). The prognosis of GSRC is the same as gastric adenocarcinoma while GSRC appeared more aggressive. Signet ring cells present a low sensitivity to chemotherapy. This review aimed to discuss the histological, the prognostic and the therapeutic aspect of this entity. PMID:24440764

  18. Collective Epithelial Migration and Cell Rearrangements Drive Mammary Branching Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ewald, Andrew J.; Brenot, Audrey; Duong, Myhanh; Chan, Bianca S.; Werb, Zena

    2009-01-01

    Summary Epithelial organs are built through the movement of groups of interconnected cells. We observed cells in elongating mammary ducts reorganize into a multilayered epithelium, migrate collectively, and rearrange dynamically, all without forming leading cellular extensions. Duct initiation required proliferation, Rac, and myosin light-chain kinase, whereas repolarization to a bilayer depended on Rho kinase. We observed that branching morphogenesis results from the active motility of both luminal and myoepithelial cells. Luminal epithelial cells advanced collectively, whereas myoepithelial cells appeared to restrain elongating ducts. Significantly, we observed that normal epithelium and neoplastic hyperplasias are organized similarly during morphogenesis, suggesting common mechanisms of epithelial growth. PMID:18410732

  19. Characteristics and EGFP expression of goat mammary gland epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Y-M; He, X-Y; Zhang, Y

    2010-12-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to establish a goat mammary gland epithelial (GMGE) cell line, and (ii) to determine if these GMGE cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing following transfection with a reporter gene, enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP). Primary culture of GMGE cells was achieved by outgrowth of migrating cells from the fragments of the mammary gland tissue of a lactating goat. The passage 16 GMGE cells were transfected with EGFP gene using lipofection. The expression of Cell keratins of epithelial cells in GMGE cells was test by immunofluorescence. Βeta-Casein gene mRNA was test for GMGE cells by RT-PCR. The results showed that when grown at low density on a plastic substratum, the GMGE cells formed islands, and when grown to confluency, the cells formed a monolayer and aggregated with the characteristic cobble-stone morphology of epithelial cells. GMGE cells could form dome-like structure which looked like nipple, and the lumen-like structures formed among the cells. Several blister-like structures appeared in the appearance of the cells. The GMGE cells contained different cell types, majority of the cells were short shuttle-like or polygon which were beehive-like. A part of cells were round and flat, a small number of cells were elongated. Some of the GMGE cells contained milk drops. The cell nuclei were round which had 2-4 obvious cores. The expression of Cell keratins demonstrated the property of epithelial cells in GMGE cells by immunofluorescence. The GMGE cells could express transcript encoding a Βeta-Casein protein. EGFP gene was successfully transferred into the GMGE cells, and the transfected cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing. In conclusion, we have established a EGFP gene transfected GMGE (ET-GMGE) cell line and maintained it long-term in culture by continuous subculturing. PMID:20113446

  20. Control of Differentiation of a Mammary Cell Line by Lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulbecco, Renato; Bologna, Mauro; Unger, Michael

    1980-03-01

    A rat mammary cell line (LA7) undergoes spontaneous differentiation into domes due to production of specific inducers by the cells. Some of these inducers may be lipids, and we show that lipids regulate this differentiation as both inducers and inhibitors. One inhibitor is the tumor promoter tetradecanoyl-13 phorbol 12-acetate. The inducers are saturated fatty acids of two groups: butyric acid and acids with chain lengths from C13 to C16, especially myristic acid (C14). Other inducers are myristoyl and palmitoyl lysolecithins, myristic acid methyl ester, and two cationic detergents with a tetradecenyl chain. We propose that the lipids with a C14-C16 alkyl chain affect differentiation by recognizing specific receptors through their alkyl chains and that the effects obtained depend on the head groups. These lipids may be physiological regulators in the mammary gland.

  1. Regulating the regulator: Numb acts upstream of p53 to control mammary stem and progenitor cell

    PubMed Central

    Faraldo, Marisa M.

    2015-01-01

    In this issue, Tosoni et al. (2015. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201505037) report that cell fate determinant and tumor suppressor Numb imposes asymmetric cell divisions in mammary stem cells by regulating p53. Numb thereby restricts mammary stem cell expansion and controls the proliferation and lineage-specific characteristics of their progeny. PMID:26598611

  2. Transforming growth factor-alpha promotes mammary tumorigenesis through selective survival and growth of secretory epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, G. H.; Sharp, R.; Kordon, E. C.; Jhappan, C.; Merlino, G.

    1995-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha stimulates the growth and development of mammary epithelial cells and is implicated in the pathogenesis of human breast cancer. In this report we evaluate the consequences of overexpressing TGF-alpha in the mammary gland of transgenic mice and examine associated cellular mechanisms. When operating on a FVB/N genetic background (line MT100), TGF-alpha induced the stochastic development of mammary adenomas and adenocarcinomas f secretory epithelial origin in 64% of multiparous females. In contrast, tumors were exceedingly rare in virgin MT100 females, MT100 males, and multiparous FVB/N females. In MT100 females multiple foci of hyperplastic secretory lesions preceded the development of frank tumors; these initial lesions appeared during the involution period after the first lactation. Serial transplantation of these hyperplasias indicated an absence of proliferative immortality. Nevertheless, they gave rise to tumors at a low frequency and after a prolonged latency in virgin hosts; in multiparous hosts, tumors developed earlier and at a high incidence. The TGF-alpha transgene was highly expressed in hyperplasias and tumors but not in virgin and nonlesion-bearing tissue, suggesting that TGF-alpha overexpression provides a selective growth advantage. TGF-alpha also induced at lactation a 6.4-fold increase in DNA synthesis in MT100 epithelial cells, many of which were binucleated. MT100 mammary tissue experienced an obvious delay in involution, resulting in the postlactational survival of a significant population of unregressed secretory epithelial cells. In contrast, another line of transgenic mice on a CD-1 genetic background (MT42), in which TGF-alpha overexpression induced liver but not mammary tumors, failed to demonstrate postlactational epithelial cell survival. These data show that TGF-alpha promotes mammary tumorigenesis in multiparous MT100 mice by stimulating secretory epithelial cell proliferation during lactation and

  3. Expression of different phenotypes in cell lines from canine mammary spindle-cell tumours and osteosarcomas indicating a pluripotent mammary stem cell origin.

    PubMed

    Hellmén, E; Moller, M; Blankenstein, M A; Andersson, L; Westermark, B

    2000-06-01

    Mammary spindle-cell tumours and sarcomas seem to be restricted to dogs and humans. Two cell lines from spontaneous primary canine mammary spindle-cell tumours (CMT-U304 and CMT-U309) and two cell lines from spontaneous primary canine mammary osteosarcomas (CMT-U334 and CMT-U335) were established to study the mesenchymal phenotypes of mammary tumours in the female dog. The cells from the spindle-cell tumours expressed cytokeratin, vimentin and smooth muscle actin filaments. When these cells were inoculated subcutaneously into female and male nude mice they formed different types of mesenchymal tumours such as spindle-cell tumours, fibroma and rhabdomyoid tumours (n = 6/8). The cells from the osteosarcomas expressed vimentin filaments and also formed different types of mesenchymal tumours such as chondroid, rhabdomyoid, smooth muscle-like and spindle-cell tumours (n = 6/10). The cell lines CMT-U304, CMT-U309 and CMT-U335 had receptors for progesterone but none of the four cell lines had receptors for estrogen. All four cell lines and their corresponding primary tumours showed identical allelic patterns in microsatellite analysis. By in situ hybridization with genomic DNA we could verify that all formed tumours but one were of canine origin. Our results support the hypothesis that canine mammary tumours are derived from pluripotent stem cells. PMID:10965996

  4. Radiogenic transformation of human mammary epithelial cells in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T. C.; Georgy, K. A.; Tavakoli, A.; Craise, L. M.; Durante, M.

    1996-01-01

    Cancer induction by space radiations is a major concern for manned space exploration. Accurate assessment of radiation risk at low doses requires basic understanding of mechanism(s) of radiation carcinogenesis. For determining the oncogenic effects of ionizing radiation in human epithelial cells, we transformed a mammary epithelial cell line (185B5), which was immortalized by benzo(a)pyrene, with energetic heavy ions and obtained several transformed clones. These transformed cells showed growth properties on Matrigel similar to human mammary tumor cells. To better understand the mechanisms of radiogenic transformation of human cells, we systematically examined the alterations in chromosomes and cancer genes. Among 16 autosomes examined for translocations, by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, chromosomes 3, 12, 13, 15, 16, and 18 appeared to be normal in transformed cells. Chromosomes 1, 4, 6, 8, and 17 in transformed cells, however, showed patterns different from those in nontransformed cells. Southern blot analyses indicated no detectable alterations in myc, ras, Rb, or p53 genes. Further studies of chromosome 17 by using in situ hybridization with unique sequence p53 gene probe and a centromere probe showed no loss of p53 gene in transformed cells. Experimental results from cell fusion studies indicated that the transforming gene(s) is recessive. The role of genomic instability and tumor suppressor gene(s) in radiogenic transformation of human breast cells remains to be identified.

  5. pRb Inactivation in Mammary Cells Reveals Common Mechanisms for Tumor Initiation and Progression in Divergent Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Retinoblastoma 1 (pRb) and the related pocket proteins, retinoblastoma-like 1 (p107) and retinoblastoma-like 2 (p130) (pRbf, collectively), play a pivotal role in regulating eukaryotic cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and terminal differentiation. While aberrations in the pRb-signaling pathway are common in human cancers, the consequence of pRbf loss in the mammary gland has not been directly assayed in vivo. We reported previously that inactivating these critical cell cycle regulators in divergent cell types, either brain epithelium or astrocytes, abrogates the cell cycle restriction point, leading to increased cell proliferation and apoptosis, and predisposing to cancer. Here we report that mouse mammary epithelium is similar in its requirements for pRbf function; Rbf inactivation by T121, a fragment of SV40 T antigen that binds to and inactivates pRbf proteins, increases proliferation and apoptosis. Mammary adenocarcinomas form within 16 mo. Most apoptosis is regulated by p53, which has no impact on proliferation, and heterozygosity for a p53 null allele significantly shortens tumor latency. Most tumors in p53 heterozygous mice undergo loss of the wild-type p53 allele. We show that the mechanism of p53 loss of heterozygosity is not simply the consequence of Chromosome 11 aneuploidy and further that chromosomal instability subsequent to p53 loss is minimal. The mechanisms for pRb and p53 tumor suppression in the epithelia of two distinct tissues, mammary gland and brain, are indistinguishable. Further, this study has produced a highly penetrant breast cancer model based on aberrations commonly observed in the human disease. PMID:14966529

  6. Inhibition of the transient receptor potential melastatin-2 channel causes increased DNA damage and decreased proliferation in breast adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    HOPKINS, MANDI M.; FENG, XIAOXING; LIU, MENGWEI; PARKER, LAUREN P.; KOH, DAVID W.

    2015-01-01

    Transient receptor potential, melastatin-2 (TRPM2) is a plasma membrane cation channel with important roles in sensory functions and promoting cell death. However, we demonstrated here that TRPM2 was present in the nuclei of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast adenocarcinoma cells, and its pharmacologic inhibition or RNAi silencing caused decreased cell proliferation. Neither an effect on proliferation nor a localization of TRPM2 in the nucleus was observed in noncancerous HMEC and MCF-10A human mammary epithelial cells. Investigation of possible effects of TRPM2 function in the nucleus demonstrated that pharmacologic inhibition or RNAi silencing of TRPM2 in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast adenocarcinoma cells caused up to 4-fold increases in DNA damage levels, as compared to noncancerous breast cells after equivalent treatments. These results indicate that TRPM2 has a novel nuclear function in human breast adenocarcinoma cells that facilitates the integrity of genomic DNA, a finding that is distinct from its previously reported role as a plasma membrane cation channel in noncancerous cells. In summary, we report here a novel effect promoted by TRPM2, where it functions to minimize DNA damage and thus may have a role in the protection of genomic DNA in breast cancer cells. Our study therefore provides compelling evidence that TRPM2 has a unique role in breast adenocarcinoma cells. Accordingly, these studies suggest that TRPM2 is a potential therapeutic target, where its pharmacologic inhibition may provide an innovative strategy to selectively increase DNA damage levels in breast cancer cells. PMID:25760245

  7. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the bladder with intravesical cervical invasion.

    PubMed

    Marchalik, Daniel; Krishnan, Jayashree; Verghese, Mohan; Venkatesan, Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    A 26-year-old woman with a complicated urological and gynecological history with uterine didelphys with bilaterally inserting intravesical cervical oses presented with cyclical haematuria. Work up revealed a mass in the ectopic cervical os and adjacent bladder wall. Subsequent resection confirmed a clear cell adenocarcinoma of urological origin with invasion into neighbouring os. PMID:26109625

  8. Mesenchymal Stem Cells promote mammary cancer cell migration in vitro via the CXCR2 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Jennifer L.; Kilbarger, Amy; Lynch, Conor C.

    2011-01-01

    Bone metastasis is a common event during breast cancer progression. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been implicated in the metastasis of primary mammary cancer. Given that bone is the native environment for MSCs, we hypothesized MSCs facilitate the homing of circulating mammary cancer cells to the bone. To test this hypothesis, we examined in vitro whether bone derived MSCs from FVB mice could influence the migration of syngeneic murine mammary cancer cell lines derived from the polyoma virus middle-T (PyMT) model of mammary gland tumorigenesis. Our data show that conditioned media derived from MSCs significantly enhanced the migration of PyMT mammary cancer cell lines. Analysis of conditioned media using a cytokine array revealed the presence of numerous cytokines in the MSC conditioned media, most notably, the murine orthologs of CXCL1 and CXCL5 that are cognate ligands of the CXCR2 receptor. Further investigation identified that; 1) CXCL1, CXCL5 and CXCR2 mRNA and protein were expressed by the MSCs and PyMT cell lines and; 2) neutralizing antibodies to CXCL1, CXCL5 and CXCR2 or a CXCR2 small molecule inhibitor (SB265610) significantly abrogated the migratory effect of the MSC conditioned media on the PyMT cells. Therefore, in vitro evidence demonstrates that bone derived MSCs play a role in the migration of mammary cancer cells, a conclusion that has potential implications for breast to bone metastasis in vivo. PMID:21601983

  9. Binding of transcobalamin II by human mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Adkins, Y; Lönnerdal, B

    2001-01-01

    The presence of nutrient binders in milk may have an important role during milk production and may influence the nutrient's bioavailability to the infant. Human milk and plasma contain at least two types of vitamin B12 binders: transcobalamin II (TCII) and haptocorrin (Hc). Vitamin B12 in milk is exclusively bound to Hc (Hc-B12). In plasma, the major vitamin B12 binding protein that is responsible for delivering absorbed vitamin B12 to most tissues and cells is TCII (TCII-B12). Currently, little is known about the route of secretion of vitamin B12 into human milk. It is possible that a receptor-mediated pathway is involved, since maternal vitamin B12 supplementation increases the amount of the vitamin secreted into human milk if the mother's vitamin B12 consumption is low, but remains unchanged if her intake is adequate. In this study, we investigated the process by which the mammary gland acquires vitamin B12 from maternal circulation, whether as a free vitamin or as a Hc-B12 or TCII-B12 complex. TCII was purified from plasma incubated with [57Co]vit B12 (B12*), while Hc was purified from whey incubated with B12*. Both proteins were separated by fast protein liquid chromatography using gel filtration and anion-exchange columns. Purity of the separated proteins was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Binding studies were carried out on a monolayer of normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) at 4 degrees C using free B12* and TCII-B12* and Hc-B12* complexes. Minimal binding of free B12* and Hc-B12* to HMEC was observed; however, HMEC exhibited a high affinity for the TCII-B12* complex. This study suggests that a specific cell surface receptor for the TCII-B12 complex exists in the mammary gland. It is possible that once vitamin B12 is in the mammary gland it is transferred to Hc (which may be synthesized by the mammary gland) and then secreted into milk as a Hc-B12 complex. PMID:11787717

  10. A mystery wrapped in an enigma: Matrigel enhancement of mammary cell growth and morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Michael T; Landua, John D; Adams, Homer C; Medina, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    The analysis of normal mammary morphogenesis is facilitated by the use of mammary fat pad transplantation. The recent experiments on analysis of normal mammary epithelial stem cell activity rely heavily on this technique. In this review, we discuss the known and unknown attributes of using Matrigel in the injection of the mammary epithelial cell suspension. Matrigel greatly increases the "take" frequency of the injected cell suspension; however, there is some uncertainty regarding the interpretation of some of the results. After consideration of these issues, our conclusion is that Matrigel is important in order to obtain rigorous and reproducible results. PMID:22581302

  11. Ectodysplasin/NF-κB Promotes Mammary Cell Fate via Wnt/β-catenin Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Voutilainen, Maria; Lönnblad, Darielle; Shirokova, Vera; Elo, Teresa; Rysti, Elisa; Schmidt-Ullrich, Ruth; Schneider, Pascal; Mikkola, Marja L.

    2015-01-01

    Mammary gland development commences during embryogenesis with the establishment of a species typical number of mammary primordia on each flank of the embryo. It is thought that mammary cell fate can only be induced along the mammary line, a narrow region of the ventro-lateral skin running from the axilla to the groin. Ectodysplasin (Eda) is a tumor necrosis factor family ligand that regulates morphogenesis of several ectodermal appendages. We have previously shown that transgenic overexpression of Eda (K14-Eda mice) induces formation of supernumerary mammary placodes along the mammary line. Here, we investigate in more detail the role of Eda and its downstream mediator transcription factor NF-κB in mammary cell fate specification. We report that K14-Eda mice harbor accessory mammary glands also in the neck region indicating wider epidermal cell plasticity that previously appreciated. We show that even though NF-κB is not required for formation of endogenous mammary placodes, it is indispensable for the ability of Eda to induce supernumerary placodes. A genome-wide profiling of Eda-induced genes in mammary buds identified several Wnt pathway components as potential transcriptional targets of Eda. Using an ex vivo culture system, we show that suppression of canonical Wnt signalling leads to a dose-dependent inhibition of supernumerary placodes in K14-Eda tissue explants. PMID:26581094

  12. Ectodysplasin/NF-κB Promotes Mammary Cell Fate via Wnt/β-catenin Pathway.

    PubMed

    Voutilainen, Maria; Lindfors, Päivi H; Trela, Ewelina; Lönnblad, Darielle; Shirokova, Vera; Elo, Teresa; Rysti, Elisa; Schmidt-Ullrich, Ruth; Schneider, Pascal; Mikkola, Marja L

    2015-11-01

    Mammary gland development commences during embryogenesis with the establishment of a species typical number of mammary primordia on each flank of the embryo. It is thought that mammary cell fate can only be induced along the mammary line, a narrow region of the ventro-lateral skin running from the axilla to the groin. Ectodysplasin (Eda) is a tumor necrosis factor family ligand that regulates morphogenesis of several ectodermal appendages. We have previously shown that transgenic overexpression of Eda (K14-Eda mice) induces formation of supernumerary mammary placodes along the mammary line. Here, we investigate in more detail the role of Eda and its downstream mediator transcription factor NF-κB in mammary cell fate specification. We report that K14-Eda mice harbor accessory mammary glands also in the neck region indicating wider epidermal cell plasticity that previously appreciated. We show that even though NF-κB is not required for formation of endogenous mammary placodes, it is indispensable for the ability of Eda to induce supernumerary placodes. A genome-wide profiling of Eda-induced genes in mammary buds identified several Wnt pathway components as potential transcriptional targets of Eda. Using an ex vivo culture system, we show that suppression of canonical Wnt signalling leads to a dose-dependent inhibition of supernumerary placodes in K14-Eda tissue explants. PMID:26581094

  13. Primary cancer cell culture: mammary-optimized vs conditional reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Alamri, Ahmad M; Kang, Keunsoo; Groeneveld, Svenja; Wang, Weisheng; Zhong, Xiaogang; Kallakury, Bhaskar; Hennighausen, Lothar; Liu, Xuefeng; Furth, Priscilla A

    2016-07-01

    The impact of different culture conditions on biology of primary cancer cells is not always addressed. Here, conditional reprogramming (CRC) was compared with mammary-optimized EpiCult-B (EpiC) for primary mammary epithelial cell isolation and propagation, allograft generation, and genome-wide transcriptional consequences using cancer and non-cancer mammary tissue from mice with different dosages of Brca1 and p53 Selective comparison to DMEM was included. Primary cultures were established with all three media, but CRC was most efficient for initial isolation (P<0.05). Allograft development was faster using cells grown in EpiC compared with CRC (P<0.05). Transcriptome comparison of paired CRC and EpiC cultures revealed 1700 differentially expressed genes by passage 20. CRC promoted Trp53 gene family upregulation and increased expression of epithelial differentiation genes, whereas EpiC elevated expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition genes. Differences did not persist in allografts where both methods yielded allografts with relatively similar transcriptomes. Restricting passage (<7) reduced numbers of differentially expressed genes below 50. In conclusion, CRC was most efficient for initial cell isolation but EpiC was quicker for allograft generation. The extensive culture-specific gene expression patterns that emerged with longer passage could be limited by reducing passage number when both culture transcriptomes were equally similar to that of the primary tissue. Defining impact of culture condition and passage on the transcriptome of primary cells could assist experimental design and interpretation. For example, differences that appear with passage and culture condition are potentially exploitable for comparative studies targeting specific biological networks in different transcriptional environments. PMID:27267121

  14. CRIPTO/GRP78 signaling maintains fetal and adult mammary stem cells ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Spike, Benjamin T; Kelber, Jonathan A; Booker, Evan; Kalathur, Madhuri; Rodewald, Rose; Lipianskaya, Julia; La, Justin; He, Marielle; Wright, Tracy; Klemke, Richard; Wahl, Geoffrey M; Gray, Peter C

    2014-04-01

    Little is known about the extracellular signaling factors that govern mammary stem cell behavior. Here, we identify CRIPTO and its cell-surface receptor GRP78 as regulators of stem cell behavior in isolated fetal and adult mammary epithelial cells. We develop a CRIPTO antagonist that promotes differentiation and reduces self-renewal of mammary stem cell-enriched populations cultured ex vivo. By contrast, CRIPTO treatment maintains the stem cell phenotype in these cultures and yields colonies with enhanced mammary gland reconstitution capacity. Surface expression of GRP78 marks CRIPTO-responsive, stem cell-enriched fetal and adult mammary epithelial cells, and deletion of GRP78 from adult mammary epithelial cells blocks their mammary gland reconstitution potential. Together, these findings identify the CRIPTO/GRP78 pathway as a developmentally conserved regulator of fetal and adult mammary stem cell behavior ex vivo, with implications for the stem-like cells found in many cancers. PMID:24749068

  15. Differential Glutamate Metabolism in Proliferating and Quiescent Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Coloff, Jonathan L; Murphy, J Patrick; Braun, Craig R; Harris, Isaac S; Shelton, Laura M; Kami, Kenjiro; Gygi, Steven P; Selfors, Laura M; Brugge, Joan S

    2016-05-10

    Mammary epithelial cells transition between periods of proliferation and quiescence during development, menstrual cycles, and pregnancy, and as a result of oncogenic transformation. Utilizing an organotypic 3D tissue culture model coupled with quantitative metabolomics and proteomics, we identified significant differences in glutamate utilization between proliferating and quiescent cells. Relative to quiescent cells, proliferating cells catabolized more glutamate via transaminases to couple non-essential amino acid (NEAA) synthesis to α-ketoglutarate generation and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle anaplerosis. As cells transitioned to quiescence, glutamine consumption and transaminase expression were reduced, while glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD) was induced, leading to decreased NEAA synthesis. Highly proliferative human tumors display high transaminase and low GLUD expression, suggesting that proliferating cancer cells couple glutamine consumption to NEAA synthesis to promote biosynthesis. These findings describe a competitive and partially redundant relationship between transaminases and GLUD, and they reveal how coupling of glutamate-derived carbon and nitrogen metabolism can be regulated to support cell proliferation. PMID:27133130

  16. Immune surveillance of mammary tissue by phagocytic cells.

    PubMed

    Paape, M J; Shafer-Weaver, K; Capuco, A V; Van Oostveldt, K; Burvenich, C

    2000-01-01

    The leukocytes in milk consist of lymphocytes, neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and macrophages. Lymphocytes together with antigen-presenting cells function in the generation of an effective immune response. Lymphocytes can be divided into two distinct subsets, T- and B-lymphocytes, that differ in function and protein products. The professional phagocytic cells of the bovine mammary gland are PMN and macrophages. In the normal mammary gland macrophages are the predominate cells which act as sentinels to invading mastitis causing pathogens. Once the invaders are detected, macrophages release chemical messengers called chemoattractants that cause the directed migration of PMN into the infection. Migration of neutrophils into mammary tissue provides the first immunological line of defense against bacteria that penetrate the physical barrier of the teat canal. However, their presence is like a double-edged sword. While the PMN are phagocytosing and destroying the invading pathogens, they inadvertently release chemicals which induces swelling of secretory epithelium cytoplasm, sloughing of secretory cells, and decreased secretory activity. Permanent scarring will result in a loss of milk production. Resident and newly migrated macrophages help reduce the damage to the epithelium by phagocytosing PMN that undergo programmed cell death through a process called apoptosis. Specific ligands on the neutrophil surface are required for directed migration and phagocytosis. In response to infection, freshly migrated leukocytes express greater numbers of cell surface receptors for immunoglobulins and complement and are more phagocytic than their counterparts in blood. However, phagocytic activity rapidly decreases with continued exposure to inhibitory factors such as milk fat globules and casein in mammary secretions. Compensatory hypertrophy in non-mastitic quarters partially compensates for lost milk production in diseased quarters. Advances in molecular biology are

  17. Effect of tunicamycin on sialomucin and natural killer susceptibility of rat mammary tumor ascites cells.

    PubMed

    Bharathan, S; Moriarty, J; Moody, C E; Sherblom, A P

    1990-09-01

    The MAT-B1 and MAT-C1 ascites sublines of the 13762 rat mammary adenocarcinoma contain a dominant cell surface "complex" consisting of two glycoproteins: ascites sialoglycoprotein (ASGP)-1, a Mr 600,000-700,000 peanut agglutinin-binding sialomucin, and ASGP-2, a Mr 120,000 concancavalin A-binding glycoprotein (Sherblom et al., J. Biol. Chem., 255: 783-790, 1980; Sherblom and Carraway, J. Biol. Chem., 255: 12051-12059, 1980). Although both cell lines are resistant to lysis by natural killer cells, treatments which result in loss of cell surface ASGP-1 render the cells susceptible to natural killer cell lysis (Sherblom and Moody, Cancer Res., 46:4543-4546, 1986). Treatment of the ascites cells with 5 micrograms/ml tunicamycin for 24 h effectively inhibits glycosylation of ASGP-2 without affecting cell viability or total protein synthesis. Under these conditions, expression of ASGP-1 is depressed by at least 50% in both cell lines, as monitored by [3H]glucosamine incorporation and by binding of peanut agglutinin to intact cells. The size distribution of O-linked oligosaccharides in ASGP-1 from tunicamycin-treated versus control MAT-B1 cells is indistinguishable, as determined by Bio-Gel P-4 chromatography following alkaline-borohydride treatment. Complex isolated from either treated or control cells bands at the same density in a CsCl gradient containing Triton X-100 and contains a diffuse band corresponding to ASGP-2 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Tunicamycin-treated cells, consistent with the reduced expression of ASGP-1, are significantly more susceptible to natural killer cell-mediated lysis, when compared to untreated controls. The results suggest that N-linked glycosylation is a prerequisite for sialomucin synthesis and/or complex formation. PMID:2386935

  18. Comparison of the transcriptpmes of long-tern label retaining-cells and C cells microdissected from mammary epithelium: an initial study to character potential stem/progenitor cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mammary stem cells (MaSC) account for the cell lineage of mammary epithelia and provide for mammary growth, development and tissue homeostasis. The presence of MaSC was clearly demonstrated by the generation of an entire mammary gland from a single cell implanted into epithelium-ablated mammary fat...

  19. In vivo treatment with xanthosine expands the mammary stem cell population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mammary stem cells provide for growth and maintenance of the mammary gland and are therefore likely targets for means to improve the productivity and efficiency of dairy animals. Xanthonsine treatment has been shown to promote expansion of hepatic stem cells in vitro. The objective of this study w...

  20. In vivo expansion of the mammary stem/progenitor cell population by xanthosine infusion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mammary stem cells provide for growth and maintenance of the mammary gland and are therefore likely targets for means to improve the productivity and efficiency of dairy animals. Xanthosine treatment was previously shown to promote expansion of hepatic stem cells in vitro. The objective of this st...

