Science.gov

Sample records for man-made objects cuing

  1. Man-made objects cuing in satellite imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Skurikhin, Alexei N

    2009-01-01

    We present a multi-scale framework for man-made structures cuing in satellite image regions. The approach is based on a hierarchical image segmentation followed by structural analysis. A hierarchical segmentation produces an image pyramid that contains a stack of irregular image partitions, represented as polygonized pixel patches, of successively reduced levels of detail (LOOs). We are jumping off from the over-segmented image represented by polygons attributed with spectral and texture information. The image is represented as a proximity graph with vertices corresponding to the polygons and edges reflecting polygon relations. This is followed by the iterative graph contraction based on Boruvka's Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) construction algorithm. The graph contractions merge the patches based on their pairwise spectral and texture differences. Concurrently with the construction of the irregular image pyramid, structural analysis is done on the agglomerated patches. Man-made object cuing is based on the analysis of shape properties of the constructed patches and their spatial relations. The presented framework can be used as pre-scanning tool for wide area monitoring to quickly guide the further analysis to regions of interest.

  2. Ukrainian network of Optical Stations for man-made space objects observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sybiryakova, Yevgeniya

    2016-07-01

    The Ukrainian Network of Optical Stations (UNOS) for man-made objects research was founded in 2012 as an association of professional astronomers. The main goals of network are: positional and photometric observations of man-made space objects, calculation of orbital elements, research of shape and period of rotation. The network consists of 8 stations: Kiev, Nikolaev, Odesa, Uzhgorod, Lviv, Yevpatoriya, Alchevsk. UNOS has 12 telescopes for observation of man-made space objects. The new original methods of positional observation were developed for optical observation of geosynchronous and low earth orbit satellites. The observational campaigns of LEO satellites held in the network every year. The numerical model of space object motion, developed in UNOS, is using for orbit calculation. The results of orbital elements calculation are represented on the UNOS web-site http://umos.mao.kiev.ua/eng/. The photometric observation of selected objects is also carried out in network.

  3. Methods for recognition of natural and man-made objects using laser radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groenwall, Christina A.; Chevalier, Tomas R.; Persson, Asa; Elmqvist, Magnus; Ahlberg, Simon; Klasen, Lena M.; Andersson, Pierre

    2004-09-01

    Over the years imaging laser radar systems have been developed for both military and civilian (topographic) applications. Among the applications, 3D data is used for environment modeling and object reconstruction and recognition. The data processing methods are mainly developed separately for military or topographic applications, seldom both application areas are in mind. In this paper, an overview of methods from both areas is presented. First, some of the work on ground surface estimation and classification of natural objects, for example trees, is described. Once natural objects have been detected and classified, we review some of the extensive work on reconstruction and recognition of man-made objects. Primarily we address the reconstruction of buildings and recognition of vehicles. Further, some methods for evaluation of measurement systems and algorithms are described. Models of some types of laser radar systems are reviewed, based on both physical and statistical approaches, for analysis and evaluation of measurement systems and algorithms. The combination of methods for reconstruction of natural and man-made objects is also discussed. By combining methods originating from civilian and military applications, we believe that the tools to analyze a whole scene become available. In this paper we show examples where methods from both application fields are used to analyze a scene.

  4. Discriminating man-made and natural objects in sidescan sonar imagery: human versus computer recognition performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessel, Ronald T.; Myers, Vincent L.

    2005-05-01

    Sidescan sonar is increasingly accepted as the sensor of choice for sea minehunting over large areas in shallow water. Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) algorithms are therefore being developed to assist and, in the case of autonomous vehicles, even replace the human operator as the primary recognition agent deciding whether an object in the sonar imagery is a mine or simply benign seafloor clutter. Whether ATR aids or replaces a human operator, a natural benchmark for judging the quality of ATR is the unaided human performance when ATR is not used. The benchmark can help when estimating the performance benefit (or cost) of switching from human to automatic recognition for instance, or when planning how human and machine should best interact in cooperative search operations. This paper reports a human performance study using a large library of real sonar images collected for the development and testing of ATR algorithms. The library features 234 mine-like man-made objects deployed for the purpose, as well as 105 instances of naturally occurring clutter. The human benchmark in this case is the average of ten human subjects expressed in terms of a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. An ATR algorithm for man-made/natural object discrimination is also tested and compared with the human benchmark . The implications of its relative performance for the integration of ATR are considered.

  5. Natural and Man Made Objects. Operation Waste Watch: The New Three Rs for Elementary School. Kindergarten. [Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

    This publication, the first in a series of seven, for elementary schools, is an environmental education curriculum guide with a focus on waste management issues. It presents a unit of exercises selected for kindergarten students to introduce the ideas of natural and man-made objects in the environment and the topics of waste and litter. Litter is…

  6. Beyond Gaussian statistical analysis for man-made object detection in hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, Mark; Roberts, Joanne M.

    1999-12-01

    Emerging Hyper-Spectral imaging technology allows the acquisition of data 'cubes' which simultaneously have high- resolution spatial and spectral components. There is a wealth of information in this data and effective techniques for extracting and processing this information are vital. Previous work by ERIM on man-made object detection has demonstrated that there is a huge amount of discriminatory information in hyperspectral images. This work used the hypothesis that the spectral characteristics of natural backgrounds can be described by a multivariate Gaussian model. The Mahalanobis distance (derived from the covariance matrix) between the background and other objects in the spectral data is the key discriminant. Other work (by DERA and Pilkington Optronics Ltd) has confirmed these findings, but indicates that in order to obtain the lowest possible false alarm probability, a way of including higher order statistics is necessary. There are many ways in which this could be done ranging from neural networks to classical density estimation approaches. In this paper we report on a new method for extending the Gaussian approach to more complex spectral signatures. By using ideas from the theory of Support Vector Machines we are able to map the spectral data into a higher dimensional space. The co- ordinates of this space are derived from all possible multiplicative combinations of the original spectral line intensities, up to a given order d -- which is the main parameter of the method. The data in this higher dimensional space are then analyzed using a multivariate Gaussian approach. Thus when d equals 1 we recover the ERIM model -- in this case the mapping is the identity. In order for such an approach to be at all tractable we must solve the 'combinatorial explosion' problem implicit in this mapping for large numbers of spectral lines in the signature data. In order to do this we note that in the final analysis of this approach it is only the inner (dot) products

  7. Vegetation versus man-made object detection from imagery for unmanned vehicles in off-road environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harguess, Josh; Larson, Jacoby

    2013-05-01

    There have been several major advances in autonomous navigation for unmanned ground vehicles in controlled urban environments in recent years. However, off-road environments still pose several perception and classification challenges. This paper addresses two of these challenges: detection and classification of vegetation vs. man-made objects. In order for a vehicle or remote operator to traverse cross-country terrain, automated decisions must be made about obstacles in the vehicle's path. The most common obstacle is vegetation, but some vegetation may be traversable, depending on the size of the vehicle and the type of vegetation. However, man­ made objects should generally be detected and avoided in navigation. We present recent research towards the goal of vegetation and man-made object detection in the visible spectrum. First, we look at a state-of-the-art approach to image segmentation and image saliency using natural scene statistics. Then we apply recent work in multi-class image labeling to several images taken from a small unmanned ground vehicle (UGV). This work will attempt to highlight the recent advances and challenges that lie ahead in the ultimate goal of vegetation and man-made object detection and classification in the visual spectrum from UGV.

  8. Release of man-made radionuclides into seawater from dumped and sunken nuclear- and radiation-hazardous objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vysotsky, V. L.; Sivintsev, Yu. V.; Sotnikov, V. A.; Khokhlov, V. N.

    2014-12-01

    The methodology and results of a weighted average evaluation of the release of man-made radio-nuclides into seawater out of nuclear- and radiation-hazardous objects located on the sea bottom over a long period of time (from dumping/sinking to complete destruction of their structural elements) are presented in the paper. The expected radio-ecological implications of environmental contamination are estimated for the main stages of destruction.

  9. A Domain-Specific System for Representing Knowledge of Both Man-Made Objects and Human Actions. Evidence from a Case with an Association of Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannuscorps, Gilles; Pillon, Agnesa

    2011-01-01

    We report the single-case study of a brain-damaged individual, JJG, presenting with a conceptual deficit and whose knowledge of living things, man-made objects, and actions was assessed. The aim was to seek for empirical evidence pertaining to the issue of how conceptual knowledge of objects, both living things and man-made objects, is related to…

  10. NASA Now: Technology: Orbital Debris -- Man-made Objects in Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    Nicholas Johnson is chief scientist for the Orbital Debris Office at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston. The office monitors nearly 22,000 objects in space every single day to keep astronauts...

  11. NASA Now Minute: Technology: Orbital Debris -- Man-made Objects in Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    Nicholas Johnson is chief scientist for the Orbital Debris Office atNASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston. The office monitors nearly 22,000objects in space every single day to keep astronauts...

  12. Correction to ``Extracting Man-Made Objects From High Spatial Resolution Remote Sensing Images via Fast Level Set Evolutions''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhongbin; Shi, Wenzhong; Wang, Qunming; Miao, Zelang

    2015-10-01

    Object extraction from remote sensing images has long been an intensive research topic in the field of surveying and mapping. Most existing methods are devoted to handling just one type of object and little attention has been paid to improving the computational efficiency. In recent years, level set evolution (LSE) has been shown to be very promising for object extraction in the community of image processing and computer vision because it can handle topological changes automatically while achieving high accuracy. However, the application of state-of-the-art LSEs is compromised by laborious parameter tuning and expensive computation. In this paper, we proposed two fast LSEs for man-made object extraction from high spatial resolution remote sensing images. The traditional mean curvature-based regularization term is replaced by a Gaussian kernel and it is mathematically sound to do that. Thus a larger time step can be used in the numerical scheme to expedite the proposed LSEs. In contrast to existing methods, the proposed LSEs are significantly faster. Most importantly, they involve much fewer parameters while achieving better performance. The advantages of the proposed LSEs over other state-of-the-art approaches have been verified by a range of experiments.

  13. Analysis of ejecta fate from proposed man-made impactors into near-Earth objects --- a NEOShield study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, S.; Michel, P.; Jutzi, M.

    2014-07-01

    Asteroids measuring 100 meters across tend to impact the Earth once every 5,000 years on average [1]. Smaller bodies enter into the Earth's atmosphere more frequently, but may detonate before reaching the surface. Conversely, impacts from larger bodies are more rare [2], but can come with devastating global consequences to living species. In 2005, a United States Congressional mandate called for NASA to detect, by 2020, 90 percent of near-Earth objects (NEOs) having diameters of 140 meters or greater [3]. One year prior, ESA's Near-Earth Object Mission Advisory Panel (NEOMAP) recommended the study of a kinetic impactor mission as a priority in the framework of NEO risk assessment [4]. A ''Phase-A'' study of such a mission, Don Quixote, took place at ESA until 2007. In accordance with NEOMAP and with the Target NEO Global Community's recommendations in 2011 [5], the NEOShield Project is being funded for 3.5 years by the European Commission in its FP7 program. NEOShield began in 2012 and is primarily, but not exclusively, a European consortium of research institutions and engineering industries that aims to analyze promising mitigation options and provide solutions to the critical scientific and technical obstacles involved in confronting threats posed by the small bodies in the neighborhood of the Earth's orbit [6]. To further explore the NEO threat mitigation via the strategy of kinetic impact, building upon the Don Quixote study, the idea is to target a specific NEO for impact and attempt to quantify the response. How long do ejecta remain aloft and where do they end up? Fragments that are ejected at high speeds escape, but what about material moving at or near the escape speed of the NEO or that suffer energy-dissipating collisions after being ejected? Where would be a ''safe'' location for an observing spacecraft during and subsequent to the impact? Here, we outline the early phases of an ongoing numerical investigation of the fate of the material ejected from a

  14. THE MAN MADE WORLD, TEACHER'S MANUAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Engineering Education, Washington, DC.

    THIS TEACHER'S MANUAL FOR THE ENGINEERING CONCEPTS CURRICULUM PROJECT'S HIGH SCHOOL COURSE, "THE MAN MADE WORLD," IS THE THIRD DRAFT OF THE EXPERIMENTAL VERSION. THE MATERIAL WRITTEN BY ENGINEERS, SCIENTISTS, AND EDUCATORS, EMPHASIZES ENGINEERING--MAN'S APPLICATION OF SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES TO THE CONTROL AND UTILIZATION OF HIS ENVIRONMENT.…

  15. Our Man-Made Environment: Book Seven, Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Alan G.

    To help one see his man-made environment in a new way is the main purpose of this student workbook. Three basic questions are presented--what is the man-made environment, why it is, and how can we change it? Then, through a series of related problems and discussion, answers are discovered or choices made depending on the way one sees his world or…

  16. An Assessment of Potential Detectors to Monitor the Man-made Orbital Debris Environment. [space debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, R. C.; Ruck, G. T.

    1983-01-01

    Observations using NORAD radar showed that man made debris exceeds the natural environment for large objects. For short times (a few days to a few weeks) after solid rocket motor (SRM) firings in LEO, man made debris in the microparticle size range also appears to exceed the meteoroid environment. The properties of the debris population between these size regimes is currently unknown as there has been no detector system able to perform the required observations. The alternatives for obtaining data on this currently unobserved segment of the population are assessed.

  17. Measurements of Man-Made Spectrum Noise Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enge, Per; Akos, Dennis; Do, Juyong; Simoneau, Joel B.; Pearson, L. Wilson; Seetharam, Venkatesh; Oria, A. J. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    This report consolidates research carried out at Clemson University and Stanford University where a series of measurements were undertaken to identify the man-made radiation present in four bands used by rather different services, namely, L1 Band (1563.42 1587.42 MHz), the Unified S-Band (2025 2110 MHz), the 2.4 GHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) Band (2400 2482.50 MHz), and the 23.6-24.0 GHz Passive Sensing Band. Results show that there were distinctive differences in the measurement data in the frequency bands, which should be expected based on the function/regulation associated with each. The GPS L1 Band had little to none terrestrial man-made sources, but the ISM 2.4 GHz Band had a large number of man-made sources regardless of the site and the time. The Unified S Band showed mixed results depending on the sites. The Passive Sensing Band does not contain appreciable man-made radiation.

  18. Man-made mineral fibers and the respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Costa, Roser; Orriols, Ramon

    2012-12-01

    Man-made mineral fibers are produced using inorganic materials and are widely used as thermal and acoustic insulation. These basically include continuous fiberglass filaments, glass wool (fiberglass insulation), stone wool, slag wool and refractory ceramic fibers. Likewise, in the last two decades nanoscale fibers have also been developed, among these being carbon nanotubes with their high electrical conductivity, mechanical resistance and thermal stability. Both man-made mineral fibers and carbon nanotubes have properties that make them inhalable and potentially harmful, which have led to studies to assess their pathogenicity. The aim of this review is to analyze the knowledge that currently exists about the ability of these fibers to produce respiratory diseases. PMID:22763045

  19. AAFE man-made noise experiment project. Volume 3: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Management and operational considerations involved in the project to measure man-made electromagnetic noise at earth orbital altitudes are discussed. The subjects considered are: (1) launch and orbit of the Scout D vehicles, (2) experiment management, (3) receiver scanning considerations, (4) data handling, and (5) threshold measurements. The storage requirements for a high resolution, complete data storage library are defined. Mathematical models of signal detection probability are developed.

  20. Natural and Man-Made Hazards in the Cayman Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Suarez, G.

    2010-12-01

    Located in the western Caribbean Sea to the northwest of Jamaica, the Cayman Islands are a British overseas territory comprised of three islands: Grand Cayman, Cayman Brac, and Little Cayman. These three islands occupy around 250 km2 of land area. In this work, historical and recent data were collected and classified to identify and rank the natural and man-made hazards that may potentially affect the Cayman Islands and determine the level of exposure of Grand Cayman to these events. With this purpose, we used the vulnerability assessment methodology developed by the North Caroline Department of Environment and Natural Resources. The different degrees of physical vulnerability for each hazard were graphically interpreted with the aid of maps using a relative scoring system. Spatial maps were generated showing the areas of different levels of exposure to multi-hazards. The more important natural hazard to which the Cayman Islands are exposed is clearly hurricanes. To a lesser degree, the islands may be occasionally exposed to earthquakes and tsunamis. Explosions or leaks of the Airport Texaco Fuel Depot and the fuel pipeline at Grand Cayman are the most significant man-made hazards. Our results indicate that there are four areas in Grand Cayman with various levels of exposure to natural and man-made hazards: The North Sound, Little Sound and Eastern West Bay (Area 1) show a very high level of exposure; The Central Mangroves, Central Bodden Town, Central George Town and the West Bay (Area 2) have high level of exposure; The Northwestern West Bay, Western Georgetown-Bodden Town, and East End-North Side (Area 3) are under moderate levels of exposure. The remainder of the island shows low exposure (Area 4). It is important to underline that this study presents a first evaluation of the main natural and man-made hazards that may affect the Cayman Islands. The maps generated will be useful tools for emergency managers and policy developers and will increase the overall

  1. AAFE man-made noise experiment project. Volume 2: Project and experiment discussions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An experiment for the acquisition and processing of man-made noise interference data on earth orbital altitudes is discussed. The objectives of the project are to confirm the results of analytical studies concerning radio frequency man-made noise in space. It is stated that the measurements of the amounts and types of noise in frequency bands of interest could allow the allocation and utilization of frequencies to be optimized and would also contribute to the engineering objective of optimizing flight receiving systems. A second objective of the project was to design and fabricate a noise measuring receiver which would demonstrate the feasibility of the experiment design under the project. The procedures for acquiring and processing the electromagnetic radiation data are discussed.

  2. The uses of Man-Made diamond in wafering applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fallon, D. B.

    1982-01-01

    The continuing, rapid growth of the semiconductor industry requires the involvement of several specialized industries in the development of special products geared toward the unique requirements of this new industry. A specialized manufactured diamond to meet various material removal needs was discussed. The area of silicon wafer slicing has presented yet anothr challenge and it is met most effectively. The history, operation, and performance of Man-Made diamond and particularly as applied to silicon wafer slicing is discussed. Product development is underway to come up with a diamond specifically for sawing silicon wafers on an electroplated blade.

  3. Simulating statistics of lightning-induced and man made fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krenn, R.; Hergarten, S.

    2009-04-01

    The frequency-area distributions of forest fires show power-law behavior with scaling exponents α in a quite narrow range, relating wildfire research to the theoretical framework of self-organized criticality. Examples of self-organized critical behavior can be found in computer simulations of simple cellular automata. The established self-organized critical Drossel-Schwabl forest fire model (DS-FFM) is one of the most widespread models in this context. Despite its qualitative agreement with event-size statistics from nature, its applicability is still questioned. Apart from general concerns that the DS-FFM apparently oversimplifies the complex nature of forest dynamics, it significantly overestimates the frequency of large fires. We present a straightforward modification of the model rules that increases the scaling exponent α by approximately 1•3 and brings the simulated event-size statistics close to those observed in nature. In addition, combined simulations of both the original and the modified model predict a dependence of the overall distribution on the ratio of lightning induced and man made fires as well as a difference between their respective event-size statistics. The increase of the scaling exponent with decreasing lightning probability as well as the splitting of the partial distributions are confirmed by the analysis of the Canadian Large Fire Database. As a consequence, lightning induced and man made forest fires cannot be treated separately in wildfire modeling, hazard assessment and forest management.

  4. NATURAL AND MAN-MADE HEALTH HAZARDS IN RURAL SLOVAKIA

    PubMed Central

    Gulis, Gabriel; Kollarová, Jana; Dietzová, Zuzana; Labancová, Jana; Behanová, Martina; Ondrušová, Martina

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Context There is little information on health situation of the people of rural Slovak Republic. The rural environment is often a mixture of natural and man-made hazards, which under some conditions, might turn to be a health risk to humans. Purpose The aim of this study was to compare two regions of the Slovak Republic, two different hazards (natural and man-made), two different methods of health outcome measurement (routine statistics and individual diary based data). Methods Ecological study design with focus on cancer incidence analysis was employed in case of natural hazard analysis. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated and are presented in paper. Observational study design was employed to study rural gardening practices and their impact on health. Findings Statistically significant differences in SIR were found in rural areas of Spis-Gemer Region (SGR) among males for lip, oral cavity and larynx (1.60, CI 95% 1.12–2.34), respiratory (1.25, CI 95% 1.01–1.55) and digestive organ cancers (1.22, CI 95% 1.01–1.47); hematopoetic cancers are significantly elevated among males in rural areas as well (1.58, CI 95% 1.05–2.39). Pesticide use (83.1% of gardeners use pesticides) without any protective equipment is still widespread among gardeners in rural Slovak Republic (16.9%). The produced fruits and vegetables are substantial part of total fruit and vegetable consumption (51% in summer and 42.7% in winter season) increasing the risk of exposure to pesticides. Conclusion Our study shows that on ecological level, mortality and morbidity statistics could be used to assess human health status in linkage to broad exposure measures (urban- rural); on dose response level (arsenic in soil) this method lacks sensitivity. Health survey and diary method on the other hand are useful tools in analysis of rural health especially with respect to man-made hazards. PMID:20377050

  5. Nonlinear elastic properties of various man-made materials

    SciTech Connect

    Darvennes, C.M.; Hou, X.

