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1

TL dosimetry for quality control of CR mammography imaging systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work is to estimate the average glandular dose with thermoluminescent (TL) dosimetry and comparison with quality imaging in computed radiography (CR) mammography. For a measuring dose, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the American College of Radiology (ACR) use a phantom, so that dose and image quality are assessed with the same test object. The mammography is a radiological image to visualize early biological manifestations of breast cancer. Digital systems have two types of image-capturing devices, full field digital mammography (FFDM) and CR mammography. In Mexico, there are several CR mammography systems in clinical use, but only one system has been approved for use by the FDA. Mammography CR uses a photostimulable phosphor detector (PSP) system. Most CR plates are made of 85% BaFBr and 15% BaFI doped with europium (Eu) commonly called barium flourohalideE We carry out an exploratory survey of six CR mammography units from three different manufacturers and six dedicated X-ray mammography units with fully automatic exposure. The results show three CR mammography units (50%) have a dose greater than 3.0 mGy without demonstrating improved image quality. The differences between doses averages from TLD system and dosimeter with ionization chamber are less than 10%. TLD system is a good option for average glandular dose measurement for X-rays with a HVL (0.35-0.38 mmAl) and kVp (24-26) used in quality control procedures with ACR Mammography Accreditation Phantom.

Gaona, E.; Nieto, J. A.; Góngora, J. A. I. D.; Arreola, M.; Enríquez, J. G. F.

2

Clinical study in phase- contrast mammography: image-quality analysis.  

PubMed

The first clinical study of phase-contrast mammography (PCM) with synchrotron radiation was carried out at the Synchrotron Radiation for Medical Physics beamline of the Elettra synchrotron radiation facility in Trieste (Italy) in 2006-2009. The study involved 71 patients with unresolved breast abnormalities after conventional digital mammography and ultrasonography exams carried out at the Radiology Department of Trieste University Hospital. These cases were referred for mammography at the synchrotron radiation facility, with images acquired using a propagation-based phase-contrast imaging technique. To investigate the contribution of phase-contrast effects to the image quality, two experienced radiologists specialized in mammography assessed the visibility of breast abnormalities and of breast glandular structures. The images acquired at the hospital and at the synchrotron radiation facility were compared and graded according to a relative seven-grade visual scoring system. The statistical analysis highlighted that PCM with synchrotron radiation depicts normal structures and abnormal findings with higher image quality with respect to conventional digital mammography. PMID:24470410

Longo, Renata; Tonutti, Maura; Rigon, Luigi; Arfelli, Fulvia; Dreossi, Diego; Quai, Elisa; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Castelli, Edoardo; Tromba, Giuliana; Cova, Maria A

2014-03-01

3

A review of methods of clinical image quality evaluation in mammography  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeConsistency in evaluation of mammography images in research and clinical practice is dependent on a standardised clinical image quality evaluation system. Currently two such systems are available—one developed by the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the other by the European Commission (EU guidelines). The purpose of this study was to review mammography clinical evaluation methods in research studies and

Yanpeng Li; Ann Poulos; Donald McLean; Mary Rickard

2010-01-01

4

Exploratory survey of image quality on CR digital mammography imaging systems in Mexico.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the current status of image quality and dose in computed radiographic digital mammography (CRDM) systems. Studies included CRDM systems of various models and manufacturers which dose and image quality comparisons were performed. Due to the recent rise in the use of digital radiographic systems in Mexico, CRDM systems are rapidly replacing conventional film-screen systems without any regard to quality control or image quality standards. Study was conducted in 65 mammography facilities which use CRDM systems in the Mexico City and surrounding States. The systems were tested as used clinically. This means that the dose and beam qualities were selected using the automatic beam selection and photo-timed features. All systems surveyed generate laser film hardcopies for the radiologist to read on a scope or mammographic high luminance light box. It was found that 51 of CRDM systems presented a variety of image artefacts and non-uniformities arising from inadequate acquisition and processing, as well as from the laser printer itself. Undisciplined alteration of image processing settings by the technologist was found to be a serious prevalent problem in 42 facilities. Only four of them showed an image QC program which is periodically monitored by a medical physicist. The Average Glandular Dose (AGD) in the surveyed systems was estimated to have a mean value of 2.4 mGy. To improve image quality in mammography and make more efficient screening mammographic in early detection of breast cancer is required new legislation. PMID:23938078

Gaona, E; Rivera, T; Arreola, M; Franco, J; Molina, N; Alvarez, B; Azorín, C G; Casian, G

2014-01-01

5

Effect of image quality on calcification detection in digital mammography  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study aims to investigate if microcalcification detection varies significantly when mammographic images are acquired using different image qualities, including: different detectors, dose levels, and different image processing algorithms. An additional aim was to determine how the standard European method of measuring image quality using threshold gold thickness measured with a CDMAM phantom and the associated limits in current EU guidelines relate to calcification detection. Methods: One hundred and sixty two normal breast images were acquired on an amorphous selenium direct digital (DR) system. Microcalcification clusters extracted from magnified images of slices of mastectomies were electronically inserted into half of the images. The calcification clusters had a subtle appearance. All images were adjusted using a validated mathematical method to simulate the appearance of images from a computed radiography (CR) imaging system at the same dose, from both systems at half this dose, and from the DR system at quarter this dose. The original 162 images were processed with both Hologic and Agfa (Musica-2) image processing. All other image qualities were processed with Agfa (Musica-2) image processing only. Seven experienced observers marked and rated any identified suspicious regions. Free response operating characteristic (FROC) and ROC analyses were performed on the data. The lesion sensitivity at a nonlesion localization fraction (NLF) of 0.1 was also calculated. Images of the CDMAM mammographic test phantom were acquired using the automatic setting on the DR system. These images were modified to the additional image qualities used in the observer study. The images were analyzed using automated software. In order to assess the relationship between threshold gold thickness and calcification detection a power law was fitted to the data. Results: There was a significant reduction in calcification detection using CR compared with DR: the alternative FROC (AFROC) area decreased from 0.84 to 0.63 and the ROC area decreased from 0.91 to 0.79 (p < 0.0001). This corresponded to a 30% drop in lesion sensitivity at a NLF equal to 0.1. Detection was also sensitive to the dose used. There was no significant difference in detection between the two image processing algorithms used (p > 0.05). It was additionally found that lower threshold gold thickness from CDMAM analysis implied better cluster detection. The measured threshold gold thickness passed the acceptable limit set in the EU standards for all image qualities except half dose CR. However, calcification detection varied significantly between image qualities. This suggests that the current EU guidelines may need revising. Conclusions: Microcalcification detection was found to be sensitive to detector and dose used. Standard measurements of image quality were a good predictor of microcalcification cluster detection.

Warren, Lucy M.; Mackenzie, Alistair; Cooke, Julie; Given-Wilson, Rosalind M.; Wallis, Matthew G.; Chakraborty, Dev P.; Dance, David R.; Bosmans, Hilde; Young, Kenneth C. [National Co-ordinating Centre for the Physics of Mammography, Royal Surrey County Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Guildford GU2 7XX, United Kingdom and Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Jarvis Breast Screening and Diagnostic Centre, Guildford GU1 1LJ (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, St. George's Healthcare NHS Trust, Tooting, London SW17 0QT (United Kingdom); Cambridge Breast Unit, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, United Kingdom and NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, Cambridge CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15210 (United States); National Co-ordinating Centre for the Physics of Mammography, Royal Surrey County Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Guildford GU2 7XX, United Kingdom and Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); National Co-ordinating Centre for the Physics of Mammography, Royal Surrey County Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Guildford GU2 7XX, United Kingdom and Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

2012-06-15

6

Effect of image quality on calcification detection in digital mammography  

PubMed Central

Purpose: This study aims to investigate if microcalcification detection varies significantly when mammographic images are acquired using different image qualities, including: different detectors, dose levels, and different image processing algorithms. An additional aim was to determine how the standard European method of measuring image quality using threshold gold thickness measured with a CDMAM phantom and the associated limits in current EU guidelines relate to calcification detection. Methods: One hundred and sixty two normal breast images were acquired on an amorphous selenium direct digital (DR) system. Microcalcification clusters extracted from magnified images of slices of mastectomies were electronically inserted into half of the images. The calcification clusters had a subtle appearance. All images were adjusted using a validated mathematical method to simulate the appearance of images from a computed radiography (CR) imaging system at the same dose, from both systems at half this dose, and from the DR system at quarter this dose. The original 162 images were processed with both Hologic and Agfa (Musica-2) image processing. All other image qualities were processed with Agfa (Musica-2) image processing only. Seven experienced observers marked and rated any identified suspicious regions. Free response operating characteristic (FROC) and ROC analyses were performed on the data. The lesion sensitivity at a nonlesion localization fraction (NLF) of 0.1 was also calculated. Images of the CDMAM mammographic test phantom were acquired using the automatic setting on the DR system. These images were modified to the additional image qualities used in the observer study. The images were analyzed using automated software. In order to assess the relationship between threshold gold thickness and calcification detection a power law was fitted to the data. Results: There was a significant reduction in calcification detection using CR compared with DR: the alternative FROC (AFROC) area decreased from 0.84 to 0.63 and the ROC area decreased from 0.91 to 0.79 (p?image processing algorithms used (p?>?0.05). It was additionally found that lower threshold gold thickness from CDMAM analysis implied better cluster detection. The measured threshold gold thickness passed the acceptable limit set in the EU standards for all image qualities except half dose CR. However, calcification detection varied significantly between image qualities. This suggests that the current EU guidelines may need revising. Conclusions: Microcalcification detection was found to be sensitive to detector and dose used. Standard measurements of image quality were a good predictor of microcalcification cluster detection. PMID:22755704

Warren, Lucy M.; Mackenzie, Alistair; Cooke, Julie; Given-Wilson, Rosalind M.; Wallis, Matthew G.; Chakraborty, Dev P.; Dance, David R.; Bosmans, Hilde; Young, Kenneth C.

2012-01-01

7

Figure of Image Quality and Information Capacity in Digital Mammography  

PubMed Central

Objectives. In this work, a simple technique to assess the image quality characteristics of the postprocessed image is developed and an easy to use figure of image quality (FIQ) is introduced. This FIQ characterizes images in terms of resolution and noise. In addition information capacity, defined within the context of Shannon's information theory, was used as an overall image quality index. Materials and Methods. A digital mammographic image was postprocessed with three digital filters. Resolution and noise were calculated via the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), the coefficient of variation, and the figure of image quality. In addition, frequency dependent parameters such as the noise power spectrum (NPS) and noise equivalent quanta (NEQ) were estimated and used to assess information capacity. Results. FIQs for the “raw image” data and the image processed with the “sharpen edges” filter were found 907.3 and 1906.1, correspondingly. The information capacity values were 60.86 × 103 and 78.96 × 103?bits/mm2. Conclusion. It was found that, after the application of the postprocessing techniques (even commercial nondedicated software) on the raw digital mammograms, MTF, NPS, and NEQ are improved for medium to high spatial frequencies leading to resolving smaller structures in the final image. PMID:24895593

Michail, Christos M.; Kalyvas, Nektarios E.; Valais, Ioannis G.; Fudos, Ioannis P.; Fountos, George P.; Dimitropoulos, Nikos; Kandarakis, Ioannis S.

2014-01-01

8

What Makes a Good Mammography Image?  

SciTech Connect

The early detection of breast cancer requires a high quality image, which is provided by mammography. The main indicators of technical image quality, contrast, spatial resolution, noise and absence of artifacts, are described, as well as the elements responsible for their values in a mammography unit. Since screening mammography is applied to asymptomatic subjects, the optimization of the imparted dose compatible with required image quality is of importance.

Brandan, Maria-Ester [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 20-346, Mexico 01000 DF (Mexico)

2007-11-26

9

[Studies on image quality in mammography using a tungsten anode tube in conjunction with edge filters].  

PubMed

At present, mammography is usually performed using a molybdenum anode tube and a molybdenum filter. Theoretical considerations and experiments suggest that radiation from a tungsten anode and a filter with a K-edge in the region of 20 to 25 keV is better adapted to the size of the object to be examined than radiation from a molybdenum anode/molybdenum filter combination. As a result, a reduction in radiation exposure is possible for thicker objects. Comparison of image quality with various film-screen combinations has shown that the differences caused by the radiation from the tungsten anode and filter has less effect on the image quality than is due to variation in kV, object thickness and image receptor. It has further been shown that recognition of microcalcifications is limited to about 200 micron. PMID:2834793

Minski, M; Säbel, M; Aichinger, H; Joite-Barfuss, S

1988-04-01

10

A phantom using titanium and Landolt rings for image quality evaluation in mammography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A phantom for image quality evaluation of digital mammography systems is presented and compared to the most widely used phantoms in Europe and the US. The phantom contains objects for subjective detection of Landolt rings (four-alternative, forced-choice task) and for objective calculation of signal-difference-to-noise ratios (SDNR), both in a titanium background within a 12-step wedge. Evaluating phantom images corresponding to exposures between 15 and 160 mAs (average glandular dose between 0.2 and 2 mGy), the resulting scores were compared to the scores obtained following the European EPQC and American College of Radiology (ACR) protocols. Scores of the Landolt test equal to 19 and 8.5 and SDNR equal to 20 and 11 were found to be equivalent to the acceptable limiting values suggested by EPQC and ACR. In addition, the Landolt and SDNR tests were shown to take into account the anatomical variations in thickness and tissue density within the breast. The simplified evaluation method presented was shown to be a sensitive, efficient and reliable alternative for image quality evaluation of mammography systems.

de las Heras, Hugo; Schöfer, Felix; Tiller, Britta; Chevalier, Margarita; Zwettler, Georg; Semturs, Friedrich

2013-04-01

11

76 FR 60848 - National Mammography Quality Assurance Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...advisory committee of the Food and Drug Administration...National Mammography Quality Assurance Advisory Committee...Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration...changes to the Mammography Quality Standard Act (MQSA...soft copy mammography images; and (3)...

2011-09-30

12

Positron emission mammography imaging  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines current trends in Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) instrumentation and the performance tradeoffs inherent in them. The most common geometry is a pair of parallel planes of detector modules. They subtend a larger solid angle around the breast than conventional PET cameras, and so have both higher efficiency and lower cost. Extensions to this geometry include encircling the breast, measuring the depth of interaction (DOI), and dual-modality imaging (PEM and x-ray mammography, as well as PEM and x-ray guided biopsy). The ultimate utility of PEM may not be decided by instrument performance, but by biological and medical factors, such as the patient to patient variation in radiotracer uptake or the as yet undetermined role of PEM in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment.

Moses, William W.

2003-10-02

13

Image quality assessment in digital mammography: part I. Technical characterization of the systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many European countries, image quality for digital x-ray systems used in screening mammography is currently specified using a threshold-detail detectability method. This is a two-part study that proposes an alternative method based on calculated detectability for a model observer: the first part of the work presents a characterization of the systems. Eleven digital mammography systems were included in the study; four computed radiography (CR) systems, and a group of seven digital radiography (DR) detectors, composed of three amorphous selenium-based detectors, three caesium iodide scintillator systems and a silicon wafer-based photon counting system. The technical parameters assessed included the system response curve, detector uniformity error, pre-sampling modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Approximate quantum noise limited exposure range was examined using a separation of noise sources based upon standard deviation. Noise separation showed that electronic noise was the dominant noise at low detector air kerma for three systems; the remaining systems showed quantum noise limited behaviour between 12.5 and 380 µGy. Greater variation in detector MTF was found for the DR group compared to the CR systems; MTF at 5 mm-1 varied from 0.08 to 0.23 for the CR detectors against a range of 0.16-0.64 for the DR units. The needle CR detector had a higher MTF, lower NNPS and higher DQE at 5 mm-1 than the powder CR phosphors. DQE at 5 mm-1 ranged from 0.02 to 0.20 for the CR systems, while DQE at 5 mm-1 for the DR group ranged from 0.04 to 0.41, indicating higher DQE for the DR detectors and needle CR system than for the powder CR phosphor systems. The technical evaluation section of the study showed that the digital mammography systems were well set up and exhibiting typical performance for the detector technology employed in the respective systems.

Marshall, N. W.; Monnin, P.; Bosmans, H.; Bochud, F. O.; Verdun, F. R.

2011-07-01

14

Direct digital mammography image acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Mammography is a branch of radiology which could benefit greatly from the assimilation of digital imaging technologies. Computerized\\u000a enhancement techniques could be used to ensure optimum presentation of all clinical images. Beyond this it will facilitate\\u000a powerful new clinical resources such as computer-assisted diagnosis, tele-mammography, plus digital image management and archiving.\\u000a An essential precursor to all these advances is

A. R. Cowen; G. J. S. Parkin; P. Hawkridge

1997-01-01

15

Application of wavelets to the evaluation of phantom images for mammography quality control.  

PubMed

The main goal of this work was to develop a methodology for the computed analysis of American College of Radiology (ACR) mammographic phantom images, to be used in a quality control (QC) program of mammographic services. Discrete wavelet transform processing was applied to enhance the quality of images from the ACR mammographic phantom and to allow a lower dose for automatic evaluations of equipment performance in a QC program. Regions of interest (ROIs) containing phantom test objects (e.g., masses, fibers and specks) were focalized for appropriate wavelet processing, which highlighted the characteristics of structures present in each ROI. To minimize false-positive detection, each ROI in the image was submitted to pattern recognition tests, which identified structural details of the focalized test objects. Geometric and morphologic parameters of the processed test object images were used to quantify the final level of image quality. The final purpose of this work was to establish the main computational procedures for algorithms of quality evaluation of ACR phantom images. These procedures were implemented, and satisfactory agreement was obtained when the algorithm scores for image quality were compared with the results of assessments by three experienced radiologists. An exploratory study of a potential dose reduction was performed based on the radiologist scores and on the algorithm evaluation of images treated by wavelet processing. The results were comparable with both methods, although the algorithm had a tendency to provide a lower dose reduction than the evaluation by observers. Nevertheless, the objective and more precise criteria used by the algorithm to score image quality gave the computational result a higher degree of confidence. The developed algorithm demonstrates the potential use of the wavelet image processing approach for objectively evaluating the mammographic image quality level in routine QC tests. The implemented computational procedures could also enable the performance of advanced analyses to study potential dose reduction in a routine service. PMID:23060095

Alvarez, M; Pina, D R; Miranda, J R A; Duarte, S B

2012-11-01

16

Mammography Quality Standards Act and Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created and maintained by the FDA, this site is a clearinghouse of information for mammography facility personnel, educators and others about the implementation of MQSA or the Mammography Quality Standards Act of 1992. The purpose of MQSA was to \\"ensure that all women have access to quality mammography for the detection of breast cancer in its earliest, most treatable stages.\\" Congress reauthorized MQSA in the fall of 2004 extending the program to 2007 -- so users may also see references to MQSRA which refer to the Mammography Quality Standards Reauthorization Acts of 1998 and 2004. The full text of the act is accessible at the site as well as a good deal of information and guidance for those in mammography facilities - including information about inspections and certification. Scorecard information and articles which provide an overview about facilities\\' adherence to MQSA are available along with reports related to the MQSA program and accreditation.

2007-02-04

17

CR mammography: Design and implementation of a quality control program  

SciTech Connect

Despite the recent acquisition of significant quantities of computed radiography CR equipment for mammography, Mexican regulations do not specify the performance requirements for digital systems such as those of CR type. The design of a quality control program QCP specific for CR mammography systems was thus considered relevant. International protocols were taken as reference to define tests, procedures and acceptance criteria. The designed QCP was applied in three CR mammography facilities. Important deficiencies in spatial resolution, noise, image receptor homogeneity, artifacts and breast thickness compensation were detected.

Moreno-Ramirez, A.; Brandan, M. E.; Villasenor-Navarro, Y.; Galvan, H. A.; Ruiz-Trejo, C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico); Departamento de Radiodiagnostico, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, DF 14080 (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico)

2012-10-23

18

A prototype of mammography CADx scheme integrated to imaging quality evaluation techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

As all women over the age of 40 are recommended to perform mammographic exams every two years, the demands on radiologists to evaluate mammographic images in short periods of time has increased considerably. As a tool to improve quality and accelerate analysis CADe\\/Dx (computer-aided detection\\/diagnosis) schemes have been investigated, but very few complete CADe\\/Dx schemes have been developed and most

Homero Schiabel; Bruno R. N. Matheus; Michele F. Angelo; Ana Claudia Patrocínio; Liliane Ventura

2011-01-01

19

Adaptation of a clustered lumpy background model for task-based image quality assessment in x-ray phase-contrast mammography  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Since the introduction of clinical x-ray phase-contrast mammography (PCM), a technique that exploits refractive-index variations to create edge enhancement at tissue boundaries, a number of optimization studies employing physical image-quality metrics have been performed. Ideally, task-based assessment of PCM would have been conducted with human readers. These studies have been limited, however, in part due to the large parameter-space of PCM system configurations and the difficulty of employing expert readers for large-scale studies. It has been proposed that numerical observers can be used to approximate the statistical performance of human readers, thus enabling the study of task-based performance over a large parameter-space. Methods: Methods are presented for task-based image quality assessment of PCM images with a numerical observer, the most significant of which is an adapted lumpy background from the conventional mammography literature that accounts for the unique wavefield propagation physics of PCM image formation and will be used with a numerical observer to assess image quality. These methods are demonstrated by performing a PCM task-based image quality study using a numerical observer. This study employs a signal-known-exactly, background-known-statistically Bayesian ideal observer method to assess the detectability of a calcification object in PCM images when the anode spot size and calcification diameter are varied. Results: The first realistic model for the structured background in PCM images has been introduced. A numerical study demonstrating the use of this background model has compared PCM and conventional mammography detection of calcification objects. The study data confirm the strong PCM calcification detectability dependence on anode spot size. These data can be used to balance the trade-off between enhanced image quality and the potential for motion artifacts that comes with use of a reduced spot size and increased exposure time. Conclusions: A method has been presented for the incorporation of structured breast background data into task-based numerical observer assessment of PCM images. The method adapts conventional background simulation techniques to the wavefield propagation physics necessary for PCM imaging. This method is demonstrated with a simple detection task. PMID:22320800

Zysk, Adam M.; Brankov, Jovan G.; Wernick, Miles N.; Anastasio, Mark A.

2012-01-01

20

Comparison of standard mammography with digital mammography and digital infrared thermal imaging for breast cancer screening  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Screen-film mammography (SFM) has been considered the gold standard for breast cancer screening and detection. Despite its recognized value in detecting and characterizing breast disease, mammography has important limitations and its false-negative rate ranges from 4% to 34%. Given these limitations, development of imaging modalities that would enhance, complement, or replace mammography has been a priority. Digital mammography (FFDM) and digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI) are some of these alternative modalities. PMID:24591923

Kö?ü?, Nermin; Kö?ü?, Ayd?n; Duran, Müzeyyen; Simavl?, Serap; Turhan, Nilgün

2010-01-01

21

Comparison of Acquisition Parameters and Breast Dose in Digital Mammography and Screen-Film Mammography in the American College of Radiology Imaging Network Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The purpose of our study was to compare the technical performance of full-field digital mammography (FFDM) and screen-film mammography. MATERIALS AND METHODS The American College of Radiology Imaging Network Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial enrolled 49,528 women to compare FFDM and screen-film mammography for screening. For quality assurance purposes, technical parameters including breast compression force, compressed breast thickness, mean glandular dose, and the number of additional views needed for complete breast coverage were recorded and analyzed for both FFDM and screen-film mammography on approximately 10% of study subjects at each site. RESULTS Technical data were compiled on 5,102 study subjects at 33 sites. Clean data were obtained for 4,366 (88%) of those cases. Mean compression force was 10.7 dN for screen-film mammography and 10.1 dN for FFDM (5.5% difference, p < 0.001). Mean compressed breast thickness was 5.3 cm for screen-film mammography and 5.4 cm for FFDM (1.7% difference, p < 0.001). Mean glandular dose per view averaged 2.37 mGy for screen-film mammography and 1.86 mGy for FFDM, 22% lower for digital than screen-film mammography, with sizeable variations among digital manufacturers. Twelve percent of screen-film mammography cases required more than the normal four views, whereas 21% of FFDM cases required more than the four normal views to cover all breast tissue. When extra views were included, mean glandular dose per subject was 4.15 mGy for FFDM and 4.98 mGy for screen-film mammography, 17% lower for FFDM than screen-film mammography. CONCLUSION Our results show that differences between screen-film mammography and FFDM in compression force and indicated compressed breast thickness were small. On average, FFDM had 22% lower mean glandular dose than screen-film mammography per acquired view, with sizeable variations in average FFDM doses by manufacturer. PMID:20093597

Hendrick, R. Edward; Pisano, Etta D.; Averbukh, Alice; Moran, Catherine; Berns, Eric A.; Yaffe, Martin J.; Herman, Benjamin; Acharyya, Suddhasatta; Gatsonis, Constantine

2010-01-01

22

Computerized thermal breast imaging revisited: an adjunctive tool to mammography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical examination and mammography are the primary methods for the detection of breast cancer, but lead to a high rate of benign biopsies. A digital thermal imaging system was developed as an adjunct to mammography to aid in the differentiation of benign from malignant lesions. Patients scheduled for biopsy were enrolled after informed consent. Prior to biopsy, digital thermal images

Y. R. Parisky; K. A. Skinner; R. Cothren; R. L. DeWittey; J. S. Birbeck; P. S. Conti; J. K. Rich; W. R. Dougherty

1998-01-01

23

Digital Mammography Imaging: Breast Tomosynthesis and Advanced Applications  

PubMed Central

Synopsis This article discusses recent developments in advanced derivative technologies associated with digital mammography. Digital breast tomosynthesis – its principles, development, and early clinical trials are reviewed. Contrast enhanced digital mammography and combined imaging systems with digital mammography and ultrasound are also discussed. Although all these methods are currently research programs, they hold promise for improving cancer detection and characterization if early results are confirmed by clinical trials. PMID:20868894

Helvie, Mark A.

2011-01-01

24

Patient satisfaction and quality of care at four diagnostic imaging procedures: mammography, double-contrast barium enema, abdominal ultrasonography and vaginal ultrasonography  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The objective of this study was to measure patient satisfaction and to investigate the practical implications of monitoring\\u000a the quality of care at four radiology procedures. A survey was conducted immediately after the examinations in eight radiology\\u000a departments: 550 patients attending for mammography, 110 for double-contrast barium enema (DCBE), 97 for abdominal ultrasonography\\u000a and 90 for vaginal ultrasonography. Outcome

K. Løken; S. Steine; E. Lærum

1999-01-01

25

Quality control for digital mammography: Part II recommendations from the ACRIN DMIST trial  

SciTech Connect

The Digital Mammography Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST), conducted under the auspices of the American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN), is a clinical trial designed to compare the accuracy of digital versus screen-film mammography in a screening population [E. Pisano et al., ACRIN 6652--Digital vs. Screen-Film Mammography, ACRIN (2001)]. Part I of this work described the Quality Control program developed to ensure consistency and optimal operation of the digital equipment. For many of the tests, there were no failures during the 24 months imaging was performed in DMIST. When systems failed, they generally did so suddenly rather than through gradual deterioration of performance. In this part, the utility and effectiveness of those tests are considered. This suggests that after verification of proper operation, routine extensive testing would be of minimal value. A recommended set of tests is presented including additional and improved tests, which we believe meet the intent and spirit of the Mammography Quality Standards Act regulations to ensure that full-field digital mammography systems are functioning correctly, and consistently producing mammograms of excellent image quality.

Yaffe, Martin J.; Bloomquist, Aili K.; Mawdsley, Gordon E. [Imaging Research Program, Sunnybrook and Women's College Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)] (and others)

2006-03-15

26

Digital mammography, cancer screening: Factors important for image compression  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of digital mammography for breast cancer screening poses several novel problems such as development of digital sensors, computer assisted diagnosis (CAD) methods for image noise suppression, enhancement, and pattern recognition, compression algorithms for image storage, transmission, and remote diagnosis. X-ray digital mammography using novel direct digital detection schemes or film digitizers results in large data sets and, therefore, image compression methods will play a significant role in the image processing and analysis by CAD techniques. In view of the extensive compression required, the relative merit of 'virtually lossless' versus lossy methods should be determined. A brief overview is presented here of the developments of digital sensors, CAD, and compression methods currently proposed and tested for mammography. The objective of the NCI/NASA Working Group on Digital Mammography is to stimulate the interest of the image processing and compression scientific community for this medical application and identify possible dual use technologies within the NASA centers.

Clarke, Laurence P.; Blaine, G. James; Doi, Kunio; Yaffe, Martin J.; Shtern, Faina; Brown, G. Stephen; Winfield, Daniel L.; Kallergi, Maria

1993-01-01

27

Image Quality of Digital Direct Flat-Panel Mammography Versus an Indirect Small-Field CCD Technique Using a High-Contrast Phantom  

PubMed Central

Objective. To compare the detection of microcalcifications on mammograms of an anthropomorphic breast phantom acquired by a direct digital flat-panel detector mammography system (FPM) versus a stereotactic breast biopsy system utilizing CCD (charge-coupled device) technology with either a 1024 or 512 acquisition matrix (1024 CCD and 512 CCD). Materials and Methods. Randomly distributed silica beads (diameter 100–1400??m) and anthropomorphic scatter bodies were applied to 48 transparent films. The test specimens were radiographed on a direct digital FPM and by the indirect 1024 CCD and 512 CCD techniques. Four radiologists rated the monitor-displayed images independently of each other in random order. Results. The rate of correct positive readings for the “number of detectable microcalcifications” for silica beads of 100–199??m in diameter was 54.2%, 50.0% and 45.8% by FPM, 1024 CCD and 512 CCD, respectively. The inter-rater variability was most pronounced for silica beads of 100–199??m in diameter. The greatest agreement with the gold standard was observed for beads >400??m in diameter across all methods. Conclusion. Stereotactic spot images taken by 1024 matrix CCD technique are diagnostically equivalent to direct digital flat-panel mammograms for visualizing simulated microcalcifications >400??m in diameter. PMID:22332015

Krug, Kathrin Barbara; Stützer, Hartmut; Frommolt, Peter; Boecker, Julia; Bovenschulte, Henning; Sendler, Volker; Lackner, Klaus

2011-01-01

28

Voice-activated retrieval of mammography reference images  

Microsoft Academic Search

We undertook this project to integrate context sensitive computer-based educational and decision making aids into the film\\u000a interpretation and reporting process, and to determine the clinical utility of this method as a guide for further system development.\\u000a An image database of 347 digital mammography images was assembled and image features were coded. An interface was developed\\u000a to a computerized speech

Henry A. Swett; Pradeep G. Mutalik; Vladimir P. Neklesa; Laura Horvath; Carol Lee; Joan Richter; Irena Tocino; Paul R. Fisher

1998-01-01

29

Comparing the Performance of Image Enhancement Methods to Detect Microcalcification Clusters in Digital Mammography  

PubMed Central

Background Mammography is the primary imaging technique for detection and diagnosis of breast cancer; however, the contrast of a mammogram image is often poor, especially for dense and glandular tissues. In these cases the radiologist may miss some diagnostically important microcalcifications. In order to improve diagnosis of cancer correctly, image enhancement technology is often used to enhance the image and help radiologists. Methods This paper presents a comparative study in digital mammography image enhancement based on four different algorithms: wavelet-based enhancement (Asymmetric Daubechies of order 8), Contrast-Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE), morphological operators and unsharp masking. These algorithms have been tested on 114 clinical digital mammography images. The comparison for all the proposed image enhancement techniques was carried out to find out the best technique in enhancement of the mammogram images to detect microcalcifications. Results For evaluation of performance of image enhancement algorithms, the Contrast Improvement Index (CII) and profile intensity surface area distribution curve quality assessment have been used after any enhancement. The results of this study have shown that the average of CII is about 2.61 for wavelet and for CLAHE, unsharp masking and morphology operation are about 2.047, 1.63 and 1.315 respectively. Conclusion Experimental results strongly suggest that the wavelet transformation can be more effective and improve significantly overall detection of the Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system especially for dense breast. Compare to other studies, our method achieved a higher CII.

Moradmand, Hajar; Setayeshi, Saeed; Karimian, Ali Reza; Sirous, Mehri; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil

2012-01-01

30

Tomographic optical breast imaging guided by three-dimensional mammography  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a modified Tikhonov regularization method to include three-dimensional x-ray mammography as a prior in the diffuse optical tomography reconstruction. With simulations we show that the optical image reconstruction resolution and contrast are improved by implementing this x-ray-guided spatial constraint. We suggest an approach to find the optimal regularization parameters. The presented preliminary clinical result indicates the utility of

Ang Li; Eric L. Miller; Misha E. Kilmer; Thomas J. Brukilacchio; Tina Chaves; Jonathan Stott; Quan Zhang; Tao Wu; Maryann Chorlton; Richard H. Moore; Daniel B. Kopans; David A. Boas

2003-01-01

31

Breast cancer screening and problem solving using mammography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

Although mammography is the mainstay of early breast cancer detection, it has known limitations, particularly in women with dense breasts. As a result, additional imaging modalities, including ultrasound and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, are also being used to supplement mammography in the early detection of occult breast cancer. This article reviews the indications and efficacy of mammography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging as both screening and diagnostic tools. PMID:21343800

Hooley, Regina J; Andrejeva, Liva; Scoutt, Leslie M

2011-03-01

32

Modelling the imaging performance and low contrast detectability in digital mammography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A digital x-ray mammography is a modern method for the early detection of breast cancer. The quality of a mammography image depends on various factors, the detector structure and performance being of primary importance. The aim of this work was to develop an analytical model simulating the imaging performance of a new commercially available digital mammography detector. This was achieved within the framework of the linear cascaded systems (LCS) theory. System analysis has allowed the estimation of important image quality metrics such as the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), the Noise Power Spectrum (NPS) and the Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE). The detector was an indirect detection system consisting of a large area, 100?m thick, CsI:TI scintillator coupled to an active matrix array of amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) photodiodes combined with thin film transistors (TFT). Pixel size was 100?m, while the active pixel dimension was 70?m. MTF and DQE data were calculated for air kerma conditions of 25, 53, 67 ?Gy using a 28 kVp Mo-Mo x-ray spectrum. The theoretical results were compared with published experimental data. The deviation between the theoretical and experimental MTF curves was less than 4%, while the DQE differences were found at an acceptable level. The model was also used to estimate system's capability to detect low contrast objects in the breast. It was estimated that, in the breast gland, low contrast structures larger than 1.4mm can be adequately identified by the above system.

Spyropoulou, V.; Kalyvas, N.; Gaitanis, A.; Michail, C.; Panayiotakis, G.; Kandarakis, I.

2009-06-01

33

Compositional breast imaging using a dual-energy mammography protocol  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Mammography has a low sensitivity in dense breasts due to low contrast between malignant and normal tissue confounded by the predominant water density of the breast. Water is found in both adipose and fibroglandular tissue and constitutes most of the mass of a breast. However, significant protein mass is mainly found in the fibroglandular tissue where most cancers originate. If the protein compartment in a mammogram could be imaged without the influence of water, the sensitivity and specificity of the mammogram may be improved. This article describes a novel approach to dual-energy mammography, full-field digital compositional mammography (FFDCM), which can independently image the three compositional components of breast tissue: water, lipid, and protein. Methods: Dual-energy attenuation and breast shape measures are used together to solve for the three compositional thicknesses. Dual-energy measurements were performed on breast-mimicking phantoms using a full-field digital mammography unit. The phantoms were made of materials shown to have similar x-ray attenuation properties of the compositional compartments. They were made of two main stacks of thicknesses around 2 and 4 cm. Twenty-six thickness and composition combinations were used to derive the compositional calibration using a least-squares fitting approach. Results: Very high accuracy was achieved with a simple cubic fitting function with root mean square errors of 0.023, 0.011, and 0.012 cm for the water, lipid, and protein thicknesses, respectively. The repeatability (percent coefficient of variation) of these measures was tested using sequential images and was found to be 0.5%, 0.5%, and 3.3% for water, lipid, and protein, respectively. However, swapping the location of the two stacks of the phantom on the imaging plate introduced further errors showing the need for more complete system uniformity corrections. Finally, a preliminary breast image is presented of each of the compositional compartments separately. Conclusions: FFDCM has been derived and exhibited good compositional thickness accuracy on phantoms. Preliminary breast images demonstrated the feasibility of creating individual compositional diagnostic images in a clinical environment. PMID:20175478

Laidevant, Aurelie D.; Malkov, Serghei; Flowers, Chris I.; Kerlikowske, Karla; Shepherd, John A.

2010-01-01

34

Biologically derived companding algorithm for high dynamic range mammography images.  

PubMed

The screening mammography is currently the best procedure available for early detection of the breast cancer. The acquired mammograms are high dynamic range (HDR) images having a 12 bit grayscale resolution. When viewed by a radiologist, a single image must be examined several times, each time focusing on a different intensity range. We have developed a biologically derived mammography companding (BDMC) algorithm for compression, expansion, and enhancement of mammograms, in a fully automatic way. The BDMC is comprised of two main processing stages: 1) preliminary processing operations which include standardization of the intensity range and expansion of the intensities which belong to the low intensity range. 2) Adaptively companding the HDR range by integrating multiscale contrast measures. The algorithm's performance has been preliminarily clinically tested on dozens of mammograms in collaboration with experienced radiologists. It appears that the suggested method succeeds in presenting all of the clinical information, including all the abnormalities, in a single low dynamic range companded image. This companded and enhanced image is not degraded more than the HDR image and can be analyzed without the need for professional workstation and its specific enhancement software. PMID:23508248

Kanelovitch, Leon; Itzchak, Yaakov; Rundstein, Arie; Sklair, Miri; Spitzer, Hedva

2013-08-01

35

Local image registration a comparison for bilateral registration mammography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early tumor detection is key in reducing the number of breast cancer death and screening mammography is one of the most widely available and reliable method for early detection. However, it is difficult for the radiologist to process with the same attention each case, due the large amount of images to be read. Computer aided detection (CADe) systems improve tumor detection rate; but the current efficiency of these systems is not yet adequate and the correct interpretation of CADe outputs requires expert human intervention. Computer aided diagnosis systems (CADx) are being designed to improve cancer diagnosis accuracy, but they have not been efficiently applied in breast cancer. CADx efficiency can be enhanced by considering the natural mirror symmetry between the right and left breast. The objective of this work is to evaluate co-registration algorithms for the accurate alignment of the left to right breast for CADx enhancement. A set of mammograms were artificially altered to create a ground truth set to evaluate the registration efficiency of DEMONs , and SPLINE deformable registration algorithms. The registration accuracy was evaluated using mean square errors, mutual information and correlation. The results on the 132 images proved that the SPLINE deformable registration over-perform the DEMONS on mammography images.

Celaya-Padilaa, José M.; Rodriguez-Rojas, Juan; Trevino, Victor; Tamez-Pena, José G.

2013-11-01

36

Quality control for digital mammography in the ACRIN DMIST trial: Part I  

SciTech Connect

The Digital Mammography Imaging Screening Trial, conducted by the American College of Radiology Imaging Network, is a clinical trial designed to compare the accuracy of full-field digital mammography (FFDM) versus screen-film mammography in a screening population. Five FFDM systems from four manufacturers (Fischer, Fuji, General Electric, and Lorad) were employed in the study at 35 clinical sites. A core physics team devised and implemented tests to evaluate these systems. A detailed description of physics and quality control tests is presented, including estimates of: mean glandular dose, modulation transfer function (MTF), 2D noise power spectra, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The mean glandular doses for the standard breast ranged from 0.79 to 2.98 mGy, with 1.62 mGy being the average across all units and machine types. For the five systems evaluated, the MTF dropped to 50% at markedly different percentages (22% to 87%) of the Nyquist limit, indicating that factors other than detector element (del) size have an important effect on spatial resolution. Noise power spectra and SNR were measured; however, we found that it was difficult to standardize and compare these between units. For each machine type, the performance as measured by the tests was very consistent, and no predictive benefit was seen for many of the tests during the 2-year period of the trial. It was found that, after verification of proper operation during acceptance testing, if systems failed they generally did so suddenly rather than through gradual deterioration of performance. Because of the relatively short duration of this study further, investigation of the long-term failure characteristics of these systems is advisable.

Bloomquist, Aili K.; Yaffe, Martin J.; Pisano, Etta D. [Imaging Research Program, Sunnybrook and Women's College Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)] (and others)

2006-03-15

37

Breast Cancer Detection: Mammography and other methods in breast imaging, second edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The text addresses mammography and the advantages and limitations of other breast imaging methods presently available. The establishment of X-ray mammography as the safest and most accurate noninvasive method of early, nonpalpable breast cancer detection is addressed in the first section of the book. The second section emphasizes the signs of early cancer, the complete mammographic examination, and the team

L. W. Bassett; R. H. Gold

1987-01-01

38

An image reconstruction algorithm for 3-d electrical impedance mammography.  

PubMed

The Sussex MK4 electrical impedance mammography system is especially designed for 3-D breast screening. It aims to diagnose breast cancer at an early stage when it is most treatable. Planar electrodes are employed in this system. The challenge with planar electrodes is the inaccuracy and poor sensitivity in the vertical direction for 3-D imaging. An enhanced image reconstruction algorithm using a duo-mesh method is proposed to improve the vertical accuracy and sensitivity. The novel part of the enhanced image reconstruction algorithm is the correction term. To evaluate the new algorithm, an image processing based error analysis method is presented, which not only can precisely assess the error of the reconstructed image but also locate the center and outline the center and outline the shape of the objects of interest. Although the enhanced image reconstruction algorithm and the image processing based error analysis method are designed for the Sussex MK4 system, they are applicable to all electrical impedance tomography systems, regardless of the hardware design. To validate the enhanced algorithm, performance results from simulations, phantoms and patients are presented. PMID:25014954

Zhang, Xiaolin; Wang, Wei; Sze, Gerald; Barber, David; Chatwin, Chris

2014-12-01

39

Image fusion scheme for differential phase contrast mammography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Latest progresses in breast imaging using differential phase contrast technique pose the question how to fuse multiple information (yielded by the absorption, differential phase, and scattering signals) into a single, but more informative image for clinical diagnosis and evaluation. In this work, we propose an image fusion scheme based on the multiple-resolution (MR) framework. The three signals are first transformed into multiple bands presenting information at different frequency and then a two-step processing follows: section 3.2 an intra-band processing enhances the local signal-to-noise ratio using a novel noise estimation method and context modeling; section 3.3 an inter-band processing weights each band by considering their characteristics and contributions, as well as suppressing the global noise level. The fused image, which looks similar to conventional mammogram but with significantly enhanced detail features, is then reconstructed by inverse transform. This fused image is compatible with clinical settings and enables the radiologists to use their years of diagnosis experiences in mammography.

Wang, Z.; Clavijo, C. A.; Roessl, E.; van Stevendaal, U.; Koehler, T.; Hauser, N.; Stampanoni, M.

2013-07-01

40

Dosimetry and kVp standardization for quality assurance of mammography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Breast cancer mortality rates were significantly reduced in Taiwan after achieving early-stage monitoring with mammography screening. This study establishes an appropriate and traceable calibration infrastructure, which offers calibration services for mammography X-ray quality assurance instrumentation, which is performed clinically on a regular basis. The entrance air kerma, HVL, and kVp of mammography equipment with five different target/filter combinations can be taken as adequate indicators for the level of average glandular dose (AGD). The primary dose standard in mammography uses a free-air ionization chamber to estimate the rate of air kerma. Several correction factors were determined by Monte Carlo simulations and experiments. A secondary kVp standard in mammography is in accordance with the IEC 61676 recommendations. The calibration system of kVp meter uses a high-voltage divider, which is traceable to ITRI primary standard in Taiwan. Dose and kVp verifications were conducted by mammography instruments, which were previously calibrated by NIST and PTB. The evaluation results indicate that the capabilities of this irradiation system met the ISO 4037-1 requirements. The expanded uncertainties (k=2) were 1.03% and 1.6% when the mammography X-ray air kerma rate and kVp meter calibration factors were evaluated using ISO GUM. Experimental verification and a comparison with NIST using transfer ionization chambers yielded differences in calibration factors. Comparison with the PTB using kVp meter indicated a less than 1% difference. The results showed that dose and kVp standards were in reasonable agreement with standard uncertainty. The low uncertainties associated with the obtained results in this work show that the standardization employed can be accurately used for calibration of instrument in mammography in Taiwan.

Chu, Chien-Hau; Yuan, Ming-Chen; Huang, Wen-Sheng; Hsieh, Bor-Tsung

2014-11-01

41

Digital Mammography  

Cancer.gov

Conventional mammography uses X-rays to look for tumors or suspicious areas in the breasts. Digital mammography also uses X-rays, but the data is collected on computer instead of on a piece of film. This means that the image can be computer-enhanced,

42

What’s new in mammography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early diagnosis of breast cancer plays the leading role in reducing mortality rates and improving the patients’ prognosis: mammography is the most sensitive technique currently available for the detection of nonpalpable lesions and therefore the method of choice. However, mammography has some limitations and the technique must be improved with technological devices without affecting image quality. This could be the

Giovanni Simonetti; Elsa Cossu; Martina Montanaro; Cristiana Caschili; Valentina Giuliani

1998-01-01

43

Computerized evaluation of mammographic image quality using phantom images  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, quick and computerized method for quantitatively evaluating the image quality of mammography phantom images has been developed. Images of the American College of Radiology (ACR) mammographic accreditation phantoms were acquired under different X-ray techniques, scored and ranked subjectively by five expert readers, and digitized for quantitative analysis. The contrast and signal-to-noise (contrast-to-noise) ratios of the main nodule and

Geoffrey Dougherty

1998-01-01

44

Cost-effectiveness of Breast MR Imaging and Screen-Film Mammography for Screening BRCA1 Gene Mutation Carriers1  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of screening strategies in which MR imaging and screen-film mammography were used, alone and in combination, in women with BRCA1 mutations. Materials and Methods: Because this study did not involve primary data collection from individual patients, institutional review board approval was not needed. By using a simulation model, we compared three annual screening strategies for a cohort of 25-year-old BRCA1 mutation carriers, as follows: (a) screen-film mammography, (b) MR imaging, and (c) combined MR imaging and screen-film mammography (combined screening). The model was used to estimate quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and lifetime costs. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated. Input parameters were obtained from the medical literature, existing databases, and calibration. Costs (2007 U.S. dollars) and quality-of-life adjustments were derived from Medicare reimbursement rates and the medical literature. Sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of uncertainty in parameter estimates on model results. Results: In the base-case analysis, annual combined screening was most effective (44.62 QALYs), and had the highest cost ($110973), followed by annual MR imaging alone (44.50 QALYs, $108641), and annual mammography alone (44.46 QALYs, $100336). Adding annual MR imaging to annual mammographic screening cost $69125 for each additional QALY gained. Sensitivity analysis indicated that, when the screening MR imaging cost increased to $960 (base case, $577), or breast cancer risk by age 70 years decreased below 58% (base case, 65%), or the sensitivity of combined screening decreased below 76% (base case, 94%), the cost of adding MR imaging to mammography exceeded $100000 per QALY. Conclusion: Annual combined screening provides the greatest life expectancy and is likely cost-effective when the value placed on gaining an additional QALY is in the range of $50000–$100000. © RSNA, 2010 Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.09091086/-/DC1 PMID:20177093

McMahon, Pamela M.; Kong, Chung Y.; Kopans, Daniel B.; Ryan, Paula D.; Ozanne, Elissa M.; Halpern, Elkan F.; Gazelle, G. Scott

2010-01-01

45

CADx Mammography  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Although a wide variety of Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CADx) schemes have been proposed across breast imaging modalities, and\\u000a especially in mammography, research is still ongoing to meet the high performance CADx requirements. In this chapter, methodological\\u000a contributions to CADx in mammography and adjunct breast imaging modalities are reviewed, as they play a major role in early\\u000a detection, diagnosis and clinical management

Lena Costaridou

46

The Quality of Tumor Size Assessment by Contrast-Enhanced Spectral Mammography and the Benefit of Additional Breast MRI  

PubMed Central

Background - Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) is a promising new breast imaging modality that is superior to conventional mammography for breast cancer detection. We aimed to evaluate correlation and agreement of tumor size measurements using CESM. As additional analysis, we evaluated whether measurements using an additional breast MRI exam would yield more accurate results. Methods - Between January 1st 2013 and April 1st 2014, 87 consecutive breast cancer cases that underwent CESM were collected and data on maximum tumor size measurements were gathered. In 57 cases, tumor size measurements were also available for breast MRI. Histopathological results of the surgical specimen served as gold standard in all cases. Results - The Pearson's correlation coefficients (PCC) of CESM versus histopathology and breast MRI versus histopathology were all >0.9, p<0.0001. For the agreement between measurements, the mean difference between CESM and histopathology was 0.03 mm. The mean difference between breast MRI and histopathology was 2.12 mm. Using a 2x2 contingency table to assess the frequency distribution of a relevant size discrepancy of >1 cm between the two imaging modalities and histopathological results, we did not observe any advantage of performing an additional breast MRI after CESM in any of the cases. Conclusion - Quality of tumor size measurement using CESM is good and matches the quality of these measurement assessed by breast MRI. Additional measurements using breast MRI did not improve the quality of tumor size measurements. PMID:25561979

Lobbes, Marc B.I.; Lalji, Ulrich C.; Nelemans, Patty J.; Houben, Ivo; Smidt, Marjolein L.; Heuts, Esther; de Vries, Bart; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Beets-Tan, Regina G.