  1. Diet Does Not Affect Putative Mammary Epithelial Stem Cells in Pre-weaned Holstein Heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Overfeeding prepubertal heifers can impair mammary epithelial growth and development, processes that depend on stem cells. In this study we evaluated effects of diet composition on putative bovine mammary epithelial stem cell populations using a 5-bromo-2-deoxyrudine (BrdU; a thymidine analog) label...

  2. Mammary stem cells: Novel markers and novel approaches to increase lactation efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mammary stem cells (MaSC) provide for net growth, renewal and turnover of mammary epithelial cells, and are therefore potential targets for strategies to increase production efficiency. Appropriate regulation of MaSC can potentially benefit milk yield, persistency, dry period management and tissue r...

  3. Vitamin D inhibition of lung adenocarcinoma cell proliferation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong; Lou, Yuqing; Zhang, Weiyan; Dong, Qianggang; Han, Baohui

    2014-11-01

    Vitamin D has the capability to inhibit tumor cell proliferation and promote tumor cell apoptosis but whether this mechanism exists in lung adenocarcinoma cells remains to be studied. Our objective is to explore whether vitamin D has the capability to inhibit lung adenocarcinoma cell proliferation and synergize with cisplatin. Our method was to explore the effect of different concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D3 with or without cisplatin on lung adenocarcinoma cells by detecting cell proliferation rates at different time points. 1,25(OH)2D3 was capsulated with nanomaterial before acting on lung adenocarcinoma cells, and cell proliferation rates at different time points were detected with the CCK-8 method. When vitamin D was applied at a concentration of 1 × 10(-7) and 1 × 10(-6) mol/L on A549, PC9, SPC-A1, and H1650 cells for 72 h, no inhibition occurred on cell proliferation. Between the concentrations of 1 × 10(-5) and 0.5 × 10(-5) mol/L, inhibition on cell proliferation increased with drug action time. Between the concentration of 2.5 × 10(-5) and 0.03 × 10(-5) mol/L, inhibition on cell proliferation increased with increasing drug concentration. Analysis using bivariate correlations showed that the correlation coefficient of the proliferation inhibition rate and drug content was 0.580 (p < 0.0001). The correlation coefficient of proliferation inhibition rate and the drug action time was 0.379 (p = 0.01). The combined use of vitamin D and dichlorodiammine-platinum(II) (DDP) significantly increased the inhibition rate on A549 cell proliferation, which peaked after culturing for 96 h (Table 4). Further analysis using bivariate correlations showed that the correlation coefficient between proliferation inhibition rate and DDP concentration was 0.319 (p < 0.0001). The correlation coefficient of the proliferation inhibition rate and vitamin D concentration was 0.269 (p < 0.0001). The correlation coefficient of proliferation inhibition and drug action time was 0.221(p

  4. A Spectrum of Monoclonal Antibodies Reactive with Human Mammary Tumor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colcher, D.; Horan Hand, P.; Nuti, M.; Schlom, J.

    1981-05-01

    Splenic lymphocytes of mice, immunized with membrane-enriched fractions of metastatic human mammary carcinoma tissues, were fused with the NS-1 non-immunoglobulin-secreting murine myeloma cell line. This resulted in the generation of hybridoma cultures secreting immunoglobulins reactive in solid-phase radioimmunoassays with extracts of metastatic mammary carcinoma cells from involved livers, but not with extracts of apparently normal human liver. As a result of further screening of immunoglobulin reactivities and double cloning of cultures, 11 monoclonal antibodies were chosen that demonstrated reactivities with human mammary tumor cells and not with apparently normal human tissues. These monoclonal antibodies could be placed into at least five major groups on the basis of their differential binding to the surface of various live human mammary tumor cells in culture, to extracts of mammary tumor tissues, or to tissue sections of mammary tumor cells studied by the immunoperoxidase technique. Whereas a spectrum of reactivities to mammary tumors was observed with the 11 monoclonal antibodies, no reactivity was observed to apparently normal cells of the following human tissues: breast, lymph node, lung, skin, testis, kidney, thymus, bone marrow, spleen, uterus, thyroid, intestine, liver, bladder, tonsils, stomach, prostate, and salivary gland. Several of the antibodies also demonstrated a ``pancarcinoma'' reactivity, showing binding to selected non-breast carcinomas. None of the monoclonal antibodies showed binding to purified ferritin or carcinoembryonic antigen. Monoclonal antibodies of all five major groups, however, demonstrated binding to human metastatic mammary carcinoma cells both in axillary lymph nodes and at distal sites.

  5. Silencing Aurora-A with siRNA inhibits cell proliferation in human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ning; Shi, Shunbin; Wang, Hongzhen; Wu, Guangzhou; Wang, Yunliang; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Hongwei; Liu, Yuanhua; Wang, Jinzhi

    2016-09-01

    Aurora kinase A (AURKA) is an oncogenic serine/threonine kinase, it plays important roles in tumorigenesis and chemoresistance. In this study, we investigated the expression of AURKA in lung adenocarcinoma tissues, the role of small interference RNA targeting AURKA on growth, cell cycle, and apoptosis of lung adenocarcinoma cell lines in vitro. The AURKA is highly expressed in lung adenocarcinoma tissues and human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. Lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) was used to knock down AURKA expression in human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines H1299 and A549. The results indicated that depletion of AURKA could inhibit cell growth, cause cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The potential mechanisms of AURKA inhibition induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis are associated with downregulated RAF-1, CCND2, CCND3, CDK4, PAK4, EGFR and upregulated WEE1 expression. Furthermore, AURKA knockdown cooperated with vincristine (VCR) to repress A549 cell proliferation. Therefore, AURKA plays important roles in the proliferation of human lung adenocarcinoma cells, which suggests that AURKA could be a promising tool for lung adenocarcinoma therapy. PMID:27571708

  6. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A primary thyroid adenocarcinoma harboring ETV6-NTRK3 fusion.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Snjezana; Wang, Lu; Ptashkin, Ryan N; Dawson, Robert R; Shah, Jatin P; Sherman, Eric J; Michael Tuttle, R; Fagin, James A; Klimstra, David S; Katabi, Nora; Ghossein, Ronald A

    2016-09-01

    ETV6-NTRK3 fusion was identified in several cancers including the recently described mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary glands and a minority of papillary thyroid carcinomas. We describe three cases of primary MASC of the thyroid gland and provide a detailed clinical and pathological characterization of the tumor morphology, immunoprofile, and genetic background. Immunohistochemistry for PAX8, TTF-1, thyroglobulin, mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, S-100 protein, and p63 was used to define the tumor immunophenotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for ETV6 rearrangement was performed in three, and the next-generation sequencing assay MSK-IMPACT™ (Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets) was performed in two cases. Primary MASC of the thyroid occurred in two women and one man, age 47-72 years. All patients presented with high T stage, infiltrative, locally aggressive tumors with extrathyroidal extension. Two cases were associated with well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma. Histologically, they appeared as low-grade tumors, resembling MASC of the salivary glands and labeled positive for mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, S-100 protein, p63, weakly positive for PAX8, and negative for TTF-1 and thyroglobulin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed ETV6 rearrangement in all cases. In two tested cases MSK-IMPACT™ confirmed the presence of ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion. Two patients had at least two local recurrences, one was alive with disease, and one was alive and free of disease after 14 and 17 years, respectively. The third patient was alive and free of disease after 2 years. MASC of the thyroid is histologically, immunophenotypically, and genetically similar to its salivary gland counterpart. Thyroid MASC can be associated with a well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma component, supporting follicular cell origin. Clinically, these carcinomas may show frequent recurrences but are associated with long

  7. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A primary thyroid adenocarcinoma harboring ETV6–NTRK3 fusion

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, Snjezana; Wang, Lu; Ptashkin, Ryan N; Dawson, Robert R; Shah, Jatin P; Sherman, Eric J; Tuttle, R Michael; Fagin, James A; Klimstra, David S; Katabi, Nora; Ghossein, Ronald A

    2016-01-01

    ETV6–NTRK3 fusion was identified in several cancers including the recently described mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary glands and a minority of papillary thyroid carcinomas. We describe three cases of primary MASC of the thyroid gland and provide a detailed clinical and pathological characterization of the tumor morphology, immunoprofile, and genetic background. Immunohistochemistry for PAX8, TTF-1, thyroglobulin, mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, S-100 protein, and p63 was used to define the tumor immunophenotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for ETV6 rearrangement was performed in three, and the next-generation sequencing assay MSK-IMPACT™ (Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets) was performed in two cases. Primary MASC of the thyroid occurred in two women and one man, age 47–72 years. All patients presented with high T stage, infiltrative, locally aggressive tumors with extrathyroidal extension. Two cases were associated with well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma. Histologically, they appeared as low-grade tumors, resembling MASC of the salivary glands and labeled positive for mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, S-100 protein, p63, weakly positive for PAX8, and negative for TTF-1 and thyroglobulin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed ETV6 rearrangement in all cases. In two tested cases MSK-IMPACT™ confirmed the presence of ETV6–NTRK3 gene fusion. Two patients had at least two local recurrences, one was alive with disease, and one was alive and free of disease after 14 and 17 years, respectively. The third patient was alive and free of disease after 2 years. MASC of the thyroid is histologically, immunophenotypically, and genetically similar to its salivary gland counterpart. Thyroid MASC can be associated with a well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma component, supporting follicular cell origin. Clinically, these carcinomas may show frequent recurrences but are associated

  8. Optimization and characterization of an in vitro bovine mammary cell culture system to study regulation of milk protein synthesis and mammary differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Talhouk, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    A long term bovine mammary cell culture system that maintains normal mammary cell function was established and optimized to study milk protein synthesis and secretion and mammary differentiation. This culture system used bovine mammary acini isolated from developing or lactating mammary gland by enzymatic dissociation, and cryopreserved until thawed and plated for growth in vitro for these studies. Cells in M199 with lactogenic hormones {plus minus} fetal calf serum (FCS) were cultured on plastic, 100ul and 500ul type I collagen, and Matrigel, or embedded within type I collagen. Cell morphology, cell number, and total TCA-precipitable {sup 35}S-labelled proteins were monitored. Milk protein ({alpha}{sub s,1}-casein, lactoferrin (LF), {alpha}-lactalbumin, and {beta}-lactoglobulin) secretion and intracellular levels were determined by an ELISA assay.

  9. Enrichment for Repopulating Cells and Identification of Differentiation Markers in the Bovine Mammary Gland.

    PubMed

    Rauner, Gat; Barash, Itamar

    2016-06-01

    Elucidating cell hierarchy in the mammary gland is fundamental for understanding the mechanisms governing its normal development and malignant transformation. There is relatively little information on cell hierarchy in the bovine mammary gland, despite its agricultural potential and relevance to breast cancer research. Challenges in bovine-to-mouse xenotransplantation and difficulties obtaining bovine-compatible antibodies hinder the study of mammary stem-cell dynamics in this species. In-vitro indications of distinct bovine mammary epithelial cell populations, sorted according to CD24 and CD49f expression, have been provided. Here, we successfully transplanted these bovine populations into the cleared fat pads of immunocompromised mice, providing in-vivo evidence for the multipotency and self-renewal capabilities of cells that are at the top of the cell hierarchy (termed mammary repopulating units). Additional outgrowths from transplantation, composed exclusively of myoepithelial cells, were indicative of unipotent basal stem cells or committed progenitors. Sorting luminal cells according to E-cadherin revealed three distinct populations: luminal progenitors, and early- and late-differentiating cells. Finally, miR-200c expression was negatively correlated with differentiation levels in both the luminal and basal branches of the bovine mammary cell hierarchy. Together, these experiments provide further evidence for the presence of a regenerative entity in the bovine mammary gland and for the multistage differentiation process within the luminal lineage. PMID:26615610

  10. Remodeling of Endogenous Mammary Epithelium by Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Parashurama, Natesh; Lobo, Neethan A.; Ito, Ken; Mosley, Adriane R.; Habte, Frezghi G.; Zabala, Maider; Smith, Bryan R.; Lam, Jessica; Weissman, Irving L.; Clarke, Michael F.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

    2014-01-01

    Poorly regulated tissue remodeling results in increased breast cancer risk, yet how breast cancer stem cells (CSC) participate in remodeling is unknown. We performed in vivo imaging of changes in fluorescent, endogenous duct architecture as a metric for remodeling. First, we quantitatively imaged physiologic remodeling of primary branches of the developing and regenerating mammary tree. To assess CSC-specific remodeling events, we isolated CSC from MMTV-Wnt1 (mouse mammary tumor virus long-term repeat enhancer driving Wnt1 oncogene) breast tumors, a well studied model in which tissue remodeling affects tumorigenesis. We confirm that CSC drive tumorigenesis, suggesting a link between CSC and remodeling. We find that normal, regenerating, and developing gland maintain a specific branching pattern. In contrast, transplantation of CSC results in changes in the branching patterns of endogenous ducts while non-CSC do not. Specifically, in the presence of CSC, we identified an increased number of branches, branch points, ducts which have greater than 40 branches (5/33 for CSC and 0/39 for non-CSC), and histological evidence of increased branching. Moreover, we demonstrate that only CSC implants invade into surrounding stroma with structures similar to developing mammary ducts (nine for CSC and one for non-CSC). Overall, we demonstrate a novel approach for imaging physiologic and pathological remodeling. Furthermore, we identify unique, CSC-specific, remodeling events. Our data suggest that CSC interact with the microenvironment differently than non-CSC, and that this could eventually be a therapeutic approach for targeting CSC. PMID:22899386

  11. Remodeling of endogenous mammary epithelium by breast cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Parashurama, Natesh; Lobo, Neethan A; Ito, Ken; Mosley, Adriane R; Habte, Frezghi G; Zabala, Maider; Smith, Bryan R; Lam, Jessica; Weissman, Irving L; Clarke, Michael F; Gambhir, Sanjiv S

    2012-10-01

    Poorly regulated tissue remodeling results in increased breast cancer risk, yet how breast cancer stem cells (CSC) participate in remodeling is unknown. We performed in vivo imaging of changes in fluorescent, endogenous duct architecture as a metric for remodeling. First, we quantitatively imaged physiologic remodeling of primary branches of the developing and regenerating mammary tree. To assess CSC-specific remodeling events, we isolated CSC from MMTV-Wnt1 (mouse mammary tumor virus long-term repeat enhancer driving Wnt1 oncogene) breast tumors, a well studied model in which tissue remodeling affects tumorigenesis. We confirm that CSC drive tumorigenesis, suggesting a link between CSC and remodeling. We find that normal, regenerating, and developing gland maintain a specific branching pattern. In contrast, transplantation of CSC results in changes in the branching patterns of endogenous ducts while non-CSC do not. Specifically, in the presence of CSC, we identified an increased number of branches, branch points, ducts which have greater than 40 branches (5/33 for CSC and 0/39 for non-CSC), and histological evidence of increased branching. Moreover, we demonstrate that only CSC implants invade into surrounding stroma with structures similar to developing mammary ducts (nine for CSC and one for non-CSC). Overall, we demonstrate a novel approach for imaging physiologic and pathological remodeling. Furthermore, we identify unique, CSC-specific, remodeling events. Our data suggest that CSC interact with the microenvironment differently than non-CSC, and that this could eventually be a therapeutic approach for targeting CSC. PMID:22899386

  12. Lgr5-expressing cells are sufficient and necessary for postnatal mammary gland organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Plaks, Vicki; Brenot, Audrey; Lawson, Devon A; Linnemann, Jelena R; Van Kappel, Eline C; Wong, Karren C; de Sauvage, Frederic; Klein, Ophir D; Werb, Zena

    2013-01-31

    Mammary epithelial stem cells are vital to tissue expansion and remodeling during various phases of postnatal mammary development. Basal mammary epithelial cells are enriched in Wnt-responsive cells and can reconstitute cleared mammary fat pads upon transplantation into mice. Lgr5 is a Wnt-regulated target gene and was identified as a major stem cell marker in the small intestine, colon, stomach, and hair follicle, as well as in kidney nephrons. Here, we demonstrate the outstanding regenerative potential of a rare population of Lgr5-expressing (Lgr5(+)) mammary epithelial cells (MECs). We found that Lgr5(+) cells reside within the basal population, are superior to other basal cells in regenerating functional mammary glands (MGs), are exceptionally efficient in reconstituting MGs from single cells, and exhibit regenerative capacity in serial transplantations. Loss-of-function and depletion experiments of Lgr5(+) cells from transplanted MECs or from pubertal MGs revealed that these cells are not only sufficient but also necessary for postnatal mammary organogenesis. PMID:23352663

  13. Progesterone facilitates chromosome instability (aneuploidy) in p53 null normal mammary epithelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goepfert, T. M.; McCarthy, M.; Kittrell, F. S.; Stephens, C.; Ullrich, R. L.; Brinkley, B. R.; Medina, D.

    2000-01-01

    Mammary epithelial cells from p53 null mice have been shown recently to exhibit an increased risk for tumor development. Hormonal stimulation markedly increased tumor development in p53 null mammary cells. Here we demonstrate that mammary tumors arising in p53 null mammary cells are highly aneuploid, with greater than 70% of the tumor cells containing altered chromosome number and a mean chromosome number of 56. Normal mammary cells of p53 null genotype and aged less than 14 wk do not exhibit aneuploidy in primary cell culture. Significantly, the hormone progesterone, but not estrogen, increases the incidence of aneuploidy in morphologically normal p53 null mammary epithelial cells. Such cells exhibited 40% aneuploidy and a mean chromosome number of 54. The increase in aneuploidy measured in p53 null tumor cells or hormonally stimulated normal p53 null cells was not accompanied by centrosome amplification. These results suggest that normal levels of progesterone can facilitate chromosomal instability in the absence of the tumor suppressor gene, p53. The results support the emerging hypothesis based both on human epidemiological and animal model studies that progesterone markedly enhances mammary tumorigenesis.

  14. Repression of mammary adipogenesis by genistein limits mammosphere formation of human MCF-7 cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mammary adipose tissue may contribute to breast cancer development and progression by altering neighboring epithelial cell behavior and phenotype through paracrine signaling. Dietary exposure to soy foods is associated with lower mammary tumor risk and reduced body weight and adiposity in humans and...

  15. [Mammary hamartoma with atypical stromal cells: a potential diagnostic dilemma].

    PubMed

    Agabiti, S; Gurrera, A; Amico, P; Vasquez, E; Magro, G

    2007-12-01

    Hamartoma of the breast is a pseudotumoural lesion that does not usually pose diagnostic problems for the pathologist. Although atypical stromal cell (ASCs) can be encountered in several benign and malignant breast lesions, their occurrence in hamartoma has not been reported to date. The authors report a case of breast hamartoma containing numerous atypical mono- or multinucleated stromal cells within the fibro-fatty component. This unusual feature raised differential diagnostic problems with pleomorphic lipoma, well-differentiated liposarcoma and malignant phylloid tumour with a lipomatous heterologous component. Immunohistochemistry, showing positivity to vimentin and CD34, revealed that ASCs are fibroblastic in nature, and thus are likely to represent a morphological variant of the fibroblasts of the native mammary stroma. PMID:18416336

  16. Casein gene expression in mouse mammary epithelial cell lines: Dependence upon extracellular matrix and cell type

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, D.; Oborn, C.J. ); Li, M.L.; Bissell, M.J. )

    1987-09-01

    The COMMA-D mammary cell line exhibits mammary-specific functional differentiation under appropriate conditions in cell culture. The cytologically heterogeneous COMMA-D parental line and the clonal lines DB-1, TA-5, and FA-1 derived from the COMMA-D parent were examined for similar properties of functional differentiation. In monolayer cell culture, the cell lines DB-1, TA-5, FA-1, and MA-4 were examined for expression of mammary-specific and epithelial-specific proteins by an indirect immunofluorescence assay. The clonal cell lines were relatively homogeneous in their respective staining properties and seemed to represent three subpopulations found in the heterogeneous parental COMMA-D lines. None of the four clonal lines appeared to represent myoepithelial cells. The cell lines were examined for expression of {beta}-casein mRNA in the presence or absence of prolactin. The inducibility of {beta}-casein in the COMMA-D cell line was further enhanced by a reconstituted basement membrane preparation enriched in laminin, collagen IV, and proteoglycans. These results support the hypothesis that the functional response of inducible mammary cell populations is a result of interaction among hormones, multiple extracellular matrix components, and specific cell types.

  17. Sialomucin and lytic susceptibility of rat mammary tumor ascites cells.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, J; Skelly, C M; Bharathan, S; Moody, C E; Sherblom, A P

    1990-11-01

    The potential role of cell surface sialomucin in preventing natural killer (NK)-mediated lysis of tumor cell targets has been addressed by comparing the properties of 2 NK-resistant [ascites (ASC) and short-term cultured (STC)] and 2 NK-susceptible [tunicamycin-treated (TUN) and long-term cultured (LTC)] preparations of 13762 MAT-B1 rat mammary tumor cells. Both the ASC and STC cell preparations contain elevated levels of the sialomucin ASGP-1 relative to TUN and LTC preparations as determined by [3H]glucosamine labeling and by binding of peanut agglutinin. The major difference in the susceptibility to NK-mediated lysis appeared to be due to the differences in the susceptibility to lysis by lytic granules, rather than to differences in the ability to bind or trigger effector cells, since TUN and LTC cells were approximately 10-fold more sensitive to lysis by lytic granules than were ASC and STC cells. All preparations inhibited the lysis of the susceptible target YAC-1 by normal rat splenocytes, indicating an ability to bind these effector cells. Triggering of effectors, as monitored either by incorporation of 32P into phosphatidylinositol or by transmethylation of phosphatidylcholine, was similar for the positive control YAC-1, STC, TUN, and LTC, whereas ASC appeared to be defective in triggering effectors. These results suggest that tumor sialomucin blocks the final phase of lysis, but not the initial recognition of tumor cells by NK effectors. PMID:2208144

  18. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Protein Expression in Basal Cell Adenomas and Basal Cell Adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Tesdahl, Brennan A; Wilson, Thomas C; Hoffman, Henry T; Robinson, Robert A

    2016-06-01

    Basal cell adenomas and basal cell adenocarcinomas show marked histomorphologic similarity and are separated microscopically primarily by the invasive characteristics of the adenocarcinomas. We wished to explore potential differences in the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition associated proteins in these two tumor types. A tissue microarray was constructed utilizing 29 basal cell adenomas and 16 basal cell adenocarcinomas. Immunohistochemical expression of E-cadherin, beta-catenin, Twist 1 and vimentin were investigated. Both tumors expressed all proteins in a relatively similar manner. Nuclear beta-catenin was essentially limited to the abluminal cell populations in both tumor types. E-cadherin was limited largely to luminal locations but was more prevalent in the adenocarcinomas as compared to the adenomas. Primarily abluminal expression for vimentin was seen, sometimes present in an apical dot-like pattern. Distinct populations of cellular expression of these four markers of epithelial mesenchymal transition were present but were similar in locations in both tumors with no patterns discerned to separate basal cell adenoma from basal cell adenocarcinoma. Given these findings, the mechanisms by which basal cell adenocarcinoma is able to invade while its counterpart, basal cell adenoma can not, may be more complex than in other tumor types. PMID:26442856

  19. Synthesis of milk specific fatty acids and proteins by dispersed goat mammary-gland epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, H O; Tornehave, D; Knudsen, J

    1986-01-01

    The method now described for preparation of dispersed lactating goat mammary-gland cells gives a high yield of morphologically and functionally normal mammary cells. The cells synthesize specific goat milk fatty acids in the right proportions, and they respond to hormones by increased protein synthesis. The cells can be frozen and thawed without losing the above properties, which makes them an excellent tool for metabolic and hormonal studies. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:3800930

  20. The STAT5-regulated miR-193b locus restrains mammary stem and progenitor cell activity and alveolar differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Kyung Hyun; Kang, Keunsoo; Feuermann, Yonatan; Jang, Seung Jin; Robinson, Gertraud W; Hennighausen, Lothar

    2014-11-15

    The transcription factor STAT5 mediates prolactin signaling and controls functional development of mammary tissue during pregnancy. This study has identified the miR-193b locus, also encoding miRNAs 365-1 and 6365, as a STAT5 target in mammary epithelium. While the locus was characterized by active histone marks in mammary tissue, STAT5 binding and expression during pregnancy, it was silent in most non-mammary cells. Inactivation of the miR-193b locus in mice resulted in elevated mammary stem/progenitor cell activity as judged by limiting dilution transplantation experiments of primary mammary epithelial cells. Colonies formed by mutant cells were larger and contained more Ki-67 positive cells. Differentiation of mammary epithelium lacking the miR-193b locus was accelerated during puberty and pregnancy, which coincided with the loss of Cav3 and elevated levels of Elf5. Normal colony development was partially obtained upon ectopically expressing Cav3 or upon siRNA-mediated reduction of Elf5 in miR-193b-null primary mammary epithelial cells. This study reveals a previously unknown link between the mammary-defining transcription factor STAT5 and a microRNA cluster in controlling mammary epithelial differentiation and the activity of mammary stem and progenitor cells. PMID:25236432

  1. Binuclear Cells in the Lactating Mammary Gland: New Insights on an Old Concept?

    PubMed

    Smith, Gilbert H

    2016-06-01

    In a recent paper (Rios et al. Nat Commun. 7:11400, 2016), it was reported that polyploid cells are frequent in lactating mammary tissues. This phenomenon was observed in mammary tissue sampled from five separate mammalian species. According to that report, these binucleated cells occur late in pregnancy and early in lactation. Unfortunately, this paper did not mention a number of earlier observations and findings that remain pertinent to this day (Banerjee et al. Life sciences Pt 2: Biochemistry, general and molecular biology. 10(15):867-77, 1971; Banerjee MR, Wagner JE. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 49(2):480-7, 1972). In these classical experiments, the authors demonstrated in vivo that DNA synthesis continued without commensurate cell division during late pregnancy and lactation, and that this DNA synthesis was imperative for functional differentiation of the mammary epithelium. Later studies showed that DNA synthesis was indispensable to the induction of milk protein production in explant cultures of mammary tissue from unprimed, nulliparous mice. This dependence on DNA synthesis in mammary explant cultures stimulated by lactogenic hormones was found to be dispensable following a single pregnancy. The absolute requirement for DNA synthesis in nulliparous mouse mammary explants stimulated to synthesize milk protein in vitro has remained unexplained, as has the need for DNA synthesis prior to the onset of lactation. From a historical perspective, it is more likely that binuclear secretory cells in the lactating mammary gland are a consequence of the DNA synthesis requirement for lactation, rather than an essential element. PMID:27255141

  2. Radiation-induced chromosomal instability in human mammary epithelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durante, M.; Grossi, G. F.; Yang, T. C.

    1996-01-01

    Karyotypes of human cells surviving X- and alpha-irradiation have been studied. Human mammary epithelial cells of the immortal, non-tumorigenic cell line H184B5 F5-1 M/10 were irradiated and surviving clones isolated and expanded in culture. Cytogenetic analysis was performed using dedicated software with an image analyzer. We have found that both high- and low-LET radiation induced chromosomal instability in long-term cultures, but with different characteristics. Complex chromosomal rearrangements were observed after X-rays, while chromosome loss predominated after alpha-particles. Deletions were observed in both cases. In clones derived from cells exposed to alpha-particles, some cells showed extensive chromosome breaking and double minutes. Genomic instability was correlated to delayed reproductive death and neoplastic transformation. These results indicate that chromosomal instability is a radiation-quality-dependent effect which could determine late genetic effects, and should therefore be carefully considered in the evaluation of risk for space missions.

  3. Radiation-induced chromosomal instability in human mammary epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, M.; Grossi, G. F.; Yang, T. C.

    Karyotypes of human cells surviving X- and alpha-irradiation have been studied. Human mammary epithelial cells of the immortal, non-tumorigenic cell line H184B5 F5-1 M/10 were irradiated and surviving clones isolated and expanded in culture. Cytogenetic analysis was performed using dedicated software with an image analyzer. We have found that both high- and low-LET radiation induced chromosomal instability in long-term cultures, but with different characteristics. Complex chromosomal rearrangements were observed after X-rays, while chromosome loss predominated after alpha-particles. Deletions were observed in both cases. In clones derived from cells exposed to alpha-particles, some cells showed extensive chromosome breaking and double minutes. Genomic instability was correlated to delayed reproductive death and neoplastic transformation. These results indicate that chromosomal instability is a radiation-quality-dependent effect which could determine late genetic effects, and should therefore be carefully considered in the evaluation of risk for space missions.