    1998-12-31

    Second harmonic generation was measured in several man-made materials for possible application of nonlinear elastic properties to non-destructive testing. Samples included several thicknesses of two types of carbon fiber/polymer matrix composites, three types of concretes, and plywood. Steel and Aluminum specimens were used as references and one of the composite samples was evaluated before and after fatigue cycles. Some interesting observations were made: (1) the two composites were much more nonlinear than the metals, (2) the concretes and the wood were extremely absorptive, (3) one of the concrete samples exhibited a third harmonic but no second harmonic, and (4) fatigue cycles significantly increased the second harmonic, even though no damage was observed by C-scan. The possible applications of these results to NDE will be discussed.

  6. Man-made superlattice and quantum wells: past and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsu, Raphael

    2014-07-01

    The story leading to the successful introduction of the GaAs/GaAlAs man-made superlattice is probably not known to most. Before I joined IBM and started working under Leo Esaki, I was working and teaching in Texas after I left Bell Labs. My boss, the head of Physics Research at Southwest Research Institute, Frank Witmore, showed me a new book: The Dynamics of Conduction Electrons by A.B. Pippard, Blackie & Son Limited, 1964. He discussed what happens to metals if the mean free path is sufficiently long. For example, electrons move toward the Brillouin zone boundary under the application of an electric field, and are reflected resulting in oscillations.

  7. Position of Social Determinants of Health in Urban Man-Made Lakes

    PubMed Central

    Shojaei, Parisa; Karimlou, Masoud; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Afzali, Hosein Malek; Forouzan, Ameneh Setareh

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: A social determinants approach proposes that enhancing living conditions in areas such as income, housing, transportation, employment, education, social support, and health services is central to improving the health of urban populations. Urban development projects can be costly but have health impacts. The benefit derived from the creation of man-made lakes in developing countries is usually associated with great risks; however, the evidence for physical and non-physical health benefits of urban man-made lake is unclear. The aim of this paper is to formulate a conceptual framework of associations between urban man-made lakes and social determinants of health. Method: This study was a qualitative study carried out using one focus group discussion and 16 individual interviews. Data were analyzed based on deductive-inductive content analysis approach. Results: Participants’ points of view were analyzed within 261 codes. Data analysis matrix was the conceptual framework of social determinants of health commission and its sub-groups, thus, two structural and mediating determinants categories as well as their sub-sets were created accordingly. In addition, some extra sub-sets including environment, air quality, weather changes, noise pollution, pathogenesis, quality of life, shortage of available resources, region popularity, ethnicity, tourism, social and physical development of children, unintentional injuries, aesthetic, and spirituality were extracted beyond the matrix factors, which were placed in each of above categories based on their thematic content. Conclusion: This paper has illustrated that the quality and type of man-made lake provided within communities can have a significant and sustained impact on community’s health and wellbeing. Therefore, in order to strengthen positive effects and reduce negative effects of any developmental projects within community, their impacts on public health should be taken into consideration

  8. Natural and man-made noise and interference: Mechanisms and characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagn, G. H.

    1991-06-01

    The objective is to define noise (a cause) and interference (an effect) and describe some of the sources of both natural and man-made radio noise and interference which have the potential to degrade the performance of radio and other electromagnetic systems of interest to NATO. The following types of sources are included: natural noise (e.g., from lightning, the sun, and the cosmos); and man-made noise (e.g., from external sources such as powerlines and ignition systems and from sources internal to a receiving system associated with electronic devices and components). The source mechanisms are discussed as well as the characteristics of the sources and their signatures in the bands from extremely low frequency through super high frequency. The Consultative Committee for International Radio (CCIR) estimates of worldwide minimum effective antenna noise figures versus frequency and empirical noise models (for noise of natural and man-made origin) are presented and discussed. Modeling the composite noise environment generated by multiple types of sources is discussed. The analytical models of Hall and Middleton are described. The proper combining (in a model of overall system noise figure) of the predictions of models for individual external and internal noise sources are discussed. The effect of noise on analog voice and on digital communications systems also discussed. High frequency channel occupancy and band congestion are defined, and the measurement and modeling of congestion are discussed. Noise measurements and standards are reviewed, and future noise trends are discussed.

  9. Surviving the Unexpected: A Curriculum Guide for Wilderness Survival and Survival from Natural and Man Made Disasters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fear, Daniel E., Ed.; Fear, Eugene H., Ed.

    Intended for students in elementary school, secondary school, and adult classes, the curriculum guide presents information about human factors and priorities in three kinds of disasters: wilderness emergencies, natural disasters, and man-made disasters. The guide contains lesson plans in each containing objectives, desired understanding, and…

  10. Salient man-made structure detection in infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong-jie; Zhou, Fu-gen; Jin, Ting

    2013-09-01

    Target detection, segmentation and recognition is a hot research topic in the field of image processing and pattern recognition nowadays, among which salient area or object detection is one of core technologies of precision guided weapon. Many theories have been raised in this paper; we detect salient objects in a series of input infrared images by using the classical feature integration theory and Itti's visual attention system. In order to find the salient object in an image accurately, we present a new method to solve the edge blur problem by calculating and using the edge mask. We also greatly improve the computing speed by improving the center-surround differences method. Unlike the traditional algorithm, we calculate the center-surround differences through rows and columns separately. Experimental results show that our method is effective in detecting salient object accurately and rapidly.

  11. Man-Made Debris In and From Lunar Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.; McKay, Gordon A. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    During 1966-1976, as part of the first phase of lunar exploration, 29 manned and robotic missions placed more than 40 objects into lunar orbit. Whereas several vehicles later successfully landed on the Moon and/or returned to Earth, others were either abandoned in orbit or intentionally sent to their destruction on the lunar surface. The former now constitute a small population of lunar orbital debris; the latter, including four Lunar Orbiters and four Lunar Module ascent stages, have contributed to nearly 50 lunar sites of man's refuse. Other lunar satellites are known or suspected of having fallen from orbit. Unlike Earth satellite orbital decays and deorbits, lunar satellites impact the lunar surface unscathed by atmospheric burning or melting. Fragmentations of lunar satellites, which would produce clouds of numerous orbital debris, have not yet been detected. The return to lunar orbit in the 1990's by the Hagoromo, Hiten, Clementine, and Lunar Prospector spacecraft and plans for increased lunar exploration early in the 21st century, raise questions of how best to minimize and to dispose of lunar orbital debris. Some of the lessons learned from more than 40 years of Earth orbit exploitation can be applied to the lunar orbital environment. For the near-term, perhaps the most important of these is postmission passivation. Unique solutions, e.g., lunar equatorial dumps, may also prove attractive. However, as with Earth satellites, debris mitigation measures are most effectively adopted early in the concept and design phase, and prevention is less costly than remediation.

  12. Evolution of a Man-Made Plume in Coastal Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmaus, Karen L.; Bowles, Jeff; Woodruff, Dana L.; Donato, Tim; Rhea, William J.; Snyder, W. A.; Korwan, Daniel R.; Miller, Lee M.; Petrie, Gregg M.; Maxwell, Adam R.; Hibler, Lyle F.

    2006-12-19

    The ability to understand the biogeophysical parameters that create ocean color in coastal waters is fundamental to the ability to exploit remote sensing for coastal applications. This article describes an experiment in which a controlled quantity of a single inorganic material with known absorption and scattering properties was released into a coastal environment. The plume experiment was conducted in conjunction with a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) field collection campaign in and around Sequim Bay on the Strait of Juan de Fuca in Washington State. The objective of the field campaign was to identify and characterize features in the near shore environment from the standpoint of quantifying environmental parameters to improve operational planning in littoral regions. The aerial component of the mission involved imagery acquisitions from the NRL's PHILLS hyperspectral sensor, and two commercial IR cameras. Coincident satellite data was obtained from commercial sources. Ground truth activities included atmospheric profiles, ground, surface water, and in-water spectral measurements, panels for radiometric calibration, water column water optics, water samples and profiles from support vessels, in-situ tide and weather measurements, and beach and intertidal transects and surveys (via scientific dive teams). This field collection campaign provided a unique opportunity for a multisensor data collection effort in littoral regions, to identify and characterize features from multiple platforms (satellite, aerial, water surface and subsurface) and sensors. Data from this mission is being used as input to both radiative transfer and ocean transport models, for characterizing the water column and the near-shore, and quantitatively estimating circulation and transport in coastal environments.

  13. Man-made Star Shines in the Southern Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-02-01

    drawback can be surmounted with adaptive optics, allowing the telescope to produce images that are as sharp as if taken from space. This means that finer details in astronomical objects can be studied, and also that fainter objects can be observed. In order to work, adaptive optics needs a nearby reference star that has to be relatively bright, thereby limiting the area of the sky that can be surveyed. To overcome this limitation, astronomers use a powerful laser that creates an artificial star, where and when they need it. ESO PR Photo 07c/06 ESO PR Photo 07c/06 The Laser Guide Star Laboratory The laser beam, shining at a well-defined wavelength, makes the layer of sodium atoms that is present in Earth's atmosphere at an altitude of 90 kilometres glow. The laser is hosted in a dedicated laboratory under the platform of Yepun. A custom-made fibre carries the high power laser to the launch telescope situated on top of the large Unit Telescope. An intense and exhilarating twelve days of tests followed the First Light of the Laser Guide Star (LGS), during which the LGS was used to improve the resolution of astronomical images obtained with the two adaptive optics instruments in use on Yepun: the NAOS-CONICA imager and the SINFONI spectrograph. In the early hours of 9 February, the LGS could be used together with the SINFONI instrument, while in the early morning of 10 February, it was with the NAOS-CONICA system. ESO PR Video 07/06 ESO PR Video 07/06 Learn more with the video! "To have succeeded in such a short time is an outstanding feat and is a tribute to all those who have together worked so hard over the last few years," said Richard Davies, project manager for the laser source development at the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics. A second phase of commissioning will take place in the spring with the aim of optimizing the operations and refining the performances before the instrument is made available to the astronomers, later this year. The experience

  14. Man-made Star Shines in the Southern Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-02-01

    drawback can be surmounted with adaptive optics, allowing the telescope to produce images that are as sharp as if taken from space. This means that finer details in astronomical objects can be studied, and also that fainter objects can be observed. In order to work, adaptive optics needs a nearby reference star that has to be relatively bright, thereby limiting the area of the sky that can be surveyed. To overcome this limitation, astronomers use a powerful laser that creates an artificial star, where and when they need it. ESO PR Photo 07c/06 ESO PR Photo 07c/06 The Laser Guide Star Laboratory The laser beam, shining at a well-defined wavelength, makes the layer of sodium atoms that is present in Earth's atmosphere at an altitude of 90 kilometres glow. The laser is hosted in a dedicated laboratory under the platform of Yepun. A custom-made fibre carries the high power laser to the launch telescope situated on top of the large Unit Telescope. An intense and exhilarating twelve days of tests followed the First Light of the Laser Guide Star (LGS), during which the LGS was used to improve the resolution of astronomical images obtained with the two adaptive optics instruments in use on Yepun: the NAOS-CONICA imager and the SINFONI spectrograph. In the early hours of 9 February, the LGS could be used together with the SINFONI instrument, while in the early morning of 10 February, it was with the NAOS-CONICA system. ESO PR Video 07/06 ESO PR Video 07/06 Learn more with the video! "To have succeeded in such a short time is an outstanding feat and is a tribute to all those who have together worked so hard over the last few years," said Richard Davies, project manager for the laser source development at the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics. A second phase of commissioning will take place in the spring with the aim of optimizing the operations and refining the performances before the instrument is made available to the astronomers, later this year. The experience

  15. Fusion of monocular cues to detect man-made structures in aerial imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shufelt, Jefferey; Mckeown, David M.

    1991-01-01

    The extraction of buildings from aerial imagery is a complex problem for automated computer vision. It requires locating regions in a scene that possess properties distinguishing them as man-made objects as opposed to naturally occurring terrain features. It is reasonable to assume that no single detection method can correctly delineate or verify buildings in every scene. A cooperative-methods paradigm is useful in approaching the building extraction problem. Using this paradigm, each extraction technique provides information which can be added or assimilated into an overall interpretation of the scene. Thus, the main objective is to explore the development of computer vision system that integrates the results of various scene analysis techniques into an accurate and robust interpretation of the underlying three dimensional scene. The problem of building hypothesis fusion in aerial imagery is discussed. Building extraction techniques are briefly surveyed, including four building extraction, verification, and clustering systems. A method for fusing the symbolic data generated by these systems is described, and applied to monocular image and stereo image data sets. Evaluation methods for the fusion results are described, and the fusion results are analyzed using these methods.

  16. An application of geophysical techniques to the study of man-made cavities of historical importance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepe, Pietro; Martimucci, Vincenzo; Parise, Mario; Sammarco, Mariangela

    2010-05-01

    using three-dimensional processing techniques by means of the RADAN software. The multi-methodological approach, involving GPR, electrical tomography (ERT) and the direct survey of the cavities allowed to define with high precision the morphological and topographical features of the area, together with the size and extension of the man-made cavities. The latter information were, in particolar, extremely useful for assessment of the risks related to the presence of underground voids. In conclusion, the known cave system has been compared with the geo-electrical and GPR anomalies surveyed. In general, a good agreement was observed with the known extension of the subterranean cavities. In some cases, however, the registered anomalies are probably to be related to further cavities, so far unexplored, that should be object of specific, direct surveys.

  17. Do insulation products of man-made vitreous fibres still cause skin discomfort?

    PubMed Central

    Lundgren, Lennart; Moberg, Cecilia; Lidén, Carola

    2014-01-01

    Background Man-made vitreous fibres (MMVFs) are used in products for insulation and as reinforcement in materials. Contamination of the skin may arise through direct or indirect contact, and from the deposition of airborne fibres. The scientific basis regarding the effects on skin of MMVFs dates from 1970–1980. Objectives To investigate whether currently used insulation MMVF products still cause skin discomfort. Methods Focus group interviews and structured interviews were performed among workers engaged in insulation tasks and among do-it-yourself consumers with a recent experience of MMVF products. Results A majority of interviewees experienced skin discomfort when handling MMVF products. Complaints caused by traditional (yellow) glass fibre products were more severe than those caused by products of rock or slag wool fibres. The wrists, forearms, neck and face were the locations where the skin was most affected. The situations causing problems varied between occupational tasks, but working with the hands over the head or in narrow spaces were described as the worst situations. Building construction apprentices performed insulation tasks more often than senior workers. Conclusions MMVF insulation products do still cause skin discomfort. Updated knowledge about people’s experiences of work with such products should influence legislation. PMID:24684557

  18. Animal and vegetation patterns in natural and man-made bog pools: implications for restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazerolle, M.J.; Poulin, M.; Lavoie, C.; Rochefort, L.; Desrochers, A.; Drolet, B.

    2006-01-01

    1. Peatlands have suffered great losses following drainage for agriculture, forestry, urbanisation, or peat mining, near inhabited areas. We evaluated the faunal and vegetation patterns after restoration of a peatland formerly mined for peat. We assessed whether bog pools created during restoration are similar to natural bog pools in terms of water chemistry, vegetation structure and composition, as well as amphibian and arthropod occurrence patterns. 2. Both avian species richness and peatland vegetation cover at the site increased following restoration. Within bog pools, however, the vegetation composition differed between natural and man-made pools. The cover of low shrubs, Sphagnum moss, submerged, emergent and floating vegetation in man-made pools was lower than in natural pools, whereas pH was higher than in typical bog pools. Dominant plant species also differed between man-made and natural pools. 3. Amphibian tadpoles, juveniles and adults occurred more often in man-made pools than natural bog pools. Although some arthropods, including Coleoptera bog specialists, readily colonised the pools, their abundance was two to 26 times lower than in natural bog pools. Plant introduction in bog pools, at the stocking densities we applied, had no effect on the occurrence of most groups. 4. We conclude that our restoration efforts were partially successful. Peatland-wide vegetation patterns following restoration mimicked those of natural peatlands, but 4 years were not sufficient for man-made pools to fully emulate the characteristics of natural bog pools.

  19. Efficient Semantic Segmentation of Man-Made Scenes Using Fully-Connected Conditional Random Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weihao; Yang, Michael Ying

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we explore semantic segmentation of man-made scenes using fully connected conditional random field (CRF). Images of man-made scenes display strong contextual dependencies in the spatial structures. Fully connected CRFs can model long-range connections within the image of man-made scenes and make use of contextual information of scene structures. The pairwise edge potentials of fully connected CRF models are defined by a linear combination of Gaussian kernels. Using filter-based mean field algorithm, the inference is very efficient. Our experimental results demonstrate that fully connected CRF performs better than previous state-of-the-art approaches on both eTRIMS dataset and LabelMeFacade dataset.

  20. Man-made Boards Technology Trends based on TRIZ Evolution Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Huiling; Fan, Delin

    China is one of the world's largest manufacturers and consumers of man-made board applications. A systematic and efficient method of foreseeing future technology trends and their evolutionary potentials is a key task that can help companies guide their planning and allocate their resources. Application of the law of evolution with a S-shaped curve could contribute essentially to the accuracy of the long-term forecast. This research seeks to determine the current stage and the position on the S-curve of man-made board technology in China on the TRIZ evolution theo ryand introduce a methodology which combines patent analysis and technology life cycle forecasting to find a niche space of man-made technology development in China.

  1. Use of a Neural Network to Identify Man-made Structure in Millimeter-Wave Images for Security Screening Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Paul E.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.; Sheen, David M.

    2006-06-01

    Events in the past few years have heightened security concerns necessitating the development of more advanced methods for detecting potential threats being carried on individuals. One approach is to use imaging methods that see through clothing to find potentially threatening objects being concealed by individuals on their person. This sparks obvious privacy concerns. This paper describes one technique based on neural networks and Fourier features applied to active millimeter-wave imagery that finds man-made structure potentially indicating a threat without compromising personal privacy.

  2. Man-made mineral (vitreous) fibres: evaluations of cancer hazards by the IARC Monographs Programme.

    PubMed

    Baan, Robert A; Grosse, Yann

    2004-09-01

    Man-made vitreous (glass-like) fibres are non-crystalline, fibrous inorganic substances (silicates) made primarily from rock, slag, glass or other processed minerals. These materials, also called man-made mineral fibres, include glass fibres (used in glass wool and continuous glass filament), rock or stone wool, slag wool and refractory ceramic fibres. They are widely used for thermal and acoustical insulation and to a lesser extent for other purposes. These products are potentially hazardous to human health because they release airborne respirable fibres during their production, use and removal. Man-made mineral fibres and man-made vitreous fibres have been the subject of reviews by IARC Monographs Working Groups in 1987 and 2001, respectively, which resulted in evaluations of the carcinogenic hazard to humans from exposure to these materials. These reviews and evaluations have been published as Volumes 43 and 81 of the IARC Monographs series [IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, vol. 43, Man-made Mineral Fibres and Radon (1988); IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, vol. 81, Man-made Vitreous Fibres (2002)]. The re-evaluation in 2001 was undertaken because there have been substantial improvements in the quality of the epidemiological information available on the carcinogenicity to humans of glass fibres, continuous glass filament and rock/slag wool. The new evaluations have addressed the limitations of earlier cohort studies, particularly concerning the lack of adjustment with respect to concomitant risk factors such as smoking and other sources of occupational exposure. In addition, the evaluation of the evidence for carcinogenicity of glass fibres to experimental animals has been refined, by making a distinction between insulation glass wool and special-purpose glass fibres. The results of the evaluations in 1987 and 2001 are thus different in several aspects. In this paper, the reviews and evaluations

  3. TOXICOLOGY OF NATURAL AND MAN-MADE TOXICANTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking Water obtained from surface sources contains a very large variety of organic chemicals. The total organic carbon present in the source water is made up of both natural and man-made chemicals. In most instances natural organic material predominates and is largely made up ...