2015-01-01

47

Spectrum of diseases presenting as architectural distortion on mammography: multimodality radiologic imaging with pathologic correlation.  

PubMed

Architectural distortion is the third most-common appearance of breast cancer and often is a subtle finding on mammography. In this article, we review a variety of breast diseases that may present as architectural distortion on mammography; review the utility of correlative imaging, such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance; and review appropriate management for these diagnoses. Primary causes include breast cancer, ductal carcinoma in situ, radial scar, complex sclerosing lesion, and fat necrosis. Secondary etiologies include previous breast surgery, trauma, and infection. Familiarity with imaging findings presenting as distortion on multimodality imaging will optimize detection and management of this subtle-yet-significant finding. PMID:21782125

Shaheen, Rola; Schimmelpenninck, Catrien A; Stoddart, Lanu; Raymond, Howard; Slanetz, Priscilla J

2011-08-01

48

Development and validation of a modelling framework for simulating 2D-mammography and breast tomosynthesis images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planar 2D x-ray mammography is generally accepted as the preferred screening technique used for breast cancer detection. Recently, digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has been introduced to overcome some of the inherent limitations of conventional planar imaging, and future technological enhancements are expected to result in the introduction of further innovative modalities. However, it is crucial to understand the impact of any new imaging technology or methodology on cancer detection rates and patient recall. Any such assessment conventionally requires large scale clinical trials demanding significant investment in time and resources. The concept of virtual clinical trials and virtual performance assessment may offer a viable alternative to this approach. However, virtual approaches require a collection of specialized modelling tools which can be used to emulate the image acquisition process and simulate images of a quality indistinguishable from their real clinical counterparts. In this paper, we present two image simulation chains constructed using modelling tools that can be used for the evaluation of 2D-mammography and DBT systems. We validate both approaches by comparing simulated images with real images acquired using the system being simulated. A comparison of the contrast-to-noise ratios and image blurring for real and simulated images of test objects shows good agreement ( < 9% error). This suggests that our simulation approach is a promising alternative to conventional physical performance assessment followed by large scale clinical trials.

Elangovan, Premkumar; Warren, Lucy M.; Mackenzie, Alistair; Rashidnasab, Alaleh; Diaz, Oliver; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C.; Bosmans, Hilde; Strudley, Celia J.; Wells, Kevin

2014-08-01

49

Experimental and Monte Carlo-simulated spectra of standard mammography-quality beams  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT A spectrometric study of standard mammography-quality beams by using experimental and Monte Carlo simulation methods was carried out in this work. The qualities of these beams are described according to the International Electrotechical Commission 61267 standard and the Technical Report Series 457 International Atomic Energy Agency report. Specifically, the non-attenuated RQR-M beam series was studied. Methods A Si-PIN diode-based spectrometer and the PENELOPE Monte Carlo code (v. 2008F1) were used for experiments and simulations, respectively. In addition, an ionization chamber was used to determine the half-value layers (HVLs) of each beam quality. The measurements were done in the mammography dosimeter calibration setup of our laboratory, and the Monte Carlo simulations reproduced such conditions. Results The relative differences between the HVLs calculated from experimental and simulated spectra were lower than 2.4% for all the beam qualities studied. These differences are 1.2% and 3.1% when comparing the HVLs calculated from the experimental and simulated spectra to those determined by using the ionization chamber, respectively. A semi-empirical relation was found to obtain the nominal tube potential from the effective tube potential. Conclusion According to our results, the mammography beams used in this work have energy spectra similar to clinical beams. PMID:22010026

David, M G; Pires, E J; Bernal, M A; Peixoto, J G; Dealmeida, C E

2012-01-01

50

Comparison of mammography and breast infrared imaging: sensitivity, specificity, false negatives, false positives, positive predictive value and negative predictive value  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast infrared imaging (IRI) for detection of breast cancer has been unfairly maligned as having unacceptably high false positive and false negative rates. IRI actually has statistical performance characteristics that are similar to mammography. The false positive rate of 14% is about twice as high as mammography but surgical intervention is not possible (no increase in invasive procedures). Also, the

J. F. Head; C. A. Lipari; R. L. Elliott

1999-01-01

51

A Survey of Image Processing Algorithms in Digital Mammography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammography is at present the best available technique for early detection of breast cancer. The most common breast abnormalities\\u000a that may indicate breast cancer are masses and calcifications. In some cases, subtle signs that can also lead to a breast\\u000a cancer diagnosis, such as architectural distortion and bilateral asymmetry, are present. Breast abnormalities are defined\\u000a with wide range of features

Jelena Bozek; Mario Mustra; Kresimir Delac; Mislav Grgic

52

Task-based strategy for optimized contrast enhanced breast imaging: Analysis of six imaging techniques for mammography and tomosynthesis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The use of contrast agents in breast imaging has the capability of enhancing nodule detectability and providing physiological information. Accordingly, there has been a growing trend toward using iodine as a contrast medium in digital mammography (DM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). Widespread use raises concerns about the best way to use iodine in DM and DBT, and thus a comparison is necessary to evaluate typical iodine-enhanced imaging methods. This study used a task-based observer model to determine the optimal imaging approach by analyzing six imaging paradigms in terms of their ability to resolve iodine at a given dose: unsubtracted mammography and tomosynthesis, temporal subtraction mammography and tomosynthesis, and dual energy subtraction mammography and tomosynthesis. Methods: Imaging performance was characterized using a detectability index d{sup ?}, derived from the system task transfer function (TTF), an imaging task, iodine signal difference, and the noise power spectrum (NPS). The task modeled a 10 mm diameter lesion containing iodine concentrations between 2.1 mg/cc and 8.6 mg/cc. TTF was obtained using an edge phantom, and the NPS was measured over several exposure levels, energies, and target-filter combinations. Using a structured CIRS phantom, d{sup ?} was generated as a function of dose and iodine concentration. Results: For all iodine concentrations and dose, temporal subtraction techniques for mammography and tomosynthesis yielded the highest d{sup ?}, while dual energy techniques for both modalities demonstrated the next best performance. Unsubtracted imaging resulted in the lowest d{sup ?} values for both modalities, with unsubtracted mammography performing the worst out of all six paradigms. Conclusions: At any dose, temporal subtraction imaging provides the greatest detectability, with temporally subtracted DBT performing the highest. The authors attribute the successful performance to excellent cancellation of inplane structures and improved signal difference in the lesion.

Ikejimba, Lynda C., E-mail: lci@duke.edu [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Kiarashi, Nooshin [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)] [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Ghate, Sujata V. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)] [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Samei, Ehsan [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States) [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Lo, Joseph Y. [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States) [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)

2014-06-15

53

Synchrotron Radiation Mammography: Clinical Experimentation  

SciTech Connect

For several years a large variety of in-vitro medical imaging studies were carried out at the SYRMEP (Synchrotron Radiation for Medical Physics) beamline of the synchrotron radiation facility ELETTRA (Trieste, Italy) utilizing phase sensitive imaging techniques. In particular low dose Phase Contrast (PhC) in planar imaging mode and computed tomography were utilized for full field mammography. The results obtained on in-vitro samples at the SYRMEP beamline in PhC breast imaging were so encouraging that a clinical program on a limited number of patients selected by radiologists was launched to validate the improvements of synchrotron radiation in mammography. PhC mammography with conventional screen-film systems is the first step within this project. A digital system is under development for future applications. During the last years the entire beamline has been deeply modified and a medical facility dedicated to in-vivo mammography was constructed. The facility for PhC synchrotron radiation mammography is now operative in patient mode. The system reveals a prominent increase in image quality with respect to conventional mammograms even at lower delivered dose.

Arfelli, Fulvia; Dreossi, Diego; Longo, Renata; Rokvic, Tatjana; Castelli, Edoardo [Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Via A. Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); INFN, Via A. Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Abrami, Alessandro; Chenda, Valentina; Menk, Ralf-Hendrik; Quai, Elisa; Tromba, Giuliana [Sincrotrone Trieste SCpA, S.S. 14 km 163.5, 34012 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Bregant, Paola; De Guarrini, Fabio [Health Physics, Hospital, Via Pieta 19, Trieste (Italy); Cova, Maria A.; Tonutti, Maura; Zanconati, Fabrizio [Department of Radiology, University and Hospital, St. di Fiume 447, 34139 Trieste (Italy)

2007-01-19

54

The effect of image processing on the detection of cancers in digital mammography.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of image processing on the detection of cancers in digital mammography images. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Two hundred seventy pairs of breast images (both breasts, one view) were collected from eight systems using Hologic amorphous selenium detectors: 80 image pairs showed breasts containing subtle malignant masses; 30 image pairs, biopsy-proven benign lesions; 80 image pairs, simulated calcification clusters; and 80 image pairs, no cancer (normal). The 270 image pairs were processed with three types of image processing: standard (full enhancement), low contrast (intermediate enhancement), and pseudo-film-screen (no enhancement). Seven experienced observers inspected the images, locating and rating regions they suspected to be cancer for likelihood of malignancy. The results were analyzed using a jackknife-alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic (JAFROC) analysis. RESULTS. The detection of calcification clusters was significantly affected by the type of image processing: The JAFROC figure of merit (FOM) decreased from 0.65 with standard image processing to 0.63 with low-contrast image processing (p = 0.04) and from 0.65 with standard image processing to 0.61 with film-screen image processing (p = 0.0005). The detection of noncalcification cancers was not significantly different among the image-processing types investigated (p > 0.40). CONCLUSION. These results suggest that image processing has a significant impact on the detection of calcification clusters in digital mammography. For the three image-processing versions and the system investigated, standard image processing was optimal for the detection of calcification clusters. The effect on cancer detection should be considered when selecting the type of image processing in the future. PMID:25055275

Warren, Lucy M; Given-Wilson, Rosalind M; Wallis, Matthew G; Cooke, Julie; Halling-Brown, Mark D; Mackenzie, Alistair; Chakraborty, Dev P; Bosmans, Hilde; Dance, David R; Young, Kenneth C

2014-08-01

55

Integration of Vibro-Acoustography Imaging Modality with the Traditional Mammography  

PubMed Central

Vibro-acoustography (VA) is a new imaging modality that has been applied to both medical and industrial imaging. Integrating unique diagnostic information of VA with other medical imaging is one of our research interests. In this work, we establish correspondence between the VA images and traditional X-ray mammogram by adopting a flexible control-point selection technique for image registration. A modified second-order polynomial, which simply leads to a scale/rotation/translation invariant registration, was used. The results of registration were used to spatially transform the breast VA images to map with the X-ray mammography with a registration error of less than 1.65 mm. The fused image is defined as a linear integration of the VA and X-ray images. Moreover, a color-based fusion technique was employed to integrate the images for better visualization of structural information. PMID:17710254

Hosseini, H. Gholam; Alizad, A.; Fatemi, M.

2007-01-01

56

Quality-aware images  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose the concept of quality-aware image, in which certain extracted features of the original (high-quality) image are embedded into the image data as invisible hidden messages. When a distorted version of such an image is received, users can decode the hidden messages and use them to provide an objective measure of the quality of the distorted image. To demonstrate

Zhou Wang; Guixing Wu; Hamid Rahim Sheikh; Eero P. Simoncelli; En-Hui Yang; Alan Conrad Bovik

2006-01-01

57

Design of a novel phase contrast x-ray imaging system for mammography  

PubMed Central

It is hoped that x-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCi) will provide a generational improvement in the effectiveness of mammography. XPCi is sensitive to the refraction which x-rays undergo as a result of the variation in x-ray propagation speeds within an object. XPCi is, however, seldom used in clinical applications owing mainly to a lack of suitable systems. The radiation physics group at UCL has previously designed and built an XPCi system sensitive to phase gradients in one dimension for application in security inspection. We present here the design methodology and final design of a prototype XPCi system sensitive to phase gradients in two directions for use in mammography. The technique makes efficient use of the flux available from a laboratory x-ray source, thus making it suitable for clinical use. PMID:20601778

Munro, Peter R T; Ignatyev, Konstantin; Speller, Robert D; Olivo, Alessandro

2013-01-01

58

Revisiting Intensity-Based Image Registration Applied to Mammography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of architectural distortions and abnor- mal structures in mammographic images can be based on the anal- ysis of bilateral and temporal cases using image registration. This paper presents a quantitative evaluation of state-of-the art inten- sity based image registration methods applied to mammographic images. These methods range from a global and rigid transfor- mation to local deformable paradigms

Yago Díez; Arnau Oliver; Xavier Llado; Jordi Freixenet; Joan Marti; Joan Carles Vilanova; Robert Marti

2011-01-01

59

75 FR 11542 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Mammography...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...with the Mammography Quality Standards Act requirements...Management (HFA- 305), Food and Drug Administration...Information Management, Food and Drug Administration...ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity...review of their clinical images and providing the...

2010-03-11

60

Image quality evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is devoted to subjective and objective tests of image quality. The images were processed using different compressing algorithms (JPEG, KLT, Lura-wavelet) with compression ratio up to 100. After decompression they were tested on the quality changes. At first the subjective image quality test (DSCQS) was used. Then the objective quality test using the metric based on the human

Martin Bernas

2002-01-01

61

Monte Carlo simulation of a CsI-based flat-panel imager for mammography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of new digital mammography techniques such as dual-energy imaging, tomosynthesis and CT mammography often requires investigating optimal camera design parameters and imaging techniques. One tool that is useful for this purpose is Monte Carlo simulation. This paper presents a methodology for generating simulated images from a CsI-based, flat-panel imager by using the Geant 3 Monte Carlo code to model x-ray transport and absorption within the CsI scintillator, and the DETECT-II code to track optical photon spread within a columnar model of the CsI scintillator. The Monte Carlo modeling of x-ray transport and absorption within the CsI was validated by comparing to previously published values for the probability of a K-shell interaction, the fluorescent yield, the probability of a K-fluorescent emission, and the escape fraction describing the probability of a K x-ray escaping the scintillator. To validate the combined (Geant coupled with DETECT-II) Monte Carlo approach to form simulated images, comparison of modulation transfer functions (MTFs) and system sensitivity (electrons/mR/pixel) obtained from simulations were compared to empirical measurements obtained with different x-ray spectra and imagers with varying CsI thicknesses. By varying the absorption and reflective properties of the columnar CsI used in the DETECT-II code, good agreement between simulated MTFs and system sensitivity and empirically measured values were observed.

Thacker, Samta C.; Glick, Stephen J.; Badano, Aldo

2004-05-01

62

Near-infrared optical mammography: Imaging methods and human pilot studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical breast imaging uses near-infrared light, utilizes intrinsic optical absorption signatures of tissue chromophores such as hemoglobin, and localizes optical inhomogeneities including subsurface blood vessel structures and breast lesions that have increased vascular density. The different optical absorption signatures of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin can be exploited to yield some physiological information of the optical inhomogeneities such as tissue oxygenation. The advantages of optical mammography include the lack of ionizing radiation, its non-invasiveness, the relatively compact instrumentation, and its cost-effectiveness. More importantly, it has the potential to distinguish malignant tumors from benign lesions or normal tissue non-invasively. The primary limitation of optical breast imaging is the relatively poor spatial resolution compared with conventional techniques such as x-ray mammography. Another challenge is how to exploit its potential for quantitative and absolute measurements of oxygenation. In this work we show some strategies to improve the spatial resolution and to estimate the absolute oxygen saturation of breast tumors from a collinear tandem scan of source and detector in a planar geometry optical mammography. In particular we designed and constructed a hybrid continuous-wave/frequency-domain optical breast imaging system capable of taking one full breast image in 5 minutes or less. We developed a three-element phased-array approach to enhance spatial resolution and achieve depth discrimination, and a paired-wavelength spectral approach for quantitative and absolute oxygenation measurement. The theoretical analysis and experimental results have demonstrated the efficiency of the methods. The initial results in health breasts demonstrate the practical feasibility of our imaging method and its implementation into a clinical instrumentation. A whole-breast oxygenation map has been obtained, which, to the best of our knowledge, is so far the first non-invasive optical mammogram with quantitative and absolute oxygenation values associated to the fine structure inside breast.

Liu, Ning

63

Computer-aided diagnostics of screening mammography using content-based image retrieval  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Breast cancer is one of the main causes of death among women in occidental countries. In the last years, screening mammography has been established worldwide for early detection of breast cancer, and computer-aided diagnostics (CAD) is being developed to assist physicians reading mammograms. A promising method for CAD is content-based image retrieval (CBIR). Recently, we have developed a classification scheme of suspicious tissue pattern based on the support vector machine (SVM). In this paper, we continue moving towards automatic CAD of screening mammography. The experiments are based on in total 10,509 radiographs that have been collected from different sources. From this, 3,375 images are provided with one and 430 radiographs with more than one chain code annotation of cancerous regions. In different experiments, this data is divided into 12 and 20 classes, distinguishing between four categories of tissue density, three categories of pathology and in the 20 class problem two categories of different types of lesions. Balancing the number of images in each class yields 233 and 45 images remaining in each of the 12 and 20 classes, respectively. Using a two-dimensional principal component analysis, features are extracted from small patches of 128 x 128 pixels and classified by means of a SVM. Overall, the accuracy of the raw classification was 61.6 % and 52.1 % for the 12 and the 20 class problem, respectively. The confusion matrices are assessed for detailed analysis. Furthermore, an implementation of a SVM-based CBIR system for CADx in screening mammography is presented. In conclusion, with a smarter patch extraction, the CBIR approach might reach precision rates that are helpful for the physicians. This, however, needs more comprehensive evaluation on clinical data.

Deserno, Thomas M.; Soiron, Michael; de Oliveira, Júlia E. E.; de A. Araújo, Arnaldo

2012-03-01

64

Design and Construction of a Test Phantom for Screen/Film Mammography Quality Control  

SciTech Connect

A 10 x 10 x 4 cm Lucite phantom for quality control tests in mammography has been designed and built. It contains internal elements to quantify contrast and resolution, a mixture of talc and Lucite fibers to simulate the breast architecture, a 9-step aluminum wedge to verify the constancy of the film developing process, and metallic foils to evaluate kVp. Associated with an ionization chamber, the mean glandular dose can be evaluated. Its performance has been compared against the phantom accredited by the American College of Radiology. For a series of kV, both phantoms OD are similar within 5%. The step wedge can detect developer temperature changes of {+-}1 deg. C. Relative metal foils/acrylic OD permits to calculate kVp with precision of {+-}0.43 kV. Radiological measurements have been interpreted by numerical calculations.

Galvan, Hector; Grabski, Varlen; Ruiz, Cesar; Brandan, Maria-Ester [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, A.P. 20-364, 01000 DF (Mexico); Villasenor, Yolanda [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Av. San Fernando 22, Tlalpan 14080 DF (Mexico)

2006-09-08

65

Image quality and dose efficiency of high energy phase sensitive x-ray imaging: Phantom studies  

PubMed Central

The goal of this preliminary study was to perform an image quality comparison of high energy phase sensitive imaging with low energy conventional imaging at similar radiation doses. The comparison was performed with the following phantoms: American College of Radiology (ACR), contrast-detail (CD), acrylic edge and tissue-equivalent. Visual comparison of the phantom images indicated comparable or improved image quality for all phantoms. Quantitative comparisons were performed through ACR and CD observer studies, both of which indicated higher image quality in the high energy phase sensitive images. The results of this study demonstrate the ability of high energy phase sensitive imaging to overcome existing challenges with the clinical implementation of phase contrast imaging and improve the image quality for a similar radiation dose as compared to conventional imaging near typical mammography energies. In addition, the results illustrate the capability of phase sensitive imaging to sustain the image quality improvement at high x-ray energies and for – breast – simulating phantoms, both of which indicate the potential to benefit fields such as mammography. Future studies will continue to investigate the potential for dose reduction and image quality improvement provided by high energy phase sensitive contrast imaging. PMID:24865208

Wong, Molly Donovan; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

2014-01-01

66

Contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM): imaging modeling, computer simulations, and phantom study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contrast enhanced digital mammography (CEDM), which is based upon the analysis of a series of x-ray projection images acquired before/after the administration of contrast agents, may provide physicians critical physiologic and morphologic information of breast lesions to determine the malignancy of lesions. This paper proposes to combine the kinetic analysis (KA) of contrast agent uptake/washout process and the dual-energy (DE) contrast enhancement together to formulate a hybrid contrast enhanced breast-imaging framework. The quantitative characteristics of materials and imaging components in the x-ray imaging chain, including x-ray tube (tungsten) spectrum, filter, breast tissues/lesions, contrast agents (non-ionized iodine solution), and selenium detector, were systematically modeled. The contrast-noise-ration (CNR) of iodinated lesions and mean absorbed glandular dose were estimated mathematically. The x-ray techniques optimization was conducted through a series of computer simulations to find the optimal tube voltage, filter thickness, and exposure levels for various breast thicknesses, breast density, and detectable contrast agent concentration levels in terms of detection efficiency (CNR2/dose). A phantom study was performed on a modified Selenia full field digital mammography system to verify the simulated results. The dose level was comparable to the dose in diagnostic mode (less than 4 mGy for an average 4.2 cm compressed breast). The results from the computer simulations and phantom study are being used to optimize an ongoing clinical study.

Chen, Biao; Jing, Zhenxue; Smith, Andrew

2005-04-01

67

EDITORIAL: Optical mammography: Imaging and characterization of breast lesions by pulsed near-infrared laser light (OPTIMAMM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Commission of the European Union (EU) conceived its Fifth Framework Programme (FP5) to identify the priorities for the European Union's research, technological development and demonstration activities for the period 1998-2002. By encouraging collaborative research between groups in different member countries, FP5 was intended to help solve problems the EU is facing and respond to major socio-economic challenges. The programme focused on a number of objectives and areas combining technological, industrial, economic, social and cultural aspects. A specific call was made, under its `Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources' section, for proposals which aim to explore improvements in non-invasive methods of imaging for early diagnosis and clinical evaluation of disease. Among the projects successfully funded under the FP5 programme was one entitled `Optical mammography: Imaging and characterization of breast lesions by pulsed near-infrared laser light', known by its acronym OPTIMAMM. The project involved a consortium of nine partners, comprising ten applied science and clinical research groups based in six EU countries, with overall administration and management provided by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin, Germany. The broad aim of the OPTIMAMM project was to combine multi-disciplinary basic (physics, engineering, mathematics, computer science) and clinical (oncology, histology) research to assess the diagnostic potential of time-domain optical and photoacoustic mammography as novel, non-invasive imaging modalities for the detection and clinical evaluation of breast lesions. Funding for the project, at a total cost of about 1.67 MEuro, began in December 2000 for a period of three years, although a zero-cost extension was granted to enable the ongoing project activities to continue until the end of May 2004. The importance of developing new tools for the detection and diagnosis of breast disease is evident from the very high incidence and mortality associated with it, within the EU and throughout the world. Although x-ray mammography is recognized as an effective tool for cancer screening in women over 35-40 years of age, it suffers from a significant number of false positives which often lead to unnecessary biopsy. X-ray mammography is also less effective for younger women with denser breasts, and involves the use of potentially harmful ionizing radiation. While other conventional diagnostic techniques such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are also widely used in the diagnosis and characterization of breast disease, their roles in the detection and staging of breast tumours have so far been limited. The development of optical methods of imaging the breast is attractive partly because they are safe, but chiefly because they can reveal contrast between normal and diseased tissues which are not evident using conventional methods. The principal mechanism for contrast at near-infrared wavelengths is the characteristic absorption by haemoglobin and other dominant tissue chromophores, such as fat and water. Furthermore, the differences between the absorption of oxy-haemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin provide a means of determining oxygenation, and therefore of studying tissue function. The OPTIMAMM project focused specifically on the diagnostic potential of time-resolved methods. Systems which measure the flight-times of photons transmitted across highly scattering breast tissue offer the potential to provide greater spatial resolution and contrast than systems based on intensity measurements alone, and facilitate better separation between the effects of scatter and those of absorption. A major component of the project was a series of clinical trials performed at four European sites, in particular in Berlin (Germany) and Milan (Italy) using similar scanning instrumentation, carried out under a harmonized clinical protocol where appropriate. The clinical trials were augmented by efforts to refine semi-empirical and rigorous mathematical methods for data analysis and image reconstruction

Hebden, Jeremy C.; Rinneberg, Herbert

2005-06-01

68

Results about imaging with silicon strips for Angiography and Mammography  

E-print Network

of an iodate solution injected into 1 mm and 2 mm diameter vessels. Further developments, including a double to front configuration efficiency vs. energy: calculation (continuous line) and experimental data (stars) digital processing, transfer and storage of images is more convenient; (iii) by implementing a double

Ramello, Luciano

69

Predicting diagnostic error in Radiology via eye-tracking and image analytics: Application in mammography  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The primary aim of the present study was to test the feasibility of predicting diagnostic errors in mammography by merging radiologists gaze behavior and image characteristics. A secondary aim was to investigate group-based and personalized predictive models for radiologists of variable experience levels. Methods: The study was performed for the clinical task of assessing the likelihood of malignancy of mammographic masses. Eye-tracking data and diagnostic decisions for 40 cases were acquired from 4 Radiology residents and 2 breast imaging experts as part of an IRB-approved pilot study. Gaze behavior features were extracted from the eye-tracking data. Computer-generated and BIRADs images features were extracted from the images. Finally, machine learning algorithms were used to merge gaze and image features for predicting human error. Feature selection was thoroughly explored to determine the relative contribution of the various features. Group-based and personalized user modeling was also investigated. Results: Diagnostic error can be predicted reliably by merging gaze behavior characteristics from the radiologist and textural characteristics from the image under review. Leveraging data collected from multiple readers produced a reasonable group model (AUC=0.79). Personalized user modeling was far more accurate for the more experienced readers (average AUC of 0.837 0.029) than for the less experienced ones (average AUC of 0.667 0.099). The best performing group-based and personalized predictive models involved combinations of both gaze and image features. Conclusions: Diagnostic errors in mammography can be predicted reliably by leveraging the radiologists gaze behavior and image content.

Voisin, Sophie [ORNL] [ORNL; Pinto, Frank M [ORNL] [ORNL; Morin-Ducote, Garnetta [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hudson, Kathy [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

70

Predicting diagnostic error in radiology via eye-tracking and image analytics: Preliminary investigation in mammography  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The primary aim of the present study was to test the feasibility of predicting diagnostic errors in mammography by merging radiologists’ gaze behavior and image characteristics. A secondary aim was to investigate group-based and personalized predictive models for radiologists of variable experience levels.Methods: The study was performed for the clinical task of assessing the likelihood of malignancy of mammographic masses. Eye-tracking data and diagnostic decisions for 40 cases were acquired from four Radiology residents and two breast imaging experts as part of an IRB-approved pilot study. Gaze behavior features were extracted from the eye-tracking data. Computer-generated and BIRADS images features were extracted from the images. Finally, machine learning algorithms were used to merge gaze and image features for predicting human error. Feature selection was thoroughly explored to determine the relative contribution of the various features. Group-based and personalized user modeling was also investigated.Results: Machine learning can be used to predict diagnostic error by merging gaze behavior characteristics from the radiologist and textural characteristics from the image under review. Leveraging data collected from multiple readers produced a reasonable group model [area under the ROC curve (AUC) = 0.792 ± 0.030]. Personalized user modeling was far more accurate for the more experienced readers (AUC = 0.837 ± 0.029) than for the less experienced ones (AUC = 0.667 ± 0.099). The best performing group-based and personalized predictive models involved combinations of both gaze and image features.Conclusions: Diagnostic errors in mammography can be predicted to a good extent by leveraging the radiologists’ gaze behavior and image content.

Voisin, Sophie; Tourassi, Georgia D. [Biomedical Science and Engineering Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)] [Biomedical Science and Engineering Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Pinto, Frank [School of Engineering, Science, and Technology, Virginia State University, Petersburg, Virginia 23806 (United States)] [School of Engineering, Science, and Technology, Virginia State University, Petersburg, Virginia 23806 (United States); Morin-Ducote, Garnetta; Hudson, Kathleen B. [Department of Radiology, University of Tennessee Medical Center at Knoxville, Knoxville, Tennessee 37920 (United States)] [Department of Radiology, University of Tennessee Medical Center at Knoxville, Knoxville, Tennessee 37920 (United States)

2013-10-15

71

Multimodal hard X-ray imaging of a mammography phantom at a compact synchrotron light source  

PubMed Central

The Compact Light Source is a miniature synchrotron producing X-rays at the interaction point of a counter-propagating laser pulse and electron bunch through the process of inverse Compton scattering. The small transverse size of the luminous region yields a highly coherent beam with an angular divergence of a few milliradians. The intrinsic monochromaticity and coherence of the produced X-rays can be exploited in high-sensitivity differential phase-contrast imaging with a grating-based interferometer. Here, the first multimodal X-ray imaging experiments at the Compact Light Source at a clinically compatible X-ray energy of 21?keV are reported. Dose-compatible measurements of a mammography phantom clearly demonstrate an increase in contrast attainable through differential phase and dark-field imaging over conventional attenuation-based projections. PMID:22713884

Schleede, Simone; Bech, Martin; Achterhold, Klaus; Potdevin, Guillaume; Gifford, Martin; Loewen, Rod; Limborg, Cecile; Ruth, Ronald; Pfeiffer, Franz

2012-01-01

72

Multiple-reader studies, digital mammography, computer-aided diagnosis, and the Holy Grail of imaging physics: I  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are multiple sources of variability in clinical studies of imaging systems. The variation of the reader `mindset' establishes the need for ROC analysis to control for that fundamental variable. The demonstration of the range of reader skills in mammography shows the need for a multivariate approach to ROC analysis. The multiple-reader, multiple-case (MRMC) ROC experimental paradigm addresses this need and several practical solutions to the problem of analysis of MRMC data have been developed. We review the application of these methods to an important clinical comparison of digital and conventional mammography.

Wagner, Robert F.; Beiden, Sergey V.; Campbell, Gregory

2001-06-01

73

Computer-aided diagnosis of digital mammography images using unsupervised clustering and biclustering techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new methodology for computer aided diagnosis in digital mammography using unsupervised classification and classdependent feature selection is presented. This technique considers unlabeled data and provides unsupervised classes that give a better insight into classes and their interrelationships, thus improving the overall effectiveness of the diagnosis. This technique is also extended to utilize biclustering methods, which allow for definition of unsupervised clusters of both pathologies and features. This has potential to provide more flexibility, and hence better diagnostic accuracy, than the commonly used feature selection strategies. The developed methods are applied to diagnose digital mammographic images from the Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS) database and the results confirm the potential for improving the current diagnostic rates.

Al-Olfe, Mohamed A.; Al-Akwaa, Fadhl M.; Mohamed, Wael A.; Kadah, Yasser M.

2010-03-01

74

Applying the European protocol for the quality control of the physical and technical aspects of mammography screening threshold contrast visibility assessment to digital systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need to assure the image quality of digital systems for mammography screening applications is now widely recognized. One approach is embodied in Part B of the European Protocol for the Quality Control of the Physical and Technical Aspects of Mammography Screening (EPQCM), which prescribes criteria for several interconnected image quality metrics. The focus of this study is on the "threshold contrast visibility" (TCV) protocol (section 2.4.1 of the EPQCM), in which human observers score images of a CDMAM or similar 4-AFC phantom. This section of the EPQCM currently omits many critical experimental details, which must be gleaned from ancillary documents. Given these, the purpose of this study is to quantify the effects of several remaining experimental variables, including phantom design, and the methods used for scoring and analysis, on the measured results. Preliminary studies of two CDMAM version 3.4 (CDMAM 3.4) phantoms have revealed a 17% difference in TCV when averaged over all target diameters from 0.1 to 2.0 mm. This indicates phantom variability may affect results at some sites. More importantly, we have shown that the current CDMAM phantom design, methods for scoring, and analysis, substantially limit the ability to measure system performance accurately and precisely. An improved phantom design has been shown to avoid these limitations. Viewing environment and presentation context affect the performance and efficiency of visual scoring of phantom images. An automated display tool has been developed that isolates individual 4-AFC targets of CDMAM phantom images, automatically optimizes window/level, and automatically records observers' scores. While not substantially changing TCV, the tool has increased scoring efficiency while mitigating several of the limitations associated with unassisted visual scoring. For example, learning bias and navigational issues are completely avoided. Ultimately, software-based ideal observer scoring will likely prove to be a better approach. Statistical-decision-theory-based (SDT) analysis has been shown to mitigate limitations associated with the current CDMAM phantom and the ad hoc nearest-neighbor correcting (NNC) scoring method. NNC analysis is sensitive to the degree of incomplete scoring (stopping criteria). However, SDT substantially mitigates this problem, using all of the available data to derive thresholds that are more interpretable. Bootstrap sampling was used to provide an estimate of the standard error for SDT analysis. In conclusion, the current EPQCM section 2.4.1 protocol fails to measure TCV accurately and precisely enough to qualify digital mammography systems. This paper presents a series of recommendations that supplement section 2.4.1 of the EPQCM and that provide a stable and accurate measure of TCV.

Van Metter, Richard; Heath, Michael; Fletcher-Heath, Lynn

2006-03-01

75

Imaging performance of an amorphous selenium digital mammography detector in a breast tomosynthesis system  

PubMed Central

In breast tomosynthesis a rapid sequence of N images is acquired when the x-ray tube sweeps through different angular views with respect to the breast. Since the total dose to the breast is kept the same as that in regular mammography, the exposure used for each image of tomosynthesis is 1?N. The low dose and high frame rate pose a tremendous challenge to the imaging performance of digital mammography detectors. The purpose of the present work is to investigate the detector performance in different operational modes designed for tomosynthesis acquisition, e.g., binning or full resolution readout, the range of view angles, and the number of views N. A prototype breast tomosynthesis system with a nominal angular range of ±25° was used in our investigation. The system was equipped with an amorphous selenium (a-Se) full field digital mammography detector with pixel size of 85 ?m. The detector can be read out in full resolution or 2×1 binning (binning in the tube travel direction). The focal spot blur due to continuous tube travel was measured for different acquisition geometries, and it was found that pixel binning, instead of focal spot blur, dominates the detector modulation transfer function (MTF). The noise power spectrum (NPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of the detector were measured with the exposure range of 0.4–6 mR, which is relevant to the low dose used in tomosynthesis. It was found that DQE at 0.4 mR is only 20% less than that at highest exposure for both detector readout modes. The detector temporal performance was categorized as lag and ghosting, both of which were measured as a function of x-ray exposure. The first frame lags were 8% and 4%, respectively, for binning and full resolution mode. Ghosting is negligible and independent of the frame rate. The results showed that the detector performance is x-ray quantum noise limited at the low exposures used in each view of tomosynthesis, and the temporal performance at high frame rate (up to 2 frames per second) is adequate for tomosynthesis. PMID:18561674

Zhao, Bo; Zhao, Wei

2008-01-01

76

Anatomical noise in contrast-enhanced digital mammography. Part II. Dual-energy imaging  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Dual-energy (DE) contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM) uses an iodinated contrast agent in combination with digital mammography (DM) to evaluate lesions on the basis of tumor angiogenesis. In DE imaging, low-energy (LE) and high-energy (HE) images are acquired after contrast administration and their logarithms are subtracted to cancel the appearance of normal breast tissue. Often there is incomplete signal cancellation in the subtracted images, creating a background “clutter” that can impair lesion detection. This is the second component of a two-part report on anatomical noise in CEDM. In Part I the authors characterized the anatomical noise for single-energy (SE) temporal subtraction CEDM by a power law, with model parameters ? and ?. In this work the authors quantify the anatomical noise in DE CEDM clinical images and compare this with the noise in SE CEDM. The influence on the anatomical noise of the presence of iodine in the breast, the timing of imaging postcontrast administration, and the x-ray energy used for acquisition are each evaluated.Methods: The power law parameters, ? and ?, were measured from unprocessed LE and HE images and from DE subtracted images to quantify the anatomical noise. A total of 98 DE CEDM cases acquired in a previous clinical pilot study were assessed. Conventional DM images from 75 of the women were evaluated for comparison with DE CEDM. The influence of the imaging technique on anatomical noise was determined from an analysis of differences between the power law parameters as measured in DM, LE, HE, and DE subtracted images for each subject.Results: In DE CEDM, weighted image subtraction lowers ? to about 1.1 from 3.2 and 3.1 in LE and HE unprocessed images, respectively. The presence of iodine has a small but significant effect in LE images, reducing ? by about 0.07 compared to DM, with ? unchanged. Increasing the x-ray energy, from that typical in DM to a HE beam, significantly decreases ? by about 2 × 10{sup ?5} mm{sup 2}, and lowers ? by about 0.14 compared to LE images. A comparison of SE and DE CEDM at 4 min postcontrast shows equivalent power law parameters in unprocessed images, and lower ? and ? by about 3 × 10{sup ?5} mm{sup 2} and 0.50, respectively, in DE versus SE subtracted images.Conclusions: Image subtraction in both SE and DE CEDM reduces ? by over a factor of 2, while maintaining ? below that in DM. Given the equivalent ? between SE and DE unprocessed CEDM images, and the smaller anatomical noise in the DE subtracted images, the DE approach may have an advantage over SE CEDM. It will be necessary to test this potential advantage in future lesion detectability experiments, which account for realistic lesion signals. The authors' results suggest that LE images could be used in place of DM images in CEDM exam interpretation.

Hill, Melissa L.; Yaffe, Martin J. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)] [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Mainprize, James G. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)] [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Carton, Ann-Katherine; Saab-Puong, Sylvie; Iordache, R?zvan; Muller, Serge [GE Healthcare, 283 rue de la Minière, Buc 78530 (France)] [GE Healthcare, 283 rue de la Minière, Buc 78530 (France); Jong, Roberta A. [Breast Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)] [Breast Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Dromain, Clarisse [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulin, Villejuif 94805 (France)] [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulin, Villejuif 94805 (France)

2013-08-15

77

Theoretical characterization of imaging performance of screen-printed mercuric iodide photoconductors for mammography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We theoretically characterize the imaging performance of a hypothetical mercuric iodide (HgI2) photoconductor prepared by a screen printing method in terms of the spatial-frequency-dependent detective quantum efficiency (DQE) using the cascaded-systems analysis. In the DQE model, we use the ``photon-interaction process" in order to represent both the selection of interacting photons and subsequent conversion gain as a single process because both processes are not statistically independent but their probabilities are determined by the photon energy. We further include the thermal generation process of leakage current charges and the incomplete charge-collection process in the DQE model. Theoretical imaging performances of the hypothetical HgI2 photoconductor sample are compared with those of a 0.2-mm thick amorphous selenium (a-Se) under mammographic imaging conditions. It is shown that the hypothetical HgI2 with a smaller value of the average ionization energy than a-Se gives a better DQE performance at lower exposure levels, which suggests that a HgI2-based photoconductor may have the potential to reduce the patient dose in mammography applications. We believe that our theoretical assessment of imaging performances will be useful for determining the feasibility of novel photoconductor materials for x-ray imaging applications.

Yun, S.; Kim, H. K.; Jeon, H.; Tanguay, J.; Cunningham, I. A.

2014-05-01

78

Wavelet Image Interpolation (WII): A Wavelet-Based Approach to Enhancement of Digital Mammography Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer detection using mammography focuses on character- istics of tiny microcalciflcations, including the number, size, and spa- tial arrangement of microcalciflcation clusters as well as morphologi- cal features of individual microcalciflcations. We developed state-of-the- art wavelet-based methods to enhance the resolution of microcalciflca- tions visible in digital mammograms, thereby improving the speciflcity of breast cancer diagnoses. In our research, we

Gordana Derado; F. Dubois Bowman; Rajan Patel; Mary Newell; Brani Vidakovic

2007-01-01

79

Ultrasound image quality evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to evaluate the image quality of two different ultrasound image scanners before and after de-speckle filtering. The evaluation was made by statistical and texture analysis, as well as by optical perception by two vascular experts on 20 ultrasound images of carotid artery. The de-speckled filters used were based on: (i) local statistics, (ii) homogeneous

C. Loizou; C. S. Pattichis; R. Istepanian; M. Pantziaris; E. Kyriakou; T. Tyllis; A. Nicolaides

2003-01-01

80

Diagnostic clinical benefits of digital spot and digital 3D mammography following analysis of screening findings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to find out the impact of 3-dimensional digital mammography and digital spot imaging following analysis of the abnormal findings of screening mammograms. Over a period of eight months, digital 3-D mammography imaging TACT Tuned Aperture Computed Tomography+, digital spot imaging (DSI), screen-film mammography imaging (SFM) and diagnostic film imaging (DFM) examinations were performed on 60 symptomatic cases. All patients were recalled because it was not possible to exclude the presence of breast cancer on screening films. Abnormal findings on the screening films were non-specific tumor-like parenchymal densities, parenchymal asymmetries or distortions with or without microcalcifications or just microcalcifications. Mammography work-up (film imaging) included spot compression and microfocus magnification views. The 3-D softcopy reading in all cases was done with Delta 32 TACT mammography workstation, while the film images were read using a mammography-specific light box. During the softcopy reading only windowing tools were allowed. The result of this study indicates that the clinical diagnostic image quality of digital 3-D and digital spot images are better than in film images, even in comparison with diagnostic work-up films. Potential advantages are to define if the mammography finding is caused by a real abnormal lesion or by superimposition of normal parenchymal structures, to detect changes in breast tissue which would otherwise be missed, to verify the correct target for biopsies and to reduce the number of biopsies performed.

Lehtimaki, Mari; Pamilo, Martti; Raulisto, Leena; Roiha, Marja; Kalke, Martti; Siltanen, Samuli; Ihamäki, Timo

2003-05-01

81

Anatomical noise in contrast-enhanced digital mammography. Part I. Single-energy imaging  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The use of an intravenously injected iodinated contrast agent could help increase the sensitivity of digital mammography by adding information on tumor angiogenesis. Two approaches have been made for clinical implementation of contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM), namely, single-energy (SE) and dual-energy (DE) imaging. In each technique, pairs of mammograms are acquired, which are then subtracted with the intent to cancel the appearance of healthy breast tissue to permit sensitive detection and specific characterization of lesions. Patterns of contrast agent uptake in the healthy parenchyma, and uncanceled signal from background tissue create a 'clutter' that can mask or mimic an enhancing lesion. This type of 'anatomical noise' is often the limiting factor in lesion detection tasks, and thus, noise quantification may be useful for cascaded systems analysis of CEDM and for phantom development. In this work, the authors characterize the anatomical noise in CEDM clinical images and the authors evaluate the influence of the x-ray energy used for acquisition, the presence of iodine in the breast, and the timing of imaging postcontrast administration on anatomical noise. The results are presented in a two-part report, with SE CEDM described here, and DE CEDM in Part II. Methods: A power law is used to model anatomical noise in CEDM images. The exponent, {beta}, which describes the anatomical structure, and the constant {alpha}, which represents the magnitude of the noise, are determined from Wiener spectra (WS) measurements on images. A total of 42 SE CEDM cases from two previous clinical pilot studies are assessed. The parameters {alpha} and {beta} are measured both from unprocessed images and from subtracted images. Results: Consistent results were found between the two SE CEDM pilot studies, where a significant decrease in {beta} from a value of approximately 3.1 in the unprocessed images to between about 1.1 and 1.8 in the subtracted images was observed. Increasing the x-ray energy from that used in conventional DM to those of typical SE CEDM spectra with mean energies above 33 keV significantly decreased {alpha} by about a factor of 19, in agreement with theory. Compared to precontrast images, in the unprocessed postcontrast images at 30 s postinjection, {alpha} was larger by about 7.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} mm{sup 2} and {beta} was decreased by 0.2. While {alpha} did not vary significantly with the time after contrast administration, {beta} from the unprocessed image WS increased linearly, and {beta} from subtracted image WS increased with an initial quadratic relationship that plateaued by about 5 min postinjection. Conclusions: The presence of an iodinated contrast agent in the breast produced small, but significant changes in the power law parameters of unprocessed CEDM images compared to the precontrast images. Image subtraction in SE CEDM significantly reduced anatomical noise compared to conventional DM, with a reduction in both {alpha} and {beta} by about a factor of 2. The data presented here, and in Part II of this work, will be useful for modeling of CEDM backgrounds, for systems characterization and for lesion detectability experiments using models that account for anatomical noise.

Hill, Melissa L.; Yaffe, Martin J. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Mainprize, James G. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Carton, Ann-Katherine; Muller, Serge [GE Healthcare, 283 rue de la Miniere, Buc 78530 (France); Ebrahimi, Mehran [Faculty of Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Jong, Roberta A. [Breast Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Dromain, Clarisse [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulin, Villejuif 94805 (France)

2013-05-15

82

Image Quality Evaluation in Security Imaging Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subjective image quality of image or video information is a crucial item in security imaging systems. During the last five years our lab has tested and verified various approaches to the image compression for security purposes and the evaluation of subjective image quality. In the paper we discuss selected important facts related to the subjective image quality evaluation and

Milos Klima; Petr Pata; Karel Fliegel; Pavel Hanzlik

2007-01-01

83

Image quality evaluation using generalized natural image  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most image quality metrics are derived from feature values of specified test charts. However, such test charts can explain only a small portion of the comprehensive performances on image quality of imaging systems. Thus, designers of imaging systems need to check every possible type of natural image to verify the performance even if they check every image quality factor by

Kenji Kagitani

2008-01-01

84

Assessment of BI-RADS Category 4 Lesions Detected with Screening Mammography and Screening US: Utility of MR Imaging.  

PubMed

Purpose To investigate the utility of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging according to different types of Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 4 findings from screening mammography and/or screening ultrasonography (US). Materials and Methods This institutional review board-approved prospective study included 340 patients in whom 353 lesions were detected at screening mammography or US and were rated BI-RADS category 4 after appropriate conventional work-up. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Women underwent standard dynamic contrast material-enhanced MR imaging for further assessment. Women with negative or benign MR findings who did not proceed to biopsy underwent intensified follow-up for at least 18 months. Pure clustered microcalcifications were followed up for at least 24 months. Results Of the 353 study findings, 66 (18.7%) were finally shown to be true-positive (23 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ [DCIS], 43 invasive cancers) and 287 (81.3%) were false-positive. Assessment of MR imaging findings led to a correct diagnosis of no breast cancer in 264 of the 287 false-positive findings (92%) and helped confirm the presence of breast cancer in 63 of 66 malignancies. The false-negative rate for pure clustered microcalcifications was 12% (three of 25 cases) because of three nonenhancing low-grade DCIS cases; in turn, MR imaging depicted additional invasive cancers in three women with false-positive findings from mammography and US. For mammographic findings other than pure clustered microcalcifications, MR imaging increased the positive predictive value (PPV) from 17.5% (21 of 120 cases; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.7%, 24.3%) to 78% (21 of 27 cases; 95% CI: 62.1%, 93.5%), with a false-negative rate of 0%. For all US findings, MR imaging increased the PPV from 12.9% (20 of 155 cases; 95% CI: 7.6%, 18.2%) to 69% (20 of 29 cases; 95% CI: 52.2%, 85.8%), again with a false-negative rate of 0%. MR imaging resulted in false-positive findings that led to MR imaging-guided biopsy in five of the 340 patients (1.5%). Conclusion MR imaging is useful for the noninvasive work-up of lesions classified as BI-RADS category 4 at mammography or US and can help avoid 92% of unnecessary biopsies. The false-negative rate was 0% for all US findings and for all mammographic findings except pure clustered microcalcifications. Additional invasive cancers were identified in three women with false-positive findings from mammography and US. © RSNA, 2014. PMID:25271857

Strobel, Kevin; Schrading, Simone; Hansen, Nienke L; Barabasch, Alexandra; Kuhl, Christiane K

2015-02-01

85

Image quality evaluation of infrared image  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the imaging procedure an infrared picture include an object image, a background image and a noise image. The object image and the background image are main body of an infrared image; noise image is the disturbance on the main body. This paper discusses the infrared image quality from three aspects: information capacity, image detail and pseudo-s\\/n ratio, it

Chun-mei Xu; Gang Li; Wengang Hu; Wei Zhang

2005-01-01

86

SSA Image Quality Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper evaluates the ITIQUE image quality modeling framework for SSA applications. Based on Bovik and Sheik’s VIF metric, ITIQUE evaluates the Shannon mutual information (MI) at multiple spatial scales between a pristine object and the image output from a detailed image formation chain simulation. Integrating the MI at each spatial scale and applying a calibration offset produces a prediction of NIIRS image quality indicating the level of interpretation tasks that could be supported. The model enables prediction of NIIRS quality obtainable as dependent on image collection conditions and image system design including both hardware and processing algorithms. The ITIQUE framework could facilitate concept evaluation and engineering design by quantitatively relating image formation performance directly in terms of end end-user mission needs. Previous work focused on overhead imagery of terrestrial scenes and linear processing only. This paper considers ground-based imaging of SSA targets and extends the previous study to include non-linear processing. A range of turbulence strengths and SNRs are included. ITIQUE predictions are shown to match well to results from a human visual assessment study in which a panel of human observers rated NIIRS quality of the same imagery.