  4. Biological and clinical relevance of stem cells in pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Rasheed, Zeshaan A; Matsui, William

    2013-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSC) have been identified in a growing number of human malignancies. CSC are functionally defined by their ability to self-renew and recapitulate tumors in the ectopic setting, and a growing number of studies have shown that they display other functional characteristics, such as invasion and drug resistance. These unique functional properties implicate a role for CSC in clinical consequences, such as initial tumor formation, relapse following treatment, metastasis, and resistance, suggesting they are a major factor in directing clinical outcomes. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a highly-aggressive disease with a propensity for early metastasis and drug resistance. Tumorigenic pancreatic cancer cells have been identified using the cell surface antigens CD44, CD24, and CD133, as well as the high expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that ALDH- and CD133-expressing pancreatic CSC have a greater propensity for metastasis, and ALDH-expressing CSC have been shown to be resistant to conventional chemotherapy. In clinical samples from patients with resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma, the presence of ALDH-expressing CSC was associated with worse overall survival. The development of CSC-targeting therapies might be important in changing the clinical outcomes of patients with this disease, and others and we have begun to identify novel compounds that block CSC function. This review will discuss the biological and clinical relevance of CSC in pancreatic cancer, and will discuss novel therapeutic strategies to target them. PMID:22320910

  5. Trefoil factor 3 as a novel biomarker to distinguish between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Nan; Wang, Shu-Jing; Pandey, Vijay; Chen, Ping; Li, Qing; Wu, Zheng-Sheng; Wu, Qiang; Lobie, Peter E

    2015-05-01

    In carcinoma, such as of the lung, the histological subtype is important to select an appropriate therapeutic strategy for patients. However, carcinomas with poor differentiation cannot always be distinguished on the basis of morphology alone nor on clinical findings. Hence, delineation of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, the 2 most common epithelial-origin carcinomas, is pivotal for selection of optimum therapy. Herein, we explored the potential utility of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) as a biomarker for primary lung adenocarcinoma and extrapulmonary adenocarcinomas derived from different organs. We observed that 90.9% of lung adenocarcinomas were TFF3-positive, whereas no expression of TFF3 was observed in squamous cell carcinomas. The subtype of lung carcinoma was confirmed by four established biomarkers, cytokeratin 7 and thyroid transcription factor 1 for adenocarcinoma and P63 and cytokeratin 5/6 for squamous cell carcinoma. Furthermore, expression of TFF3 mRNA was observed by quantitative PCR in all of 11 human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and highly correlated with markers of the adenocarcinomatous lineage. In contrast, little or no expression of TFF3 was observed in 4 lung squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. By use of forced expression, or siRNA-mediated depletion of TFF3, we determined that TFF3 appeared to maintain rather than promote glandular differentiation of lung carcinoma cells. In addition, TFF3 expression was also determined in adenocarcinomas from colorectum, stomach, cervix, esophagus, and larynx. Among all these extrapulmonary carcinomas, 93.7% of adenocarcinomas exhibited TFF3 positivity, whereas only 2.9% of squamous cell carcinomas were TFF3-positive. Totally, 92.9% of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary adenocarcinomas exhibited TFF3 positivity, whereas only 1.5% of squamous cell carcinomas were TFF3-positive. In conclusion, TFF3 is preferentially expressed in adenocarcinoma and may function as an additional

  6. Cdc42 overexpression induces hyperbranching in the developing mammary gland by enhancing cell migration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Rho GTPase Cdc42 is overexpressed and hyperactivated in breast tumors compared to normal breast tissue. Cdc42 regulates key processes that are critical for mammary gland morphogenesis and become disrupted during the development, progression, and metastasis of breast cancer. However, the contribution of Cdc42 to normal and neoplastic mammary gland development in vivo remains poorly understood. We were therefore interested in investigating the effects of Cdc42 overexpression on mammary gland morphogenesis as a first step toward understanding how its overexpression may contribute to mammary tumorigenesis. Methods We developed a tetracycline-regulatable Cdc42 overexpression mouse model in which Cdc42 can be inducibly overexpressed in the developing mammary gland. The effects of Cdc42 overexpression during postnatal mammary gland development were investigated using in vivo and in vitro approaches, including morphometric analysis of wholemounted mammary glands, quantification of histological markers, and primary mammary epithelial cell (MEC) functional and biochemical assays. Results Analysis of Cdc42-overexpressing mammary glands revealed abnormal terminal end bud (TEB) morphologies, characterized by hyperbudding and trifurcation, and increased side branching within the ductal tree. Quantification of markers of proliferation and apoptosis suggested that these phenotypes were not due to increased cell proliferation or survival. Rather, Cdc42 overexpressing MECs were more migratory and contractile and formed dysmorphic, invasive acini in three-dimensional cultures. Cdc42 and RhoA activities, phosphorylated myosin light chain, and MAPK signaling, which contribute to migration and invasion, were markedly elevated in Cdc42 overexpressing MECs. Interestingly, Cdc42 overexpressing mammary glands displayed several features associated with altered epithelial-stromal interactions, which are known to regulate branching morphogenesis. These included increased

  7. Chemoprevention of rat mammary carcinogenesis by black tea polyphenols: modulation of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, oxidative stress, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kumaraguruparan, R; Seshagiri, P B; Hara, Y; Nagini, S

    2007-09-01

    Chemoprevention of dietary constituents has emerged as a cost-effective approach to control the incidence of breast cancer. The present study was therefore designed to evaluate the chemopreventive efficacy of black tea polyphenols (Polyphenon-B) during the preinitiation phase of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced mammary carcinogenesis using xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, cellular redox status, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis as biomarkers of chemoprevention. Intragastric administration of DMBA induced adenocarcinomas that showed enhanced activities of phase I carcinogen activation and phase II detoxification enzymes with increased lipid and protein oxidation and decrease in antioxidant status. This was associated with increased cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and evasion of apoptosis as revealed by upregulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Bcl-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and downregulation of Bax, caspase 3, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Dietary administration of Polyphenon-B effectively suppressed the incidence of mammary tumors as evidenced by modulation of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and oxidant-antioxidant status, inhibition of cell proliferation and angiogenesis, and induction of apoptosis. The present study provides evidence that Polyphenon-B exerts multifunctional inhibitory effects on DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis and suggests that it can be developed as a potential chemopreventive agent. PMID:17415784

  8. Culture models of human mammary epithelial cell transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Stampfer, Martha R.; Yaswen, Paul

    2000-11-10

    Human pre-malignant breast diseases, particularly ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)3 already display several of the aberrant phenotypes found in primary breast cancers, including chromosomal abnormalities, telomerase activity, inactivation of the p53 gene and overexpression of some oncogenes. Efforts to model early breast carcinogenesis in human cell cultures have largely involved studies in vitro transformation of normal finite lifespan human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to immortality and malignancy. We present a model of HMEC immortal transformation consistent with the know in vivo data. This model includes a recently described, presumably epigenetic process, termed conversion, which occurs in cells that have overcome stringent replicative senescence and are thus able to maintain proliferation with critically short telomeres. The conversion process involves reactivation of telomerase activity, and acquisition of good uniform growth in the absence and presence of TFGB. We propose th at overcoming the proliferative constraints set by senescence, and undergoing conversion, represent key rate-limiting steps in human breast carcinogenesis, and occur during early stage breast cancer progression.

  9. Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Urethra: Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Venyo, Anthony Kodzo-Grey

    2015-01-01

    Background. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the urethra (CCAU) is extremely rare and a number of clinicians may be unfamiliar with its diagnosis and biological behaviour. Aims. To review the literature on CCAU. Methods. Various internet databases were used. Results/Literature Review. (i) CCAU occurs in adults and in women in the great majority of cases. (ii) It has a particular association with urethral diverticulum, which has been present in 56% of the patients; is indistinguishable from clear cell adenocarcinoma of the female genital tract but is not associated with endometriosis; and probably does not arise by malignant transformation of nephrogenic adenoma. (iii) It is usually, readily distinguished from nephrogenic adenoma because of greater cytological a-typicality and mitotic activity and does not stain for prostate-specific antigen or prostatic acid phosphatase. (iv) It has been treated by anterior exenteration in women and cystoprostatectomy in men and at times by radiotherapy; chemotherapy has rarely been given. (v) CCAU is aggressive with low 5-year survival rates. (vi) There is no consensus opinion of treatment options that would improve the prognosis. Conclusions. Few cases of CCAU have been reported. Urologists, gynaecologists, pathologists, and oncologists should report cases of CCAU they encounter and enter them into a multicentric trial to determine the best treatment options that would improve the prognosis. PMID:25685552

  10. Genes involved in immortalization of human mammary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Stampfer, Martha R.; Yaswen, Paul

    2001-09-27

    Breast cancer progression is characterized by inappropriate cell growth. Normal cells cease growth after a limited number of cell divisions--a process called cellular senescence-while tumor cells may acquire the ability to proliferate indefinitely (immortality). Inappropriate expression of specific oncogenes in a key cellular signaling pathway (Ras, Raf) can promote tumorigenicity in immortal cells, while causing finite lifespan cells to undergo a rapid senescence-like arrest. We have studied when in the course of transformation of cultured human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC), the response to overexpressed oncogenic Raf changes from being tumor-suppressive to tumor enhancing, and what are the molecular underpinnings of this response. Our data indicate: (1) HMEC acquire the ability to maintain growth in the presence of oncogenic Raf not simply as a consequence of overcoming senescence, but as a result of a newly discovered step in the process of immortal transformation uncovered by our lab, termed conversion. Immortal cells that have not undergone conversion (e.g., cells immortalized by exogenous introduction of the immortalizing enzyme, telomerase) remain growth inhibited. (2) Finite lifespan HMEC growth arrest in response to oncogenic Raf using mediators of growth inhibition that are very different from those used in response to oncogenic Raf by rodent cells and certain other human cell types, including the connective tissue cells from the same breast tissue. While many diverse cell types appear to have in common a tumor-suppressive response to this oncogenic signal, they also have developed multiple mechanisms to elicit this response. Understanding how cancer cells acquire the crucial capacity to be immortal and to abrogate normal tumor-suppressive mechanisms may serve both to increase our understanding of breast cancer progression, and to provide new targets for therapeutic intervention. Our results indicate that normal HMEC have novel means of enforcing a Raf

  11. Distinct EMT programs control normal mammary stem cells and tumour-initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xin; Tam, Wai Leong; Shibue, Tsukasa; Kaygusuz, Yasemin; Reinhardt, Ferenc; Ng Eaton, Elinor; Weinberg, Robert A

    2015-09-10

    Tumour-initiating cells (TICs) are responsible for metastatic dissemination and clinical relapse in a variety of cancers. Analogies between TICs and normal tissue stem cells have led to the proposal that activation of the normal stem-cell program within a tissue serves as the major mechanism for generating TICs. Supporting this notion, we and others previously established that the Slug epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-inducing transcription factor (EMT-TF), a member of the Snail family, serves as a master regulator of the gland-reconstituting activity of normal mammary stem cells, and that forced expression of Slug in collaboration with Sox9 in breast cancer cells can efficiently induce entrance into the TIC state. However, these earlier studies focused on xenograft models with cultured cell lines and involved ectopic expression of EMT-TFs, often at non-physiological levels. Using genetically engineered knock-in reporter mouse lines, here we show that normal gland-reconstituting mammary stem cells residing in the basal layer of the mammary epithelium and breast TICs originating in the luminal layer exploit the paralogous EMT-TFs Slug and Snail, respectively, which induce distinct EMT programs. Broadly, our findings suggest that the seemingly similar stem-cell programs operating in TICs and normal stem cells of the corresponding normal tissue are likely to differ significantly in their details. PMID:26331542

  12. Early Human Prostate Adenocarcinomas Harbor Androgen-Independent Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fiñones, Rita R.; Yeargin, Jo; Lee, Melissa; Kaur, Aman Preet; Cheng, Clari; Sun, Paulina; Wu, Christopher; Nguyen, Catherine; Wang-Rodriguez, Jessica; Meyer, April N.; Baird, Stephen M.; Donoghue, Daniel J.; Haas, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Although blockade of androgen receptor (AR) signaling represents the main treatment for advanced prostate cancer (PrCa), many patients progress to a lethal phenotype of “Castration-Resistant” prostate cancer (CR-PrCa). With the hypothesis that early PrCa may harbor a population of androgen-unresponsive cancer cells as precursors to CR-recurrent disease, we undertook the propagation of androgen-independent cells from PrCa-prostatectomy samples of early, localized (Stage-I) cases. A collection of 120 surgical specimens from prostatectomy cases was established, among which 54 were adenocarcinomas. Hormone-free cell culture conditions were developed allowing routine propagation of cells expressing prostate basal cell markers and stem/progenitor cell markers, and which proliferated as spheres/spheroids in suspension cultures. Colonies of androgen-independent epithelial cells grew out from 30/43 (70%) of the adenocarcinoma cases studied in detail. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry showed that CR-PrCa cells were positive for CD44, CD133, CK5/14, c-kit, integrin α2β1, SSEA4, E-Cadherin and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH). All 30 CR-PrCa cell cultures were also TERT-positive, but negative for TMPRSS2-ERG. Additionally, a subset of 22 of these CR-PrCa cell cultures was examined by orthotopic xenografting in intact and castrated SCID mice, generating histologically typical locally-invasive human PrCa or undifferentiated cancers, respectively, in 6–8 weeks. Cultured PrCa cells and orthotopically-induced in vivo cancers lacked PSA expression. We report here the propagation of Cancer Initiating Cells (CIC) directly from Stage I human PrCa tissue without selection or genetic manipulation. The propagation of stem/progenitor-like CR-PrCa cells derived from early human prostate carcinomas suggests the existence of a subpopulation of cells resistant to androgen-deprivation therapy and which may drive the subsequent emergence of disseminated CR-PrCa. PMID:24086346

  13. Misregulation of Stromelysin-1 in Mouse Mammary Tumor Cells Accompanies Acquisition of Stromelysin-1 dependent Invasive Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Lochter, A.; Srebrow, A.; Sympson, C.J.; Terracio, N.; Werb, Z.; Bissell, M.J.

    1997-02-21

    Stromelysin-1 is a member of the metalloproteinase family of extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes that regulates tissue remodeling. We previously established a transgenic mouse model in which rat stromelysin-1 targeted to the mammary gland augmented expression of endogenous stromelysin-1, disrupted functional differentiation, and induced mammary tumors. A cell line generated from an adenocarcinoma in one of these animals and a previously described mammary tumor cell line generated in culture readily invaded both a reconstituted basement membrane and type I collagen gels, whereas a nonmalignant, functionally normal epithelial cell line did not. Invasion of Matrigel by tumor cells was largely abolished by metalloproteinase inhibitors, but not by inhibitors of other proteinase families. Inhibition experiments with antisense oligodeoxynucleotides revealed that Matrigel invasion of both cell lines was critically dependent on stromelysin-1 expression. Invasion of collagen, on the other hand, was reduced by only 40-50%. Stromelysin-1 was expressed in both malignant and nonmalignant cells grown on plastic substrata. Its expression was completely inhibited in nonmalignant cells, but up-regulated in tumor cells, in response to Matrigel. Thus misregulation of stromelysin-1 expression appears to be an important aspect of mammary tumor cell progression to an invasive phenotype. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of extracellular matrix (ECM)-degrading enzymes that have been implicated in a variety of normal developmental and pathological processes, including tumorigenesis. The MMP family comprises at least 15 members with different, albeit overlapping, substrate specificities. During activation of latent MMPs, their propeptides are cleaved and they are converted to a lower molecular weight form by other enzymes, including serine proteinases, and by autocatalytic cleavage. Among the MMPs, stromelysin-1 (SL1) possesses the broadest substrate specificity. Despite

  14. In Vitro Culture and Characterization of a Mammary Epithelial Cell Line from Chinese Holstein Dairy Cow

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Han; Wang, Jiaqi; Bu, Dengpan; Wei, Hongyang; Zhou, Linyun; Li, Fadi; Loor, Juan J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to establish a culture system and elucidate the unique characteristics of a bovine mammary epithelial cell line in vitro. Methodology Mammary tissue from a three year old lactating dairy cow (ca. 100 d relative to parturition) was used as a source of the epithelial cell line, which was cultured in collagen-coated tissue culture dishes. Fibroblasts and epithelial cells successively grew and extended from the culturing mammary tissue at the third day. Pure epithelial cells were obtained by passages culture. Principal Findings The strong positive immunostaining to cytokeratin 18 suggested that the resulting cell line exhibited the specific character of epithelial cells. Epithelial cells cultured in the presence of 10% FBS, supraphysiologic concentrations of insulin, and hydrocortisone maintained a normal diploid chromosome modal number of 2n = 60. Furthermore, they were capable of synthesizing β-casein (CSN2), acetyl-CoA carboxylase-α (ACACA) and butyrophilin (BTN1A1). An important finding was that frozen preservation in a mixture of 90% FBS and 10% DMSO did not influence the growth characteristics, chromosome number, or protein secretion of the isolated epithelial cell line. Conclusions The obtained mammary epithelial cell line had normal morphology, growth characteristics, cytogenetic and secretory characteristics, thus, it might represent an useful tool for studying the function of Chinese Holstein dairy cows mammary epithelial cell (CMECs). PMID:19888476

  15. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 strongly potentiates growth factor-induced proliferation of mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Montesano, Roberto Sarkoezi, Rita; Schramek, Herbert

    2008-09-12

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are multifunctional cytokines that elicit pleiotropic effects on biological processes such as cell proliferation, cell differentiation and tissue morphogenesis. With respect to cell proliferation, BMPs can exert either mitogenic or anti-mitogenic activities, depending on the target cells and their context. Here, we report that in low-density cultures of immortalized mammary epithelial cells, BMP-4 did not stimulate cell proliferation by itself. However, when added in combination with suboptimal concentrations of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2, FGF-7, FGF-10, epidermal growth factor (EGF) or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), BMP-4 potently enhanced growth factor-induced cell proliferation. These results reveal a hitherto unsuspected interplay between BMP-4 and growth factors in the regulation of mammary epithelial cell proliferation. We suggest that the ability of BMP-4 to potentiate the mitogenic activity of multiple growth factors may contribute to mammary gland ductal morphogenesis as well as to breast cancer progression.

  16. Expression of Putative Stem Cell Marker, Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4 Alpha, in Mammary Gland of Water Buffalo.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Ratan K; Choudhary, Shanti; Kaur, Harmanjot; Pathak, Devendra

    2016-01-01

    Buffaloes account for more than 56% of total milk production in India. Cyclic remodeling of mammary glands of human, mice, cow, sheep, and goat is determined by mammary stem cells. It is logical to assume that buffalo mammary gland will have mammary stem/progenitor cells. Thus far, no report exists on identification of buffalo mammary stem cells. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4A) is a candidate marker for hepatic progenitor cells and has recently been suggested as a marker of bovine mammary stem/progenitor cells. We hypothesized that ( 1 ) HNF4A identifies putative buffalo mammary stem/progenitor cells and ( 2 ) the number of HNF4A-positive cells increases during mastitis. Sixteen buffalo mammary samples were collected from a local slaughterhouse. Hematoxylin and eosin staining were performed on 5-micron thick sections and on the basis of gross examination and histomorphology of the mammary glands, physiological stages of the animals were estimated as non-lactating (n = 4), mastitis (n = 9), and prepubertal (n = 3). In total, 24048 cells were counted (5-10 microscopic fields/animal; n = 16 animals) of which, 40% cells were mammary epithelial cells (MEC) and 60% cells were the stromal cells. The percentage of MEC in non-lactating animals was higher compared to mastitic animals (47.3% vs. 37.3%), which was likely due to loss of MEC in mastitis. HNF4A staining was observed in nuclei of MEC of ducts, alveoli, and stromal cells. Basal location and low frequency of HNF4A-positive MEC (ranges from 0.4-4.5%) were consistent with stem cell characteristics. Preliminary study showed coexpression of HNF4A with MSI1 (a mammary stem cell marker in sheep), suggesting HNF4A was likely to be a putative mammary stem/progenitor cell marker in buffalo. HNF4A-positive MEC (basal and luminal; light and dark stained) tended to be higher in non-lactating than the mastitic animals (8.73 ± 1.71% vs. 4.29 ± 1.19%; P = 0.07). The first hypothesis that HNF4A identify

  17. Triennial Lactation Symposium: Bovine mammary epithelial cell lineages and parenchymal development.

    PubMed

    Ellis, S; Akers, R M; Capuco, A V; Safayi, S

    2012-05-01

    Mammary development proceeds from an aggregation of cells in the ventral ectoderm to the establishment of an elaborate tree of alveoli, ducts, and cisternae. However, despite abundant data on endocrine regulation of ruminant mammary growth, we know comparatively little about cell lineages, expression of differentiation markers, and plasticity in mammary cell phenotype. Histologic analyses have revealed cell populations with distinct histochemical profiles, but functional assessment of cell populations during development has been limited to analysis of proliferation and frequency estimations of morphotypes. The lack of transplantation models, limited availability of validated antibodies with reactivity to bovine antigens, and similar technical challenges have generally hindered the pace of discovery, but the application of new technologies such as laser microdissection, transcriptional profiling, and multispectral image analysis are yielding important clues into bovine mammary cell ontogeny and developmental regulation. Our analyses have shown that prepubertal ovariectomy affects epithelial architecture, increases the proportion of cells expressing the estrogen receptor, and increases myoepithelial cell development, all concomitant with a dramatic reduction in the mass of parenchymal tissue. Our observations point to a dual role for ovarian secretions in the control of not only the rate of epithelial development, but also the nature of the parenchymal development. The balance of stimulus and inhibition pathways cooperatively regulates mammary growth. The increased reliance on objective staining analyses and quantitative approaches will ensure broader repeatability, application, and extension of the findings regarding the impact of the ovary and other regulatory entities and factors. Advances in understanding the ontogeny of mammary epithelial cells, coupled with established and increasing knowledge of endocrine factors affecting mammary development, may yield

  18. Stem cells as the root of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Balic, Anamaria; Dorado, Jorge; Alonso-Gomez, Mercedes; Heeschen, Christopher

    2012-04-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that stem cells play a crucial role not only in the generation and maintenance of different tissues, but also in the development and progression of malignancies. For the many solid cancers, it has now been shown that they harbor a distinct subpopulation of cancer cells that bear stem cell features and therefore, these cells are termed cancer stem cells (CSC) or tumor-propagating cells. CSC are exclusively tumorigenic and essential drivers for tumor progression and metastasis. Moreover, it has been shown that pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma does not only contain one homogeneous population of CSC rather than diverse subpopulations that may have evolved during tumor progression. One of these populations is called migrating CSC and can be characterized by CXCR4 co-expression. Only these cells are capable of evading the primary tumor and traveling to distant sites such as the liver as the preferred site of metastatic spread. Clinically even more important, however, is the observation that CSC are highly resistant to chemo- and radiotherapy resulting in their relative enrichment during treatment and rapid relapse of disease. Many laboratories are now working on the further in-depth characterization of these cells, which may eventually allow for the identification of their Achilles heal and lead to novel treatment modalities for fighting this deadly disease.

  19. PARP and CHK inhibitors interact to cause DNA damage and cell death in mammary carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Booth, Laurence; Cruickshanks, Nichola; Ridder, Thomas; Dai, Yun; Grant, Steven; Dent, Paul

    2013-05-01

    The present studies examined viability and DNA damage levels in mammary carcinoma cells following PARP1 and CHK1 inhibitor drug combination exposure. PARP1 inhibitors [AZD2281 ; ABT888 ; NU1025 ; AG014699] interacted with CHK1 inhibitors [UCN-01 ; AZD7762 ; LY2603618] to kill mammary carcinoma cells. PARP1 and CHK1 inhibitors interacted to increase both single strand and double strand DNA breaks that correlated with increased γH2AX phosphorylation. Treatment of cells with CHK1 inhibitors increased the phosphorylation of CHK1 and ERK1/2. Knock down of ATM suppressed the drug-induced increases in CHK1 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation and enhanced tumor cell killing by PARP1 and CHK1 inhibitors. Expression of dominant negative MEK1 enhanced drug-induced DNA damage whereas expression of activated MEK1 suppressed both the DNA damage response and tumor cell killing. Collectively our data demonstrate that PARP1 and CHK1 inhibitors interact to kill mammary carcinoma cells and that increased DNA damage is a surrogate marker for the response of cells to this drug combination. PMID:23917378

  20. C/EBPβ Regulates Stem Cell Activity and Specifies Luminal Cell Fate in the Mammary Gland

    PubMed Central

    LaMarca, Heather L.; Visbal, Adriana P.; Creighton, Chad J.; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Yiqun; Behbod, Fariba; Rosen, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    The bZIP transcription factor C/EBPβ is important for mammary gland development and its expression is deregulated in human breast cancer. To determine whether C/EBPβ regulates mammary stem cells (MaSCs), we employed two different knockout strategies. Utilizing both a germline and a conditional knockout strategy, we demonstrate that mammosphere formation was significantly decreased in C/EBPβ-deficient mammary epithelial cells (MECs). Functional limiting dilution transplantation assays indicated that the repopulating ability of C/EBPβ-deleted MECs was severely impaired. Serial transplantation experiments demonstrated that C/EBPβ deletion resulted in decreased outgrowth potential and premature MaSC senescence. In accord, FACS analysis demonstrated that C/EBPβ-null MECs contained fewer MaSCs, the loss of luminal progenitors and an increase in differentiated luminal cells as compared to wildtype. Gene profiling of C/EBPβ-null stem cells revealed an alteration in cell fate specification, exemplified by the expression of basal markers in the luminal compartment. Thus, C/EBPβ is a critical regulator of both MaSC repopulation activity and luminal cell lineage commitment. These findings have critical implications for understanding both stem cell biology and the etiology of different breast cancer subtypes. PMID:20054865

  1. Ceramide Kinase Promotes Tumor Cell Survival and Mammary Tumor Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Ania W.; Pant, Dhruv K.; Pan, Tien-chi; Chodosh, Lewis A.