  4. The man-made creators of the imbalance of water in Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlafman, L. M.; Kontar, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    At 2011 we have described the imbalance of water in Nature as the system [1]. At 2012 we have described water and carbon and the glaciers [2], [3] as creators of the imbalance of Nature. Now we are describing some man-made creators of the imbalance of Nature. The photosynthesis is a powerful creator of the imbalance of Nature. The photosynthesis significantly increases the complexity of the structures and reduces the entropy. Earth's hydrosphere contains water less than it was flowed via photosynthesis. This is an example of the imbalance of involving when the return of water has delayed because water is involved into the processes of life and other processes. People widely use photosynthesis and create not only an additional man-made imbalance of water in Nature, but also the man-made changing the albedo, and a lot of other important parameters of the planet of Earth. All of these processes are significantly imbalanced. The fossil hydrocarbons have accumulated during millions of years, but now are burned. This is an example of the imbalance delay by time. The man-made burning of the hydrocarbons is creating the imbalances of impact or explosive type, because of the burning processes is in millions of times faster than the accumulation processes. Please pay attention to the imbalance of redeployment by places. For example, oil and gas are extracted in one places, and burned in others. During combustion is standing out not only water, but energy, and other components. The temperature in the centers of big cities is always higher and there is dominating the rising air. It pollutes the environment, changes circulations, create greenhouse effect, etc. Other examples of the imbalance of relocation are shown in the production and consumption of food. The irrigation systems transfer water from one place to another. This transfer of water creates a lot of imbalances in change climate, ecosystems, etc in places where water was took and where the water was brought. Usually

  5. Exposure to man-made mineral fibers: A summary of current animal data

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, C.S. )

    1990-03-01

    The inhalation of asbestos fibers (crocidolite, chrysotile and amosite) has been implicated in the development of a number of lung disorders including lung cancer, asbestosis, and mesothelioma. The mechanism responsible for these effects is not well characterized but is generally thought to be related to the fibrous nature of these materials. Therefore, concerns have also been raised as to the potential health impact of other fibrous materials including man-made mineral fibers. Man-made mineral fibers are being used as substitutes for asbestos in a wide range of products. However, relatively little data are available on the potential health impact of these fibrous materials. Epidemiology and clinical studies have served as an important source of information on the effect of various environmental pollutants, but have not been sufficient to date to fully address the potential health impact of man-made mineral fibers. This is due in part to the relatively recent introduction of a number of these materials, the long latency period before the onset of clinical symptoms, and in general, the lower exposure levels associated with these materials. Therefore, a number of animal studies have been performed to predict or confirm the toxicity of various man-made mineral fibers in humans. Both fibrosis and mesothelioma have been induced in experimental animals exposed to man-made mineral fibers although no disease has been consistently observed in occupationally exposed workers. While little is known about the mechanism of this response, information from animal and cell culture experiments indicate that dose, fiber dimension, and fiber durability are the most important factors in determining the biological activity of these materials. 50 references.

  6. Natural and Man-Made Objects, Level K. Teacher's Guide. Operation Waste Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

    Operation Waste Watch is a series of seven sequential learning units which addresses the subject of litter control and solid waste management. Each unit may be used in a variety of ways, depending on the needs and schedules of individual schools, and may be incorporated into various social studies, science, language arts, health, mathematics, and…

  7. Comparison of thermal (FLIR) and television images. [in natural and man-made target detection and identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickner, Michael S.; Staveland, Lowell E.

    1989-01-01

    The human eye is sensitive to electromagnetic radiation in the 0.4 to 0.7 micron band (light). Thermal imaging (TI) systems are sensitive to heat radiation in the infrared band (3-5 or 8-14 microns) and are capable of transforming the distribution of relative temperatures in a scene into a visible TV image. The present experiment was designed to investigate the impact of the difference between TIs and regular TV images on the detection and identification of natural and man-made targets. Parallel TV and TI videotapes were recorded during helicopter flights. Fifteen subjects who viewed both the TV and the TI images (separately), were asked to detect predefined targets and to identify features pointed out to them by the experimenter. In general, performance with TVs was superior to performance with TIs in terms of response times and errors. However, subjects required significantly less time to detect man-made objects with TIs than with TVs. The correlation between the performance of the same task with the two kinds of images was very low. The results are discussed in terms of image quality and in terms of humans' internal representations of natural categories.

  8. Mourning dove use of man-made ponds in a cold-desert ecosystem in Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, F.P.; Flake, L.D. )

    1989-10-31

    Mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) in a cold-desert ecosystem used man-made ponds for watering, feeding, gritting, loafing, and courting. Diurnal pond use by doves peaked in the morning and evening. Monthly dove use of ponds fluctuated slightly during the summers of 1984 and 1985. Pond size, pH, and shoreline characteristics had little association with the intensity of pond use by doves; but geographic isolation of ponds was weakly associated had pond-use intensity. The number of doves present at the beginning of the one-hour period was a poor indicator of the number of arrivals during that period. We conclude that man-made water sources are important in areas where water availability may limit mourning dove productivity and abundance. It is suggested that mourning dove arrival rates could be used as a population index in cold-desert areas.

  9. Thunderstorms observed by radio astronomy Explorer 1 over regions of low man made noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, J. A.; Herman, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) I observations of thunderstorms over regions of low man-made noise levels are analyzed to assess the satellite's capability for noise source differentiation. The investigation of storms over Australia indicates that RAE can resolve noise generation due to thunderstorms from the general noise background over areas of low man-made noise activity. Noise temperatures observed by RAE over stormy regions are on the average 10DB higher than noise temperatures over the same regions in the absence of thunderstorms. In order to determine the extent of noise contamination due to distant transmitters comprehensive three dimensional computer ray tracings were generated. The results indicate that generally, distant transmitters contribute negligibly to the total noise power, being 30DB or more below contributions arriving from an area immediately below the satellite.

  10. Architectural control of construction materials with application of man-made wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeev, Ruslan; Abdrakhmanova, Layla

    2016-01-01

    The article considers the principles of construction materials formation based on non-organic and organic raw materials when material matrix is filled with particulate fillers from man-made wastes of various nature formed in different conditions. Qualitative and quantitative requirements for mineral, chemical and material composition of wastes to modify construction materials are detailed. The ways to use them as modifiers of construction materials are shown by the example of wastes group belonging to slags.

  11. Preconceptual systems and equipment for plugging of man-made accesses to a repository in basalt

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, C.L.; O'Rourke, J.E.; Allirot, D.; O'Connor, K.

    1980-09-01

    This report presents results of a study leading to preconceptual designs for plugging boreholes, shafts, and tunnels to a nuclear waste repository in basalt. Beginning design criteria include a list of preferred plug materials and plugging machines that were selected to suit the environmental conditions, and depths, diameters, and orientations of the accesses to a nuclear waste repository in the Columbia River basalts located in eastern Washington State. The environmental conditions are described. The fiscal year 1979-1980 Task II work is presented in two parts: preliminary testing of materials for plugging of man-made accesses to a repository in basalt (described in a separate report); and preconceptual systems and equipment for plugging of man-made accesses to a repository in basalt (described in this report). To fulfill the scope of the Task II work, Woodward-Clyde Consultants (WCC) was requested to: provide preconceptual systems for plugging boreholes, tunnels, and shafts in basalt; describe preconceptual borehole plugging equipment for placing the selected materials in man-made accesses; utilize the quality assurance program, program plan and schedule, and work plans previously developed for Task II; and prepare a preliminary report.

  12. Implications of the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster: Man-Made Hazards, Vulnerability Factors, and Risk to Environmental Health.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Christopher; Sase, Eriko

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article was to examine the environmental health implications of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster from an all-hazards perspective. The authors performed a literature review that included Japanese and international nuclear guidance and policy, scientific papers, and reports on the Chernobyl and Three Mile Island disasters while also considering all-hazards preparedness rubrics in the U.S. The examination of the literature resulted in the following: a) the authors' "All-Hazards Planning Reference Model" that distinguishes three planning categories-Disaster Trigger Event, Man-Made Hazards, and Vulnerability Factors; b) the generalization of their model to other countries; and c) advocacy for environmental health end fate to be considered in planning phases to minimize risk to environmental health. This article discusses inconsistencies in disaster planning and nomenclature existing in the studied materials and international guidance and proposes new opportunity for developing predisaster risk assessment, risk communication, and prevention capacity building. PMID:26427265

  13. The Exxon Valdez oil spill; The environmental health response to man-made disasters

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, R.

    1990-01-01

    The environmental health professions faced many challenges in 1989, among them the protection of public health in the wake of both natural and man-made disasters. Following hurricanes in the Caribbean and southeast United States, the earthquake in northern California and the Exxon oil spill in Alaska, environmental health officials and consultants were confronted with extraordinary problems concerning housing, drinking water, hazardous materials spills, solid waste management, waste water management and sanitation. This article discusses the environmental health response to one of these events - the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

  14. The need to measure man-made radiation from orbit for spectrum management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckerman, J.; Wolff, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    Measurements of RF radiation from orbiting spacecraft are discussed as an approach to improving man-made radio-wave spectrum management for avoidance and prediction of harmful RF interferences. It is pointed out that a measurement program is required for acquisition of data on electromagnetic fields to be expected in orbits, and that several types of satellites could provide platforms for such missions. Papers by Reich et al. (1972) and Kelleher et al. (1972) are referred to for descriptions as to how such platforms could be used. An electromagnetic field spectrum measurement program is outlined for orbital missions.

  15. Survivability of ancient man-made earthen mounds: implications for uranium mill tailings impoundments

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, C.G.; Mishima, J.; King, S.E.; Walters, W.H.

    1983-06-01

    As part of a study for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating long-term stabilization techniques for uranium mill impoundments. Part of this investigation involves the design of a rock armoring blanket (riprap) to mitigate wind and water erosion of the underlying soil cover, which in turn prevents exposure of the tailings to the environment. However, the need for the armoring blanket, as well as the blanket's effectiveness, depends on the stability of the underlying soil cap (radon suppression cover) and on the tailings themselves. Compelling evidence in archaeological records suggests that large man-made earthen structures can remain sound and intact for time periods comparable to those required for the stabilization of the tailings piles if properly constructed. We present archaeological evidence on the existence and survivability of man-made earthen and rock structures through specific examples of such structures from around the world. We also review factors contributing to their survival or destruction and address the influence of climate, building materials, and construction techniques on survivability.

  16. Recent studies of man-made vitreous fibers. Chronic animal inhalation studies.

    PubMed

    Bunn, W B; Bender, J R; Hesterberg, T W; Chase, G R; Konzen, J L

    1993-02-01

    The history of asbestos use and asbestos-related disease is replete with comments that the public health would have been better protected if the results of laboratory investigation, epidemiologic surveys, and clinical studies were made available at appropriate intervals during the ongoing research, rather than in the generally accepted method of awaiting completion of studies prior to reporting medical and scientific findings. No substantive evidence of long-term adverse effects has been published in workers exposed to man-made vitreous fibers. Nevertheless, in an effort to preclude a repetition of this error of omission that occurred with asbestos exposure and use, the Thermal Insulation Manufacturers Association is regularly reporting interim and final data from ongoing animal studies. A significant segment of man-made vitreous fibers have now been tested in state-of-the-art chronic studies. This paper includes the recently completed animal inhalation studies on refractory ceramic fibers and fibrous glass. It also reviews interim data on mineral wool studies. PMID:8166769

  17. Biomass production and chemical cycling in a man-made geothermal wetland

    SciTech Connect

    Breckenridge, R.P.; Wheeler, L.R.; Ginsburg, J.F.

    1983-06-01

    Biomass production and, to a lesser extent, chemical cycling have been evaluated in a man-made wetland created using geothermal water in southcentral Idaho. The wetland system consisted of a 0.25 ha area divided into two ponds. The upper pond contained submerged species (Egeria, pondweeds and coontail); the lower pond was planted with emergents (cattail, bulrush, and common reed). Biomass production from emergent plants in the two-year-old system was promising and compared favorably with production values reported in the literature for natural wetlands. Chemical cycling of potassium (K) was evaluated through the lower pond system. Uptake of several other constituents (F and Na) of the geothermal water by the emergent plants was observed. However, there was little difference in elemental concentrations of the system's influent and effluent, probably due to evapotranspiration of water which effectively concentrates elements in the remaining water. Twenty-one species of diatoms were identified in the geothermal wetland, and numerous species of insects were observed. The man-made wetland also created substantial habitat for wildlife. This type of system could be used as an alternative to injection of spent geothermal fluids from small-scale projects. Study results indicate that a wetland system can be developed to produce substantial quantities of biomass in a cold desert environment.

  18. Engineering the Assembly of Heme Cofactors in Man-Made Proteins

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Timely ligation of one or more chemical cofactors at preselected locations in proteins is a critical preamble for catalysis in many natural enzymes, including the oxidoreductases and allied transport and signaling proteins. Likewise, ligation strategies must be directly addressed when designing oxidoreductase and molecular transport functions in man-made, first-principle protein constructs intended to operate in vitro or in vivo. As one of the most common catalytic cofactors in biology, we have chosen heme B, along with its chemical analogues, to determine the kinetics and barriers to cofactor incorporation and bishistidine ligation in a range of 4-α-helix proteins. We compare five elementary synthetic designs (maquettes) and the natural cytochrome b562 that differ in oligomeric forms, apo- and holo-tertiary structural stability; qualities that we show can either assist or hinder assembly. The cofactor itself also imposes an assembly barrier if amphiphilicity ranges toward too hydrophobic or hydrophilic. With progressive removal of identified barriers, we achieve maquette assembly rates as fast as native cytochrome b562, paving the way to in vivo assembly of man-made hemoprotein maquettes and integration of artificial proteins into enzymatic pathways. PMID:24495285

  19. Man-made space debris - Does it restrict free access to space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, M.; Chobotov, V.; Kessler, D.; Reynolds, R.

    1981-01-01

    Consideration is given to the hazards posed by existing and future man-made space debris to spacecraft operations. The components of the hazard are identified as those fragments resulting from spacecraft explosions and spent stages which can be tracked, those fragments which are too small to be tracked at their present distances, and future debris, which, if present trends in spacecraft design and operation continue, may lead to an unacceptably high probability of collision with operational spacecraft within a decade. It is argued that a coordinated effort must be undertaken by all space users to evaluate means of space debris control in order to allow for the future unrestricted use of near-earth space. A plan for immediate action to forestall the space debris problem by activities in the areas of education, debris monitoring and collection technology, space vehicle design, space operational procedures and practices and space policies and treaties is proposed.

  20. Man-made mineral fibres in homes caused by thermal insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Der Wal, J. F.; Ebens, R.; Tempelman, J.

    In a pilot study the concentration levels of man-made mineral fibres in homes were investigated during a thermal insulation procedure in which glass or rock fibres were blown into the cavity wall. The concentration in the rooms during the insulation procedure varied between 5 × 10 -3 and 25 × 10 -3 lightmicroscopically detectable fibres cm -3, with peaks up to 65 × 10 -3 fibres cm -3. The next day the concentration had been decreased to 10 -3-10 × 10 -3 fibres cm -3. The concentration of the electronmicroscopically detectable fibres during the insulation varied between 50 × 10 -3 and 400 × 10 -3 fibres cm -3. The next day the concentration in some houses was still above the level usually found in the ambient air in The Netherlands. It is likely that good ventilation during the next day would bring the indoor concentration to the outdoor level.

  1. Man-made Earthquakes & Multifractals in Neutral Fluid Turbulence/Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksoed, Wh-

    Man-made earthquakes coincides with induced seismicity:''typically minor earthquakes & tremors that are caused by human activity that alters the stresses & Strains on the earth crust''[Wikipedia:''induced seismicity'']. For these, RD Andrews wrote:''Based on observed seismicity rate &geographical trends following major oil & gas plays with large amounts of produced water, the rates &trends in seismicity are very unlikely to represent a naturally occurring process''. ``The Prague, Oklahoma, earthquake sequence of 2011, along the Wilzetta faults zone, included the significant foreshock, a main shock of magnetic 5.7, it has been suggested that this sequence represent earthquakes triggered by fluid injection/natural fluid turbulence shows multifractal characteristics , of [405 ]-325-7968 of Dr. G. Randy Keller to UI tuitions of @ Rp. 29, 405, 000.00. Acknowledgements to HE. Mr. H. TUK SETYOHADI, Jl. Sriwijaya Raya 3, South-Jakarta, INDONESIA.

  2. Biopersistence of man-made vitreous silicate fibers in the human lung.

    PubMed Central

    Sébastien, P

    1994-01-01

    There is now a substantial body of experimental data on the pulmonary biopersistence of man-made vitreous silicate fibers (MMVSF), but human data are seriously lacking. Our knowledge in this field is essentially limited to a few reports of measurements of fibers retained in lung tissue samples taken at autopsy from workers manufacturing these products. Three types of exposure were studied: fibrous glass, mineral wool, and refractory ceramic fibers. Overall, the available data do not provide evidence for substantial long-term retention of fibers in the human lung after occupational exposure to MMVSF dusts. A word of caution, however; the amount of data supporting the previous statement is much greater for fibrous glass than for either mineral wool or refractory ceramic fibers. There is no human data on the key question of the kinetics of pulmonary clearance of inhaled MMVSF. PMID:7882938

  3. Geotrupine beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) as bio-monitors of man-made radioactivity.

    PubMed

    Mietelski, Jerzy W; Szwałko, Przemysław; Tomankiewicz, Ewa; Gaca, Paweł; Grabowska, Sylwia

    2003-04-01

    Adults of the geotrupine beetle Anoplotrupes stercorosus (Coleoptera, Geotrupidae), a common European forest insect species, were used in the role of bio-monitors for mainly man-made radionuclides in a forest environment. Activities of 137Cs, 40K, 238Pu, (239+240)Pu, 90Sr and 241Am were studied. Samples originated from four areas in Poland, two from the north-east and two from the south of the country. The north-eastern areas were previously recognized as the places where hot particle fallout from Chernobyl took place. Results confirmed the differences in the activities between north-eastern and southern locations. Significant correlations were found between activities of 40K and 137Cs, and between activities of plutonium and americium isotopes. An additional study of the concentration of radionuclides within the bodies of beetles showed a general pattern of distribution of radioisotopes in the insect body. PMID:12729271

  4. Habitat use by giant panda in relation to man-made forest in Wanglang Nature Reserve of China.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dongwei; Wang, Xiaorong; Yang, Hongwei; Duan, Lijuan; Li, Junqing

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of human restoration in species conservation, in this study, we undertook a field survey of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) habitat and man-made forest habitat in Wanglang Nature Reserve of China. Our results revealed that giant panda did not use the man-made forest in this area so far, and that there were significant differences between the giant panda habitat and the man-made forest habitat. Compared with giant panda habitat, the man-made forest habitat was characterized by lower shrub coverage, thinner trees and lower bamboo density. To improve the effectiveness of human restoration, the habitat requirement of giant panda should be fully consider in the whole process of habitat restoration. PMID:25012204

  5. Small Satellites Constellation for Monitoring of Natural and Man-made Catastrophes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyarchuk, K.; Oraevsky, V.; Salikhov, R.; Danilkin, V.

    The possibility of creation a new conception of using the small satellites constellation arises today in connection with the development of the circuit technology for manufacturing real small space vehicles (SSV). Their low price allows to form the multi purpose satellite constellation. Such constellation is formed in frame of the Russian Federal space program till 2006. It is intended for monitoring of the natural (typhoons, hurricanes, eruptions of volcano etc.) and man-made (radioactive contamination etc.) catastrophes. The space segment will be designed and manufactured by Research Institute for Electromechanics Federal State Unitary Enterprise. The scientific instrumentation and program will be designed by IZMIRAN. Three types of SSV will be in the constellation: The high-altitude group is composed by 4 SV (200 kg each) and the low-altitude group consists of up to 12 SV (200 kg or 60 kg each). Parameters measured by the on-board information system are as follows: plasma composition, ionosphere altitude profile, UHF/VHF/HF noise factor, atmosphere glow, weather parameters, the Earth surface temperature, high-energy particles, magnetic field, electric field. The multi-spectrum instrumentation of remote sensing will be also mounted on vehicle. The first SV are scheduled to be launched to the sun-sinchronous orbit by ROCOT, STRELA or SHTEL launch- vehicles within 2005 - 2006. After realization of the first projects the system configuration can be changed.For example the multisatellite system can provide: - Short-term, intermediate term and long-term prognosis of earthquakes, typhoons, hurricanes, tsunami; - Monitoring of radioactive and other contaminations - Evaluation of extreme situations and consequences of catastrophes in regions; - Analysis of a condition of the equipment and pipelines of gas and oil complex, scattering of gas emissions in turbulent atmosphere, prediction of the probable man- made catastrophes; - Analysis of influence of solar activity on

  6. High fascioliasis infection in children linked to a man-made irrigation zone in Peru.

    PubMed

    Esteban, J Guillermo; González, Carolina; Bargues, M Dolores; Angles, René; Sánchez, Clemente; Náquira, César; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2002-04-01

    We detected 10 protozoan and nine helminth species in surveys of 338 5-15 year-old Quechua schoolchildren in three communities of the Asillo zone of the Puno region, located at a very high altitude of 3910 m in the Peruvian Altiplano. The area proved to be hyperendemic for human fascioliasis with a 24.3% overall mean prevalence of Fasciola hepatica, local prevalences ranging between 18.8 and 31.3%, and infection intensities of up to 2496 eggs per gram of faeces (epg), with 196-350 epg (mean: 279 epg) and 96-152 epg (123 epg) as arithmetic and geometric means, respectively. Prevalences did not significantly vary between schools and in relation to sex. No statistical differences were found in intensities between schools, nor according to sex or age groups between and within schools, although the highest overall egg counts were detected in girls and in the youngest age group. Asillo zone is a man-made irrigation area built only recently to which both liver fluke and lymnaeid snails have quickly adapted. The region appears to be isolated from the Northern Bolivian Altiplano natural endemic area. Such man-made water resources in high altitude areas of Andean countries pose a high fascioliasis risk. Significant positive association of F. hepatica with protozooses following a one host life cycle, such as Giardia intestinalis, suggests that human infection mainly occurs through drinking water. This is supported by additional evidence such as the absence of typical aquatic vegetation in the drainage channels inhabited by lymnaeid snails, the absence of aquatic vegetables in the traditional nutrition habits of the Quechua inhabitants, and the lack of potable water systems inside dwellings, which requires inhabitants to obtain water from irrigation canals and drainage channels. PMID:11952950

  7. Design and engineering of a man-made diffusive electron-transport protein.

    PubMed

    Fry, Bryan A; Solomon, Lee A; Dutton, P Leslie; Moser, Christopher C

    2016-05-01

    Maquettes are man-made cofactor-binding oxidoreductases designed from first principles with minimal reference to natural protein sequences. Here we focus on water-soluble maquettes designed and engineered to perform diffusive electron transport of the kind typically carried out by cytochromes, ferredoxins and flavodoxins and other small proteins in photosynthetic and respiratory energy conversion and oxido-reductive metabolism. Our designs were tested by analysis of electron transfer between heme maquettes and the well-known natural electron transporter, cytochrome c. Electron-transfer kinetics were measured from seconds to milliseconds by stopped-flow, while sub-millisecond resolution was achieved through laser photolysis of the carbon monoxide maquette heme complex. These measurements demonstrate electron transfer from the maquette to cytochrome c, reproducing the timescales and charge complementarity modulation observed in natural systems. The ionic strength dependence of inter-protein electron transfer from 9.7×10(6) M(-1) s(-1) to 1.2×10(9) M(-1) s(-1) follows a simple Debye-Hückel model for attraction between +8 net charged oxidized cytochrome c and -19 net charged heme maquette, with no indication of significant protein dipole moment steering. Successfully recreating essential components of energy conversion and downstream metabolism in man-made proteins holds promise for in vivo clinical intervention and for the production of fuel or other industrial products. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biodesign for Bioenergetics--the design and engineering of electronic transfer cofactors, proteins and protein networks, edited by Ronald L. Koder and J.L. Ross Anderson. PMID:26423266

  8. [Chemical and physical characteristics and toxicology of man-made mineral fibers].