Luna, C.; Gerwe, D.; Calef, B.

2010-09-01

87

First validation of a new phantom for global quality control in digital mammography  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of an EC funded project, the design for a new phantom has been proposed that consists of a smaller contrast-detail part than the CDMAM phantom and that contains items for other parts of an acceptance protocol for digital mammography. A first prototype of the \\

H. Bosmans; K. Nijs; K. Young; F. Rogge; P. Morán; M. Chevalier; M. Borowski; R. van Engen; A. Taibi; J. Cook; Guy Marchal

2006-01-01

88

Intelligent mammography retrieval engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to develop a prototype called intelligent mammography retrieval engine. It can be implemented as a computer software that able to examine\\/analyst digital mammogram image and automatically yield its finding and recommendation. The computerized examination is done through comparison of a new digital mammogram image with the existing collection of digital mammogram image in the

Raman Valliappan; P. Then

2007-01-01

89

Regulation of Mammography  

MedlinePLUS

... and doctors find those facilities that provided high-quality screening services. In 1986, the ACR started the first national ... raised standards nationwide and led to better mammogram services at those ... Mammography Quality Standards Act (MQSA) to ensure that radiology facilities ...

90

A study of the dependence of the dose measurement and image assessment on the variations in the patient's position and the exposure conditions for CT mammography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study compared and analyzed the variation in the image quality with changes in the positions of breast cancer patients during imaging, and examined acrylic and breast phantoms. In the phantom study, the kilo-voltage-peak (kVp) and the milliampere-second (mAs) for the acrylic phantom was changed from (A) 120 kVp/100 mAs to (B) 100 kVp/100 mAs, (C) 120 kVP/70 mAs, (D) 100 kVp/70mAs, (E) 120 kVp/50 mAs, (F) 100 kVp/50 mAs, (G) 120 kVp/30 mAs, and (H) 100 kVp/30 mAs in order to conduct scanning before the exposure dose measurement. Under the same scanning conditions for the target patients, we used images of the arterial phase in the supine position, which had been obtained most recently, and a breast holder for the prone position, which had been manufactured for this study. This was done to conduct a qualitative assessment based on CT (computed tomography) mammography images that were taken with the patients in the prone position to ensure that the breasts were not pressed but spread downward as much as possible. The exposure doses were measured during scanning at 120 kVp/100 mAs, which is currently applied to the clinical stage and used for the phantom study, and at 100 kVp/70 mAs, which was used for this study, before being compared and recorded. Based on the study results, it was possible to establish the standard for determining the optimum dose without any change in the amount of clinical information by conducting CT mammography scanning with 100 kVp/70 mAs and with the patient in the prone position.

Kim, Hyun-Ju; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Hoo-Min; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Park, Yong-Soon; Chung, Woon-Kwan

2013-01-01

91

Optimization of breast cancer detection in Dual Energy X-ray Mammography using a CMOS imaging detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dual energy mammography has the ability to improve the detection of microcalcifications leading to early diagnosis of breast cancer. In this simulation study, a prototype dual energy mammography system, using a CMOS based imaging detector with different X-ray spectra, was modeled. The device consists of a 33.91 mg/cm2 Gd2O2S:Tb scintillator screen, placed in direct contact with the sensor, with a pixel size of 22.5 ?m. Various filter materials and tube voltages of a Tungsten (W) anode for both the low and high energy were examined. The selection of the filters applied to W spectra was based on their K- edges (K-edge filtering). Hydroxyapatite (HAp) was used to simulate microcalcifications. Calcification signal-to-noise ratio (SNRtc) was calculated for entrance surface dose within the acceptable levels of conventional mammography. Optimization was based on the maximization of SNRtc while minimizing the entrance dose. The best compromise between SNRtc value and dose was provided by a 35kVp X-ray spectrum with added beam filtration of 100?m Pd and a 70kVp Yb filtered spectrum of 800 ?m for the low and high energy, respectively. Computer simulation results show that a SNRtc value of 3.6 can be achieved for a calcification size of 200 ?m. Compared with previous studies, this method can improve detectability of microcalcifications.

Koukou, V.; Fountos, G.; Martini, N.; Sotiropoulou, P.; Michail, C.; Kalyvas, N.; Valais, I.; Bakas, A.; Kounadi, E.; Kandarakis, I.; Nikiforidis, G.

2015-01-01

92

Comparison of breast tissue measurements using magnetic resonance imaging, digital mammography and a mathematical algorithm  

PubMed Central

Women with mostly mammographically dense fibroglandular tissue (breast density, BD) have a 4- to 6-fold increased risk for breast cancer compared to women with little BD. BD is most frequently estimated from 2-dimensional (2-D) views of mammograms by a histogram segmentation approach (HSM) and more recently by a mathematical algorithm consisting of mammographic imaging parameters (MATH). Two non-invasive clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols: 3-D gradient-echo (3DGRE) and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) were modified for 3-D volumetric reconstruction of the breast for measuring fatty and fibroglandular tissue volumes by a Gaussian-distribution curve-fitting algorithm. Replicate breast exams (N= 2 to 7 replicates in 6 women) by 3DGRE and STIR were highly reproducible for all tissue-volume estimates (coefficients of variation <5%). Reliability studies compared measurements from four methods, 3DGRE, STIR, HSM, and MATH (N=95 women) by linear regression and intra-class correlation (ICC) analyses. Rsqr, regression slopes, and ICC, respectively, were (I) 0.76–0.86, 0.8–1.1, and 0.87–0.92 for %-gland tissue, (II) 0.72–0.82, 0.64–0.96, and 0.77–0.91, for glandular volume, (III) 0.87–0.98, 0.94–1.07, and 0.89–0.99, for fat volume, and (IV) 0.89–0.98, 0.94–1.00, and 0.89–0.98, for total breast volume. For all values estimated, the correlation was stronger for comparisons between the two MRI than between each MRI vs. mammography, and between each MRI vs. MATH data than between each MRI vs. HSM data. All ICC values were >0.75 indicating that all four methods were reliable for measuring BD and that the mathematical algorithm and the two complimentary non-invasive MRI protocols could objectively and reliably estimate different types of breast tissues. PMID:23044556

Lu, Lee-Jane W.; Nishino, Thomas K.; Johnson, Raleigh F.; Nayeem, Fatima; Brunder, Donald G.; Ju, Hyunsu; Leonard, Morton H.; Grady, James J.; Khamapirad, Tuenchit

2012-01-01

93

Comparison of breast tissue measurements using magnetic resonance imaging, digital mammography and a mathematical algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Women with mostly mammographically dense fibroglandular tissue (breast density, BD) have a four- to six-fold increased risk for breast cancer compared to women with little BD. BD is most frequently estimated from two-dimensional (2D) views of mammograms by a histogram segmentation approach (HSM) and more recently by a mathematical algorithm consisting of mammographic imaging parameters (MATH). Two non-invasive clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols: 3D gradient-echo (3DGRE) and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) were modified for 3D volumetric reconstruction of the breast for measuring fatty and fibroglandular tissue volumes by a Gaussian-distribution curve-fitting algorithm. Replicate breast exams (N = 2 to 7 replicates in six women) by 3DGRE and STIR were highly reproducible for all tissue-volume estimates (coefficients of variation <5%). Reliability studies compared measurements from four methods, 3DGRE, STIR, HSM, and MATH (N = 95 women) by linear regression and intra-class correlation (ICC) analyses. Rsqr, regression slopes, and ICC, respectively, were (1) 0.76-0.86, 0.8-1.1, and 0.87-0.92 for %-gland tissue, (2) 0.72-0.82, 0.64-0.96, and 0.77-0.91, for glandular volume, (3) 0.87-0.98, 0.94-1.07, and 0.89-0.99, for fat volume, and (4) 0.89-0.98, 0.94-1.00, and 0.89-0.98, for total breast volume. For all values estimated, the correlation was stronger for comparisons between the two MRI than between each MRI versus mammography, and between each MRI versus MATH data than between each MRI versus HSM data. All ICC values were >0.75 indicating that all four methods were reliable for measuring BD and that the mathematical algorithm and the two complimentary non-invasive MRI protocols could objectively and reliably estimate different types of breast tissues.

Lu, Lee-Jane W.; Nishino, Thomas K.; Johnson, Raleigh F.; Nayeem, Fatima; Brunder, Donald G.; Ju, Hyunsu; Leonard, Morton H., Jr.; Grady, James J.; Khamapirad, Tuenchit

2012-11-01

94

Imaging Food Quality Flemming Mller  

E-print Network

Imaging Food Quality Flemming Møller Kongens Lyngby 2012 IMM-PHD-2012-288 #12;Technical University Imaging and spectroscopy have long been established methods for food quality control both the image data to predict or visualise food quality. A range of different food quality parameters

95

Fourier analysis of the imaging characteristics of a CMOS active pixel detector for mammography by using a linearization method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active pixel design using the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process is a compelling solution for use in X-ray imaging detectors because of its excellent electronic noise characteristics. We have investigated the imaging performance of a CMOS active pixel photodiode array coupled to a granular phosphor through a fiber-optic faceplate for mammographic applications. The imaging performance included the modulation-transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Because we observed a nonlinear detector response at low exposures, we used the linearization method for the analysis of the DQE. The linearization method uses the images obtained at detector input, which are converted from those obtained at detector output by using the inverse of the detector response. Compared to the conventional method, the linearization method provided almost the same MTF and a slightly lower normalized NPS. However, the difference between the DQE results obtained by using the two methods was significant. We claim that the conventional DQE analysis of a detector having a nonlinear response characteristic can yield wrong results. Under the standard mammographic imaging condition, we obtained a DQE performance that was competitive with the performances of conventional flat-panel mammography detectors. We believe that the CMOS detector investigated in this study can be successfully used for mammography.

Han, Jong Chul; Yun, Seungman; Youn, Hanbean; Kam, Soohwa; Cho, Seungryong; Achterkirchen, Thorsten G.; Kim, Ho Kyung

2014-09-01

96

Breast Density and Mammography Reporting Act (H.R. 716/S. 370, 114th Congress)  

Cancer.gov

The bill would amend the Mammography Quality Standards Act (MSQA) of 1992 to require mammography results to include information about a patient’s breast density, and for that information to be reported to patients in their mammography results summary.

97

Positron emission mammography in breast cancer presurgical planning: comparisons with magnetic resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

Purpose The objective of this study was to compare the performance characteristics of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission mammography (PEM) with breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a presurgical imaging and planning option for index and ipsilateral lesions in patients with newly diagnosed, biopsy-proven breast cancer. Methods Two hundred and eight women >25 years of age (median age?=?59.7?±?14.1 years) with biopsy-proven primary breast cancer enrolled in this prospective, single-site study. MRI, PEM, and whole-body positron emission tomography (WBPET) were conducted on each patient within 7 business days. PEM and WBPET images were acquired on the same day after intravenous administration of 370 MBq of FDG (median?=?432.9 MBq). PEM and MRI images were blindly evaluated, compared with final surgical histopathology, and the sensitivity determined. Substudy analysis compared the sensitivity of PEM versus MRI in patients with different menopausal status, breast density, and use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) as well as determination of performance characteristics for additional ipsilateral lesion detection. Results Two hundred and eight patients enrolled in the study of which 87% (182/208) were analyzable. Of these analyzable patients, 26.4% (48/182), 7.1% (13/182), and 64.2% (120/182) were pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal, respectively, and 48.4% (88/182) had extremely or heterogeneously dense breast tissue, while 33.5% (61/182) had a history of HRT use. Ninety-two percent (167/182) underwent core biopsy for index lesion diagnosis. Invasive cancer was found in 77.5% (141/182), while ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and/or Paget’s disease were found in 22.5% (41/182) of patients. Both PEM and MRI had index lesion depiction sensitivity of 92.8% and both were significantly better than WBPET (67.9%, p?imaging option and its performance characteristics are not affected by patient menopausal/hormonal status or breast density. PMID:20871992

Narayanan, Deepa; Kalinyak, Judith E.; The, Juliette; Velasquez, Maria Victoria; Kahn, Simone; Saady, Matthew; Mahal, Ravinder; Chrystal, Larraine

2010-01-01

98

Modeling, validation and application of a mathematical tissue-equivalent breast phantom for linear slot-scanning digital mammography  

PubMed Central

This report presents a mathematical tissue-equivalent breast phantom for linear slot-scanning digital mammography. A recently developed prototype linear slot-scanning digital mammography system was used for model validation; image quality metrics such as image contrast and contrast-to-noise ratio were calculated. The results were in good agreement with values measured using a physical breast-equivalent phantom designed for mammography. The estimated pixel intensity of the mathematical phantom, the analogue-to-digital conversion gain, and the detector additive noise showed good agreement with measured values with correlation of nearly 1. An application of the model, to examine the feasibility of using a monochromatic filter for dose reduction and improvement of image quality in slot-scanning digital mammography, is presented. PMID:19229099

Hussein, K; Vaughan, CL; Douglas, TS

2010-01-01

99

Dose sensitivity of three phantoms used for quality assurance in digital mammography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technical quality assurance (QA) is one of the key issues in breast cancer screening protocols. For this QA task, three different methods are commonly used to assess image quality. The European protocol suggests a contrast-detail phantom (e.g. the CDMAM phantom), while in North America the American College of Radiology (ACR) accreditation phantom is proposed. Alternatively, phantoms based on image quality parameters from applied system theory such as the noise-equivalent number of quanta (NEQ) are applied (e.g. the PAS 1054 phantom). The aim of this paper was to correlate the changes in the output of the three evaluation methods (CDMAM, ACR and NEQ) with changes in dose. We varied the time-current product within a range of clinically used values (40-140 mAs, corresponding to 3.5-12.4 mGy entrance dose and detector dose of 32-110 ?Gy). For the ACR phantom, the examined parameter was the number of detected objects. With the CDMAM phantom we chose the diameters 0.10, 0.13, 0.20, 0.31 and 0.5 mm and recorded the threshold thicknesses. With respect to the third method, we evaluated the NEQ at typical spatial frequencies to calculate the relative changes in NEQ. Plotting NEQ versus dose increment shows a linear relationship and can be described by a linear function (with R > 0.99). Every manually selectable current- time product increment can be detected. With the ACR phantom, the number of detected objects increases only in the lower dose range and reaches saturation at about 9 mGy entrance dose (80 ?Gy detector dose). The CDMAM can detect a 50% increase in dose over the examined dose range with all five diameters, although the increases of threshold thickness are not monotonous. We conclude that an NEQ-based method has the potential to replace the established detail phantom methods to detect dose changes in the course of QA.

Figl, M.; Semturs, F.; Kaar, M.; Hoffmann, R.; Kaldarar, H.; Homolka, P.; Mostbeck, G.; Scholz, B.; Hummel, J.

2013-01-01

100

Effect of Training Artificial Neural Networks on 2D Image: An Example Study on Mammography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several structures of artificial neural networks (ANNs) with different training patterns were investigated so as to compare their performances on detecting the cluster of microcalcifications (CM) on mammography. 150 region-of-interests (ROIs) around mass containing both positive and negative microcalcifications were selected for training the network by a standard or modified error-back-propagation algorithm. A rule-based triple-ring filter (TRF) was used for

Xuejun Zhang; Hiroshi Fujita; Jing Chen; Zuojun Zhang

2009-01-01

101

Study of quality perception in medical images based on comparison of contrast enhancement techniques in mammographic images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the absolute prevalence of digital images in mammography several new tools became available for radiologist; such as CAD schemes, digital zoom and contrast alteration. This work focuses in contrast variation and how the radiologist reacts to these changes when asked to evaluated image quality. Three contrast enhancing techniques were used in this study: conventional equalization, CCB Correction [1] - a digitization correction - and value subtraction. A set of 100 images was used in tests from some available online mammographic databases. The tests consisted of the presentation of all four versions of an image (original plus the three contrast enhanced images) to the specialist, requested to rank each one from the best up to worst quality for diagnosis. Analysis of results has demonstrated that CCB Correction [1] produced better images in almost all cases. Equalization, which mathematically produces a better contrast, was considered the worst for mammography image quality enhancement in the majority of cases (69.7%). The value subtraction procedure produced images considered better than the original in 84% of cases. Tests indicate that, for the radiologist's perception, it seems more important to guaranty full visualization of nuances than a high contrast image. Another result observed is that the "ideal" scanner curve does not yield the best result for a mammographic image. The important contrast range is the middle of the histogram, where nodules and masses need to be seen and clearly distinguished.

Matheus, B.; Verçosa, L. B.; Barufaldi, B.; Schiabel, H.

2014-03-01

102

Foveated wavelet image quality index  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human visual system {(HVS)} is highly non-uniform in sampling, coding, processing and understanding. The spatial resolution of the {HVS} is highest around the point of fixation (foveation point) and decreases rapidly with increasing eccentricity. Currently, most image quality measurement methods are designed for uniform resolution images. These methods do not correlate well with the perceived foveated image quality. Wavelet

Zhou Wang; Alan C. Bovik; Ligang Lu; J. Kouloheris

2001-01-01

103

Imaging spectrum of breast implant complications: Mammography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the various complications resulting from breast implants and the ways in which they can present radiographically is useful so that a complete evaluation can be made, thus, increasing the accuracy of diagnosis. In this article, a working knowledge of the more common breast implant types, essential to the accurate interpretation of breast implant imaging studies, is presented. In

Melissa O'Toole; Cynthia I Caskey

2000-01-01

104

Analysis of the imaging performance in indirect digital mammography detectors by linear systems and signal detection models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PurposeThe purpose of this study was to provide an analysis of imaging performance in digital mammography, using indirect detector instrumentation, by combining the Linear Cascaded Systems (LCS) theory and the Signal Detection Theory (SDT). Observer performance was assessed, by examining frequently employed detectors, consisting of phosphor-based X-ray converters (granular Gd2O2S:Tb and structural CsI:Tl), coupled with the recently introduced complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) sensor. By applying combinations of various irradiation conditions (filter-target and exposure levels at 28 kV) on imaging detectors, our study aimed to find the optimum system set-up for digital mammography. For this purpose, the signal to noise transfer properties of the medical imaging detectors were examined for breast carcinoma detectability. MethodsAn analytical model was applied to calculate X-ray interactions within software breast phantoms and detective media. Modeling involved: (a) three X-ray spectra used in digital mammography: 28 kV Mo/Mo (Mo: 0.030 mm), 28 kV Rh/Rh (Rh: 0.025 mm) and 28 kV W/Rh (Rh: 0.060 mm) at different entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) of 3 mGy and 5 mGy, (b) a 5 cm thick Perspex software phantom incorporating a small Ca lesion of varying size (0.1-1 cm), and (c) two 200 ?m thick phosphor-based X-ray converters (Gd2O2S:Tb, CsI:Tl), coupled to a CMOS based detector of 22.5 ?m pixel size. ResultsBest (lowest) contrast threshold (CT) values were obtained with the combination: (i) W/Rh target-filter, (ii) 5 mGy (ESAK), and (iii) CsI:Tl-CMOS detector. For lesion diameter 0.5 cm the CT was found improved, in comparison to other anode/filter combinations, approximately 42% than Rh/Rh and 55% than Mo/Mo, for small sized carcinoma (0.1 cm) and approximately 50% than Rh/Rh and 125% than Mo/Mo, for big sized carcinoma (1 cm), considering 5 mGy X-ray beam. By decreasing lesion diameter and thickness, a limiting CT (100%) was occurred for size values less than 0.2 cm. ConclusionCT was found to be affected by the selection of target/filter and exposure combination. It was found that the optimum thickness of CsI:Tl was approximately 190 ?m and for Gd2O2S:Tb 120 ?m for the studied energy and ESAK range.

Liaparinos, P.; Kalyvas, N.; Kandarakis, I.; Cavouras, D.

2013-01-01

105

Calibrated breast density methods for full field digital mammography: A system for serial quality control and inter-system generalization  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The authors are developing a system for calibrated breast density measurements using full field digital mammography (FFDM). Breast tissue equivalent (BTE) phantom images are used to establish baseline (BL) calibration curves at time zero. For a given FFDM unit, the full BL dataset is comprised of approximately 160 phantom images, acquired prior to calibrating prospective patient mammograms. BL curves are monitored serially to ensure they produce accurate calibration and require updating when calibration accuracy degrades beyond an acceptable tolerance, rather than acquiring full BL datasets repeatedly. BL updating is a special case of generalizing calibration datasets across FFDM units, referred to as cross-calibration. Serial monitoring, BL updating, and cross-calibration techniques were developed and evaluated. Methods: BL curves were established for three Hologic Selenia FFDM units at time zero. In addition, one set of serial phantom images, comprised of equal proportions of adipose and fibroglandular BTE materials (50/50 compositions) of a fixed height, was acquired biweekly and monitored with the cumulative sum (Cusum) technique. These 50/50 composition images were used to update the BL curves when the calibration accuracy degraded beyond a preset tolerance of ±4 standardized units. A second set of serial images, comprised of a wide-range of BTE compositions, was acquired biweekly to evaluate serial monitoring, BL updating, and cross-calibration techniques. Results: Calibration accuracy can degrade serially and is a function of acquisition technique and phantom height. The authors demonstrated that all heights could be monitored simultaneously while acquiring images of a 50/50 phantom with a fixed height for each acquisition technique biweekly, translating into approximately 16 image acquisitions biweekly per FFDM unit. The same serial images are sufficient for serial monitoring, BL updating, and cross-calibration. Serial calibration accuracy was maintained within ±4 standardized unit variation from the ideal when applying BL updating. BL updating is a special case of cross-calibration; the BL dataset of unit 1 can be converted to the BL dataset for another similar unit (i.e., unit 2) at any given time point using the 16 serial monitoring 50/50 phantom images of unit 2 (or vice versa) acquired near this time point while maintaining the ±4 standardized unit tolerance. Conclusions: A methodology for monitoring and maintaining serial calibration accuracy for breast density measurements was evaluated. Calibration datasets for a given unit can be translated forward in time with minimal phantom imaging effort. Similarly, cross-calibration is a method for generalizing calibration datasets across similar units without additional phantom imaging. This methodology will require further evaluation with mammograms for complete validation. PMID:25652480

Lu, B.; Smallwood, A. M.; Sellers, T. A.; Drukteinis, J. S.; Heine, J. J.

2015-01-01

106

Evaluation of image quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation outlines in viewgraph format a general approach to the evaluation of display system quality for aviation applications. This approach is based on the assumption that it is possible to develop a model of the display which captures most of the significant properties of the display. The display characteristics should include spatial and temporal resolution, intensity quantizing effects, spatial sampling, delays, etc. The model must be sufficiently well specified to permit generation of stimuli that simulate the output of the display system. The first step in the evaluation of display quality is an analysis of the tasks to be performed using the display. Thus, for example, if a display is used by a pilot during a final approach, the aesthetic aspects of the display may be less relevant than its dynamic characteristics. The opposite task requirements may apply to imaging systems used for displaying navigation charts. Thus, display quality is defined with regard to one or more tasks. Given a set of relevant tasks, there are many ways to approach display evaluation. The range of evaluation approaches includes visual inspection, rapid evaluation, part-task simulation, and full mission simulation. The work described is focused on two complementary approaches to rapid evaluation. The first approach is based on a model of the human visual system. A model of the human visual system is used to predict the performance of the selected tasks. The model-based evaluation approach permits very rapid and inexpensive evaluation of various design decisions. The second rapid evaluation approach employs specifically designed critical tests that embody many important characteristics of actual tasks. These are used in situations where a validated model is not available. These rapid evaluation tests are being implemented in a workstation environment.

Pavel, M.

1993-01-01

107

Image quality metrics for the evaluation of print quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image quality metrics have become more and more popular in the image processing community. However, so far, no one has been able to define an image quality metric well correlated with the percept for overall image quality. One of the causes is that image quality is multi-dimensional and complex. One approach to bridge the gap between perceived and calculated image

Marius Pedersen; Nicolas Bonnier; Jon Y. Hardeberg; Fritz Albregtsen

2011-01-01

108

Image compression in digital mammography: effects on computerized detection of subtle microcalcifications.  

PubMed

Our previous receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study indicated that the detection accuracy of microcalcifications by radiologists is significantly reduced if mammograms are digitized at 0.1 mm x 0.1 mm. Our recent study also showed that detection accuracy by computer decreases as the pixel size increases from 0.035 mm x 0.035 mm. It is evident that very large matrix sizes have to be used for digitizing mammograms in order to preserve the information in the image. Efficient compression techniques will be needed to facilitate communication and archiving of digital mammograms. In this study, we evaluated two compression techniques: full frame discrete cosine transform (DCT) with entropy coding and Laplacian pyramid hierarchical coding (LPHC). The dependence of their efficiency on the compression parameters was investigated. The techniques were compared in terms of the trade-off between the bit rate and the detection accuracy of subtle microcalcifications by an automated detection algorithm. The mean-square errors in the reconstructed images were determined and the visual quality of the error images was examined. It was found that with the LPHC method, the highest compression ratio achieved without a significant degradation in the detectability was 3.6:1. The full frame DCT method with entropy coding provided a higher compression efficiency of 9.6:1 at comparable detection accuracy. The mean-square errors did not correlate with the detection accuracy of the microcalcifications. This study demonstrated the importance of determining the quality of the decompressed images by the specific requirements of the task for which the decompressed images are to be used. Further investigation is needed for selection of optimal compression technique for digital mammograms. PMID:8873029

Chan, H P; Lo, S C; Niklason, L T; Ikeda, D M; Lam, K L

1996-08-01

109

Low Rates of Additional Cancer Detection by Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Patients Who Undergo Preoperative Mammography and Ultrasonography  

PubMed Central

Purpose We evaluated the efficacy of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting additional malignancies in breast cancer patients newly diagnosed by breast ultrasonography and mammography. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of 1,038 breast cancer patients who underwent preoperative mammography, bilateral breast ultrasonography, and subsequent breast MRI between August 2007 and December 2010 at single institution in Korea. MRI-detected additional lesions were defined as those lesions detected by breast MRI that were previously undetected by mammography and ultrasonography and which would otherwise have not been identified. Results Among the 1,038 cases, 228 additional lesions (22.0%) and 30 additional malignancies (2.9%) were detected by breast MRI. Of these 228 lesions, 109 were suspected to be malignant (Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System category 4 or 5) on breast MRI and second-look ultrasonography and 30 were pathologically confirmed to be malignant (13.2%). Of these 30 lesions, 21 were ipsilateral to the main lesion and nine were contralateral. Fourteen lesions were in situ carcinomas and 16 were invasive carcinomas. The positive predictive value of breast MRI was 27.5% (30/109). No clinicopathological factors were significantly associated with additional malignant foci. Conclusion Breast MRI was useful in detecting additional malignancy in a small number of patients who underwent ultrasonography and mammography. PMID:25013439

Kim, Jisun; Han, Wonshik; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; Ahn, Soo Kyung; Shin, Hee-Chul; You, Jee-Man; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya; Moon, Woo Kyung; Park, In-Ae

2014-01-01

110

Application of computer analysis of mammography phantom images (CAMPI) methodology to the comparison of two digital biopsy machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research was to compare a Fischer MammoVision/MammoTest and a LoRad DSM digital biopsy machine using the Computer Analysis of Mammography Phantom Images (CAMPI) methodology. This study reports on analysis of the 4 largest microcalcification groups (M1, M2, M3 and M4) and the largest nodule (N1) in a mammography accreditation phantom on images acquired at 26 kVp and different mAs values on the two machines. Both machines were linear in response but the MammoTest was more sensitive (i.e., it yielded a larger gray- scale value for a given x-ray technique). However, even after correcting for this difference, the CAMPI noise measure was substantially smaller for the LoRad than the MammoTest over the range of mAS values studied. Similarly, the CAMPI signal- to-noise-ratio and correlation measures were higher for the LoRad than the MammoTest over the same range of mAs, especially for the larger objects (M1/M2 and N1). For the smaller specks in M3/M4 somewhat closer performance was observed. The overall differences are attributed to better contrast/noise performance of the LoRad which appear to outweigh its lesser resolution capability. Our results are in agreement with earlier physical and psychophysical measurements using different methodologies. This work also describes better predictive models (i.e., fits) to describe the variation of all CAMPI measures with mAs at constant kVp. For example, the noise measure was fitted to a function that included physically reasonable sources of noise e.g., dark noise and detector gain fluctuations, in addition to the usual quantum noise. These fits can be used to summarize machine performance and to predict dependencies on other variables (e.g., exposure or dose) that are related to the mAs.

Chakraborty, Dev P.; Fatouros, Panos P.

1998-07-01

111

Leveraging the Digital Mammography Image Screening Trial (DMIST) Data for the Evaluation of Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) Devices: A Proposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of the large dataset of screen\\/film and full-field digital mammograms acquired through the Digital Mammography\\u000a Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST) presents an extraordinary opportunity for the assessment of CAD devices. The National Cancer\\u000a Institute and the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering at the U.S. National Institutes of Health have\\u000a engaged FDA scientists in the development of a

Nicholas Petrick; Kyle J. Myers; Sophie Paquerault; Frank W. Samuelson; Brandon D. Gallas; Robert F. Wagner

2006-01-01

112

Crowdsourcing subjective image quality evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjective tests are generally regarded as the most reliable and definitive methods for assessing image quality. Nevertheless, laboratory studies are time consuming and expensive. Thus, researchers often choose to run informal studies or use objective quality measures, producing results which may not correlate well with human perception. In this paper we propose a cost-effective and convenient subjective quality measure called

Flávio Ribeiro; Dinei A. F. Florencio; Vitor H. Nascimento

2011-01-01

113

Retinal Image Quality During Accommodation  

PubMed Central

Purpose We asked if retinal image quality is maximum during accommodation, or sub-optimal due to accommodative error, when subjects perform an acuity task. Methods Subjects viewed a monochromatic (552nm), high-contrast letter target placed at various viewing distances. Wavefront aberrations of the accommodating eye were measured near the endpoint of an acuity staircase paradigm. Refractive state, defined as the optimum target vergence for maximising retinal image quality, was computed by through-focus wavefront analysis to find the power of the virtual correcting lens that maximizes visual Strehl ratio. Results Despite changes in ocular aberrations and pupil size during binocular viewing, retinal image quality and visual acuity typically remain high for all target vergences. When accommodative errors lead to sub-optimal retinal image quality, acuity and measured image quality both decline. However, the effect of accommodation errors of on visual acuity are mitigated by pupillary constriction associated with accommodation and binocular convergence and also to binocular summation of dissimilar retinal image blur. Under monocular viewing conditions some subjects displayed significant accommodative lag that reduced visual performance, an effect that was exacerbated by pharmacological dilation of the pupil. Conclusions Spurious measurement of accommodative error can be avoided when the image quality metric used to determine refractive state is compatible with the focusing criteria used by the visual system to control accommodation. Real focusing errors of the accommodating eye do not necessarily produce a reliably measurable loss of image quality or clinically significant loss of visual performance, probably because of increased depth-of-focus due to pupil constriction. When retinal image quality is close to maximum achievable (given the eye’s higher-order aberrations), acuity is also near maximum. A combination of accommodative lag, reduced image quality, and reduced visual function may be a useful sign for diagnosing functionally-significant accommodative errors indicating the need for therapeutic intervention. PMID:23786386

López-Gil, N.; Martin, J.; Liu, T.; Bradley, A.; Díaz-Muñoz, D.; Thibos, L.

2013-01-01

114

Boosting classification performance in computer aided diagnosis of breast masses in raw full-field digital mammography using processed and screen film images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The introduction of Full-Field Digital Mammography (FFDM) in breast screening has brought with it several advantages in terms and processing facilities and image quality and Computer Aided Detection (CAD) systems are now sprouting that make use of this modality. A major drawback however, is that FFDM data is still relatively scarce and therefore, CAD system's performance are inhibited by a lack of training examples. In this paper, we explore the incorporation of more ubiquitous Screen Film Mammograms (SFM) and FFDM processed by the manufacturer, in training a system for the detection of tumour masses. We compute a small set of additional quantitative features in the raw data, that make explicit use of the log-linearity of the energy imparted on the detector in raw FFDM. We explore four di erent fusion methods: a weighted average, a majority vote, a convex combination of classi er outputs, based on the training error and an additional classi er, that combines the output of the three individual label estimates. Results are evaluated based on the Partial Area Under the Curve (PAUC) around a clinically relevant operating point. All fusion methods perform signi cantly better than any of the individual classi ers but we nd no signi cant di erence between the fusion techniques.

Kooi, Thijs; Karssemeijer, Nico

2014-03-01

115

Quality assessment for hyperspectral imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image quality assessment is an essential value judgement approach for many applications. Multi & hyper spectral imaging has more judging essentials than grey scale or RGB imaging and its image quality assessment job has to cover up all-around evaluating factors. This paper presents an integrating spectral imaging quality assessment project, in which spectral-based, radiometric-based and spatial-based statistical behavior for three hyperspectral imagers are jointly executed. Spectral response function is worked out based on discrete illumination images and its spectral performance is deduced according to its FWHM and spectral excursion value. Radiometric response ability of different spectral channel under both on-ground and airborne imaging condition is judged by SNR computing based upon local RMS extraction and statistics method. Spatial response evaluation of the spectral imaging instrument is worked out by MTF computing with slanted edge analysis method. Reported pioneering systemic work in hyperspectral imaging quality assessment is carried out with the help of several domestic dominating work units, which not only has significance in the development of on-ground and in-orbit instrument performance evaluation technique but also takes on reference value for index demonstration and design optimization for instrument development.

Chen, Yuheng; Chen, Xinhua; Zhou, Jiankang; Shen, Weimin

2014-11-01

116

Foveated wavelet image quality index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The human visual system (HVS) is highly non-uniform in sampling, coding, processing and understanding. The spatial resolution of the HVS is highest around the point of fixation (foveation point) and decreases rapidly with increasing eccentricity. Currently, most image quality measurement methods are designed for uniform resolution images. These methods do not correlate well with the perceived foveated image quality. Wavelet analysis delivers a convenient way to simultaneously examine localized spatial as well as frequency information. We developed a new image quality metric called foveated wavelet image quality index (FWQI) in the wavelet transform domain. FWQI considers multiple factors of the HVS, including the spatial variance of the contrast sensitivity function, the spatial variance of the local visual cut-off frequency, the variance of human visual sensitivity in different wavelet subbands, and the influence of the viewing distance on the display resolution and the HVS features. FWQI can be employed for foveated region of interest (ROI) image coding and quality enhancement. We show its effectiveness by using it as a guide for optimal bit assignment of an embedded foveated image coding system. The coding system demonstrates very good coding performance and scalability in terms of foveated objective as well as subjective quality measurement.

Wang, Zhou; Bovik, Alan C.; Lu, Ligang; Kouloheris, Jack L.

2001-12-01

117

Digital mammography: current state and future aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of digital technique in mammography has been the last step in completing the process of digitalization in diagnostic imaging. Meanwhile, some different digital techniques as well as a couple of different digital mammography systems were developed and have already been available for some years. In this review article, the relevant data of key studies are reported, the current

U. Fischer; K. P. Hermann; F. Baum

2006-01-01

118

Diagnostic clinical benefits of digital spot and digital 3D mammography following analysis of screening findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to find out the impact of 3-dimensional digital mammography and digital spot imaging following analysis of the abnormal findings of screening mammograms. Over a period of eight months, digital 3-D mammography imaging TACT Tuned Aperture Computed Tomography+, digital spot imaging (DSI), screen-film mammography imaging (SFM) and diagnostic film imaging (DFM) examinations were performed on

Mari Lehtimäki; Martti Pamilo; Leena Raulisto; Marja Roiha; Martti Kalke; Samuli Siltanen; Timo Ihamäki

2003-01-01

119

Analysis of Mammography Quality Control Results: Evidence for a Change in Test Frequency?  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We investigated the link between the results from daily quality control (QC) data, on the one hand, and from successive half-yearly\\u000a medical physics QC visits on the other hand. To do so, criteria defining ‘unchanged results’ were set for both the daily QC\\u000a data and the half-yearly QC results. Out of the results of 181 QC visits and daily QC

Koen Michielsen; Jürgen Jacobs; Nicholas Marshall; Hilde Bosmans

2010-01-01

120

Analysis of multilayer and single layer X-ray detectors for contrast-enhanced mammography using imaging task  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multilayer (single-shot) detector has previously been proposed for contrast-enhanced mammography. The multilayer detector has the benefit of avoiding motion artifacts due to simultaneous acquisition of both high and low energy images. A single layer (dual-shot) detector has the benefit of better control over the energy separation since the incident beams can be produced and filtered separately. In this paper the performance of the multilayer detector is compared to that of a single layer detector using an ideal observer detectability index which is determined from an extended cascaded systems model and a defined imaging task. The detectors are assumed to have amorphous selenium direct conversion layers, however the same theoretical techniques used here may be applied to other types of integrating detectors. The anatomical noise caused by variation of glandularity within the breast is known to dominate the noise power spectrum at low frequencies due to its inverse power law dependence and is thus taken into account in our model to provide an accurate estimate of the detectability index. The conditions leading to the optimal detectability index, such as tube voltage, filtration, and weight factor are reported for both detector designs.

Allec, Nicholas; Abbaszadeh, Shiva; Karim, Karim S.

2011-03-01

121

Digital tomosynthesis mammography: improvement of artifact reduction method for high-attenuation objects on reconstructed slices  

Microsoft Academic Search

One major image quality problem in digital tomosynthesis mammography (DTM) is the poor depth-resolution caused by the inherent incomplete sampling. This problem is more pronounced if high-attenuation objects, such as metallic markers and dense calcifications, are present in the breast. Strong ghosting artifacts will be generated in the depth direction in the reconstructed volume. Incomplete sampling of DTM can also

Jun Ge; Heang-Ping Chan; Berkman Sahiner; Yiheng Zhang; Jun Wei; Lubomir M. Hadjiiski; Chuan Zhou; Yi-Ta Wu; Jiazheng Shi

2008-01-01

122

Subjective image quality evaluation in security imaging systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subjective image quality of image or video information is a crucial item in security imaging systems. During last five years our lab has tested and verified various approaches to the image compression for security purposes and the evaluation of subjective image quality. In the paper, we have discussed selected important facts related to the subjective image quality evaluation and

M. Klima; P. Pata; K. Fliegel; P. Hanzlik

2005-01-01

123

Quality assurance and cancer detection rates in a provincial screening mammography program. Work in progress.  

PubMed

In 1990, a provincial screening program was inaugurated in Alberta, a Canadian province of 2.4 million people. The goal of the program is to decrease the number of deaths from breast cancer by 30% in women aged 50-69 years. In the first 18 months of program operations, efforts were concentrated on high levels of quality assurance in all areas of program activities. In particular, the abnormality referral rates, cancer detection rates, and size and stage of mammographically detected cancers were evaluated. Of the 9,553 women seen, 8,524 were between the ages of 50 and 69 years. Reported abnormality rates were initially more than 16%, but were brought down steadily to less than 5%. Cancer detection rates increased with age, ranging from 1.9 cancers detected per 1,000 women aged 40-49 years to 14.1 cancers per 1,000 women aged 70 years and older. Forty-one of the 61 cancers detected (67%) were less than 1.5 cm in diameter. Forty-three of the 52 cancers (83%) in which the nodal status was known were node negative. At the conclusion of the first 18 months of operation, interpretation parameters were within the target zones expected for a population-based screening program. PMID:8351353

Bryant, H E; Desautels, J E; Castor, W R; Horeczko, N; Jackson, F; Mah, Z

1993-09-01

124

Objective measurements of distorted image quality evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of the quality of distorted image still remains an important issue. In this paper, we propose a new objective measurement, denoted as image quality score (IQS) that better matches the visual information fidelity (VIF) than using fundamental image quality measurements. IQS can be used to measure the quality of gray scale image in different distortion types such as blurring,

R. Sakuldee; S. Udomhunsakul

2008-01-01

125

Correlative analysis of breast lesions on full-field digital mammography and magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-modality imaging techniques are increasingly being applied in clinical practice to improve the accuracy with which breast cancer can be diagnosed. However, interpreting images from different modalities is not trivial as different images of the same lesion may exhibit different physical lesion attributes, and currently the various image modality acquisitions are performed under different breast positioning protocols. The general objective

Yading Yuan

2010-01-01

126

Computerized measurement of mammographic display image quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the video monitor is widely believed to be the weak link in the imaging chain, it is critical, to include it in the total image quality evaluation. Yet, most physical measurements of mammographic image quality are presently limited to making measurements on the digital matrix, not the displayed image. A method is described to quantitatively measure image quality of

Dev P. Chakraborty; Mahesh Sivarudrappa; Hans Roehrig

1999-01-01

127

Effects of exposure equalization on image signal-to-noise ratios in digital mammography: A simulation study with an anthropomorphic breast phantom  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The scan equalization digital mammography (SEDM) technique combines slot scanning and exposure equalization to improve low-contrast performance of digital mammography in dense tissue areas. In this study, full-field digital mammography (FFDM) images of an anthropomorphic breast phantom acquired with an anti-scatter grid at various exposure levels were superimposed to simulate SEDM images and investigate the improvement of low-contrast performance as quantified by primary signal-to-noise ratios (PSNRs). Methods: We imaged an anthropomorphic breast phantom (Gammex 169 ''Rachel,'' Gammex RMI, Middleton, WI) at various exposure levels using a FFDM system (Senographe 2000D, GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI). The exposure equalization factors were computed based on a standard FFDM image acquired in the automatic exposure control (AEC) mode. The equalized image was simulated and constructed by superimposing a selected set of FFDM images acquired at 2, 1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, and 1/32 times of exposure levels to the standard AEC timed technique (125 mAs) using the equalization factors computed for each region. Finally, the equalized image was renormalized regionally with the exposure equalization factors to result in an appearance similar to that with standard digital mammography. Two sets of FFDM images were acquired to allow for two identically, but independently, formed equalized images to be subtracted from each other to estimate the noise levels. Similarly, two identically but independently acquired standard FFDM images were subtracted to estimate the noise levels. Corrections were applied to remove the excess system noise accumulated during image superimposition in forming the equalized image. PSNRs over the compressed area of breast phantom were computed and used to quantitatively study the effects of exposure equalization on low-contrast performance in digital mammography. Results: We found that the highest achievable PSNR improvement factor was 1.89 for the anthropomorphic breast phantom used in this study. The overall PSNRs were measured to be 79.6 for the FFDM imaging and 107.6 for the simulated SEDM imaging on average in the compressed area of breast phantom, resulting in an average improvement of PSNR by {approx}35% with exposure equalization. We also found that the PSNRs appeared to be largely uniform with exposure equalization, and the standard deviations of PSNRs were estimated to be 10.3 and 7.9 for the FFDM imaging and the simulated SEDM imaging, respectively. The average glandular dose for SEDM was estimated to be 212.5 mrad, {approx}34% lower than that of standard AEC-timed FFDM (323.8 mrad) as a result of exposure equalization for the entire breast phantom. Conclusions: Exposure equalization was found to substantially improve image PSNRs in dense tissue regions and result in more uniform image PSNRs. This improvement may lead to better low-contrast performance in detecting and visualizing soft tissue masses and micro-calcifications in dense tissue areas for breast imaging tasks.

Liu Xinming; Lai Chaojen; Whitman, Gary J.; Geiser, William R.; Shen Youtao; Yi Ying; Shaw, Chris C. [Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030-4009 (United States); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030-4009 (United States); Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030-4009 (United States)

2011-12-15

128

Effects of exposure equalization on image signal-to-noise ratios in digital mammography: A simulation study with an anthropomorphic breast phantom  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The scan equalization digital mammography (SEDM) technique combines slot scanning and exposure equalization to improve low-contrast performance of digital mammography in dense tissue areas. In this study, full-field digital mammography (FFDM) images of an anthropomorphic breast phantom acquired with an anti-scatter grid at various exposure levels were superimposed to simulate SEDM images and investigate the improvement of low-contrast performance as quantified by primary signal-to-noise ratios (PSNRs). Methods: We imaged an anthropomorphic breast phantom (Gammex 169 “Rachel,” Gammex RMI, Middleton, WI) at various exposure levels using a FFDM system (Senographe 2000D, GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI). The exposure equalization factors were computed based on a standard FFDM image acquired in the automatic exposure control (AEC) mode. The equalized image was simulated and constructed by superimposing a selected set of FFDM images acquired at 2, 1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, and 1/32 times of exposure levels to the standard AEC timed technique (125 mAs) using the equalization factors computed for each region. Finally, the equalized image was renormalized regionally with the exposure equalization factors to result in an appearance similar to that with standard digital mammography. Two sets of FFDM images were acquired to allow for two identically, but independently, formed equalized images to be subtracted from each other to estimate the noise levels. Similarly, two identically but independently acquired standard FFDM images were subtracted to estimate the noise levels. Corrections were applied to remove the excess system noise accumulated during image superimposition in forming the equalized image. PSNRs over the compressed area of breast phantom were computed and used to quantitatively study the effects of exposure equalization on low-contrast performance in digital mammography. Results: We found that the highest achievable PSNR improvement factor was 1.89 for the anthropomorphic breast phantom used in this study. The overall PSNRs were measured to be 79.6 for the FFDM imaging and 107.6 for the simulated SEDM imaging on average in the compressed area of breast phantom, resulting in an average improvement of PSNR by ?35% with exposure equalization. We also found that the PSNRs appeared to be largely uniform with exposure equalization, and the standard deviations of PSNRs were estimated to be 10.3 and 7.9 for the FFDM imaging and the simulated SEDM imaging, respectively. The average glandular dose for SEDM was estimated to be 212.5 mrad, ?34% lower than that of standard AEC-timed FFDM (323.8 mrad) as a result of exposure equalization for the entire breast phantom. Conclusions: Exposure equalization was found to substantially improve image PSNRs in dense tissue regions and result in more uniform image PSNRs. This improvement may lead to better low-contrast performance in detecting and visualizing soft tissue masses and micro-calcifications in dense tissue areas for breast imaging tasks. PMID:22149832

Liu, Xinming; Lai, Chao-Jen; Whitman, Gary J.; Geiser, William R.; Shen, Youtao; Yi, Ying; Shaw, Chris C.

2011-01-01

129

Adaptive fingerprint image enhancement with fingerprint image quality analysis  

E-print Network

images is heavily dependent on the quality of the fingerprint images. In order to improve the performance an adaptive preprocessing method to improve image quality appropriately. The preprocessing is performed afterAdaptive fingerprint image enhancement with fingerprint image quality analysis Eun-Kyung Yun, Sung

Cho, Sung-Bae

130

Improving Mammography Performance in Practice  

Cancer.gov

Mammography is not a perfect test, partly because of the complex architecture of the breast tissue being imaged and partly because the technology is imperfect. Moreover, abnormalities are a rare event, with about 4 to 6 occurring in every 1,000 mammograms. Accurately reading and interpreting screening mammograms is therefore an important challenge for radiologists.

131

Phase-contrast enhanced mammography: A new diagnostic tool for breast imaging  

SciTech Connect

Phase contrast and scattering-based X-ray imaging can potentially revolutionize the radiological approach to breast imaging by providing additional and complementary information to conventional, absorption-based methods. We investigated native, non-fixed whole breast samples using a grating interferometer with an X-ray tube-based configuration. Our approach simultaneously recorded absorption, differential phase contrast and small-angle scattering signals. The results show that this novel technique - combined with a dedicated image fusion algorithm - has the potential to deliver enhanced breast imaging with complementary information for an improved diagnostic process.