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent breast cancer is typically an incurable disease and, as such, is disproportionately responsible for deaths from this disease. Recurrent breast cancers arise from the pool of disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) that survive adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapy, and patients with detectable DTCs following therapy are at substantially increased risk for recurrence. Consequently, the identification of pathways that contribute to the survival of breast cancer cells following therapy could aid in the development of more effective therapies that decrease the burden of residual disease and thereby reduce the risk of breast cancer recurrence. We now report that Ceramide Kinase (Cerk) is required for mammary tumor recurrence following HER2/neu pathway inhibition and is spontaneously up-regulated during tumor recurrence in multiple genetically engineered mouse models for breast cancer. We find that Cerk is rapidly up-regulated in tumor cells following HER2/neu down-regulation or treatment with Adriamycin and that Cerk is required for tumor cell survival following HER2/neu down-regulation. Consistent with our observations in mouse models, analysis of gene expression profiles from over 2,200 patients revealed that elevated CERK expression is associated with an increased risk of recurrence in women with breast cancer. Additionally, although CERK expression is associated with aggressive subtypes of breast cancer, including those that are ER–, HER2+, basal-like, or high grade, its association with poor clinical outcome is independent of these clinicopathological variables. Together, our findings identify a functional role for Cerk in breast cancer recurrence and suggest the clinical utility of agents targeted against this pro-survival pathway. PMID:25164007

  2. Napsin A is a specific marker for ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yoriko; Nagasaka, Tetsuro; Naiki-Ito, Aya; Sato, Shinya; Suzuki, Shugo; Toyokuni, Shinya; Ito, Masafumi; Takahashi, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma has a relatively poor prognosis among the ovarian cancer subtypes because of its high chemoresistance. Differential diagnosis of clear cell adenocarcinoma from other ovarian surface epithelial tumors is important for its treatment. Napsin A is a known diagnostic marker for lung adenocarcinoma, and expression of napsin A is reported in a certain portion of thyroid and renal carcinomas. However, napsin A expression in ovarian surface epithelial tumors has not previously been examined. In this study, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that in 71 of 86 ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma patients (83%) and all of the 13 patients with ovarian clear cell adenofibroma, positive napsin A staining was evident. No expression was observed in 30 serous adenocarcinomas, 11 serous adenomas or borderline tumors, 19 endometrioid adenocarcinomas, 22 mucinous adenomas or borderline tumors, 10 mucinous adenocarcinomas, or 3 yolk sac tumors of the ovary. Furthermore, expression of napsin A was not observed in the normal surface epithelium of the ovary, epithelia of the fallopian tubes, squamous epithelium, endocervical epithelium, or the endometrium of the uterus. Therefore, we propose that napsin A is another sensitive and specific marker for distinguishing ovarian clear cell tumors (especially adenocarcinomas) from other ovarian tumors. PMID:24721826

  3. NFAT5 promotes proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells in part through regulating AQP5 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Kai; Jin, Faguang

    2015-09-25

    The osmoregulated transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5(NFAT5), has been found to play important roles in the development of many kinds of human cancers, including breast cancer, colon carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma and melanoma. The aim of the present study was to determine whether NFAT5 is involved in the proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells. We found that NFAT5 was upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma cells and knockdown of NFAT5 decreased proliferation and migration of the cells, accompanied by a significant reduction in the expression of AQP5. AQP5 was upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma cells and knockdown of AQP5 also inhibited proliferation and migration of the cells as knockdown of NFAT5 did. Moreover, overexpression of NFAT5 promoted proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells, accompanied by a significant increase in the expression of AQP5. These results indicate that NFAT5 plays important roles in proliferation and migration of human lung adenocarcinoma cells through regulating AQP5 expression, providing a new therapeutic option for lung adenocarcinoma therapy. - Highlights: • NFAT5 expression is higher in lung adenocarcinoma cells compared with normal cells. • NFAT5 knockdown decreases proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells. • Knockdown of NFAT5 reduces AQP5 expression in human lung adenocarcinoma cells. • Overexpression of NFAT5 promotes proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells. • Overexpression of NFAT5 increases AQP5 expression in human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

  4. Essential role for a novel population of binucleated mammary epithelial cells in lactation.

    PubMed

    Rios, Anne C; Fu, Nai Yang; Jamieson, Paul R; Pal, Bhupinder; Whitehead, Lachlan; Nicholas, Kevin R; Lindeman, Geoffrey J; Visvader, Jane E

    2016-01-01

    The mammary gland represents a unique tissue to study organogenesis as it predominantly develops in the post-natal animal and undergoes dramatic morphogenetic changes during puberty and the reproductive cycle. The physiological function of the mammary gland is to produce milk to sustain the newborn. Here we view the lactating gland through three-dimensional confocal imaging of intact tissue. We observed that the majority of secretory alveolar cells are binucleated. These cells first arise in very late pregnancy due to failure of cytokinesis and are larger than mononucleated cells. Augmented expression of Aurora kinase-A and Polo-like kinase-1 at the lactogenic switch likely mediates the formation of binucleated cells. Our findings demonstrate an important physiological role for polyploid mammary epithelial cells in lactation, and based on their presence in five different species, suggest that binucleated cells evolved to maximize milk production and promote the survival of offspring across all mammalian species. PMID:27102712

  5. Essential role for a novel population of binucleated mammary epithelial cells in lactation

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Anne C.; Fu, Nai Yang; Jamieson, Paul R.; Pal, Bhupinder; Whitehead, Lachlan; Nicholas, Kevin R.; Lindeman, Geoffrey J.; Visvader, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    The mammary gland represents a unique tissue to study organogenesis as it predominantly develops in the post-natal animal and undergoes dramatic morphogenetic changes during puberty and the reproductive cycle. The physiological function of the mammary gland is to produce milk to sustain the newborn. Here we view the lactating gland through three-dimensional confocal imaging of intact tissue. We observed that the majority of secretory alveolar cells are binucleated. These cells first arise in very late pregnancy due to failure of cytokinesis and are larger than mononucleated cells. Augmented expression of Aurora kinase-A and Polo-like kinase-1 at the lactogenic switch likely mediates the formation of binucleated cells. Our findings demonstrate an important physiological role for polyploid mammary epithelial cells in lactation, and based on their presence in five different species, suggest that binucleated cells evolved to maximize milk production and promote the survival of offspring across all mammalian species. PMID:27102712

  6. Initiation of oncogenic transformation in human mammary epithelial cells by charged particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T. C.; Georgy, K. A.; Craise, L. M.; Durante, M.

    1997-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that high linear-energy transfer (LET) charged particles can be more effective than x-rays and gamma-rays in inducing oncogenic transformation in cultured cells and tumors in animals. Based on these results, experiments were designed and performed with an immortal human mammary epithelial cell line (H184B5), and several clones transformed by heavy ions were obtained. Cell fusion experiments were subsequently done, and results indicate that the transforming gene(s) is recessive. Chromosome analysis with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques also showed additional translocations in transformed human mammary epithelial cells. In addition, studies with these cell lines indicate that heavy ions can effectively induce deletion, break, and dicentrics. Deletion of tumor suppressor gene(s) and/or formation of translocation through DNA double strand breaks is a likely mechanism for the initiation of oncogenic transformation in human mammary epithelial cells.

  7. Tsc1 deficiency impairs mammary development in mice by suppression of AKT, nuclear ERα, and cell-cycle-driving proteins.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhenqi; Zheng, Hang; Zhou, Ling; Ou, Yanhua; Huang, Bin; Yan, Bo; Qin, Zhenshu; Yang, Cuilan; Su, Yongchun; Bai, Xiaochun; Guo, Jiasong; Lin, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Loss of Tsc1/Tsc2 results in excess cell growth that eventually forms hamartoma in multiple organs. Our study using a mouse model with Tsc1 conditionally knockout in mammary epithelium showed that Tsc1 deficiency impaired mammary development. Phosphorylated S6 was up-regulated in Tsc1(-/-) mammary epithelium, which could be reversed by rapamycin, suggesting that mTORC1 was hyperactivated in Tsc1(-/-) mammary epithelium. The mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin restored the development of Tsc1(-/-) mammary glands whereas suppressed the development of Tsc1(wt/wt) mammary glands, indicating that a modest activation of mTORC1 is critical for mammary development. Phosphorylated PDK1 and AKT, nuclear ERα, nuclear IRS-1, SGK3, and cell cycle regulators such as Cyclin D1, Cyclin E, CDK2, CDK4 and their target pRB were all apparently down-regulated in Tsc1(-/-) mammary glands, which could be reversed by rapamycin, suggesting that suppression of AKT by hyperactivation of mTORC1, inhibition on nuclear ERα signaling, and down-regulation of cell-cycle-driving proteins play important roles in the retarded mammary development induced by Tsc1 deletion. This study demonstrated for the first time the in vivo role of Tsc1 in pubertal mammary development of mice, and revealed that loss of Tsc1 does not necessarily lead to tissue hyperplasia. PMID:26795955

  8. Mechanical strain induces involution-associated events in mammary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Quaglino, Ana; Salierno, Marcelo; Pellegrotti, Jesica; Rubinstein, Natalia; Kordon, Edith C

    2009-01-01

    Background Shortly after weaning, a complex multi-step process that leads to massive epithelial apoptosis is triggered by tissue local factors in the mouse mammary gland. Several reports have demonstrated the relevance of mechanical stress to induce adaptive responses in different cell types. Interestingly, these signaling pathways also participate in mammary gland involution. Then, it has been suggested that cell stretching caused by milk accumulation after weaning might be the first stimulus that initiates the complete remodeling of the mammary gland. However, no previous report has demonstrated the impact of mechanical stress on mammary cell physiology. To address this issue, we have designed a new practical device that allowed us to evaluate the effects of radial stretching on mammary epithelial cells in culture. Results We have designed and built a new device to analyze the biological consequences of applying mechanical stress to cells cultured on flexible silicone membranes. Subsequently, a geometrical model that predicted the percentage of radial strain applied to the elastic substrate was developed. By microscopic image analysis, the adjustment of these calculations to the actual strain exerted on the attached cells was verified. The studies described herein were all performed in the HC11 non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial cell line, which was originated from a pregnant BALB/c mouse. In these cells, as previously observed in other tissue types, mechanical stress induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and c-Fos mRNA and protein expression. In addition, we found that mammary cell stretching triggered involution associated cellular events as Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF) expression induction, STAT3 activation and AKT phosphorylation inhibition. Conclusion Here, we show for the first time, that mechanical strain is able to induce weaning-associated events in cultured mammary epithelial cells. These results were obtained using a new practical and affordable device

  9. Developmental regulation of cytokeratins in cells of the rat mammary gland studied with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, R; Dulbecco, R; Syka, P; Bowman, M; Armstrong, B

    1984-01-01

    We have isolated two monoclonal antibodies to cytokeratins and determined their cell specificities. They display interesting localization within the rat mammary gland. One (1A10) shows specificity for myoepithelial cells; the other (24B42) is specific for lumenal cells at various stages of development. These two monoclonal antibodies and three others to cytokeratin previously isolated were used in conjunction with antibodies to myosin and collagen IV to confirm and extend our previous findings on epithelial cell types and development within the mammary gland. Images PMID:6199793

  10. Mouse Mammary Intraductal (MIND) Method for Transplantation of Patient Derived Primary DCIS Cells and Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Kittrell, Frances; Valdez, Kelli; Elsarraj, Hanan; Hong, Yan; Medina, Daniel; Behbod, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    The MIND method involves intraductal injection of patient derived ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) cells and DCIS cell lines (MCF10DCIS.COM and SUM225) inside the mouse mammary ducts [Video 1 and Figure 1 in Behbod et al. (2009)]. This method mimics the normal environment of DCIS and facilitates study of the natural progression of human DCIS, i.e., their initial growth as carcinoma in situ within the ducts, followed by invasion into the stroma through the myoepithelial cell layer and basement membrane (Behbod et al., 2009; Valdez et al., 2011). In order to demonstrate that transplantation procedure is successful, the transplanted mammary glands may be excised as early as two weeks following intraductal injection of cells followed by Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining and/or immunofluorescence staining using human specific cytokeratin 5 and/or 19 [please see Figures 2–4 in Behbod et al. (2009)]. Additionally, the presence of trypan blue inside the mouse mammary ducts immediately following intraductal injection is the best indicator that the injection was successful (Video 1 starting at 4:33 sec).

  11. Methionine protects against hyperthermia-induced cell injury in cultured bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhao-Yu; Mu, Tian; Yang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of methionine on cell proliferation, antioxidant activity, apoptosis, the expression levels of related genes (HSF-1, HSP70, Bax and Bcl-2) and the expression levels of protein (HSP70) in mammary epithelial cells, after heat treatment. Methionine (60 mg/L) increased the viability and attenuated morphological damage in hyperthermia-treated bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). Additionally, methionine significantly reduced lactate dehydrogenase leakage, malondialdehyde formation, nitric oxide, and nitric oxide synthase activity. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase enzymatic activity was increased significantly in the presence of methionine. Bovine mammary epithelial cells also exhibited a certain amount of HSP70 reserve after methionine pretreatment for 24 h, and the expression level of the HSP70 gene and protein further increased with incubation at 42 °C for 30 min. Compared to the control, the expression of HSF-1 mRNA increased, and there was a significantly reduced expression of Bax/Bcl-2 mRNA and a reduced activity of caspase-3 against heat stress. Methionine also increased survival and decreased early apoptosis of hyperthermia-treated BMECs. Thus, methionine has cytoprotective effects on hyperthermia-induced damage in BMECs. PMID:25108357

  12. Function of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in mammary gland epithelial cells[S

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Chang-Wen; Huang, Charles; Bederman, Ilya; Yang, Jianqi; Beidelschies, Michelle; Hatzoglou, Maria; Puchowicz, Michelle; Croniger, Colleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that Pck1 expression in mammary gland adipocytes and white adipose tissue maintains triglyceride stores through glyceroneogenesis, and these lipids were used for synthesis of milk triglycerides during lactation. Reduced milk triglycerides during lactation resulted in patterning of the newborn for insulin resistance. In this study, the role of Pck1 in mammary gland epithelial cells was analyzed. The developmental expression of Pck1 decreased in isolated mouse mammary gland epithelial cells through development and during lactation. Using HC11, a clonal mammary epithelial cell line, we found that both Janus kinase 2 signal transducers and activators of transcription 5 and the AKT pathways contributed to the repression of Pck1 mRNA by prolactin. These pathways necessitate three accessory factor regions of the Pck1 promoter for repression by prolactin. Using [U-13C6]glucose, [U-13C3]pyruvate, and [U-13C3]glycerol in HC11 cells, we determined that Pck1 functions in the pathway for the conversion of gluconeogenic precursors to glucose and contributes to glycerol-3-phosphate synthesis through glyceroneogenesis. Therefore, Pck1 plays an important role in both the mammary gland adipocytes and epithelial cells during lactation. PMID:21504969

  13. Claudin-1, -3, -4 and -7 gene expression analyses in canine prostate carcinoma and mammary tissue derived cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hammer, S C; Nagel, S; Junginger, J; Hewicker-Trautwein, M; Wagner, S; Heisterkamp, A; Ngezahayo, A; Nolte, I; Murua Escobar, H

    2016-01-01

    Claudins (CLDNs) are transmembrane proteins localised in the cell membrane of epithelial cells composing a structural and functional component of the tight junction protein complexes. In canine tumors deregulations of the CLDN expression patterns were described immunohistochemically. Targeting of claudin proteins has further been evaluated to establish novel therapeutic approaches by directed claudin binding. Precondition for the development of claudin targeting approaches in canine cells is the possibility to characterise claudin expression specifically and the availability of claudin positive cell lines. Herein PCR/qPCR assays were established allowing a rapid qualitative and quantitative characterisation of CLDN-1, -3, -4 and -7 gene expression in canine cell lines and tissues. Further commercially available antibodies were used to verify CLDN gene expression on protein level by Western blots. The developed assays were used to analyse six canine cell lines derived from mammary and prostate tissue for their CLDN-1, -3, -4 and -7 expressions. The canine cell line DT08/40 (prostate transitional cell carcinoma) was used for the establishment of specific CLDNs -1, -3, -4 and -7PCR/qPCR. The designed assays were verified by amplicon cloning and sequencing. Gene expressions were verified on protein level by Western blot. Additionally further cell lines were analysed for their CLDN-1, -3, -4 and -7 expression on mRNA and protein level (mammary derived cell lines: MTH53A (non-neoplastic), ZMTH3 (adenoma), MTH52C (carcinoma); prostate derived cell lines: DT08/46 and CT1258 (both adenocarcinoma).The screened cell lines showed expression for the CLDNs as follows: DT08/46 and DT08/40: CLDN-1, -3, -4 and -7 positive; CT1258: CLDN-1, -3, -4 and -7 negative; ZMTH3 and MTH52C: CLDN-1 and -7 positive, CLDN-3 and -4 negative; MTH53A: CLDN-1, -3 and -4 negative, CLDN-7 positive. Western blot analyses reflect the detected CLDN-1, -3, -4 and -7 expressions in the analysed cell

  14. Transcriptome analysis of mammary epithelial subpopulations identifies novel determinants of lineage commitment and cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Kendrick, Howard; Regan, Joseph L; Magnay, Fiona-Ann; Grigoriadis, Anita; Mitsopoulos, Costas; Zvelebil, Marketa; Smalley, Matthew J

    2008-01-01

    Background Understanding the molecular control of cell lineages and fate determination in complex tissues is key to not only understanding the developmental biology and cellular homeostasis of such tissues but also for our understanding and interpretation of the molecular pathology of diseases such as cancer. The prerequisite for such an understanding is detailed knowledge of the cell types that make up such tissues, including their comprehensive molecular characterisation. In the mammary epithelium, the bulk of the tissue is composed of three cell lineages, namely the basal/myoepithelial, luminal epithelial estrogen receptor positive and luminal epithelial estrogen receptor negative cells. However, a detailed molecular characterisation of the transcriptomic differences between these three populations has not been carried out. Results A whole transcriptome analysis of basal/myoepithelial cells, luminal estrogen receptor negative cells and luminal estrogen receptor positive cells isolated from the virgin mouse mammary epithelium identified 861, 326 and 488 genes as highly differentially expressed in the three cell types, respectively. Network analysis of the transcriptomic data identified a subpopulation of luminal estrogen receptor negative cells with a novel potential role as non-professional immune cells. Analysis of the data for potential paracrine interacting factors showed that the basal/myoepithelial cells, remarkably, expressed over twice as many ligands and cell surface receptors as the other two populations combined. A number of transcriptional regulators were also identified that were differentially expressed between the cell lineages. One of these, Sox6, was specifically expressed in luminal estrogen receptor negative cells and functional assays confirmed that it maintained mammary epithelial cells in a differentiated luminal cell lineage. Conclusion The mouse mammary epithelium is composed of three main cell types with distinct gene expression patterns

  15. A case of simultaneous esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and Barrett's adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Tomoo; Iwaya, Yugo; Iwaya, Mai; Watanabe, Takayuki; Seki, Ayako; Ochi, Yasuhide; Hara, Etsuo; Sekiguchi, Tomohiro; Hosaka, Noriko; Arakura, Norikazu; Tanaka, Eiji; Hasebe, Osamu

    2016-08-01

    A 77-year-old male with a long history of alcohol consumption and smoking was admitted for hoarseness and dysphagia. Computed tomography revealed thickening of the middle intrathoracic esophageal wall and multiple mediastinal lymph node swellings. Esophagogastroduodenoscopic examination disclosed an advanced-stage squamous cell carcinoma lesion in the middle intrathoracic esophagus with synchronous early stage Barrett's adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection for the adenocarcinoma followed by chemoradiation therapy for the squamous cell carcinoma. In spite of their common risk factors, the simultaneous manifestation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and Barrett's adenocarcinoma is extremely rare and requires further study. PMID:27220657

  16. Whole-genome sequencing of nine esophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Contino, Gianmarco; Eldridge, Matthew D.; Secrier, Maria; Bower, Lawrence; Fels Elliott, Rachael; Weaver, Jamie; Lynch, Andy G.; Edwards, Paul A.W.; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C.

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is highly mutated and molecularly heterogeneous. The number of cell lines available for study is limited and their genome has been only partially characterized. The availability of an accurate annotation of their mutational landscape is crucial for accurate experimental design and correct interpretation of genotype-phenotype findings. We performed high coverage, paired end whole genome sequencing on eight EAC cell lines—ESO26, ESO51, FLO-1, JH-EsoAd1, OACM5.1 C, OACP4 C, OE33, SK-GT-4—all verified against original patient material, and one esophageal high grade dysplasia cell line, CP-D. We have made available the aligned sequence data and report single nucleotide variants (SNVs), small insertions and deletions (indels), and copy number alterations, identified by comparison with the human reference genome and known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We compare these putative mutations to mutations found in primary tissue EAC samples, to inform the use of these cell lines as a model of EAC.

  17. Whole-genome sequencing of nine esophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Contino, Gianmarco; Eldridge, Matthew D; Secrier, Maria; Bower, Lawrence; Fels Elliott, Rachael; Weaver, Jamie; Lynch, Andy G; Edwards, Paul A W; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is highly mutated and molecularly heterogeneous. The number of cell lines available for study is limited and their genome has been only partially characterized. The availability of an accurate annotation of their mutational landscape is crucial for accurate experimental design and correct interpretation of genotype-phenotype findings. We performed high coverage, paired end whole genome sequencing on eight EAC cell lines-ESO26, ESO51, FLO-1, JH-EsoAd1, OACM5.1 C, OACP4 C, OE33, SK-GT-4-all verified against original patient material, and one esophageal high grade dysplasia cell line, CP-D. We have made available the aligned sequence data and report single nucleotide variants (SNVs), small insertions and deletions (indels), and copy number alterations, identified by comparison with the human reference genome and known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We compare these putative mutations to mutations found in primary tissue EAC samples, to inform the use of these cell lines as a model of EAC. PMID:27594985

  18. Anti-Influenza Neuraminidase Inhibitor Oseltamivir Phosphate Induces Canine Mammary Cancer Cell Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Joana T.; Santos, Ana L.; Gomes, Catarina; Barros, Rita; Ribeiro, Cláudia; Mendes, Nuno; de Matos, Augusto J.; Vasconcelos, M. Helena; Oliveira, Maria José; Reis, Celso A.; Gärtner, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Oseltamivir phosphate is a widely used anti-influenza sialidase inhibitor. Sialylation, governed by sialyltransferases and sialidases, is strongly implicated in the oncogenesis and progression of breast cancer. In this study we evaluated the biological behavior of canine mammary tumor cells upon oseltamivir phosphate treatment (a sialidase inhibitor) in vitro and in vivo. Our in vitro results showed that oseltamivir phosphate impairs sialidase activity leading to increased sialylation in CMA07 and CMT-U27 canine mammary cancer cells. Surprisingly, oseltamivir phosphate stimulated, CMT-U27 cell migration and invasion capacity in vitro, in a dose-dependent manner. CMT-U27 tumors xenograft of oseltamivir phosphate-treated nude mice showed increased sialylation, namely α2,6 terminal structures and SLe(x) expression. Remarkably, a trend towards increased lung metastases was observed in oseltamivir phosphate-treated nude mice. Taken together, our findings revealed that oseltamivir impairs canine mammary cancer cell sialidase activity, altering the sialylation pattern of canine mammary tumors, and leading, surprisingly, to in vitro and in vivo increased mammary tumor aggressiveness. PMID:25850034

  19. Anti-influenza neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir phosphate induces canine mammary cancer cell aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Joana T; Santos, Ana L; Gomes, Catarina; Barros, Rita; Ribeiro, Cláudia; Mendes, Nuno; de Matos, Augusto J; Vasconcelos, M Helena; Oliveira, Maria José; Reis, Celso A; Gärtner, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Oseltamivir phosphate is a widely used anti-influenza sialidase inhibitor. Sialylation, governed by sialyltransferases and sialidases, is strongly implicated in the oncogenesis and progression of breast cancer. In this study we evaluated the biological behavior of canine mammary tumor cells upon oseltamivir phosphate treatment (a sialidase inhibitor) in vitro and in vivo. Our in vitro results showed that oseltamivir phosphate impairs sialidase activity leading to increased sialylation in CMA07 and CMT-U27 canine mammary cancer cells. Surprisingly, oseltamivir phosphate stimulated, CMT-U27 cell migration and invasion capacity in vitro, in a dose-dependent manner. CMT-U27 tumors xenograft of oseltamivir phosphate-treated nude mice showed increased sialylation, namely α2,6 terminal structures and SLe(x) expression. Remarkably, a trend towards increased lung metastases was observed in oseltamivir phosphate-treated nude mice. Taken together, our findings revealed that oseltamivir impairs canine mammary cancer cell sialidase activity, altering the sialylation pattern of canine mammary tumors, and leading, surprisingly, to in vitro and in vivo increased mammary tumor aggressiveness. PMID:25850034

  20. Suppression of ICE and Apoptosis in Mammary Epithelial Cells by Extracellular Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Boudreau, Nancy; Sympson, C. J.; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J.

    1994-12-01

    Apoptosis (programmed cell death) plays a major role in development and tissue regeneration. Basement membrane extracellular matrix (ECM), but not fibronectin or collagen, was shown to suppress apoptosis of mammary epithelial cells in tissue culture and in vivo. Apoptosis was induced by antibodies to beta 1 integrins or by overexpression of stromelysin-1, which degrades ECM. Expression of interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE) correlated with the loss of ECM, and inhibitors of ICE activity prevented apoptosis. These results suggest that ECM regulates apoptosis in mammary epithelial cells through an integrin-dependent negative regulation of ICE expression.

  1. Peripheral serotonin regulates maternal calcium trafficking in mammary epithelial cells during lactation in mice.

    PubMed

    Laporta, Jimena; Keil, Kimberly P; Vezina, Chad M; Hernandez, Laura L

    2014-01-01

    Lactation is characterized by massive transcellular flux of calcium, from the basolateral side of the mammary alveolar epithelium (blood) into the ductal lumen (milk). Regulation of calcium transport during lactation is critical for maternal and neonatal health. The monoamine serotonin (5-HT) is synthesized by the mammary gland and functions as a homeostatic regulation of lactation. Genetic ablation of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1), which encodes the rate-limiting enzyme in non-neuronal serotonin synthesis, causes a deficiency in circulating serotonin. As a consequence maternal calcium concentrations decrease, mammary epithelial cell morphology is altered, and cell proliferation is decreased during lactation. Here we demonstrate that serotonin deficiency decreases the expression and disrupts the normal localization of calcium transporters located in the apical (PMCA2) and basolateral (CaSR, ORAI-1) membranes of the lactating mammary gland. In addition, serotonin deficiency decreases the mRNA expression of calcium transporters located in intracellular compartments (SERCA2, SPCA1 and 2). Mammary expression of serotonin receptor isoform 2b and its downstream pathways (PLCβ3, PKC and MAP-ERK1/2) are also decreased by serotonin deficiency, which might explain the numerous phenotypic alterations described above. In most cases, addition of exogenous 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan to the Tph1 deficient mice rescued the phenotype. Our data supports the hypothesis that serotonin is necessary for proper mammary gland structure and function, to regulate blood and mammary epithelial cell transport of calcium during lactation. These findings can be applicable to the treatment of lactation-induced hypocalcemia in dairy cows and can have profound implications in humans, given the wide-spread use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors as antidepressants during pregnancy and lactation. PMID:25299122

  2. Peripheral Serotonin Regulates Maternal Calcium Trafficking in Mammary Epithelial Cells during Lactation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Laporta, Jimena; Keil, Kimberly P.; Vezina, Chad M.; Hernandez, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    Lactation is characterized by massive transcellular flux of calcium, from the basolateral side of the mammary alveolar epithelium (blood) into the ductal lumen (milk). Regulation of calcium transport during lactation is critical for maternal and neonatal health. The monoamine serotonin (5-HT) is synthesized by the mammary gland and functions as a homeostatic regulation of lactation. Genetic ablation of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1), which encodes the rate-limiting enzyme in non-neuronal serotonin synthesis, causes a deficiency in circulating serotonin. As a consequence maternal calcium concentrations decrease, mammary epithelial cell morphology is altered, and cell proliferation is decreased during lactation. Here we demonstrate that serotonin deficiency decreases the expression and disrupts the normal localization of calcium transporters located in the apical (PMCA2) and basolateral (CaSR, ORAI-1) membranes of the lactating mammary gland. In addition, serotonin deficiency decreases the mRNA expression of calcium transporters located in intracellular compartments (SERCA2, SPCA1 and 2). Mammary expression of serotonin receptor isoform 2b and its downstream pathways (PLCβ3, PKC and MAP-ERK1/2) are also decreased by serotonin deficiency, which might explain the numerous phenotypic alterations described above. In most cases, addition of exogenous 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan to the Tph1 deficient mice rescued the phenotype. Our data supports the hypothesis that serotonin is necessary for proper mammary gland structure and function, to regulate blood and mammary epithelial cell transport of calcium during lactation. These findings can be applicable to the treatment of lactation-induced hypocalcemia in dairy cows and can have profound implications in humans, given the wide-spread use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors as antidepressants during pregnancy and lactation. PMID:25299122

  3. Analysis of mammary specific gene locus regulation in differentiated cells derived by somatic cell fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Claire; Kolb, Andreas F.

    2009-02-01

    The transcriptional regulation of a gene is best analysed in the context of its normal chromatin surroundings. However, most somatic cells, in contrast to embryonic stem cells, are refractory to accurate modification by homologous recombination. We show here that it is possible to introduce precise genomic modifications in ES cells and to analyse the phenotypic consequences in differentiated cells by using a combination of gene targeting, site-specific recombination and somatic cell fusion. To provide a proof of principle, we have analysed the regulation of the casein gene locus in mammary gland cells derived from modified murine ES cells by somatic cell fusion. A {beta}-galactosidase reporter gene was inserted in place of the {beta}-casein gene and the modified ES cells, which do not express the reporter gene, were fused with the mouse mammary gland cell line HC11. The resulting cell clones expressed the {beta}-galactosidase gene to a similar extent and with similar hormone responsiveness as the endogenous gene. However, a reporter gene under the control of a minimal {beta}-casein promoter (encompassing the two consensus STAT5 binding sites which mediate the hormone response of the casein genes) was unable to replicate expression levels or hormone responsiveness of the endogenous gene when inserted into the same site of the casein locus. As expected, these results implicate sequences other than the STAT5 sites in the regulation of the {beta}-casein gene.