    PubMed

    Foà, V; Basilico, S

    1999-01-01

    The evidence for the adverse health effects following exposure to asbestos (i.e. fibrogenic and carcinogenic effect) has prompted widespread removal of asbestos-containing materials and led to banning of asbestos internationally (in Italy, DPR 257/1992), resulting in the increased use of substitutes composed of both naturally occurring and synthetic materials, including man made mineral fibres (MMMFs) and man made organic fibres (MMOF). MMMFs represent a family of synthetic, inorganic vitreous substances derived primarily from glass, rock, slag, or clay. MMMFs are further divided into two categories: 1) man made vitreous fibres (MMVFs), further divided as follows: a) fibrous glass, including mainly continuous filament, special purpose fibres; and microfibres. The materials are typically composed of oxides of silicon, calcium, sodium, potassium, aluminum, and boron. b) Mineral wool, including glass wool, rock wool (derived from magma rock) and slag wool (made from molten slag produced in metallurgical processes such as the production of iron, steel, or copper). The main components of rock wool and slag wool are oxides of silicon, calcium, magnesium, aluminum, and iron. 2) Refractory/ceramic fibres, amorphous or partially crystalline materials made from kaolin clay or oxides of aluminum, silicon or other metal oxides (i.e. oxides of zirconium and yttrium). Less commonly, refractory fibres are also made from non-oxide refractory materials such as silicon carbide, silicon nitride, or boron nitride. Industrial production of MMVFs began in the second half of the 19th century, while ceramic fibres production began more recently, in the early 1970s. Major uses of MMMFs include thermal, acoustic and aerospace insulation, fire proofing, reinforcing material in plastics, cement and textile, optic fibres, air and liquid filtration, friction products, refractory coatings. Serious questions have been raised about health implications of MMMFs. Suspicion about the possible

  9. Man-made vitreous fibers in office buildings in the Helsinki area.

    PubMed

    Salonen, Heidi J; Lappalainen, Sanna K; Riuttala, Henri M; Tossavainen, Antti P; Pasanen, Pertti O; Reijula, Kari E

    2009-10-01

    Several sources of man-made vitreous fibers (MMVFs) may exist in an office environment causing irritation symptoms among occupants. In 258 office buildings, the occurrence and density of settled MMVFs on surfaces were measured by two sampling methods. Altogether, 1113 samples of settled dust were collected from surfaces with plastic bags and gelatine tape and were analyzed with a scanning electron microscope and a stereomicroscope, respectively. Tape samples from 68 buildings were collected from frequently cleaned (n = 162) and seldom cleaned (n = 57) room surfaces in 56 and 29 offices, respectively, and from supply air ducts (n = 24) in 10 offices. MMVFs longer than 20 microm were counted with a stereomicroscope. Irritation symptoms were recorded with a questionnaire. More than 60% of the surface dust and almost 90% of the samples collected from supply air ducts contained MMVFs. The density of MMVFs longer than 20 microm ranged from < 0.1 to 5 fiber cm(- 2). The mean density of the MMVFs was about two times higher on the seldom cleaned surfaces than on the frequently cleaned surfaces. The density was usually under 0.2 MMVF cm(- 2) in surface dust of offices without emission sources of MMVFs. The measurements combined with qualitative analysis of settled dust can help to localize relevant sources of fiber emissions. Altogether, in 40% of the buildings, several occupants had repeated irritation symptoms that were verified by occupational health care personnel. PMID:19626530

  10. Man-made mineral fibre boards in buildings--health risks caused by quality deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Thriene, B; Sobottka, A; Willer, H; Weidhase, J

    1996-11-01

    The Institute of Hygiene was requested to determine causes and scope of health complaints made by the employees of Haldensleben district administration after sound absorbing mineral fibre boards had been installed as suspended ceilings. The boards were coated with a lean water-carried paint; however, the edges, which were partially frayed, were not coated. The air inside the rooms was measured on all four storeys of the building, followed by scanning electron microscopy in compliance with VDI Code 3492. In addition, measurements showed fibres with diameters of > 3 microns which are not subject to the regulations for carcinogenic substances, but, in contrast to the thinner fibres, they may cause irritations of skin and mucosa. The employees were questioned about their health problems. At the beginning of 1994, a total of 79 of the 133 employees complained about itching, reddening and burning of their eyes as well as irritations of the upper respiratory tract. More than 50% had consulted a doctor. Late in 1994, another questionnaire survey was completed. The fibre content of the office air was determined to vary from 1000 to 3500 fibres/m3 and, in addition, 100-200 fibres with diameters of > 3 microns. Our investigations showed that there is an interrelationship between the degree of dust accumulation in the offices and health complaints. Independently of the current discussion of the cancer causing potential of thin man-made mineral fibres, the very long and thick mineral fibres (> 3 microns in diameter) are of topical importance to health. PMID:8920752

  11. Fracture propagation and fluid transport in palaeogeothermal fields and man-made reservoirs in limestone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philipp, S. L.; Reyer, D.; Meier, S.

    2009-04-01

    Geothermal reservoirs are rock units from which the internal heat can be extracted using water as a transport means in an economically efficient manner. In geothermal reservoirs in limestone (and similar in other rocks with low matrix permeability), fluid flow is largely, and may be almost entirely, controlled by the permeability of the fracture network. No flow, however, takes place along a particular fracture network unless the fractures are interconnected. For fluid flow to occur from one site to another there must be at least one interconnected cluster of fractures that links these sites (the percolation threshold must be reached). In order to generate permeability in man-made reservoirs, interconnected fracture systems are formed either by creating hydraulic fractures or by massive hydraulic stimulation of the existing fracture system in the host rock. For effective stimulation, the geometry of the fracture system and the mechanical properties of the host rock (particularly rock stiffnesses and strengths) must be known. Here we present results of a study of fracture systems in rocks that could be used to host man-made geothermal reservoirs: the Muschelkalk (Middle Triassic) limestones in Germany. Studies of fracture systems in exposed palaeogeothermal fields can also help understand the permeability development in stimulated reservoirs. We therefore present data on the infrastructures of extinct fracture-controlled geothermal fields in fault zones in the Blue Lias (Lower Jurassic), Great Britain. In fault zones there are normally two main mechanical and hydrogeological units. The fault core, along which fault slip mostly occurs, consists mainly of breccia and other cataclastic rocks. The fault damage zone comprises numerous fractures of various sizes. During fault slip, the fault core may transport water (if its orientation is favourable to the hydraulic gradient in the area). In the damage zone, however, fluid transport through fracture networks depends

  12. Man-made mineral fibers (MMMF): Human exposures and health risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M. )

    1990-01-01

    Man-made mineral fibers (MMMF) are made by spraying or extruding molten glass, furnace slag, or mineral rock. Health concerns are based on the morphological and toxicological similarities between MMF and asbestos, and the well-documented evidence that asbestos fibers can cause lung fibrosis (asbestosis), bronchial cancer, and mesothelioma in humans. Epidemiological evidence for human disease from inhalation exposures to fibrous glass is largely negative. Some positive associations have been reported from slag and rockwools. Most of the toxicological evidence for MMMF toxicity in laboratory animals is based on nonphysiological exposures such as intratracheal instillation or intraperitoneal injection of fiber suspensions. The risks for lung fibrosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma for industrial exposures to most fibrous glass products are either low or negligible for a variety of reasons. First, most commercial fibrous glass products have mean fiber diameters of {approximately} 7.5 {mu}m, which results in mean aerodynamic diameters > 22 {mu}m. Thus, most glass fibers, even if dispersed into the air, do not penetrate into the lung to any great extent. Second, the small fraction of smaller diameter fibers which do penetrate into the lungs are not persistent within the lungs for most fibrous glass products, due to mechanical breakage into shorter lengths and dissolution. Dissolution is most rapid for the smaller diameters capable of producing mesothelioma. The greater hazards for slag and rockwools, in comparison to conventional fibrous glass, appear to be related to their smaller diameters and greater durability within the lungs.

  13. Freshwater environmental quality parameters of man-made lakes of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Devic, Gordana; Dorđevic, Dragana; Sakan, Sanja

    2014-08-01

    In this study, 28 lakes were selected from the freshwater resources of the network of man-made lakes throughout the Vojvodina Province and the central part of Serbia. Samples were analyzed for the physicochemicals indicators of the water and nutrients. Most of the values of the chemicals indicators and nutrients of the samples from the Vojvodina Province exceeded the Water Act and Regulations on the Monitoring of Water Quality introduced by the Government of the Republic of Serbia (MWQ) and/or the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standards. These samples may not be suitable for human consumption. The sample from Lake Međuvršje, where the NH4 (+) concentration was 0.28 mg/L, and the sample from Ovcar Banja, where the total phosphorus (TP) content was 0.15 mg/L with a high total nitrogen (TN) content of 1.21 mg/L, are particularly noteworthy. These high concentrations exceeded the proposed guidelines for safe drinking water; therefore, water from these lakes should be used with care as harmful health effects may occur. The majority of the Serbian lakes are characterized by phosphorus-limited photosynthesis. PMID:24740390

  14. The occupational physician's point of view: the model of man-made vitreous fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Brochard, P; Pairon, J C; Bignon, J

    1994-01-01

    This article gives a detailed description of the procedure the occupational physician uses in interpreting the available scientific data to provide useful information for prevention of pulmonary diseases related to man-made mineral fibers, particularly lung cancer and mesothelioma. As it is difficult to reach definite conclusions from human data on the toxicity of specific fibers, an experimental approach is needed. Concerning animal data, we emphasize that adequate inhalation studies are the "gold standard" for extrapolating to humans. However, experiments using intracavitary injection or cells in vitro may represent indicative tests for a possible carcinogenic effect. Such tests should be used to assess the intrinsic carcinogenicity of fibers, but they must be confirmed by adequate inhalation models. Despite the present uncertainties, a proposal is made that could make it possible to classify fibers according to their toxicologic potential, grading them in accordance with physicochemical parameters, in vitro testing, and animal experiments. This procedure may be applicable to nonvitreous fibers and to organic fibers. PMID:7882952

  15. Follow up study of workers exposed to man made mineral fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, J M; Jones, R N; Glindmeyer, H W; Hammad, Y Y; Weill, H

    1993-01-01

    A survey of workers in seven man made mineral fibre (MMMF) production plants, the subject of a previous report, was conducted, with other blue collar workers serving as regional comparisons. Based on the median reading of chest radiographs by five readers, a low prevalence of small opacities, all at the 1/0 and 1/1 profusion levels, was again found: for workers with MMMFs, 23/1435 (1.6%); for comparison workers, 2/305 (0.7%). Spirometric measurements indicated generally healthy populations, and were not related to presence of opacities. Ninety three per cent (21/23) of MMMF workers with opacities worked at the two plants with the highest exposures to fine fibres, resulting in a dose-response relation across plants. For one location, the prevalences of opacities for the MMMF and comparison workers were not significantly different (5.9% (13/220) v 3.1% (2/65)). No comparison x ray films were obtained for the MMMF plant with the highest prevalence (6.6%), so a second phase of the study was conducted, with pre-employment films from these two plants. On this second reading, the prevalence of opacities was lower; there were no significant differences between the two groups of films, and no relation between opacities and exposure indices. There was considerable inter and intrareader variability. These results indicate no adverse clinical, functional or radiographic signs of effects of exposure to MMMFs in these workers. PMID:8343428

  16. Environmental surveys in the European man-made mineral fiber production industry.

    PubMed

    Cherrie, J; Dodgson, J; Groat, S; Maclaren, W

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents estimates of airborne fiber concentrations and fiber size for European man-made mineral fiber (MMMF) factories on the basis of measurements made in 1977-1980. The airborne fiber concentrations previously reported at a conference of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer in 1982 have been revised to harmonize the results with the WHO-European MMMF reference counting level. The result was an approximate doubling of the reported airborne fiber levels. After the revisions the average combined occupational group concentrations in the rock- and glass-wool plants were still generally low (less than 0.01 fibers/ml). In the glass continuous-filament factories the airborne fiber concentrations were very low (less than 0.01 fibers/ml). The average plant median for fiber length ranged from 10 to 20 microns, and the corresponding median diameters ranged from 0.7 to 2 microns. In general the glass-wool fibers were thinner than the rock-wool fibers. The fiber concentrations measured in other studies in the MMMF production and user industries are reviewed. Higher levels (between 0.1 and 1.0 fibers/ml) have been measured in some insulation wool production, secondary production, and user industries. The highest levels (greater than 1.0 fibers/ml) occurred in very fine glass-fiber production and in other specialist insulation wool usage. PMID:3026035

  17. Classification of man-made vitreous fibers: Comments on the revaluation by an IARC working group.

    PubMed

    Wardenbach, P; Rödelsperger, K; Roller, M; Muhle, H

    2005-11-01

    In 2001, an IARC working group revaluated the carcinogenic risks of man-made vitreous fibers (MMVF). Compared with the IARC evaluation in 1987, the overall evaluations of insulation glass wool, rock (stone) wool, and slag wool were changed from Group 2B to Group 3. These changes ensued from an alteration in the evidence for cancer in humans and in experimental animals: Instead of "sufficient," the evidence for cancer in experimental animals is now looked upon as "limited" if there is a carcinogenic response after intraperitoneal injection but not after recently conducted inhalation experiments. For these studies, it is argued that they did properly address the technological limitations of earlier inhalation experiments. For Maxim and McConnell [Maxim L.D., McConnell E.E., 2001. Interspecies comparisons of the toxicity of asbestos and synthetic vitreous fibers: a weight-of-the-evidence approach. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 33, 319-342], well-conducted inhalation studies are very sensitive and rats may be more sensitive than humans in detecting the carcinogenic potential of MMVF. However, their arguments are highly questionable. The explanations of the IARC working group for preferring the newer inhalation studies are not sufficiently supported by the published data. Having in mind the higher sensitivity of humans compared to rats after inhalation of asbestos, more emphasis should have been given to the carcinogenic response after intraperitoneal injection. PMID:16099571

  18. Man-made respirable-sized organic fibers: what do we know about their toxicological profiles?

    PubMed

    Warheit, D B; Reed, K L; Webb, T R

    2001-04-01

    Man-made organic fibers (MMOFs) have been manufactured for over 50 years. Until recently, there have been few concerns raised regarding the safety of organic fiber dusts. This is due, in large part, to the perception that the dimensions of most, if not all, of these products were too large to be inhaled into the distal lungs of workers, i.e., were considered to be nonrespirable. A brief review of some of the issues related to organic fiber toxicology is presented herein. Some of the organic fiber-types used in commerce are identified and some fundamental tenets of fiber toxicology are discussed. In addition, the European Union, in their recent consideration for banning chrysotile asbestos fibers, evaluated some organic fiber substitutes and compared them to the hazards of asbestos. A brief review of their conclusions is described below. Finally, the results of some recent studies assessing the mechanisms of biodegradability of para-aramid respirable-sized, fiber-shaped particulates (RFP) are presented. Para-aramid (p-aramid) RFP are the most extensively-studied respirable organic fiber-type and RFP is the new term which describes respirable-sized organic fibers (ECETOC, 1996) (1). The results of these studies provide clues regarding the mechanism(s) of p-aramid RFP shortening in the lungs of exposed animals, and may be relevant for humans. PMID:11341541

  19. Tumorigenicity of fine man-made fibers after intratracheal administrations to hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Adachi, Shuichi; Takemoto, Kazuo ); Kimura, Kikuzi )

    1991-02-01

    Six types of man-made fibers were administered intratracheally (2.0 mg/animal each a week, for 5 weeks; total 10 mg/animal) to female Syrian hamsters that were observed histologically for 2 years after administration. The fibers were rock wool, fiberglass, potassium titanate fiber, calcium sulfate fiber, basic magnesium sulfate fiber, and metaphosphate fiber. Tumors were observed in hamsters that had received basic magnesium sulfate fiber (9/20), metaphosphate fiber (6/20), calcium sulfate fiber (3/20), and fiberglass (2/20) but not in the control, rock wool, or potassium titanate fiber groups. The primary sites of the tumors were not only in the pleural cavity but also in the intracelial organs, kidney, adrenal gland, bladder, and uterus. Only a few of the tumors were identified as mesotheliomas, by histological examination. In addition to neoplastic lesions, fibrosis, pleural thickening, and chronic inflammatory changes in the lungs were observed in the hamsters, but these changes appeared too mild to foster a pneumoconiosis such as asbestosis.