Wang Zhentian; Thuering, Thomas; David, Christian; Roessl, Ewald; Trippel, Mafalda; Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.; Singer, Gad; Hohl, Michael K.; Hauser, Nik; Stampanoni, Marco [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Laboratory for Micro and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Philips Technologie GmbH, Roentgenstrasse 24, 22335 Hamburg (Germany); Institute of Pathology, Kantonsspital Baden, 5404 Baden (Switzerland); Department of Radiology, Kantonsspital Baden, 5404 Baden (Switzerland); Institute of Pathology, Kantonsspital Baden, 5404 Baden (Switzerland); Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Interdisciplinary Breast Center Baden, Kantonsspital Baden, 5404 Baden (Switzerland); Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen, Switzerland and Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University and ETH Zuerich, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

2012-07-31

132

Process perspective on image quality evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psychological complexity of multivariate image quality evaluation makes it difficult to develop general image quality metrics. Quality evaluation includes several mental processes and ignoring these processes and the use of a few test images can lead to biased results. By using a qualitative\\/quantitative (Interpretation Based Quality, IBQ) methodology, we examined the process of pair-wise comparison in a setting, where

Tuomas Leisti; Raisa Halonen; Anna Kokkonen; Hanna Weckman; Marja Mettänen; Lasse Lensu; Risto Ritala; Pirkko Oittinen; Göte Nyman

2008-01-01

133

Quality Constrained Compression Using DWT Based Image Quality Metric  

E-print Network

of visual quality as well as estimates the post-compression quality of an image efficiently. Based, both the compression ratios and the qualities of the compressed images have to be considered. An ideal maintaining a good visual quality. In reality, it is always objective in measuring the compression ratio

Zheng, Yuan F.

134

Estimation of breast percent density in raw and processed full field digital mammography images via adaptive fuzzy c-means clustering and support vector machine segmentation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The amount of fibroglandular tissue content in the breast as estimated mammographically, commonly referred to as breast percent density (PD%), is one of the most significant risk factors for developing breast cancer. Approaches to quantify breast density commonly focus on either semiautomated methods or visual assessment, both of which are highly subjective. Furthermore, most studies published to date investigating computer-aided assessment of breast PD% have been performed using digitized screen-film mammograms, while digital mammography is increasingly replacing screen-film mammography in breast cancer screening protocols. Digital mammography imaging generates two types of images for analysis, raw (i.e., 'FOR PROCESSING') and vendor postprocessed (i.e., 'FOR PRESENTATION'), of which postprocessed images are commonly used in clinical practice. Development of an algorithm which effectively estimates breast PD% in both raw and postprocessed digital mammography images would be beneficial in terms of direct clinical application and retrospective analysis. Methods: This work proposes a new algorithm for fully automated quantification of breast PD% based on adaptive multiclass fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering and support vector machine (SVM) classification, optimized for the imaging characteristics of both raw and processed digital mammography images as well as for individual patient and image characteristics. Our algorithm first delineates the breast region within the mammogram via an automated thresholding scheme to identify background air followed by a straight line Hough transform to extract the pectoral muscle region. The algorithm then applies adaptive FCM clustering based on an optimal number of clusters derived from image properties of the specific mammogram to subdivide the breast into regions of similar gray-level intensity. Finally, a SVM classifier is trained to identify which clusters within the breast tissue are likely fibroglandular, which are then aggregated into a final dense tissue segmentation that is used to compute breast PD%. Our method is validated on a group of 81 women for whom bilateral, mediolateral oblique, raw and processed screening digital mammograms were available, and agreement is assessed with both continuous and categorical density estimates made by a trained breast-imaging radiologist. Results: Strong association between algorithm-estimated and radiologist-provided breast PD% was detected for both raw (r= 0.82, p < 0.001) and processed (r= 0.85, p < 0.001) digital mammograms on a per-breast basis. Stronger agreement was found when overall breast density was assessed on a per-woman basis for both raw (r= 0.85, p < 0.001) and processed (0.89, p < 0.001) mammograms. Strong agreement between categorical density estimates was also seen (weighted Cohen's {kappa}{>=} 0.79). Repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated no statistically significant differences between the PD% estimates (p > 0.1) due to either presentation of the image (raw vs processed) or method of PD% assessment (radiologist vs algorithm). Conclusions: The proposed fully automated algorithm was successful in estimating breast percent density from both raw and processed digital mammographic images. Accurate assessment of a woman's breast density is critical in order for the estimate to be incorporated into risk assessment models. These results show promise for the clinical application of the algorithm in quantifying breast density in a repeatable manner, both at time of imaging as well as in retrospective studies.

Keller, Brad M.; Nathan, Diane L.; Wang Yan; Zheng Yuanjie; Gee, James C.; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Applied Mathematics and Computational Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

2012-08-15

135

Estimation of breast percent density in raw and processed full field digital mammography images via adaptive fuzzy c-means clustering and support vector machine segmentation  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The amount of fibroglandular tissue content in the breast as estimated mammographically, commonly referred to as breast percent density (PD%), is one of the most significant risk factors for developing breast cancer. Approaches to quantify breast density commonly focus on either semiautomated methods or visual assessment, both of which are highly subjective. Furthermore, most studies published to date investigating computer-aided assessment of breast PD% have been performed using digitized screen-film mammograms, while digital mammography is increasingly replacing screen-film mammography in breast cancer screening protocols. Digital mammography imaging generates two types of images for analysis, raw (i.e., “FOR PROCESSING”) and vendor postprocessed (i.e., “FOR PRESENTATION”), of which postprocessed images are commonly used in clinical practice. Development of an algorithm which effectively estimates breast PD% in both raw and postprocessed digital mammography images would be beneficial in terms of direct clinical application and retrospective analysis. Methods: This work proposes a new algorithm for fully automated quantification of breast PD% based on adaptive multiclass fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering and support vector machine (SVM) classification, optimized for the imaging characteristics of both raw and processed digital mammography images as well as for individual patient and image characteristics. Our algorithm first delineates the breast region within the mammogram via an automated thresholding scheme to identify background air followed by a straight line Hough transform to extract the pectoral muscle region. The algorithm then applies adaptive FCM clustering based on an optimal number of clusters derived from image properties of the specific mammogram to subdivide the breast into regions of similar gray-level intensity. Finally, a SVM classifier is trained to identify which clusters within the breast tissue are likely fibroglandular, which are then aggregated into a final dense tissue segmentation that is used to compute breast PD%. Our method is validated on a group of 81 women for whom bilateral, mediolateral oblique, raw and processed screening digital mammograms were available, and agreement is assessed with both continuous and categorical density estimates made by a trained breast-imaging radiologist. Results: Strong association between algorithm-estimated and radiologist-provided breast PD% was detected for both raw (r = 0.82, p < 0.001) and processed (r = 0.85, p < 0.001) digital mammograms on a per-breast basis. Stronger agreement was found when overall breast density was assessed on a per-woman basis for both raw (r = 0.85, p < 0.001) and processed (0.89, p < 0.001) mammograms. Strong agreement between categorical density estimates was also seen (weighted Cohen's ? ? 0.79). Repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated no statistically significant differences between the PD% estimates (p > 0.1) due to either presentation of the image (raw vs processed) or method of PD% assessment (radiologist vs algorithm). Conclusions: The proposed fully automated algorithm was successful in estimating breast percent density from both raw and processed digital mammographic images. Accurate assessment of a woman's breast density is critical in order for the estimate to be incorporated into risk assessment models. These results show promise for the clinical application of the algorithm in quantifying breast density in a repeatable manner, both at time of imaging as well as in retrospective studies. PMID:22894417

Keller, Brad M.; Nathan, Diane L.; Wang, Yan; Zheng, Yuanjie; Gee, James C.; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

2012-01-01

136

Advantages of magnification in digital phase-contrast mammography using a practical X-ray tube.  

PubMed

Phase-contrast imaging with a practical cone-beam X-ray tube has been realized for clinical use in digital mammography using computed radiography (CR). To perform phase-contrast imaging, the X-ray detector must be distanced from an object so that the phase-contrast image achieves magnification; in a mammography unit dedicated to phase-contrast imaging, the magnification ratio is 1.75. When using an X-ray tube with a 0.1-mm focal spot, it appears that the penumbra in magnification blurs both projected images and the phase contrast, which generates an edge effect. However, where the sampling pitch of the CR plate is 43.75 microm, the blur stretches the width of the phase contrast so that unit pixels in the detector can capture it. Note that the width of an ideal phase contrast using an X-ray point source results in a phase contrast too narrow for detection with CR. In addition to phase contrast improving image quality, a re-scaling effect increases image sharpness in magnification. Further, image noise induced by magnification can be reduced during printing to photothermographic dry film by demagnifying the digital output image to the original image size. After demagnification by 1/1.75 from 43.75 microm in image acquisition, a 25-microm pixel size of the output image is obtained so that the spatial resolution matches that of conventional screen-film mammography. In this paper, such technical advantages of magnification in digital phase-contrast mammography are reviewed, and the image quality of phase-contrast images is discussed in light of diagnostic requirements in detecting breast cancer. PMID:18584984

Honda, Chika; Ohara, Hiromu

2008-12-01

137

Near-infrared spectral imaging of the female breast for quantitative oximetry in optical mammography  

SciTech Connect

We present a hybrid continuous-wave, frequency-domain instrument for near-infrared spectral imaging of the female breast based on a tandem, planar scanning of one illumination optical fiber and one collection optical fiber configured in a transmission geometry. The spatial sampling rate of 25 points/cm{sup 2} is increased to 400 points/cm{sup 2} by postprocessing the data with a 2D cubic spline interpolation. We then apply a previously developed spatial second-derivative algorithm to an edge-corrected intensity image (N-image) to enhance the visibility and resolution of optical inhomogeneities in breast tissue such as blood vessels and tumors. The spectral data at each image pixel consist of 515-point spectra over the 650-900 nm wavelength range, thus featuring a spectral density of two data points per nanometer. We process the measured spectra with a paired-wavelength spectral analysis method to quantify the oxygen saturation of detected optical inhomogeneities, under the assumption that they feature a locally higher hemoglobin concentration. Our initial measurements on two healthy human subjects have generated high-resolution optical mammograms displaying a network of blood vessels with values of hemoglobin saturation typically falling within the 60%-95% range, which is physiologically reasonable. This approach to spectral imaging and oximetry of the breast has the potential to efficiently exploit the high intrinsic contrast provided by hemoglobin in breast tissue and to contribute a useful tool in the detection, diagnosis, and monitoring of breast pathologies.

Yu Yang; Liu Ning; Sassaroli, Angelo; Fantini, Sergio

2009-04-01

138

CAMPI: computerized analysis of mammography phantom images-effects of film nonlinearity and digitizer noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was to extend the recently introduced CAMPI method to allow for the nonlinear sensitometric response of film. Sensitometric strips were digitized and used to calibrate the phantom images by converting the pixel value to a linearized intensity-like variable. The corresponding linearized CAMPI measures were found to have simpler (and expected) dependencies on X-ray variables as

Dev P. Chakraborty

1996-01-01

139

A Multisite Telemammography System for Remote Management of Screening Mammography: An Assessment of Technical, Operational, and Clinical Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Objective  This paper describes a high-quality, multisite telemammography system to enable “almost real-time” remote patient management\\u000a while the patient remains in the clinic. One goal is to reduce the number of women who would physically need to return to\\u000a the clinic for additional imaging procedures (termed “recall”) to supplement “routine” imaging of screening mammography.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods  Mammography films from current and

Joseph K. Leader; Christiane M. Hakim; Marie A. Ganott; Denise M. Chough; Luisa P. Wallace; Ronald J. Clearfield; Ronald L. Perrin; John M. Drescher; Glenn S. Maitz; Jules H. Sumkin; David Gur

2006-01-01

140

Enhanced computer simulation of CT mammography using a flat-panel imager  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of groups are currently investigating tomographic imaging of the breast, but the optimal design and acquisition parameters for such systems remains uncertain. One useful tool for investigating optimal parameters is computer simulation software. A computer program that simulates xray transport through a breast object model followed by signal and noise propagation through a CsI flatpanel detector has been modified, restructured and enhanced in order to provide a fast yet sufficiently accurate research tool. The main focus of this work was to validate the simulated response of a CsI flatpanel detector with a real detector namely, the Paxscan 2520 (Varian Medical Systems, Salt Lake City, UT). Preliminary results indicate that the program provides comparable quantitative accuracy, that can be used to obtain accurate and meaningful results to assist in research in tomosynthesis and CT breast imaging system design.

Didier, Clay S.; O'Connor, J. Michael; Chen, Yu; Glick, Stephen J.

2009-02-01

141

Toward clinical differential phase contrast mammography: preliminary evaluations and image processing schemes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phase contrast and scattering-based X-ray imaging are very promising tools for medical diagnostics because they are able to provide additional and complementary information to traditional absorption-based methods. In this work, we discuss the investigation of three native breast samples with a grating interferometer equipped with a conventional X-ray tube, the full study being published in ref. [1]. We briefly introduce a method to fuse absorption, differential phase and scattering signals into a unique image with improved diagnostic contents. Our approach yields complementary and inaccessible information on the electron density distribution and the small-angle scattering power of the sample which could potentially answer clinically relevant, yet unresolved questions such as the capability to unequivocally discern between (pre-) malignant changes and post-operative scars or to distinguish cancer-invaded regions within healthy tissue.

Stampanoni, M.; Wang, Z.; Thüring, T.; David, C.; Rössl, E.; van Stevendaal, U.; Köhler, T.; Trippel, M.; Singer, G.; Kubik-Huch, R. A.; Hohl, M. K.; Hauser, N.

2013-05-01

142

Degraded Character Recognition by Image Quality Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The character image quality plays an important role in degraded character recognition which could tell the recognition difficulty. This paper proposed a novel approach to degraded character recognition by three kinds of independent degradation sources. It is composed of two stems: character image quality evaluation, character recognition. Firstly, it presents the dual-evaluation to evaluate the image quality of the input

Chunmei Liu

2010-01-01

143

Observer Variability of the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) Lexicon for Mammography  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryAim: We aimed to determine the inter- and intra-observer variabilities between breast radiologists and a general radiologist in categorizing mammographic lesions using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS), and to evaluate the effects of the histopathologic results on the variability. Methods: Mammograms from 142 women who underwent biopsy were evaluated. 3 breast radiologists (2 with >10 years experience

Zehra H. Adibelli; Ruken Ergenc; Ozgur Oztekin; Suheyla Ecevit; Gokhan Unal

2010-01-01

144

Building an intranet digital mammography case library  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To practice mammography diagnosis effectively, radiologists expect convenient access to well-organized and authoritative mammography related information, especially when there is case in question. The purpose of this study is to build infrastructural diagnosis support by incorporating various clinical information into a digital mammography case library, and allow user to search the library based on mammographic findings. The digital mammography case library has a three- tier architecture: (1) Back-end mammography databases integrate multimedia clinical information from various operational systems, including RIS and PACS. Cases are stored in a finding index database powered by an object-relational database with finding-coded reports, which are modeled around the ACR BI-RADS (American College of Radiology, Breast Imaging Report and Data System) standard. (2) The middle-end application controllers process application logic, such as user authorization, HTTP request handling, database connection and dynamic HTML page generation. (3) Web-based user interface is developed for authorized Intranet personnel to formulate query based on radiological finding (such as mass, calcification and architectural distortion), shape and assessment, using ACR BI-RADS specified lexicon. The case library so far has 103 cases selected from over 800 digital mammography studies carried out at the Mt. Zion hospital, UCSF, during an on-going digital telemammography project. We believe that an Intranet based digital mammography case library with mammographic finding search capability facilitates continuous medical education and online decision support, by providing exemplary study to compare with case in question.

Zhang, Hong; Lou, Shyhliang A.; Fan, Yu; Sickles, Edward A.; Huang, H. K.

2000-05-01

145

Computer-aided diagnosis in digital mammography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although mammography currently is the best method for the detection of breast cancer, 10-3095 of women who have breast cancer and who undergo mammography have negative mammograms. In approximately two-thirds of these false-negative mammograms the radiologist failed to detect the cancer that was evident retrospectively (1,2). It is expected that output from a computerized analysis of the radiographic images may

Maryellen L. Giger; Kurt Rossmann

1993-01-01

146

Software for CRT image quality evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses image quality assessment and image quality maintenance of CRT displays for use as soft copy displays in digital radiology. Software is necessary to generate test patterns and to displays them on CRTs. CCD cameras record the images displayed on the CRTs. Additional software is necessary to analyze those images recorded by the CCD camera. This paper describes

Hans Roehrig; William J. Dallas; Hartwig R. Blume; Mahesh Sivarudrappa

2000-01-01

147

Study on computer-aided diagnosis of hepatic MR imaging and mammography  

SciTech Connect

It is well known that the liver is an organ easily attacked by diseases. The purpose of this study is to develop a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme for helping radiologists to differentiate hepatic diseases more efficiently. Our software named LIVERANN integrated the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings with different pulse sequences to classify the five categories of hepatic diseases by using the artificial neural network (ANN) method. The intensity and homogeneity within the region of interest (ROI) delineated by a radiologist were automatically calculated to obtain numerical data by the program for input signals to the ANN. Outputs were the five pathological categories of hepatic diseases (hepatic cyst, hepatocellular carcinoma, dysplasia in cirrhosis, cavernous hemangioma, and metastasis). The experiment demonstrated a testing accuracy of 93% from 80 patients. In order to differentiate the cirrhosis from normal liver, the volume ratio of left to whole (LTW) was proposed to quantify the degree of cirrhosis by three-dimensional (3D) volume analysis. The liver region was firstly extracted from computed tomography (CT) or MR slices based on edge detection algorithms, and then separated into left lobe and right lobe by the hepatic umbilical fissure. The volume ratio of these two parts showed that the LTW ratio in the liver was significantly improved in the differentiation performance, with (25.6%{+-}4.3%) in cirrhosis versus the normal liver (16.4%{+-}5.4%). In addition, the application of the ANN method for detecting clustered microcalcifications in masses on mammograms was described here as well. A new structural ANN, so-called a shift-invariant artificial neural network (SIANN), was integrated with our triple-ring filter (TRF) method in our CAD system. As the result, the sensitivity of detecting clusters was improved from 90% by our previous TRF method to 95% by using both SIANN and TRF.

Zhang Xuejun [Electronics and Information Systems Engineering Division, Graduate School of Engineering, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan)

2005-04-01

148

A Comparison between Film-Screen Mammography and Full-Field Digital Mammography Utilizing Phase Contrast Technology in Breast Cancer Screening Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A digital phase contrast mammography (PCM) system was introduced into a hospital’s screening programs with the expectation\\u000a of improved clinical image quality. A total of 3835 examinations with the PCM system and 4338 examinations with a film-screen\\u000a (FS) system were performed. The screening performance measures of the two systems were compared. Both in recall rates and\\u000a in cancer detection rates,

Takako Morita; Maya Yamada; Akiko Kano; Sumiya Nagatsuka; Chika Honda; Tokiko Endo

2008-01-01

149

Comparative performance of modern digital mammography systems in a large breast screening program  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare physical measures pertaining to image quality among digital mammography systems utilized in a large breast screening program. To examine qualitatively differences in these measures and differences in clinical cancer detection rates between CR and DR among sites within that program. Methods: As part of the routine quality assurance program for screening, field measurements are made of several variables considered to correlate with the diagnostic quality of medical images including: modulation transfer function, noise equivalent quanta, d? (an index of lesion detectability) and air kerma to allow estimation of mean glandular dose. In addition, images of the mammography accreditation phantom are evaluated. Results: It was found that overall there were marked differences between the performance measures of DR and CR mammography systems. In particular, the modulation transfer functions obtained with the DR systems were found to be higher, even for larger detector element sizes. Similarly, the noise equivalent quanta, d?, and the phantom scores were higher, while the failure rates associated with low signal-to-noise ratio and high dose were lower with DR. These results were consistent with previous findings in the authors’ program that the breast cancer detection rates at sites employing CR technology were, on average, 30.6% lower than those that used DR mammography. Conclusions: While the clinical study was not large enough to allow a statistically powered system-by-system assessment of cancer detection accuracy, the physical measures expressing spatial resolution, and signal-to-noise ratio are consistent with the published finding that sites employing CR systems had lower cancer detection rates than those using DR systems for screening mammography.

Yaffe, Martin J., E-mail: martin.yaffe@sri.utoronto.ca; Bloomquist, Aili K.; Hunter, David M.; Mawdsley, Gordon E. [Physical Sciences Division, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Departments of Medical Biophysics and Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)] [Physical Sciences Division, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Departments of Medical Biophysics and Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Chiarelli, Anna M. [Prevention and Cancer Control, Cancer Care Ontario, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Ontario Breast Screening Program, Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X3 (Canada)] [Prevention and Cancer Control, Cancer Care Ontario, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Ontario Breast Screening Program, Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X3 (Canada); Muradali, Derek [Ontario Breast Screening Program, Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X3 (Canada)] [Ontario Breast Screening Program, Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X3 (Canada); Mainprize, James G. [Physical Sciences Division, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)] [Physical Sciences Division, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)

2013-12-15

150

Degradation Based Blind Image Quality Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper, we propose a novel framework for blind image quality evaluation. Unlike the common image quality measures evaluating\\u000a compression or transmission artifacts this approach analyzes the image properties common to non-ideal image acquisition such\\u000a as blur, under or over exposure, saturation, and lack of meaningful information. In contrast to methods used for adjusting\\u000a imaging parameters such as focus

Ville Ojansivu; Leena Lepistö; Martti Ilmoniemi; Janne Heikkilä

2011-01-01

151

Stereoscopic images quality assessment by jointly evaluating image quality and depth perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective quality evaluation of stereoscopic images is useful in three-dimensional television application, and it is difficult to establish a reasonable relationship between objective evaluation and quality score. In this paper, a new stereoscopic image quality assessment method is proposed. In the method, stereoscopic features are first extracted to describe perceptual attributes of image quality and depth perception by singular value

Feng Shao; Shanbo Gu; Gangyi Jiang; Mei Yu

2012-01-01

152

A natural image quality evaluation metric  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced-reference (RR) image quality assessment (IQA) metrics evaluate the quality of a distorted (or degraded) image by using some, not all, information of the original (reference) image. In this paper, we propose a novel RR IQA metric based on hybrid wavelets and directional filter banks (HWD). With HWD as a pre-processing stage, the newly proposed metric mainly focuses on subbands

Xuelong Li; Dacheng Tao; Xinbo Gao; Wen Lu

2009-01-01

153

A practice of medical image quality evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is devoted to subjective\\/objective evaluation on medical image quality. A model based on neural network is proposed to mimic radiology doctors' perception. Medical images were compressed by different algorithms such as Dct and wavelet with different compression rate. After decompression, subjective and objective methods are used to evaluate image quality. Subjective rating is given by common person, clinic

Yun Zhou; Duo Chen; Chuan-fu Li; Xiao-ou Li; Huan-qing Feng

2003-01-01

154

30 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MEDICAL IMAGING, VOL. 28, NO. 1, JANUARY 2009 Combined Optical Imaging and Mammography of  

E-print Network

in developing the instrument and software platform of a combined X-ray mam- mography/diffuse optical breast the spatially co-regis- tered optical/X-ray images, we can identify the chest-wall muscle, fatty tissue

Miller, Eric

155

Comparative study in patients with microcalcifications: full-field digital mammography vs screen-film mammography.  

PubMed

The goal of this prospective study was to compare a full-field digital mammography system (FFDM) to a conventional screen-film mammography system (SFM) for the detection and characterization of microcalcifications. Fifty-five patients with 57 isolated microcalcification clusters were examined using a FFDM system (Senographe 2000D, GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, Wis.) and a SFM system (Senographe DMR, GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, Wis.). A conventional screen-film mammogram and a digital contact mammogram were obtained of each cluster. The image quality and the number of calcification particles were evaluated, and a characterization (BI-RADS 1-5) of microcalcifications was given by four experienced readers. Histopathology revealed 16 benign lesions (sclerosing adenosis, dysplasia, hamartoma, radial scar) in 15 patients and 21 malignant tumors (in situ carcinoma, invasive carcinoma) in 20 patients. Twenty patients had benign changes verified by long-term follow-up. Image quality of FFDM was assessed as superior to SFM in more than 50% of the cases. The FFDM showed more calcifications in 41% of all cases. Sensitivity and specificity for FFDM vs SFM were 95.2 vs 91.9% and 41.4 vs 39.3%, respectively. Moreover, FFDM demonstrated a higher diagnostic accuracy (deviation: 0.86 BI-RADS steps) compared with FSM (deviation 0.93 BI-RADS steps). The FFDM system with a 100- micro m pixel size provides better image quality than SFM in patients with mammographic microcalcifications. The FFDM has a higher sensitivity and a higher reliability in characterizing microcalcifications. PMID:12386757

Fischer, U; Baum, F; Obenauer, S; Luftner-Nagel, S; von Heyden, D; Vosshenrich, R; Grabbe, E

2002-11-01

156

Quality Metrics Evaluation of Hyperspectral Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the quality metrics evaluation on hyperspectral images has been presented using k-means clustering and segmentation. After classification the assessment of similarity between original image and classified image is achieved by measurements of image quality parameters. Experiments were carried out on four different types of hyperspectral images. Aerial and spaceborne hyperspectral images with different spectral and geometric resolutions were considered for quality metrics evaluation. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has been applied to reduce the dimensionality of hyperspectral data. PCA was ultimately used for reducing the number of effective variables resulting in reduced complexity in processing. In case of ordinary images a human viewer plays an important role in quality evaluation. Hyperspectral data are generally processed by automatic algorithms and hence cannot be viewed directly by human viewers. Therefore evaluating quality of classified image becomes even more significant. An elaborate comparison is made between k-means clustering and segmentation for all the images by taking Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR), Mean Square Error (MSE), Maximum Squared Error, ratio of squared norms called L2RAT and Entropy. First four parameters are calculated by comparing the quality of original hyperspectral image and classified image. Entropy is a measure of uncertainty or randomness which is calculated for classified image. Proposed methodology can be used for assessing the performance of any hyperspectral image classification techniques.

Singh, A. K.; Kumar, H. V.; Kadambi, G. R.; Kishore, J. K.; Shuttleworth, J.; Manikandan, J.

2014-11-01

157

Process perspective on image quality evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The psychological complexity of multivariate image quality evaluation makes it difficult to develop general image quality metrics. Quality evaluation includes several mental processes and ignoring these processes and the use of a few test images can lead to biased results. By using a qualitative/quantitative (Interpretation Based Quality, IBQ) methodology, we examined the process of pair-wise comparison in a setting, where the quality of the images printed by laser printer on different paper grades was evaluated. Test image consisted of a picture of a table covered with several objects. Three other images were also used, photographs of a woman, cityscape and countryside. In addition to the pair-wise comparisons, observers (N=10) were interviewed about the subjective quality attributes they used in making their quality decisions. An examination of the individual pair-wise comparisons revealed serious inconsistencies in observers' evaluations on the test image content, but not on other contexts. The qualitative analysis showed that this inconsistency was due to the observers' focus of attention. The lack of easily recognizable context in the test image may have contributed to this inconsistency. To obtain reliable knowledge of the effect of image context or attention on subjective image quality, a qualitative methodology is needed.

Leisti, Tuomas; Halonen, Raisa; Kokkonen, Anna; Weckman, Hanna; Mettänen, Marja; Lensu, Lasse; Ritala, Risto; Oittinen, Pirkko; Nyman, Göte

2008-01-01

158

Clinical performance in screening mammography: how we improve our expertise  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article will delineate the means by which general radiologists practicing in the community setting in the United States can further improve their expertise in screening mammography interpretation. Before completing their postgraduate training in radiology, general radiologists may not be receiving optimal instruction in screening mammography interpretation. Even those radiologists receiving fellowship training in breast imaging do not always receive

Michael N Linver

2003-01-01

159

JPEG2000 still image coding quality.  

PubMed

This work demonstrates the image qualities between two popular JPEG2000 programs. Two medical image compression algorithms are both coded using JPEG2000, but they are different regarding the interface, convenience, speed of computation, and their characteristic options influenced by the encoder, quantization, tiling, etc. The differences in image quality and compression ratio are also affected by the modality and compression algorithm implementation. Do they provide the same quality? The qualities of compressed medical images from two image compression programs named Apollo and JJ2000 were evaluated extensively using objective metrics. These algorithms were applied to three medical image modalities at various compression ratios ranging from 10:1 to 100:1. Following that, the quality of the reconstructed images was evaluated using five objective metrics. The Spearman rank correlation coefficients were measured under every metric in the two programs. We found that JJ2000 and Apollo exhibited indistinguishable image quality for all images evaluated using the above five metrics (r?>?0.98, p?image quality of the JJ2000 and Apollo algorithms is statistically equivalent for medical image compression. PMID:23589187

Chen, Tzong-Jer; Lin, Sheng-Chieh; Lin, You-Chen; Cheng, Ren-Gui; Lin, Li-Hui; Wu, Wei

2013-10-01

160

Composite x-ray image assembly for large-field digital mammography with one- and two-dimensional positioning of a focal plane array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To demonstrate the feasibility of a novel large-field digital mammography technique, a 1024 x 1024 pixel Loral charge-coupled device (CCD) focal plane array (FPA) was positioned in a mammographic field with one- and two-dimensional scan sequences to obtain 950 x 1800 pixel and 3600 x 3600 pixel composite images, respectively. These experiments verify that precise positioning of FPAs produced seamless composites and that the CCD mosaic concept has potential for high-resolution, large-field imaging. The proposed CCD mosaic concept resembles a checkerboard pattern with spacing left between the CCDs for the driver and readout electronics. To obtain a complete x-ray image, the mosaic must be repositioned four times, with an x-ray exposure at each position. To reduce the patient dose, a lead shield with appropriately patterned holes is placed between the x-ray source and the patient. The high-precision motorized translation stages and the fiber-coupled-scintillating-screen-CCD sensor assembly were placed in the position usually occupied by the film cassette. Because of the high mechanical precision, seamless composites were constructed from the subimages. This paper discusses the positioning, image alignment procedure, and composite image results. The paper only addresses the formation of a seamless composite image from subimages and will not consider the effects of the lead shield, multiple CCDs, or the speed of motion.

Halama, G.; McAdoo, J.; Liu, H.

1998-01-01

161

Wavelet-based noise-model driven denoising algorithm for differential phase contrast mammography.  

PubMed

Traditional mammography can be positively complemented by phase contrast and scattering x-ray imaging, because they can detect subtle differences in the electron density of a material and measure the local small-angle scattering power generated by the microscopic density fluctuations in the specimen, respectively. The grating-based x-ray interferometry technique can produce absorption, differential phase contrast (DPC) and scattering signals of the sample, in parallel, and works well with conventional X-ray sources; thus, it constitutes a promising method for more reliable breast cancer screening and diagnosis. Recently, our team proved that this novel technology can provide images superior to conventional mammography. This new technology was used to image whole native breast samples directly after mastectomy. The images acquired show high potential, but the noise level associated to the DPC and scattering signals is significant, so it is necessary to remove it in order to improve image quality and visualization. The noise models of the three signals have been investigated and the noise variance can be computed. In this work, a wavelet-based denoising algorithm using these noise models is proposed. It was evaluated with both simulated and experimental mammography data. The outcomes demonstrated that our method offers a good denoising quality, while simultaneously preserving the edges and important structural features. Therefore, it can help improve diagnosis and implement further post-processing techniques such as fusion of the three signals acquired. PMID:23669913

Arboleda, Carolina; Wang, Zhentian; Stampanoni, Marco

2013-05-01

162

Optimal photon energy comparison between digital breast tomosynthesis and mammography: a case study.  

PubMed

A comparison, in terms of the optimal energy that maximizes the image quality between digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and digital mammography (DM) was performed in a MAMMOMAT Inspiration system (Siemens) based on amorphous selenium flat panel detector. In this paper we measured the image quality by the signal difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR), and the patient risk by the mean glandular dose (MGD). Using these quantities we compared the optimal voltage that maximizes the image quality both in breast tomosynthesis and standard mammography acquisition mode. The comparison for the two acquisition modes was performed for a W/Rh anode filter combinations by using a 4.5 cm tissue equivalent mammography phantom. Moreover, in order to check if the used equipment was quantum noise limited, the relation of the relative noise with respect to the detector dose was evaluated. Results showed that in the tomosynthesis acquisition mode the optimal voltage is 28 kV, whereas in standard mammography the optimal voltage is 30 kV. The automatic exposure control (AEC) of the system selects 28 kV as optimal voltage both for DBT and DM. Monte Carlo simulations showed a qualitative agreement with the AEC selection system, since an optimal monochromatic energy of 20 keV was found both for DBT and DM. Moreover, the check about the noise showed that the system is not completely quantum noise limited, and this issue could explain the experimental slight difference in terms of optimal voltage between DBT and DM. According to these results, the use of higher voltage settings is not justified for the improvement of the image quality during a DBT examination. PMID:24613514

Di Maria, S; Baptista, M; Felix, M; Oliveira, N; Matela, N; Janeiro, L; Vaz, P; Orvalho, L; Silva, A

2014-06-01

163

A psychovisually-based image quality evaluator for JPEG images  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an algorithm for evaluating the quality of JPEG compressed images, called the psychovisually-based image quality evaluator (PIQE), which measures the severity of artifacts produced by JPEG compression. The PIQE evaluates the image quality using two psychovisually-based fidelity criteria: blockiness and similarity. The blockiness is an index that measures the patterned square artifact created as a by-product of the

R. W. Chan; P. B. Goldsmith

2000-01-01

164

Radiation protection program for early detection of breast cancer in a mammography facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mammography is the best tool for early detection of Breast Cancer. In this diagnostic radiology modality it is necessary to establish the criteria to ensure the proper use and operation of the equipment used to obtain mammographic images in order to contribute to the safe use of ionizing radiation. The aim of the work was to implement at FUCAM-AC the radiation protection program which must be established for patients and radiation workers according to Mexican standards [1-4]. To achieve this goal, radiation protection and quality control manuals were elaborated [5]. Furthermore, a quality control program (QCP) in the mammography systems (analog/digital), darkroom included, has been implemented. Daily sensitometry, non-variability of the image quality, visualizing artifacts, revision of the equipment mechanical stability, compression force and analysis of repetition studies are some of the QCP routine tests that must be performed by radiological technicians of this institution as a set of actions to ensure the protection of patients. Image quality and patients dose assessment were performed on 4 analog equipment installed in 2 mobile units. In relation to dose assessment, all equipment passed the acceptance criteria (<3 mGy per projection). The image quality test showed that most images (70%)- presented artifacts. A brief summary of the results of quality control tests applied to the equipment and film processor are presented. To maintain an adequate level of quality and safety at FUCAM-AC is necessary that the proposed radiation protection program in this work is applied.

Villagomez Casimiro, Mariana; Ruiz Trejo, Cesar; Espejo Fonseca, Ruby

2014-11-01

165

Ultrasound image quality assessment: a framework for evaluation of clinical image quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvement of ultrasound images should be guided by their diagnostic value. Evaluation of clinical image quality is generally performed subjectively, because objective criteria have not yet been fully developed and accepted for the evaluation of clinical image quality. Based on recommendation 500 from the International Telecommunication Union - Radiocommunication (ITU-R) for such subjective quality assessment, this work presents equipment and

Martin Christian Hemmsen; Mads Møller Petersen; Svetoslav Ivanov Nikolov; Michael Backmann Nielsen; Jørgen Arendt Jensen

2010-01-01

166

Image quality evaluation of light field photography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light field photography captures 4D radiance information of a scene. Digital refocusing and digital correction of aberrations could be done after the photograph is taken. However, capturing 4D light field is costly and tradeoffs between different image quality metrics should be made and evaluated. This paper explores the effects of light field photography on image quality by quantitatively evaluating some

Qiang Fu; Zhiliang Zhou; Yan Yuan; Bin Xiangli

2011-01-01

167

An Edge Weighted RS image Quality Evaluation Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The approaches for remote sensing (RS) image quality evaluation can be categorized by two different criteria. One is the subjective image quality testing based on many observers. The other is the objective image quality testing based on mathematical calculation. Compared with the subjective method, objective image quality testing is easier for implementation. However, the traditional objective image quality evaluation models,

Qin Lu; Liebo Du; Xuemin Xiao

2008-01-01

168

Breast cancer is a common form of cancer among women. Mammography is used for early detection, but it cannot detect all instances of cancer. New magnetic resonance imaging  

E-print Network

1 Breast cancer is a common form of cancer among women. Mammography is used for early detection by Stanford University and used at Presbyterian Hospital have detected breast cancer where mammography has possible to render MR data in 3D at interactive rates. This paper presents the design of breast cancer

Subramanian, Kalpathi R.

169

Investigation of the imaging quality of synchrotron-based phase-contrast mammographic tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of a systematic study of phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography in the propagation-based and analyser-based modes using specially designed phantoms and excised breast tissue samples. The study is aimed at the quantitative evaluation and subsequent optimization, with respect to detection of small tumours in breast tissue, of the effects of phase contrast and phase retrieval on key imaging parameters, such as spatial resolution, contrast-to-noise ratio, x-ray dose and a recently proposed ‘intrinsic quality’ characteristic which combines the image noise with the spatial resolution. We demonstrate that some of the methods evaluated in this work lead to substantial (more than 20-fold) improvement in the contrast-to-noise and intrinsic quality of the reconstructed tomographic images compared with conventional techniques, with the measured characteristics being in good agreement with the corresponding theoretical estimations. This improvement also corresponds to an approximately 400-fold reduction in the x-ray dose, compared with conventional absorption-based tomography, without a loss in the imaging quality. The results of this study confirm and quantify the significant potential benefits achievable in three-dimensional mammography using x-ray phase-contrast imaging and phase-retrieval techniques.

Gureyev, T. E.; Mayo, S. C.; Nesterets, Ya I.; Mohammadi, S.; Lockie, D.; Menk, R. H.; Arfelli, F.; Pavlov, K. M.; Kitchen, M. J.; Zanconati, F.; Dullin, C.; Tromba, G.

2014-09-01

170

Combination of digital mammography with semi-automated 3D breast ultrasound.  

PubMed

This paper describes work aimed at combining 3D ultrasound with full-field digital mammography via a semi-automatic prototype ultrasound scanning mechanism attached to the digital mammography system gantry. Initial efforts to obtain high x-ray and ultrasound image quality through a compression paddle are proving successful. Registration between the x-ray mammogram and ultrasound image volumes is quite promising when the breast is stably compressed. This prototype system takes advantage of many synergies between the co-registered digital mammography and pulse-echo ultrasound image data used for breast cancer detection and diagnosis. In addition, innovative combinations of advanced US and X-ray applications are being implemented and tested along with the basic modes. The basic and advanced applications are those that should provide relatively independent information about the breast tissues. Advanced applications include x-ray tomosynthesis, for 3D delineation of mammographic structures, and non-linear elasticity and 3D color flow imaging by ultrasound, for mechanical and physiological information unavailable from conventional, non-contrast x-ray and ultrasound imaging. PMID:15270583

Kapur, Ajay; Carson, Paul L; Eberhard, Jeffrey; Goodsitt, Mitchell M; Thomenius, Kai; Lokhandwalla, Murtuza; Buckley, Donald; Roubidoux, Marilyn A; Helvie, Mark A; Booi, Rebecca C; LeCarpentier, Gerald L; Erkamp, Ramon Q; Chan, Heang-Ping; Fowlkes, J Brian; Thomas, Jerry A; Landberg, Cynthia E

2004-08-01

171

Combination of digital mammography with semi-automated 3D breast ultrasound  

PubMed Central

This paper describes work aimed at combining 3D ultrasound with full-field digital mammography via a semi-automatic prototype ultrasound scanning mechanism attached to the digital mammography system gantry. Initial efforts to obtain high x-ray and ultrasound image quality through a compression paddle are proving successful. Registration between the x-ray mammogram and ultrasound image volumes is quite promising when the breast is stably compressed. This prototype system takes advantage of many synergies between the co-registered digital mammography and pulse-echo ultrasound image data used for breast cancer detection and diagnosis. In addition, innovative combinations of advanced US and X-ray applications are being implemented and tested along with the basic modes. The basic and advanced applications are those that should provide relatively independent information about the breast tissues. Advanced applications include x-ray tomosynthesis, for 3D delineation of mammographic structures, and non-linear elasticity and 3D color flow imaging by ultrasound, for mechanical and physiological information unavailable from conventional, non-contrast x-ray and ultrasound imaging. PMID:15270583

Kapur, Ajay; Carson, Paul L.; Eberhard, Jeff; Goodsitt, Mitchell M.; Thomenius, Kai; Lokhandwalla, Murtuza; Buckley, Donald; Roubidoux, Marilyn A.; Helvie, Mark A.; Booi, Rebecca C.; LeCarpentier, Gerald L.; Erkamp, Ramon Q.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Thomas, Jerry A.; Landberg, Cynthia E.

2010-01-01

172

A Comparative Study of the Diagnostic Value of Contrast-Enhanced Breast MR Imaging and Mammography on Patients with BI-RADS 3–5 Microcalcifications  

PubMed Central

Objective To retrospectively investigate the diagnostic value of breast MRI in patients with BI-RADS 3–5 microcalcifications in mammography. Methods Eighty-four patients with BI-RADS 3–5 microcalcifications on mammography underwent breast MR exams before surgical biopsy with a hookwire position under mammographic guidance. Two radiologists reviewed each lesion with BI-RADS by consensus. The diagnostic value of mammography and MRI was compared. Results Histopathological examination revealed 49 benign lesions and 42 malignant lesions. In the assessments of mammography, 21 lesions (23.1%) were assigned to category 3, 51 lesions (56.0%) to category 4, and 19 lesions (20.9%) to category 5. The area under the receiver operating characteristic(ROC) curve for mammography and MR assessment was 0.844, and 0.945, respectively (p<0.05). In cases of category 3 microcalcifications, the specificity of mammography and MR was 100%, and 95.2% (p?=?1.000), respectively. In cases of category 4 microcalcifications, the specificity, PPV and accuracy of mammography was 0%, 45.1% and 45.1%; whereas those for MR was 82.1% (p<0.05), 80.8% (P?=?0.003) and 86.3% (p<0.05). All microcalcifications of category 5 were correctly diagnosed by mammography and MR. Conclusions Breast MRI has the potential to significantly improve the diagnosis of category 4 microcalcifications on mammography. Among mammographic category 4 microcalcifications, about 82% of benign lesions can be degraded to BI-RADS 1?3 by MRI. However for microcalcifications of category 3 and 5, MR exams do not show significant improvement over mammography. PMID:25365327

Li, Erni; Li, Jing; Song, Ying; Xue, Mei; Zhou, Chunwu

2014-01-01

173

Developing a Comprehensive Database Management System for Organization and Evaluation of Mammography Datasets  

PubMed Central

We aimed to design and develop a comprehensive mammography database system (CMDB) to collect clinical datasets for outcome assessment and development of decision support tools. A Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant CMDB was created to store multi-relational datasets of demographic risk factors and mammogram results using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon. The CMDB collected both biopsy pathology outcomes, in a breast pathology lexicon compiled by extending BI-RADS, and our institutional breast cancer registry. The audit results derived from the CMDB were in accordance with Mammography Quality Standards Act (MQSA) audits and national benchmarks. The CMDB has managed the challenges of multi-level organization demanded by the complexity of mammography practice and lexicon development in pathology. We foresee that the CMDB will be useful for efficient quality assurance audits and development of decision support tools to improve breast cancer diagnosis. Our procedure of developing the CMDB provides a framework to build a detailed data repository for breast imaging quality control and research, which has the potential to augment existing resources. PMID:25368510

Wu, Yirong; Rubin, Daniel L; Woods, Ryan W; Elezaby, Mai; Burnside, Elizabeth S

2014-01-01

174

Web-based Mammography Audit Feedback  

PubMed Central

Introduction Interpreting screening mammography accurately is challenging and requires ongoing education to maintain and improve interpretative skills. Recognizing this, many countries with organized breast screening programs have developed audit and feedback systems based on their national performance data to help radiologists assess and improve their skills. We developed and pilot tested an interactive website to provide screening and diagnostic mammography audit feedback with comparisons to national and regional benchmarks. Methods and Materials Radiologists who participate in three Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium registries in the United States were invited during 2009 and 2010 to use a website that provides tabular and graphical displays of mammography audit reports with comparisons to national and regional performance measures. We collected data on the use of and perceptions of the website. Results Thirty-five of 111 invited radiologists used the web site from 1–5 times in a year. The most popular measure was sensitivity for both screening and diagnostic mammography while a table with all measures was the most visited page. Of the 13 radiologist who completed the post use survey, all found it easy to use and navigate, 11 found the benchmarks useful, and 9 reported that they intend to improve a specific outcome measure this year. Conclusions An interactive website to provide customized mammography audit feedback reports to radiologists has the potential to be a powerful tool in improving interpretive performance. The conceptual framework of customized audit feedback reports can also be generalized to other imaging tests. PMID:22623571

Geller, BM; Ichikawa, L; Miglioretti, DL; Eastman, D

2013-01-01

175

Computer-aided detection for screening mammography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer-aided detection of breast cancer in screening mammography is just now becoming a clinically useful tool for radiologist. Systems are being implemented to act as second readers of mammograms. These systems automatically detect suspicious regions in digitized films, or directly acquired digital images, then prompt the radiologists to examine the identified regions more carefully. The purpose of using a computerized

Kevin S. Woods; Maha Sallam

1999-01-01

176

Image quality metrics for volumetric laser displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the extensions to the image quality metrics and related human factors research that are needed to establish the baseline standards for emerging volume display technologies. The existing and recently developed technologies for multiplanar volume displays are reviewed with an emphasis on basic human visual issues. Human factors image quality metrics and guidelines are needed to firmly establish this technology in the marketplace. The human visual requirements and the display design tradeoffs for these prototype laser-based volume displays are addressed and several critical image quality issues identified for further research. The American National Standard for Human Factors Engineering of Visual Display Terminal Workstations (ANSIHFS-100) and other international standards (ISO, DIN) can serve as a starting point, but this research base must be extended to provide new image quality metrics for this new technology for volume displays.

Williams, Rodney D.; Donohoo, Daniel

1991-08-01

177

Toward clinically relevant standardization of image quality.  

PubMed

In recent years, notable progress has been made on standardization of medical image presentations in the definition and implementation of the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) Grayscale Standard Display Function (GSDF). In parallel, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group 18 has provided much needed guidelines and tools for visual and quantitative assessment of medical display quality. In spite of these advances, however, there are still notable gaps in the effectiveness of DICOM GSDF to assure consistent and high-quality display of medical images. In additions the degree of correlation between display technical data and diagnostic usability and performance of displays remains unclear. This article proposes three specific steps that DICOM, AAPM, and ACR may collectively take to bridge the gap between technical performance and clinical use: (1) DICOM does not provide means and acceptance criteria to evaluate the conformance of a display device to GSDF or to address other image quality characteristics. DICOM can expand beyond luminance response, extending the measurable, quantifiable elements of TG18 such as reflection and resolution. (2) In a large picture archiving and communication system (PACS) installation, it is critical to continually track the appropriate use and performance of multiple display devices. DICOM may help with this task by adding a Device Service Class to the standard to provide for communication and control of image quality parameters between applications and devices, (3) The question of clinical significance of image quality metrics has rarely been addressed by prior efforts. In cooperation with AAPM, the American College of Radiology (ACR), and the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology (SCAR), DICOM may help to initiate research that will determine the clinical consequence of variations in image quality metrics (eg, GSDF conformance) and to define what constitutes image quality from a diagnostic perspective. Implementation of these three initiatives may further the reach and impact of DICOM toward quality medicine. PMID:15551103

Samei, Ehsan; Rowberg, Alan; Avraham, Ellie; Cornelius, Craig

2004-12-01

178

A comparative study of volumetric breast density estimation in digital mammography and magnetic resonance imaging: results from a high-risk population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed a study to compare methods for volumetric breast density estimation in digital mammography (DM) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for a high-risk population of women. DM and MRI images of the unaffected breast from 32 women with recently detected abnormalities and/or previously diagnosed breast cancer (age range 31-78 yrs, mean 50.3 yrs) were retrospectively analyzed. DM images were analyzed using QuantraTM (Hologic Inc). The MRI images were analyzed using a fuzzy-C-means segmentation algorithm on the T1 map. Both methods were compared to Cumulus (Univ. Toronto). Volumetric breast density estimates from DM and MRI are highly correlated (r=0.90, p<=0.001). The correlation between the volumetric and the area-based density measures is lower and depends on the training background of the Cumulus software user (r=0.73-84, p<=0.001). In terms of absolute values, MRI provides the lowest volumetric estimates (mean=14.63%), followed by the DM volumetric (mean=22.72%) and area-based measures (mean=29.35%). The MRI estimates of the fibroglandular volume are statistically significantly lower than the DM estimates for women with very low-density breasts (p<=0.001). We attribute these differences to potential partial volume effects in MRI and differences in the computational aspects of the image analysis methods in MRI and DM. The good correlation between the volumetric and the area-based measures, shown to correlate with breast cancer risk, suggests that both DM and MRI volumetric breast density measures can aid in breast cancer risk assessment. Further work is underway to fully-investigate the association between volumetric breast density measures and breast cancer risk.