  4. The HSP90 Inhibitor Ganetespib Radiosensitizes Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Casal, Roberto; Bhattacharya, Chitralekha; Epperly, Michael W; Basse, Per H; Wang, Hong; Wang, Xinhui; Proia, David A; Greenberger, Joel S; Socinski, Mark A; Levina, Vera

    2015-01-01

    The molecular chaperone HSP90 is involved in stabilization and function of multiple client proteins, many of which represent important oncogenic drivers in NSCLC. Utilization of HSP90 inhibitors as radiosensitizing agents is a promising approach. The antitumor activity of ganetespib, HSP90 inhibitor, was evaluated in human lung adenocarcinoma (AC) cells for its ability to potentiate the effects of IR treatment in both in vitro and in vivo. The cytotoxic effects of ganetespib included; G2/M cell cycle arrest, inhibition of DNA repair, apoptosis induction, and promotion of senescence. All of these antitumor effects were both concentration- and time-dependent. Both pretreatment and post-radiation treatment with ganetespib at low nanomolar concentrations induced radiosensitization in lung AC cells in vitro. Ganetespib may impart radiosensitization through multiple mechanisms: such as down regulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway; diminished DNA repair capacity and promotion of cellular senescence. In vivo, ganetespib reduced growth of T2821 tumor xenografts in mice and sensitized tumors to IR. Tumor irradiation led to dramatic upregulation of β-catenin expression in tumor tissues, an effect that was mitigated in T2821 xenografts when ganetespib was combined with IR treatments. These data highlight the promise of combining ganetespib with IR therapies in the treatment of AC lung tumors. PMID:26010604

  5. The HSP90 Inhibitor Ganetespib Radiosensitizes Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Casal, Roberto; Bhattacharya, Chitralekha; Epperly, Michael W.; Basse, Per H.; Wang, Hong; Wang, Xinhui; Proia, David A.; Greenberger, Joel S.; Socinski, Mark A.; Levina, Vera

    2015-01-01

    The molecular chaperone HSP90 is involved in stabilization and function of multiple client proteins, many of which represent important oncogenic drivers in NSCLC. Utilization of HSP90 inhibitors as radiosensitizing agents is a promising approach. The antitumor activity of ganetespib, HSP90 inhibitor, was evaluated in human lung adenocarcinoma (AC) cells for its ability to potentiate the effects of IR treatment in both in vitro and in vivo. The cytotoxic effects of ganetespib included; G2/M cell cycle arrest, inhibition of DNA repair, apoptosis induction, and promotion of senescence. All of these antitumor effects were both concentration- and time-dependent. Both pretreatment and post-radiation treatment with ganetespib at low nanomolar concentrations induced radiosensitization in lung AC cells in vitro. Ganetespib may impart radiosensitization through multiple mechanisms: such as down regulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway; diminished DNA repair capacity and promotion of cellular senescence. In vivo, ganetespib reduced growth of T2821 tumor xenografts in mice and sensitized tumors to IR. Tumor irradiation led to dramatic upregulation of β-catenin expression in tumor tissues, an effect that was mitigated in T2821 xenografts when ganetespib was combined with IR treatments. These data highlight the promise of combining ganetespib with IR therapies in the treatment of AC lung tumors. PMID:26010604

  6. Homotypic RANK signaling differentially regulates proliferation, motility and cell survival in osteosarcoma and mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Beristain, Alexander G; Narala, Swami R; Di Grappa, Marco A; Khokha, Rama

    2012-02-15

    RANKL (receptor activator of NF-κB ligand) is a crucial cytokine for regulating diverse biological systems such as innate immunity, bone homeostasis and mammary gland differentiation, operating through activation of its cognate receptor RANK. In these normal physiological processes, RANKL signals through paracrine and/or heterotypic mechanisms where its expression and function is tightly controlled. Numerous pathologies involve RANKL deregulation, such as bone loss, inflammatory diseases and cancer, and aberrant RANK expression has been reported in bone cancer. Here, we investigated the significance of RANK in tumor cells with a particular emphasis on homotypic signaling. We selected RANK-positive mouse osteosarcoma and RANK-negative preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and subjected them to loss- and gain-of-RANK function analyses. By examining a spectrum of tumorigenic properties, we demonstrate that RANK homotypic signaling has a negligible effect on cell proliferation, but promotes cell motility and anchorage-independent growth of osteosarcoma cells and preosteoblasts. By contrast, establishment of RANK signaling in non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial NMuMG cells promotes their proliferation and anchorage-independent growth, but not motility. Furthermore, RANK activation initiates multiple signaling pathways beyond its canonical target, NF-κB. Among these, biochemical inhibition reveals that Erk1/2 is dominant and crucial for the promotion of anchorage-independent survival and invasion of osteoblastic cells, as well as the proliferation of mammary epithelial cells. Thus, RANK signaling functionally contributes to key tumorigenic properties through a cell-autonomous homotypic mechanism. These data also identify the likely inherent differences between epithelial and mesenchymal cell responsiveness to RANK activation. PMID:22421365

  7. Streptococcus uberis strains isolated from the bovine mammary gland evade immune recognition by mammary epithelial cells, but not of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Günther, Juliane; Czabanska, Anna; Bauer, Isabel; Leigh, James A; Holst, Otto; Seyfert, Hans-Martin

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus uberis is frequently isolated from the mammary gland of dairy cattle. Infection with some strains can induce mild subclinical inflammation whilst others induce severe inflammation and clinical mastitis. We compared here the inflammatory response of primary cultures of bovine mammary epithelial cells (pbMEC) towards S. uberis strains collected from clinical or subclinical cases (seven strains each) of mastitis with the strong response elicited by Escherichia coli. Neither heat inactivated nor live S. uberis induced the expression of 10 key immune genes (including TNF, IL1B, IL6). The widely used virulent strain 0140J and the avirulent strain, EF20 elicited similar responses; as did mutants defective in capsule (hasA) or biofilm formation (sub0538 and sub0539). Streptococcus uberis failed to activate NF-κB in pbMEC or TLR2 in HEK293 cells, indicating that S. uberis particles did not induce any TLR-signaling in MEC. However, preparations of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from two strains strongly induced immune gene expression and activated NF-κB in pbMEC, without the involvement of TLR2. The immune-stimulatory LTA must be arranged in the intact S. uberis such that it is unrecognizable by the relevant pathogen receptors of the MEC. The absence of immune recognition is specific for MEC, since the same S. uberis preparations strongly induced immune gene expression and NF-κB activity in the murine macrophage model cell RAW264.7. Hence, the sluggish immune response of MEC and not of professional immune cells to this pathogen may aid establishment of the often encountered belated and subclinical phenotype of S. uberis mastitis. PMID:26738804

  8. Epidermal growth factor precursor in mouse lactating mammary gland alveolar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.F.; Teng, C.T.; Pentecost, B.T.; DiAugustine, R.P. )

    1989-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that high levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF) occur in human and rodent milk and that oral administration of this polypeptide stimulates rodent gastrointestinal development. It is not known whether EGF in milk originates from cells of the lactating mammary gland or is sequestered from an extramammary source. In the present study, prepro-EGF mRNA (approximately 4.7 kilobases) was detected in the CD-1 mouse mammary gland throughout the period of lactation; by comparison, negligible levels of this EGF transcript were found in the gland during pregnancy. Low levels of EGF immunoreactivity (4-5 ng/g wet wt tissue) were extracted from lactating (day 18) mammary glands with dilute acetic acid. Immunolocalization was evident with antisera to either EGF or two other regions of the EGF precursor in essentially all alveolar cells of the lactating gland. The most prominent staining with antiserum to EGF was observed along the luminal borders of cells; this pattern of cellular staining required proteolytic pretreatment of tissue sections. Western blot analyses of cell membranes isolated from the day 16 lactating mammary gland revealed an EGF-immunoreactive band at about 145K, which was equivalent in size to the EGF precursor found in mouse kidney cell membranes. Despite these findings, labeling of lactating mammary gland mince with L-(35S)methionine and cysteine for up to 4 h did not reveal any specific bands in immunoprecipitates. These cumulative findings suggest that the precursor form of EGF occurs in alveolar cells of lactating mammary gland and that this protein is translocated to the cell membrane.

  9. Human Mammary Luminal Epithelial Cells Contain Progenitors to Myoepithelial Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pechoux, Christine; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Bissell, Mina J; Petersen, Ole

    1999-02-01

    The origin of the epithelial and myoepithelial cells in the human breast has not been delineated. In this study we have addressed whether luminal epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells are vertically connected, i.e., whether one is the precursor for the other. We used a primary culture assay allowing preservation of basic phenotypic traits of luminal epithelial and myoepithelial cells in culture. The two cell types were then separated immunomagnetically using antibodies directed against lineage-specific cell surface antigens into at best 100% purity. The cellular identity was ascertained by cytochemistry, immunoblotting, and 2-D gel electrophoresis. Luminal epithelial cells were identified by strong expression of cytokeratins 18 and 19 while myoepithelial cells were recognized by expression of vimentin and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin. We used a previously devised culture medium (CDM4) that allows vigorous expansion of proliferative myoepithelial cells and also devised a medium (CDM6) that allowed sufficient expansion of differentiated luminal epithelial cells based on addition of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor. The two different culture media supported each lineage for at least five passages without signs of interconversion. We used parallel cultures where we switched culture media, thus testing the ability of each lineage to convert to the other. Whereas the myoepithelial lineage showed no signs of interconversion, a subset of luminal epithelial cells, gradually, but distinctly, converted to myoepithelial cells. We propose that in the mature human breast, it is the luminal epithelial cell compartment that gives rise to myoepithelial cells rather than the other way around.

  10. Suppression of mammary epithelial cell differentiation by the helix-loop-helix protein Id-1

    SciTech Connect

    Desprez, P.; Hara, E.; Bissell, M.J.

    1995-06-01

    Cell proliferation and differentiation are precisely coordinated during the development and maturation of the mammary gland, and this balance invariably is disrupted during carcinogenesis. Little is known about the cell-specific transcription factors that regulate these processes in the mammary gland. The mouse mammary epithelial cell line SCp2 grows well under standard culture conditions but arrests growth, forms alveolus-like structures, and expresses {beta}-casein, a differentiation marker, 4 to 5 days after exposure to basement membrane and lactogenic hormones (differentiation signals). The authors show that this differentiation entails a marked decline in the expression of Id-1, a helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein that inactivates basic HLH transcription factors in other cell types. SCp2 cells stably transfected with an Id-1 expression vector grew more rapidly than control cells under standard conditions, but in response to differentiation signals, they lost three-dimensional organization, invaded the basement membrane, and then resumed growth. SCp2 cells expressing an Id-1 antisense vector grew more slowly than controls; in response to differentiation signals, they remained stably growth arrested and fully differentiated, as did control cells. The authors suggest that Id-1 renders cells refractory to differentiation signals and receptive to growth signals by inactivating one or more basic HLH proteins that coordinate growth and differentiation in the mammary epithelium. 53 refs., 6 figs.

  11. HGFL supports mammary tumorigenesis by enhancing tumor cell intrinsic survival and influencing macrophage and T-cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Benight, Nancy M.; Wagh, Purnima K.; Zinser, Glendon M.; Peace, Belinda E.; Stuart, William D.; Vasiliauskas, Juozas; Pathrose, Peterson; Starnes, Sandra L.; Waltz, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    The Ron receptor is overexpressed in human breast cancers and is associated with heightened metastasis and poor survival. Ron overexpression in the mammary epithelium of mice is sufficient to induce aggressive mammary tumors with a high degree of metastasis. Despite the well-documented role of Ron in breast cancer, few studies have examined the necessity of the endogenous Ron ligand, hepatocyte growth factor-like protein (HGFL) in mammary tumorigenesis. Herein, mammary tumor growth and metastasis were examined in mice overexpressing Ron in the mammary epithelium with or without HGFL. HGFL ablation decreased oncogenic Ron activation and delayed mammary tumor initiation. HGFL was important for tumor cell proliferation and survival. HGFL loss resulted in increased numbers of macrophages and T-cells within the tumor. T-cell proliferation and cytotoxicity dramatically increased in HGFL deficient mice. Biochemical analysis of HGFL proficient tumors showed increased local HGFL production, with HGFL loss decreasing β-catenin expression and NF-κB activation. Re-expression of HGFL in HGFL deficient tumor cells stimulated cell migration and invasion with coordinate activation of NF-κB and reduced apoptosis. Together, these results demonstrate critical in vivo functions for HGFL in promoting breast tumorigenesis and suggest that targeting HGFL may inhibit tumor growth and reactivate anti-tumor immune responses. PMID:25938541

  12. Estrogen receptor coregulators and pioneer factors: the orchestrators of mammary gland cell fate and development

    PubMed Central

    Manavathi, Bramanandam; Samanthapudi, Venkata S. K.; Gajulapalli, Vijay Narasimha Reddy

    2014-01-01

    The steroid hormone, 17β-estradiol (E2), plays critical role in various cellular processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis, and is essential for reproduction and mammary gland development. E2 actions are mediated by two classical nuclear hormone receptors, estrogen receptor α and β (ERs). The activity of ERs depends on the coordinated activity of ligand binding, post-translational modifications (PTMs), and importantly the interaction with their partner proteins called “coregulators.” Because coregulators are proved to be crucial for ER transcriptional activity, and majority of breast cancers are ERα positive, an increased interest in the field has led to the identification of a large number of coregulators. In the last decade, gene knockout studies using mouse models provided impetus to our further understanding of the role of these coregulators in mammary gland development. Several coregulators appear to be critical for terminal end bud (TEB) formation, ductal branching and alveologenesis during mammary gland development. The emerging studies support that, coregulators along with the other ER partner proteins called “pioneer factors” together contribute significantly to E2 signaling and mammary cell fate. This review discusses emerging themes in coregulator and pioneer factor mediated action on ER functions, in particular their role in mammary gland cell fate and development. PMID:25364741

  13. Mammary epithelial cell phagocytosis downstream of TGF-β3 is characterized by adherens junction reorganization.

    PubMed

    Fornetti, J; Flanders, K C; Henson, P M; Tan, A-C; Borges, V F; Schedin, P

    2016-02-01

    After weaning, during mammary gland involution, milk-producing mammary epithelial cells undergo apoptosis. Effective clearance of these dying cells is essential, as persistent apoptotic cells have a negative impact on gland homeostasis, future lactation and cancer susceptibility. In mice, apoptotic cells are cleared by the neighboring epithelium, yet little is known about how mammary epithelial cells become phagocytic or whether this function is conserved between species. Here we use a rat model of weaning-induced involution and involuting breast tissue from women, to demonstrate apoptotic cells within luminal epithelial cells and epithelial expression of the scavenger mannose receptor, suggesting conservation of phagocytosis by epithelial cells. In the rat, epithelial transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling is increased during involution, a pathway known to promote phagocytic capability. To test whether TGF-β enhances the phagocytic ability of mammary epithelial cells, non-transformed murine mammary epithelial EpH4 cells were cultured to achieve tight junction impermeability, such as occurs during lactation. TGF-β3 treatment promoted loss of tight junction impermeability, reorganization and cleavage of the adherens junction protein E-cadherin (E-cad), and phagocytosis. Phagocytosis correlated with junction disruption, suggesting junction reorganization is necessary for phagocytosis by epithelial cells. Supporting this hypothesis, epithelial cell E-cad reorganization and cleavage were observed in rat and human involuting mammary glands. Further, in the rat, E-cad cleavage correlated with increased γ-secretase activity and β-catenin nuclear localization. In vitro, pharmacologic inhibitors of γ-secretase or β-catenin reduced the effect of TGF-β3 on phagocytosis to near baseline levels. However, β-catenin signaling through LiCl treatment did not enhance phagocytic capacity, suggesting a model in which both reorganization of cell junctions and

  14. Mammary epithelial cell phagocytosis downstream of TGF-β3 is characterized by adherens junction reorganization

    PubMed Central

    Fornetti, J; Flanders, K C; Henson, P M; Tan, A-C; Borges, V F; Schedin, P

    2016-01-01

    After weaning, during mammary gland involution, milk-producing mammary epithelial cells undergo apoptosis. Effective clearance of these dying cells is essential, as persistent apoptotic cells have a negative impact on gland homeostasis, future lactation and cancer susceptibility. In mice, apoptotic cells are cleared by the neighboring epithelium, yet little is known about how mammary epithelial cells become phagocytic or whether this function is conserved between species. Here we use a rat model of weaning-induced involution and involuting breast tissue from women, to demonstrate apoptotic cells within luminal epithelial cells and epithelial expression of the scavenger mannose receptor, suggesting conservation of phagocytosis by epithelial cells. In the rat, epithelial transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling is increased during involution, a pathway known to promote phagocytic capability. To test whether TGF-β enhances the phagocytic ability of mammary epithelial cells, non-transformed murine mammary epithelial EpH4 cells were cultured to achieve tight junction impermeability, such as occurs during lactation. TGF-β3 treatment promoted loss of tight junction impermeability, reorganization and cleavage of the adherens junction protein E-cadherin (E-cad), and phagocytosis. Phagocytosis correlated with junction disruption, suggesting junction reorganization is necessary for phagocytosis by epithelial cells. Supporting this hypothesis, epithelial cell E-cad reorganization and cleavage were observed in rat and human involuting mammary glands. Further, in the rat, E-cad cleavage correlated with increased γ-secretase activity and β-catenin nuclear localization. In vitro, pharmacologic inhibitors of γ-secretase or β-catenin reduced the effect of TGF-β3 on phagocytosis to near baseline levels. However, β-catenin signaling through LiCl treatment did not enhance phagocytic capacity, suggesting a model in which both reorganization of cell junctions and

  15. Neuregulin3 alters cell fate in the epidermis and mammary gland

    PubMed Central

    Panchal, Heena; Wansbury, Olivia; Parry, Suzanne; Ashworth, Alan; Howard, Beatrice

    2007-01-01

    Background The Neuregulin family of ligands and their receptors, the Erbb tyrosine kinases, have important roles in epidermal and mammary gland development as well as during carcinogenesis. Previously, we demonstrated that Neuregulin3 (Nrg3) is a specification signal for mammary placode formation in mice. Nrg3 is a growth factor, which binds and activates Erbb4, a receptor tyrosine kinase that regulates cell proliferation and differentiation. To understand the role of Neuregulin3 in epidermal morphogenesis, we have developed a transgenic mouse model that expresses Nrg3 throughout the basal layer (progenitor/stem cell compartment) of mouse epidermis and the outer root sheath of developing hair follicles. Results Transgenic females formed supernumerary nipples and mammary glands along and adjacent to the mammary line providing strong evidence that Nrg3 has a role in the initiation of mammary placodes along the body axis. In addition, alterations in morphogenesis and differentiation of other epidermal appendages were observed, including the hair follicles. The transgenic epidermis is hyperplastic with excessive sebaceous differentiation and shows striking similarities to mouse models in which c-Myc is activated in the basal layer including decreased expression levels of the adhesion receptors, α6-integrin and β1-integrin. Conclusion These results indicate that the epidermis is sensitive to Nrg3 signaling, and that this growth factor can regulate cell fate of pluripotent epidermal cell populations including that of the mammary gland. Nrg3 appears to act, in part, by inducing c-Myc, altering the proliferation and adhesion properties of the basal epidermis, and may promote exit from the stem cell compartment. The results we describe provide significant insight into how growth factors, such as Nrg3, regulate epidermal homeostasis by influencing the balance between stem cell renewal, lineage selection and differentiation. PMID:17880691

  16. News and views on EMT Fra-1 controls EMT in mammary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Bakiri, Latifa; Wagner, Erwin F.

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process critical for breast cancer cell dissemination, engages the Fos-related antigen 1 (Fra-1) transcription factor. Molecular and cellular analyses revealed an evolutionary conservation of Fra-1 functions in EMT of mouse and human mammary cells, establishing a solid basis for preclinical studies in genetically engineered mouse models.

  17. Sequestration of human cytomegalovirus by human renal and mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Twite, Nicolas; Andrei, Graciela; Kummert, Caroline; Donner, Catherine; Perez-Morga, David; De Vos, Rita; Snoeck, Robert; Marchant, Arnaud

    2014-07-15

    Urine and breast milk represent the main routes of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) transmission but the contribution of renal and mammary epithelial cells to viral excretion remains unclear. We observed that kidney and mammary epithelial cells were permissive to HCMV infection and expressed immediate early, early and late antigens within 72 h of infection. During the first 24 h after infection, high titers of infectious virus were measured associated to the cells and in culture supernatants, independently of de novo synthesis of virus progeny. This phenomenon was not observed in HCMV-infected fibroblasts and suggested the sequestration and the release of HCMV by epithelial cells. This hypothesis was supported by confocal and electron microscopy analyses. The sequestration and progressive release of HCMV by kidney and mammary epithelial cells may play an important role in the excretion of the virus in urine and breast milk and may thereby contribute to HCMV transmission. - Highlights: • Primary renal and mammary epithelial cells are permissive to HCMV infection. • HCMV is sequestered by epithelial cells and this phenomenon does not require viral replication. • HCMV sequestration by epithelial cells is reduced by antibodies and IFN-γ.

  18. Identification of Putative Bovine Mammary Epithelial Stem Cells by Their Retention of Labeled DNA Strands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stem cells characteristically retain labeled DNA for extended periods due to their selective segregation of template DNA strands during mitosis. In this study, proliferating cells in the prepubertal bovine mammary gland were labeled using five daily-injections of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Fiv...

  19. Cell-surface markers for colon adenoma and adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sewda, Kamini; Coppola, Domenico; Enkemann, Steven; Yue, Binglin; Kim, Jongphil; Lopez, Alexis S.; Wojtkowiak, Jonathan W.; Stark, Valerie E.; Morse, Brian; Shibata, David; Vignesh, Shivakumar; Morse, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) is crucial for effective treatment. Among CRC screening techniques, optical colonoscopy is widely considered the gold standard. However, it is a costly and invasive procedure with a low rate of compliance. Our long-term goal is to develop molecular imaging agents for the non-invasive detection of CRC by molecular imaging-based colonoscopy using CT, MRI or fluorescence. To achieve this, cell surface targets must be identified and validated. Here, we report the discovery of cell-surface markers that distinguish CRC from surrounding tissues that could be used as molecular imaging targets. Profiling of mRNA expression microarray data from patient tissues including adenoma, adenocarcinoma, and normal gastrointestinal tissues was used to identify potential CRC specific cell-surface markers. Of the identified markers, six were selected for further validation (CLDN1, GPR56, GRM8, LY6G6D/F, SLCO1B3 and TLR4). Protein expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry of patient tissues. Except for SLCO1B3, diffuse and low expression was observed for each marker in normal colon tissues. The three markers with the greatest protein overexpression were CLDN1, LY6G6D/F and TLR4, where at least one of these markers was overexpressed in 97% of the CRC samples. GPR56, LY6G6D/F and SLCO1B3 protein expression was significantly correlated with the proximal tumor location and with expression of mismatch repair genes. Marker expression was further validated in CRC cell lines. Hence, three cell-surface markers were discovered that distinguish CRC from surrounding normal tissues. These markers can be used to develop imaging or therapeutic agents targeted to the luminal surface of CRC. PMID:26894861

  20. Hypoxia induced CCL28 promotes angiogenesis in lung adenocarcinoma by targeting CCR3 on endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guichun; Tao, Leilei; Shen, Sunan; Chen, Longbang

    2016-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia is one of the important features of lung adenocarcinoma. Chemokines might mediate the effects caused by tumor hypoxia. As confirmed in tumor tissue and serum of patients, CC chemokine 28 (CCL28) was the only hypoxia induced chemokine in lung adenocarcinoma cells. CCL28 could promote tube formation, migration and proliferation of endothelial cells. In addition, angiogenesis was promoted by CCL28 in the chick chorioallantoic membrane and matrigel implanted in dorsal back of athymic nude mice (CByJ.Cg-Foxn1(nu)/J). Tumors formed by lung adenocarcinoma cells with high expression of CCL28 grew faster and had a higher vascular density, whereas tumor formation rate of lung adenocarcinoma cells with CCL28 expression knockdown was quite low and had a lower vascular density. CCR3, receptor of CCL28, was highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells in lung adenocarcinoma when examining by immunohistochemistry. Further signaling pathways in endothelial cells, modulated by CCL28, were analyzed by Phosphorylation Antibody Array. CCL28/CCR3 signaling pathway could bypass that of VEGF/VEGFR on the levels of PI3K-Akt, p38 MAPK and PLC gamma. The effects could be neutralized by antibody against CCR3. In conclusion, CCL28, as a chemokine induced by tumor hypoxia, could promote angiogenesis in lung adenocarcinoma through targeting CCR3 on microvascular endothelial cells. PMID:27250766

  1. Hypoxia induced CCL28 promotes angiogenesis in lung adenocarcinoma by targeting CCR3 on endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guichun; Tao, Leilei; Shen, Sunan; Chen, Longbang

    2016-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia is one of the important features of lung adenocarcinoma. Chemokines might mediate the effects caused by tumor hypoxia. As confirmed in tumor tissue and serum of patients, CC chemokine 28 (CCL28) was the only hypoxia induced chemokine in lung adenocarcinoma cells. CCL28 could promote tube formation, migration and proliferation of endothelial cells. In addition, angiogenesis was promoted by CCL28 in the chick chorioallantoic membrane and matrigel implanted in dorsal back of athymic nude mice (CByJ.Cg-Foxn1nu/J). Tumors formed by lung adenocarcinoma cells with high expression of CCL28 grew faster and had a higher vascular density, whereas tumor formation rate of lung adenocarcinoma cells with CCL28 expression knockdown was quite low and had a lower vascular density. CCR3, receptor of CCL28, was highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells in lung adenocarcinoma when examining by immunohistochemistry. Further signaling pathways in endothelial cells, modulated by CCL28, were analyzed by Phosphorylation Antibody Array. CCL28/CCR3 signaling pathway could bypass that of VEGF/VEGFR on the levels of PI3K-Akt, p38 MAPK and PLC gamma. The effects could be neutralized by antibody against CCR3. In conclusion, CCL28, as a chemokine induced by tumor hypoxia, could promote angiogenesis in lung adenocarcinoma through targeting CCR3 on microvascular endothelial cells. PMID:27250766

  2. Mammary fibroblasts regulate morphogenesis of normal and tumorigenic breast epithelial cells by mechanical and paracrine signals

    PubMed Central

    Lühr, Inke; Friedl, Andreas; Overath, Thorsten; Tholey, Andreas; Kunze, Thomas; Hilpert, Felix; Sebens, Susanne; Arnold, Norbert; Rösel, Frank; Oberg, Hans-Heinrich; Maass, Nicolai; Mundhenke, Christoph; Jonat, Walter; Bauer, Maret

    2013-01-01

    Stromal factors play a critical role in the development of the mammary gland. Using a three dimensional-coculture model we demonstrate a significant role for stromal fibroblasts in the regulation of normal mammary epithelial morphogenesis and the control of tumor growth. Both soluble factors secreted by fibroblasts and fibroblast-derived modifications of the matrix compliance contribute to the regulation of epithelial cell morphogenesis. Readjustment of matrix tension by fibroblasts can even induce a phenotypic reversion of breast carcinoma cells. These data offer a basis to develop new strategies for the normalization of the tumor stroma as an innovative target in cancer therapy. PMID:22776560

  3. Stem and progenitor cell division kinetics during postnatal mouse mammary gland development.

    PubMed

    Giraddi, Rajshekhar R; Shehata, Mona; Gallardo, Mercedes; Blasco, Maria A; Simons, Benjamin D; Stingl, John

    2015-01-01

    The cycling properties of mammary stem and progenitor cells is not well understood. To determine the division properties of these cells, we administered synthetic nucleosides for varying periods of time to mice at different stages of postnatal development and monitored the rate of uptake of these nucleosides in the different mammary cell compartments. Here we show that most cell division in the adult virgin gland is restricted to the oestrogen receptor-expressing luminal cell lineage. Our data also demonstrate that the oestrogen receptor-expressing, milk and basal cell subpopulations have telomere lengths and cell division kinetics that are not compatible with these cells being hierarchically organized; instead, our data indicate that in the adult homeostatic gland, each cell type is largely maintained by its own restricted progenitors. We also observe that transplantable stem cells are largely quiescent during oestrus, but are cycling during dioestrus when progesterone levels are high. PMID:26511661

  4. Curcuminoid-phospholipid complex induces apoptosis in mammary epithelial cells by STAT-3 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Cucuzza, Laura Starvaggi; Motta, Massimiliano; Miretti, Silvia; Accornero, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Curcumin (from the rhizome of Curcuma longa) is well documented for its medicinal properties in Indian and Chinese systems of medicine where it is widely used for the treatment of several diseases. Epidemiological observations are suggestive that curcumin consumption may reduce the risk of some form of cancers and provide other protective biological effects in humans. These biological properties have been attributed to curcuminoids that have been widely studied for their anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, antioxidant, wound healing and anti-cancer effects. In this study we have investigated on the effect of a curcumin phospholipid complex on mammary epithelial cell viability. HC11 and BME-UV cell lines, validated models to study biology of normal, not tumoral, mammary epithelial cells, were used to analyse these effects. We report that curcumin acts on STAT-3 signal pathway to reduce cell viability and increase apoptosis evaluated by the the amount of activated caspase 3. Further it reduces MAPK and AKT activations. JSI-124, a STAT-3 inhibitor (100 nM) was able to block the negative effect of curcumin on cell viability and caspase 3 activation. Finally the negative effect of cucumin on cell viability has been impaired in STAT-3i HC11, where STAT-3 protein was greatly reduced by shRNA-interference. These results indicate that curcumin presents a potential adverse effect to normal mammary epithelial cells and that it has a specific effect on signal trasduction in mammary epithelium. PMID:19116450

  5. TGM2 A Cell Surface Marker in Esophageal Adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Leicht, Deborah T.; Kausar, Tasneem; Wang, Zhuwen; Ferrer-Torres, Daysha; Wang, Thomas D.; Thomas, Dafydd G.; Lin, Jules; Chang, Andrew C.; Lin, Lin; Beer, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Esophageal adenocarcinomas (EAC) are aggressive cancers that are increasing in incidence and associated with a poor prognosis. The identification of highly expressed genes in EAC relative to metaplastic Barrett’s esophagus (BE) may provide new targets for novel early cancer detection strategies using endoscopically administered, fluorescently labeled peptides. Methods Gene expression analysis of BE and EACs were used to identify the cell surface marker transglutaminase 2 (TGM2) as overexpressed in cancer. The expression of two major isoforms of TGM2 was determined by qRT-polymerase chain reaction in an independent cohort of 128 EACs. Protein expression was confirmed by tissue microarrays and immunoblot analysis of EAC cell lines. TGM2 DNA copy number was assessed using single nucleotide polymorphism microarrays and confirmed by qPCR. TGM2 expression in neoadjuvantly treated EACs and following small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown in cisplatin-treated EAC cells was used to determine its possible role in chemoresistance. Results TGM2 is overexpressed in 15 EACs relative to 26 BE samples. Overexpression of both TGM2 isoforms was confirmed in 128 EACs and associated with higher tumor stage, poor differentiation, and increased inflammatory and desmoplastic response. Tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry confirmed elevated TGM2 protein expression in EAC. Single nucleotide polymorphism and qPCR analysis revealed increased TGM2 gene copy number as one mechanism underlying elevated TGM2 expression. TGM2 was highly expressed in resistant EAC after patient treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy/radiation suggesting a role for TGM2 in chemoresistance. Conclusion TGM2 may be a useful cell surface biomarker for early detection of EAC. PMID:24828664

  6. Gastric signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma presenting with left arm deep-vein thrombosis and bilateral chylothorax.