  20. Bioremediation of hydrocarbons contaminating sewage effluent using man-made biofilms: effects of some variables.

    PubMed

    Al-Mailem, D M; Kansour, M K; Radwan, S S

    2014-11-01

    Biofilm samples were established on glass slides by submerging them in oil-free and oil-containing sewage effluent for a month. In batch cultures, such biofilms were effective in removing crude oil, pure n-hexadecane, and pure phenanthrene contaminating sewage effluent. The amounts of the removed hydrocarbons increased with increasing biofilm surface area exposed to the effluent. On the other hand, addition of the reducing agent thioglycollate dramatically inhibited the hydrocarbon bioremediation potential of the biofilms. The same biofilm samples removed contaminating hydrocarbons effectively in three successive batch bioremediation cycles but started to become less effective in the cycles thereafter, apparently due to mechanical biofilm loss during successive transfers. As major hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria, the biofilms harbored species belonging to the genera Pseudomonas, Microvirga, Zavarzinia, Mycobacterium, Microbacterium, Stenotrophomonas, Gordonia, Bosea, Sphingobium, Brachybacterium, and others. The nitrogen fixer Azospirillum brasilense and the microalga Ochromonas distigma were also present; they seemed to enrich the biofilms, with nitrogenous compounds and molecular oxygen, respectively, which are known to enhance microbiological hydrocarbon degradation. It was concluded that man-made biofilms based upon sewage microflora are promising tools for bioremediation of hydrocarbons contaminating sewage effluent. PMID:25146193

  1. Assessment of past exposure to man-made vitreous fibers in the Swedish prefabricated house industry.

    PubMed

    Plato, N; Gustavsson, P; Krantz, S

    1997-10-01

    Large quantities of man-made vitreous fibers (MMVF) are handled in the Swedish prefabricated wooden house industry. The present study is part of a program to investigate mortality, cancer incidence, and current as well as previous exposure to MMVF among workers in the Swedish prefabricated wooden house industry. Since measurements of historical fiber exposure levels are lacking, these were calculated by the application of a matrix of multipliers to recently measured MMVF levels. The multipliers represented changes over time in production rate, technical properties of the fibers, manual handling vs. automation, and ventilation control. The multipliers were based on a similar matrix, developed for the MMVF-manufacturing industry, which was modified to reflect the conditions in the wooden house industry. The model was developed for the highest-exposed job title in the study, insulators. One hundred and twenty samples of airborne fiber were taken in 11 plants to reflect current exposure levels. The highest mean fiber exposure level for insulators was assessed as 0.18 f/ml (geometric mean), which occurred during the mid-1970s, compared to 0.10 f/ml at the end of the 1980s and the early 1960s. Changes in production rate, improved ventilation control, and the surface area of the total amount of MMVF sheets handled per insulator were the most important variables of the model. No increased risk of lung cancer was found in the present industry. PMID:9258388

  2. Man-made lakes, ecological studies and conservation needs in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Araoye, P A

    2002-01-01

    The benefit derived from the creation of man-made lakes in Nigeria and other developing countries is usually associated with great risks. Whenever we establish a dam, it appears we dam the inherent consequences to the detriment of man and his environment. Debts were incurred by the countries concerned, man and animals were displaced, arable lands destroyed including degradation of forest and wild life resources. The creation of dams have also ignored the prevention of man and his life stock from the inherent spread of water borne diseases. The purpose for which a dam is created is threatened if man is indiscriminately exposed to the risk of water borne diseases. The poor and uneconomic management of the fish resources is also another major issue of concern. In order to tap the full potentials of reservoir projects and to promote conservation, it is important to have a round table talk involving all stake holders during the planning stage of such projects. Therefore apart from the engineering works, there is also need for collaboration with all experts from related fields especially the biologists, sociologists and economists for bio-socio-economic reasons during the planning and implementation stages of dam projects in Nigeria and other developing countries. PMID:12947571

  3. Phytoplankton patterns along a series of small man-made reservoirs in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Straubinger-Gansberger, Nadja; Kaggwa, Mary N; Schagerl, Michael

    2014-08-01

    We studied nine small man-made reservoirs located in different climate regions of Kenya to get an insight into the relationship between phytoplankton community structure and its environment. The investigated ponds form three groups of three reservoirs each found in the rural areas of Machakos district, Mount Kenya region, and Lake Victoria area with varied climatic characteristics. The ponds were sampled in monthly intervals between May 2007 and June 2008 for physicochemical variables including water chemistry, phytoplankton community composition, zooplankton abundance, and bacterial numbers. All ponds were classified as hypertrophic. Seasonal changes were reflected in the phytoplankton pattern, as all ponds showed a community shift after the short dry season in February. Due to high nutrient loads and increased turbidity, Cyanobacteria, which were initially thought to be predominating in all investigated water bodies, were found to play only a minor role except for the Bomet reservoir in Lake Victoria region. Instead, Chloro- and Streptophyta, Dinophyta, and Euglenophyta were abundant in the pelagial. A principal component analysis explained around 85 % of the data variance with four principal components (PCs) interpreted as "location", "ions", "zooplankton", and "particulate matter". A clear separation of ponds with and without cattle access based on algal species community data was found indicating the need for a sustainable use and regular monitoring program as the local population is largely dependent on these sensitive small-scale ecosystems. PMID:24718929

  4. Mortality and cancer incidence in the man-made mineral fiber industry in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Westerholm, P; Bolander, A M

    1986-01-01

    This report gives an account of the Swedish contribution to the joint European epidemiologic study on production workers in the man-made mineral fiber (MMMF) industry. The information sources utilized and the follow-up procedure, making extensive use of record-linkage operations extracting data from computerized data banks, are described in some detail. The follow-up with regard to vital status, deaths and causes of death, diagnosed cancers, and emigration could essentially be based on such techniques. The problems of tracing immigrant and emigrant subpopulations are given particular attention. The exposed Swedish cohort consisted of 3,600 persons giving 61,690 person-years of observation. A total of 524 deaths was observed in the cohort, 230 cohort members had emigrated during the period of observation (147 of whom could be traced to other Nordic countries), and 62 other persons were lost to follow-up. It was observed that most of the persons contracting lung cancer in the Swedish cohort had been exposed during relatively short periods of time, ie, during one to four years of employment. This finding applied to both the rock-wool and glass-wool industry. The authors point out that the observed excess risk in lung cancer deaths may also have other explanations than occupational exposure to MMMF. PMID:3798058

  5. In vivo evaluation of chemical biopersistence of man-made mineral fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, A

    1994-01-01

    Techniques developed at the Harwell Laboratory for the determination of the biopersistence of man-made mineral fibers (MMMF) in vivo are described. Results obtained with samples of glass fiber with a range of compositions, and with a sample of rockwool, are summarized. With glass fibers the rate of dissolution of fibers in vivo depends not only on their chemical composition, but also on their length. Certainly, for all fibers exceeding 10 microns in length, the longer the fiber the more rapidly it dissolves. This effect is attributed to differences in the microenvironments to which long and short fibers are exposed. Although this phenomenon appears to operate with all glass fibers, it may not apply to other types of MMMF that dissolve more readily in environments with low pH. Finally, the article examines the validity of the intratracheal method of administration for studying the biopersistence of MMMF in vivo and the use of the rat for this purpose. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 4. A Figure 4. B PMID:7882916

  6. Impacts of man-made landscape features on numbers of estuarine waterbirds at low tide.

    PubMed

    Burton, Niall H K; Armitage, Michael J S; Musgrove, Andrew J; Rehfisch, Mark M

    2002-12-01

    The potential impact of human disturbance on wintering waterbirds using intertidal mudflats was considered by relating their numbers to the presence of nearby footpaths, roads, railroads, and towns. Data were obtained for six English estuaries from the Wetland Bird Survey Low Tide Count scheme. Counts were undertaken monthly from November to February, and data were available for an average of 2.8 years per estuary for the period 1992-1993 to 1999-2000. Count sections and the positions of man-made landscape features were mapped using a GIS. Generalized linear models tested whether bird numbers varied according to the estuary, month, area, whether or not the section bordered water, and the proportion of each section within a specified distance of each landscape feature. In addition, the proximity of sections to the nearest footpath access point was considered. Numbers of six of nine species, northern shelduck (Tadorna tadorna), red knot (Calidris canutus), dunlin (Calidris alpina), black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa), Eurasian curlew (Numenius arquata) and common redshank (Tringa totanus), were significantly lower where a footpath was close to a count section, while those of brant (Branta bernicla) were greater. Northern shelduck, black-bellied plover (Pluvialis squatarola), dunlin, and black-tailed godwit numbers were reduced close to railroads and those of common ringed plover (Charadrius hiaticula), black-bellied plover, and Eurasian curlew close to roads. Common ringed plover numbers were greater close to towns. The relative distances to which species were affected by footpaths corresponded to published information concerning their flight distances in response to human disturbance. The study provided evidence that sustained disturbance associated with footpaths, roads, and railroads reduced local habitat quality for waterbirds and the carrying capacity of estuaries. PMID:12402099

  7. Mapping Natural and Man-made Radio Interference at the Moon: Wind Waves RAD2 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDowall, R. J.; Hess, R. A.; Kaiser, M. L.; Farrell, W. M.

    2009-12-01

    The lunar surface is frequently identified as a preferred site for large, low-frequency (<50-100 MHz) interferometric radio observatories. Compared to ground-based facilities limited to above 10 MHz by ionospheric absorption, the Moon has essentially no ionosphere. Observations of radio sources at frequencies below 100 kHz would be possible. Compared to a free-flying spacecraft constellation, the lunar surface provides a surface for deploying antennas, after which the antenna metrology is not an issue. Also compared to the spacecraft constellation, the moon offers a “backstop” that can block unwanted radio emissions from the sun or, for a far-side array, from man-made transmitters on Earth as well as terrestrial auroral radio emissions. We present an analysis of the Wind Waves RAD2 radio data set for the frequency range 1-14 MHz. These data, acquired from November 1994 through the present, document the radio bursts and terrestrial emissions observed by Wind along a complex trajectory that included passes very close to the Moon. Thus, we can build a statistical “map” of terrestrial radio emissions as a function of local time of the Moon relative to earth, the inclination of the moon’s orbit, and frequency. These data demonstrate that successful radio observations of cosmological sources from anywhere near Earth will be best accomplished by an observatory on the far-side of the Moon. The data also provide statistics regarding interference from solar radio emissions, including variations as a function of the solar cycle, with any observations requiring high sensitivity.

  8. Combining natural and man-made DNA tracers to advance understanding of hydrologic flow pathway evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlke, H. E.; Walter, M. T.; Lyon, S. W.; Rosqvist, G. N.

    2014-12-01

    Identifying and characterizing the sources, pathways and residence times of water and associated constituents is critical to developing improved understanding of watershed-stream connections and hydrological/ecological/biogeochemical models. To date the most robust information is obtained from integrated studies that combine natural tracers (e.g. isotopes, geochemical tracers) with controlled chemical tracer (e.g., bromide, dyes) or colloidal tracer (e.g., carboxilated microspheres, tagged clay particles, microorganisms) applications. In the presented study we explore how understanding of sources and flow pathways of water derived from natural tracer studies can be improved and expanded in space and time by simultaneously introducing man-made, synthetic DNA-based microtracers. The microtracer used were composed of polylactic acid (PLA) microspheres into which short strands of synthetic DNA and paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are incorporated. Tracer experiments using both natural tracers and the DNA-based microtracers were conducted in the sub-arctic, glacierized Tarfala (21.7 km2) catchment in northern Sweden. Isotopic hydrograph separations revealed that even though storm runoff was dominated by pre-event water the event water (i.e. rainfall) contributions to streamflow increased throughout the summer season as glacial snow cover decreased. This suggests that glaciers are a major source of the rainwater fraction in streamflow. Simultaneous injections of ten unique DNA-based microtracers confirmed this hypothesis and revealed that the transit time of water traveling from the glacier surface to the stream decreased fourfold over the summer season leading to instantaneous rainwater contributions during storm events. These results highlight that integrating simultaneous tracer injections (injecting tracers at multiple places at one time) with traditional tracer methods (sampling multiple times at one place) rather than using either approach in isolation can

  9. Modelling natural electromagnetic interference in man-made conductors for space weather applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trichtchenko, Larisa

    2016-04-01

    Power transmission lines above the ground, cables and pipelines in the ground and under the sea, and in general all man-made long grounded conductors are exposed to the variations of the natural electromagnetic field. The resulting currents in the networks (commonly named geomagnetically induced currents, GIC), are produced by the conductive and/or inductive coupling and can compromise or even disrupt system operations and, in extreme cases, cause power blackouts, railway signalling mis-operation, or interfere with pipeline corrosion protection systems. To properly model the GIC in order to mitigate their impacts it is necessary to know the frequency dependence of the response of these systems to the geomagnetic variations which naturally span a wide frequency range. For that, the general equations of the electromagnetic induction in a multi-layered infinitely long cylinder (representing cable, power line wire, rail or pipeline) embedded in uniform media have been solved utilising methods widely used in geophysics. The derived electromagnetic fields and currents include the effects of the electromagnetic properties of each layer and of the different types of the surrounding media. This exact solution then has been used to examine the electromagnetic response of particular samples of long conducting structures to the external electromagnetic wave for a wide range of frequencies. Because the exact solution has a rather complicated structure, simple approximate analytical formulas have been proposed, analysed and compared with the results from the exact model. These approximate formulas show good coincidence in the frequency range spanning from geomagnetic storms (less than mHz) to pulsations (mHz to Hz) to atmospherics (kHz) and above, and can be recommended for use in space weather applications.

  10. Nestedness and successional trajectories of macroinvertebrate assemblages in man-made wetlands.

    PubMed

    Ruhí, Albert; Boix, Dani; Gascón, Stéphanie; Sala, Jordi; Quintana, Xavier D

    2013-02-01

    Current successional models, primarily those based on floral succession, propose several distinct trajectories based on the integration of two key hypotheses from succession theory: convergence versus divergence in species composition among successional sites, and progression towards versus deviation from a desired reference state. We applied this framework to faunal succession, including differential colonization between active and passive dispersers, and the nested patterns generated as a consequence of this peculiarity. Nine man-made wetlands located in three different areas, from 0-3 years from wetland creation, were assessed. In addition, 91 wetlands distributed throughout the region were used as references for natural macroinvertebrate communities. We predicted the following: (1) highly nested structures in pioneering assemblages will decrease to lower mid-term values due to a shift from active pioneering taxa to passive disperser ones; (2) passive idiosyncratic taxa will elicit divergent successional trajectories among areas; (3) the divergent trajectories will provoke lower local and higher regional diversity values in the mid-term assemblages than in pioneer assemblages. Our results were largely congruent with hypotheses (1) and (2), diverging from the anticipated patterns only in the case of the temporary wetlands area. However, overall diversity trends based on hypothesis (3) did not follow the expected pattern. The divergent successional trajectories did not compensate for regional biodiversity losses that occurred as a consequence of pioneering colonizer decline over time. Consequently, we suggest reconsidering wetland construction for mitigation purposes within mid-term time frames (≤ 3 years). Wetlands may not offset, within this temporal scenario, regional biodiversity loss because the ecosystem may not support idiosyncratic taxa from natural wetlands. PMID:22965268

  11. Development of a methodology to assess man-made risks in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borst, D.; Jung, D.; Murshed, S. M.; Werner, U.

    2006-09-01

    Risk is a concept used to describe future potential outcomes of certain actions or events. Within the project "CEDIM - Risk Map Germany - Man-made Hazards" it is intended to develop methods for assessing and mapping the risk due to different human-induced hazards. This is a task that has not been successfully performed for Germany so far. Concepts of catastrophe modelling are employed including the spatial modelling of hazard, the compilation of different kinds of exposed elements, the estimation of their vulnerability and the direct loss potential in terms of human life and health. The paper is divided in two sections: First, an analytic framework for assessing the broad spectrum of human-induced risks is introduced. This approach is then applied for three important types of human-induced hazards that are representative for a whole class of hazards: Accidents due to nuclear power plants (NPP) or air traffic, and terrorism. For the analysis of accidents, risk is measured with respect to getting injured or dying when living in certain buffer zones around hazard locations. NPP hazard expert knowledge is used and supplemented with observations on aging effects leading to a proprietary index value for the risk. Air traffic risk is modelled as an area related phenomenon based on available accident statistics leading to an expected value of risk. Terrorism risk is assessed by the attraction certain elements (like embassies in the case of conventional threats) display in the eye of potential aggressors. For non-conventional targets like football games, a detailed approach measuring their susceptibility to different kinds of attacks within predefined scenarios was developed; this also allows a ranking of attack modes.

  12. Dual pH durability studies of man-made vitreous fiber (MMVF).

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, J F; Law, B D; Hesterberg, T W

    1994-01-01

    Dissolution of fibers in the deep lung may involve both extracellular and intracellular mechanisms. This process was modeled in vitro for each environment using an experimental flow-through system to characterize both total dissolution and specific chemical changes for three representative MMVF's: a glasswool, a slagwool, and a refractory ceramic fiber (RCF). Synthetic physiological fluids at pH 4 and at pH 7.6 were used to simulate macrophage intraphagolysosomal, and extracellular environments, respectively. Actual commercial fiber, sized to rat-respirable dimension, having an average fiber diameter of 1 micron and an average length between 15 and 25 microns, was used in the experiments. Fiber dissolution was monitored through change in chemistry of the fluid collected after percolation at a constant rate through a thin bed of sample. There are great differences in total fiber dissolution rates for the different fibers. Slagwool and RCF dissolve more rapidly at pH 4 than at pH 7.6, while the reverse is true for glasswool. Dissolution is sometimes accompanied by a noticeable change in fiber morphology or dimension, and sometimes by no change. There is strong dependency on pH, which affects not only total fiber dissolution, but also the leaching of specific chemical components. This effect is different for each type of fiber, indicating that specific fiber chemistry largely controls whether a fiber dissolves or leaches more rapidly under acidic or neutral conditions. Both total dissolution rates and calculated fiber composition changes are valuable guides to interpreting in vivo behavior of man-made vitreous fibers, and demonstrate the usefulness of in vitro acellular experiments in understanding overall fiber persistence. Images Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 4. A Figure 4. B Figure 4. C PMID:7882957

  13. Possible application of urinary analysis to estimate dissolution of some man-made vitreous fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Wastiaux, A; Blanchard, O; Honnons, S

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary study at the institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS) examined the dissolution of three man-made vitreous fiber samples (glasswool, rockwool, glass microfibers: JM 100) after intraperitoneal injections in male Wistar rats. The chemical composition of the original fibers was determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP). The urine of the rats was collected at fixed times between day 1 and day 204, and the ICP was used to look for elements known to be present in the original fibers. At day 204, a piece of omentum was removed at autopsy, ashed and analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) to identify the elements remaining in the fibers. Silicon and aluminium were retained in the fibers from all samples at day 204. Losses in calcium, sodium, magnesium, and sulfur were observed, but these elements were not studied in the urine samples because they are naturally present in relatively high concentrations in rat cells and biological fluids. Although there was a loss of zinc from the glass microfibers, no corresponding difference was observed between the zinc levels excreted by the treated animals and by the controls. Similarly, despite the loss of manganese from the rockwool fibers at day 204, none was detectable in the urine samples. Titanium, present at the 0.3% level in rockwool, was not detectable by EDXA at day 204, but small quantities were detected in the first 2 weeks in the urine samples of rats treated with rockwool.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7882936

  14. Review of animal/in vitro data on biological effects of man-made fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Ellouk, S A; Jaurand, M C

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews the investigations with man-made fibers (MMF). Insulation woods: glasswool (GW), rockwool (RW), slagwool (SW), glass microfibers (GMF), glass filaments (GFiI), and refractory ceramic fibers (RCF) have been used in experimental animals and in in vitro cell systems. A large heterogeneous number of fibers, methods of fiber preparation, size selection, aerosolization, fiber size, and fiber burden measurement were noted, rendering difficult a comparison between results. By inhalation, RCF and asbestos used as positive controls produced a significant tumor increase. In some studies, a low tumor yield was found after inhalation of insulation wools; when all inhalation data were gathered, a significant tumor increase was found with GW. However, it is difficult to draw definitive conclusions on the potential of other fiber types because, in addition to the different compositions of the fibers, differences in fiber number and sizes existed, especially in comparison with asbestos. Moreover, experiments using inoculation, especially by the intraperitoneal route revealed a carcinogenic potential of all fibers types but GFiI and SW. In these two groups a small number of animals has been investigated and the fiber characteristics were sometimes irrelevant. So far, a relationship between the carcinogenic potency and fiber dimensions has been established. Other fiber parameters may be of importance (surface chemistry, biopersistence, fiber structure, for example) but further investigations are necessary to determine the correlations between these parameters and tumor incidence. In vitro experiments have emphasized the fiber characteristics identified in vivo as playing a role in the carcinogenic potency and should be developed as a better approach of the mechanistic effects of MMF. PMID:7925187

  15. Characterization of exposure and dose of man made vitreous fiber in experimental studies.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, R D; Miiller, W C; Christensen, D R; Anderson, R; Hesterberg, T W

    1994-01-01

    The use of fibrous test materials in in vivo experiments introduces a number of significant problems not associated with nonfibrous particulates. The key to all aspects of the experiment is the accurate characterization of the test material in terms of fiber length, diameter, particulate content, and chemistry. All data related to fiber properties must be collected in a statistically sound manner to eliminate potential bias. Procedures similar to those outlined by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) or the World Health Organization (WHO) must be the basis of any fiber characterization. The test material to which the animal is exposed must be processed to maximize the amount of respirable fiber and to minimize particulate content. The complex relationship among the characteristics of the test material, the properties of the delivery system, and the actual dose that reaches the target tissue in the lung makes verification of dose essential. In the case of man-made vitreous fibers (MMVF), dose verification through recovery of fiber from exposed animals is a complex task. The potential for high fiber solubility makes many of the conventional techniques for tissue preservation and digestion inappropriate. Processes based on the minimum use of aggressive chemicals, such as cold storage and low temperature ashing, are potentially useful for a wide range of inorganic fibers. Any processes used to assess fiber exposure and dose must be carefully validated to establish that the chemical and physical characteristics of the fibers have not been changed and that the dose to the target tissue is completely and accurately described. PMID:7882912

  16. Characteristics of short-crested waves and currents behind offshore man-made island type power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeno, Masaaki; Kajima, Ryoichi; Matsuyama, Masafumi; Sakakiyama, Tsutomu

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the diffracted waves with breaking and the nearshore currents caused by short-crested waves, behind a man-made island, on which nuclear power plants are constructed. Firstly, hydraulic model tests with a multi-directional wave maker were performed. Effects of the irregularity and directional spreading of waves, and the effects of cooling water intake flow on diffracted waves and nearshore currents behind a man-made island, were investigated experimentally. Secondly, a numerical model was developed to simulate deformation of multi-directional irregular waves and nearshore currents. The validity of the numerical model was verified through comparison with the experimental results.

  17. Investigation of Natural and Man-Made Radiation Effects on Crews on Long Duration Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolch, Wesley E.; Parlos, Alexander

    1996-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has studied a variety of mission scenarios designed to establish a permanent human presence on the surface of Mars. Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) is one of the possible elements in this program. During the initial stages of vehicle design work, careful consideration must be given to not only the shielding requirements of natural space radiation, but to the shielding and configuration requirements of the on-board reactors. In this work, the radiation transport code MCNP has been used to make initial estimates of crew exposures to reactor radiation fields for a specific manned NEP vehicle design. In this design, three 25 MW(sub th), scaled SP-100-class reactors are shielded by three identical shields. Each shield has layers of beryllium, tungsten, and lithium hydride between the reactor and the crew compartment. Separate calculations are made of both the exiting neutron and gamma fluxes from the reactors during beginning-of-life, full-power operation. This data is then used as the source terms for particle transport in MCNP. The total gamma and neutron fluxes exiting the reactor shields are recorded and separate transport calculations are then performed for a 10 g/sq cm crew compartment aluminum thickness. Estimates of crew exposures have been assessed for various thicknesses of the shield tungsten and lithium hydride layers. A minimal tungsten thickness of 20 cm is required to shield the reactor photons below the 0.05 Sv/y man-made radiation limit. In addition to a 20-cm thick tungsten layer, a 40-cm thick lithium hydride layer is required to shield the reactor neutrons below the annual limit. If the tungsten layer is 30-cm thick, the lithium hydride layer should be at least 30-cm thick. These estimates do not take into account the photons generated by neutron interactions inside the shield because the MCNP neutron cross sections did not allow reliable estimates of photon production in these materials. These results, along with

  18. Mapping of natural and man-made groundwater mineralization by helicopter-borne electromagnetics (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steuer, A.; Siemon, B.; Meyer, U.