Kontos, Despina; Xing, Ye; Bakic, Predrag R.; Conant, Emily F.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

2010-03-01

179

Introduction of organised mammography screening in tyrol: results of a one-year pilot phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Efficiency and efficacy of organised mammography screening programs have been proven in large randomised trials. But every\\u000a local implementation of mammography screening has to check whether the well established quality standards are met. Therefore\\u000a it was the aim of this study to analyse the most common quality indices after introducing organised mammography screening\\u000a in Tyrol, Austria, in a smooth transition

Willi Oberaigner; Wolfgang Buchberger; Thomas Frede; Martin Daniaux; Rudolf Knapp; Christian Marth; Uwe Siebert

2011-01-01

180

Determination of mass attenuation coefficients for threshold contrast evaluation in digital mammography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the 'European protocol for the quality control of the physical and technical aspects of mammography screening' (EPQC) image quality digital mammography units has to be evaluated at different breast thicknesses. At the standard thickness of 50 mm polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) image quality is determined by the analysis of CDMAM contrast detail phantom images where threshold contrasts are calculated for different gold disc diameters. To extend these results to other breast thicknesses contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) and threshold contrast (TC) visibilities have to be calculated for all required thicknesses. To calculate the latter the mass attenuation coefficient (MAC) of gold has to be known for all possible beam qualities in the tube voltage range between 26 and 32 kV. In this paper we first determined the threshold contrast visibility using the CDMAM phantom with the same beam quality at different current-time products (mAs). We can derive from Rose theory that CNR • CT • ? = const, where ? is the diameter of the gold cylinder. From this the corresponding attenuation coefficients can be calculated. This procedure was repeated for four different beam qualities (Mo/Mo 27kV, Rh/Rh 29kV, Rh/Rh 31 kV, and W/Rh 29 kV)). Next, we measured the aluminium half value layer (HVL) of all x-ray spectra relevant for mammography. Using a first order Taylor expansion of MAC as a function of HVL, all other desired MAC can be calculated. The MAC as a function of the HVL was derived to MAChvl = -286.97 * hvl+186.03 with R2 = 0.997, where MAChvl indicates the MAC for all specific x-ray spectrum defined by its aluminium half value layer. Based on this function all necessary MACs needed for quality assurance (QA) were calculated. The results were in good agreement with the data found in the protocol.

Hummel, Johann; Semturs, Friedrich; Menhart, Susanne; Figl, Michael

2010-04-01

181

Perceptual image quality and telescope performance ranking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Launch Vehicle Imaging Telescopes (LVIT) are expensive, high quality devices intended for improving the safety of vehicle personnel, ground support, civilians, and physical assets during launch activities. If allowed to degrade from the combination of wear, environmental factors, and ineffective or inadequate maintenance, these devices lose their ability to provide adequate quality imagery to analysts to prevent catastrophic events such

Joshua K. Lentz; James E. Harvey; Kenneth H. Marshall; Joseph Salg; Joseph B. Houston

2010-01-01

182

Image content influences men's semen quality  

PubMed Central

There is increasing evidence from non-human animals that males adjust their ejaculate expenditure according to the risk of sperm competition. In this study we show that, after controlling for lifestyle factors known to influence semen quality, human males viewing images depicting sperm competition had a higher percentage of motile sperm in their ejaculates. Many lifestyle variables were confirmed to influence semen quality, including the recent suggestion that storage of mobile phones close to the testes can decrease semen quality. PMID:17148180

Kilgallon, Sarah J; Simmons, Leigh W

2005-01-01

183

Subjective evaluation of compressed image quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lossy data compression generates distortion or error on the reconstructed image and the distortion becomes visible as the compression ratio increases. Even at the same compression ratio, the distortion appears differently depending on the compression method used. Because of the nonlinearity of the human visual system and lossy data compression methods, we have evaluated subjectively the quality of medical images

Heesub Lee; Alan H. Rowberg; Mark S. Frank; Hyung-Sik Choi; Yongmin Kim

1992-01-01

184

Color image processing for date quality evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many agricultural non-contact visual inspection applications use color image processing techniques because color is often a good indicator of product quality. Color evaluation is an essential step in the processing and inventory control of fruits and vegetables that directly affects profitability. Most color spaces such as RGB and HSV represent colors with three-dimensional data, which makes using color image processing

Dah Jye Lee; James K. Archibald

2010-01-01

185

Image Quality Evaluation of HJ CCD Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chinese HJ saterllite CCD sensor is similar to Landsat-5 TM with the same spatial resolution, but there are enormous advantages in space coverage and frequency of repeated observations. This paper focuses on the image quality evaluation of the four HJ CCD sensors by reference to Landsat TM data from near-synchronous images. The results are as follows: Mainly due to

Xiaolei Li; Rui Liu

2010-01-01

186

Perceptual image quality and telescope performance ranking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Launch Vehicle Imaging Telescopes (LVIT) are expensive, high quality devices intended for improving the safety of vehicle personnel, ground support, civilians, and physical assets during launch activities. If allowed to degrade from the combination of wear, environmental factors, and ineffective or inadequate maintenance, these devices lose their ability to provide adequate quality imagery to analysts to prevent catastrophic events such as the NASA Space Shuttle, Challenger, accident in 1986 and the Columbia disaster of 2003. A software tool incorporating aberrations and diffraction that was developed for maintenance evaluation and modeling of telescope imagery is presented. This tool provides MTF-based image quality metric outputs which are correlated to ascent imagery analysts' perception of image quality, allowing a prediction of usefulness of imagery which would be produced by a telescope under different simulated conditions.

Lentz, Joshua K.; Harvey, James E.; Marshall, Kenneth H.; Salg, Joseph; Houston, Joseph B.

2010-08-01

187

Uncertainty modeling for ontology-based mammography annotation with intelligent BI-RADS scoring.  

PubMed

This paper presents an ontology-based annotation system and BI-RADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System) score reasoning with Semantic Web technologies in mammography. The annotation system is based on the Mammography Annotation Ontology (MAO) where the BI-RADS score reasoning works. However, ontologies are based on crisp logic and they cannot handle uncertainty. Consequently, we propose a Bayesian-based approach to model uncertainty in mammography ontology and make reasoning possible using BI-RADS scores with SQWRL (Semantic Query-enhanced Web Rule Language). First, we give general information about our system and present details of mammography annotation ontology, its main concepts and relationships. Then, we express uncertainty in mammography and present approaches to handle uncertainty issues. System is evaluated with a manually annotated dataset DEMS (Dokuz Eylul University Mammography Set) and DDSM (Digital Database for Screening Mammography). We give the result of experimentations in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, precision and uncertainty level measures. PMID:23414780

Bulu, Hakan; Alpkocak, Adil; Balci, Pinar

2013-05-01

188

Color image processing for date quality evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many agricultural non-contact visual inspection applications use color image processing techniques because color is often a good indicator of product quality. Color evaluation is an essential step in the processing and inventory control of fruits and vegetables that directly affects profitability. Most color spaces such as RGB and HSV represent colors with three-dimensional data, which makes using color image processing a challenging task. Since most agricultural applications only require analysis on a predefined set or range of colors, mapping these relevant colors to a small number of indexes allows simple and efficient color image processing for quality evaluation. This paper presents a simple but efficient color mapping and image processing technique that is designed specifically for real-time quality evaluation of Medjool dates. In contrast with more complex color image processing techniques, the proposed color mapping method makes it easy for a human operator to specify and adjust color-preference settings for different color groups representing distinct quality levels. Using this color mapping technique, the color image is first converted to a color map that has one color index represents a color value for each pixel. Fruit maturity level is evaluated based on these color indices. A skin lamination threshold is then determined based on the fruit surface characteristics. This adaptive threshold is used to detect delaminated fruit skin and hence determine the fruit quality. The performance of this robust color grading technique has been used for real-time Medjool date grading.

Lee, Dah Jye; Archibald, James K.

2010-01-01

189

Image quality of optical remote sensing data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photogrammetry and remote sensing (RS) provide procedures for deriving geometric, radiometric and thematic information from image data. A variety of aircraft and space-borne sensors are available to capture image data. Different standards and specifications of quality assessment for optical remote sensing data are available. Due to the possibilities of absolute geometric and radiometric calibration digital sensors provide new promising opportunities to create value added products like digital elevation models, land-use maps etc. Such cameras combine the high geometric quality with the radiometric standards of earth observation systems. The determination of image quality of remote sensing data can be distinguished in (spectral) radiometric and geometric aspects. Standards contains different metrics for accuracy issues (spectral, radiometric and geometric accuracy) and for performance parameters like SNR, MTF. Image artefacts (caused e.g. by compression) are an additional important topic. The paper gives an overview of the current debate and the possibility of standardization.

Reulke, Ralf; Säuberlich, Thomas

2014-10-01

190

Practical usage of image quality verification tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent standards and upcoming guidelines are beginning to address the issue of image display quality, and image representation consistency. The DICOM standard has recently been extended to address the consistency of the grayscale presentation of images (DICOM part 14, Grayscale Standard Display Function), and it also addresses the consistency of presentation of associated information (text, graphics, annotation, zoom, rotation) with the recently approved addition of the Softcopy Presentation State, i.e. DICOM Supplement 33). These two new standards provide image consistency between viewing stations and printers independent of the manufacturer, brand and/or type. These services have been demonstrated at ECR, RSNA, and are also part of the continuing IHE demonstrations. In addition to the DICOM standards, work is being done by AAPM Task Group 18 to address the issue of Quality Control and Quality Assurance for electronic displays.

Compton, Kenneth D.; Hemminger, Bradley M.; Oosterwijk, Herman J.

2001-08-01

191

Parameter based SAR simulator for image quality evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A SAR simulator for image quality evaluation is presented. This simulator can be used for the estimation of SAR image quality performance from the simulated raw data and the verification of the SAR payload design parameter associated with the image quality parameters. Evaluation of SAR image quality is achieved by analyzing the error effect of system parameter using the developed

Chul H. Jung; Min S. Choi; Young K. Kwag

2007-01-01

192

Characterization of scatter in digital mammography from physical measurements  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: That scattered radiation negatively impacts the quality of medical radiographic imaging is well known. In mammography, even slight amounts of scatter reduce the high contrast required for subtle soft-tissue imaging. In current clinical mammography, image contrast is partially improved by use of an antiscatter grid. This form of scatter rejection comes with a sizeable dose penalty related to the concomitant elimination of valuable primary radiation. Digital mammography allows the use of image processing as a method of scatter correction that might avoid effects that negatively impact primary radiation, while potentially providing more contrast improvement than is currently possible with a grid. For this approach to be feasible, a detailed characterization of the scatter is needed. Previous research has modeled scatter as a constant background that serves as a DC bias across the imaging surface. The goal of this study was to provide a more substantive data set for characterizing the spatially-variant features of scatter radiation at the image detector of modern mammography units. Methods: This data set was acquired from a model of the radiation beam as a matrix of very narrow rays or pencil beams. As each pencil beam penetrates tissue, the pencil widens in a predictable manner due to the production of scatter. The resultant spreading of the pencil beam at the detector surface can be characterized by two parameters: mean radial extent (MRE) and scatter fraction (SF). The SF and MRE were calculated from measurements obtained using the beam stop method. Two digital mammography units were utilized, and the SF and MRE were found as functions of target, filter, tube potential, phantom thickness, and presence or absence of a grid. These values were then used to generate general equations allowing the SF and MRE to be calculated for any combination of the above parameters. Results: With a grid, the SF ranged from a minimum of about 0.05 to a maximum of about 0.16, and the MRE ranged from about 3 to 13 mm. Without a grid, the SF ranged from a minimum of 0.25 to a maximum of 0.52, and the MRE ranged from about 20 to 45 mm. The SF with a grid demonstrated a mild dependence on target/filter combination and kV, whereas the SF without a grid was independent of these factors. The MRE demonstrated a complex relationship as a function of kV, with notable difference among target/filter combinations. The primary source of change in both the SF and MRE was phantom thickness. Conclusions: Because breast tissue varies spatially in physical density and elemental content, the effective thickness of breast tissue varies spatially across the imaging field, resulting in a spatially-variant scatter distribution in the imaging field. The data generated in this study can be used to characterize the scatter contribution on a point-by-point basis, for a variety of different techniques.

Leon, Stephanie M., E-mail: Stephanie.Leon@uth.tmc.edu; Wagner, Louis K. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)] [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Brateman, Libby F. [Department of Radiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610 (United States)] [Department of Radiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610 (United States)

2014-06-15

193

The basics and implementation of digital mammography.  

PubMed

Current day digital mammography acquisition units have already been shown to be equal or better than screen film systems for the detection and classification of breast lesions. The optimal multimodality breast imaging diagnostic workstations and connectivity to existing picture and archiving communication systems and information systems is still a work in progress, but with more and more facilities transitioning to digital imaging it is only a matter of time until these hurdles are overcome. PMID:20868892

Zuley, Margarita L

2010-09-01

194

Image Quality Evaluation Method Based on the Relevant Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image quality evaluation is an important content of the Image Engineering, which plays an important role in the image communication process. Evaluation methods in general can be divided into objective and subjective quality evaluation methods. This paper analyzes the traditional full-reference image quality evaluation method and some of its shortcomings. Based on the analysis of image information and the relevance

Chunyan Han; Yemao Hou; Wenjia Wang

2009-01-01

195

Region-based wavelet coding methods for digital mammography.  

PubMed

Spatial resolution and contrast sensitivity requirements for some types of medical image techniques, including mammography, delay the implementation of new digital technologies, namely, computer-aided diagnosis, picture archiving and communications systems, or teleradiology. In order to reduce transmission time and storage cost, an efficient data-compression scheme to reduce digital data without significant degradation of medical image quality is needed. In this study, we have applied two region-based compression methods to digital mammograms. In both methods, after segmenting the breast region, a region-based discrete wavelet transform is applied, followed by an object-based extension of the set partitioning in hierarchical trees (OB-SPIHT) coding algorithm in one method, and an object-based extension of the set partitioned embedded block (OB-SPECK) coding algorithm in the other. We have compared these specific implementations against the original SPIHT and the new standard JPEG 2000, both using reversible and irreversible filters, on five digital mammograms compressed at rates ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 bit per pixel (bbp). Distortion was evaluated for all images and compression rates by the peak signal-to-noise ratio. For all images, OB-SPIHT and OB-SPECK performed substantially better than the traditional SPIHT and JPEG 2000, and a slight difference in performance was found between them. A comparison applying SPIHT and the standard JPEG 2000 to the same set of images with the background pixels fixed to zero was also carried out, obtaining similar implementation as region-based methods. For digital mammography, region-based compression methods represent an improvement in compression efficiency from full-image methods, also providing the possibility of encoding multiple regions of interest independently. PMID:14552582

Penedo, Mónica; Pearlman, William A; Tahoces, Pablo G; Souto, Miguel; Vidal, Juan J

2003-10-01

196

Quality criteria for cardiac images: an update.  

PubMed

The DIMOND II and III Cardiology Groups have agreed on quality criteria for cardiac images and developed a scoring system, to provide a tool to test quality of coronary angiograms, which was demonstrated to be of value in clinical practice. In the last years, digital flat panel technology has been introduced in cardiac angiographic systems and the radiological technique may have been influenced by the better performance of these new detectors. This advance in digital imaging, together with the lesson learned from previous studies, warranted the revision of the quality criteria for cardiac angiographic images as formerly defined. DIMOND criteria were reassessed to allow a simpler evaluation of angiograms. Clinical criteria were simplified and separated from technical criteria. Furthermore, the characteristics of an optimised angiographic technique have been outlined. PMID:18283064

Bernardi, G; Bar, O; Jezewski, T; Vano, E; Maccia, C; Trianni, A; Padovani, R

2008-01-01

197

Lessions learned in WISE image quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission launched in December of 2009 is a true success story. The mission is performing beyond expectations on-orbit and maintained cost and schedule throughout. How does such a thing happen? A team constantly focused on mission success is a key factor. Mission success is more than a program meeting its ultimate science goals; it is also meeting schedule and cost goals to avoid cancellation. The WISE program can attribute some of its success in achieving the image quality needed to meet science goals to lessons learned along the way. A requirement was missed in early decomposition, the absence of which would have adversely affected end-to-end system image quality. Fortunately, the ability of the cross-organizational team to focus on fixing the problem without pointing fingers or waiting for paperwork was crucial in achieving a timely solution. Asking layman questions early in the program could have revealed requirement flowdown misunderstandings between spacecraft control stability and image processing needs. Such is the lesson learned with the WISE spacecraft Attitude Determination & Control Subsystem (ADCS) jitter control and the image data reductions needs. Spacecraft motion can affect image quality in numerous ways. Something as seemingly benign as different terminology being used by teammates in separate groups working on data reduction, spacecraft ADCS, the instrument, mission operations, and the science proved to be a risk to system image quality. While the spacecraft was meeting the allocated jitter requirement , the drift rate variation need was not being met. This missing need was noticed about a year before launch and with a dedicated team effort, an adjustment was made to the spacecraft ADCS control. WISE is meeting all image quality requirements on-orbit thanks to a diligent team noticing something was missing before it was too late and applying their best effort to find a solution.

Kendall, Martha; Duval, Valerie G.; Larsen, Mark F.; Heinrichsen, Ingolf H.; Esplin, Roy W.; Shannon, Mark; Wright, Edward L.

2010-08-01

198

Automating Image Enhancement Optimization Using Image Quality Metrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image enhancement algorithms typically require tuning one or more input parameters to get the best results. Skipping this step or poor choice of values can often result in significant decrease in enhancement level or even degrade the image. This paper demonstrates the utility of image quality metrics in automating this tuning process for Space Situational Awareness imagery of resolved Resident Space Objects. The metrics considered in this study compare an original pristine image to the final displayed image, thus only apply directly to simulated images. However it is shown that a training set can be used to determine the best settings as a function of measureable imaging condition (light level, r0, …) to produce a look-up table that can be used for field collected data.

Gerwe, D.; Luna, C.; Calef, B.

2014-09-01

199

Reassessment of structural shielding design in mammography installations.  

PubMed

In this article, it is argued that current shielding methodologies can lead to an over-shielding of low-energy X-ray imaging facilities. Measurements of scattered air kerma rates in a mammography installation, including the effect of an anthropomorphic phantom of the patient, are presented. Detailed Monte Carlo calculations that support the measured results are also shown. Calculations for a mobile mammography installation, including the 'patient transmission factor', are presented and results are discussed. PMID:22972798

Sampaio, J M; Abreu, M C; Sousa, P; Peralta, L; Lima, P E

2013-04-01

200

Digital Mammography in European Population-Based Screening Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Full-field digital mammography (FFDM) offers several benefits when compared with screen-film mammography (SFM) in breast cancer\\u000a screening, such as: Elimination of technical failure recalls; simplified archival, retrieval, and transmission of images;\\u000a reduction of average glandular dose; higher patient work-flow; improved diagnostic accuracy, especially in women with dense\\u000a breast parenchyma due to higher contrast resolution; implementation of advanced technologies including computer-aided

Per Skaane

201

[Evaluation of the 1Shot Phantom dedicated to the mammography system using FCR].  

PubMed

Currently daily quality control (QC) tests for mammography systems are generally evaluated by using visual analysis phantoms, which of course means subjective measurement. In our study, however, we evaluated a novel digital phantom, the 1Shot Phantom M plus (1Shot Phantom), together with automatic analysis software dedicated for mammography systems using Fuji computed radiography (FCR). The digital phantom enables objective evaluation by providing for actual physical measurement rather than subjective visual assessment. We measured 1) contrast to noise ratio (CNR), 2) image receptor homogeneity, 3) missed tissue at chest wall side, 4) modulation transfer function (MTF), and 5) geometric distortion utilizing the 1Shot Phantom. We then compared the values obtained using the 1Shot Phantom with values obtained from the European guidelines and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards. In addition, we evaluated the convenience of using the digital phantom. The values utilizing the 1Shot Phantom and those from the European guidelines and IEC standards were consistent, but the QC tests for the European guidelines and IEC standards methods took about six hours while the same QC tests using the 1Shot Phantom took 10 minutes or less including exposure of the phantom image, measurement, and analysis. In conclusion, the digital phantom and dedicated software proved very useful and produced improved analysis for mammography systems using FCR in clinical daily QC testing because of their objectivity and substantial time-saving convenience. PMID:19661726

Nagashima, Chieko; Uchiyama, Nachiko; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Nagata, Mio; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Sankoda, Katsuhiro; Saotome, Shigeru; Tagi, Masahiro; Kusunoki, Tetsurou

2009-07-20

202

DSP in mammography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer in females with no cure at present. Early detection offers the best chance of survival and mammography is used to screen the asymptomatic female population above fifty years of age. Computerized analysis of mammograms can assist radiologists to detect lesions or abnormalities. However, the entire digitized mammogram must first be segmented and

Y. Attikiouzel; R. Chandrasekhar

2002-01-01

203

Image quality measures and their performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of quality measures are evaluated for gray scale image compression. They are all bivariate exploiting the differences between corresponding pixels in the original and degraded images. It is shown that although some numerical measures correlate well with the observers' response for a given compression technique, they are not reliable for an evaluation across different techniques. The two graphical measures (histograms and Hosaka plots), however, can be used to appropriately specify not only the amount, but also the type of degradation in reconstructed images.

Eskicioglu, Ahmet M.; Fisher, Paul S.; Chen, Si-Yuan

1994-01-01

204

Image quality evaluation: the data mining approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is difficult if not impossible to derive a model to adequately describe the entire visual, cognitive and preference decision process of image quality evaluation and to replace it with objective alternatives. Even if some parts of the process can be modeled based on the current knowledge of the visual system, there is often a lack of sufficient data to

Chengwu Cui

2004-01-01

205

Naturalness and interestingness of test images for visual quality evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Balanced and representative test images are needed to study perceived visual quality in various application domains. This study investigates naturalness and interestingness as image quality attributes in the context of test images. Taking a top-down approach we aim to find the dimensions which constitute naturalness and interestingness in test images and the relationship between these high-level quality attributes. We compare existing collections of test images (e.g. Sony sRGB images, ISO 12640 images, Kodak images, Nokia images and test images developed within our group) in an experiment combining quality sorting and structured interviews. Based on the data gathered we analyze the viewer-supplied criteria for naturalness and interestingness across image types, quality levels and judges. This study advances our understanding of subjective image quality criteria and enables the validation of current test images, furthering their development.

Halonen, Raisa; Westman, Stina; Oittinen, Pirkko

2011-01-01

206

Image quality evaluation based on human visual perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces two concepts of the traditional quality evaluation: the subjective evolution and objective evaluation, and then several kinds of common used human visual perception image quality judgment criterion are introduced, such as: assessing the quality of enhanced images based on human visual perception, image quality assessing model by using neural network and support vector machine, gradient information based

Fan Zhang; Yuli Xu

2009-01-01

207

Geometric assessment of image quality using digital image registration techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Image registration techniques were developed to perform a geometric quality assessment of multispectral and multitemporal image pairs. Based upon LANDSAT tapes, accuracies to a small fraction of a pixel were demonstrated. Because it is insensitive to the choice of registration areas, the technique is well suited to performance in an automatic system. It may be implemented at megapixel-per-second rates using a commercial minicomputer in combination with a special purpose digital preprocessor.

Tisdale, G. E.

1976-01-01

208

Image Quality Indicator for Infrared Inspections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The quality of images generated during an infrared thermal inspection depends on many system variables, settings, and parameters to include the focal length setting of the IR camera lens. If any relevant parameter is incorrect or sub-optimal, the resulting IR images will usually exhibit inherent unsharpness and lack of resolution. Traditional reference standards and image quality indicators (IQIs) are made of representative hardware samples and contain representative flaws of concern. These standards are used to verify that representative flaws can be detected with the current IR system settings. However, these traditional standards do not enable the operator to quantify the quality limitations of the resulting images, i.e. determine the inherent maximum image sensitivity and image resolution. As a result, the operator does not have the ability to optimize the IR inspection system prior to data acquisition. The innovative IQI described here eliminates this limitation and enables the operator to objectively quantify and optimize the relevant variables of the IR inspection system, resulting in enhanced image quality with consistency and repeatability in the inspection application. The IR IQI consists of various copper foil features of known sizes that are printed on a dielectric non-conductive board. The significant difference in thermal conductivity between the two materials ensures that each appears with a distinct grayscale or brightness in the resulting IR image. Therefore, the IR image of the IQI exhibits high contrast between the copper features and the underlying dielectric board, which is required to detect the edges of the various copper features. The copper features consist of individual elements of various shapes and sizes, or of element-pairs of known shapes and sizes and with known spacing between the elements creating the pair. For example, filled copper circles with various diameters can be used as individual elements to quantify the image sensitivity limit. Copper line-pairs of various sizes where the line width is equivalent to the spacing between the lines can be used as element-pairs to quantify the image resolution limit.

Burke, Eric

2011-01-01

209

Prediction of Viking lander camera image quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Formulations are presented that permit prediction of image quality as a function of camera performance, surface radiance properties, and lighting and viewing geometry. Predictions made for a wide range of surface radiance properties reveal that image quality depends strongly on proper camera dynamic range command and on favorable lighting and viewing geometry. Proper camera dynamic range commands depend mostly on the surface albedo that will be encountered. Favorable lighting and viewing geometries depend mostly on lander orientation with respect to the diurnal sun path over the landing site, and tend to be independent of surface albedo and illumination scattering function. Side lighting with low sun elevation angles (10 to 30 deg) is generally favorable for imaging spatial details and slopes, whereas high sun elevation angles are favorable for measuring spectral reflectances.

Huck, F. O.; Burcher, E. E.; Jobson, D. J.; Wall, S. D.

1976-01-01

210

1680 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 15, NO. 6, JUNE 2006 Quality-Aware Images  

E-print Network

1680 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 15, NO. 6, JUNE 2006 Quality-Aware Images Zhou the concept of quality-aware image, in which certain extracted features of the original (high-quality) image are embedded into the image data as invisible hidden messages. When a distorted version of such an image

Simoncelli, Eero

211

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. XX, NO. XX, MONTH, YEAR 1 Quality-Aware Images  

E-print Network

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. XX, NO. XX, MONTH, YEAR 1 Quality-Aware Images Zhou of quality-aware image, in which certain extracted features of the original (high-quality) image are embedded into the image data as invisible hidden messages. When a distorted version of such an image is received, users

Wang, Zhou

212

Quantitative Statistical Methods for Image Quality Assessment  

PubMed Central

Quantitative measures of image quality and reliability are critical for both qualitative interpretation and quantitative analysis of medical images. While, in theory, it is possible to analyze reconstructed images by means of Monte Carlo simulations using a large number of noise realizations, the associated computational burden makes this approach impractical. Additionally, this approach is less meaningful in clinical scenarios, where multiple noise realizations are generally unavailable. The practical alternative is to compute closed-form analytical expressions for image quality measures. The objective of this paper is to review statistical analysis techniques that enable us to compute two key metrics: resolution (determined from the local impulse response) and covariance. The underlying methods include fixed-point approaches, which compute these metrics at a fixed point (the unique and stable solution) independent of the iterative algorithm employed, and iteration-based approaches, which yield results that are dependent on the algorithm, initialization, and number of iterations. We also explore extensions of some of these methods to a range of special contexts, including dynamic and motion-compensated image reconstruction. While most of the discussed techniques were developed for emission tomography, the general methods are extensible to other imaging modalities as well. In addition to enabling image characterization, these analysis techniques allow us to control and enhance imaging system performance. We review practical applications where performance improvement is achieved by applying these ideas to the contexts of both hardware (optimizing scanner design) and image reconstruction (designing regularization functions that produce uniform resolution or maximize task-specific figures of merit). PMID:24312148

Dutta, Joyita; Ahn, Sangtae; Li, Quanzheng

2013-01-01

213

Fourier transform based scalable image quality measure.  

PubMed

We present a new image quality assessment (IQA) algorithm based on the phase and magnitude of the 2D (twodimensional) Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). The basic idea is to compare the phase and magnitude of the reference and distorted images to compute the quality score. However, it is well known that the Human Visual Systems (HVSs) sensitivity to different frequency components is not the same. We accommodate this fact via a simple yet effective strategy of nonuniform binning of the frequency components. This process also leads to reduced space representation of the image thereby enabling the reduced-reference (RR) prospects of the proposed scheme. We employ linear regression to integrate the effects of the changes in phase and magnitude. In this way, the required weights are determined via proper training and hence more convincing and effective. Lastly, using the fact that phase usually conveys more information than magnitude, we use only the phase for RR quality assessment. This provides the crucial advantage of further reduction in the required amount of reference image information. The proposed method is therefore further scalable for RR scenarios. We report extensive experimental results using a total of 9 publicly available databases: 7 image (with a total of 3832 distorted images with diverse distortions) and 2 video databases (totally 228 distorted videos). These show that the proposed method is overall better than several of the existing fullreference (FR) algorithms and two RR algorithms. Additionally, there is a graceful degradation in prediction performance as the amount of reference image information is reduced thereby confirming its scalability prospects. To enable comparisons and future study, a Matlab implementation of the proposed algorithm is available at http://www.ntu.edu.sg/home/wslin/reduced_phase.rar. PMID:22562758

Narwaria, Manish; Lin, Weisi; McLoughlin, Ian; Emmanuel, Sabu; Chia, Liang-Tien

2012-08-01

214

Processor quality control in laser imaging systems.  

PubMed

Sensitometric techniques for performing processor quality control in laser imaging systems are analyzed in this study. The sensitivity of conventional x-ray films using simulated screen-light sensitometry is compared with helium-neon (HeNe) laser film exposed with a simulated red-light sensitometer, a standalone (reference) laser sensitometer, an experimental (unstable) laser sensitometer, and laser printers. Infrared (IR) laser film exposed with an IR laser diode and a simulated IR sensitometer are also evaluated. It is demonstrated that laser-generated step tablets provide an easy and reliable method of performing laser film processor quality control. PMID:9127311

Bogucki, T M; Murphy, W R; Baker, C W; Piazza, S S; Haus, A G

1997-04-01

215

Feasibility study for positron emission mammography.  

PubMed

A feasibility study is presented for a small, low-cost, dedicated device for positron emission mammography. Two detector arrays above and below the breast would be placed in a conventional mammography unit. These detectors are sensitive to positron annihilation radiation, and are connected to a coincidence circuit and a multiplane image memory. Images of the distribution of positron-emitting isotope are obtained in real time by incrementing the memory location at the intersection of each line of response. Monte Carlo simulations of a breast phantom are compared with actual scans of this phantom in a conventional PET scanner. The simulations and experimental data are used to predict the performance of the proposed system. Spatial resolution experiments using very narrow bismuth germanate BGO crystals suggest that spatial resolutions of about 2 mm should be possible. The efficiency of the proposed device is about ten times that of a conventional brain scanner. The scatter fraction is greater, but the scattered radiation has a very flat distribution. By designing the device to fit in an existing mammography unit, conventional mammograms can be taken after the injection of the radio-pharmaceutical allowing exact registration of the emission and conventional mammographic images. PMID:8058019

Thompson, C J; Murthy, K; Weinberg, I N; Mako, F

1994-04-01

216

Breast Density and Mammography Reporting Act of 2013 (HR 3404; 113th Congress)  

Cancer.gov

The bill would amend the Mammography Quality Standards Act (MSQA) of 1992 to require mammography results to include the patient’s relative breast density, and for that information to be reported to patients. The Act was introduced by Rep. Rosa DeLauro

217

Multiple-reader studies, digital mammography, computer-aided diagnosis, and the Holy Grail of imaging physics: II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The metaphor of the Holy Grail is used here to refer to the classic and elusive problem in medical imaging of predicting the ranking of the clinical performance of competing imaging modalities from the ranking obtained from physical laboratory measurements and signal-detection analysis, or from simple phantom studies. We show how the use of the multiple-reader, multiple-case (MRMC) ROC paradigm and new analytical techniques allows this masking effect to be quantified in terms of components-of-variance models. Moreover, we demonstrate how the components of variance associated with reader variability may be reduced when readers have the benefit of computer-assist reading aids. The remaining variability will be due to the case components, and these reflect the contribution of the technology without the masking effect of the reader. This suggests that prediction of clinical ranking of imaging systems in terms of physical measurements may become a much more tractable task in a world that includes MRMC ROC analysis of performance of radiologists with the advantage of computer-assisted reading.

Beiden, Sergey V.; Wagner, Robert F.; Campbell, Gregory; Metz, Charles E.; Jiang, Yulei; Chan, Heang-Ping

2001-06-01

218

Can eye movements be quantitatively applied to image quality studies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study is to find out whether subjective image quality evaluations can be quantified by eye movement tracking. We want to map objective or physically measurable image quality to subjective evaluations and eye movement data. Results show that eye movement parameters consistently change according to the instructions given to the user, and according to physical image quality.

Tero Vuori; Maria Olkkonen; Monika Pölönen; Ari Siren; Jukka Häkkinen

2004-01-01

219

A quantitative method for visual phantom image quality evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents an image quality evaluation technique for uniform-background target-object phantom images. The Degradation-Comparison-Threshold (DCT) method involves degrading the image quality of a target-containing region with a blocking processing and comparing the resulting image to a similarly degraded target-free region. The threshold degradation needed for 92% correct detection of the target region is the image quality measure of the

Dev P. Chakraborty; Xiong Liu; Michael O'Shea; Lawrence C. Toto

2000-01-01

220

Objective Assessment of Image Quality VI: Imaging in Radiation Therapy  

PubMed Central

Earlier work on Objective Assessment of Image Quality (OAIQ) focused largely on estimation or classification tasks in which the desired outcome of imaging is accurate diagnosis. This paper develops a general framework for assessing imaging quality on the basis of therapeutic outcomes rather than diagnostic performance. By analogy to Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves and their variants as used in diagnostic OAIQ, the method proposed here utilizes the Therapy Operating Characteristic or TOC curves, which are plots of the probability of tumor control vs. the probability of normal-tissue complications as the overall dose level of a radiotherapy treatment is varied. The proposed figure of merit is the area under the TOC curve, denoted AUTOC. This paper reviews an earlier exposition of the theory of TOC and AUTOC, which was specific to the assessment of image-segmentation algorithms, and extends it to other applications of imaging in external-beam radiation treatment as well as in treatment with internal radioactive sources. For each application, a methodology for computing the TOC is presented. A key difference between ROC and TOC is that the latter can be defined for a single patient rather than a population of patients. PMID:24200954

Barrett, Harrison H.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Müeller, Stefan; Halpern, Howard J.; Morris, John C.; Dwyer, Roisin

2015-01-01

221

Objective assessment of image quality VI: imaging in radiation therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earlier work on objective assessment of image quality (OAIQ) focused largely on estimation or classification tasks in which the desired outcome of imaging is accurate diagnosis. This paper develops a general framework for assessing imaging quality on the basis of therapeutic outcomes rather than diagnostic performance. By analogy to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and their variants as used in diagnostic OAIQ, the method proposed here utilizes the therapy operating characteristic or TOC curves, which are plots of the probability of tumor control versus the probability of normal-tissue complications as the overall dose level of a radiotherapy treatment is varied. The proposed figure of merit is the area under the TOC curve, denoted AUTOC. This paper reviews an earlier exposition of the theory of TOC and AUTOC, which was specific to the assessment of image-segmentation algorithms, and extends it to other applications of imaging in external-beam radiation treatment as well as in treatment with internal radioactive sources. For each application, a methodology for computing the TOC is presented. A key difference between ROC and TOC is that the latter can be defined for a single patient rather than a population of patients.

Barrett, Harrison H.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Müeller, Stefan; Halpern, Howard J.; Morris, John C., III; Dwyer, Roisin

2013-11-01

222

The impact of calibration phantom errors on dual-energy digital mammography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microcalcification is one of the earliest and main indicators of breast cancer. Because dual-energy digital mammography could suppress the contrast between the adipose and glandular tissues of the breast, it is considered a promising technique that will improve the detection of microcalcification. In dual-energy digital mammography, the imaged object is a human breast, while in calibration measurements only the phantoms

Xuanqin Mou; Xi Chen; Lijun Sun; Hengyong Yu; Zhen Ji; Lei Zhang

2008-01-01

223

Bi-Directional X-Ray Phase-Contrast Mammography  

PubMed Central

Phase-contrast x-ray imaging is a promising improvement of conventional absorption-based mammography for early tumor detection. This potential has been demonstrated recently, utilizing structured gratings to obtain differential phase and dark-field scattering images. However, the inherently anisotropic imaging sensitivity of the proposed mono-directional approach yields only insufficient diagnostic information, and has low diagnostic sensitivity to highly oriented structures. To overcome these limitations, we present a two-directional x-ray phase-contrast mammography approach and demonstrate its advantages by applying it to a freshly dissected, cancerous mastectomy breast specimen. We illustrate that the two-directional scanning procedure overcomes the insufficient diagnostic value of a single scan, and reliably detects tumor structures, independently from their orientation within the breast. Our results indicate the indispensable diagnostic necessity and benefit of a multi-directional approach for x-ray phase-contrast mammography. PMID:24824594

Scherer, Kai; Birnbacher, Lorenz; Chabior, Michael; Herzen, Julia; Mayr, Doris; Grandl, Susanne; Sztrókay-Gaul, Anikó; Hellerhoff, Karin; Bamberg, Fabian; Pfeiffer, Franz

2014-01-01

224

Scale-based approach for image quality evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In images, anomalies such as edges or object boundaries take on a perceptual significance that is far greater than their numerical energy contribution to the image. Wavelet transform highlights these anomalies by representing them with significant coefficients. The contribution of a wavelet coefficient to the perceptual quality of the image is related to its magnitude. Degradation in image quality due

Kameswara R. Namuduri; Romain Murenzi; Lance M. Kaplan

1998-01-01

225

Compressed Image Quality Evaluation using Power Law Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper ,presents a compressed ,image ,quality measure based on the properties of Zipf law, which is a power-law model ,adapted from linguistic analysis. It describes the frequency distribution of image patterns, and can be used ,to put ,into evidence image ,details which are affected by compression.,Two image quality evaluation measures ,based ,on Zipf ,law have ,been proposed and

Yves Caron; Nicole Vincent

2006-01-01

226

Analyzing the Quality of Supernovae Search Image Subtraction James Snitzer  

E-print Network

Analyzing the Quality of Supernovae Search Image Subtraction James Snitzer Adviser: John Marriner with template images of the same RA and DEC, the template images are aligned and subtracted from the reference images through the difference imaging pipeline script. The program that subtracts the two images

Cinabro, David

227

Hyperspectral and multispectral imaging for evaluating food safety and quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Spectral imaging technologies have been developed rapidly during the past decade. This paper presents hyperspectral and multispectral imaging technologies in the area of food safety and quality evaluation, with an introduction, demonstration, and summarization of the spectral imaging techniques avai...

228

NCI Statement on Mammography Screening  

Cancer.gov

A recent report in the scientific literature has reawakened debate about the value of screening mammograms. The analysis, which appeared in The Lancet on October 20, 2001, reviewed the large, long-term mammography trials upon which the NCI and other groups have based their recommendations and guidelines concerning mammography screening.

229

X-ray light valve (XLV): a novel detectors' technology for digital mammography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method, based on X-ray Light Valve (XLV) technology, is proposed for making good image quality yet inexpensive flat panel detectors for digital mammography. The digital mammography markets, particularly in the developing countries, demand quality machines at substantially lower prices than the ones available today. Continuous pressure is applied on x-ray detectors' manufacturers to reduce the flat panel detectors' prices. XLV presents a unique opportunity to achieve the needed price - performance characteristics for direct conversion, x-ray detectors. The XLV based detectors combine the proven, superior, spatial resolution of a-Se with the simplicity and low cost of liquid crystals and optical scanning. The x-ray quanta absorbed by a 200 ?m a-Se produce electron - hole pairs that move under an electric field to the top and bottom of a-Se layer. This 2D charge distribution creates at the interface with the liquid crystals a continuous (analog) charge image corresponding to the impinging radiation's information. Under the influence of local electrical charges next to them, the liquid crystals twist proportionally to the charges and vary their light reflectivity. A scanning light source illuminates the liquid crystals while an associated, pixilated photo-detector, having a 42 ?m pixel size, captures the light reflected by the liquid crystals and converts it in16 bit words that are transmitted to the machine for image processing and display. The paper will describe a novel XLV, 25 cm x 30 cm, flat panel detector structure and its underlying physics as well as its preliminary performance measured on several engineering prototypes. In particular, the paper will present the results of measuring XLV detectors' DQE, MTF, dynamic range, low contrast resolution and dynamic behavior. Finally, the paper will introduce the new, low cost, XLV detector based, digital mammography machine under development at XLV Diagnostics Inc.

Marcovici, Sorin; Sukhovatkin, Vlad; Oakham, Peter

2014-03-01

230

Model-based quantification of image quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1982, Park and Schowengerdt published an end-to-end analysis of a digital imaging system quantifying three principal degradation components: (1) image blur - blurring caused by the acquisition system, (2) aliasing - caused by insufficient sampling, and (3) reconstruction blur - blurring caused by the imperfect interpolative reconstruction. This analysis, which measures degradation as the square of the radiometric error, includes the sample-scene phase as an explicit random parameter and characterizes the image degradation caused by imperfect acquisition and reconstruction together with the effects of undersampling and random sample-scene phases. In a recent paper Mitchell and Netravelli displayed the visual effects of the above mentioned degradations and presented subjective analysis about their relative importance in determining image quality. The primary aim of the research is to use the analysis of Park and Schowengerdt to correlate their mathematical criteria for measuring image degradations with subjective visual criteria. Insight gained from this research can be exploited in the end-to-end design of optical systems, so that system parameters (transfer functions of the acquisition and display systems) can be designed relative to each other, to obtain the best possible results using quantitative measurements.

Hazra, Rajeeb; Miller, Keith W.; Park, Stephen K.

1989-01-01

231

Improving secondary ion mass spectrometry image quality with image fusion.  

PubMed

The spatial resolution of chemical images acquired with cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is limited not only by the size of the probe utilized to create the images but also by detection sensitivity. As the probe size is reduced to below 1 ?m, for example, a low signal in each pixel limits lateral resolution because of counting statistics considerations. Although it can be useful to implement numerical methods to mitigate this problem, here we investigate the use of image fusion to combine information from scanning electron microscope (SEM) data with chemically resolved SIMS images. The advantage of this approach is that the higher intensity and, hence, spatial resolution of the electron images can help to improve the quality of the SIMS images without sacrificing chemical specificity. Using a pan-sharpening algorithm, the method is illustrated using synthetic data, experimental data acquired from a metallic grid sample, and experimental data acquired from a lawn of algae cells. The results show that up to an order of magnitude increase in spatial resolution is possible to achieve. A cross-correlation metric is utilized for evaluating the reliability of the procedure. PMID:24912432

Tarolli, Jay G; Jackson, Lauren M; Winograd, Nicholas

2014-12-01

232

Mammography-oncogenecity at low doses.  

PubMed

Controversy exists regarding the biological effectiveness of low energy x-rays used for mammography breast screening. Recent radiobiology studies have provided compelling evidence that these low energy x-rays may be 4.42 +/- 2.02 times more effective in causing mutational damage than higher energy x-rays. These data include a study involving in vitro irradiation of a human cell line using a mammography x-ray source and a high energy source which matches the spectrum of radiation observed in survivors from the Hiroshima atomic bomb. Current radiation risk estimates rely heavily on data from the atomic bomb survivors, and a direct comparison between the diagnostic energies used in the UK breast screening programme and those used for risk estimates can now be made. Evidence highlighting the increase in relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of mammography x-rays to a range of x-ray energies implies that the risks of radiation-induced breast cancers for mammography x-rays are potentially underestimated by a factor of four. A pooled analysis of three measurements gives a maximal RBE (for malignant transformation of human cells in vitro) of 4.02 +/- 0.72 for 29 kVp (peak accelerating voltage) x-rays compared to high energy electrons and higher energy x-rays. For the majority of women in the UK NHS breast screening programme, it is shown that the benefit safely exceeds the risk of possible cancer induction even when this higher biological effectiveness factor is applied. The risk/benefit analysis, however, implies the need for caution for women screened under the age of 50, and particularly for those with a family history (and therefore a likely genetic susceptibility) of breast cancer. In vitro radiobiological data are generally acquired at high doses, and there are different extrapolation mechanisms to the low doses seen clinically. Recent low dose in vitro data have indicated a potential suppressive effect at very low dose rates and doses. Whilst mammography is a low dose exposure, it is not a low dose rate examination, and protraction of dose should not be confused with fractionation. Although there is potential for a suppressive effect at low doses, recent epidemiological data, and several international radiation risk assessments, continue to promote the linear no-threshold (LNT) model. Finally, recent studies have shown that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is more sensitive than mammography in detecting invasive breast cancer in women with a genetic sensitivity. Since an increase in the risk associated with mammographic screening would blur the justification of exposure for this high risk subgroup, the use of other (non-ionising) screening modalities is preferable. PMID:19454801

Heyes, G J; Mill, A J; Charles, M W

2009-06-01

233

On pictures and stuff: image quality and material appearance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Realistic images are a puzzle because they serve as visual representations of objects while also being objects themselves. When we look at an image we are able to perceive both the properties of the image and the properties of the objects represented by the image. Research on image quality has typically focused improving image properties (resolution, dynamic range, frame rate, etc.) while ignoring the issue of whether images are serving their role as visual representations. In this paper we describe a series of experiments that investigate how well images of different quality convey information about the properties of the objects they represent. In the experiments we focus on the effects that two image properties (contrast and sharpness) have on the ability of images to represent the gloss of depicted objects. We found that different experimental methods produced differing results. Specifically, when the stimulus images were presented using simultaneous pair comparison, observers were influenced by the surface properties of the images and conflated changes in image contrast and sharpness with changes in object gloss. On the other hand, when the stimulus images were presented sequentially, observers were able to disregard the image plane properties and more accurately match the gloss of the objects represented by the different quality images. These findings suggest that in understanding image quality it is useful to distinguish between quality of the imaging medium and the quality of the visual information represented by that medium.

Ferwerda, James A.

2014-02-01

234

Finger vein image quality evaluation using support vector machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an automatic finger-vein recognition system, finger-vein image quality is significant for segmentation, enhancement, and matching processes. In this paper, we propose a finger-vein image quality evaluation method using support vector machines (SVMs). We extract three features including the gradient, image contrast, and information capacity from the input image. An SVM model is built on the training images with annotated quality labels (i.e., high/low) and then applied to unseen images for quality evaluation. To resolve the class-imbalance problem in the training data, we perform oversampling for the minority class with random-synthetic minority oversampling technique. Cross-validation is also employed to verify the reliability and stability of the learned model. Our experimental results show the effectiveness of our method in evaluating the quality of finger-vein images, and by discarding low-quality images detected by our method, the overall finger-vein recognition performance is considerably improved.

Yang, Lu; Yang, Gongping; Yin, Yilong; Xiao, Rongyang

2013-02-01

235

Image noise analysis with a fast lifting wavelet algorithm for objective image quality evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An essential determinant of the value of surrogate digital images is their quality. Over the past years, there have been many attempts to develop models or metrics for image quality that incorporate elements of human visual sensitivity. However, there is no current standard and objective definition of spectral image quality. This paper proposes a reliable automatic method for objective image

Gaoyong Luo

2004-01-01

236

Parameter assessment for SAR image quality evaluation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image due to its special imaging method has many different characters from optical image. In this paper, a objective image quality evaluation system is proposed with a set of parameters and relevant measurements that mainly based on SAR image itself. And this evaluation system is supposed to be used by both satellite-borne and airborne SAR system.