    PubMed

    Kayacan, Oya; Karnak, Demet; Ayşe Can, Berna; Dizbay Sak, Serpil; Beder, Sumru

    2008-10-01

    A 28-year-old housewife, a life-long nonsmoker, presented with 3 weeks of pleuritic chest pain along with swollen right leg, left arm, and left breast. Six months previously she had left subclavian vein thrombosis. On admission, bilateral supraclavicular lymphedema on right leg and left arm and breast was observed and bilateral pleural fluid, chylous exudates, was detected. Abdomen computed tomography revealed abundant ascites and right ovarian enlargement. Whole body bone scintigraphy showed bone metastases on left humerus, right femur, and pelvis. Bronchial biopsy, obtained from edematous, hyperemic-irregular mucosa, revealed a carcinoma composed of signet-ring cells with intracytoplasmic mucin. Breast biopsy also showed signet-ring cells within the lymphatics. Pleural fluid cytology showed similar malignant cells. The patient was diagnosed as gastric signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma with endobronchial, mammary, ovarian, pleural, pericardial, peritoneal, and osteal metastases. The authors recommend that deep-vein thrombosis in unusual sites deserves further evaluation for an occult malignancy. PMID:18263634

  7. The niacin/butyrate receptor GPR109A suppresses mammary tumorigenesis by inhibiting cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Elangovan, Selvakumar; Pathania, Rajneesh; Ramachandran, Sabarish; Ananth, Sudha; Padia, Ravi N.; Lan, Ling; Singh, Nagendra; Martin, Pamela M.; Hawthorn, Lesleyann; Prasad, Puttur D.; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Thangaraju, Muthusamy

    2014-01-01

    GPR109A, a G-protein-coupled receptor, is activated by niacin and butyrate. Upon activation in colonocytes, GPR109A potentiates anti-inflammatory pathways, induces apoptosis, and protects against inflammation-induced colon cancer. In contrast, GPR109A activation in keratinocytes induces flushing by activation of Cox-2-dependent inflammatory signaling and, the receptor expression is upregulated in human epidermoid carcinoma. Thus, depending on the cellular context and tissue, GPR109A functions either as a tumor suppressor or a tumor promoter. However, the expression status and the functional implications of this receptor in the mammary epithelium are not known. Here we show that GPR109A is expressed in normal mammary tissue and, irrespective of the hormone receptor status, its expression is silenced in human primary breast tumor tissues, breast cancer cell lines, and in tumor tissues of three different murine mammary tumor models. Functional expression of this receptor in human breast cancer cell lines decreases cAMP production, induces apoptosis, and blocks colony formation and mammary tumor growth. Transcriptome analysis revealed that GPR109A activation inhibits genes, which are involved in cell survival and anti-apoptotic signaling, in human breast cancer cells. In addition, deletion of Gpr109a in mice increased tumor incidence and triggered early onset of mammary tumorigenesis with increased lung metastasis in MMTV-Neu mouse model of spontaneous breast cancer. These findings suggest that GPR109A is a tumor suppressor in mammary gland and that pharmacological induction of this gene in tumor tissues followed by its activation with agonists could be an effective therapeutic strategy to treat breast cancer. PMID:24371223

  8. Synchronous ipsilateral carcinoma of the accessory mammary gland and primary lymphoma of the breast with subsequent rectal carcinoma: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Akihiro; Kasai, Hide; Koyama, Yoshinori; Koide, Naohiko; Iijima, Akihiro; Shimojo, Hisashi; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi

    2014-01-01

    A case of synchronous carcinoma of the accessory mammary gland and primary breast lymphoma with subsequent rectal carcinoma has not been reported previously. We present a very rare case of primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the left breast diagnosed simultaneously with invasive lobular carcinoma of the left axillary accessory mammary gland and rectal adenocarcinoma. An 82-year-old Japanese woman presented with two palpable masses on the left chest wall. She was given a diagnosis of suspected breast malignant tumor and axillary accessory mammary gland. She underwent excision of the axillary accessory mammary gland and left mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection. Histopathological examination revealed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the breast and invasive lobular carcinoma of the axillary accessory mammary gland with lymph nodes metastasis. Three months after the surgery, primary rectal adenocarcinoma was also detected by F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Hartmann's operation was performed, since which time the patient has been doing well. PMID:25217973

  9. Circulating Tumor Cells in the Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Gallerani, Giulia; Fabbri, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are elements of indisputable significance as they seem to be responsible for the onset of metastasis. Despite this, research into CTCs and their clinical application have been hindered by their rarity and heterogeneity at the molecular and cellular level, and also by a lack of technical standardization. Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is a highly aggressive cancer that is often diagnosed at an advanced stage. Its incidence has increased so much in recent years that new diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers are urgently needed. Preliminary findings suggest that CTCs could represent an effective, non-invasive, real-time assessable biomarker in all stages of EAC. This review provides an overview of EAC and CTC characteristics and reports the main research results obtained on CTCs in this setting. The need to carry out further basic and translational research in this area to confirm the clinical usefulness of CTCs and to provide oncologists with a tool to improve therapeutic strategies for EAC patients was herein highlighted. PMID:27527155

  10. Columnar cell lesions of the canine mammary gland: pathological features and immunophenotypic analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that columnar cell lesions indicate an alteration of the human mammary gland involved in the development of breast cancer. They have not previously been described in canine mammary gland. The aim of this paper is describe the morphologic spectrum of columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland specimens and their association with other breast lesions. Methods A total of 126 lesions were subjected to a comprehensive morphological review based upon the human breast classification system for columnar cell lesions. The presence of preinvasive (epithelial hyperplasia and in situ carcinoma) and invasive lesions was determined and immunophenotypic analysis (estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), high molecular weight cytokeratin (34βE-12), E-cadherin, Ki-67, HER-2 and P53) was perfomed. Results Columnar cell lesions were identified in 67 (53.1%) of the 126 canine mammary glands with intraepithelial alterations. They were observed in the terminal duct lobular units and characterized at dilated acini may be lined by several layers of columnar epithelial cells with elongated nuclei. Of the columnar cell lesions identified, 41 (61.2%) were without and 26 (38.8%) with atypia. Association with ductal hyperplasia was observed in 45/67 (67.1%). Sixty (89.5%) of the columnar cell lesions coexisted with neoplastic lesions (20 in situ carcinomas, 19 invasive carcinomas and 21 benign tumors). The columnar cells were ER, PgR and E-cadherin positive but negative for cytokeratin 34βE-12, HER-2 and P53. The proliferation rate as measured by Ki-67 appeared higher in the lesions analyzed than in normal TDLUs. Conclusions Columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland are pathologically and immunophenotypically similar to those in human breast. This may suggest that dogs are a suitable model for the comparative study of noninvasive breast lesions. PMID:20178635

  11. Bovine mammary dendritic cells: a heterogeneous population, distinct from macrophages and similar in phenotype to afferent lymph veiled cells.

    PubMed

    Maxymiv, Nicolas G; Bharathan, Mini; Mullarky, Isis K

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are a heterogeneous population of professional antigen presenting cells and are potent stimulators of naïve T-cells. However, there is little previous research describing DC in bovine mammary tissue, primarily because of the difficulty distinguishing these cells from macrophages, which possess a similar phenotype. Using immunohistofluorescence and a combination of markers (MHC-II, CD205, CD11c), DC were localized in the bovine mammary gland and supramammary lymph node. In mammary tissue DC were found within the alveolar epithelium and within the intralobular connective tissue. In the lymph node DC were found on the periphery of B-cell areas, in the cortex, and among T-cells in the paracortex and medulla. DC in mammary parenchyma and supramammary lymph nodes were quantified and further characterized using flow cytometry. DC were CD11c(hi), CD14(lo) cells that expressed MHC-II and CD205. DC could be distinguished from macrophages based on their low CD14 expression. This research provides a better understanding of mammary gland immunology, while potentially aiding in the targeting of antigens to mucosal DC for vaccine development. PMID:22019401

  12. Genistein-mediated inhibition of mammary stromal adipocyte differentiation limits expansion of mammary stem/progenitor cells by paracrine signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mammary adiposity may contribute to breast cancer development and progression by releasing cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that promote mammary epithelial proliferation. We evaluated the effects of soy isoflavone genistein (GEN) on the adipogenic differentiation of a SV40-immortalized mou...

  13. Biosynthesis of medium-chain fatty acids by mammary epithelial cells from virgin rats.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, S; Pasco, D; Nandi, S

    1983-01-01

    Epithelial cells were isolated from the undifferentiated mammary glands of mature virgin female rats, and their lipogenic characteristics were studied. These cells synthesized predominantly medium-chain fatty acids, albeit at a low rate. In contrast, whole tissue from mammary glands of virgin rats synthesized predominantly long-chain fatty acids at a relatively higher rate, indicating that the lipogenic activity is dominated by the adipocyte component of the gland. Enzyme assays revealed that thioesterase II, the enzyme which regulates production of medium-chain fatty acids by the fatty acid synthetase, was present at a high activity in the undifferentiated mammary epithelial cells of virgin rats. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed this observation and showed that the regulatory enzyme was present exclusively in the epithelial cells lining the alveolar and ductal elements of the undifferentiated gland. This study demonstrates that the potential to elaborate tissue-specific medium-chain fatty acids is already expressed in the undifferentiated tissue of virgin rats and is not acquired as a result of the differentiation associated with the lactogenic phase of development. In this species mammary epithelial cells apparently synthesize predominantly medium-chain fatty acids at all stages of development, and only the overall rate of synthesis is increased on induction of the fatty acid synthetase during lactogenesis. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:6409098

  14. Aquaporin 5 Expression in Mouse Mammary Gland Cells Is Not Driven by Promoter Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Römer, Winfried; Sonnleitner, Alois

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have revealed that aquaporins play a role in tumor progression and invasion. In breast carcinomas, high levels of aquaporin 5 (AQP5), a membrane protein involved in water transport, have been linked to increased cell proliferation and migration, thus facilitating tumor progression. Despite the potential role of AQP5 in mammary oncogenesis, the mechanisms controlling mammary AQP5 expression are poorly understood. In other tissues, AQP5 expression has been correlated with its promoter methylation, yet, very little is known about AQP5 promoter methylation in the mammary gland. In this work, we used the mouse mammary gland cell line EpH4, in which we controlled AQP5 expression via the steroid hormone dexamethasone (Dex) to further investigate mechanisms regulating AQP5 expression. In this system, we observed a rapid drop of AQP5 mRNA levels with a delay of several hours in AQP5 protein, suggesting transcriptional control of AQP5 levels. Yet, AQP5 expression was independent of its promoter methylation, or to the presence of negative glucocorticoid receptor elements (nGREs) in its imminent promoter region, but was rather influenced by the cell proliferative state or cell density. We conclude that AQP5 promoter methylation is not a universal mechanism for AQP5 regulation and varies on cell and tissue type. PMID:25767807

  15. EVALUATION OF MILK SOMATIC CELLS AS A SOURCE OF MRNA FOR STUDY OF MAMMARY GLAND LIPOGENSIS IN LACTATING BEEF COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to compare mRNA levels for acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) extracted from mammary gland and from somatic cell pellets of the milk from each mammary gland. Eighteen primiparous beef cows (BW = 411 ± ...

  16. Regulated expression of mouse mammary tumor proviral genes in cells of the B lineage

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated the expression of mouse mammary tumor proviral (MMTV) transcripts during B cell ontogeny and compared levels of RNA in B lymphocytes and B cell lines with levels in other cells of the hematopoietic lineage and in a mammary cell line. We demonstrate that MMTV transcripts are expressed as early as the pro-B cell stage in ontogeny and are expressed at basal constitutive levels throughout most of the B cell developmental pathway. The level of MMTV expression in B cells is similar to constitutive levels in mammary tissues and two to three orders of magnitude greater than in activated T cells. Levels of MMTV transcripts in B cells are not solely due to positional effects. Transient transfection assays showed that MMTV upregulation resulted from transcriptional activation of the viral LTR, indicating that there are specific and inducible transcription factors that regulate MMTV expression in B cells. MMTV transcripts could not be upregulated in pre- B cell lines but could be induced in some mature B cell lines. There was a correlation between the ability to stimulate B cells to secrete antibody and the ability to induce upregulated MMTV expression. Evidence is presented that suggests that the principal transcription factors involved in MMTV expression do not include the B cell factors OTF-2 or NF-kappa B, but rather are likely to be novel factors that are induced during differentiation to antibody secretion. A hypothesis for why mammary tumor viruses are well adapted for expression in cells of the B lineage is proposed, and the implications of this for the documented influence of MMTV gene products on the T cell repertoire are discussed. PMID:1660524

  17. HDAC6 promotes cell proliferation and confers resistance to gefitinib in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhihao; Tang, Fang; Hu, Pengchao; Wang, Ying; Gong, Jun; Sun, Shaoxing; Xie, Conghua

    2016-07-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are promising targets for cancer therapy, and first-generation HDAC inhibitors are currently in clinical trials for the treatment of cancer patients. HDAC6, which is a key regulator of many signaling pathways that are linked to cancer, has recently emerged as an attractive target for the treatment of cancer. In the present study, HDAC6 was found to be overexpressed in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and was negatively correlated with the prognosis of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Overexpression of HDAC6 promoted the proliferation of lung adenocarcinoma cells in a deacetylase activity-dependent manner. HDAC6 overexpression conferred resistance to gefitinib via the stabilization of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The inhibition of HDAC6 by CAY10603, a potent and selective inhibitor of HDAC6, inhibited the proliferation of lung adenocarcinoma cells and induced apoptosis. CAY10603 downregulated the levels of EGFR protein, which in turn inhibited activation of the EGFR signaling pathway. Moreover, CAY10603 synergized with gefitinib to induce apoptosis of the lung adenocarcinoma cell lines via the destabilization of EGFR. Taken together, our results suggest that the inhibition of HDAC6 may be a promising strategy for the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:27221381

  18. Simvastatin exhibits antiproliferative effects on spheres derived from canine mammary carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Torres, Cristian G; Olivares, Araceli; Stoore, Caroll

    2015-05-01

    Mammary cancer is the most frequent type of tumor in the female canine. Treatments are mainly limited to surgery and chemotherapy; however, these tumors may develop clinical recurrence, metastasis and chemoresistance. The existence of a subpopulation of cancer cells with stemness features called cancer stem-like cells, may explain in part these characteristics of tumor progression. The statins, potent blockers of cholesterol synthesis, have also shown antitumor effects on cancer mammary cells, changes mediated by a decrease in the isoprenylation of specific proteins. Few studies have shown that simvastatin, a lipophilic statin, sensitizes cancer stem-like cells eliminating drug resistance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of simvastatin on spheres derived from CF41.Mg canine mammary tumor cells, which were characterized by phenotypic and functional analyses. Spheres exhibited characteristics of stemness, primarily expressing a CD44⁺/CD24⁻/low phenotype, displaying auto-renewal and relative chemoresistance. Exposure to simvastatin induced a decrease in the sphere-forming capacity and cell viability, accompanied by a concentration- and time-dependent increase in caspase-3/7 activity. In addition, modulation of β-catenin and p53 expression was observed. Simvastatin triggered a synergistic effect with doxorubicin, sensitizing the spheres to the cytotoxic effect exerted by the drug. Invasiveness of spheres was decreased in response to simvastatin and this effect was counteracted by the presence of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate. Our results suggest that simvastatin targets canine mammary cancer stem-like cells, supporting its therapeutical application as a novel agent to treat canine mammary cancer. PMID:25778435

  19. Construction of a recombinant human insulin expression vector for mammary gland-specific expression in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) mammary epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Ramakant; Singh, Karn Pratap; Kumari, Archana; Rameshbabu, K; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Manik, Radhey Shyam; Palta, Prabhat; Singla, Suresh Kumar; Chauhan, Manmohan Singh

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was construction of mammary gland specific expression vector for high level of human insulin (hINS) expression in transgenic buffalo for therapeutic use. We have constructed mammary gland specific vector containing human insulin gene and there expression efficiency was checked into in vitro cultured buffalo mammary epithelial cells (BuMECs). Human pro-insulin coding region was isolated from human genomic DNA by intron skipping PCR primer and furin cleavage site was inserted between B-C and C-A chain of human insulin by overlap extension PCR. A mammary gland-specific buffalo beta-lactoglobulin promoter was isolated from buffalo DNA and used for human insulin expression in BuMEC cells. The construct was transfected into BuMECs by lipofection method and positive transgene cell clones were obtained by G418 selection after 3 weeks. Expression of hINS in transfected cells were confirmed by RT-PCR, Immunocytochemistry, Western Blotting and ELISA. The pAcISUBC insulin-expressing clones secreted insulin at varying levels between 0.18 - 1.43 ng/ml/24 h/2.0 × 10(6) cells. PMID:24969480

  20. Cell proliferation in the human mammary epithelium. Differential contribution by epithelial and myoepithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, K.; Smith, J. A.; Perusinghe, N.; Monoghan, P.

    1986-01-01

    The ductal system of the human breast consists of epithelial, myoepithelial, and basal clear cells. By labeling ducts and alveoli dissected from reduction mammoplasty specimens with 3H-thymidine in vitro and labeling human breast organoids xenografted in nude mice in vivo, it was found that cellular proliferation in the human breast is virtually confined to epithelial and basal clear cells. A pulse label of 3H-thymidine in organ culture explants was followed over a period of time, and it was found that myoepithelial cells originate from a precursor cell population within the mammary epithelium after a number of cell divisions. Myoepithelial cells were not seen to divide when fully mature. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:3740213

  1. Collagen-binding proteins of rat mammary tumor epithelial cells: A biochemical and immunological study

    SciTech Connect

    Wirl, G.; Pfaeffle, M. )

    1988-05-01

    Collagen-binding proteins were studied in mammary epithelial cells of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumors. Using affinity chromatography on type I collagen-Sepharose and polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis, three major proteins of 34,000, 36,000, and 38,000 Da were found. Pulse-chase experiments did not indicate a precursor-product relationship of these proteins. Tryptic/chymotryptic peptide maps, however, revealed that the 36,000- and 38,000-Da proteins are very similar but are quite different from the 34,000-Da molecular form. The distribution and function of these proteins were then analyzed by using polyclonal antibodies directed against the entire set of major proteins. In immunofluorescence studies the authors observed a dense, punctate distribution of fluorescence on the cell surface of isolated and unfixed epithelial organoids and a bright pericellular staining in cultures after fixation. Treatment with the antiserum did not affect attachment and spreading of cuboidal mammary cells to plastic or to a collagen substratum. However, when the antiserum was added to the medium of growing cuboidal cells, it caused the formation of duct-like structures. These studies indicate that collagen-binding proteins may play a role in mammary gland morphology.

  2. A Progesterone-CXCR4 Axis Controls Mammary Progenitor Cell Fate in the Adult Gland

    PubMed Central

    Shiah, Yu-Jia; Tharmapalan, Pirashaanthy; Casey, Alison E.; Joshi, Purna A.; McKee, Trevor D.; Jackson, Hartland W.; Beristain, Alexander G.; Chan-Seng-Yue, Michelle A.; Bader, Gary D.; Lydon, John P.; Waterhouse, Paul D.; Boutros, Paul C.; Khokha, Rama

    2015-01-01

    Summary Progesterone drives mammary stem and progenitor cell dynamics through paracrine mechanisms that are currently not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that CXCR4, the receptor for stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF-1; CXC12), is a crucial instructor of hormone-induced mammary stem and progenitor cell function. Progesterone elicits specific changes in the transcriptome of basal and luminal mammary epithelial populations, where CXCL12 and CXCR4 represent a putative ligand-receptor pair. In situ, CXCL12 localizes to progesterone-receptor-positive luminal cells, whereas CXCR4 is induced in both basal and luminal compartments in a progesterone-dependent manner. Pharmacological inhibition of CXCR4 signaling abrogates progesterone-directed expansion of basal (CD24+CD49fhi) and luminal (CD24+CD49flo) subsets. This is accompanied by a marked reduction in CD49b+SCA-1− luminal progenitors, their functional capacity, and lobuloalveologenesis. These findings uncover CXCL12 and CXCR4 as novel paracrine effectors of hormone signaling in the adult mammary gland, and present a new avenue for potentially targeting progenitor cell growth and malignant transformation in breast cancer.

  3. Soy Components Genistein and Lunasin Regulate E-Cadherin and Wnt Signaling in Mammary Epithelial Cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enhanced Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and loss of E-cadherin expression are considered hallmarks of tumorigenesis. We previously showed by microarray gene profiling that dietary intake of soy-based AIN-93G diets altered components of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in rat mammary epithelial cells. To furth...

  4. Activation of immune cells in bovine mammary gland secretions by zymosan treated bovine serum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mastitis, caused by bacterial infection of the mammary gland, is a major disease of dairy cattle. The greatest risks of intramammary infection occur at the end of lactation and at the initiation of the next lactation when the cow calves. Treating serum with zymosan (yeast cell wall preparation) ca...

  5. Effect of elevated selenium intakes on mammary cell proliferation in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Salbe, A.D.; Albanes, D.; Winick, M.; Taylor, P.R.; Levander, O.A. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD )

    1991-03-15

    Elevated selenium (Se) intakes and calorie restriction (CR) inhibit mammary tumorigenesis in experimental animals. The present study was designed to investigate cell proliferation in the mammary tissue gland. Female weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: control, 40% CR, 4 or 6 ppm Se in water as selenate. Control rats and Se rats were fed a control diet ad lib. CR rats were pair-fed 40% less than controls with a diet providing equal nutrients except carbohydrate calories. After 3 weeks, rats were injected with ({sup 3}H)-thymidine and killed 1 hr later. Se at 4 ppm significantly decreased only the number of ducts, whereas 6 ppm Se decreased both the number of ducts as well as the number and percent of labeled cells. CR had no effect on mammary cell proliferation. These results suggest that elevated Se intakes may protect against mammary tumorigenesis by decreasing cell proliferation, a mechanism which may affect the dose-response of the genotoxic chemicals frequently used as initiating agents in animal experiments.

  6. A noncoding RNA is a potential marker of cell fate during mammary gland development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PINC is a large, alternatively spliced, developmentally regulated, noncoding RNA expressed in the regressed terminal ductal lobular unit-like structures of the parous mammary gland. Previous studies have shown that this population of cells possesses not only progenitor-like qualities (the ability to...

  7. The interplay of matrix metalloproteinases, morphogens and growth factors is necessary for branching of mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Simian, M.; Harail, Y.; Navre, M.; Werb, Z.; Lochter, A.; Bissell, M.J.

    2002-03-06

    The mammary gland develops its adult form by a process referred to as branching morphogenesis. Many factors have been reported to affect this process. We have used cultured primary mammary epithelial organoids and mammary epithelial cell lines in three-dimensional collagen gels to elucidate which growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and mammary morphogens interact in branching morphogenesis. Branching stimulated by stromal fibroblasts, epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor 7, fibroblast growth factor 2 and hepatocyte growth factor was strongly reduced by inhibitors of MMPs, indicating the requirement of MMPs for three-dimensional growth involved in morphogenesis. Recombinant stromelysin 1/MMP-3 alone was sufficient to drive branching in the absence of growth factors in the organoids. Plasmin also stimulated branching; however, plasmin-dependent branching was abolished by both inhibitors of plasmin and MMPs, suggesting that plasmin activates MMPs. To differentiate between signals for proliferation and morphogenesis, we used a cloned mammary epithelial cell line that lacks epimorphin, an essential mammary morphogen. Both epimorphin and MMPs were required for morphogenesis, but neither was required for epithelial cell proliferation. These results provide direct evidence for a critical role of MMPs in branching in mammary epithelium and suggest that, in addition to epimorphin, MMP activity is a minimum requirement for branching morphogenesis in the mammary gland.

  8. Mammary-carcinoma cells in mouse liver: infiltration of liver tissue and interaction with Kupffer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Roos, E.; Dingemans, K. P.; Van de Pavert, I. V.; Van den Bergh-Weerman, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    Interactions between TA3 mammary-carcinoma cells and liver cells were studied with the electron microscope in mouse livers that had been perfused with a defined medium containing the tumour cells. Infiltration of liver tissue by the TA3 cells proceeded in the following steps. First, numerous small protrusions were extended through endothelial cells and into hepatocytes. Next, some cells had larger processes deeply indenting hepatocytes. Finally a few tumour cells became located outside the blood vessels. Two variant cell lines, TA3/Ha and TA3/St, differing in cell coat and surface charge, did not differ in the extent of infiltration. TA3/Ha cells were often encircled by thin processes of liver macrophages (Kupffer cells). Encircled cells were initially intact, but later some of them degenerated. These observations suggest that TA3/Ha cells were phagocytized by the Kupffer cells. Encirclement appeared to be inhibited after only 30 min, when many cells were still partly surrounded. Encirclement of TA3/St was much less frequent. After injection of tumour cells intra-portally in vivo, similar results were obtained, which demonstrated the validity of the perfused liver model. TA3/Ha cells formed much fewer tumour nodules in the liver than TA3/St cells. Images Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:687522

  9. Mesotheliomas show higher hyaluronan positivity around tumor cells than metastatic pulmonary adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Törrönen, Kari; Soini, Ylermi; Pääkkö, Paavo; Parkkinen, Jyrki; Sironen, Reijo; Rilla, Kirsi

    2016-10-01

    Hyaluronan is a unique glycosaminoglycan of the extracellular matrix, abundant in normal connective tissues but highly increased in many pathological conditions like cancer. Mesothelioma, one of the most malignant cancer types, is associated with high content of hyaluronan, with elevated levels of hyaluronan in pleural effusions and serum of the patients. Metastatic lung adenocarcinomas are typically less aggressive and have a better prognosis as compared to mesotheliomas, a reason why it is highly important to find reliable tools to differentiate these cancer types. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the amount of hyaluronan, hyaluronan producing synthases (HAS's) and hyaluronan receptor CD44, in mesothelioma and metastatic lung adenocarcinomas. Furthermore, we wanted to clarify the role of hyaluronan, CD44 and HAS's as putative markers for differentiating malignant mesothelioma from metastatic lung adenocarcinomas. The main finding of this study was that mesotheliomas are significantly more positive for hyaluronan staining than metastatic adenocarcinomas. Unexceptionally, a trend of CD44 positivity of stromal cells was higher in adenocarcinomas as compared to mesotheliomas. However, no statistically significant differences were found between the staining of any of the HAS isoenzymes either in tumor cells or stromal cells of different groups of cases. The results show that there are significant differences in hyaluronan content between metastatic lung adenocarcinomas and mesotheliomas. However, as previous studies have suggested, hyaluronan alone is not a sufficient independent marker for diagnostic differentiation of these cancer types, but could be utilized as a combination together with other specific markers. PMID:26912058

  10. Diagnostic and prognostic impact of cytochemically assessed nuclear DNA contents in human adenocarcinomas of the mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Askensten, U

    1988-01-01

    Cytochemical assessments of the nuclear DNA contents in carcinomas of the breast can be used for both prognostic and diagnostic purposes. Two main techniques are currently being used, viz. flow cytometry (FCM) and microspectrophotometry (MSP). An account of their advantages and disadvantages is given. In addition, an old, rather crude, cytophotometric technique can be used for histopathological sections of paraffin-embedded specimens. The principal sampling procedures are fine-needle aspiration biopsy and the so-called imprint technique, where the specimens are made from the cut surface of the freshly excised operation specimen. Paraffin-embedded histopathological material can also be used, applying a newly developed MSP procedure, where isolated nuclei from deparaffinized/disintegrated specimens are analyzed. Most important is that intact cell nuclei, representative for the whole tumour nodule, can be obtained. The simultaneous use of FCM and MSP is also of utmost importance for the reliability in the interpretation of the results. Then, a kind of "DNA malignancy grading" is obtained that in several investigations has proven itself to be an excellent prognosticating tool that can be used for making an adequate choice of therapy for the individual patient. The diagnostic value of the results of the cytochemically assessed nuclear DNA distribution patterns is not so high as the prognostic one. Tumours with a diploid type of nuclear DNA content can be found both among benign and malignant neoplasms. However, a neoplasm with an aneuploid DNA distribution pattern can almost certainly be considered highly malignant. PMID:3066302

  11. Increased efficacy of photodynamic therapy of R3230AC mammary adenocarcinoma by intratumoral injection of Photofrin II.