    2010-12-01

    Helicopter-borne electromagnetics (HEM) is an important tool for hydrogeological questions. HEM investigations enable the differentiation of sandy and clayey sediments as well as saltwater and freshwater saturated sediments down to about 150 meters depth. The frequency-domain HEM system operated at the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) is the RESOLVE system manufactured by Fugro Airborne Surveys. In 2008 and 2009, BGR conducted airborne geophysical measurements for saltwater-freshwater investigation at several survey areas at the German North Sea coast. The surveys were carried out in cooperation with the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geosciences (LIAG) in frame of the project D-AERO. One of these survey areas covers the estuary of the Elbe river to the north-west of the city of Hamburg. Parts of the results of this survey are involved in the project KLIMZUG-NORD, where the Technical University Hamburg-Harburg investigates the environmental effects of the climate change on the estuary of the Elbe river. The HEM measurements reveal both the course of the Geest ridge (high-lying hinterland consisting of pleistocenic moraine sediments) and the swamp belt due to their elevated resistivities, whereas the Marsch land (plain holocenic wet land, alluvium) occurred more conductive. Here, an electrical conductivity anomaly was detected witch could neither be related with seawater intrusion nor with anthropogenic sources. The significant low-resistivity zone of about three square kilometers was identified as a saltwater-rising zone by water analyses of surface water and is an example for natural groundwater mineralization. A man-made groundwater mineralization was investigated by HEM in the Werra river valley in central Germany. About 1000 million cubic meters saline waste water from potash mining have been stored in a karstic limestone and dolomite bed to reduce the amount of saline water emissions directly into the river. BGR conducted surveys in

  19. Effects of man-made structures on sedimentary oxygenation: extent, seasonality and implications for offshore renewables.

    PubMed

    Wilding, Thomas A

    2014-06-01

    The number of man-made structures to be placed in the marine environment is set to increase massively in the near future as a consequence of the wide-scale adoption and commercialisation of offshore electricity generation. Marine renewable energy devices (MREDs) interact with their receiving environment and are de-facto artificial reefs. The Loch Linnhe Artificial Reef (LLR) complex is a large-scale experimental facility, with the main matrix consisting of 30 separate reef modules deployed in 10-30 m depth and over a gradient of hydrographic and sedimentological conditions. The LLR offers potential to examine impacts that are analogous to those likely to occur around MREDs. The extent of the impact of the LLR modules on the receiving environment was assessed by determining their effect on sedimentary redox potential, as a function of distance from the reef-edge, and season, using an innovative, hand-held, underwater redox probe. The results are commensurate with the reef-proximal baffling of water flow resulting in the entrapment of drifting phytodetritus. At the least current-exposed reef-group the expected decrease in mean redox, at 80 mm sediment depth, was 80 mV (95% CI 40, 120 mV) but this effect was not observed more than 1 m from the reef edge and only occurred during summer months (water temperature >10 °C). Redox at the reef edge, particularly during summer months, was more variable compared to redox taken at 1 m and 4 m reef-distance and was associated with the patchy distribution of phytodetrital accumulations. At all reef groups, there was no discernible difference in modelled mean redox between observations taken at 1 m and 4 m-reef distance. Artificial structures, including MREDs, may cause quite major sedimentary changes but this evidence suggests that these effects will be of limited spatial scale and, where phytodetrital accumulations occur, are only likely to be detrimental in oxygen-deficient sediments. Where these changes occur at

  20. 19 CFR 10.609 - Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods. 10.609 Section 10.609 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican...

  1. 19 CFR 10.609 - Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods. 10.609 Section 10.609 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican...

  2. 19 CFR 10.609 - Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods. 10.609 Section 10.609 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican...

  3. 19 CFR 10.609 - Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods. 10.609 Section 10.609 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican...

  4. 19 CFR 10.609 - Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods. 10.609 Section 10.609 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican...

  5. THE MAN MADE WORLD, A HIGH SCHOOL COURSE ON THE THEORIES AND TECHNIQUES WHICH CONTRIBUTE TO OUR TECHNOLOGICAL CIVILIZATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Engineering Education, Washington, DC.

    THIS STUDENTS' MANUAL FOR THE ENGINEERING CONCEPTS CURRICULUM PROJECT'S (ECCP) HIGH SCHOOL COURSE, "THE MAN MADE WORLD," IS THE THIRD DRAFT OF THE EXPERIMENTAL VERSION. THE MATERIAL WRITTEN BY SCIENTISTS, ENGINEERS, AND EDUCATORS, EMPHASIZES THE THEORIES AND TECHNIQUES WHICH CONTRIBUTE TO OUR TECHNOLOGICAL CIVILIZATION. RESOURCES OF THE MAN-MADE…

  6. Impact of Natural and Man-Made Factors on Mineral Composition of the Ardon River Water and Hydrophytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadim, Ermakov; Elena, Korobova; Alexander, Degtyarev; Nina, Petrunina; Sergey, Tyutikov

    2013-04-01

    The Unal basin located in mountain region of Northern Ossetia (the Caucasus) belongs to Pb-Zn natural province with anthropogenic and natural transformation of the environment leading to risks of ecological damage. Activity of the Misursk Mining Combine and its Arkhon-Khosta tailings caused a significant local increase of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn content in soils, water and biotic components relative to background values [1-5]. A catastrophic mud flow of 2002 and the later construction of a gas pipeline and a dam for hydroelectric power station changed local landscapes and biota (plants, algae, and amphibia). Biogeochemical studies performed in the area in 2001, 2003 and 2008 showed that in some cases the specified factors might change the structure of landscapes due to enhanced mass migration and the erosion of outcropping rocks which could be followed by corresponding transformation of the chemical composition of draining waters and flood plain soils, and could also change the character of species' invasion. Algae were proved to adapt and to indicate both natural and man-made transformation of the environment [3, 4]. A distinct relation between the particle size of the suspended matter in the Ardon river waters and water mineralization was discovered. However, heavy metals' concentration level in waters of the Ardon river appeared in general to be within the acceptable hygienic standards and therefore ecologically not critical. References 1. Degtyarev V.P., Ermakov V.V. Ecological and geochemical evaluation of the the Ardon river basin (Northern Ossetia). Geokhimiya, 1998, 1, 88-94. 2. Karpova E.A., Krechetova E.V., Degtyarev V.P. Parameters of heavy metal migration in soils of biogeochemical anomalies of the Northern Ossetia. Modern problems of soil contamination, Moscow State University, V. 1, 2007, 106-110. 3. Petrunina N.S., Ermakov V.V., Tuytikov S.F., Karpova E.A., Levkina L.M., Gololobova M.A. Biogeochemical identification of natural and technogenic polymetallic

  7. A systematic review of probable posttraumatic stress disorder in first responders following man-made mass violence.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Laura C

    2015-09-30

    The current study was a systematic review examining probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in first responders following man-made mass violence. A systematic literature search yielded 20 studies that fit the inclusion criteria. The prevalence rates of probable PTSD across all 20 studies ranged from 1.3% to 22.0%. Fifteen of the 20 articles focused on first responders following the September 11th terrorist attacks and many of the studies used the same participant recruitment pools. Overall, the results of the systematic review described here suggest that our understanding of PTSD in first responders following man-made mass violence is based on a very small set of articles that have focused on a few particular events. This paper is meant to serve as a call for additional research and to encourage more breadth in the specific incidents that are examined. PMID:26253760

  8. Chemical and mineralogical concerns for the use of man-made materials in the post-emplacement environment

    SciTech Connect

    Meike, A.

    1993-01-16

    In a radioactive waste repository, materials will be introduced for a variety of reasons. Some materials such as metals, bonding agents, and concrete will serve as active parts of the designed engineered barrier system (EBS). Other materials will be introduced to serve a number of purposes that include any or all of the following: surveillance (thermocouples, gauges), construction and operation (drilling rigs, roadbeds, exhaust fumes, chemical toilets, concrete, grout, rebar), lubrication (petroleum-based products, rope dressing) and other functions. Water chemistry will directly affect the corrosion of containers, the dissolution of spent fuel and waste glass and the concentration of dissolved or suspended radionuclides in water that exits breached containers. To predict the water quality requires a knowledge of the dissolution kinetics of the phases present in man-made materials, and the precipitation kinetics of product phases. The chemical evolution of man-made materials of interest to the Yucca Mountain project are by and large not presently known. Prediction of the long-term behavior (10,000 years) required of the modeling efforts is an additional layer of complexity that is not addressed by current models of water chemistry. Man-made modifications to the environment may significantly alter the thermal, chemical and radionuclide transportation attributes of the natural environment that are presently being considered in order to determine a waste package design. The specific chemical concerns addressed here are: solubility and stability of solid phases; liquid and gas phase stability; long term effects; radiolysis effects; colloids; and interactions between man-made material, rock, and J-13 or concentrated J-13 water. The report concludes with recommendations.

  9. Assessing the integrated sediment trapping role of man-made and natural sediment sinks, Minizr catchment, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekonnen, Mulatie; Keesstra, Saskia; Stroosnijder, Leo; Baartman, Jantiene

    2016-04-01

    To enhance sedimentation within a catchment, man-made sediment trapping (ST) measures and natural sediment sinks are playing a vital role. To evaluate the ST role of such measures, this study was conducted at Minizr catchment, northwest Ethiopian highlands. Man-made soil and water conservation (SWC) structures constructed within the catchment and natural sediment sinks (floodplain and wetland) were digitized and quantified from Google earth imagery. Sediment pins, vertical cut measurements through the deposit (after the rainy season) and SWC structures dimension measurements (before and after the rainy seasons) were used to estimate the trapped sediment depth. Inflow and outflow suspended sediment measurements were done to calculate sediment trapping efficacies (STEs). On average, SWC structures trapped ~7922 t yr-1 (56 kg m-1 yr-1) and micro-trenches trapped ~13260 kg yr-1 (a micro-trench trapped 23 kg yr-1). A floodplain located near the centre of the catchment trapped ~ 9971 t yr-1 (59 kg m-2 yr-1) and a wetland located near the outlet of the catchment trapped ~ 8715 t yr-1 (36 kg m-2 yr-1). The STEs of the wetland and the floodplain were found to be 85 % and 77 %, respectively. Substantial difference was observed between the STE of grassed and un-grassed waterways, 75 % and 21 %, respectively. About ~40 % of the transported sediment was trapped by major sediment traps (both man-made and natural) and ~60 % is still leaving the catchment and entering into Koga reservoir. Although man-made structures and natural sediment sinks trapped large amount of sediment, the rate of sediment red-deposition is lower than the rate of sediment export at the outlet of the catchment, which is because of lack of an integrated ST approach.

  10. Polarization: A Key Difference between Man-made and Natural Electromagnetic Fields, in regard to Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J; Johansson, Olle; Carlo, George L

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we analyze the role of polarization in the biological activity of Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs)/Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR). All types of man-made EMFs/EMR - in contrast to natural EMFs/EMR - are polarized. Polarized EMFs/EMR can have increased biological activity, due to: 1) Ability to produce constructive interference effects and amplify their intensities at many locations. 2) Ability to force all charged/polar molecules and especially free ions within and around all living cells to oscillate on parallel planes and in phase with the applied polarized field. Such ionic forced-oscillations exert additive electrostatic forces on the sensors of cell membrane electro-sensitive ion channels, resulting in their irregular gating and consequent disruption of the cell's electrochemical balance. These features render man-made EMFs/EMR more bioactive than natural non-ionizing EMFs/EMR. This explains the increasing number of biological effects discovered during the past few decades to be induced by man-made EMFs, in contrast to natural EMFs in the terrestrial environment which have always been present throughout evolution, although human exposure to the latter ones is normally of significantly higher intensities/energy and longer durations. Thus, polarization seems to be a trigger that significantly increases the probability for the initiation of biological/health effects. PMID:26456585

  11. Polarization: A Key Difference between Man-made and Natural Electromagnetic Fields, in regard to Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J.; Johansson, Olle; Carlo, George L.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we analyze the role of polarization in the biological activity of Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs)/Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR). All types of man-made EMFs/EMR - in contrast to natural EMFs/EMR - are polarized. Polarized EMFs/EMR can have increased biological activity, due to: 1) Ability to produce constructive interference effects and amplify their intensities at many locations. 2) Ability to force all charged/polar molecules and especially free ions within and around all living cells to oscillate on parallel planes and in phase with the applied polarized field. Such ionic forced-oscillations exert additive electrostatic forces on the sensors of cell membrane electro-sensitive ion channels, resulting in their irregular gating and consequent disruption of the cell’s electrochemical balance. These features render man-made EMFs/EMR more bioactive than natural non-ionizing EMFs/EMR. This explains the increasing number of biological effects discovered during the past few decades to be induced by man-made EMFs, in contrast to natural EMFs in the terrestrial environment which have always been present throughout evolution, although human exposure to the latter ones is normally of significantly higher intensities/energy and longer durations. Thus, polarization seems to be a trigger that significantly increases the probability for the initiation of biological/health effects. PMID:26456585

  12. Natural and man-made radionuclides in sediments of an inlet in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Franciane Martins de; Lauria, Dejanira da Costa; Ribeiro, Fernando Carlos Araújo; Fonseca, Rafael Tonelli; Peres, Sueli da Silva; Martins, Nádia Soido Falcão

    2016-06-15

    The distribution of natural radionuclides (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (40)K and man-made radionuclides ((54)Mn, (60)Co and (137) Cs) in the surface sediments of an inlet of Ribeira Bay were investigated. Sediment samples were collected and analyzed for radionuclides, organic matter, carbonate, sulfate, cationic exchange capacity and grain size composition. The natural radionuclide concentrations ranged from 4.4 to 45, from 10 to 93, from 66 to 1347Bq·kg(-1) dry weight for (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K, respectively. Natural radionuclide concentrations tend to be higher in the silt fraction, which determines their pattern distributions. Only one sample presented measurable concentration for (137)Cs, while (54)Mn was detected in two samples and (60)Co in four sediment samples. Man-made radionuclides present a maximum value of dose external four times lower than the normal background and the potential risk due to the presence of man-made radionuclides in sediments is lower than the risk provided by the natural radionuclides. PMID:27084201

  13. Polarization: A Key Difference between Man-made and Natural Electromagnetic Fields, in regard to Biological Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J.; Johansson, Olle; Carlo, George L.

    2015-10-01

    In the present study we analyze the role of polarization in the biological activity of Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs)/Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR). All types of man-made EMFs/EMR - in contrast to natural EMFs/EMR - are polarized. Polarized EMFs/EMR can have increased biological activity, due to: 1) Ability to produce constructive interference effects and amplify their intensities at many locations. 2) Ability to force all charged/polar molecules and especially free ions within and around all living cells to oscillate on parallel planes and in phase with the applied polarized field. Such ionic forced-oscillations exert additive electrostatic forces on the sensors of cell membrane electro-sensitive ion channels, resulting in their irregular gating and consequent disruption of the cell’s electrochemical balance. These features render man-made EMFs/EMR more bioactive than natural non-ionizing EMFs/EMR. This explains the increasing number of biological effects discovered during the past few decades to be induced by man-made EMFs, in contrast to natural EMFs in the terrestrial environment which have always been present throughout evolution, although human exposure to the latter ones is normally of significantly higher intensities/energy and longer durations. Thus, polarization seems to be a trigger that significantly increases the probability for the initiation of biological/health effects.

  14. Automatic target classification of man-made objects in synthetic aperture radar images using Gabor wavelet and neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasuki, Perumal; Roomi, S. Mohamed Mansoor

    2013-01-01

    Processing of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images has led to the development of automatic target classification approaches. These approaches help to classify individual and mass military ground vehicles. This work aims to develop an automatic target classification technique to classify military targets like truck/tank/armored car/cannon/bulldozer. The proposed method consists of three stages via preprocessing, feature extraction, and neural network (NN). The first stage removes speckle noise in a SAR image by the identified frost filter and enhances the image by histogram equalization. The second stage uses a Gabor wavelet to extract the image features. The third stage classifies the target by an NN classifier using image features. The proposed work performs better than its counterparts, like K-nearest neighbor (KNN). The proposed work performs better on databases like moving and stationary target acquisition and recognition against the earlier methods by KNN.

  15. Health Problems in Children and Adolescents before and after a Man-Made Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirkzwager, Anja J. E.; Kerssens, Jan J.; Yzermans, C. Joris

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this study were to examine health problems of children (4-12 years old at the time of the disaster) and adolescents (13-18 years old at the time of the disaster) before and after exposure to a fireworks disaster in the Netherlands (May 2000), to compare these health problems with a control group, and to identify risk factors…

  16. The discrimination of man-made explosions from earthquakes using seismo-acoustic analysis in the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Il-Young; Jeon, Jeong-Soo

    2010-05-01

    Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) operates an infrasound network consisting of seven seismo-acoustic arrays in South Korea. Development of the arrays began in 1999, partially in collaboration with Southern Methodist University, with the goal of detecting distant infrasound signals from natural and anthropogenic phenomena in and around the Korean Peninsula. The main operational purpose of this network is to discriminate man-made seismic events from seismicity including thousands of seismic events per year in the region. The man-made seismic events are major cause of error in estimating the natural seismicity, especially where the seismic activity is weak or moderate such as in the Korean Peninsula. In order to discriminate the man-made explosions from earthquakes, we have applied the seismo-acoustic analysis associating seismic and infrasonic signals generated from surface explosion. The observations of infrasound at multiple arrays made it possible to discriminate surface explosion, because small or moderate size earthquake is not sufficient to generate infrasound. Till now we have annually discriminated hundreds of seismic events in seismological catalog as surface explosions by the seismo-acoustic analysis. Besides of the surface explosions, the network also detected infrasound signals from other sources, such as bolide, typhoons, rocket launches, and underground nuclear test occurred in and around the Korean Peninsula. In this study, ten years of seismo-acoustic data are reviewed with recent infrasonic detection algorithm and association method that finally linked to the seismic monitoring system of the KIGAM to increase the detection rate of surface explosions. We present the long-term results of seismo-acoustic analysis, the detection capability of the multiple arrays, and implications for seismic source location. Since the seismo-acoustic analysis is proved as a definite method to discriminate surface explosion, the analysis will be

  17. Use of geophysical methods in man-made hazard management strategies. Case study from Ploiesti city, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitea, F.; Anghelache, M. A.; Ioane, D.

    2010-05-01

    Identification of damages/changes that are affecting the underground water quality due to the effect of anthropogenic activities is often done after environmental problems have become evident, water potability being strongly affected. In this paper we will discuss the necessity of implementing non-invasive and non-destructive investigation tools in different parts of the management plan for urban areas affected or with high risk of being affected by man-made hazards. Geophysical investigations represent nowadays a useful tool in environmental problems that affect soil and underground water in urban areas, as useful information can be obtained regarding the following aspects: - detection of affected areas, especially when the effect or hazard sources are not visible at the surface - zonation of the area (severely affected zone or less affected) - investigation of the area (details on affected surface and affected soil depth) - location of "hidden" sources (illegal waste dump sites, petroleum transport or transfer pipes, etc) - estimation of soil and underground damages by monitoring petrophysical markers - risk evaluation (estimations on the direction and speed of environmental problems development, estimations of amplifying negative effects) - recovery from the man-made hazard of a certain area (monitoring information can give information about natural attenuation of the environmental problems or efficacy of resilience program) - preparedness for man-made hazards (prediction). Functionality of the above mentioned plans of geophysical applicability in identifying and characterizing the effect of anthropogenic hazards which affect soil and underground water quality has been tested in Ploiesti city, Romania. In this urban area, as well as in surrounding villages, water potability is severely affected because of the oil-products contamination caused by the refinery facilities developed in the area. Oil-contamination is a major problem environmental problem, due to the

  18. Preliminary geochemical and physical testing of materials for plugging of man-made accesses to a repository in basalt

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, C.L.; Anttonen, G.J.; O'Rourke, J.E.; Allirot, D.

    1980-04-01

    The available data on environmental conditions (both natural and man-made) at the Hanford Site are sufficient for preconceptual plug system design. Results of the geochemical testing program indicate that preferred candidate plug materials are chemically nonreactive during laboratory tests that simulated some of the expected environmental conditions. Agitated, crushed-basalt samples and mixtures containing basalt were found to be self-cementing under the hydrothermal conditions. Materials considered most suitable for consideration in future test programs and preconceptual plug design are mixtures of natural materials (basalt, clay, glaciofluvial sand, gravel, and zeolite) and processed natural materials (portland cement Type V and grouts plus additives).