Xin Lu; Hong Sun

2007-01-01

237

Image Quality Evaluation Model Based on Local Features and Segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The perceived image distortion of any image is strongly de- pend on the local features, such as edge, flat and texture. A new objective no-reference (NR) image quality evaluation model based on local features and segmentation for JPEG coded image is presented in our previous paper, which is easy to calculate and applicable to various image processing ap- plications. But

Yuukou Horita; Masaharu Sato; Yoshikazu Kawayoke; Parvez Z. M. Sazzad; Keiji Shibata

2006-01-01

238

Wavelet-based foveated image quality measurement for region of interest image coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Region of interest (ROI) image and video compression techniques have been widely used in visual communication applications in an effort to deliver good quality images and videos at limited bandwidths. Most image quality metrics have been developed for uniform resolution images. These metrics are not appropriate for the assessment of ROI coded images, where space-variant resolution is necessary. The spatial

Zhou Wang; Alan C. Bovik; Ligang Lu

2001-01-01

239

WAVELET-BASED FOVEATED IMAGE QUALITY MEASUREMENT FOR REGION OF INTEREST IMAGE CODING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Region of interest (ROI) image and video compression techniques have been widely used in visual communication applications in an effort to deliver good quality images and videos at limited bandwidths. Most image quality metrics have been developed for uniform resolution images. These metrics are not appropriate for the assessment of ROI coded images, where space-variant resolution is necessary. The spatial

Zhou Wang; Alan C. Bovik; Ligang Lu

2002-01-01

240

Foveated Wavelet Image Quality Index* , Alan C. Bovika  

E-print Network

Foveated Wavelet Image Quality Index* Zhou Wanga , Alan C. Bovika , and Ligang Lub a Laboratory. The spatial resolution of the HVS is highest around the point of fixation (foveation point) and decreases for uniform resolution images. These methods do not correlate well with the perceived foveated image quality

Wang, Zhou

241

Using short-wave infrared imaging for fruit quality evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quality evaluation of agricultural and food products is important for processing, inventory control, and marketing. Fruit size and surface quality are two important quality factors for high-quality fruit such as Medjool dates. Fruit size is usually measured by length that can be done easily by simple image processing techniques. Surface quality evaluation on the other hand requires more complicated design, both in image acquisition and image processing. Skin delamination is considered a major factor that affects fruit quality and its value. This paper presents an efficient histogram analysis and image processing technique that is designed specifically for real-time surface quality evaluation of Medjool dates. This approach, based on short-wave infrared imaging, provides excellent image contrast between the fruit surface and delaminated skin, which allows significant simplification of image processing algorithm and reduction of computational power requirements. The proposed quality grading method requires very simple training procedure to obtain a gray scale image histogram for each quality level. Using histogram comparison, each date is assigned to one of the four quality levels and an optimal threshold is calculated for segmenting skin delamination areas from the fruit surface. The percentage of the fruit surface that has skin delamination can then be calculated for quality evaluation. This method has been implemented and used for commercial production and proven to be efficient and accurate.

Zhang, Dong; Lee, Dah-Jye; Desai, Alok

2013-12-01

242

Image quality characteristics of handheld display devices for medical imaging.  

PubMed

Handheld devices such as mobile phones and tablet computers have become widespread with thousands of available software applications. Recently, handhelds are being proposed as part of medical imaging solutions, especially in emergency medicine, where immediate consultation is required. However, handheld devices differ significantly from medical workstation displays in terms of display characteristics. Moreover, the characteristics vary significantly among device types. We investigate the image quality characteristics of various handheld devices with respect to luminance response, spatial resolution, spatial noise, and reflectance. We show that the luminance characteristics of the handheld displays are different from those of workstation displays complying with grayscale standard target response suggesting that luminance calibration might be needed. Our results also demonstrate that the spatial characteristics of handhelds can surpass those of medical workstation displays particularly for recent generation devices. While a 5 mega-pixel monochrome workstation display has horizontal and vertical modulation transfer factors of 0.52 and 0.47 at the Nyquist frequency, the handheld displays released after 2011 can have values higher than 0.63 at the respective Nyquist frequencies. The noise power spectra for workstation displays are higher than 1.2 × 10(-5) mm(2) at 1 mm(-1), while handheld displays have values lower than 3.7 × 10(-6) mm(2). Reflectance measurements on some of the handheld displays are consistent with measurements for workstation displays with, in some cases, low specular and diffuse reflectance coefficients. The variability of the characterization results among devices due to the different technological features indicates that image quality varies greatly among handheld display devices. PMID:24236113

Yamazaki, Asumi; Liu, Peter; Cheng, Wei-Chung; Badano, Aldo

2013-01-01

243

Image Quality Characteristics of Handheld Display Devices for Medical Imaging  

PubMed Central

Handheld devices such as mobile phones and tablet computers have become widespread with thousands of available software applications. Recently, handhelds are being proposed as part of medical imaging solutions, especially in emergency medicine, where immediate consultation is required. However, handheld devices differ significantly from medical workstation displays in terms of display characteristics. Moreover, the characteristics vary significantly among device types. We investigate the image quality characteristics of various handheld devices with respect to luminance response, spatial resolution, spatial noise, and reflectance. We show that the luminance characteristics of the handheld displays are different from those of workstation displays complying with grayscale standard target response suggesting that luminance calibration might be needed. Our results also demonstrate that the spatial characteristics of handhelds can surpass those of medical workstation displays particularly for recent generation devices. While a 5 mega-pixel monochrome workstation display has horizontal and vertical modulation transfer factors of 0.52 and 0.47 at the Nyquist frequency, the handheld displays released after 2011 can have values higher than 0.63 at the respective Nyquist frequencies. The noise power spectra for workstation displays are higher than 1.2×10?5 mm2 at 1 mm?1, while handheld displays have values lower than 3.7×10?6 mm2. Reflectance measurements on some of the handheld displays are consistent with measurements for workstation displays with, in some cases, low specular and diffuse reflectance coefficients. The variability of the characterization results among devices due to the different technological features indicates that image quality varies greatly among handheld display devices. PMID:24236113

Yamazaki, Asumi; Liu, Peter; Cheng, Wei-Chung; Badano, Aldo

2013-01-01

244

Studying Satellite Image Quality Based on the Fusion Techniques  

E-print Network

Various and different methods can be used to produce high-resolution multispectral images from high-resolution panchromatic image (PAN) and low-resolution multispectral images (MS), mostly on the pixel level. However, the jury is still out on the benefits of a fused image compared to its original images. There is also a lack of measures for assessing the objective quality of the spatial resolution for the fusion methods. Therefore, an objective quality of the spatial resolution assessment for fusion images is required. So, this study attempts to develop a new qualitative assessment to evaluate the spatial quality of the pan sharpened images by many spatial quality metrics. Also, this paper deals with a comparison of various image fusion techniques based on pixel and feature fusion techniques.

Al-Wassai, Firouz Abdullah; Al-Zaky, Ali A

2011-01-01

245

Scatter radiation intensities around full-field digital mammography units  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the scatter radiation intensity around digital mammography systems and apply these data to standard shielding calculations to reveal whether shielding design of existing breast screening rooms is adequate for the use of digital mammography systems. Three digital mammography systems from GE Healthcare, Hologic and Philips were employed in the study. A breast-equivalent phantom was imaged under clinical workload conditions and scatter radiation intensities around the digital mammography systems were measured for a range of angles in three planes using an ionisation chamber. The results were compared with those from previous studies of film-screen systems. It may be deduced from the results that scattering in the backward direction is significant for all three systems, while scattering in the forward direction can be significant for some planes around the GE and Hologic systems. Measurements at typical clinical settings on each system revealed the Philips system to have markedly lower scatter radiation intensities than the other systems. Substituting the measured scattered radiation intensity into shielding calculations yielded barrier requirements similar to those already in place at the screening centres operating these systems. Current radiation protection requirements based on film-screen technology remain sufficient when applied to rooms with digital mammography installations and no alteration is required to the structural shielding. PMID:23239693

Judge, M A; Keavey, E; Phelan, N

2013-01-01

246

Beyond Mammography: New Frontiers in Breast Cancer Screening  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer screening remains a subject of intense and, at times, passionate debate. Mammography has long been the mainstay of breast cancer detection and is the only screening test proven to reduce mortality. Although it remains the gold standard of breast cancer screening, there is increasing awareness of subpopulations of women for whom mammography has reduced sensitivity. Mammography has also undergone increased scrutiny for false positives and excessive biopsies, which increase radiation dose, cost and patient anxiety. In response to these challenges, new technologies for breast cancer screening have been developed, including; low dose mammography; contrast enhanced mammography, tomosynthesis, automated whole breast ultrasound, molecular imaging and MRI. Here we examine some of the current controversies and promising new technologies that may improve detection of breast cancer both in the general population and in high-risk groups, such as women with dense breasts. We propose that optimal breast cancer screening will ultimately require a personalized approach based on metrics of cancer risk with selective application of specific screening technologies best suited to the individual’s age, risk, and breast density. PMID:23561631

Drukteinis, Jennifer S.; Mooney, Blaise P.; Flowers, Chris I.; Gatenby, Robert A

2014-01-01

247

21 CFR 900.18 - Alternative requirements for § 900.12 quality standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Alternative requirements for § 900.12 quality standards. 900.18 Section 900.18 ...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MAMMOGRAPHY QUALITY STANDARDS ACT MAMMOGRAPHY Quality Standards and Certification § 900.18...

2011-04-01

248

21 CFR 900.18 - Alternative requirements for § 900.12 quality standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Alternative requirements for § 900.12 quality standards. 900.18 Section 900.18 ...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MAMMOGRAPHY QUALITY STANDARDS ACT MAMMOGRAPHY Quality Standards and Certification § 900.18...

2010-04-01

249

LANDSAT-4 image data quality analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work done on evaluating the geometric and radiometric quality of early LANDSAT-4 sensor data is described. Band to band and channel to channel registration evaluations were carried out using a line correlator. Visual blink comparisons were run on an image display to observe band to band registration over 512 x 512 pixel blocks. The results indicate a .5 pixel line misregistration between the 1.55 to 1.75, 2.08 to 2.35 micrometer bands and the first four bands. Also a four 30M line and column misregistration of the thermal IR band was observed. Radiometric evaluation included mean and variance analysis of individual detectors and principal components analysis. Results indicate that detector bias for all bands is very close or within tolerance. Bright spots were observed in the thermal IR band on an 18 line by 128 pixel grid. No explanation for this was pursued. The general overall quality of the TM was judged to be very high.

Anuta, P. E. (principal investigator)

1982-01-01

250

Issues to Consider in Converting to Digital Mammography  

PubMed Central

This paper will outline the reasons that many radiology practices are converting to digital mammography. In addition, we will provide basic information on the issues that must be considered in making the transformation. These include technical matters regarding image display, storage and retrieval, as well as clinical and ergonomic considerations. PMID:17888771

Pisano, Etta D.; Zuley, Margarita; Baum, Janet K.; Marques, Helga S.

2007-01-01

251

Markov random field for tumor detection in digital mammography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique is proposed for the detection of tumors in digital mammography. Detection is performed in two steps: segmentation and classification. In segmentation, regions of interest are first extracted from the images by adaptive thresholding. A further reliable segmentation is achieved by a modified Markov random field (MRF) model-based method. In classification, the MRF segmented regions are classified into suspicious

H. D. Li; M. Kallergi; L. P. Clarke; V. K. Jain; R. A. Clark

1995-01-01

252

Study of signal-to-noise ratio in digital mammography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mammography techniques have recently advanced from those using analog systems (the screen-film system) to those using digital systems; for example, computed radiography (CR) and flat-panel detectors (FPDs) are nowadays used in mammography. Further, phase contrast mammography (PCM)-a digital technique by which images with a magnification of 1.75× can be obtained-is now available in the market. We studied the effect of the air gap in PCM and evaluated the effectiveness of an antiscatter x-ray grid in conventional mammography (CM) by measuring the scatter fraction ratio (SFR) and relative signal-to-noise ratio (rSNR) and comparing them between PCM and the digital CM. The results indicated that the SFRs for the CM images obtained with a grid were the lowest and that these ratios were almost the same as those for the PCM images. In contrast, the rSNRs for the PCM images were the highest, which means that the scattering of x-rays was sufficiently reduced by the air gap without the loss of primary x-rays.

Kato, Yuri; Fujita, Naotoshi; Kodera, Yoshie

2009-02-01

253

Polarization and retinal image quality estimates in the human eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously studied how polarization affects the double-pass estimates of the retinal image quality by using an imaging polarimeter (Opt. Lett. 24, 64 (1999)). A series of 16 images for independent combinations of polarization states in the polarimeter were recorded to obtain the spatially resolved Mueller matrices of the eye. From these matrices, double-pass images of a point source

Juan M. Bueno; Pablo Artal

2001-01-01

254

Quality Measures for Image Segmentation Using Generated Images Theo E. Schouten, Maurice S. klein Gebbinck  

E-print Network

Quality Measures for Image Segmentation Using Generated Images Theo E. Schouten, Maurice S. klein measure of the quality of a segmentation of an image a ''true'' segmentation must be known is described to generate a realistic satellite image and its true segmentation to sub­pixel level using ground

Schouten, Theo

255

An image quality evaluation tool simulating image sensors including quantum efficiency off-axis effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The image quality evaluation of CMOS sensors is a big challenge for camera module manufacturers. In this paper, we present an update of the Image Quality Evaluation Tool, a graphical user interface simulating image sensors to assess the performance of a pixel. The simulated images are computed from operating conditions and sensor's characteristics like Quantum Efficiency including off-axis effect. Simulation

Clémence Mornet; Jérôme Vaillant; Thomas Decroux; Nicolas Virollet; Didier Herault; Isabelle Schanen

2011-01-01

256

Searching for the limit of image quality in film radiography  

SciTech Connect

Radiographic film image quality in general was, and in most cases still is, considered as a very subjective and rather vague parameter. Yet it is of vital importance to the NDT and related quality control and quality assurance industry. Therefore, lately Agfa has put a major effort into quantifying image quality in an objective, measurable way. It was in the framework of this optimization project, that the authors, based on these new insights in imaging of industrial film systems, strived to search for the limit of the highest achievable image quality. In this paper they report these results. They not only report these results in an academic way, meaning how this highest image quality can be achieved under lab conditions, but also how these same results can be obtained under practical e.g. field-conditions.

Vaessen, B.; Perdieus, P.; Florens, R. [Agfa Gevaert N.V., Mortsel (Belgium). Business Unit NDT

1993-12-31

257

Application of breast tomosynthesis in screening: incremental effect on mammography acquisition and reading time  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to supplement the paucity of information available on logistical aspects of the application of three-dimensional (3D) mammography in breast screening. Methods We prospectively examined the effect on radiographers' and radiologists' workload of implementing 3D mammography in screening by comparing image acquisition time and screen-reading time for two-dimensional (2D) mammography with that of combined 2D+3D mammography. Radiologists' accuracy was also calculated. Results Average acquisition time (measured from start of first-view breast positioning to compression release at completion of last view) for seven radiographers, based on 20 screening examinations, was longer for 2D+3D (4 min 3 s; range 3 min 53 s–4 min 18 s) than 2D mammography (3 min 13 s; range 3 min 0 s–3 min 26 s; p<0.01). Average radiologists' reading time per screening examination (three radiologists reading case-mix of 100 screens: 10 cancers, 90 controls) was longer for 2D+3D (77 s; range 60–90 s) than for 2D mammography (33 s; range 25–46 s; p<0.01). 2D+3D screen-reading was associated with detection of more cancers and with substantially fewer recalls than 2D mammography alone. Conclusion Relative to standard 2D mammography, combined 2D+3D mammography prolongs image acquisition time and screen-reading time (at initial implementation), and appears to be associated with improved screening accuracy. Advances in knowledge These findings provide relevant information to guide larger trials of integrated 3D mammography (2D+3D) and its potential implementation into screening practice. PMID:23175484

Bernardi, D; Ciatto, S; Pellegrini, M; Anesi, V; Burlon, S; Cauli, E; Depaoli, M; Larentis, L; Malesani, V; Targa, L; Baldo, P; Houssami, N

2012-01-01

258

Contrast sensitivity function calibration based on image quality prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contrast sensitivity functions (CSFs) describe visual stimuli based on their spatial frequency. However, CSF calibration is limited by the size of the sample collection and this remains an open issue. In this study, we propose an approach for calibrating CSFs that is based on the hypothesis that a precise CSF model can accurately predict image quality. Thus, CSF calibration is regarded as the inverse problem of image quality prediction according to our hypothesis. A CSF could be calibrated by optimizing the performance of a CSF-based image quality metric using a database containing images with known quality. Compared with the traditional method, this would reduce the work involved in sample collection dramatically. In the present study, we employed three image databases to optimize some existing CSF models. The experimental results showed that the performance of a three-parameter CSF model was better than that of other models. The results of this study may be helpful in CSF and image quality research.

Han, Yu; Cai, Yunze

2014-11-01

259

Breast cancer classification with mammography and DCE-MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since different imaging modalities provide complementary information regarding the same lesion, combining information from different modalities may increase diagnostic accuracy. In this study, we investigated the use of computerized features of lesions imaged via both full-field digital mammography (FFDM) and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in the classification of breast lesions. Using a manually identified lesion location, i.e. a

Yading Yuan; Maryellen L. Giger; Hui Li; Charlene Sennett

2009-01-01

260

The evolution of breast imaging: past to present.  

PubMed

The practice of breast imaging has transitioned through a wide variety of technologic advances from the early days of direct-exposure film mammography to xeromammography to screen-film mammography to the current era of full-field digital mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis. Along with these technologic advances, organized screening, federal regulations based on the Mammography Quality Standards Act, and the development of the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System have helped to shape the specialty of breast imaging. With the development of breast ultrasonography and breast magnetic resonance imaging, both complementary to mammography, additional algorithms for diagnostic workup and screening high-risk subgroups of women have emerged. A substantial part of breast imaging practice these days also involves breast interventional procedures-both percutaneous biopsy to obtain tissue diagnosis and localization procedures to guide surgical excision. This article reviews the evolution of breast imaging starting from a historical perspective and progressing to the present day. PMID:25340437

Joe, Bonnie N; Sickles, Edward A

2014-11-01

261

Limitations to adaptive optics image quality in rodent eyes  

PubMed Central

Adaptive optics (AO) retinal image quality of rodent eyes is inferior to that of human eyes, despite the promise of greater numerical aperture. This paradox challenges several assumptions commonly made in AO imaging, assumptions which may be invalidated by the very high power and dioptric thickness of the rodent retina. We used optical modeling to compare the performance of rat and human eyes under conditions that tested the validity of these assumptions. Results showed that AO image quality in the human eye is robust to positioning errors of the AO corrector and to differences in imaging depth and wavelength compared to the wavefront beacon. In contrast, image quality in the rat eye declines sharply with each of these manipulations, especially when imaging off-axis. However, some latitude does exist to offset these manipulations against each other to produce good image quality. PMID:22876346

Zhou, Xiaolin; Bedggood, Phillip; Metha, Andrew

2012-01-01

262

Comparison of signal to noise ratios from spatial and frequency domain formulations of nonprewhitening model observers in digital mammography  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Image quality indices based upon model observers are promising alternatives to laborious human readings of contrast-detail images. This is especially appealing in digital mammography as limiting values for contrast thresholds determine, according to some international protocols, the acceptability of these systems in the radiological practice. The objective of the present study was to compare the signal to noise ratios (SNR) obtained with two nonprewhitening matched filter model observer approaches, one in the spatial domain and the other in the frequency domain, and with both of them worked out for disks as present in the CDMAM phantom. Methods: The analysis was performed using images acquired with the Siemens Novation and Inspiration digital mammography systems. The spatial domain formulation uses a series of high dose CDMAM images as the signal and a routine exposure of two flood images to calculate the covariance matrix. The frequency domain approach uses the mathematical description of a disk and modulation transfer function (MTF) and noise power spectrum (NPS) calculated from images. Results: For both systems most of the SNR values calculated in the frequency domain were in very good agreement with the SNR values calculated in the spatial domain. Both the formulations in the frequency domain and in the spatial domain show a linear relationship between SNR and the diameter of the CDMAM discs. Conclusions: The results suggest that both formulations of the model observer lead to very similar figures of merit. This is a step forward in the adoption of figures of merit based on NPS and MTF for the acceptance testing of mammography systems.

Sisini, Francesco; Zanca, Federica; Marshall, Nicholas W.; Taibi, Angelo; Cardarelli, Paolo; Bosmans, Hilde [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara, Italy and (Italy); Department of Radiology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Radiology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Department of Radiology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium)

2012-09-15

263

Image Quality Measures for Predicting Automatic Target Recognition Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

One important issue for Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) systems is to learn how robust the performance is under different scenarios. The quality of the input image sequence is a major factor affecting the ATR algorithm's ability to detect and recognize an object. If one can correlate the algorithm performance with different image quality measures, the recognition confidence can be predicted

Yin Chen; G. Chen; R. S. Blum; E. Blasch; R. S. Lynch

2008-01-01

264

Meat Quality Evaluation by Hyperspectral Imaging Technique: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

During last two decades, a number of methods have been developed to objectively measure meat quality attributes. Hyperspectral imaging technique as one of these methods has been regarded as a smart and promising analytical tool for analyses conducted in research and industries. Recently there have been renewed interests in using hyperspectral imaging in quality evaluation of different food products. The

Gamal Elmasry; Douglas F. Barbin; Da-Wen Sun; Paul Allen

2011-01-01

265

Image quality evaluation method based on structural similarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aiming at solving the limit of current distortion sensitivity analysis(HVS is a complicated non-linear system, while the vision models current are linear and simple), we research a new image quality evaluation method based on structural similarity, that is, to get a general similarity from luminance, contrast and image construction, as an objective quality evaluation criteria. In this way, the method

Li Zhu; Guoyou Wang; Ying Liu

2007-01-01

266

Meat Quality Evaluation by Hyperspectral Imaging Technique: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last two decades, a number of methods have been developed to objectively measure meat quality attributes. Hyperspectral imaging technique as one of these methods has been regarded as a smart and promising analytical tool for analyses conducted in research and industries. Recently there has been a renewed interest in using hyperspectral imaging in quality evaluation of different food

Gamal Elmasry; Douglas F. Barbin; Da-Wen Sun; Paul Allen

2012-01-01

267

Analyzing and improving image quality in reflective ghost imaging  

E-print Network

Ghost imaging is a transverse imaging technique that relies on the correlation between a pair of light fields, one that has interacted with the object to be imaged and one that has not. Most ghost imaging experiments have ...

Hardy, Nicholas D. (Nicholas David)

2011-01-01

268

FastStats: Mammography/Breast Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Mammography/Breast Cancer Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Mammography ... Department Summary Tables, table 15 [PDF - 330 KB] Breast cancer mortality Number of breast cancer deaths for females: ...

269

Quantitative image quality evaluation of an order-statistic filter in x-ray fluoroscopic imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of x-ray fluoroscopy in complex interventional procedures can result in high patient dose leading to severe skin injuries. Simply reducing exposure degrades image quality. One solution is to acquire images at reduced exposures and digitally filter to reduce noise and restore image quality. We quantitatively evaluated image quality improvement from a bi-directional multi-stage (BMS) median spatio-temporal filter. Improvements

David L. Wilson; Yogesh Srinivas; Francisco J. Sanchez-Marin; Kadri N. Jabri

2000-01-01

270

Update on new technologies in digital mammography  

PubMed Central

Despite controversy regarding mammography’s efficacy, it continues to be the most commonly used breast cancer-screening modality. With the development of digital mammography, some improved benefit has been shown in women with dense breast tissue. However, the density of breast tissue continues to limit the sensitivity of conventional mammography. We discuss the development of some derivative digital technologies, primarily digital breast tomosynthesis, and their strengths, weaknesses, and potential patient impact. PMID:25152634

Patterson, Stephanie K; Roubidoux, Marilyn A

2014-01-01

271

Image processing system performance prediction and product quality evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. A new technique for image processing system performance prediction and product quality evaluation was developed. It was entirely objective, quantitative, and general, and should prove useful in system design and quality control. The technique and its application to determination of quality control procedures for the Earth Resources Technology Satellite NASA Data Processing Facility are described.

Stein, E. K.; Hammill, H. B. (principal investigators)

1976-01-01

272

Quaternion structural similarity: a new quality index for color images.  

PubMed

One of the most important issues for researchers developing image processing algorithms is image quality. Methodical quality evaluation, by showing images to several human observers, is slow, expensive, and highly subjective. On the other hand, a visual quality matrix (VQM) is a fast, cheap, and objective tool for evaluating image quality. Although most VQMs are good in predicting the quality of an image degraded by a single degradation, they poorly perform for a combination of two degradations. An example for such degradation is the color crosstalk (CTK) effect, which introduces blur with desaturation. CTK is expected to become a bigger issue in image quality as the industry moves toward smaller sensors. In this paper, we will develop a VQM that will be able to better evaluate the quality of an image degraded by a combined blur/desaturation degradation and perform as well as other VQMs on single degradations such as blur, compression, and noise. We show why standard scalar techniques are insufficient to measure a combined blur/desaturation degradation and explain why a vectorial approach is better suited. We introduce quaternion image processing (QIP), which is a true vectorial approach and has many uses in the fields of physics and engineering. Our new VQM is a vectorial expansion of structure similarity using QIP, which gave it its name-Quaternion Structural SIMilarity (QSSIM). We built a new database of a combined blur/desaturation degradation and conducted a quality survey with human subjects. An extensive comparison between QSSIM and other VQMs on several image quality databases-including our new database-shows the superiority of this new approach in predicting visual quality of color images. PMID:22203713

Kolaman, Amir; Yadid-Pecht, Orly

2012-04-01

273

A method to measure paddle and detector pressures and footprints in mammography  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Compression is necessary in mammography to improve image quality and reduce radiation burden. Maximizing the amount of breast in contact with the image receptor (IR) is important. To achieve this, for the craniocaudal projection, there is no consensus within the literature regarding how the IR should be positioned relative to the inframammary fold (IMF). No information exists within the literature to describe how pressure balancing between IR and paddle, and IR breast footprint, might be optimized. This paper describes a novel method for measuring the respective pressures applied to the breast from the IR and the paddle and a method to simultaneously measure the breast footprints on the IR and the paddle. Methods: Using a deformable breast phantom and electronic pressure-sensitive mat, area and pressure readings were gathered from two mammography machines and four paddles at 60, 80, and 100 N with the IR positioned at -2, -1, 0, +1, and +2 cm relative to the IMF (60 combinations in total). Results: Paddle and IR footprints were calculated along with a uniformity index (UI). For all four paddle/machine/pressure combinations the greatest IR footprint was achieved at IMF +2 cm. The UI indicates that the best pressure/footprint balance is achieved at IMF +1 cm. Conclusions: The authors' method appears to be suited to measuring breast footprints and pressures on IR and paddle and a human female study is planned.

Hogg, Peter; Szczepura, Katy [University of Salford, Salford, Greater Manchester M6 6PU (United Kingdom); Darlington, Alison [Pennine Acute Hospital NHS Trust, Manchester M8 5RB (United Kingdom); Maxwell, Anthony [Royal Bolton Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Bolton BL4 0JR (United Kingdom)

2013-04-15

274

Breast cancer detection: radiologists’ performance using mammography with and without automated whole-breast ultrasound  

PubMed Central

Objective Radiologist reader performance for breast cancer detection using mammography plus automated whole-breast ultrasound (AWBU) was compared with mammography alone. Methods Screenings for non-palpable breast malignancies in women with radiographically dense breasts with contemporaneous mammograms and AWBU were reviewed by 12 radiologists blinded to the diagnoses; half the studies were abnormal. Readers first reviewed the 102 mammograms. The American College of Radiology (ACR) Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) and Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST) likelihood ratings were recorded with location information for identified abnormalities. Readers then reviewed the mammograms and AWBU with knowledge of previous mammogram-only evaluation. We compared reader performance across screening techniques using absolute callback, areas under the curve (AUC), and figure of merit (FOM). Results True positivity of cancer detection increased 63%, with only a 4% decrease in true negativity. Reader-averaged AUC was higher for mammography plus AWBU compared with mammography alone by BIRADS (0.808 versus 0.701) and likelihood scores (0.810 versus 0.703). Similarly, FOM was higher for mammography plus AWBU compared with mammography alone by BIRADS (0.786 versus 0.613) and likelihood scores (0.791 versus 0.614). Conclusion Adding AWBU to mammography improved callback rates, accuracy of breast cancer detection, and confidence in callbacks for dense-breasted women. PMID:20632009

Dean, Judy; Lee, Sung-Jae; Comulada, W. Scott

2010-01-01

275

High quality underwater imaging platform with laser range gated technique combining with image denoising and restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Underwater laser imaging is of great significance in underwater search and marine science, etc. However, traditional underwater laser imaging is often of poor quality with noises and blurs, moreover, the resolution of the image is also low. In order to obtain clear underwater images with high resolution and quality, here, we have designed a range gated imaging underwater imaging system and realized an image restoration approach. In this paper, based on the introduction to the imaging system and image restoration algorithm, the experiment is established by setting the imaging system under water in the lake to capture the underwater targets. With the proposed underwater image restoration approach, images of high quality could be retrieved which proves that the method is able to identify the target ~10 meters away underwater.

Huang, Huachuan; Wang, Rongbo; Yan, Keding; Yan, Zhengang; Wang, Shouyu; Li, Zhenhua; Li, Zeren

2014-10-01

276

The influence of different technique factors on image quality of chest radiographs as evaluated by modified CEC image quality criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Commission of the European Communities (CEC) research project ''Predictivity and optimisation in medical radiation protection'' addressed fundamental operational limitations in existing radiation protection mechanisms. The first part of the project aimed at investigating (1) whether the CEC image quality criteria could be used for optimization of a radiographic process and (2) whether significant differences in image quality based on

B LANHEDE; MB ATH; S KHEDDACHE; P SUND; L BJORNELD; M WIDELL; A ALMEN; J BESJAKOV; S MATTSSON; A TINGBERG; W PANZER; M ZANKL

277

An Image Quality Evaluation Method Based on Digital Watermarking  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a practical and novel application of watermarking, this paper presents a digital watermarking-based image quality evaluation method that can accurately estimate image quality in terms of the classical objective metrics, such as peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), weighted PSNR (wPSNR), and Watson just noticeable difference (JND), without the need for the original image. In this method, a watermark is embedded

Sha Wang; Dong Zheng; Jiying Zhao; Wa James Tam; Filippo Speranza

2007-01-01

278

Barriers to Mammography among Inadequately Screened Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mammography use has increased over the past 20 years, yet more than 30% of women remain inadequately screened. Structural barriers can deter individuals from screening, however, cognitive, emotional, and communication barriers may also prevent mammography use. This study sought to identify the impact of number and type of barriers on mammography

Stoll, Carolyn R. T.; Roberts, Summer; Cheng, Meng-Ru; Crayton, Eloise V.; Jackson, Sherrill; Politi, Mary C.

2015-01-01

279

An Approach of Image Fusion Based on General Image Quality Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper introduces a new and simple method of multi-sensor image fusion which is based on an image fusion quality evaluation index with subjectivity and objectivity combined the application of wavelet transform in image fusion, a new image fusion strategy based on pixel level is used, it overcomes the disadvantage of losing easily image details of simple fusion method. The

Tian Ya-fei; Qin Yun-xia; Yang Jia-yuan; Guo Ai-ping

2009-01-01

280

Quantitative images quality evaluation of digital medical imaging systems using mutual information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information about image quality of medical images is important for imaging system assessment in order to promote the development and manufacturing of state-of-the-art imaging systems. In this paper, we present a method for evaluating physical performance of digital medical imaging systems using mutual information which is a concept from information theory. To validate the proposed method, computer simulations were performed,

Du-Yih Tsai; Eri Matsuyama; Yongbum Lee

2011-01-01

281

A perceptual image quality evaluation based on local spatial information  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new comparative objective method for image quality evaluation. This method relies on two keys points: a local objective evaluation and a perceptual gathering. The local evaluation concerns the dissimilarities between the degraded image and the reference image ; it is based on a gray- level local Hausdorff distance. This new Hausdorff distance uses a generalized distance

N. Girard; E. Baudrier

2009-01-01

282

Identification of suitable fundus images using automated quality assessment methods.  

PubMed

Retinal image quality assessment (IQA) is a crucial process for automated retinal image analysis systems to obtain an accurate and successful diagnosis of retinal diseases. Consequently, the first step in a good retinal image analysis system is measuring the quality of the input image. We present an approach for finding medically suitable retinal images for retinal diagnosis. We used a three-class grading system that consists of good, bad, and outlier classes. We created a retinal image quality dataset with a total of 216 consecutive images called the Diabetic Retinopathy Image Database. We identified the suitable images within the good images for automatic retinal image analysis systems using a novel method. Subsequently, we evaluated our retinal image suitability approach using the Digital Retinal Images for Vessel Extraction and Standard Diabetic Retinopathy Database Calibration level 1 public datasets. The results were measured through the F1 metric, which is a harmonic mean of precision and recall metrics. The highest F1 scores of the IQA tests were 99.60%, 96.50%, and 85.00% for good, bad, and outlier classes, respectively. Additionally, the accuracy of our suitable image detection approach was 98.08%. Our approach can be integrated into any automatic retinal analysis system with sufficient performance scores. PMID:24718384

?evik, U?ur; Köse, Cemal; Berber, Tolga; Erdöl, Hidayet

2014-04-01

283

Study on the improvement of overall optical image quality via digital image processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper studies the effects of improving overall optical image quality via Digital Image Processing (DIP) and compares the promoted optical image with the non-processed optical image. Seen from the optical system, the improvement of image quality has a great influence on chromatic aberration and monochromatic aberration. However, overall image capture systems-such as cellphones and digital cameras-include not only the basic optical system but also many other factors, such as the electronic circuit system, transducer system, and so forth, whose quality can directly affect the image quality of the whole picture. Therefore, in this thesis Digital Image Processing technology is utilized to improve the overall image. It is shown via experiments that system modulation transfer function (MTF) based on the proposed DIP technology and applied to a comparatively bad optical system can be comparable to, even possibly superior to, the system MTF derived from a good optical system.

Tsai, Cheng-Mu; Fang, Yi Chin; Lin, Yu Chin

2008-12-01

284

Dynamic flat panel detector versus image intensifier in cardiac imaging: dose and image quality.  

PubMed

The practical aspects of the dosimetric and imaging performance of a digital x-ray system for cardiology procedures were evaluated. The system was configured with an image intensifier (II) and later upgraded to a dynamic flat panel detector (FD). Entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) to phantoms of 16, 20, 24 and 28 cm of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and the image quality of a test object were measured. Images were evaluated directly on the monitor and with numerical methods (noise and signal-to-noise ratio). Information contained in the DICOM header for dosimetry audit purposes was also tested. ESAK values per frame (or kerma rate) for the most commonly used cine and fluoroscopy modes for different PMMA thicknesses and for field sizes of 17 and 23 cm for II, and 20 and 25 cm for FD, produced similar results in the evaluated system with both technologies, ranging between 19 and 589 microGy/frame (cine) and 5 and 95 mGy min(-1) (fluoroscopy). Image quality for these dose settings was better for the FD version. The 'study dosimetric report' is comprehensive, and its numerical content is sufficiently accurate. There is potential in the future to set those systems with dynamic FD to lower doses than are possible in the current II versions, especially for digital cine runs, or to benefit from improved image quality. PMID:16306664

Vano, E; Geiger, B; Schreiner, A; Back, C; Beissel, J

2005-12-01

285

Dynamic flat panel detector versus image intensifier in cardiac imaging: dose and image quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The practical aspects of the dosimetric and imaging performance of a digital x-ray system for cardiology procedures were evaluated. The system was configured with an image intensifier (II) and later upgraded to a dynamic flat panel detector (FD). Entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) to phantoms of 16, 20, 24 and 28 cm of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and the image quality of a test object were measured. Images were evaluated directly on the monitor and with numerical methods (noise and signal-to-noise ratio). Information contained in the DICOM header for dosimetry audit purposes was also tested. ESAK values per frame (or kerma rate) for the most commonly used cine and fluoroscopy modes for different PMMA thicknesses and for field sizes of 17 and 23 cm for II, and 20 and 25 cm for FD, produced similar results in the evaluated system with both technologies, ranging between 19 and 589 µGy/frame (cine) and 5 and 95 mGy min-1 (fluoroscopy). Image quality for these dose settings was better for the FD version. The 'study dosimetric report' is comprehensive, and its numerical content is sufficiently accurate. There is potential in the future to set those systems with dynamic FD to lower doses than are possible in the current II versions, especially for digital cine runs, or to benefit from improved image quality.

Vano, E.; Geiger, B.; Schreiner, A.; Back, C.; Beissel, J.

2005-12-01

286

The simulation of adaptive optical image even and pulse noise and research of image quality evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As optical image becomes more and more important in adaptive optics area, and adaptive optical telescopes play a more and more important role in the detection system on the ground, and the images we get are so many that we need find a suitable method to choose good quality images automatically in order to save human power, people pay more and more attention in image's evaluation methods and their characteristics. According to different image degradation model, the applicability of different image's quality evaluation method will be different. Researchers have paid most attention in how to improve or build new method to evaluate degraded images. Now we should change our way to take some research in the models of degradation of images, the reasons of image degradation, and the relations among different degraded images and different image quality evaluation methods. In this paper, we build models of even noise and pulse noise based on their definition and get degraded images using these models, and we take research in six kinds of usual image quality evaluation methods such as square error method, sum of multi-power of grey scale method, entropy method, Fisher function method, Sobel method, and sum of grads method, and we make computer software for these methods to use easily to evaluate all kinds of images input. Then we evaluate the images' qualities with different evaluation methods and analyze the results of six kinds of methods, and finally we get many important results. Such as the characteristics of every method for evaluating qualities of degraded images of even noise, the characteristics of every method for evaluating qualities of degraded images of pulse noise, and the best method to evaluate images which affected by tow kinds of noise both and the characteristics of this method. These results are important to image's choosing automatically, and this will help we to manage the images we get through adaptive optical telescopes base on the ground.

Wen, Changli; Xu, Yuannan; Xu, Rong; Liu, Changhai; Men, Tao; Niu, Wei

2013-09-01

287

[Preoperative MR-mammography in diagnosed breast carcinoma. Useful information or useless extravagance?].  

PubMed

In a retrospective study the value of MR mammography in cases of radiological well-known carcinoma of the breast was evaluated preoperatively in 76 cases of histopathologically verified carcinoma one lesion was missed by MR imaging. Compared to the results of conventional X-ray mammography additional malignant lesions were detected in 5 patients ipsilaterally and in another 8 patients contralaterally by MR mammography only. In additional 4 cases MR mammography demonstrated suspicious lesions contralaterally, but histopathology revealed benign lesions. The therapeutic procedure was changed in 15 cases (18.5%) due to the findings of MR imaging: Ipsilateral mastectomy instead of tumorectomy (n = 5) or primary chemotherapy instead of operation (n = 1); contralateral additional tumorectomy (n = 3) or mastectomy (n = 2) by carcinoma and open biopsy (n = 4) by benign finding. PMID:7948975

Fischer, U; Vosshenrich, R; Probst, A; Burchhardt, H; Grabbe, E

1994-10-01

288

Comparison of the astronomical and multimedia image quality criteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the criteria definition of image quality in astronomy and their comparison with common multimedia approaches. Astronomical images have typical specific properties - high grayscale bit depth, size, high noise occurrence, sensitivity to point spread function deformation and special processing algorithms. They belong to the class of scientific images as well as medical or similar. Their processing and compression is quite different from the classical approach of multimedia image processing. The new compression algorithm based on JPEG2000 is selected as a distortion source in this paper. Selected image quality criteria (multimedia and optimized for astronomical images) are tested on the set of images from the DEIMOS image database with miscellaneous level of the thermally generated CCD noise. The deformation of the point spread function (PSF) is also measured for chosen compression approach.

Anisimova, Elena; Páta, Petr; Fliegel, Karel; Klíma, Miloš

2012-06-01

289

Objective and subjective image quality evaluation for security technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is devoted to the impacts of image compression algorithms on security image data. It compares three fundamentally different evaluation techniques of image objective criteria, subjective criteria and identification. We have selected two typical security image data (a car plate and a face) with different initial quality and we applied three different compression techniques-two professional (JPEG and LuRaWave-LWF) and

Milos Klima; Jiri Pazderak; Martin Bernas; Petr Pata; Jiri Hozman; Karel Roubik

2001-01-01

290

Initial experience of integrated PET/MR mammography in patients with invasive ductal carcinoma.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of integrated fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance ((18)F-FDG PET/MR) mammography in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) patients. From August 2012 to March 2013, we enrolled 42 consecutive breast cancer patients who received whole- body PET/MR and subsequent PET/MR mammography by an integrated PET/MR scanner and were scheduled for surgery within 2 weeks after the of scan. On the whole body PET/MR, 2-point Dixon VIBE, coronal T1w image, axial T2w image, and post-contrast T1 sequences were acquired with simultaneous PET acquisition. For PET/MR mammography, T1w, T2w, and dynamic contrast-enhancement (DCE) sequences were acquired using a breast coil during simultaneous PET acquisition. We compared the detectability of the lesions between whole-body PET/MR and PET/MR mammography. Forty-eight IDC (1.89±1.19cm of width) were diagnosed in 42 women. Lesion conspicuity in (18)F-FDG PET was equivalent between whole-body PET/MR and PET/MR mammography; both PET/MR images showed 38 hypermetabolic masses. In the analysis of 10 IDC with <1.0cm wide lesions, only 1 IDC showed (18)F-FDG uptake, and 4 IDC were noted on whole-body PET/MR; however, all 10 IDC showed a depictable mass on PET/MR mammography. In the analysis of 38 IDC >1.0cm wide, 37 IDC showed (18)F-FDG uptake, and 38 IDC were detected on both whole-body PET/MR and PET/MR mammography. The overall sensitivity was 79.2% (38/48) on PET, 87.5% (42/48) on whole-body PET/MR, and 100% on PET/MR mammography. The SUV between whole-body PET/MR and PET/MR mammography showed strong and highly significant correlation (r=0.987, P<0.001). In conclusion, our results, although in a limited number of cases show that integrated PET/MR mammography is feasible and has the advantage of combining high-resolution breast images with metabolic images. Furthermore, PET/MR mammography could provide an accurate diagnosis in case of IDC that are less than 1cm in size. PMID:25397622

Kong, Eun-Jung; Chun, Kyung-Ah; Bom, Hee-Seung; Lee, Jaetae; Lee, Soo-Jung; Cho, Ihn-Ho

2014-01-01

291

High-quality Reflection Separation using Polarized Images  

E-print Network

Abstract—In this paper, we deal with a problem of separating the effect of reflection from images captured behind glass. The input consists of multiple polarized images captured from the same view point but with different polarizer angles. The output is the high quality separation of the reflection layer and the background layer from the images. We formulate this problem as a constrained optimization problem and propose a framework that allows us to fully exploit the mutually exclusive image information in our input data. We test our approach on various images and demonstrate that our approach can generate good reflection separation results. Index Terms—reflection separation, image enhancement (a) (b)

Naejin Kong; Yu-wing Tai; Sung Yong Shin

292

Image quality evaluation based on image weighted separating block peak signal to noise ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional objective image quality evaluation measures, such as the MSE or the PSNR, only represent the total difference between the original images and reconstructed images. However in some case, such as there are few large error pixels and many small error pixels in an image, they have not a consistent a result with subjective measure. To cope with this drawback,

Wang Yuanji; Li Jianhua; Lu Yi; Fu Yao; Jiang Qinzhong

2003-01-01

293

Digital Receptor Image Quality Evaluation: Effect of Different Filtration Schemes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Electrotechnical Commission provides a standard measurement methodology to provide performance intercomparison between imaging systems. Its formalism specifies beam quality based on half value layer attained by target kVp and additional Al filtration. Similar beam quality may be attained more conveniently using a filtration combination of Cu and Al. This study aimed to compare the two filtration schemes by their effects on image quality in terms of signal-difference-to-noise ratio, spatial resolution, exposure index, noise power spectrum, modulation transfer function, and detective quantum efficiency. A comparative assessment of the images was performed by analyzing commercially available image quality assessment phantom and by following the IEC 62220-3 formalism.

Murphy, Simon; Christianson, Olav; Amurao, Maxwell; Samei, Ehsan

2010-04-01

294

Biomarker, Imaging and Quality of LIfe Studies Funding Program (BIQSFP)  

Cancer.gov

Funded Cooperative Groups (CGs) and funded Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) Research Bases are invited to apply for funding to support essential biomarker, imaging, and quality of life studies which are associated with clinical trial concepts.

295

Computerised diagnostics in digital mammography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammography is a major diagnostic procedure in early detection of breast cancer; however, the interpretation of mammograms for diagnosis of breast cancer can be problematic. A computerized diagnostic system has been developed to serve as a “second opinion” for radiologists. This system enhances the structures which appear in the mammogram and calculates parameters which characterized lesions. The authors have developed

B. Novak; S. Fields; R. Lederman; P. Bamberger; I. Leichter; D. Behar

1996-01-01

296

Influence of chroma variations on naturalness and image quality of stereoscopic images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computational view on image quality of Janssen and Blommaert states that the quality of an image is determined by the degree to which the image is both useful (discriminability) and natural (identifiability). This theory is tested by creating two manipulations. Firstly, multiplication of the chroma values of each pixel with a constant in the CIELab color space, i.e., chroma manipulation, is expected to increase only the usefulness by increasing the distances between the individual color points, enhancing the contrast. Secondly, introducing stereoscopic depth by varying the screen disparity, i.e., depth manipulation, is expected to increase both the usefulness and the naturalness. Twenty participants assessed perceived image quality, perceived naturalness and perceived depth of the manipulated versions of two natural scenes. The results revealed a small, yet significant shift between image quality and naturalness as a function of the chroma manipulation. In line with previous research, preference in quality was shifted to higher chroma values in comparison to preference in naturalness. Introducing depth enhanced the naturalness scores, however, in contrast to our expectations, not the image quality scores. It is argued that image quality is not sufficient to evaluate the full experience of 3D. Image quality appears to be only one of the attributes underlying the naturalness of stereoscopic images.

Kuijsters, Andre; Ijsselsteijn, Wijnand A.; Lambooij, Marc T. M.; Heynderickx, Ingrid E. J.

2009-02-01

297

Evaluating the correlation between mammography and MRI for screening women with increased breast cancer risk  

PubMed Central

Rationale and Objectives Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly being added to mammography for screening asymptomatic women at increased risk of breast cancer. Because the direction and extent of correlation between mammography and MRI could potentially result in over- or under-estimation of the diagnostic gain related to using MRI as an adjunct to mammographic screening, we performed an analysis to evaluate the extent of correlation between mammography and MRI. Materials and Methods We reviewed the published literature to identify multimodality breast cancer screening studies reporting the sensitivity of mammography and MRI, alone and in combination, for breast cancer diagnosis. After calculating the expected sensitivity of combined mammography and MRI under conditions of test independence (no correlation), we compared the calculated and observed sensitivities for combined mammography and MRI. We then calculated correlation coefficients for mammography and MRI. Results Seven studies of multimodality screening in women at increased risk of developing breast cancer were included for analysis. Of these studies, the correlation between film mammography and MRI was positive in three studies, negative in two studies, and not identified in two studies. The calculated correlation coefficients ranged from -0.38 to 0.18. In 6 of 7 studies, the 95% confidence interval for the correlation coefficient included 0.0, indicating no significant correlation. Conclusion Evidence from published trials of multimodality breast cancer screening identified no statistically significant correlation between film mammography and MRI. Using both tests for breast cancer screening is likely to improve the early detection of breast cancer in women at increased risk. PMID:19632865

Lee, Janie M.; Halpern, Elkan F.; Rafferty, Elizabeth A.; Gazelle, G. Scott

2009-01-01

298

Digital Receptor Image Quality Evaluation: Effect of Different Filtration Schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Electrotechnical Commission provides a standard measurement methodology to provide performance intercomparison between imaging systems. Its formalism specifies beam quality based on half value layer attained by target kVp and additional Al filtration. Similar beam quality may be attained more conveniently using a filtration combination of Cu and Al. This study aimed to compare the two filtration schemes by

Simon Murphy; Olav Christianson; Maxwell Amurao; Ehsan Samei

2010-01-01

299

Food quality assessment by NIR hyperspectral imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy is well established in the food industry for rapid compositional analysis of bulk samples. NIR hyperspectral imaging provides new opportunities to measure the spatial distribution of components such as moisture and fat, and to identify and measure specific regions of composite samples. An NIR hyperspectral imaging system has been constructed for food research applications, incorporating

Martin B. Whitworth; Samuel J. Millar; Astor Chau

2010-01-01

300

Automated tea quality classification by hyperspectral imaging.  