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, S. L.; van der Meid, K. R.; Murant, R. S.; Hilf, R.

    1990-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy consists of the systemic administration of a derivative of haematoporphyrin (Photofrin II) followed 24-72 h later by exposure of malignant lesions to photoradiation. We investigated the efficacy of this treatment after direct intratumoral injection of Photofrin II. This direct treatment regimen resulted in higher rates of inhibition of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (5.13% J-1 cm-2 x 10(-1) and succinate dehydrogenase (3.14% J-1 cm-2 x 10(-1] in vitro at 2 h after intratumoral injection compared to rates of inhibition obtained after intraperitoneal drug administration: 0.51 and 0.42% J-1 cm-2 x 10(-1), respectively. A significant delay in tumour growth in vivo was observed in animals that received intratumoral injections 2 h before photoradiation compared to animals injected intraperitoneally at either 2 or 24 h before photoradiation. The treatment protocols were compared with control groups, consisting of Photofrin II administration intratumorally or intraperitoneally without photoradiation, or photoradiation in the absence of Photofrin II. These data indicate that the intratumoral injection regimen with Photofrin II enhanced the efficacy of photodynamic therapy. The greater delay in tumour growth observed after intratumoral administration of Photofrin II suggests a mechanism favouring direct cell damage. PMID:2139578

  12. Absorption spectra of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma cervical tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivashko, Pavlo; Peresunko, Olexander; Zelinska, Natalia; Alonova, Marina

    2014-08-01

    We studied a methods of assessment of a connective tissue of cervix in terms of specific volume of fibrous component and an optical density of staining of connective tissue fibers in the stroma of squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma. An absorption spectra of blood plasma of the patients suffering from squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma both before the surgery and in postsurgical periods were obtained. Linear dichroism measurements transmittance in polarized light at different orientations of the polarization plane relative to the direction of the dominant orientation in the structure of the sample of biotissues of stroma of squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma were carried. Results of the investigation of the tumor tissues showed that the magnitude of the linear dichroism Δ is insignificant in the researched spectral range λ=280-840 nm and specific regularities in its change observed short-wave ranges.

  13. Celecoxib exerts antitumor effects in canine mammary tumor cells via COX‑2‑independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Dai; Saito, Teruyoshi; Murata, Kanae; Kawashima, Masafumi; Asano, Ryuji

    2015-03-01

    Celecoxib plays antitumor roles via multiple mechanisms in a variety of human cancers. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanism of action of celecoxib in canine mammary tumors. We examined the antitumor effects of celecoxib in AZACB canine mammary tumor cells expressing low levels of cyclooxygenase‑2 (COX‑2) to minimize the effect of COX‑2 on its activity. Our data revealed that celecoxib inhibited cell proliferation mainly via COX‑2‑independent mechanisms. Specifically, celecoxib decreased the proportion of cells in S phase and increased G2/M arrest, which was associated with increased expression of the cyclin‑dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) p21 and p27. In addition, treatment with celecoxib downregulated COX‑2 expression, and induced apoptosis via both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. These findings suggest that celecoxib might be a useful agent for the treatment of canine mammary tumors, regardless of COX‑2 expression. In the future, it might be possible to use a combination of celecoxib and other antitumor agents to treat canine mammary tumors. PMID:25571853

  14. The chemokine receptor CCR7 promotes mammary tumorigenesis through amplification of stem-like cells.

    PubMed

    Boyle, S T; Ingman, W V; Poltavets, V; Faulkner, J W; Whitfield, R J; McColl, S R; Kochetkova, M

    2016-01-01

    The chemokine receptor CCR7 is widely implicated in breast cancer pathobiology. Although recent reports correlated high CCR7 levels with more advanced tumor grade and poor prognosis, limited in vivo data are available regarding its specific function in mammary gland neoplasia and the underlying mechanisms involved. To address these questions we generated a bigenic mouse model of breast cancer combined with CCR7 deletion, which revealed that CCR7 ablation results in a considerable delay in tumor onset as well as significantly reduced tumor burden. Importantly, CCR7 was found to exert its function by regulating mammary cancer stem-like cells in both murine and human tumors. In vivo experiments showed that loss of CCR7 activity either through deletion or pharmacological antagonism significantly decreased functional pools of stem-like cells in mouse primary mammary tumors, providing a mechanistic explanation for the tumor-promoting role of this chemokine receptor. These data characterize the oncogenic properties of CCR7 in mammary epithelial neoplasia and point to a new route for therapeutic intervention to target evasive cancer stem cells. PMID:25772241

  15. Milk fat globule is an alternative to mammary epithelial cells for gene expression analysis in buffalo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiuming; Wu, Yanjun; Zhang, Mingyuan; Xu, Wenwen; Guo, Xiaoping; Yan, Xueyu; Deng, Haiying; Jiang, Qinyang; Yang, Xiurong; Lan, Ganqiu; Guo, Yafen; Qin, Guangsheng; Jiang, Hesheng

    2016-05-01

    Owing to the difficulty in obtaining mammary gland tissue from lactating animals, it is difficult to test the expression levels of genes in mammary gland. The aim of the current study was to identify if milk fat globule (MFG) in buffalo milk was an alternative to mammary gland (MG) and milk somatic cell (MSC) for gene expression analysis. Six buffalos in late lactation were selected to collect MFG and MSC, and then MG was obtained by surgery. MFG was stained with acridine orange to successfully visualise RNA and several cytoplasmic crescents in MFG. The total RNA in MFG was successfully isolated and the integrity was assessed by agarose gel electrophoresis. We analysed the cellular components in MFG, MG and MSC through testing the expression of cell-specific genes by qRT-PCR. The results showed that adipocyte-specific gene (AdipoQ) and leucocyte-specific genes (CD43, CSF1 and IL1α) in MFG were not detected, whereas epithelial cell marker genes (Keratin 8 and Keratin 18) in MFG were higher than in MSC and lower than in MG, fibroblast marker gene (vimentin) in MFG was significantly lower than in MG and MSC, milk protein genes (LALBA, BLG and CSN2) and milk fat synthesis-related genes (ACC, BTN1A1, FABP3 and FAS) in MFG were higher than in MG and MSC. In conclusion, the total RNA in MFG mainly derives from mammary epithelial cells and can be used to study the functional gene expression of mammary epithelial cells. PMID:27032540

  16. Developmental signaling pathways regulating mammary stem cells and contributing to the etiology of triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Maria Cristina; Bertolette, Daniel; Castro, Nadia P; Klauzinska, Malgorzata; Cuttitta, Frank; Salomon, David S

    2016-04-01

    Cancer has been considered as temporal and spatial aberrations of normal development in tissues. Similarities between mammary embryonic development and cell transformation suggest that the underlying processes required for mammary gland development are also those perturbed during various stages of mammary tumorigenesis and breast cancer (BC) development. The master regulators of embryonic development Cripto-1, Notch/CSL, and Wnt/β-catenin play key roles in modulating mammary gland morphogenesis and cell fate specification in the embryo through fetal mammary stem cells (fMaSC) and in the adult organism particularly within the adult mammary stem cells (aMaSC), which determine mammary progenitor cell lineages that generate the basal/myoepithelial and luminal compartments of the adult mammary gland. Together with recognized transcription factors and embryonic stem cell markers, these embryonic regulatory molecules can be inappropriately augmented during tumorigenesis to support the tumor-initiating cell (TIC)/cancer stem cell (CSC) compartment, and the effects of their deregulation may contribute for the etiology of BC, in particular the most aggressive subtype of BC, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). This in depth review will present evidence of the involvement of Cripto-1, Notch/CSL, and Wnt/β-catenin in the normal mammary gland morphogenesis and tumorigenesis, from fMaSC/aMaSC regulation to TIC generation and maintenance in TNBC. Specific therapies for treating TNBC by targeting these embryonic pathways in TICs will be further discussed, providing new opportunities to destroy not only the bulk tumor, but also TICs that initiate and promote the metastatic spread and recurrence of this aggressive subtype of BC. PMID:26968398

  17. Human mammary progenitor cell fate decisions are products of interactions with combinatorial microenvironments

    SciTech Connect

    LaBarge, Mark A; Nelson, Celeste M; Villadsen, Rene; Fridriksdottir, Agla; Ruth, Jason R; Stampfer, Martha R; Petersen, Ole W; Bissell, Mina J

    2008-09-19

    In adult tissues, multi-potent progenitor cells are some of the most primitive members of the developmental hierarchies that maintain homeostasis. That progenitors and their more mature progeny share identical genomes, suggests that fate decisions are directed by interactions with extrinsic soluble factors, ECM, and other cells, as well as physical properties of the ECM. To understand regulation of fate decisions, therefore, would require a means of understanding carefully choreographed combinatorial interactions. Here we used microenvironment protein microarrays to functionally identify combinations of cell-extrinsic mammary gland proteins and ECM molecules that imposed specific cell fates on bipotent human mammary progenitor cells. Micropatterned cell culture surfaces were fabricated to distinguish between the instructive effects of cell-cell versus cell-ECM interactions, as well as constellations of signaling molecules; and these were used in conjunction with physiologically relevant 3 dimensional human breast cultures. Both immortalized and primary human breast progenitors were analyzed. We report on the functional ability of those proteins of the mammary gland that maintain quiescence, maintain the progenitor state, and guide progenitor differentiation towards myoepithelial and luminal lineages.

  18. Models of breast morphogenesis based on localization of stem cells in the developing mammary lobule.

    PubMed

    Honeth, Gabriella; Schiavinotto, Tommaso; Vaggi, Federico; Marlow, Rebecca; Kanno, Tokuwa; Shinomiya, Ireneusz; Lombardi, Sara; Buchupalli, Bharath; Graham, Rosalind; Gazinska, Patrycja; Ramalingam, Vernie; Burchell, Joy; Purushotham, Anand D; Pinder, Sarah E; Csikasz-Nagy, Attila; Dontu, Gabriela

    2015-04-14

    Characterization of normal breast stem cells is important for understanding their role in breast development and in breast cancer. However, the identity of these cells is a subject of controversy and their localization in the breast epithelium is not known. In this study, we utilized a novel approach to analyze the morphogenesis of mammary lobules, by combining one-dimensional theoretical models and computer-generated 3D fractals. Comparing predictions of these models with immunohistochemical analysis of tissue sections for candidate stem cell markers, we defined distinct areas where stem cells reside in the mammary lobule. An increased representation of stem cells was found in smaller, less developed lobules compared to larger, more mature lobules, with marked differences in the gland of nulliparous versus parous women and that of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers versus non-carriers. PMID:25818813

  19. Differential subcellular localization renders HAI-2 a matriptase inhibitor in breast cancer cells but not in mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsiang-Hua D; Xu, Yuan; Lai, Hongyu; Yang, Xiaoyu; Tseng, Chun-Che; Lai, Ying-Jung J; Pan, Yu; Zhou, Emily; Johnson, Michael D; Wang, Jehng-Kang; Lin, Chen-Yong

    2015-01-01

    The type 2 transmembrane serine protease matriptase is under tight control primarily by the actions of the integral membrane Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor HAI-1. Growing evidence indicates that HAI-2 might also be involved in matriptase inhibition in some contexts. Here we showed that matriptase inhibition by HAI-2 depends on the subcellular localizations of HAI-2, and is observed in breast cancer cells but not in mammary epithelial cells. HAI-2 is co-expressed with matriptase in 21 out of 26 human epithelial and carcinoma cells examined. HAI-2 is also a potent matriptase inhibitor in solution, but in spite of this, HAI-2 inhibition of matriptase is not observed in all contexts where HAI-2 is expressed, unlike what is seen for HAI-1. Induction of matriptase zymogen activation in mammary epithelial cells results in the formation of matriptase-HAI-1 complexes, but matriptase-HAI-2 complexes are not observed. In breast cancer cells, however, in addition to the appearance of matriptase-HAI-1 complex, three different matriptase-HAI-2 complexes, are formed following the induction of matriptase activation. Immunofluorescent staining reveals that activated matriptase is focused at the cell-cell junctions upon the induction of matriptase zymogen activation in both mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer cells. HAI-2, in contrast, remains localized in vesicle/granule-like structures during matriptase zymogen activation in human mammary epithelial cells. In breast cancer cells, however, a proportion of the HAI-2 reaches the cell surface where it can gain access to and inhibit active matriptase. Collectively, these data suggest that matriptase inhibition by HAI-2 requires the translocation of HAI-2 to the cell surface, a process which is observed in some breast cancer cells but not in mammary epithelial cells. PMID:25786220

  20. Binding of Host Factors Influences Internalization and Intracellular Trafficking of Streptococcus uberis in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Raul A.; Dunlap, John R.; Oliver, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    We showed that internalization of Streptococcus uberis into bovine mammary epithelial cells occurred through receptor- (RME) and caveolae-mediated endocytosis (CME). We reported also that treatment of S. uberis with host proteins including lactoferrin (LF) enhanced its internalization into host cells. Since the underlying mechanism(s) involved in such enhancement was unknown we investigated if preincubation of S. uberis with host proteins drives internalization of this pathogen into host cells through CME. Thus, experiments involving coculture of collagen-, fibronectin-, and LF-pretreated S. uberis with bovine mammary epithelial cells treated with RME and CME inhibitors were conducted. Results showed that internalization of host proteins-pretreated S. uberis into mammary epithelial cells treated with RME inhibitors was higher than that of untreated controls. These results suggest that pretreatment with selected host proteins commits S. uberis to CME, thus avoiding intracellular bactericidal mechanisms and allowing its persistence into bovine mammary epithelial cells. PMID:20614000

  1. The prolactin receptor mediates HOXA1-stimulated oncogenicity in mammary carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lin; Xu, Bing; Mohankumar, Kumarasamypet M; Goffin, Vincent; Perry, Jo K; Lobie, Peter E; Liu, Dong-Xu

    2012-12-01

    The HOX genes are a highly conserved subgroup of homeodomain-containing transcription factors that are crucial to normal development. Forced expression of HOXA1 results in oncogenic transformation of immortalized human mammary cells with aggressive tumour formation in vivo. Microarray analysis identified that the prolactin receptor (PRLR) was significantly upregulated by forced expression of HOXA1 in mammary carcinoma cells. To determine prolactin (PRL) involvement in HOXA1‑induced oncogenicity in mammary carcinoma cells (MCF-7), we examined the effect of human prolactin (hPRL)-initiated PRLR signal transduction on changes in cellular behaviour mediated by HOXA1. Forced expression of HOXA1 in MCF-7 cells increased PRLR mRNA and protein expression. Forced expression of HOXA1 also enhanced hPRL-stimulated phosphorylation of both STAT5A/B and p44/42 MAPK, and increased subsequent transcriptional activity of STAT5A and STAT5B, and Elk-1 and Sap1a, respectively. Moreover, forced expression of HOXA1 in MCF-7 cells enhanced the hPRL‑stimulated increase in total cell number as a consequence of enhanced cell proliferation and cell survival, and also enhanced hPRL-stimulated anchorage-independent growth in soft agar. Increased anchorage-independent growth was attenuated by the PRLR antagonist ∆1-9-G129R‑hPRL. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that HOXA1 increases expression of the cell surface receptor PRLR and enhances PRLR-mediated signal transduction. Thus, the PRLR is one mediator of HOXA1‑stimulated oncogenicity in mammary carcinoma cells. PMID:23064471

  2. Anti-proliferative effect on a colon adenocarcinoma cell line exerted by a membrane disrupting antimicrobial peptide KL15

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Ching; Tsai, Tsung-Lin; Ye, Xin-Hong; Lin, Thy-Hou

    2015-01-01

    The antimicrobial and anticancer activities of an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) KL15 obtained through in silico modification on the sequences of 2 previously identified bacteriocins m2163 and m2386 from Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 by us have been studied. While significant bactericidal effect on the pathogenic bacteria Listeria, Escherichia, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Enterococcus is exerted by KL15, the AMP can also kill 2 human adenocarcinoma cells SW480 and Caco-2 with measured IC50 as 50 μg/ml or 26.3 μM. However, the IC50 determined for KL15 on killing the normal human mammary epithelial cell H184B5F5/M10 is 150 μg/ml. The conformation of KL15 dissolved in 50% 2,2,2-trifluroroethanol or in 2 large unilamellar vesicle systems determined by circular dichroism spectroscopy appears to be helical. Further, the cell membrane permeability of treated SW480 cells by KL15 appears to be significantly enhanced as studied by both flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. As observed under a scanning electron microscope, the morphology of treated SW480 cells is also significantly changed as treating time by 80 μg/ml KL15 is increased. KL15 appears to be able to pierce the cell membrane of treated SW480 cells so that numerous porous structures are generated and observable. Therefore, KL15 is likely to kill the treated SW480 cells through the necrotic pathway similar to some recently identified AMPs by others. PMID:26147829

  3. Anti-proliferative effect on a colon adenocarcinoma cell line exerted by a membrane disrupting antimicrobial peptide KL15.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Ching; Tsai, Tsung-Lin; Ye, Xin-Hong; Lin, Thy-Hou

    2015-01-01

    The antimicrobial and anticancer activities of an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) KL15 obtained through in silico modification on the sequences of 2 previously identified bacteriocins m2163 and m2386 from Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 by us have been studied. While significant bactericidal effect on the pathogenic bacteria Listeria, Escherichia, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Enterococcus is exerted by KL15, the AMP can also kill 2 human adenocarcinoma cells SW480 and Caco-2 with measured IC50 as 50 μg/ml or 26.3 μM. However, the IC50 determined for KL15 on killing the normal human mammary epithelial cell H184B5F5/M10 is 150 μg/ml. The conformation of KL15 dissolved in 50% 2,2,2-trifluroroethanol or in 2 large unilamellar vesicle systems determined by circular dichroism spectroscopy appears to be helical. Further, the cell membrane permeability of treated SW480 cells by KL15 appears to be significantly enhanced as studied by both flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. As observed under a scanning electron microscope, the morphology of treated SW480 cells is also significantly changed as treating time by 80 μg/ml KL15 is increased. KL15 appears to be able to pierce the cell membrane of treated SW480 cells so that numerous porous structures are generated and observable. Therefore, KL15 is likely to kill the treated SW480 cells through the necrotic pathway similar to some recently identified AMPs by others. PMID:26147829

  4. Gene expression profiling of cancer stem cell in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dong-Cheol; Sung, Ji-Min; Cho, Hee-Jung; Yi, Hee; Seo, Kun-Ho; Choi, In-Soo; Kim, Dong-Ku; Kim, Jin-Suk; El-Aty AM, Abd; Shin, Ho-Chul

    2007-01-01

    Background The studies on cancer-stem-cells (CSCs) have attracted so much attention in recent years as possible therapeutic implications. This study was carried out to investigate the gene expression profile of CSCs in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Results We isolated CSCs from A549 cell line of which side population (SP) phenotype revealed several stem cell properties. After staining the cell line with Hoechst 33342 dye, the SP and non-side population (non-SP) cells were sorted using flow cytometric analysis. The mRNA expression profiles were measured using an Affymetrix GeneChip® oligonucleotide array. Among the sixty one differentially expressed genes, the twelve genes inclusive three poor prognostic genes; Aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C1/C2 (AKR1C1/C2), Transmembrane 4 L six family member 1 nuclear receptor (TM4SF1), and Nuclear receptor subfamily 0, group B, member 1 (NR0B1) were significantly up-regulated in SP compared to non-SP cells. Conclusion This is the first report indicating the differences of gene expression pattern between SP and non-SP cells in A549 cells. We suggest that the up-regulations of the genes AKR1C1/C2, TM4SF1 and NR0B1 in SP of human adenocarcinoma A549 cells could be a target of poor prognosis in anti-cancer therapy. PMID:18034892

  5. Cytotoxic effects of four aescin types on human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Seweryn, Ewa; Gleńsk, Michal; Sroda-Pomianek, Kamila; Ceremuga, Ireneusz; Wlodarczyk, Maciej; Gamian, Andrzej

    2014-03-01

    Four types of aescin that are available on the pharmaceutical market, beta-aescin crystalline, beta-aescin amorphous, beta-aescin sodium and aescin polysulfate, have been analyzed for their cytotoxic effects on human colon adenocarcinoma (LoVo) and doxorubicin-resistant human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines (LoVo/Dx). Their cytotoxic activities were evaluated by sulforhodamine B (SRB) and methyl tetrazolium (MTT) assays. All four types of aescin exerted strong dose-dependent cytotoxicity to LoVo and, to a lesser degree, LoVo/Dx cell lines. The IC50 value for the LoVo/Dx cell line was higher, but still dose-dependent. Results from both assays demonstrated that p-aescin crystalline has the most cytotoxic activity toward human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. PMID:24689224

  6. Self-organization is a dynamic and lineage-intrinsic property of mammary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Chanson, Lea; Brownfield, Douglas; Garbe, James C.; Kuhn, Irene; Stampfer, Martha R.; Bissell, Mina J.; LaBarge, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Loss of organization is a principle feature of cancers; therefore it is important to understand how normal adult multilineage tissues, such as bilayered secretory epithelia, establish and maintain their architectures. The self-organization process that drives heterogeneous mixtures of cells to form organized tissues is well studied in embryology and with mammalian cell lines that were abnormal or engineered. Here we used a micropatterning approach that confined cells to a cylindrical geometry combined with an algorithm to quantify changes of cellular distribution over time to measure the ability of different cell types to self-organize relative to each other. Using normal human mammary epithelial cells enriched into pools of the two principal lineages, luminal and myoepithelial cells, we demonstrated that bilayered organization in mammary epithelium was driven mainly by lineage-specific differential E-cadherin expression, but that P-cadherin contributed specifically to organization of the myoepithelial layer. Disruption of the actomyosin network or of adherens junction proteins resulted in either prevention of bilayer formation or loss of preformed bilayers, consistent with continual sampling of the local microenvironment by cadherins. Together these data show that self-organization is an innate and reversible property of communities of normal adult human mammary epithelial cells. PMID:21300877

  7. Self-organization is a dynamic and lineage-intrinsic property of mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chanson, L.; Brownfield, D.; Garbe, J. C.; Kuhn, I.; Stampfer, M. R.; Bissell, M. J.; LaBarge, M. A.

    2011-02-07

    Loss of organization is a principle feature of cancers; therefore it is important to understand how normal adult multilineage tissues, such as bilayered secretory epithelia, establish and maintain their architectures. The self-organization process that drives heterogeneous mixtures of cells to form organized tissues is well studied in embryology and with mammalian cell lines that were abnormal or engineered. Here we used a micropatterning approach that confined cells to a cylindrical geometry combined with an algorithm to quantify changes of cellular distribution over time to measure the ability of different cell types to self-organize relative to each other. Using normal human mammary epithelial cells enriched into pools of the two principal lineages, luminal and myoepithelial cells, we demonstrated that bilayered organization in mammary epithelium was driven mainly by lineage-specific differential E-cadherin expression, but that P-cadherin contributed specifically to organization of the myoepithelial layer. Disruption of the actomyosin network or of adherens junction proteins resulted in either prevention of bilayer formation or loss of preformed bilayers, consistent with continual sampling of the local microenvironment by cadherins. Together these data show that self-organization is an innate and reversible property of communities of normal adult human mammary epithelial cells.

  8. Time-lapse imaging of primary preneoplastic mammary epithelial cells derived from genetically engineered mouse models of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Nakles, Rebecca E; Millman, Sarah L; Cabrera, M Carla; Johnson, Peter; Mueller, Susette; Hoppe, Philipp S; Schroeder, Timm; Furth, Priscilla A

    2013-01-01

    Time-lapse imaging can be used to compare behavior of cultured primary preneoplastic mammary epithelial cells derived from different genetically engineered mouse models of breast cancer. For example, time between cell divisions (cell lifetimes), apoptotic cell numbers, evolution of morphological changes, and mechanism of colony formation can be quantified and compared in cells carrying specific genetic lesions. Primary mammary epithelial cell cultures are generated from mammary glands without palpable tumor. Glands are carefully resected with clear separation from adjacent muscle, lymph nodes are removed, and single-cell suspensions of enriched mammary epithelial cells are generated by mincing mammary tissue followed by enzymatic dissociation and filtration. Single-cell suspensions are plated and placed directly under a microscope within an incubator chamber for live-cell imaging. Sixteen 650 μm x 700 μm fields in a 4x4 configuration from each well of a 6-well plate are imaged every 15 min for 5 days. Time-lapse images are examined directly to measure cellular behaviors that can include mechanism and frequency of cell colony formation within the first 24 hr of plating the cells (aggregation versus cell proliferation), incidence of apoptosis, and phasing of morphological changes. Single-cell tracking is used to generate cell fate maps for measurement of individual cell lifetimes and investigation of cell division patterns. Quantitative data are statistically analyzed to assess for significant differences in behavior correlated with specific genetic lesions. PMID:23425702

  9. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the renal pelvis: an extremely rare neoplasm of the upper urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Liu, K-W; Lin, V C-H; Chang, I-W

    2013-12-01

    Clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCA) in the urinary tract is a rare neoplasm morphologically identical to the Müllerian counterpart. Clear cell adenocarcinoma is extremely rare in the upper urinary tract. We present a case with CCA of the renal pelvis. Microscopically, the tumor exhibited exophytic growth with predominantly tubulocystic structures, as well as solid and papillary patterns. The neoplastic cells were cuboidal with clear to pale eosinophilic cytoplasm and abundant intracellular and extracellular eosinophilic hyaline globules. By immunohistochemically, the tumor was labeled by cytokeratins and hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β. The patient was still alive without evidence of recurrence in the follow-up period of nineteen months after diagnosis. PMID:24375047

  10. Cell and Molecular Biology of Ataxia Telangiectasia Heterozygous Human Mammary Epithelial Cells Irradiated in Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    Autologous isolates of cell types from obligate heterozygotes with the autosomal disorder ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T)were used to begin a tissue culture model for assessing pathways of radiation-induced cancer formation in this target tissue. This was done by establishing cultures of stromal fibroblasts and long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) in standard 2-dimensional tissue culture in order to establish expression of markers detailing early steps of carcinogenesis. The presumptive breast cancer susceptibility of A-T heterozygotes as a sequel to damage caused by ionizing radiation provided reason to study expression of markers in irradiated HMEC. Findings from our study with HMEC have included determination of differences in specific protein expression amongst growth phase (e.g., log vs stationary) and growth progression (e.g., pass 7 vs pass 9), as well as differences in morphologic markers within populations of irradiated HMEC (e.g., development of multinucleated cells).