  19. Hibernation site requirements of bats in man-made hibernacula in a spatial context.

    PubMed

    de Boer, W F; van de Koppel, S; de Knegt, H J; Dekker, J J A

    2013-03-01

    Bat hibernacula selection depends on various spatial and nonspatial variables that differ widely between sites. However, previous studies have focused mainly on nonspatial variables. This research investigated factors that determined the abundance and species richness of hibernating bats in hibernation objects of the New Dutch Waterline, The Netherlands, and determined the relevant scales over which spatial factors operate using regression techniques and ecological-niche factor analyses. The effects of 32 predictor variables on several response variables, i.e., the total bat abundance, species richness, and abundance and presence of bat species, were investigated. Predictor variables were classified as internal variables (e.g., building size, climatic conditions, and human access) or external variables (e.g., ground and vegetation cover and land cover type) that were measured at different spatial scales to study the influence of the spatial context. The internal building variables (mainly the size of hibernacula and the number of hiding possibilities) affected the hibernating bat abundance and species richness. Climatic variables, such as changes in temperature and humidity, were less important. The hibernation site suitability was also influenced by spatial variables at a variety of scales, thereby indicating the importance of scale-dependent species-environment relationships. The absence of human use and public access enhanced hibernation site suitability, but the internal size-related variables had the greatest positive effect on hibernation site suitability. These results demonstrate the importance of considering the different spatial scales of the surrounding landscape to better understand habitat selection, and they offer directives to managers to optimize objects for hibernating bats and to improve management and bat conservation. The analyses have wider applications to other wildlife-habitat studies. PMID:23634598

  20. The Impact of Conservation Management on the Community Composition of Multiple Organism Groups in Eutrophic Interconnected Man-Made Ponds.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, Pieter; Mergeay, Joachim; Van Wichelen, Jeroen; De Meester, Luc; Declerck, Steven A J

    2015-01-01

    Ponds throughout the world are subjected to a variety of management measures for purposes of biodiversity conservation. Current conservation efforts typically comprise a combination of multiple measures that directly and indirectly impact a wide range of organism groups. Knowledge of the relative impact of individual measures on different taxonomic groups is important for the development of effective conservation programs. We conducted a field study of 28 man-made ponds, representing four management types differing in the frequency of periodic pond drainage and the intensity of fish stock management. We disentangled the relative importance of direct and indirect effects of pond management measures on the community composition of phytoplankton, zooplankton, aquatic macro-invertebrates, submerged and emergent vascular plants. With the exception of phytoplankton, pond management had strong effects on the community composition of all investigated biota. Whether management affected communities directly or indirectly through its impact on fish communities or local environmental conditions in the pond varied between organism groups. Overall, the impact of pond drainage regime and fish community characteristics on the community composition of target organism groups were more important than local environmental conditions. The majority of taxa were negatively associated with fish density, whereas multiple emergent plant species and several taxa of aquatic macro-invertebrates were positively affected by increased drainage frequency. The effects of fish community and drainage tended to be largely independent. The present study indicates that pond drainage is an important element for biodiversity conservation in eutrophicated shallow and interconnected man-made ponds. PMID:26422390

  1. The Impact of Conservation Management on the Community Composition of Multiple Organism Groups in Eutrophic Interconnected Man-Made Ponds

    PubMed Central

    Lemmens, Pieter; Mergeay, Joachim; Van Wichelen, Jeroen; De Meester, Luc; Declerck, Steven A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Ponds throughout the world are subjected to a variety of management measures for purposes of biodiversity conservation. Current conservation efforts typically comprise a combination of multiple measures that directly and indirectly impact a wide range of organism groups. Knowledge of the relative impact of individual measures on different taxonomic groups is important for the development of effective conservation programs. We conducted a field study of 28 man-made ponds, representing four management types differing in the frequency of periodic pond drainage and the intensity of fish stock management. We disentangled the relative importance of direct and indirect effects of pond management measures on the community composition of phytoplankton, zooplankton, aquatic macro-invertebrates, submerged and emergent vascular plants. With the exception of phytoplankton, pond management had strong effects on the community composition of all investigated biota. Whether management affected communities directly or indirectly through its impact on fish communities or local environmental conditions in the pond varied between organism groups. Overall, the impact of pond drainage regime and fish community characteristics on the community composition of target organism groups were more important than local environmental conditions. The majority of taxa were negatively associated with fish density, whereas multiple emergent plant species and several taxa of aquatic macro-invertebrates were positively affected by increased drainage frequency. The effects of fish community and drainage tended to be largely independent. The present study indicates that pond drainage is an important element for biodiversity conservation in eutrophicated shallow and interconnected man-made ponds. PMID:26422390

  2. An Overall Water Quality Index (WQI) for a Man-Made Aquatic Reservoir in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Rubio-Arias, Hector; Contreras-Caraveo, Manuel; Quintana, Rey Manuel; Saucedo-Teran, Ruben Alfonso; Pinales-Munguia, Adan

    2012-01-01

    A Water Quality Index (WQI) is a useful statistical tool for simplifying, reporting and interpreting complex information obtained from any body of water. A simple number given by any WQI model explains the level of water contamination. The objective was to develop a WQI for the water of the Luis L. Leon dam located in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico. Monthly water samples were obtained in 2009; January 10, February 12, March 8, May 20, June 10, July 9, August 12, September 10, October 11, November 15 and December 13. Ten sampling sites were randomly selected after dividing the study area using a geographic package. In each site, two samples at the top depth of 0.20 m and 1.0 m were obtained to quantify physical-chemical parameters. The following 11 parameters were considered to calculate the WQI; pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), color, turbidity, ammonia nitrogen, fluorides, chlorides, sulfates, Total Solids (TS) and phosphorous (P). The data analysis involved two steps; a single analysis for each parameter and the WQI calculation. The resulted WQI value classified the water quality according to the following ranges: <2.3 poor water; from 2.3 to 2.8 good water; and >2.8 excellent water. The results showed that the WQI values changed from low levels (WQI < 2.3) in some points during autumn time to high levels (WQI > 2.8) most of the year and the variation was due to time of sampling generally rainy season. PMID:22754466

  3. How man-made interference might cause gas bubble emboli in deep diving whales.

    PubMed

    Fahlman, Andreas; Tyack, Peter L; Miller, Patrick J O; Kvadsheim, Petter H

    2014-01-01

    Recent cetacean mass strandings in close temporal and spatial association with sonar activity has raised the concern that anthropogenic sound may harm breath-hold diving marine mammals. Necropsy results of the stranded whales have shown evidence of bubbles in the tissues, similar to those in human divers suffering from decompression sickness (DCS). It has been proposed that changes in behavior or physiological responses during diving could increase tissue and blood N2 levels, thereby increasing DCS risk. Dive data recorded from sperm, killer, long-finned pilot, Blainville's beaked and Cuvier's beaked whales before and during exposure to low- (1-2 kHz) and mid- (2-7 kHz) frequency active sonar were used to estimate the changes in blood and tissue N2 tension (PN2 ). Our objectives were to determine if differences in (1) dive behavior or (2) physiological responses to sonar are plausible risk factors for bubble formation. The theoretical estimates indicate that all species may experience high N2 levels. However, unexpectedly, deep diving generally result in higher end-dive PN2 as compared with shallow diving. In this focused review we focus on three possible explanations: (1) We revisit an old hypothesis that CO2, because of its much higher diffusivity, forms bubble precursors that continue to grow in N2 supersaturated tissues. Such a mechanism would be less dependent on the alveolar collapse depth but affected by elevated levels of CO2 following a burst of activity during sonar exposure. (2) During deep dives, a greater duration of time might be spent at depths where gas exchange continues as compared with shallow dives. The resulting elevated levels of N2 in deep diving whales might also make them more susceptible to anthropogenic disturbances. (3) Extended duration of dives even at depths beyond where the alveoli collapse could result in slow continuous accumulation of N2 in the adipose tissues that eventually becomes a liability. PMID:24478724

  4. How man-made interference might cause gas bubble emboli in deep diving whales

    PubMed Central

    Fahlman, Andreas; Tyack, Peter L.; Miller, Patrick J. O.; Kvadsheim, Petter H.

    2014-01-01

    Recent cetacean mass strandings in close temporal and spatial association with sonar activity has raised the concern that anthropogenic sound may harm breath-hold diving marine mammals. Necropsy results of the stranded whales have shown evidence of bubbles in the tissues, similar to those in human divers suffering from decompression sickness (DCS). It has been proposed that changes in behavior or physiological responses during diving could increase tissue and blood N2 levels, thereby increasing DCS risk. Dive data recorded from sperm, killer, long-finned pilot, Blainville's beaked and Cuvier's beaked whales before and during exposure to low- (1–2 kHz) and mid- (2–7 kHz) frequency active sonar were used to estimate the changes in blood and tissue N2 tension (PN2). Our objectives were to determine if differences in (1) dive behavior or (2) physiological responses to sonar are plausible risk factors for bubble formation. The theoretical estimates indicate that all species may experience high N2 levels. However, unexpectedly, deep diving generally result in higher end-dive PN2 as compared with shallow diving. In this focused review we focus on three possible explanations: (1) We revisit an old hypothesis that CO2, because of its much higher diffusivity, forms bubble precursors that continue to grow in N2 supersaturated tissues. Such a mechanism would be less dependent on the alveolar collapse depth but affected by elevated levels of CO2 following a burst of activity during sonar exposure. (2) During deep dives, a greater duration of time might be spent at depths where gas exchange continues as compared with shallow dives. The resulting elevated levels of N2 in deep diving whales might also make them more susceptible to anthropogenic disturbances. (3) Extended duration of dives even at depths beyond where the alveoli collapse could result in slow continuous accumulation of N2 in the adipose tissues that eventually becomes a liability. PMID:24478724

  5. Geological and numerical modelling of sinkholes induced by instability of man-made underground caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lollino, P.; Margiotta, S.; Parise, M.

    2012-04-01

    An increasing number of areas in southern Italy are being interested by sinkholes related to the presence of artificial cavities, and in particular of underground quarries. Aimed at defining the most proper criteria for the study of such phenomena, the case of Cutrofiano (Apulia, SE Italy) is here presented as an example. This territory is well known for the underground quarrying activity of soft calcarenitic rocks that caused in the last decades widespread phenomena of subsidence at the surface, with extensive damages and problems to the main communication routes in the area. A very complex and intricate network of subterranean galleries is present underground, for a total development on the order of several tens of kilometres. The Gravina Calcarenite Formation, that is the object of the underground quarries, consists of whitish calcarenite with an upper greenish clayey-sandy interval rich in fossils. This formation is overlain by grey sandy clays (Subapennine Clays) grading upward to fossil-rich sands (Brindisi Sands). In recent years, clay mining has been resumed at the ground surface, following to the opening of a cement factory, and resulting in the realization of wide open quarries. The local sedimentary sequence is closed by terraced calcarenite deposits rich in ostreids, holding a phreatic groundwater body and overlain by a shallow soil cover. The results of detailed geological, geomorphological and geomechanical surveys, supported by laboratory tests, show that in the Cutrofiano area the thickness of the stratigraphical succession, the depth of the underground galleries, the structural conditions of the rock mass, and the failure mechanisms observed within the quarries are variable. The geological model reconstructed represents the base for the numerical simulations, which are aimed at defining the eventual mechanisms of rock failure, up to the formation of the sinkhole. In particular, two different geological settings have been considered: the first is

  6. Man made deltas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maselli, V.; Trincardi, F.

    2014-12-01

    During the last few millennia, southern European fluvio-deltaic systems have evolved in response to changes in the hydrological cycle, mostly driven by high-frequency climate oscillations and increasing anthropic pressure on natural landscapes. The review of geochronological and historical data documents that the bulk of the four largest northern Mediterranean and Black Sea deltas (Ebro, Rhone, Po and Danube) formed during two short and synchronous intervals during which anthropogenic land cover change was the main driver for enhanced sediment production. These two major growth phases occurred under contrasting climatic regimes and were both followed by generalized delta retreat, supporting the hypothesis of human-driven delta progradation. Delta retreat, in particular, was the consequence of reduced soil erosion for renewed afforestation after the fall of the Roman Empire, and of river dams construction that overkilled the still increasing sediment production in catchment basins since the Industrial Era. In this second case, in particular, the effect of a reduced sediment flux to the coasts is amplified by the sinking of modern deltas, due to land subsidence and sea level rise, that hampers delta outbuilding and increases the vulnerability of coastal zone to marine erosion and flooding.

  7. Man made deltas

    PubMed Central

    Maselli, Vittorio; Trincardi, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The review of geochronological and historical data documents that the largest southern European deltas formed almost synchronously during two short intervals of enhanced anthropic pressure on landscapes, respectively during the Roman Empire and the Little Ice Age. These growth phases, that occurred under contrasting climatic regimes, were both followed by generalized delta retreat, driven by two markedly different reasons: after the Romans, the fall of the population and new afforestation let soil erosion in river catchments return to natural background levels; since the industrial revolution, instead, flow regulation through river dams overkill a still increasing sediment production in catchment basins. In this second case, furthermore, the effect of a reduced sediment flux to the coasts is amplified by the sinking of modern deltas, due to land subsidence and sea level rise, that hampers delta outbuilding and increases the vulnerability of coastal zone to marine erosion and flooding. PMID:23722597

  8. Man Made Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubos, Rene

    1971-01-01

    In a speech presented before the American Association of School Administrators, Atlantic City, 1971, the author discusses fundamental needs of man and contends that the danger to man is not so much in the destruction of life as in the spoiling of its quality; quality can be gained through diversity. (BY)

  9. Man made deltas.

    PubMed

    Maselli, Vittorio; Trincardi, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The review of geochronological and historical data documents that the largest southern European deltas formed almost synchronously during two short intervals of enhanced anthropic pressure on landscapes, respectively during the Roman Empire and the Little Ice Age. These growth phases, that occurred under contrasting climatic regimes, were both followed by generalized delta retreat, driven by two markedly different reasons: after the Romans, the fall of the population and new afforestation let soil erosion in river catchments return to natural background levels; since the industrial revolution, instead, flow regulation through river dams overkill a still increasing sediment production in catchment basins. In this second case, furthermore, the effect of a reduced sediment flux to the coasts is amplified by the sinking of modern deltas, due to land subsidence and sea level rise, that hampers delta outbuilding and increases the vulnerability of coastal zone to marine erosion and flooding. PMID:23722597

  10. Meta-Analytic Review of Psychological Interventions for Children Survivors of Natural and Man-Made Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Kirlic, Namik; Tett, Robert; Nelson, Summer; Liles, Brandi

    2015-01-01

    Although many post-disaster interventions for children and adolescent survivors of disaster and terrorism have been created, little is known about the effectiveness of such interventions. Therefore, this meta-analysis assessed PTSD outcomes among children and adolescent survivors of natural and man-made disasters receiving psychological interventions. Aggregating results from 24 studies (total N=2630) indicates that children and adolescents receiving psychological intervention fared significantly better than those in control or waitlist groups with respect to PTSD symptoms. Moderator effects were also observed for intervention package, treatment modality (group vs. individual), providers’ level of training, intervention setting, parental involvement, participant age, length of treatment, intervention delivery timing, and methodological rigor. Findings are discussed in detail with suggestions for practice and future research. PMID:25085234

  11. Man-made vitreous fiber produced from incinerator ash using the thermal plasma technique and application as reinforcement in concrete.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sheng-Fu; Wang, To-Mai; Lee, Wen-Cheng; Sun, Kin-Seng; Tzeng, Chin-Ching

    2010-10-15

    This study proposes using thermal plasma technology to treat municipal solid waste incinerator ashes. A feasible fiberization method was developed and applied to produce man-made vitreous fiber (MMVF) from plasma vitrified slag. MMVF were obtained through directly blending the oxide melt stream with high velocity compressed air. The basic technological characteristics of MMVF, including morphology, diameter, shot content, length and chemical resistance, are described in this work. Laboratory experiments were conducted on the fiber-reinforced concrete. The effects of fibrous content on compressive strength and flexural strength are presented. The experimental results showed the proper additive of MMVF in concrete can enhance its mechanical properties. MMVF products produced from incinerator ashes treated with the thermal plasma technique have great potential for reinforcement in concrete. PMID:20580155

  12. Lung cancer risk among workers exposed to man-made mineral fibers (MMMF) in the Swedish prefabricated house industry.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, P; Plato, N; Axelson, O; Brage, H N; Hogstedt, C; Ringbäck, G; Tornling, G; Wingren, G

    1992-01-01

    Mortality and cancer incidence was investigated among 2,807 workers, employed for at least one year before 1972, at 11 Swedish companies manufacturing prefabricated wooden houses. A total of 1,068 workers had been exposed to man-made mineral fibers (MMMF) used for insulation. Mortality was followed from 1969 to 1988 and cancer incidence from 1969 to 1985. Exposure conditions were investigated at all plants. There were 14 deaths from lung cancer in the total cohort, whereas 20.7 would be expected (SMR = 68; 95% CI:37-113), based on regional mortality. After a latency of 20 years of more, two lung cancer cases had occurred among all workers exposed to MMMF, whereas 4.3 would be expected (SMR = 46; 95% CI: 5-168). The exposure levels that have prevailed do not seem to be associated with an increased lung cancer rate, but extended follow-up is necessary for a definitive evaluation. PMID:1621690

  13. Natural and man-made controls on the performance of DNAPL-pump-and-treat systems -- A comparative case study

    SciTech Connect

    Losonsky, G.; Landry, G.R.; Valentine, R.M.

    1996-12-31

    Although the recovery of dense non-aqueous liquids (DNAPLs) using pump-and-treat technology generally does not achieve regulatory cleanup criteria for dissolved phase concentrations in groundwater, the technology is commonly used to achieve two alternate goals--to recover DNAPL mass and to prevent or slow down the spread of DNAPL pools. Both the physico-chemical characteristics of the DNAPL and the hydrogeologic characteristics of the subsurface determine the effectiveness of DNAPL pump-and-treat systems in achieving these goals. Physico-chemical characteristics include density, viscosity, interfacial tension, and solubility. Some of these parameters can change naturally over time, and some can be manipulated using enhanced recovery agents, such as steam or surfactants. Hydrogeologic characteristics include hydraulic conductivity, anisotropy, heterogeneity, fracture porosity, capillary pressure, and hydraulic gradients. The operation of a pump-and-treat system necessarily affects the hydraulic gradients and capillary pressures governing subsurface fluid flow at a DNAPL site. Both naturally occurring low-permeability zones and man-made, compacted clay liners influence DNAPL migration. The performance of a DNAPL pump-and-treat system changes with time. High mass removal may occur early in the operation of such a system, whereas DNAPL migration away from the recovery wells or even out of the pumped hydrostratigraphic unit may dominate later stages of operation of the system. A comparison of several interim corrective measures (ICM) pump-and-treat systems at a site in the Gulf Coast illustrates the combined effects of both natural and man-made controls on the performance of the DNAPL recovery systems.

  14. Fluvial wood function downstream of beaver versus man-made dams in headwater streams in Massachusetts, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, G. C.; DeVito, L. F.; Munz, K. T.; Lisius, G.

    2014-12-01

    Fluvial wood is an essential component of stream ecosystems by providing habitat, increasing accumulation of organic matter, and increasing the processing of nutrients and other materials. However, years of channel alterations in Massachusetts have resulted in low wood loads despite the afforestation that has occurred since the early 1900s. Streams have also been impacted by a large density of dams, built during industrialization, and reduction of the beaver population. Beavers were reintroduced to Massachusetts in the 1940s and they have since migrated throughout the state. Beaver dams impound water, which traps sediment and results in the development of complex channel patterns and more ecologically productive and diverse habitats than those found adjacent to man-made dams. To develop better management practices for dam removal it is essential that we understand the geomorphic and ecologic function of wood in these channels and the interconnections with floodplain dynamics and stream water chemistry. We investigate the connections among fluvial wood, channel morphology, floodplain soil moisture dynamics, and stream water chemistry in six watersheds in Massachusetts that have been impacted by either beaver or man-made dams. We hypothesize that wood load will be significantly higher below beaver dams, subsequently altering channel morphology, water chemistry, and floodplain soil moisture. Reaches are surveyed up- and downstream of each type of dam to better understand the impact dams have on the fluvial system. Surveys include a longitudinal profile, paired with dissolved oxygen and ammonium measurements, cross-section and fluvial wood surveys, hydraulic measurements, and floodplain soil moisture mapping. We found that dissolved oxygen mirrored the channel morphology, but did not vary significantly between reaches. Wood loads were significantly larger downstream of beaver dams, which resulted in significant changes to the ammonium levels. Floodplain soil moisture

  15. Design considerations for a Space Station radiation shield for protection from both man-made and natural sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolch, Wesley E.; Peddicord, K. Lee; Felsher, Harry; Smith, Simon

    1994-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze scenarios involving the use of nuclear-power vehicles in the vicinity of a manned Space Station (SS) in low-earth-orbit (LEO) to quantify their radiological impact to the station crew. In limiting the radiant dose to crew members, mission planners may (1) shut the reactor down prior to reentry, (2) position the vehicle at a prescribed parking distance, and (3) deploy radiation shield about the shutdown reactor. The current report focuses on the third option in which point-kernel gamma-ray shielding calculations were performed for a variety of shield configurations for both nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) and nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) vehicles. For a returning NTR vehicle, calculations indicate that a 14.9 MT shield would be needed to limit the integrated crew exposure to no more than 0.05 Sv over a period of six months (25 percent of the allowable exposure to man-made radiation sources). During periods of low vehicular activity in LEO, the shield may be redeployed about the SS habitation module in order to decrease crew exposures to trapped proton radiations by approximately a factor of 10. The corresponding shield mass required for deployment at a returning NEP vehicle is 2.21 MT. Additional scenarios examined include the radioactivation of various metals as might be found in tools used in EVA activities.