PubMed

A hyperspectral imaging technique was attempted to classify green tea. Five grades of green tea samples were attempted. A hyperspectral imaging system was developed for data acquisition of tea samples. Principal component analysis was performed on the hyperspectral data to determine three optimal band images. Texture analysis was conducted on each optimal band image to extract characteristic variables. A support vector machine (SVM) was used to construct the classification model. The classification rates were 98% and 95% in the training and prediction sets, respectively. The SVM algorithm shows excellent performance in classification results in contrast with other pattern recognitions classifiers. Overall results show that the hyperspectral imaging technique coupled with a SVM classifier can be efficiently utilized to classify green tea. PMID:19571909

Zhao, Jiewen; Chen, Quansheng; Cai, Jianrong; Ouyang, Qin

2009-07-01

301

Smoothing depth maps for improved steroscopic image quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique to improve the image quality of stereoscopic pictures generated from depth maps (depth image based rendering or DIBR) is examined. In general, there are two fundamental problems with DIBR: a depth map could contain artifacts (e.g., noise or \\

Wa James Tam; Guillaume Alain; Liang Zhang; Taali Martin; Ronald Renaud

2004-01-01

302

Low Resolution Character Recognition by Image Quality Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The character image database plays an important role for the evaluation of a character recognition system. But there is no measure which tells the level of recognition difficulty of a given database. This paper proposes a novel approach for the low resolution character recognition, which fits the input character for the appropriate character database according to the input image quality.

Chunmei Liu; Chunheng Wang; Ruwei Dai

2006-01-01

303

Free viewpoint image quality evaluation based on ray space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free viewpoint video (FW) is on its research stage with many problems to be resolved. Due to no original data can be used to compare with when the arbitrary viewpoint image is reproduced, quality evaluation for the new viewpoint image becomes one of the difficulties in realizing FW. Ray space representation is the main approach to realize FVV of complex

Li Zhou; Ping An; Zhaoyang Zhang; Ying Zhang

2008-01-01

304

A new quality metric for compressed images based on DDCT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the performance-indicator of the image processing algorithms or systems, image quality assessment (IQA) has attracted the attention of many researchers. Aiming to the widely used compression standards, JPEG and JPEG2000, we propose a new no reference (NR) metric for compressed images to do IQA. This metric exploits the causes of distortion by JPEG and JPEG2000, employs the directional discrete cosine transform (DDCT) to obtain the detail and direction information of the images and incorporates with the visual perception to obtain the image quality index. Experimental results show that the proposed metric not only has outstanding performance on JPEG and JPEG2000 images, but also applicable to other types of artifacts.

Lu, Wen; Li, Jing; Tao, Dacheng; Gao, Xinbo; Li, Xuelong

2010-07-01

305

High quality image oriented telemedicine with multimedia technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers at Osaka and Kyoto University hospital performed three experiments, beginning in 1995, which looked at high quality-oriented telemedicine. This paper describes the system design for the three projects. Experiment 1 applied high-definition TV images and B-ISDN for distance learning and medical information exchange. Experiment 2 developed a super high-definition medical image filing system and the images were transmitted via

Hiroshi Takeda; Kotaro Minato; Takashi Takahasi

1999-01-01

306

Physical characteristics of five clinical systems for digital mammography.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the physical characteristics of five clinical systems for digital mammography (GE Senographe 2000D, Lorad Selenia M-IV, Fischer Senoscan, Agfa DM 1000, and IMS Giotto) currently in clinical use. The basic performances of the mammography systems tested were assessed on the basis of response curve, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum, noise equivalent quanta (NEQ), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) in an experimental setting closely resembling the clinical one. As expected, all the full field digital mammography systems show a linear response curve over a dynamic range from 3.5 to 500 microGy (0.998image quality. The detailed results of the physical characterization of the digital systems reported in this work allow the quantitative comparison of different technologies as well as the definition of reference values for subsequent quality control tests. The method developed in this work is suitable to be reproduced in any medical physics department for the previously described goals. PMID:17821981

Lazzari, B; Belli, G; Gori, C; Rosselli Del Turco, M

2007-07-01

307

Bio-inspired framework for automatic image quality enhancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a bio-inspired framework for automatic image quality enhancement. Restoration algorithms usually have fixed parameters whose values are not easily settable and depend on image content. In this study, we show that it is possible to correlate no-reference visual quality values to specific parameter settings such that the quality of an image could be effectively enhanced through the restoration algorithm. In this paper, we chose JPEG blockiness distortion as a case study. As for the restoration algorithm, we used either a bilateral filter, or a total variation denoising detexturer. The experimental results on the LIVE database will be reported. These results will demonstrate that a better visual quality is achieved through the optimized parameters over the entire range of compression, with respect to the algorithm default parameters.

Ceresi, Andrea; Gasparini, Francesca; Marini, Fabrizio; Schettini, Raimondo

2012-01-01

308

High Speed Terahertz Pulse Imaging in the Reflection Geometry and Image Quality Enhancement by Digital Image Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the formation and enhancement of two dimensional pulsed terahertz (THz) images obtained in the reflection geometry with a high-speed optical delay line. Two test objects are imaged and analyzed with respect to material information and concealed structure. Clear THz images were obtained with various imaging modes and were compared with the X-ray images. The THz image of a sample revealed material features that the X-ray image cannot distinguish. We could enhance the THz image quality using various image processing techniques, such as edge detection, de-noising, high-pass filtering, and wavelet filtering.

Shon, Chae-Hwa; Chong, Won-Yong; Jeon, Seok-Gy; Kim, Geun-Ju; Kim, Jung-Il; Jin, Yun-Sik

2008-01-01

309

Peripheral Aberrations and Image Quality for Contact Lens Correction  

PubMed Central

Purpose Contact lenses reduced the degree of hyperopic field curvature present in myopic eyes and rigid contact lenses reduced sphero-cylindrical image blur on the peripheral retina, but their effect on higher order aberrations and overall optical quality of the eye in the peripheral visual field is still unknown. The purpose of our study was to evaluate peripheral wavefront aberrations and image quality across the visual field before and after contact lens correction. Methods A commercial Hartmann-Shack aberrometer was used to measure ocular wavefront errors in 5° steps out to 30° of eccentricity along the horizontal meridian in uncorrected eyes and when the same eyes are corrected with soft or rigid contact lenses. Wavefront aberrations and image quality were determined for the full elliptical pupil encountered in off-axis measurements. Results Ocular higher-order aberrations increase away from fovea in the uncorrected eye. Third-order aberrations are larger and increase faster with eccentricity compared to the other higher-order aberrations. Contact lenses increase all higher-order aberrations except 3rd-order Zernike terms. Nevertheless, a net increase in image quality across the horizontal visual field for objects located at the foveal far point is achieved with rigid lenses, whereas soft contact lenses reduce image quality. Conclusions Second order aberrations limit image quality more than higher-order aberrations in the periphery. Although second-order aberrations are reduced by contact lenses, the resulting gain in image quality is partially offset by increased amounts of higher-order aberrations. To fully realize the benefits of correcting higher-order aberrations in the peripheral field requires improved correction of second-order aberrations as well. PMID:21873925

Shen, Jie; Thibos, Larry N.

2011-01-01

310

Image gathering and restoration - Information and visual quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is investigated for optimizing the end-to-end performance of image gathering and restoration for visual quality. To achieve this objective, one must inevitably confront the problems that the visual quality of restored images depends on perceptual rather than mathematical considerations and that these considerations vary with the target, the application, and the observer. The method adopted in this paper is to optimize image gathering informationally and to restore images interactively to obtain the visually preferred trade-off among fidelity resolution, sharpness, and clarity. The results demonstrate that this method leads to significant improvements in the visual quality obtained by the traditional digital processing methods. These traditional methods allow a significant loss of visual quality to occur because they treat the design of the image-gathering system and the formulation of the image-restoration algorithm as two separate tasks and fail to account for the transformations between the continuous and the discrete representations in image gathering and reconstruction.

Mccormick, Judith A.; Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Huck, Friedrich O.

1989-01-01

311

Fusion of digital mammography with breast ultrasound: a phantom study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to acquire co-registered digital tomosynthesis mammograms and 3-D breast ultrasound images of breast phantoms. A prototype mammography compression paddle was built for this application and installed on an x-ray tomosynthesis prototype system (GE). Following x-ray exposure, an automated two-dimensional ultrasound probe mover assembly is precisely positioned above the compression plate, and an attached high-frequency

Ajay Kapur; Jochen Krucker; Oliver Astley; Donald Buckley; Jeffrey W. Eberhard; Abdal M. Alyassin; Bernhard E. Claus; Kai E. Thomenius; Heather Myers; Michael Rumsey; Roger N. Johnson; Steve Karr

2002-01-01

312

X-ray source for mammography  

DOEpatents

An x-ray source utilizing anode material which shifts the output spectrum to higher energy and thereby obtains higher penetrating ability for screening mammography application, than the currently utilized anode material. The currently used anode material (molybdenum) produces an energy x-ray spectrum of 17.5/19.6 keV, which using the anode material of this invention (e.g. silver, rhodium, and tungsten) the x-ray spectrum would be in the 20-35 keV region. Thus, the anode material of this invention provides for imaging of breasts with higher than average x-ray opacity without increase of the radiation dose, and thus reduces the risk of induced breast cancer due to the radiation dose administered for mammograms.

Logan, Clinton M. (Pleasanton, CA)

1994-01-01

313

X-ray source for mammography  

DOEpatents

An x-ray source is described utilizing anode material which shifts the output spectrum to higher energy and thereby obtains higher penetrating ability for screening mammography application, than the currently utilized anode material. The currently used anode material (molybdenum) produces an energy x-ray spectrum of 17.5/19.6 keV, which using the anode material of this invention (e.g. silver, rhodium, and tungsten) the x-ray spectrum would be in the 20-35 keV region. Thus, the anode material of this invention provides for imaging of breasts with higher than average x-ray opacity without increase of the radiation dose, and thus reduces the risk of induced breast cancer due to the radiation dose administered for mammograms. 6 figures.

Logan, C.M.

1994-12-20

314

Instrumentation optimization for positron emission mammography  

SciTech Connect

The past several years have seen designs for PET cameras optimized to image the breast, commonly known as Positron Emission Mammography or PEM cameras. The guiding principal behind PEM instrumentation is that a camera whose field of view is restricted to a single breast has higher performance and lower cost than a conventional PET camera. The most common geometry is a pair of parallel planes of detector modules, although geometries that encircle the breast have also been proposed. The ability of the detector modules to measure the depth of interaction (DOI) is also a relevant feature. This paper finds that while both the additional solid angle coverage afforded by encircling the breast and the decreased blurring afforded by the DOI measurement improve performance, the ability to measure DOI is more important than the ability to encircle the breast.

Moses, William W.; Qi, Jinyi

2003-06-05

315

Update on new technologies in digital mammography.  

PubMed

Despite controversy regarding mammography's efficacy, it continues to be the most commonly used breast cancer-screening modality. With the development of digital mammography, some improved benefit has been shown in women with dense breast tissue. However, the density of breast tissue continues to limit the sensitivity of conventional mammography. We discuss the development of some derivative digital technologies, primarily digital breast tomosynthesis, and their strengths, weaknesses, and potential patient impact. PMID:25152634

Patterson, Stephanie K; Roubidoux, Marilyn A

2014-01-01

316

Improving high resolution retinal image quality using speckle illumination HiLo imaging.  

PubMed

Retinal image quality from flood illumination adaptive optics (AO) ophthalmoscopes is adversely affected by out-of-focus light scatter due to the lack of confocality. This effect is more pronounced in small eyes, such as that of rodents, because the requisite high optical power confers a large dioptric thickness to the retina. A recently-developed structured illumination microscopy (SIM) technique called HiLo imaging has been shown to reduce the effect of out-of-focus light scatter in flood illumination microscopes and produce pseudo-confocal images with significantly improved image quality. In this work, we adopted the HiLo technique to a flood AO ophthalmoscope and performed AO imaging in both (physical) model and live rat eyes. The improvement in image quality from HiLo imaging is shown both qualitatively and quantitatively by using spatial spectral analysis. PMID:25136486

Zhou, Xiaolin; Bedggood, Phillip; Metha, Andrew

2014-08-01

317

Noisy images-JPEG compressed: subjective and objective image quality evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work is to study image quality of both single and multiply distorted images. We address the case of images corrupted by Gaussian noise or JPEG compressed as single distortion cases and images corrupted by Gaussian noise and then JPEG compressed, as multiply distortion case. Subjective studies were conducted in two parts to obtain human judgments on the single and multiply distorted images. We study how these subjective data correlate with No Reference state-of-the-art quality metrics. We also investigate proper combining of No Reference metrics to achieve better performance. Results are analyzed and compared in terms of correlation coefficients.

Corchs, Silvia; Gasparini, Francesca; Schettini, Raimondo

2014-01-01

318

Steganalysis of watermarking techniques using image quality metrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present techniques for steganalysis of images that have been potentially subjected to a watermarking algorithm. Our hypothesis is that a particular watermarking scheme leaves statistical evidence or structure that can be exploited for detection with the aid of proper selection of image features and multivariate regression analysis. We use some sophisticated image quality metrics as the feature set to distinguish between watermarked and unwatermarked images. To identify specific quality measures, which provide the best discriminative power, we use analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques. The multivariate regression analysis is used on the selected quality metrics to build the optimal classifier using images and their blurred versions. The idea behind blurring is that the distance between an unwatermarked image and its blurred version is less than the distance between a watermarked image and its blurred version. Simulation results with a specific feature set and a well-known and commercially available watermarking technique indicates that our approach is able to accurately distinguish between watermarked and unwatermarked images.

Avcibas, Ismail; Memon, Nasir D.; Sankur, Bulent

2001-08-01

319

WAVELET-BASED FOVEATED IMAGE QUALITY MEASUREMENT FOR REGION OF INTEREST IMAGE CODING  

E-print Network

WAVELET-BASED FOVEATED IMAGE QUALITY MEASUREMENT FOR REGION OF INTEREST IMAGE CODING Zhou Wang1 "fixated" by human eyes, the foveation property of the HVS supplies a natural approach for guiding and enhancement of ROI coded images and videos. We show its effectiveness by applying it to an embedded foveated

Wang, Zhou

320

Human vision model for image quality evaluation suitable for smart imager implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with image quality evaluation ofthe compressed images especially for compression format JPEG 2000. It shows evaluation of selected test images (scene with: textures, details, text, color of face, etc.) using selected methods: subjective testing as the reference method, objective testing and two designed human vision models. At the end article compares results of these methods.

Jaroslav Dusek; Karel Roubík; Martin Bernas

2005-01-01

321

[Small imaging spectrometer for the inspection of fruit quality].  

PubMed

Imaging spectrometer can acquire spatial and spectral information of the target at the same time, achieve high-precision, non-destructive, non-contamination and large area instantaneous inspection of the fruit. In order to get the imaging spectrum of the fruit, compact imaging spectrometer with convex grating produced by self was designed, it has the advantages of good performance, small volume and low weight, its resolution at 578 nm is 2.1 nm, and spectral line bend and chromatic distortion are both smaller than 0.6%. Laboratory test of the imaging spectrometer and the experiment of getting the imaging spectrum of apple were done, and the result shows that the imaging spectrometer satisfies the design requirement and can acquire the imaging spectrum of apple rapidly with high precision for inspection of fruit quality. PMID:22497177

Liu, Yu-juan; Tang, Yu-guo; Cui, Ji-cheng; Bayanheshig

2012-01-01

322

Evidence quality imaging for bank security  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long standing problem within the banking security and law enforcement communities has been the inability to use the images recorded with conventional security cameras as definitive evidence in a court of law. The issue with affordable solid state or tube security cameras is the spatial resolution and gray scale resolution. Neither is sufficient. Alternatives using film cameras have proved

P. Gallagher; S. Doyle

1995-01-01

323

A fast iris image quality evaluation method based on weighted entropy  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the image acquisition procedure of an automatic iris recognition system, the iris image with low quality may lead to the personal identification failure in some cases. Therefore it is very important to adopt the image quality evaluation procedure before the image processing. In this paper, we proposed a fast image quality evaluation method based on weighted information entropy combining

Yuqing He; Ting Liu; Yushi Hou; Yuanbo Wang

2008-01-01

324

Comparison of the polynomial model against explicit measurements of noise components for different mammography systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the adverse impact of image noise on the perception of important clinical details in digital mammography, routine quality control measurements should include an evaluation of noise. The European Guidelines, for example, employ a second-order polynomial fit of pixel variance as a function of detector air kerma (DAK) to decompose noise into quantum, electronic and fixed pattern (FP) components and assess the DAK range where quantum noise dominates. This work examines the robustness of the polynomial method against an explicit noise decomposition method. The two methods were applied to variance and noise power spectrum (NPS) data from six digital mammography units. Twenty homogeneously exposed images were acquired with PMMA blocks for target DAKs ranging from 6.25 to 1600?µGy. Both methods were explored for the effects of data weighting and squared fit coefficients during the curve fitting, the influence of the additional filter material (2?mm Al versus 40?mm PMMA) and noise de-trending. Finally, spatial stationarity of noise was assessed. Data weighting improved noise model fitting over large DAK ranges, especially at low detector exposures. The polynomial and explicit decompositions generally agreed for quantum and electronic noise but FP noise fraction was consistently underestimated by the polynomial method. Noise decomposition as a function of position in the image showed limited noise stationarity, especially for FP noise; thus the position of the region of interest (ROI) used for noise decomposition may influence fractional noise composition. The ROI area and position used in the Guidelines offer an acceptable estimation of noise components. While there are limitations to the polynomial model, when used with care and with appropriate data weighting, the method offers a simple and robust means of examining the detector noise components as a function of detector exposure.

Monnin, P.; Bosmans, H.; Verdun, F. R.; Marshall, N. W.

2014-10-01

325

Comparison of the polynomial model against explicit measurements of noise components for different mammography systems.  

PubMed

Given the adverse impact of image noise on the perception of important clinical details in digital mammography, routine quality control measurements should include an evaluation of noise. The European Guidelines, for example, employ a second-order polynomial fit of pixel variance as a function of detector air kerma (DAK) to decompose noise into quantum, electronic and fixed pattern (FP) components and assess the DAK range where quantum noise dominates. This work examines the robustness of the polynomial method against an explicit noise decomposition method. The two methods were applied to variance and noise power spectrum (NPS) data from six digital mammography units. Twenty homogeneously exposed images were acquired with PMMA blocks for target DAKs ranging from 6.25 to 1600?µGy. Both methods were explored for the effects of data weighting and squared fit coefficients during the curve fitting, the influence of the additional filter material (2?mm Al versus 40?mm PMMA) and noise de-trending. Finally, spatial stationarity of noise was assessed.Data weighting improved noise model fitting over large DAK ranges, especially at low detector exposures. The polynomial and explicit decompositions generally agreed for quantum and electronic noise but FP noise fraction was consistently underestimated by the polynomial method. Noise decomposition as a function of position in the image showed limited noise stationarity, especially for FP noise; thus the position of the region of interest (ROI) used for noise decomposition may influence fractional noise composition. The ROI area and position used in the Guidelines offer an acceptable estimation of noise components. While there are limitations to the polynomial model, when used with care and with appropriate data weighting, the method offers a simple and robust means of examining the detector noise components as a function of detector exposure. PMID:25198143

Monnin, P; Bosmans, H; Verdun, F R; Marshall, N W

2014-10-01

326

Quantitative quality control in microarray image processing and data acquisition.  

PubMed

A new integrated image analysis package with quantitative quality control schemes is described for cDNA microarray technology. The package employs an iterative algorithm that utilizes both intensity characteristics and spatial information of the spots on a microarray image for signal-background segmentation and defines five quality scores for each spot to record irregularities in spot intensity, size and background noise levels. A composite score q(com) is defined based on these individual scores to give an overall assessment of spot quality. Using q(com) we demonstrate that the inherent variability in intensity ratio measurements is closely correlated with spot quality, namely spots with higher quality give less variable measurements and vice versa. In addition, gauging data by q(com) can improve data reliability dramatically and efficiently. We further show that the variability in ratio measurements drops exponentially with increasing q(com) and, for the majority of spots at the high quality end, this improvement is mainly due to an improvement in correlation between the two dyes. Based on these studies, we discuss the potential of quantitative quality control for microarray data and the possibility of filtering and normalizing microarray data using a quality metrics-dependent scheme. PMID:11470890

Wang, X; Ghosh, S; Guo, S W

2001-08-01

327

Photon counting threshold optimization in mammography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of detection threshold on the performance of ideal photon counting sensors is investigated in mammography for several X-ray tube anode/filter combinations and various breast thicknesses. Based on linear X-ray system theory, a method is proposed to take into consideration detector contrast modulation in the domain of X-ray energy as well as effects related to scattered radiation. Breast screening procedures are modelled as radiographic tasks in which low-contrast objects (tumours or microcalcifications) have to be detected in a noisy image background. For ideal photon counting detectors, results at zero spatial frequency show that higher detection thresholds must be implemented when imaging a thick compressed breast, compared to a thin compressed breast. In practice, the photon counting threshold also affects the image noise and the spatial resolution of hybrid pixel detectors, by tuning the amount of charge-shared events. To be generalized to more realistic imaging situations, this analysis must be performed over the full range of spatial frequencies and include additional detector noise parameters.

Marchal, Julien; Hussein, Khalid; John, Lester R.; Vaughan, Christopher L.

2006-07-01

328

Colour naturalness metric for evaluating image quality of mobile displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of psychophysical experiments using categorical judgment method was carried out to develop a colour naturalness metric (CNM) for evaluating image quality of mobile displays. These experiments included colour naturalness judgment and image-quality difference judgment. Through the former one, CNMs were trained and the latter experiment tested the metrics. Two types of CNMs were newly proposed: nonlinearly decaying CNM and linearly decaying CNM. In the CNMs, it was assumed that one familiar object in an image played a critical role to judge the colour naturalness of the whole image. Through a performance comparison between objects' models, one critical object in a scene was selected and with the critical object's model, the whole scene's colour naturalness was predicted.

Yoo, Jang Jin; Cui, Guihua; Luo, M. Ronnier

2009-01-01

329

APQ-102 imaging radar digital image quality study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modified APQ-102 sidelooking radar collected synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data which was digitized and recorded on wideband magnetic tape. These tapes were then ground processed into computer compatible tapes (CCT's). The CCT's may then be processed into high resolution radar images by software on the CYBER computer.

Griffin, C. R.; Estes, J. M.

1982-01-01

330

Image quality against metric capability of an aerial camera  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Glass plate targets containing multiple contrast three bar patterns and a military standard resolution target were photographed through a light-source collimator-camera system. The glass plate targets and images were then scanned. Through a computer plotting program selected portions of the scanned items were presented. The plots were then measured and analyzed to obtain information of image quality parameters and effects. The measurement errors are discussed together with aspects of resolution determination.

Ghosh, S. K.

1973-01-01

331

Feasibility study of contrast-enhanced automated acoustic mammography.  

PubMed

The feasibility of implementing image subtraction in through-transmission breast sonography was examined. Acoustic mammograms of women with suspicious findings were obtained using through-transmission imaging. Precontrast images were initially acquired. Then a perflutren liquid microsphere contrast agent solution was injected intravenously, and new sets of images were acquired. Precontrast-postcontrast subtraction images depicting the resulting changes were then obtained and visually compared with other imaging modalities. The ability to detect changes stemming from contrast agent injection in the through-transmission mode was verified. The comparability with x-ray mammography and magnetic resonance imaging was shown. Finally, the ability to compare images obtained before and several months after surgery was confirmed. PMID:23620325

Gaitini, Diana; Rothstein, Tamara; Gallimidi, Zahava; Azhari, Haim

2013-05-01

332

Objective quality evaluation of visible and infrared color fusion image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An evaluation for objectively assessing the quality of visible and infrared color fusion image is proposed. On the basis of the consideration that human perception is most sensitive to color, sharpness, and contrast when assessing the quality of color image, we propose four objective metrics: image sharpness metric (ISM), image contrast metric (ICM), color colorfulness metric (CCM), and color naturalness metric (CNM). The ISM is evaluated by image gradient information. The ICM is defined based on both gray and color histogram characteristics. A color chroma metric, as well as a color variety metric based on a color difference gradient, is proposed, respectively, to define the CCM. The CNM is defined by measuring the color distribution's similarity between the fusion image and nature image, which are of the same scene. All the color attributions are computed in the CIELAB color space. Experimental results show that the proposed objective metrics are meaningful and effective on color fusion image evaluation because they correspond well to subjective evaluation.

Yuan, Yihui; Zhang, Junju; Chang, Benkang; Han, Yiyong

2011-03-01

333

No-reference image quality assessment for horizontal-path imaging scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There exist several image-enhancement algorithms and tasks associated with imaging through turbulence that depend on defining the quality of an image. Examples include: "lucky imaging", choosing the width of the inverse filter for image reconstruction, or stopping iterative deconvolution. We collected a number of image quality metrics found in the literature. Particularly interesting are the blind, "no-reference" metrics. We discuss ways of evaluating the usefulness of these metrics, even when a fully objective comparison is impossible because of the lack of a reference image. Metrics are tested on simulated and real data. Field data comes from experiments performed by the NATO SET 165 research group over a 7 km distance in Dayton, Ohio.

Rios, Carlos; Gladysz, Szymon

2013-05-01

334

Comparative Effectiveness of Combined Digital Mammography and Tomosynthesis Screening for Women with Dense Breasts.  

PubMed

Purpose To evaluate the effectiveness of combined biennial digital mammography and tomosynthesis screening, compared with biennial digital mammography screening alone, among women with dense breasts. Materials and Methods An established, discrete-event breast cancer simulation model was used to estimate the comparative clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of biennial screening with both digital mammography and tomosynthesis versus digital mammography alone among U.S. women aged 50-74 years with dense breasts from a federal payer perspective and a lifetime horizon. Input values were estimated for test performance, costs, and health state utilities from the National Cancer Institute Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium, Medicare reimbursement rates, and medical literature. Sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the implications of varying key model parameters, including combined screening sensitivity and specificity, transient utility decrement of diagnostic work-up, and additional cost of tomosynthesis. Results For the base-case analysis, the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year gained by adding tomosynthesis to digital mammography screening was $53 893. An additional 0.5 deaths were averted and 405 false-positive findings avoided per 1000 women after 12 rounds of screening. Combined screening remained cost-effective (less than $100 000 per quality-adjusted life year gained) over a wide range of incremental improvements in test performance. Overall, cost-effectiveness was most sensitive to the additional cost of tomosynthesis. Conclusion Biennial combined digital mammography and tomosynthesis screening for U.S. women aged 50-74 years with dense breasts is likely to be cost-effective if priced appropriately (up to $226 for combined examinations vs $139 for digital mammography alone) and if reported interpretive performance metrics of improved specificity with tomosynthesis are met in routine practice. © RSNA, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:25350548

Lee, Christoph I; Cevik, Mucahit; Alagoz, Oguzhan; Sprague, Brian L; Tosteson, Anna N A; Miglioretti, Diana L; Kerlikowske, Karla; Stout, Natasha K; Jarvik, Jeffrey G; Ramsey, Scott D; Lehman, Constance D

2014-10-13

335

Dose and diagnostic image quality in digital tomosynthesis imaging of facial bones in pediatrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of digital tomosynthesis (DT) for pediatric facial bone imaging. We compared the eye lens dose and diagnostic image quality of DT facial bone exams relative to digital radiography (DR) and computed tomography (CT), and investigated whether we could modify our current DT imaging protocol to reduce patient dose while maintaining sufficient diagnostic image quality. We measured the dose to the eye lens for all three modalities using high-sensitivity thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and an anthropomorphic skull phantom. To assess the diagnostic image quality of DT compared to the corresponding DR and CT images, we performed an observer study where the visibility of anatomical structures in the DT phantom images were rated on a four-point scale. We then acquired DT images at lower doses and had radiologists indicate whether the visibility of each structure was adequate for diagnostic purposes. For typical facial bone exams, we measured eye lens doses of 0.1-0.4 mGy for DR, 0.3-3.7 mGy for DT, and 26 mGy for CT. In general, facial bone structures were visualized better with DT then DR, and the majority of structures were visualized well enough to avoid the need for CT. DT imaging provides high quality diagnostic images of the facial bones while delivering significantly lower doses to the lens of the eye compared to CT. In addition, we found that by adjusting the imaging parameters, the DT effective dose can be reduced by up to 50% while maintaining sufficient image quality.

King, J. M.; Hickling, S.; Elbakri, I. A.; Reed, M.; Wrogemann, J.

2011-03-01

336

High-speed terahertz imaging toward food quality inspection.  

PubMed

In contrast to conventional x-ray food inspection systems that have difficulty in detecting low-density materials, a terahertz imaging system can even identify insects and plastics embedded in a food matrix. A reflection-mode continuous-wave terahertz imaging system was therefore developed for application to food quality inspection, which requires fast, compact, and low-cost detection. High-speed operation of the terahertz imaging system was achieved through the use of a beam-steering tool. A reasonable compromise between the spatial resolution and the scan length of an aspheric f-theta scanning lens could be achieved by optimizing the lens parameters. PMID:24663370

Ok, Gyeongsik; Park, Kisang; Kim, Hyun Jung; Chun, Hyang Sook; Choi, Sung-Wook

2014-03-01

337

Video quality assessment using objective parameters based on image segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a methodology for video quality assessment using objective parameters based on image segmentation. Natural scenes are segmented into plane, edge and texture regions, and a set of objective parameters are assigned to each of these contexts. A perception-based model that predicts subjective ratings is defined by computing the relationship between objective measures and results of subjective assessment

A. C. F. Pessoa; A. X. Falcao; A. E. F. e Silva; R. M. Nishihara; R. A. Lotufo

1998-01-01

338

Biomarker, Imaging and Quality of Life Studies Funding Program  

Cancer.gov

Funded National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN) and Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) Research Bases are invited to apply for funding to support biomarker, imaging, and quality of life studies with or without Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA) proposals which are associated with NCI clinical trial concepts.

339

The influence of consumer's event quality perception on destination image  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to examine the theoretical relationship between event quality perceptions of an international sport event and the host city's destination image. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Reliability and validity of the measurement scale were established through a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), Cronbach's alpha analyses, and intercorrelation analyses. A structural equation model (SEM) test with maximum likelihood

Kae Sung Moon; May Kim; Yong Jae Ko; Daniel P. Connaughton; Jeoung Hak Lee

2011-01-01

340

Arti cial Neural Network Visual Model for Image Quality Enhancement  

E-print Network

Arti cial Neural Network Visual Model for Image Quality Enhancement S. Chen y, Z He x and P and quadtree coding systems show that the proposed arti cial neural network visual model signi cantly enhances of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JL, U.K. Abstract An arti cial neural network visual model is developed, which

Chen, Sheng

341

Aberrations of holographic lenses in image quality evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The imaging quality of holographic lenses depends on parameters that include the shape of a holographic lens surface or an input pupil position. Based on the formulas for third-order aberration coefficients derived for such cases, conditions that ensure the correction of aperture and field aberrations are given. The possibility of joint correction of spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism is discussed.

Boguslawa Dubik; Jan Masajada; Jerzy Nowak; Marek Zajac

1992-01-01

342

Helmet-mounted display image quality evaluation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) provide essential pilotage and fire control imagery information for pilots. To maintain system integrity and readiness, there is a need to develop an image quality evaluation system for HMDs. In earlier work, a framework was proposed for an HMD system called the integrated helmet and display sighting system (IHADSS), used with the U.S. Army's Apache helicopter. This

Sheng-Jen Hsieh; Clarence E. Rash; Thomas H. Harding; H. H. Beasley; John S. Martin

2003-01-01

343

Sharpness metric for no-reference image visual quality assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel sharpness metric for color images. The proposed metric can be used for no-reference assessment of image visual quality. The metric basically relies on local power of wavelet transform high-frequency coefficients. It also takes into account possibility of presence of macrophotography and portrait photography effects in an image where the image part (usually central one) in sharp whilst the remained part (background) is smeared. Such effects usually increase subjective evaluation of image visual quality by humans. The effects are taken into consideration by joint analysis of wavelet coefficients with largest and smallest squared absolute values. Besides, we propose a simple mechanism for blocking artifact accounting (if an image is compressed by JPEG) and compensation of this factor contribution. Finally, the proposed sharpness metric is calculated in color space YCbCr as a weighted sum of sharpness components. Weight optimization has shown that a weight for intensity component Y is to be considerably smaller than weights for color components Cb and Cr. Optimization of weights for all stages of sharpness metric calculation is carried out for specialized database NRTID that contains 500 test images with previously determined MOS (Mean Opinion Score). Spearman rank order correlation coefficient (SROCC) determined for the designed sharpness metric and MOS is used as optimization criterion. After optimization, it reaches 0.71. This is larger than for other known available no-reference metrics considered at verification stage.

Ponomarenko, Nikolay N.; Lukin, Vladimir V.; Eremeev, Oleg I.; Egiazarian, Karen O.; Astola, Jaakko T.

2012-03-01

344

Optoelectronic complex inner product for evaluating quality of image segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In automatic target recognition and machine vision applications, segmentation of the images is a key step. Poor segmentation reduces the recognition performance. For some imaging systems such as MRI and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) it is difficult even for humans to agree on the location of the edge which allows for segmentation. A real- time dynamic approach to determine the quality of segmentation can enable vision systems to refocus of apply appropriate algorithms to ensure high quality segmentation for recognition. A recent approach to evaluate the quality of image segmentation uses percent-pixels-different (PPD). For some cases, PPD provides a reasonable quality evaluation, but it has a weakness in providing a measure for how well the shape of the segmentation matches the true shape. This paper introduces the complex inner product approach for providing a goodness measure for evaluating the segmentation quality based on shape. The complex inner product approach is demonstrated on SAR target chips obtained from the Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition (MSTAR) program sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The results are compared to the PPD approach. A design for an optoelectronic implementation of the complex inner product for dynamic segmentation evaluation is introduced.

Power, Gregory J.; Awwal, Abdul Ahad S.

2000-11-01

345

Image quality and high contrast improvements on VLT/NACO  

E-print Network

NACO is the famous and versatile diffraction limited NIR imager and spectrograph with which ESO celebrated 10 years of Adaptive Optics at the VLT. Since two years a substantial effort has been put in to understanding and fixing issues that directly affect the image quality and the high contrast performances of the instrument. Experiments to compensate the non-common-path aberrations and recover the highest possible Strehl ratios have been carried out successfully and a plan is hereafter described to perform such measurements regularly. The drift associated to pupil tracking since 2007 was fixed in October 2011. NACO is therefore even better suited for high contrast imaging and can be used with coronagraphic masks in the image plane. Some contrast measurements are shown and discussed. The work accomplished on NACO will serve as reference for the next generation instruments on the VLT, especially those working at the diffraction limit and making use of angular differential imaging (i.e. SPHERE, VISIR, possibly ...

Girard, Julien H V; Mawet, Dimitri; Kasper, Markus; Zins, Gérard; Neichel, Benoît; Kolb, Johann; Christiaens, Valentin; Tourneboeuf, Martin; 10.1117/12.925660

2012-01-01

346

Techniques to evaluate the quality of medical images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is not a perfect agree in the definition of medical image quality from the physician and physicist point of view. The present conference analyzes the standard techniques used to grade image quality. In the first place, an analysis about how viewing conditions related to environment, monitor used or physician experience determines the subjective evaluation is done. After that, the physics point of view is analyzed including the advantage and disadvantage of the main published methods like: Quality Control Tests, Mathematical metrics, Modulation Transfer Function, Noise Power Spectrum, System Response Curve and Mathematical observers. Each method is exemplified with the results of updated papers. We concluded that the most successful methods up to the present have been those which include simulations of the Human Visual System. They have good correlation between the results of the objective metrics and the subjective evaluation made by the observers.

Perez-Diaz, Marlen

2014-11-01

347

Comparison of quality control software tools for diffusion tensor imaging.  

PubMed

Image quality of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is critical for image interpretation, diagnostic accuracy and efficiency. However, DTI is susceptible to numerous detrimental artifacts that may impair the reliability and validity of the obtained data. Although many quality control (QC) software tools are being developed and are widely used and each has its different tradeoffs, there is still no general agreement on an image quality control routine for DTIs, and the practical impact of these tradeoffs is not well studied. An objective comparison that identifies the pros and cons of each of the QC tools will be helpful for the users to make the best choice among tools for specific DTI applications. This study aims to quantitatively compare the effectiveness of three popular QC tools including DTI studio (Johns Hopkins University), DTIprep (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of Iowa and University of Utah) and TORTOISE (National Institute of Health). Both synthetic and in vivo human brain data were used to quantify adverse effects of major DTI artifacts to tensor calculation as well as the effectiveness of different QC tools in identifying and correcting these artifacts. The technical basis of each tool was discussed, and the ways in which particular techniques affect the output of each of the tools were analyzed. The different functions and I/O formats that three QC tools provide for building a general DTI processing pipeline and integration with other popular image processing tools were also discussed. PMID:25460331

Liu, Bilan; Zhu, Tong; Zhong, Jianhui

2015-04-01

348

Weighted perceptual difference model (case-PDM) for MR image quality evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The perceptual difference model (Case-PDM) is being used to quantify image quality of fast, parallel MR acquisitions and reconstruction algorithms by comparing to slower, full k-space, high quality reference images. To date, most perceptual difference models average a single scalar image quality metric over a large region of interest. In this paper, we create an alternative metric weighted to image

Jun Miao; Wilbur C. K. Wong; David L. Wilson

2008-01-01

349

Automatic image quality assessment for uterine cervical imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uterine cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. However, its death rate can be dramatically reduced by appropriate treatment, if early detection is available. We are developing a Computer-Aided-Diagnosis (CAD) system to facilitate colposcopic examinations for cervical cancer screening and diagnosis. Unfortunately, the effort to develop fully automated cervical cancer diagnostic algorithms is hindered by the paucity of high quality, standardized imaging data. The limited quality of cervical imagery can be attributed to several factors, including: incorrect instrumental settings or positioning, glint (specular reflection), blur due to poor focus, and physical contaminants. Glint eliminates the color information in affected pixels and can therefore introduce artifacts in feature extraction algorithms. Instrumental settings that result in an inadequate dynamic range or an overly constrained region of interest can reduce or eliminate pixel information and thus make image analysis algorithms unreliable. Poor focus causes image blur with a consequent loss of texture information. In addition, a variety of physical contaminants, such as blood, can obscure the desired scene and reduce or eliminate diagnostic information from affected areas. Thus, automated feedback should be provided to the colposcopist as a means to promote corrective actions. In this paper, we describe automated image quality assessment techniques, which include region of interest detection and assessment, contrast dynamic range assessment, blur detection, and contaminant detection. We have tested these algorithms using clinical colposcopic imagery, and plan to implement these algorithms in a CAD system designed to simplify high quality data acquisition. Moreover, these algorithms may also be suitable for image quality assessment in telemedicine applications.

Gu, Jia; Li, Wenjing

2006-03-01

350

Seeing Red: A new imaging technique produces video-quality images of red blood  

E-print Network

diseases like cancer. To detect specific molecules or cancerous cells, MRI requires the patient to ingest laser light down to 100 nanometers, providing a way for scientists to see cells at work. Nano LaserSeeing Red: A new imaging technique produces video-quality images of red blood cells in living

Heller, Eric

351

Estimating static performance parameters of thermal imaging system based on image quality evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal imaging system is a kind of equipment that is widely used, its static performance parameters are always measured in library. The paper comes up with a new method to estimate the static performance parameters based on image quality evaluation, which can more easily and more quickly to compare performance of two instruments.

Chun-mei Xu; Yue-feng Wang; Wei Dong; Wei Zhang; Gang Li

2005-01-01

352

Mammography in asymptomatic women aged 40-49 years  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To assess findings of mammography of and interventions resulting from breast cancer screening in women aged 40-49 years with no increased risk (typical risk) of breast cancer. METHODS This cross-sectional study evaluated women aged 40-49 years who underwent mammography screening in a mastology reference center in Recife, PE, Northeastern Brazil, between January 2010 and October 2011. Women with breast-related complaints, positive findings in the physical examination, or high risk of breast cancer were excluded. RESULTS The 1,000 mammograms performed were classified into the following Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories BI-RADS 0, 232; BI-RADS 1, 294; BI-RADS 2, 294; BI-RADS 3, 16; BI-RADS 4A, 2; BI-RADS 5, 1. There was one case of grade II invasive ductal carcinoma and various interventions, including 469 ultrasound scans, 53 referrals to mastologists, 11 cytological examinations, and 8 biopsies. CONCLUSIONS Mammography screening in women aged 40-49 years with typical risk of breast cancer led to the performance of other interventions. However, it also resulted in increased costs without demonstrable efficacy in decreasing mortality.

Silva, Flávio Xavier; Katz, Leila; Souza, Alex Sandro Rolland; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos

2014-01-01

353

Spectral lesion characterization on a photon-counting mammography system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral X-ray imaging allows to differentiate between two given tissue types, provided their spectral absorption characteristics differ measurably. In mammography, this method is used clinically to determine a decomposition of the breast into adipose and glandular tissue compartments, from which the glandular tissue fraction and, hence, the volumetric breast density (VBD) can be computed. Another potential application of this technique is the characterization of lesions by spectral mammography. In particular, round lesions are relatively easily detected by experienced radiologists, but are often difficult to characterize. Here, a method is described that aims at discriminating cystic from solid lesions directly on a spectral mammogram, obtained with a calibrated spectral mammography system and using a hypothesis-testing algorithm based on a maximum likelihood approach. The method includes a parametric model describing the lesion shape, compression height variations and breast composition. With the maximum likelihood algorithm, the model parameters are estimated separately under the cyst and solid hypothesis. The resulting ratio of the maximum likelihood values is used for the final tissue characterization. Initial results using simulations and phantom measurements are presented.

Erhard, Klaus; Fredenberg, Erik; Homann, Hanno; Roessl, Ewald

2014-03-01

354

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 13, NO. 4, APRIL 2004 1 Image Quality Assessment: From Error Visibility to  

E-print Network

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 13, NO. 4, APRIL 2004 1 Image Quality Assessment: From processing applications. First, it can be used to dynamically monitor and adjust image quality. For example concealment and post- filtering algorithms at the decoder. Third, it can be used to benchmark image processing

Simoncelli, Eero

355

The Effect of Image Data Compression on the Clinical Information Quality of Compressed Computed Tomography Images for Teleradiology Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image communication systems for medical images have bandwidth and image size constraints that result in time-consuming transmission of uncompressed raw image data. Thus image compression plays vital role to reduce the bit rate for transmission or storage while maintaining an acceptable reproduction quality, but it is natural to rise the question of how much an image can be compressed and

S. E. Ghrare; M. A. M. Ali; M. Ismail

2008-01-01

356

Fundamental image quality limits for microcomputed tomography in small animals.  

PubMed

Small-animal imaging has become increasingly more important as transgenic and knockout mice are produced to model human diseases. One imaging technique that has emerged is microcomputed tomography (micro-CT). For live-animal imaging, the precision in the images will be determined by the x-ray dose given to the animal. As a result, we propose a simple method to predict the noise performance of an x-ray micro-CT system as a function of dose and image resolution. An ideal, quantum-noise limited micro-CT scanner, assumed to have perfect resolution and ideal efficiency, was modeled. Using a simplified model, the coefficient of variation (COV) of the linear attenuation coefficient was calculated for a range of entrance doses and isotropic voxel sizes. COV calculations were performed for the ideal case and with simulated imperfections in efficiency and resolution. Our model was validated in phantom studies and mouse images were acquired with a specimen scanner to illustrate the results. A simplified model of noise propagation in the case of isotropic resolution indicates that the COV in the linear attenuation coefficient is proportional to (dose)(-1/2) and to the (isotropic voxel size)(-2) in the reconstructed volume. Therefore an improvement in the precision can be achieved only by increasing the isotropic voxel size (thereby decreasing the resolution of the image) or by increasing the x-ray dose. For the ideal scanner, a COV of 1% in the linear attenuation coefficient for an image of a mouse exposed to 0.25 Gy is obtained with a minimum isotropic voxel size of 135 microm. However, the same COV is achieved at a dose of 5.0 Gy with a 65 microm isotropic voxel size. Conversely, for a 68 mm diameter rat, a COV of 1% obtained from an image at 5.0 Gy would require an isotropic voxel size of 100 microm. These results indicate that short-term, potentially lethal, effects of ionizing radiation will limit high-resolution live animal imaging. As improvements in detector technology allow the resolution to improve, by decreasing the detector element size to tens of microns or less, high quality images will be limited by the x-ray dose administered. For the highest quality images, these doses will approach the lethal dose or LD50 for the animals. Approaching the lethal dose will affect the way experiments are planned, and may reduce opportunities for experiments involving imaging the same animal over time. Dose considerations will become much more important for live small-animal imaging as the limits of resolution are tested. PMID:14655933

Ford, N L; Thornton, M M; Holdsworth, D W

2003-11-01

357

A study of image quality for radar image processing. [synthetic aperture radar imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods developed for image quality metrics are reviewed with focus on basic interpretation or recognition elements including: tone or color; shape; pattern; size; shadow; texture; site; association or context; and resolution. Seven metrics are believed to show promise as a way of characterizing the quality of an image: (1) the dynamic range of intensities in the displayed image; (2) the system signal-to-noise ratio; (3) the system spatial bandwidth or bandpass; (4) the system resolution or acutance; (5) the normalized-mean-square-error as a measure of geometric fidelity; (6) the perceptual mean square error; and (7) the radar threshold quality factor. Selective levels of degradation are being applied to simulated synthetic radar images to test the validity of these metrics.

King, R. W.; Kaupp, V. H.; Waite, W. P.; Macdonald, H. C.

1982-01-01

358

Image quality assessment based on multiscale geometric analysis.  

PubMed

Reduced-reference (RR) image quality assessment (IQA) has been recognized as an effective and efficient way to predict the visual quality of distorted images. The current standard is the wavelet-domain natural image statistics model (WNISM), which applies the Kullback-Leibler divergence between the marginal distributions of wavelet coefficients of the reference and distorted images to measure the image distortion. However, WNISM fails to consider the statistical correlations of wavelet coefficients in different subbands and the visual response characteristics of the mammalian cortical simple cells. In addition, wavelet transforms are optimal greedy approximations to extract singularity structures, so they fail to explicitly extract the image geometric information, e.g., lines and curves. Finally, wavelet coefficients are dense for smooth image edge contours. In this paper, to target the aforementioned problems in IQA, we develop a novel framework for IQA to mimic the human visual system (HVS) by incorporating the merits from multiscale geometric analysis (MGA), contrast sensitivity function (CSF), and the Weber's law of just noticeable difference (JND). In the proposed framework, MGA is utilized to decompose images and then extract features to mimic the multichannel structure of HVS. Additionally, MGA offers a series of transforms including wavelet, curvelet, bandelet, contourlet, wavelet-based contourlet transform (WBCT), and hybrid wavelets and directional filter banks (HWD), and different transforms capture different types of image geometric information. CSF is applied to weight coefficients obtained by MGA to simulate the appearance of images to observers by taking into account many of the nonlinearities inherent in HVS. JND is finally introduced to produce a noticeable variation in sensory experience. Thorough empirical studies are carried out upon the LIVE database against subjective mean opinion score (MOS) and demonstrate that 1) the proposed framework has good consistency with subjective perception values and the objective assessment results can well reflect the visual quality of images, 2) different transforms in MGA under the new framework perform better than the standard WNISM and some of them even perform better than the standard full-reference IQA model, i.e., the mean structural similarity index, and 3) HWD performs best among all transforms in MGA under the framework. PMID:19447715

Gao, Xinbo; Lu, Wen; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong

2009-07-01

359

Effect of exercise supplementation on dipyridamole thallium-201 image quality  

SciTech Connect

To determine the effect of different types of exercise supplementation on dipyridamole thallium image quality, 78 patients were prospectively randomized to one of three protocols: dipyridamole infusion alone, dipyridamole supplemented with isometric handgrip, and dipyridamole with low-level treadmill exercise. Heart-to-lung, heart-to-liver, and heart-to-adjacent infradiaphragmatic activity ratios were generated from anterior images acquired immediately following the test. Additionally, heart-to-total infradiaphragmatic activity was graded semiquantitatively. Results showed a significantly higher ratio of heart to subdiaphragmatic activity in the treadmill group as compared with dipyridamole alone (p less than 0.001) and dipyridamole supplemented with isometric handgrip exercise (p less than 0.001). No significant difference was observed between patients receiving the dipyridamole infusion, and dipyridamole supplemented with isometric handgrip exercise. The authors conclude that low-level treadmill exercise supplementation of dipyridamole infusion is an effective means of improving image quality. Supplementation with isometric handgrip does not improve image quality over dipyridamole alone.