  11. β-Glucan modulates the lipopolysaccharide-induced innate immune response in rat mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Ma, Haitian; Miao, Jinfeng; Huang, Guoqing; Tong, Mingqing; Zou, Sixiang

    2013-02-01

    Mastitis, caused by mammary pathogenic bacteria which are frequent implications of Escherichia coli, is an important disease affecting women and dairy animals worldwide. The β-glucan binding of dectin-1 can induce its own intracellular signaling and can mediate a variety of cellular responses. This work was to investigate the effect of β-glucan on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response and related innate immune signaling in primary rat mammary epithelial cells. Cells were treated with serum-free medium added with a DMSO solution containing β-glucans at concentrations of 0, 1, 5, 25 μmol/L for 12h, and then exposed to 10 μg/mL LPS for 40 min. Moreover, cells were pretreated with BAY 11-7082 to inhibit NF-κB and then successively exposed to 5 μmol/L β-glucan, 10 μg/mL LPS, 5 μmol/L β-glucan and 10 μg/mL LPS, according to the specific experimental design. Normal control cultures contained an equal volume of DMSO, which was collected at the same time. After incubating rat mammary epithelial cells for 40 min with 10 μg/mL LPS, TLR4, MyD88 and NF-κB expression all increased (P<0.05), as did the secretion of TNF-α and IL-1β (P<0.05), but IκB and β-casein expression both decreased (P<0.05). Treatment with different concentrations of β-glucan for 12h activated Dectin1/Syk, which subsequently suppressed TLR4, MyD88 and NF-κB expression and TNF-α and IL-1β secretion. However, it restored the IκB and β-casein expression that had been induced by the 40 min incubation with 10 μg/mL LPS. Pretreatment with BAY 11-7082 at 10 µmol/L for 2h partially prevented NF-κB induction by LPS, but the presence of β-glucan prevented this inactivation. BAY 11-7082 could not simultaneously inhibit LPS induction of TLR4, MyD88 and β-glucan activation of Dectin1/Syk in rat mammary epithelial cells. These findings demonstrated that β-glucan activation of Dectin1/Syk attenuated LPS induction of TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB and inhibited the LPS

  12. Apoptosis and autophagy induced by TGF-B1 in bovine mammary epithelial BME-UV1 cells.

    PubMed

    Gajewska, M; Gajkowska, B; Motyl, T

    2005-06-01

    Mammary gland growth and involution is based on a dynamic equilibrium between proliferation and apoptosis of mammary gland epithelial cells (MEC). TGF-beta1 is an important antiproliferative and apoptogenic factor for mammary gland epithelial cells, acting in auto/paracrine matter and thus considered an important local regulator of mammary tissue involution. So far the studies on mammary gland involution concerned only apoptosis as a type I of MEC programmed cell death (PCD). Autophagy is known to be type II of PCD and this paper is the first, supporting evidence for the TGF-beta1-induced autophagy in bovine mammary epithelial cell line BME-UV1, as a distinct to apoptosis type of PCD. Laser scanning cytometry and confocal microscopy were used for analysis of MAP1 LC3 and Beclin 1 expression - two proteins considered being the most reliable biochemical markers of autophagy. The significant increase of MAP1 LC3 and Beclin 1 expression in cells treated with TGF-beta1 (2 ng/ml) was observed. Ultrastructural observation in electron microscopy revealed that autophagy is not only alternative, but also complementary to apoptosis type of cell death in TGF-beta1-treated bovine MEC. It was manifested by typical morphological features of apoptosis (cell shrinkage, margination and condensation of chromatin) and autophagy (autophagosomes, autophagic vacuoles) in the same cell. PMID:16077200

  13. Establishment and characterization of a new feline mammary cancer cell line, FkMTp.

    PubMed

    Borges, Ana; Adega, Filomena; Chaves, Raquel

    2016-08-01

    Studies on tumours in domestic animals are believed to greatly contribute to a better understanding of similar diseases in humans. Comparative studies have shown that feline mammary carcinomas share important features with human breast cancers, including a similar biological behaviour and histological appearance. In the present study we have established and characterized at different cellular levels one feline mammary cancer cell line, FkMTp, derived from a cat mammary carcinoma. The FkMTp cell line revealed to be a promising resource and tool to study tumour microevolution and all the mechanisms and processes involved in carcinogenesis from the tumour (primary culture) to the immortalized cell line. Several assays were conducted to assess the growth behaviour, differentiated morphology, anchorage independent growth in soft agar, wound-healing invasion and migration of the cell line across time (from the primary culture until the 160th passage). FkMTp revealed increased levels of anchorage independence, migration and invasion according to the course of time as well as different numbers of ploidy. These results demonstrate and validate the in vitro tumorigenicity of the FkMTp cell line. During the cell line establishment, it was cryopreserved approximately every six passages, including the tumour primary culture, allowing now the possibility to access almost any specific momento of the tumour progression. PMID:26883919

  14. Trichostatin A inhibits beta-casein expression in mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pujuguet, Philippe; Radisky, Derek; Levy, Dinah; Lacza, Charlemagne; Bissell, Mina J.

    2002-02-22

    Many aspects of cellular behavior are affected by information derived from association of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and with cell membrane receptors. When cultured in the presence of laminin-containing ECM and prolactin (Prl), normal mammary epithelial cells express the milk protein beta-casein. Previously, we defined the minimal ECM- and Prl-responsive enhancer element BCE-1 from the upstream region of the beta-casein gene. We also found that BCE-1 was only active when stably integrated into chromatin, and that trichostatin A (TSA), a reagent that leads to alterations in chromatin structure, was able to activate the integrated enhancer element. We now show that endogenous b-casein gene, which is controlled by a genetic assembly that is highly similar to that of BCE-1 and which is also activated by incubation in ECM and Prl, is instead inhibited by TSA. We provide evidence that the differing response of b-casein and BCE-1 to TSA is neither due to an unusual effect of TSA on mammary epithelial cells, nor to secondary consequences from the expression of a separate gene, nor to a particular property of the BCE-1 construct. As a component of this investigation, we also showed that ECM could mediate rapid histone deacetylation in mammary epithelial cells. These results are discussed in combination with previous work showing that TSA mediates the differentiation of many types of cancer cells but inhibits differentiation of some nonmalignant cell types.

  15. The PR status of the originating cell of ER/PR-negative mouse mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Dong, J; Zhao, W; Shi, A; Toneff, M; Lydon, J; So, D; Li, Y

    2016-08-01

    Progesterone receptor (PR) is usually co-localized with estrogen receptor (ER) in normal mammary cells. It is not known whether ER/PR-negative human breast cancer arises from an ER/PR-negative cell or from an ER/PR-positive cell that later lost ER/PR. Using intraductal injection of a lentivirus to deliver both an oncogene (ErbB2) and a floxed green fluorescent protein (GFP) in PR(Cre/+)mice, whose Cre gene is under the control of the PR promoter, we were able to trace the PR status of the infected cells as they progressed to cancer. We found that the resulting early lesions stained negative for PR in most of the cells and usually retained GFP. The resulting tumors lacked ER and PR, and 75% (15/20) of them retained the GFP signal in all tumor cells, suggesting PR was never expressed throughout the evolution of a majority of these tumors. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that ErbB2-initiated ER/PR-negative mammary tumors primarily originate from the subset of the mammary epithelium that is negative for PR and probably ER as well. These findings also provide an explanation for why antihormonal therapy fails to prevent ER-negative breast cancers. PMID:26640140

  16. Trichostatin A Inhibits β-Casein Expression in Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pujuguet, Philippe; Radisky, Derek; Levy, Dinah; Lacza, Charlemagne; Bissell, Mina J.

    2010-01-01

    Many aspects of cellular behavior are defined by the content of information provided by association of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and with cell membrane receptors. When cultured in the presence of laminin-containing ECM and prolactin (Prl), normal mammary epithelial cells express the milk protein β-casein. We have previously found that the minimal ECM- and Prl-responsive enhancer element BCE-1 was only active when stably integrated into chromatin, and that trichostatin A (TSA), a reagent that leads to alterations in chromatin structure, was able to activate the integrated enhancer element. We now show that endogenous β-casein gene, which is controlled by a genetic assembly that is highly similar to that of BCE-1 and which is also activated by incubation in ECM and Prl, is instead inhibited by TSA. We provide evidence that the differing response of β-casein and BCE-1 to TSA is neither due to an unusual effect of TSA on mammary epithelial cells, nor to secondary consequences from the expression of a separate gene, nor to a particular property of the BCE-1 construct. As a component of this investigation, we also showed that ECM mediated rapid histone deacetylation in mammary epithelial cells. These results are discussed in combination with previous work showing that TSA mediates the differentiation of many types of cancer cells but inhibits differentiation of some nonmalignant cell types. PMID:11746508

  17. Role of endothelial cells in bovine mammary gland health and disease.

    PubMed

    Ryman, Valerie E; Packiriswamy, Nandakumar; Sordillo, Lorraine M

    2015-12-01

    The bovine mammary gland is a dynamic and complex organ composed of various cell types that work together for the purpose of milk synthesis and secretion. A layer of endothelial cells establishes the blood-milk barrier, which exists to facilitate the exchange of solutes and macromolecules necessary for optimal milk production. During bacterial challenge, however, endothelial cells divert some of their lactation function to protect the underlying tissue from damage by initiating inflammation. At the onset of inflammation, endothelial cells tightly regulate the movement of plasma components and leukocytes into affected tissue. Unfortunately, endothelial dysfunction as a result of exacerbated or sustained inflammation can negatively affect both barrier integrity and the health of surrounding extravascular tissue. The objective of this review is to highlight the role of endothelial cells in supporting milk production and regulating optimal inflammatory responses. The consequences of endothelial dysfunction and sustained inflammation on milk synthesis and secretion are discussed. Given the important role of endothelial cells in orchestrating the inflammatory response, a better understanding of endothelial function during mastitis may support development of targeted therapies to protect bovine mammary tissue and mammary endothelium. PMID:26303748

  18. The antiprogestins mifepristone and onapristone reduce cell proliferation in the canine mammary carcinoma cell line CMT-U27.

    PubMed

    Guil-Luna, Silvia; Hellmén, Eva; Sánchez-Céspedes, Raquel; Millán, Yolanda; Martín de las Mulas, Juana

    2014-07-01

    Canine mammary tumours (CMTs) represent nearly half of all tumours in female dogs and some 50% have malignant behaviour. Simple epithelial carcinomas have shorter disease free periods after surgery and a higher reduction of the proliferation index reduction after antiprogestin aglepristone treatment in vivo related to the expression of progesterone receptors (PR). These findings make simple carcinomas good candidates for endocrine therapy. To further explore this possibility, the effects of the antiprogestins mifepristone (RU486) and onapristone (ZK299) on cell viability and PR expression of the canine mammary carcinoma cell line isolated from a simple epithelial carcinoma CMT-U27 were studied. Twenty five percent of CMT-U27 control cells expressed PR. RU486 (p<0.05) and ZK299 (p<0.05) reduced the number of viable cells (WST-8 test) at 24h but only the latter treatment reduced significantly PR expression in viable tumour cells at 24h of incubation. The results suggest that both RU486 and ZK299 induce a decrease in the number of viable CMT-U27 tumour cells with different effects on PR expression. The canine mammary carcinoma cell line CMT-U27 is sensitive to the effects of antiprogestins and may serve to further explore the role of these drugs in canine mammary carcinomas. PMID:24500783

  19. Adipose triglyceride lipase regulates lipid metabolism in dairy goat mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Luo, Jun; Wang, Hui; Shi, Hengbo; Zhu, Jiangjiang; Sun, Yuting; Yu, Kang; Yao, Dawei

    2015-01-01

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) catalyzes the initial step in the lipid lipolysis process, hydrolyzing triglyceride (TG) to produce diacylglycerol (DG) and free fatty acids (FFA). In addition, ATGL regulates lipid storage and release in adipocyte cells. However, its role in mammary gland tissue remains unclear. To assess the role of the ATGL gene in the goat mammary gland, this study analyzed the tissue distribution and expression of key genes together with lipid accumulation after knockdown of the ATGL gene. The mRNA of ATGL was highly expressed in subcutaneous adipose tissue, the lung and the mammary gland with a significant increase in expression during the lactation period compared with the dry period of the mammary gland. Knockdown of the ATGL gene in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs) using siRNA resulted in a significant decrease in both ATGL mRNA and protein levels. Silencing of the ATGL gene markedly increased lipid droplet accumulation and intracellular TG concentration (P<0.05), while it reduced FFA levels in GMECs (P<0.05). Additionally, the expression of HSL for lipolysis, FABP3 for fatty acid transport, PPARα for fatty acid oxidation, ADFP, BTN1A1, and XDH for milk fat formation and secretion was down-regulated (P<0.05) after knockdown of the ATGL gene, with increased expression of CD36 for fatty acid uptake (P<0.05). In conclusion, these data suggest that the ATGL gene plays an important role in triglyceride lipolysis in GMECs and provides the first experimental evidence that ATGL may be involved in lipid metabolism during lactation. PMID:25307872

  20. Neoplastic transformation of mouse mammary epithelial cells by in vitro exposure to N-methyl-N-nitrosourea

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, S.; Guzman, R.C.; Osborn, R.C.; Nandi, S.

    1988-01-01

    High-efficiency neoplastic transformation of mouse mammary epithelial cells in primary collagen gel culture was induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosoureau (MNU). Mammary epithelial cells, isolated from virgin BALB/c mice, were embedded within collagen gels and grown in a serum-free medium containing prolactin, progesterone, and linoleic acid. The cells were then treated with MNU on day 3 of culture and subsequently at weekly intervals for up to 4 weeks. Eleven to 14 days after the final carcinogen treatment, the cells were removed from the collagen gels and injected into the cleared mammary fat pads of syngeneic hosts to assay for transformed cell populations. A single exposure or multiple exposures of these cells to MNU was effective in inducing tumorigenic cells that produced palpable tumors as early as 6 weeks after transplantation. Two treatments with MNU were optimal for neoplastic transformation and produced tumors in 79% of the injected fat pads. All the tumors originated at the examination at the site of injection and had extensive central necroses. Histological examination indicated that the tumors were mammary carcinomas. Secondary transplantation of tumor pieces into intact mammary glands produced palpable carcinomas of the same histology within 1-8 weeks. This system provides a distinct means to study the mechanism of mammary neoplastic transformation at cellular and molecular levels.

  1. miR-873 induces lung adenocarcinoma cell proliferation and migration by targeting SRCIN1

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yushun; Xue, Qi; Wang, Dali; Du, Minjun; Zhang, Yanjiao; Gao, Shugeng

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenously expressed, conserved and small noncoding RNA that regulate gene expression by the post-transcriptional level. In this study, we aim to examine the role of miR-873 in lung adenocarcinoma. We found that the expression of miR-873 was upregulated in four lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and tissues. In addition, the expression levels of SRCIN1 were inversely correlated with the expression levels of miR-873 in lung adenocarcinoma tissues. Furthermore, SRCIN1 was confirmed asthe direct target of miR-873 by luciferase reporter assay and Western blotting. Overexpression of miR-873 promoted the proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells, while SRCIN1 upregulation inhibited their proliferation and migration. Restoration of SRCIN1 could significantly reverse the proliferation and migration promotion imposed by miR-873. In summary, this study reveals for the first time that miR-873 increase the lung adenocarcinoma cell proliferation and migration through directly inhibiting SRCIN1 expression. PMID:26807196

  2. Silencing of Kv4.1 potassium channels inhibits cell proliferation of tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Soo Hwa; Choi, Changsun; Hong, Seong-Geun; Yarishkin, Oleg V.; Bae, Young Min; Kim, Jae Gon; O'Grady, Scott M.; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Ryu, Pan Dong; Lee, So Yeong

    2009-06-26

    Potassium channel activity has been shown to facilitate cell proliferation in cancer cells. In the present study, the role of Kv4.1 channels in immortal and tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells was investigated. Kv4.1 protein expression was positively correlated with tumorigenicity. Moreover, transfection with siRNAs targeting Kv4.1 mRNA suppressed proliferation of tumorigenic mammary epithelial cells. Experiments using mRNA isolated from human breast cancer tissues revealed that the level of Kv4.1 mRNA expression varied depending on the stage of the tumor. Kv4.1 protein expression increased during stages T2 and T3 compared to normal tissue. These results demonstrated that Kv4.1 plays a role in proliferation of tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells. In addition, elevated Kv4.1 expression may be useful as a diagnostic marker for staging mammary tumors and selective blockers of Kv4.1 may serve to suppress tumor cell proliferation.

  3. Isolation of stem-like cells from spontaneous feline mammary carcinomas: Phenotypic characterization and tumorigenic potential

    SciTech Connect

    Barbieri, Federica; Wurth, Roberto; Ratto, Alessandra; Campanella, Chiara; Vito, Guendalina; Thellung, Stefano; Daga, Antonio; Cilli, Michele; Ferrari, Angelo; Florio, Tullio

    2012-04-15

    Current carcinogenesis theory states that only a small subset of tumor cells, the cancer stem cells or tumor initiating cells (TICs), are responsible for tumor formation and progression. Human breast cancer-initiating cells have been identified as CD44-expressing cells, which retain tumorigenic activity and display stem cell-like properties. Spontaneous feline mammary carcinoma (FMC) is an aggressive cancer, which shows biological similarities to the human tumor counterpart. We report the isolation and phenotypic characterization of FMC-derived stem/progenitor cells, showing in vitro self-renewal, long-lasting proliferation and in vivo tumorigenicity. Twenty-one FMC samples were collected, histologically classified and characterized for the expression of Ki67, EGFR, ER-{alpha} and CD44, by immunohistochemistry. By culture in stem cell permissive conditions, we isolated, from 13 FMCs, a CD44-positive subpopulation able to survive and proliferate in vitro as mammospheres of different sizes and morphologies. When injected in NOD/SCID mice, FMC stem-like cells initiate tumors, generating cell heterogeneity and recapitulating the original histotype. In serum-containing medium, spheroid cells showed differentiation properties as shown by morphological changes, the loss of CD44 expression and tumorigenic potential. These data show that stem-defined culture of FMC enriches for TICs and validate the use of these cells as a suitable model for comparative oncology studies of mammary biology and testing therapeutic strategies aimed at eradicating TICs. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Feline mammary carcinoma contain a sub-population of stem-like cells expressing CD44 Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These grow as spheres in serum-free medium and self-renew Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isolated stem-like cancer cells initiate tumor in immunodeficient mice Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Xenografted tumors are phenotypically similar to the original tumor Black

  4. Secretion of N- and O-linked Glycoproteins from 4T1 Murine Mammary Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Phang, Wai-Mei; Tan, Aik-Aun; Gopinath, Subash C B; Hashim, Onn H; Kiew, Lik Voon; Chen, Yeng

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers that affect women globally and accounts for ~23% of all cancers diagnosed in women. Breast cancer is also one of the leading causes of death primarily due to late stage diagnoses and a lack of effective treatments. Therefore, discovering protein expression biomarkers is mandatory for early detection and thus, critical for successful therapy. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-E) coupled with lectin-based analysis followed by mass spectrometry were applied to identify potential biomarkers in the secretions of a murine mammary carcinoma cell line. Comparisons of the protein profiles of the murine 4T1 mammary carcinoma cell line and a normal murine MM3MG mammary cell line indicated that cadherin-1 (CDH), collagenase 3 (MMP-13), Viral envelope protein G7e (VEP), Gag protein (GAG) and Hypothetical protein LOC433182 (LOC) were uniquely expressed by the 4T1 cells, and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) was exclusively secreted by the MM3MG cells. Further analysis by a lectin-based study revealed that aberrant O-glycosylated CDH, N-glycosylated MMP-13 and LOC were present in the 4T1 medium. These differentially expressed N- and O-linked glycoprotein candidates, which were identified by combining lectin-based analysis with 2D-E, could serve as potential diagnostic and prognostic markers for breast cancer. PMID:27226773

  5. Characterization of mammary epithelial stem/progenitor cells and their changes with aging in common marmosets

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Anqi; Dong, Qiaoxiang; Gao, Hui; Shi, Yuanshuo; Chen, Yuanhong; Zhang, Fuchuang; Bandyopadhyay, Abhik; Wang, Danhan; Gorena, Karla M.; Huang, Changjiang; Tardif, Suzette; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Sun, Lu-Zhe

    2016-01-01

    Age is the number one risk factor for breast cancer, yet the underlying mechanisms are unexplored. Age-associated mammary stem cell (MaSC) dysfunction is thought to play an important role in breast cancer carcinogenesis. Non-human primates with their close phylogenetic relationship to humans provide a powerful model system to study the effects of aging on human MaSC. In particular, the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) with a relatively short life span is an ideal model for aging research. In the present study, we characterized for the first time the mammary epithelial stem/progenitor cells in the common marmoset. The MaSC-enriched cells formed four major types of morphologically distinct colonies when cultured on plates pre-seeded with irradiated NIH3T3 fibroblasts, and were also capable of forming mammospheres in suspension culture and subsequent formation of 3D organoids in Matrigel culture. Most importantly, these 3D organoids were found to contain stem/progenitor cells that can undergo self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. We also observed a significant decrease of luminal-restricted progenitors with age. Our findings demonstrate that common marmoset mammary stem/progenitor cells can be isolated and quantified with established in vitro and in vivo assays used for mouse and human studies. PMID:27558284

  6. Characterization of mammary epithelial stem/progenitor cells and their changes with aging in common marmosets.

    PubMed

    Wu, Anqi; Dong, Qiaoxiang; Gao, Hui; Shi, Yuanshuo; Chen, Yuanhong; Zhang, Fuchuang; Bandyopadhyay, Abhik; Wang, Danhan; Gorena, Karla M; Huang, Changjiang; Tardif, Suzette; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Sun, Lu-Zhe

    2016-01-01

    Age is the number one risk factor for breast cancer, yet the underlying mechanisms are unexplored. Age-associated mammary stem cell (MaSC) dysfunction is thought to play an important role in breast cancer carcinogenesis. Non-human primates with their close phylogenetic relationship to humans provide a powerful model system to study the effects of aging on human MaSC. In particular, the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) with a relatively short life span is an ideal model for aging research. In the present study, we characterized for the first time the mammary epithelial stem/progenitor cells in the common marmoset. The MaSC-enriched cells formed four major types of morphologically distinct colonies when cultured on plates pre-seeded with irradiated NIH3T3 fibroblasts, and were also capable of forming mammospheres in suspension culture and subsequent formation of 3D organoids in Matrigel culture. Most importantly, these 3D organoids were found to contain stem/progenitor cells that can undergo self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. We also observed a significant decrease of luminal-restricted progenitors with age. Our findings demonstrate that common marmoset mammary stem/progenitor cells can be isolated and quantified with established in vitro and in vivo assays used for mouse and human studies. PMID:27558284

  7. Secretion of N- and O-linked Glycoproteins from 4T1 Murine Mammary Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Phang, Wai-Mei; Tan, Aik-Aun; Gopinath, Subash C.B.; Hashim, Onn H.; Kiew, Lik Voon; Chen, Yeng

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers that affect women globally and accounts for ~23% of all cancers diagnosed in women. Breast cancer is also one of the leading causes of death primarily due to late stage diagnoses and a lack of effective treatments. Therefore, discovering protein expression biomarkers is mandatory for early detection and thus, critical for successful therapy. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-E) coupled with lectin-based analysis followed by mass spectrometry were applied to identify potential biomarkers in the secretions of a murine mammary carcinoma cell line. Comparisons of the protein profiles of the murine 4T1 mammary carcinoma cell line and a normal murine MM3MG mammary cell line indicated that cadherin-1 (CDH), collagenase 3 (MMP-13), Viral envelope protein G7e (VEP), Gag protein (GAG) and Hypothetical protein LOC433182 (LOC) were uniquely expressed by the 4T1 cells, and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) was exclusively secreted by the MM3MG cells. Further analysis by a lectin-based study revealed that aberrant O-glycosylated CDH, N-glycosylated MMP-13 and LOC were present in the 4T1 medium. These differentially expressed N- and O-linked glycoprotein candidates, which were identified by combining lectin-based analysis with 2D-E, could serve as potential diagnostic and prognostic markers for breast cancer. PMID:27226773

  8. Xanthosine administration does not affect the proportion of epithelial stem cells in bovine mammary tissue, but has a latent negative effect on cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Rauner, Gat; Barash, Itamar

    2014-10-15

    The challenge in manipulating the proportion of somatic stem cells lies in having to override tissue homeostasis. Xanthosine infusion via the teat canal has been reported to augment the number of label-retaining cells in the mammary gland of 3-month-old bovine calves. To further delineate xanthosine's effect on defined stem cells in the mammary gland of heifers—which are candidates for increased prospective milk production following such manipulation—bovine mammary parenchymal tissue was transplanted and integrated into the cleared mammary fat pad of immunodeficient mice. Xanthosine administration for 14 days did not affect the number of label-retaining cells after 10- and 11-week chases. No change in stem cell proportion, analyzed according to CD49f and CD24 expression, was noted. Clone formation and propagation rate of cultured cells, as well as expression of stem cell markers, were also unaffected. In contrast, a latent 50% decrease in bovine mammary cell proliferation rate was observed 11 weeks after xanthosine administration. Tumor development in mice was also limited by xanthosine administration. These effects may have resulted from an initial decrease in expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in guanine synthesis, IMPDH. The data indicate that caution should be exerted when considering xanthosine for stem cell manipulation. - Highlights: • Novel “bovinized“ mouse model for exogenous effects on bovine mammary gland. • Xanthosine did not affect stem cell number/function in bovine mammary gland. • Xanthosine caused an immediate decrease in IMPDH expression in bovine mammary gland. • Xanthosine had latent negative effect on cell proliferation in bovine mammary gland. • Xanthosine administration limited mammary tumor growth.

  9. Role of cell surface oligosaccharides of mouse mammary tumor cell lines in cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunxue; Li, Jing; Wang, Jingjian; Xing, Yanli; Geng, Meiyu

    2007-06-01

    Malignant transformation is associated with changes in the glycosylation of cell surface proteins and lipids. In tumor cells, alterations in cellular glycosylation may play a key role in their metastatic behaviour. In the present study, we have assessed the relationship between cell surface oligosaccharides and the metastasis ability of mouse mammary tumor cell lines 67NR and 4TO7. The cell surface oligosaccharides have been analyzed using specific binding assays with some plant lectins and the metastasis ability has been studied using transwell migration and invasion assays. In addition, we investigated the role of terminal sialic acids in the metastatic potential (cell adhesion on fibronectin, cell migration and invasion) in the 4TO7 cells on treatment with neuraminidase. The cell lines used in study have different metastasis abilities in vivo - the 67NR form primary tumors, but no tumor cells are detectable in any distant tissues, while cells of the 4TO7 line are able to spread to lung. In vitro metastasis experiments have revealed higher ability of adhesion, cell migration and invasion in the 4TO7 cells than the 67NR cells. Specific lectins binding assays show that the 4TO7 cells expressed more high-mannose type, multi-antennary complex-type N-glycans, beta-1,6-GlcNAc-branching, alpha-2,6-linked sialic acids, N-acetylgalactosamine and galactosyl(beta-1,3)-N-acetylgalactosamine. Removal of sialic acids on treatment with neuraminidase decreases adhesion, but increases the migration and has shown no significant change in the invasion ability of the 4TO7 cells. The study suggests that the sialic acids are not crucial for the cell migration and invasion in the 4TO7 cells. The findings provide the new insights in understanding the role of cell surface oligosaccharides in cancer metastasis. PMID:17650582

  10. A Novel Nectin-mediated Cell Adhesion Apparatus That Is Implicated in Prolactin Receptor Signaling for Mammary Gland Development.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Midori; Mizutani, Kiyohito; Maruoka, Masahiro; Mandai, Kenji; Sakakibara, Shotaro; Ueda, Yuki; Komori, Takahide; Shimono, Yohei; Takai, Yoshimi

    2016-03-11

    Mammary gland development is induced by the actions of various hormones to form a structure consisting of collecting ducts and milk-secreting alveoli, which comprise two types of epithelial cells known as luminal and basal cells. These cells adhere to each other by cell adhesion apparatuses whose roles in hormone-dependent mammary gland development remain largely unknown. Here we identified a novel cell adhesion apparatus at the boundary between the luminal and basal cells in addition to desmosomes. This apparatus was formed by the trans-interaction between the cell adhesion molecules nectin-4 and nectin-1, which were expressed in the luminal and basal cells, respectively. Nectin-4 of this apparatus further cis-interacted with the prolactin receptor in the luminal cells to enhance the prolactin-induced prolactin receptor signaling for alveolar development with lactogenic differentiation. Thus, a novel nectin-mediated cell adhesion apparatus regulates the prolactin receptor signaling for mammary gland development. PMID:26757815