Stern, S.; Greenberg, I.D.; Corne, R. (Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada))

1991-08-01

360

Method for laser disturbing image quality evaluation based on wavelet weight and correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantages and disadvantages of conventional image quality evaluation methods are analyzed and according to the characteristics of laser disturbing image, an image quality evaluation method which is based on wavelet weight and correlation is established. In the method, both the original and disturbed images are processed by wavelet decomposition, replacement and reconstruction. Then different sub-band images are obtained and

Yin Xu; Xiao-Quan Sun; Zuo-Lai Wang

2010-01-01

361

No-reference image quality assessment in the spatial domain.  

PubMed

We propose a natural scene statistic-based distortion-generic blind/no-reference (NR) image quality assessment (IQA) model that operates in the spatial domain. The new model, dubbed blind/referenceless image spatial quality evaluator (BRISQUE) does not compute distortion-specific features, such as ringing, blur, or blocking, but instead uses scene statistics of locally normalized luminance coefficients to quantify possible losses of "naturalness" in the image due to the presence of distortions, thereby leading to a holistic measure of quality. The underlying features used derive from the empirical distribution of locally normalized luminances and products of locally normalized luminances under a spatial natural scene statistic model. No transformation to another coordinate frame (DCT, wavelet, etc.) is required, distinguishing it from prior NR IQA approaches. Despite its simplicity, we are able to show that BRISQUE is statistically better than the full-reference peak signal-to-noise ratio and the structural similarity index, and is highly competitive with respect to all present-day distortion-generic NR IQA algorithms. BRISQUE has very low computational complexity, making it well suited for real time applications. BRISQUE features may be used for distortion-identification as well. To illustrate a new practical application of BRISQUE, we describe how a nonblind image denoising algorithm can be augmented with BRISQUE in order to perform blind image denoising. Results show that BRISQUE augmentation leads to performance improvements over state-of-the-art methods. A software release of BRISQUE is available online: http://live.ece.utexas.edu/research/quality/BRISQUE_release.zip for public use and evaluation. PMID:22910118

Mittal, Anish; Moorthy, Anush Krishna; Bovik, Alan Conrad

2012-12-01

362

Evaluation of an improved algorithm for producing realistic 3D breast software phantoms: Application for mammography  

PubMed Central

Purpose: This work presents an improved algorithm for the generation of 3D breast software phantoms and its evaluation for mammography. Methods: The improved methodology has evolved from a previously presented 3D noncompressed breast modeling method used for the creation of breast models of different size, shape, and composition. The breast phantom is composed of breast surface, duct system and terminal ductal lobular units, Cooper’s ligaments, lymphatic and blood vessel systems, pectoral muscle, skin, 3D mammographic background texture, and breast abnormalities. The key improvement is the development of a new algorithm for 3D mammographic texture generation. Simulated images of the enhanced 3D breast model without lesions were produced by simulating mammographic image acquisition and were evaluated subjectively and quantitatively. For evaluation purposes, a database with regions of interest taken from simulated and real mammograms was created. Four experienced radiologists participated in a visual subjective evaluation trial, as they judged the quality of the simulated mammograms, using the new algorithm compared to mammograms, obtained with the old modeling approach. In addition, extensive quantitative evaluation included power spectral analysis and calculation of fractal dimension, skewness, and kurtosis of simulated and real mammograms from the database. Results: The results from the subjective evaluation strongly suggest that the new methodology for mammographic breast texture creates improved breast models compared to the old approach. Calculated parameters on simulated images such as ? exponent deducted from the power law spectral analysis and fractal dimension are similar to those calculated on real mammograms. The results for the kurtosis and skewness are also in good coincidence with those calculated from clinical images. Comparison with similar calculations published in the literature showed good agreement in the majority of cases. Conclusions: The improved methodology generated breast models with increased realism compared to the older model as shown in evaluations of simulated images by experienced radiologists. It is anticipated that the realism will be further improved using an advanced image simulator so that simulated images may be used in feasibility studies in mammography. PMID:21158272

Bliznakova, K.; Suryanarayanan, S.; Karellas, A.; Pallikarakis, N.

2010-01-01

363

Evaluation of an improved algorithm for producing realistic 3D breast software phantoms: Application for mammography  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This work presents an improved algorithm for the generation of 3D breast software phantoms and its evaluation for mammography. Methods: The improved methodology has evolved from a previously presented 3D noncompressed breast modeling method used for the creation of breast models of different size, shape, and composition. The breast phantom is composed of breast surface, duct system and terminal ductal lobular units, Cooper's ligaments, lymphatic and blood vessel systems, pectoral muscle, skin, 3D mammographic background texture, and breast abnormalities. The key improvement is the development of a new algorithm for 3D mammographic texture generation. Simulated images of the enhanced 3D breast model without lesions were produced by simulating mammographic image acquisition and were evaluated subjectively and quantitatively. For evaluation purposes, a database with regions of interest taken from simulated and real mammograms was created. Four experienced radiologists participated in a visual subjective evaluation trial, as they judged the quality of the simulated mammograms, using the new algorithm compared to mammograms, obtained with the old modeling approach. In addition, extensive quantitative evaluation included power spectral analysis and calculation of fractal dimension, skewness, and kurtosis of simulated and real mammograms from the database. Results: The results from the subjective evaluation strongly suggest that the new methodology for mammographic breast texture creates improved breast models compared to the old approach. Calculated parameters on simulated images such as {beta} exponent deducted from the power law spectral analysis and fractal dimension are similar to those calculated on real mammograms. The results for the kurtosis and skewness are also in good coincidence with those calculated from clinical images. Comparison with similar calculations published in the literature showed good agreement in the majority of cases. Conclusions: The improved methodology generated breast models with increased realism compared to the older model as shown in evaluations of simulated images by experienced radiologists. It is anticipated that the realism will be further improved using an advanced image simulator so that simulated images may be used in feasibility studies in mammography.

Bliznakova, K.; Suryanarayanan, S.; Karellas, A.; Pallikarakis, N. [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 26500 Rio-Patras (Greece); Department of Radiology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 26500 Rio-Patras (Greece)

2010-11-15

364

A quality assurance program for image quality of cone-beam CT guidance in radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

The clinical introduction of volumetric x-ray image-guided radiotherapy systems necessitates formal commissioning of the hardware and image-guided processes to be used and drafts quality assurance (QA) for both hardware and processes. Satisfying both requirements provides confidence on the system's ability to manage geometric variations in patient setup and internal organ motion. As these systems become a routine clinical modality, the authors present data from their QA program tracking the image quality performance of ten volumetric systems over a period of 3 years. These data are subsequently used to establish evidence-based tolerances for a QA program. The volumetric imaging systems used in this work combines a linear accelerator with conventional x-ray tube and an amorphous silicon flat-panel detector mounted orthogonally from the accelerator central beam axis, in a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) configuration. In the spirit of the AAPM Report No. 74, the present work presents the image quality portion of their QA program; the aspects of the QA protocol addressing imaging geometry have been presented elsewhere. Specifically, the authors are presenting data demonstrating the high linearity of CT numbers, the uniformity of axial reconstructions, and the high contrast spatial resolution of ten CBCT systems (1-2 mm) from two commercial vendors. They are also presenting data accumulated over the period of several months demonstrating the long-term stability of the flat-panel detector and of the distances measured on reconstructed volumetric images. Their tests demonstrate that each specific CBCT system has unique performance. In addition, scattered x rays are shown to influence the imaging performance in terms of spatial resolution, axial reconstruction uniformity, and the linearity of CT numbers.

Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre; Moseley, Douglas J.; Jaffray, David A. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)

2008-05-15

365

Performance evaluation of objective quality metrics for HDR image compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the much larger luminance and contrast characteristics of high dynamic range (HDR) images, well-known objective quality metrics, widely used for the assessment of low dynamic range (LDR) content, cannot be directly applied to HDR images in order to predict their perceptual fidelity. To overcome this limitation, advanced fidelity metrics, such as the HDR-VDP, have been proposed to accurately predict visually significant differences. However, their complex calibration may make them difficult to use in practice. A simpler approach consists in computing arithmetic or structural fidelity metrics, such as PSNR and SSIM, on perceptually encoded luminance values but the performance of quality prediction in this case has not been clearly studied. In this paper, we aim at providing a better comprehension of the limits and the potentialities of this approach, by means of a subjective study. We compare the performance of HDR-VDP to that of PSNR and SSIM computed on perceptually encoded luminance values, when considering compressed HDR images. Our results show that these simpler metrics can be effectively employed to assess image fidelity for applications such as HDR image compression.

Valenzise, Giuseppe; De Simone, Francesca; Lauga, Paul; Dufaux, Frederic

2014-09-01

366

Novel MOS prediction models for compressed medical image quality.  

PubMed

This paper presents the development of novel models which can be potentially useful in determining the upper limit of image compression thresholds, to preserve diagnostically relevant information in compressed medical images. These models were developed by evolving the correlation between the theoretically computed objective (peak signal-to-noise ratio and structural similarity) and subjective mean opinion score (MOS) quality parameters. The developed models were validated by comparing the model generated MOS with the corresponding experimental MOS of six independent observers considering joint photographic experts group (JPEG), JPEG2000 and set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) compressions of computed tomography (CT) scan images. It is found that the correlation between the model generated and experimental MOS and PRD are ?0.87 and ?13% respectively for the compression range 0.05-2.0 bits/pixel of the CT scan images. Therefore our models can be potentially useful for observer-independent MOS prediction and quality assessment of reconstructed medical images. In addition this also avoids the need for exhaustive and time-consuming experimental MOS and thus it can be more suitable for teleradiology applications. PMID:21401314

Kumar, B; Singh, S P; Mohan, A; Anand, A

2011-01-01

367

Quality assessment of butter cookies applying multispectral imaging.  

PubMed

A method for characterization of butter cookie quality by assessing the surface browning and water content using multispectral images is presented. Based on evaluations of the browning of butter cookies, cookies were manually divided into groups. From this categorization, reference values were calculated for a statistical prediction model correlating multispectral images with a browning score. The browning score is calculated as a function of oven temperature and baking time. It is presented as a quadratic response surface. The investigated process window was the intervals 4-16 min and 160-200°C in a forced convection electrically heated oven. In addition to the browning score, a model for predicting the average water content based on the same images is presented. This shows how multispectral images of butter cookies may be used for the assessment of different quality parameters. Statistical analysis showed that the most significant wavelengths for browning predictions were in the interval 400-700 nm and the wavelengths significant for water prediction were primarily located in the near-infrared spectrum. The water prediction model was found to correctly estimate the average water content with an absolute error of 0.22%. From the images it was also possible to follow the browning and drying propagation from the cookie edge toward the center. PMID:24804036

Andresen, Mette S; Dissing, Bjørn S; Løje, Hanne

2013-07-01

368

Quality assessment of butter cookies applying multispectral imaging  

PubMed Central

A method for characterization of butter cookie quality by assessing the surface browning and water content using multispectral images is presented. Based on evaluations of the browning of butter cookies, cookies were manually divided into groups. From this categorization, reference values were calculated for a statistical prediction model correlating multispectral images with a browning score. The browning score is calculated as a function of oven temperature and baking time. It is presented as a quadratic response surface. The investigated process window was the intervals 4–16 min and 160–200°C in a forced convection electrically heated oven. In addition to the browning score, a model for predicting the average water content based on the same images is presented. This shows how multispectral images of butter cookies may be used for the assessment of different quality parameters. Statistical analysis showed that the most significant wavelengths for browning predictions were in the interval 400–700 nm and the wavelengths significant for water prediction were primarily located in the near-infrared spectrum. The water prediction model was found to correctly estimate the average water content with an absolute error of 0.22%. From the images it was also possible to follow the browning and drying propagation from the cookie edge toward the center. PMID:24804036

Andresen, Mette S; Dissing, Bjørn S; Løje, Hanne

2013-01-01

369

Validating self-reported mammography use in vulnerable communities: findings and recommendations  

PubMed Central

Background Most health surveys ask women whether they have had a recent mammogram, all of which report mammography use (past two years) at about 70–80% regardless of race or residence. We examined the potential extent of over-reporting of mammography use in low income African-American and Latina women, and whether self-report inaccuracies might bias estimated associations between patient characteristics and mammography use. Methods Using venue based sampling in two poor communities on the west side of Chicago, we asked eligible women living in two west side communities of Chicago to complete a survey about breast health (n=2,200) and to provide consent to view their medical record. Of the n=1,909 women who screened eligible for medical record review, n=1,566 consented (82%). We obtained medical records of all women who provided both permission and a valid local mammography facility (n=1,221). We compared the self-reported responses from the survey to the imaging reports found in the medical record (documented). To account for missing data we conducted multiple imputations for key demographic variables and report standard measures of accuracy. Results Although 73% of women self-reported a mammogram in the last 2 years, only 45% of self-reports were documented. Over-reporting of mammography use was observed for all three ethnic groups. Conclusions These results suggest considerable over-estimation of prevalence of use in these vulnerable populations. Impact Relying on known faulty self-reported mammography data as a measure of mammography use provides an overly optimistic picture of utilization, a problem that may be exacerbated in vulnerable minority communities. PMID:24859870

Allgood, Kristi L.; Rauscher, Garth H.; Whitman, Steven; Vasquez-Jones, Giselle; Shah, Ami M.

2014-01-01

370

Coronary MR Angiography Revealed: How to Optimize Image Quality.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the coronary arteries has been challenging, owing to the small size of the vessels and the complex motion caused by cardiac contraction and respiration. Free-breathing, whole-heart coronary MR angiography has emerged as a method that can provide visualization of the entire coronary arterial tree within a single 3-dimensional acquisition. Although coronary MR angiography is noninvasive and without radiation exposure, acquisition of high-quality coronary images is operator dependent and is generally more difficult than computed tomographic angiography. This article explains how to optimize acquisition of coronary MR angiography for reliable assessment of coronary artery disease. PMID:25476680

Ishida, Masaki; Sakuma, Hajime

2015-02-01

371

Reducing the absorbed dose in analogue radiography of infant chest images by improving the image quality, using image processing techniques.  

PubMed

Radiographic inspection is one of the most widely employed techniques for medical testing methods. Because of poor contrast and high un-sharpness of radiographic image quality in films, converting radiographs to a digital format and using further digital image processing is the best method of enhancing the image quality and assisting the interpreter in their evaluation. In this research work, radiographic films of 70 infant chest images with different sizes of defects were selected. To digitise the chest images and employ image processing the two algorithms (i) spatial domain and (ii) frequency domain techniques were used. The MATLAB environment was selected for processing in the digital format. Our results showed that by using these two techniques, the defects with small dimensions are detectable. Therefore, these suggested techniques may help medical specialists to diagnose the defects in the primary stages and help to prevent more repeat X-ray examination of paediatric patients. PMID:21743073

Karimian, A; Yazdani, S; Askari, M A

2011-09-01

372

Image Quality and Performance of the LSST Camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LSST camera, which will be the largest digital camera built to date, presents a number of novel challenges. The field of view will be 3.5 degrees in diameter and will be sampled by a 3.2 billion pixel array of sensors to be read-out in under 2 seconds, which leads to demanding constraints on the sensor architecture and read-out electronics. The camera also incorporates three large refractive lenses, an array of five wide-band large filters mounted on a carousel, and a mechanical shutter. Given the fast optical beam (f/1.2) and tight tolerances for image quality and throughput specifications, the requirements on the optical design, assembly and alignment, and contamination control of the optical elements and focal plane are crucial. We present an overview of the LSST camera, with an emphasis on models of camera image quality and throughput performance that are characterized by various analysis packages and design considerations.

Gilmore, D. Kirk; Kahn, S.; Rassmussen, A.; Singel, J.

2012-01-01

373

Image quality evaluation with a new phase rotation beamformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few decades, dynamic focusing based on digital receive beamforming (DRBF) has led to significant improvements in image quality. However, it is computationally very demanding due to its requirement for multiple lowpass filters (e.g., a complex filter for each receive channel in quadrature demodulation-based phase rotation beamform- ers (QD-PRBF)). We recently developed a novel phase rotation beamformer with

Anup Agarwal; Fabio Kurt Schneider; Yang Mo Yoo; Yongmin Kim

2008-01-01

374

Verification of quality parameters for portal images in radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of the study was to verify different values of quality parameters of portal images in radiotherapy. Materials and methods We investigated image qualities of different field verification systems. Four EPIDs (Siemens OptiVue500aSi®, Siemens BeamView Plus®, Elekta iView® and Varian PortalVision™) were investigated with the PTW EPID QC PHANTOM® and compared with two portal film systems (Kodak X-OMAT® cassette with Kodak X-OMAT V® film and Kodak EC-L Lightweight® cassette with Kodak Portal Localisation ReadyPack® film). Results A comparison of the f50 and f25 values of the modulation transfer functions (MTFs) belonging to each of the systems revealed that the amorphous silicon EPIDs provided a slightly better high contrast resolution than the Kodak Portal Localisation ReadyPack® film with the EC-L Lightweight® cassette. The Kodak X-OMAT V® film gave a poor low contrast resolution: from the existing 27 holes only 9 were detectable. Conclusions On the base of physical characteristics, measured in this work, the authors suggest the use of amorphous-silicon EPIDs producing the best image quality. Parameters of the EPIDs with scanning liquid ionisation chamber (SLIC) were very stable. The disadvantage of older versions of EPIDs like SLIC and VEPID is a poor DICOM implementation, and the modulation transfer function (MTF) values (f50 and f25) are less than that of aSi detectors. PMID:22933938

Pesznyák, Csilla; Polgár, István; Weisz, Csaba; Király, Réka; Zaránd, Pál

2011-01-01

375

Radiometric Quality Evaluation of INSAT-3D Imager Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

INSAT-3D is an advanced meteorological satellite of ISRO which acquires imagery in optical and infra-red (IR) channels for study of weather dynamics in Indian sub-continent region. In this paper, methodology of radiometric quality evaluation for Level-1 products of Imager, one of the payloads onboard INSAT-3D, is described. Firstly, overall visual quality of scene in terms of dynamic range, edge sharpness or modulation transfer function (MTF), presence of striping and other image artefacts is computed. Uniform targets in Desert and Sea region are identified for which detailed radiometric performance evaluation for IR channels is carried out. Mean brightness temperature (BT) of targets is computed and validated with independently generated radiometric references. Further, diurnal/seasonal trends in target BT values and radiometric uncertainty or sensor noise are studied. Results of radiometric quality evaluation over duration of eight months (January to August 2014) and comparison of radiometric consistency pre/post yaw flip of satellite are presented. Radiometric Analysis indicates that INSAT-3D images have high contrast (MTF > 0.2) and low striping effects. A bias of <4K is observed in the brightness temperature values of TIR-1 channel measured during January-August 2014 indicating consistent radiometric calibration. Diurnal and seasonal analysis shows that Noise equivalent differential temperature (NEdT) for IR channels is consistent and well within specifications.

Prakash, S.; Jindal, D.; Badal, N.; Kartikeyan, B.; Gopala Krishna, B.

2014-11-01

376

Spectral CT imaging in patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome: investigation of image quality.  

PubMed

To assess the image quality of monochromatic imaging from spectral CT in patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS), fifty patients with BCS underwent spectral CT to generate conventional 140 kVp polychromatic images (group A) and monochromatic images, with energy levels from 40 to 80, 40 + 70, and 50 + 70 keV fusion images (group B) during the portal venous phase (PVP) and the hepatic venous phase (HVP). Two-sample t tests compared vessel-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the portal vein (PV), hepatic vein (HV), inferior vena cava. Readers' subjective evaluations of the image quality were recorded. The highest SNR values in group B were distributed at 50 keV; the highest CNR values in group B were distributed at 40 keV. The higher CNR values and SNR values were obtained though PVP of PV (SNR 18.39 ± 6.13 vs. 10.56 ± 3.31, CNR 7.81 ± 3.40 vs. 3.58 ± 1.31) and HVP of HV (3.89 ± 2.08 vs. 1.27 ± 1.55) in the group B; the lower image noise for group B was at 70 keV and 50 + 70 keV (15.54 ± 8.39 vs. 18.40 ± 4.97, P = 0.0004 and 18.97 ± 7.61 vs. 18.40 ± 4.97, P = 0.0691); the results show that the 50 + 70 keV fusion image quality was better than that in group A. Monochromatic energy levels of 40-70, 40 + 70, and 50 + 70 keV fusion image can increase vascular contrast and that will be helpful for the diagnosis of BCS, we select the 50 + 70 keV fusion image to acquire the best BCS images. PMID:24833430

Su, Lei; Dong, Junqiang; Sun, Qiang; Liu, Jie; Lv, Peijie; Hu, Lili; Yan, Liangliang; Gao, Jianbo

2014-11-01

377

Effect of fabrication errors on binary optical element imaging quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared to conventional optical elements, the binary optical element (BOE) can not only revise aberration, but also reduce optical system's weight, miniaturize a system and increase the freedom of system design. Nowadays, we need to improve the manufacturing process before the industrialization of the BOE. However, the fabrication accuracy of BOE affects the imaging quality of the optical system. This paper analyzes the influence of fabrication errors on BOE's diffraction efficiency and transmission wavefront, to guide the processing and tolerance analysis of the optical systems design stage. Generally, in fabrication processes of the multiple-phase step BOE, there are alignment errors, linewidth errors and depth errors for various reasons. Due to the fabrication errors, the diffraction efficiency of the BOE would be reduced, thus stray light is introduced into the system. Besides, BOE graphical structure is also changed, then introduces wavefront aberrations to the optical imaging system, and thereby reduces the imaging quality of the system. Based on scalar diffraction theory, we have come to some conclusions like that the formula of wavefront PTV which can derive the fabrication requirements of alignment accuracy and linewidth accuracy; if 4-step BOE's linewidth errors are controlled within a certain range, diffraction efficiency declines little, however, when the linewidth errors exceed this range, the diffraction efficiency will decline rapidly; the influence of deep and shallow etching depth errors on the diffraction efficiency is equivalent, the influence of multiple etching depth errors on the diffraction efficiency is independent and symmetric, and so on. This article focuses on analyzing the fabrication requirements of BOE based on how the fabrication errors affect the diffraction efficiency and wavefront imaging quality of BOE, then guide the design and fabrication processes of BOE imaging optical systems.

Wang, Song; Yang, Wei; Wu, Shi-bin

2013-08-01

378

Characterization of image quality and image-guidance performance of a preclinical microirradiator  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess image quality and image-guidance capabilities of a cone-beam CT based small-animal image-guided irradiation unit (micro-IGRT). Methods: A micro-IGRT system has been developed in collaboration with the authors' laboratory as a means to study the radiobiological effects of conformal radiation dose distributions in small animals. The system, the X-Rad 225Cx, consists of a 225 kVp x-ray tube and a flat-panel amorphous silicon detector mounted on a rotational C-arm gantry and is capable of both fluoroscopic x-ray and cone-beam CT imaging, as well as image-guided placement of the radiation beams. Image quality (voxel noise, modulation transfer, CT number accuracy, and geometric accuracy characteristics) was assessed using water cylinder and micro-CT test phantoms. Image guidance was tested by analyzing the dose delivered to radiochromic films fixed to BB's through the end-to-end process of imaging, targeting the center of the BB, and irradiation of the film/BB in order to compare the offset between the center of the field and the center of the BB. Image quality and geometric studies were repeated over a 5-7 month period to assess stability. Results: CT numbers reported were found to be linear (R{sup 2}{>=}0.998) and the noise for images of homogeneous water phantom was 30 HU at imaging doses of approximately 1 cGy (to water). The presampled MTF at 50% and 10% reached 0.64 and 1.35 mm{sup -1}, respectively. Targeting accuracy by means of film irradiations was shown to have a mean displacement error of [{Delta}x,{Delta}y,{Delta}z]=[-0.12,-0.05,-0.02] mm, with standard deviations of [0.02, 0.20, 0.17] mm. The system has proven to be stable over time, with both the image quality and image-guidance performance being reproducible for the duration of the studies. Conclusions: The micro-IGRT unit provides soft-tissue imaging of small-animal anatomy at acceptable imaging doses ({<=}1 cGy). The geometric accuracy and targeting systems permit dose placement with submillimeter accuracy and precision. The system has proven itself to be stable over 2 yr of routine laboratory use (>1800 irradiations) and provides a platform for the exploration of targeted radiation effects in small-animal models.

Clarkson, R.; Lindsay, P. E.; Ansell, S.; Wilson, G.; Jelveh, S.; Hill, R. P.; Jaffray, D. A. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada) and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1 (Canada); Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5 2M9 (Canada); Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada) and Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1 (Canada) and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1 (Canada); Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1 (Canada) and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1 (Canada)

2011-02-15

379

Testing of new models of the human visual system for image quality evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with evaluation of image quality by various methods and comparison of their results. Generally, there are several ways how to assess image quality. Three main approaches are: subjective testing, objective testing and image quality evaluation using a human visual system model (HVS). The subjective testing is based on human perception, the objective testing on a mathematical computing

J. Dusek; K. Roubik

2003-01-01

380

Modeling and validation of a psychovisually based image quality evaluator for DCT-based compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose an algorithm for evaluating the quality of JPEG compressed images, called the psychovisually based image quality evaluator (PIQE), which measures the severity of artifacts produced by JPEG compression. The PIQE evaluates the image quality using two psychovisually based fidelity criteria: blockiness and similarity. The blockiness is an index that measures the patterned square artifact created

Ruby Wai-Shan Chan; Peter Goldsmith

2002-01-01

381

Frequently Asked Questions about Digital Mammography  

MedlinePLUS

... Hologic, Siemens AG Medical Solutions, and Fujifilm Medical Systems USA Inc.) for units in their area. Do all facilities with digital units accept new patients? Digital mammography is a relatively new technology ...

382

[New mammography technologies and their impact on radiation dose].  

PubMed

This article reviews new mammography technologies resulting from advances in digital detectors and processing techniques. Most are just starting to be commercialized or are in the clinical trial phase. The results of clinical trials with the new 2D techniques (contrast-enhanced techniques or stereotactic techniques) show they are useful for diagnosing cancer. However, the greater complexity of the image acquisition process suggests that their use will be limited to particular cases such as inconclusive lesions or women with high risk for developing breast cancer. Among the 3D technologies (breast tomography and breast tomosynthesis), only breast tomosynthesis has been implemented in clinical practice, so it is the only technique for which it is possible to know the sensitivity, specificity, and radiation dose delivered. This article describes the principles underlying the way breast tomosynthesis works and the techniques used for image acquisition and reconstruction. It also summarizes the main results obtained in clinical studies, which generally show that breast tomosynthesis increases the breast cancer detection rate while decreasing the recall rate and number of biopsies taken. The protocol for breast tomosynthesis approved by the Food and Drug Administration (USA) consists of two conventional mammography projections for each breast and two tomosynthesis projections for each breast. This means multiplying the risks of inducing cancer and death associated with 2D mammography by a factor between 2 and 3 (2.6-3.3 and 0.7-0.9 per 100,000 women exposed when 50 years old, respectively). The protocol for breast tomosynthesis examinations is one of the aspects that is essential to determine when including tomosynthesis in screening programs and routine breast imaging. PMID:24246883

Chevalier del Rio, M

2013-12-01

383

Image gathering and digital restoration for fidelity and visual quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fidelity and resolution of the traditional Wiener restorations given in the prevalent digital processing literature can be significantly improved when the transformations between the continuous and discrete representations in image gathering and display are accounted for. However, the visual quality of these improved restorations also is more sensitive to the defects caused by aliasing artifacts, colored noise, and ringing near sharp edges. In this paper, these visual defects are characterized, and methods for suppressing them are presented. It is demonstrated how the visual quality of fidelity-maximized images can be improved when (1) the image-gathering system is specifically designed to enhance the performance of the image-restoration algorithm, and (2) the Wiener filter is combined with interactive Gaussian smoothing, synthetic high edge enhancement, and nonlinear tone-scale transformation. The nonlinear transformation is used primarily to enhance the spatial details that are often obscurred when the normally wide dynamic range of natural radiance fields is compressed into the relatively narrow dynamic range of film and other displays.

Huck, Friedrich O.; Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Rahman, Zia-Ur

1991-01-01

384

Digital mammography. Why hasn't it been approved for U.S. hospitals?  

PubMed

Mammography is the only major imaging technique still unavailable in the United States in digital form. This is because the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has been unable to devise an effective method for manufacturers to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of digital mammography systems. As a result, the agency has been unable to approve any of those systems for marketing in the United States. In this Regulatory Update, we describe FDA's recent efforts to help manufacturers obtain approval and the reasons those efforts have so far proved ineffective. PMID:10631559

2000-01-01

385

Selective pattern enhancement processing for digital mammography, algorithms, and the visual evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to enhance the micro calcifications selectively without enhancing noises, PEM (Pattern Enhancement Processing for Mammography) has been developed by utilizing not only the frequency information but also the structural information of the specified objects. PEM processing uses two structural characteristics i.e. steep edge structure and low-density isolated-point structure. The visual evaluation of PEM processing was done using two different resolution CR mammography images. The enhanced image by PEM processing was compared with the image without enhancement, and the conventional usharp-mask processed image. In the PEM processed image, an increase of noises due to enhancement was suppressed as compared with that in the conventional unsharp-mask processed image. The evaluation using CDMAM phantom showed that PEM processing improved the detection performance of a minute circular pattern. By combining PEM processing with the low and medium frequency enhancement processing, both mammary glands and micro calcifications are clearly enhanced.

Yamada, Masahiko; Shimura, Kazuo; Nagata, Takefumi

2003-05-01

386

Evaluation of scatter effects on image quality for breast tomosynthesis  

SciTech Connect

Digital breast tomosynthesis uses a limited number (typically 10-20) of low-dose x-ray projections to produce a pseudo-three-dimensional volume tomographic reconstruction of the breast. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize and evaluate the effect of scattered radiation on the image quality for breast tomosynthesis. In a simulation, scatter point spread functions generated by a Monte Carlo simulation method were convolved over the breast projection to estimate the distribution of scatter for each angle of tomosynthesis projection. The results demonstrate that in the absence of scatter reduction techniques, images will be affected by cupping artifacts, and there will be reduced accuracy of attenuation values inferred from the reconstructed images. The effect of x-ray scatter on the contrast, noise, and lesion signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR) in tomosynthesis reconstruction was measured as a function of the tumor size. When a with-scatter reconstruction was compared to one without scatter for a 5 cm compressed breast, the following results were observed. The contrast in the reconstructed central slice image of a tumorlike mass (14 mm in diameter) was reduced by 30%, the voxel value (inferred attenuation coefficient) was reduced by 28%, and the SDNR fell by 60%. The authors have quantified the degree to which scatter degrades the image quality over a wide range of parameters relevant to breast tomosynthesis, including x-ray beam energy, breast thickness, breast diameter, and breast composition. They also demonstrate, though, that even without a scatter rejection device, the contrast and SDNR in the reconstructed tomosynthesis slice are higher than those of conventional mammographic projection images acquired with a grid at an equivalent total exposure.

Wu Gang; Mainprize, James G.; Boone, John M.; Yaffe, Martin J. [Imaging Research, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, S-657, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada) and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Radiology, X-ray Imaging Laboratory, U. C. Davis Medical Center, 4701 X Street, Sacramento, California 95817 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Imaging Research, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, S-657, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada) and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)

2009-10-15

387

Initial experience with a prototype clinical intelligent mammography workstation for computer-aided diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the preliminary results of an on-going prospective evaluation of an `intelligent' mammography workstation. This workstation can provide to radiologists a `second opinion' as to the location of suspicious lesions on mammograms. The workstation consists of a high speed computer, film digitizer, image archive, and both hard and soft copy output. Running on the workstation are automated

Robert M. Nishikawa; Regina C. Haldemann; John Papaioannou; Maryellen L. Giger; Ping Lu; Robert A. Schmidt; Dulcy E. Wolverton; Ulrich Bick; Kunio Doi

1995-01-01

388

Image quality evaluation of the angiography imaging system at the European synchrotron radiation facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation of the image quality of the angiography imaging system used at the Medical Beamline of European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) is presented. A two-line 432-pixel germanium detector is utilized in the human coronary angiography program. The performances have been measured with two monochromatic beams, with energies above and below the iodine K-edge. The large-area transfer characteristics (response curve),

A. Peterzol; A. Bravin; P. Coan; H. Elleaume

2003-01-01

389

Mammography  

MedlinePLUS

... the x-ray plate. A device called a compressor will be pressed firmly against the breast. This ... The compressor surfaces may feel cold. When the breast is pressed down, you may have some pain. This needs ...

390

Print quality detection of cigarette wrapper based on image processing and bp network  

Microsoft Academic Search

To resolve the problem of the print quality detection of cigarette wrapper online, the paper has proposed a method to detect and diagnose the print quality based on image processing and BP network. Using the feature parameters of the subtraction image between the detected print image and the standard template image, a BP network is applied to classify the prints

Zhengwei Zhu; Yuying Guo

2008-01-01

391

Image quality evaluation of a direct digital radiography detector operating in a UK radiology department  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results of an image quality evaluation performed on a prototype DirectRay system (Sterling Diagnostic Imaging, Direct Radiography Corp.) operating in a UK radiology department. Physical imaging characteristics measured included characteristic (sensitometric) response, square-wave response function, Wiener spectrum and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). In addition, subjective image quality was assessed using a calibrated threshold contrast detail detectability (TCDD)

Stephen M. Kengyelics; Arnold R. Cowen; Andrew G. Davies

1999-01-01

392

A no-reference image quality evaluation based on power spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

No-reference quality evaluation is more difficult because it does not refer to any image. However, in some cases, like virtual view images, can not find the reference image, no-reference method had to be used. With the free viewpoint video technology development and application, measuring the performance of the multiview video system is essential and virtual view image quality evaluation is

Yan Zhang; Ping An; Qiuwen Zhang; Liquan Shen; Zhaoyang Zhang

2011-01-01

393

The Research of Digital Image Quality Evaluation Method for Beef Tenderness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract-Digital image quality evaluation is a relatively new area of research. In this field, how to choose a good image is an important research content for enhancing the efficiency of pattern recognition system. In this paper, beef images are used as an object of study for computing tenderness. Based on the traditional evaluation method of image quality, the thesis analyzes

Jian Wang; Guo-min Zhou

2010-01-01

394

A novel approach to scatter-free imaging for the improvement of breast cancer Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compton scattering is one of the main causes of image degradation in X-ray imaging. This is particularly noticeable in mammography where details of interest feature low contrast in comparison to the surrounding tissue. This work shows the feasibility of obtaining scatter-free images by using a quasi-monochromatic X-ray beam and a pixellated spectroscopic detector. This work presents characterisation of the imaging system and quantitative imaging data of a low contrast test object. An improvement in contrast by 8% was observed compared to images obtained including scattered radiation. Comparison with a conventional setup showed an increase in the image quality factor when scatter has been removed.

Green, F. H.; Veale, M. C.; Wilson, M. D.; Seller, P.; Scuffham, J.; Pani, S.

2014-12-01

395

Characterization of image quality for 3D scatter-corrected breast CT images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this study was to characterize the image quality of our dedicated, quasi-monochromatic spectrum, cone beam breast imaging system under scatter corrected and non-scatter corrected conditions for a variety of breast compositions. CT projections were acquired of a breast phantom containing two concentric sets of acrylic spheres that varied in size (1-8mm) based on their polar position. The breast phantom was filled with 3 different concentrations of methanol and water, simulating a range of breast densities (0.79-1.0g/cc); acrylic yarn was sometimes included to simulate connective tissue of a breast. For each phantom condition, 2D scatter was measured for all projection angles. Scatter-corrected and uncorrected projections were then reconstructed with an iterative ordered subsets convex algorithm. Reconstructed image quality was characterized using SNR and contrast analysis, and followed by a human observer detection task for the spheres in the different concentric rings. Results show that scatter correction effectively reduces the cupping artifact and improves image contrast and SNR. Results from the observer study indicate that there was no statistical difference in the number or sizes of lesions observed in the scatter versus non-scatter corrected images for all densities. Nonetheless, applying scatter correction for differing breast conditions improves overall image quality.

Pachon, Jan H.; Shah, Jainil; Tornai, Martin P.

2011-03-01

396

Readout-Segmented Echo-Planar Imaging in Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging in Breast Cancer: Comparison with Single-Shot Echo-Planar Imaging in Image Quality  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the image quality of standard single-shot echo-planar imaging (ss-EPI) and that of readout-segmented EPI (rs-EPI) in patients with breast cancer. Materials and Methods Seventy-one patients with 74 breast cancers underwent both ss-EPI and rs-EPI. For qualitative comparison of image quality, three readers independently assessed the two sets of diffusion-weighted (DW) images. To evaluate geometric distortion, a comparison was made between lesion lengths derived from contrast enhanced MR (CE-MR) images and those obtained from the corresponding DW images. For assessment of image parameters, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), lesion contrast, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. Results The rs-EPI was superior to ss-EPI in most criteria regarding the qualitative image quality. Anatomical structure distinction, delineation of the lesion, ghosting artifact, and overall image quality were significantly better in rs-EPI. Regarding the geometric distortion, lesion length on ss-EPI was significantly different from that of CE-MR, whereas there were no significant differences between CE-MR and rs-EPI. The rs-EPI was superior to ss-EPI in SNR and CNR. Conclusion Readout-segmented EPI is superior to ss-EPI in the aspect of image quality in DW MR imaging of the breast. PMID:25053898

Kim, Yun Ju; Kang, Bong Joo; Park, Chang Suk; Kim, Hyeon Sook; Son, Yo Han; Porter, David Andrew; Song, Byung Joo

2014-01-01

397

Free software for performing physical analysis of systems for digital radiography and mammography  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In this paper, the authors present a free software for assisting users in achieving the physical characterization of x-ray digital systems and image quality checks. Methods: The program was developed as a plugin of a well-known public-domain suite ImageJ. The software can assist users in calculating various physical parameters such as the response curve (also termed signal transfer property), modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectra (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). It also includes the computation of some image quality checks: defective pixel analysis, uniformity, dark analysis, and lag. Results: The software was made available in 2009 and has been used during the last couple of years by many users who gave us valuable feedback for improving its usability. It was tested for achieving the physical characterization of several clinical systems for digital radiography and mammography. Various published papers made use of the outcomes of the plugin. Conclusions: This software is potentially beneficial to a variety of users: physicists working in hospitals, staff working in radiological departments, such as medical physicists, physicians, engineers. The plugin, together with a brief user manual, are freely available and can be found online ( http://www.medphys.it/downloads.htm ). With our plugin users can estimate all three most important parameters used for physical characterization (MTF, NPS, and also DQE). The plugin can run on any operating system equipped with ImageJ suite. The authors validated the software by comparing MTF and NPS curves on a common set of images with those obtained with other dedicated programs, achieving a very good agreement.

Donini, Bruno; Lanconelli, Nico, E-mail: nico.lanconelli@unibo.it [Alma Mater Studiorum, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, Bologna 40127 (Italy)] [Alma Mater Studiorum, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, Bologna 40127 (Italy); Rivetti, Stefano [Fisica Medica, Ospedale di Sassuolo S.p.A., Sassuolo 41049 (Italy)] [Fisica Medica, Ospedale di Sassuolo S.p.A., Sassuolo 41049 (Italy); Bertolini, Marco [Medical Physics Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera ASMN, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Reggio Emilia 42123 (Italy)] [Medical Physics Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera ASMN, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Reggio Emilia 42123 (Italy)

2014-05-15

398

Decision theory applied to image quality control in radiology  

PubMed Central

Background The present work aims at the application of the decision theory to radiological image quality control (QC) in diagnostic routine. The main problem addressed in the framework of decision theory is to accept or reject a film lot of a radiology service. The probability of each decision of a determined set of variables was obtained from the selected films. Methods Based on a radiology service routine a decision probability function was determined for each considered group of combination characteristics. These characteristics were related to the film quality control. These parameters were also framed in a set of 8 possibilities, resulting in 256 possible decision rules. In order to determine a general utility application function to access the decision risk, we have used a simple unique parameter called r. The payoffs chosen were: diagnostic's result (correct/incorrect), cost (high/low), and patient satisfaction (yes/no) resulting in eight possible combinations. Results Depending on the value of r, more or less risk will occur related to the decision-making. The utility function was evaluated in order to determine the probability of a decision. The decision was made with patients or administrators' opinions from a radiology service center. Conclusion The model is a formal quantitative approach to make a decision related to the medical imaging quality, providing an instrument to discriminate what is really necessary to accept or reject a film or a film lot. The method presented herein can help to access the risk level of an incorrect radiological diagnosis decision. PMID:19014545

Lessa, Patrícia S; Caous, Cristofer A; Arantes, Paula R; Amaro, Edson; de Souza, Fernando M Campello

2008-01-01

399

Image Quality of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) Onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe the imaging quality of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) as measured during the ground calibration of the instrument. We describe the calibration techniques and report our results for the final configuration of HMI. We present the distortion, modulation transfer function, stray light,image shifts introduced by moving parts of the instrument, best focus, field curvature, and the relative alignment of the two cameras. We investigate the gain and linearity of the cameras, and present the measured flat field.

Wachter, R.; Schou, Jesper; Rabello-Soares, M. C.; Miles, J. W.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Bush, R. I.

2011-01-01

400

Time-gated medical imaging with ultrafast laser-plasma x rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser-generated, hard x-rays are produced in a > 1018 W/cm2 focus of an ultrashort-pulse laser system. The application of ultrashort-duration, laser-generated x-rays to diagnostic medical imaging is discussed. Time-gated detection allows removal of scattered radiation, improved image quality and possible reduction of patient exposure. Methods for improvement of x-ray yield, design of appropriate drive lasers, and applications to mammography and angiography are also discussed.

Barty, Christopher P. P.; Gordon, Clarence L., III; Lemoff, Brian E.; Rose-Petruck, Christoph G.; Raksi, Ferenc; Bell, Perry M.; Wilson, Kent R.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.; Yamakawa, Koichi; Yin, Guang-Yu

1995-09-01

401

Image quality evaluation of breast tomosynthesis with synchrotron radiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study investigates the image quality of tomosynthesis slices obtained from several acquisition sets with synchrotron radiation using a breast phantom incorporating details that mimic various breast lesions, in a heterogeneous background. Methods: A complex Breast phantom (MAMMAX) with a heterogeneous background and thickness that corresponds to 4.5 cm compressed breast with an average composition of 50% adipose and 50% glandular tissue was assembled using two commercial phantoms. Projection images using acquisition arcs of 24 Degree-Sign , 32 Degree-Sign , 40 Degree-Sign , 48 Degree-Sign , and 56 Degree-Sign at incident energy of 17 keV were obtained from the phantom with the synchrotron radiation for medical physics beamline at ELETTRA Synchrotron Light Laboratory. The total mean glandular dose was set equal to 2.5 mGy. Tomograms were reconstructed with simple multiple projection algorithm (MPA) and filtered MPA. In the latter case, a median filter, a sinc filter, and a combination of those two filters were applied on the experimental data prior to MPA reconstruction. Visual inspection, contrast to noise ratio, contrast, and artifact spread function were the figures of merit used in the evaluation of the visualisation and detection of low- and high-contrast breast features, as a function of the reconstruction algorithm and acquisition arc. To study the benefits of using monochromatic beams, single projection images at incident energies ranging from 14 to 27 keV were acquired with the same phantom and weighted to synthesize polychromatic images at a typical incident x-ray spectrum with W target. Results: Filters were optimised to reconstruct features with different attenuation characteristics and dimensions. In the case of 6 mm low-contrast details, improved visual appearance as well as higher contrast to noise ratio and contrast values were observed for the two filtered MPA algorithms that exploit the sinc filter. These features are better visualized at extended arc length, as the acquisition arc of 56 Degree-Sign with 15 projection images demonstrates the highest image reconstruction quality. For microcalcifications, filtered MPA implemented with a combination of median and sinc filters indicates better feature appearance due to efficient suppression of background tissue. The image quality of these features is less sensitive to the acquisition arc. Calcifications with size ranging from 170 to 500 {mu}m, like the ones presently studied, are well identified and visualized for all arcs used. The comparison of single projection images obtained under different beam conditions showed that the use of monochromatic beam can produce an image with higher contrast and contrast to noise ratio compared to an image corresponding to a polychromatic beam even when the latter is acquired with double incident exposure. Conclusions: Filter optimization in respect to the type of feature characteristics is important before the reconstruction. The MPA combined with median and sinc filters results in improved reconstruction of microcalcifications and low-contrast features. The latter are better visualized at extended arc length, while microcalcifications are less sensitive to this acquisition parameter. Use of monochromatic beams may result in tomographic images with higher contrast acquired at lower incident exposures.

Malliori, A.; Bliznakova, K.; Speller, R. D.; Horrocks, J. A.; Rigon, L.; Tromba, G.; Pallikarakis, N. [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Patras, Patras 26500 (Greece); Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, London WVC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Clinical Physics CAU, St Bartholomew's Hospital, London EC1A 7BE (United Kingdom); INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste 34127 (Italy); ELETTRA, Basovizza, Trieste 34012 (Italy); Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Patras, Patras 26500 (Greece)

2012-09-15

402

Degraded visual environment image/video quality metrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of image quality metrics (IQMs) and video quality metrics (VQMs) have been proposed in the literature for evaluating techniques and systems for mitigating degraded visual environments. Some require both pristine and corrupted imagery. Others require patterned target boards in the scene. None of these metrics relates well to the task of landing a helicopter in conditions such as a brownout dust cloud. We have developed and used a variety of IQMs and VQMs related to the pilot's ability to detect hazards in the scene and to maintain situational awareness. Some of these metrics can be made agnostic to sensor type. Not only are the metrics suitable for evaluating algorithm and sensor variation, they are also suitable for choosing the most cost effective solution to improve operating conditions in degraded visual environments.

Baumgartner, Dustin D.; Brown, Jeremy B.; Jacobs, Eddie L.; Schachter, Bruce J.

2014-06-01

403

Influence of void on image quality of industrial SPECT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industrial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a promising technique to determine the dynamic behavior of industrial process media and has been developed in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The present study evaluated the influence of a void, which is presence in multiphase reactors of industrial process, on the image quality of an industrial SPECT. The results are very encouraging; that is, the performance of the industrial SPECT system is little influenced by the presence of a void, which means that industrial SPECT is an appropriate tool to estimate the dynamic characteristics of the process media in a water-air phase bubble column with a static gas sparger.

Park, J. G.; Jung, S. H.; Kim, J. B.; Moon, J.; Kim, C. H.

2013-12-01

404

The quality of the X-ray image: fault analysis.  

PubMed

Current guidelines encourage dentists to assess the quality of the radiographs that they take as a normal part of their routine, and peer review is recommended on a regular basis. Technical faults or processing errors may result in unsatisfactory diagnostic images. In order to rectify such faults and to prevent their recurrence it is vital that the practitioner is able to recognize them and determine their cause. This article proposes a user-friendly approach to recognition of technical (procedural) faults, and gives advice on their prevention. PMID:18170953

Brocklebank, L M

1998-06-01

405

Nonlinear filtering for character recognition in low quality document images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical character recognition in scanned printed documents is a well-studied task, where the captured conditions like sheet position, illumination, contrast and resolution are controlled. Nowadays, it is more practical to use mobile devices for document capture than a scanner. So as a consequence, the quality of document images is often poor owing to presence of geometric distortions, nonhomogeneous illumination, low resolution, etc. In this work we propose to use multiple adaptive nonlinear composite filters for detection and classification of characters. Computer simulation results obtained with the proposed system are presented and discussed.

Diaz-Escobar, Julia; Kober, Vitaly

2014-09-01