  16. Rescue and Emergency Management of a Man-Made Disaster: Lesson Learnt from a Collapse Factory Building, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Animesh; Mashreky, Saidur Rahman; Humaira, Tasnuva; Dalal, Koustuv

    2015-01-01

    A tragic disaster occurred on April 24, 2013, in Bangladesh, when a nine storied building in a suburban area collapsed and killed 1115 people and injured many more. The study describes the process of rescue operation and emergency management services provided in the event. Data were collected using qualitative methods including in-depth interviews and a focus group discussion with the involved medical students, doctors, volunteers, and local people. Immediately after the disaster, rescue teams came to the place from Bangladesh Armed Forces, Bangladesh Navy, Bangladesh Air Force, and Dhaka Metropolitan and local Police and doctors, medical students, and nurses from nearby medical college hospitals and private hospitals and students from colleges and universities including local civil people. Doctors and medical students provided 24-hour services at the disaster place and in hospitals. Minor injured patients were treated at health camps and major injured patients were immediately carried to nearby hospital. Despite the limitations of a low resource setting, Bangladesh faced a tremendous challenge to manage the man-made disaster and experienced enormous support from different sectors of society to manage the disaster carefully and saved thousands of lives. This effort could help to develop a standard emergency management system applicable to Bangladesh and other counties with similar settings. PMID:25954767

  17. Long-term health effects in hamsters and rats exposed chronically to man-made vitreous fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.M.; Ortiz, L.W.; Archuleta, R.F.; Johnson, N.F.

    1986-01-01

    Rats and hamsters were exposed to several types of airborne man-made vitreous fibers. Exposure protocols were ''nose-only'' 6 h a day, 5 d a week for 24 m with surviving animals maintained for the rest of their lives. Challenge aerosols consisted of 4 types of fibrous glass, 1 refractory ceramic fiber (RCF), and 1 mineral wool fiber. UICC crocidolite asbestos and clean air served as positive and negative controls for the inhalation groups. Groups of additional controls were unmanipulated caged animals, intraperitoneally (IP) injected animals, and intratracheally (IT) instilled animals. Animals, after their deaths, were examined macroscopically and microscopically. Fiber lung burdens were significant for the inhalation exposures and related to the mean diameters of the fibrous challenge aerosols. The inhalation exposures with MMVF did not result in any adverse effects except for a mesothelioma of the lung in 1 hamster exposed to the RCF, not a statistically significant finding. Consistent with other reported work, abdominal mesotheliomas were induced in the groups of hamsters and rats injected IP with 0.45-micron mean diameter fibrous glass, RCF, and crocidolite asbestos. With IT instillations, primary lung tumors were found only in hamsters and rats receiving UICC crocidolite; no lung tumors occurred in animals instilled IT with 2 types of MMVF. 28 refs., 2 figs., 18 tabs.

  18. Estimating renewal timescales with residence time and connectivity in an urban man-made lake in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xueping; Xu, Liping; Zhang, Chen

    2016-07-01

    Residence times and connectivity are computed for 12 subregions in an urban man-made lake in China using a high-resolution tracer-transport model. The renewal timescales are explicitly defined and computed for two groups of four freshwater inflow scenarios related to water diversion projects. First, the timescale values are computed and compared using different computational criteria for the upper limit of integration in the residence time equation. The sensitivity analysis suggests that a calculation time of 300 days is necessary to satisfy the relative error (0.001) and 5 % cutoff value criteria. Secondly, the residence times can range from 1.5 to 102 and 1.0 to 66 days under low and high flow conditions, respectively. Water in the inner lake would reside in the lake for less than 66 days prior to exiting the region of interest. The timescale values can be applied to impact studies that investigate the extent of sudden water pollution events that initially affect a subdomain of a lake. Finally, the lacustrine residence times are decomposed into the different subregion residence times, resulting in a connectivity matrix. This matrix can illustrate preferential connections among the individual subregions and reveal hidden patterns relating to local hydrodynamics in the lake. PMID:27040544

  19. Man-Made Organic Compounds in Source Water of Nine Community Water Systems that Withdraw from Streams, 2002-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kingsbury, James A.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Hamilton, Pixie A.

    2008-01-01

    Initial findings from a national study by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) characterize the occurrence of about 250 anthropogenic organic compounds in source water (defined as water collected at a surface-water intake prior to water treatment) at nine community water systems in nine States in the Nation. The organic compounds analyzed in this study are primarily man-made and include pesticides, solvents, gasoline hydrocarbons, personal-care and domestic-use products, disinfection by-products, and manufacturing additives. The study also describes and compares the occurrence of selected compounds detected in source water with their occurrence in finished water, which is defined as water that has passed through treatment processes but prior to distribution. This fact sheet summarizes major findings and implications of the study and serves as a companion product to two USGS reports that present more detailed and technical information for the nine systems studied during 2002-05 (Carter and others, 2007; Kingsbury and others, 2008).

  20. Influence of airspace geometry and surfactant on the retention of man-made vitreous fibers (MMVF 10a).

    PubMed Central

    Geiser, Marianne; Matter, Matthias; Maye, Isabelle; Im Hof, Vinzenz; Gehr, Peter; Schürch, Samuel

    2003-01-01

    Inhaled and deposited man-made vitreous fibers (MMVF) 10a (low-fluorine preparation of Schuller 901 insulation glass) were studied by electron microscopy in hamster lungs, fixed by intravascular perfusion within 23 +/- 2 min (SD) of the initial inhalation. We found fibers on the surfaces of conducting airways and alveoli. In the airways, 89% of the fibers were totally and 11% partially covered by lining-layer material. In the alveoli, 32% of the fibers were totally submersed; others touched the alveolar wall, stuck at one end, bridging the airspace. Studies in a surface balance showed that fibers were immersed into the aqueous subphase by approximately 50% at film surface tensions of 20-25 mJ/m2) and were submersed (totally immersed; i.e., totally surrounded by fluid) at approximately 10 mJ/m2). Fibers were also found to be phagocytosed by macrophages. We found a substantial number of particle profiles within alveolar blood capillaries. Fiber length and alveolar geometry appear to be important limiting factors for the submersion of vitreous fibers into the lungs' surface lining layer. PMID:12782489

  1. News from the "blowout", a man-made methane pockmark in the North Sea: chemosynthetic communities and microbial methane oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinle, Lea I.; Wilfert, Philipp; Schmidt, Mark; Bryant, Lee; Haeckel, Matthias; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Linke, Peter; Sommer, Stefan; Treude, Tina; Niemann, Helge

    2013-04-01

    The accidental penetration of a base-Quaternary shallow gas pocket by a drilling rig in 1990 caused a "blowout" in the British sector of the North Sea (57°55.29' N, 01°37.86' E). Large quantities of methane have been seeping out of this man-made pockmark ever since. As the onset of gas seepage is well constrained, this site can be used as a natural laboratory to gain information on the development of methane oxidizing microbial communities at cold seeps. During an expedition with the R/V Celtic Explorer in July and August 2012, we collected sediments by video-guided push-coring with an ROV (Kiel 6000) along a gradient from inside the crater (close to where a jet of methane bubbles enters the water column) outwards. We also sampled the water column in a grid above the blowout at three different depths. In this presentation, we provide evidence for the establishment of methanotrophic communities in the sediment (AOM communities) on a time scale of decades. Furthermore, we will report data on methane concentrations and anaerobic methane oxidation rates in the sediment. Finally, we will also discuss the spatial distribution of methane and aerobic methane oxidation rates in the water column.

  2. Phased Array Approach To Retrieve Gases, Liquids, Or Solids From Subsurface And Subaqueous Geologic Or Man-Made Formations

    DOEpatents

    Rynne, Timothy M.; Spadaro, John F.; Iovenitti, Joe L.; Dering, John P.; Hill, Donald G.

    1998-10-27

    A method of enhancing the remediation of contaminated soils and ground water, production of oil and gas, and production of any solid, gas, and/or liquid from subsurface geologic and man-made formations including the steps of estimating the geometric boundaries of the region containing the material to be recovered, drilling a recovery well(s) into subsurface in a strategic location to recover the material of interest, establishing multiple sources of acoustical power in an array about and spaced-apart from the surface or at various depths below the surface in a borehole(s) and/or well(s), directing a volume of acoustical excitation from the sources into the region containing the material to be recovered, the excitation in the form of either controllable sinusoidal, square, pulsed, or various combinations of these three waveforms, and controlling the phasing, frequency, power, duration, and direction of these waveforms from the sources to increase and control the intensity of acoustical excitation in the region of the material to be recovered to enhance. the recovery of said material from the recovery well(s). The invention will augment any technology affecting the removal of materials from the subsurface.

  3. The role of ocean observatories in monitoring for potential effects of man-made sound on the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, David L.; D'Spain, Gerald L.; Miller, James H.; Frisk, George V.

    2005-04-01

    An important question is whether or not man-made sounds have an adverse long-term impact on the ocean environment. Clear evidence exists that an impact has occurred on some individual animals in a few cases. However, according to the 2003 National Academy of Sciences report, the degree of impact on any marine mammal population or on ocean ecosystems as a whole is unknown. An essential component of an approach to addressing this question is an ocean noise/marine ecosystem monitoring system. The monitoring regions should be global in extent and include biologically sensitive areas. The effort should be sustained so that long-term trends in ocean noise levels can be evaluated. An important aspect of the data collection effort is the type and quality of ancillary information. Ancillary data on the marine ecosystems allows determination of any impacts and data on the sources of marine noise and marine environmental properties which are required to develop metrics for evaluating and predicting the characteristics of the noise field. The ocean observatory system presently being contemplated could play an important role in establishing an ocean noise monitoring capability. [Work supported through the National Ocean Partnership Program, with sponsorship from ONR, NOAA, NSF, and USGS.

  4. Eddy covariance flux measurements over a man made lake during the ALEX 2014 field campaign in South Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgado, R.; Potes, M.; Albino, A.; Rodrigues, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Energy, vapor, CO2 and momentum exchanges between water and air were measured using the new IRGASON eddy covariance system, an integrated open-path CO2 /H2O Gas Analyser and 3D Sonic Anemometer, installed on a instrumented floating platform (Figure 1) in the Alqueva reservoir, a large man made lake (area of 250 km2) in South Portugal. Radiation sensors were also mounted on the raft in order to measure near surface up and down radiative fluxes, while the water temperature profile below the platform were continuously archived. An accelerometer was mounted on the support bar near the sonic anemometer in order to correct the vertical component of the wind due to the the raft swing. The measurements were performed during the ALqueva hydro-meteorological EXperiment, ALEX 2014, between June and September 2014. ALEX 2014 ( http://www.alex2014.cge.uevora.pt) was an integrated field campaign with measurements of chemical, physical and biological parameters at different experimental sites in the reservoir and in its surrounding area. Worldwide, there are few reported flux measurements over lakes. This set of observations contribute to improve the characterization of the exchanges between a lake and the atmosphere in a semi-arid climate. The eddy covariance estimates of lake evaporation are compared against other methods.

  5. Toxic effects of man-made mineral fibers with particular reference to ceramic fibers. Technical report, December 1986-January 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, A.

    1987-09-01

    In order to evaluate the potential hazards of man-made mineral fibers (MMMF): particularly ceramic fibers in the Navy work environment, the following areas are considered. First, the current standards and recommendations of other agencies are presented as an overview of current consensus as to relative hazards of asbestos, MMMF, and cristobalite (a form of crystalline silica). Then, a summary of recent epidemiological evidence is presented. These data should be the most relevant for human exposure. Unfortunately, there are no data for workers in the ceramic-fiber field. Then a review is presented of the data from animal experiments which employed exposure by inhalation, intratracheal instillation, and intrapleural or intraperitoneal injection. The experiments reviewed involve only non-ceramic MMMF. Some detail of the protocol and results of each experiment are presented to provide a better understanding of the non-uniformity of the protocols used. Another issue of particular importance in understanding fiber toxicity is the durability of the fiber. These data are presented for non ceramic MMMF.

  6. European perspectives on regional estimates of standing water bodies and the relevance of man-made ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terasmaa, Jaanus; Bartout, Pascal; Marzecova, Agata; Touchart, Laurent; Koff, Tiiu; Choffel, Quentin; Kapanen, Galina; Maleval, Véronique; Millot, Camille; Qsair, Zoubida; Vandel, Egert

    2015-04-01

    threshold limit 0.01 ha which will illustrate the quantitative importance of very small often man-made ponds, which are however, abundant cultural heritage in many parts of Europe. Secondly, by comparing detailed national inventories compiled for France and Estonia, we will introduce usefulness of the the 'local to global' approach in which the local databases may significantly strengthen the precision of the regional (EU) level analysis. Overall, we will disss that all standing water bodies - including small and man-made ponds - play an important role in ecosystem services and require careful management to avoid hydrological and environmental deterioration. References: Verpoorter et al. (2014) Geophysical Research Letters, 41. Bartout & Touchart,(2013) Annales de Géographie, 691. Downing et al., (2006) Limnology and Oceanography, 51(5). Kuusisto & Raatikainen, (1988) Terra, 102. Meybeck, (1995) in Lerman et al., Physics and chemistry of lakes. Rjanžin, (2005) Priroda, 4.

  7. Investigation of Natural and Man-Made Radiation Effects on Crews on Long Duration Space Missions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bolch, W.E.; Parlos, A.

    1996-02-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has studied a variety of mission scenarios designed to establish a permanent human presence on the surface of Mars. Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) is one of the possible elements in this program. During the initial stages of vehicle design work, careful consideration must be given to not only the shielding requirements of natural space radiation, but to the shielding and configuration requirements of the on-board reactors. In this work, the radiation transport code MCNP has been used to make initial estimates of crew exposures to reactor radiation fields for a specific manned NEP vehicle design. In this design, three 25 MW(sub th), scaled SP-100-class reactors are shielded by three identical shields. Each shield has layers of beryllium, tungsten, and lithium hydride between the reactor and the crew compartment. Separate calculations are made of both the exiting neutron and gamma fluxes from the reactors during beginning-of-life, full-power operation. This data is then used as the source terms for particle transport in MCNP. The total gamma and neutron fluxes exiting the reactor shields are recorded and separate transport calculations are then performed for a 10 g/sq cm crew compartment aluminum thickness. Estimates of crew exposures have been assessed for various thicknesses of the shield tungsten and lithium hydride layers. A minimal tungsten thickness of 20 cm is required to shield the reactor photons below the 0.05 Sv/y man-made radiation limit. In addition to a 20-cm thick tungsten layer, a 40-cm thick lithium hydride layer is required to shield the reactor neutrons below the annual limit. If the tungsten layer is 30-cm thick, the lithium hydride layer should be at least 30-cm thick. These estimates do not take into account the photons generated by neutron interactions inside the shield because the MCNP neutron cross sections did not allow reliable estimates of photon production in these materials.

  8. Effect of cooling rate on timing and dynamics of crystallization within a man-made magma body

    SciTech Connect

    Dunbar, N.W.; Jacobs, G.K.; Naney, M.T. )

    1992-01-01

    A 1.3 [times] 10[sup 7] g, 3 m diameter, hemispheric-shaped, man-made mafic melt produced by inductance heating was allowed to cool naturally, dropping from a maximum temperature of 1,500 C to 500 C in 6 days. The cooled melt was found to be almost completely crystalline, and is composed dominantly of unzoned pyroxene and plagioclase. A thermal arrest, a 20 hr period of constant temperature (1,140 C) observed during cooling resulted from the release of latent heat during crystallization. However, crystallization within the central part of the melt probably began at a higher temperature, as indicated by thermal perturbations between 1,300 C and 1,140 C. Comparison of results from simple conductive cooling models with the observed cooling curves influenced by latent heat input allows estimates of the timing of crystalline growth. Growth rates for plagioclase and pyroxene are estimated to range between 10[sup [minus]5] and 10[sup [minus]6] cm/sec. Although the melt was physically, chemically, and thermally homogeneous at the time that cooling was initiated, the crystal morphology and composition varies systematically with distance from the edge of the melt, presumably as a function of cooling rate and degree of undercooling at the time that crystallization was initiated. Crystals near the edge of the melt, where cooling was most rapid are characterized by disequilibrium skeletal or spherulitic morphologies. With increased proximity to the interior, and progressively slower cooling rates, crystal morphology grade from chain-like to lath-like, and finally to tabular in the slowest-cooled areas. The chemical composition of the diopsidic pyroxene also varies as function of growth rate. Crystals that grew near the edge of the melt are enriched with respect to Al, and depleted with respect to Mg as compared to crystals from the central area.

  9. Biopersistences of man-made vitreous fibers and crocidolite fibers in rat lungs following short-term exposures.

    PubMed Central

    Musselman, R P; Miiller, W C; Eastes, W; Hadley, J G; Kamstrup, O; Thevenaz, P; Hesterberg, T W

    1994-01-01

    Biopersistence of commercial man-made vitreous fibers (MMVF) and crocidolite were studied in Fischer 344 rats. MMVF used were size-selected to be rat-respirable, and rats were exposed nose-only 6 h/day for 5 days to gravimetric concentrations (30 mg/m3) of two fiber glass compositions--a rockwool, and a slagwool--or to 10 mg/m3 of long-fibered crocidolite, or to filtered air. Animals were sacrificed at 1 hr, 1, 5, 31, 90, 180, 270, 365, and 545 days after exposure stopped. Fibers were recovered from digested lung tissue to determine changes in concentrations (fibers/mg dry lung) and fiber retentions (expressed as percent of day 1 retention [PR]) for selected dimension categories. One-day average concentrations of lung-retained MMVF and crocidolite fibers, of diameter > or = 0.5 micron or > 20 microns in length, were nearly equal, permitting direct comparisons between MMVF and crocidolite. At 270 days average PR for MMVF > or = 0.5 micron in diameter were from 3 to 6 +/- 2% and 27 +/- 9% for crocidolite. For fibers > 20 microns, PR were 1 to 4 +/- 4% for MMVF and 37 +/- 20% for crocidolite. At 545 days, MMVF > 20 microns in length were at background level while concentration of crocidolite fibers > 20 microns in length remained at 2000 +/- 400 f/mg DL (dry lung), or 38 +/- 9% of day-1 retention. These results suggest strongly that MMVF dissolved or fractured in vivo whereas crocidolite fibers did not change. PMID:7882918

  10. Relationship between lung biopersistence and biological effects of man-made vitreous fibers after chronic inhalation in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Hesterberg, T W; Miiller, W C; Mast, R; McConnell, E E; Bernstein, D M; Anderson, R

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the relationship between fiber biopersistence and the chronic toxicity of different chemical compositions of man-made vitreous fibers (MMVF) in the lung. Rats were exposed in "nose-only" inhalation chambers, 6 hr/day, 5 days/week, for 24 months to aerosol concentrations of 30 mg/m3 containing comparable fiber numbers and similar dimensions of fibrous glass (FG) or refractory ceramic fiber (RCF). Interim sacrifices were performed periodically to monitor fiber number and dimensions in the lung and the progression of pulmonary alterations. At each interim sacrifice, three to six recovery animals were removed from each exposure group and held until two years to determine the biopersistence of fibers after different exposure times. Fibers were recovered from the ashed lungs, counted, and measured using optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fiber chemistry was assessed in 91-week recovery lungs using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. RCF induced lung fibrosis and an elevation in lung tumors and pleural mesotheliomas. FG exposure resulted in no lung fibrosis, no statistically significant increase in the lung tumor incidence, and no mesotheliomas. After two years of continuous exposure, the number of World Health Organization fibers per milligram dry lung recovered from RCF and FG exposed lungs was comparable. EDS analysis of recovery lungs showed that most of the alkalis and alkaline earths had leached from the FG fibers over time. A slight change in RCF chemistry was observed. These findings indicate that the change in the chemical composition of fibers may be an important determinant of the chronic toxicity of MMVFs. PMID:7882917

  11. Natural and man-made disasters: the vulnerability of women-headed households and children without families.

    PubMed

    Sapir, D G

    1993-01-01

    Since 1980, over 2 million people have died as an immediate result of natural and man-made disasters and by 1992, the refugee population registered nearly 16 million people. This article reviews the human impact of disasters as a composite of two elements: the catastrophic event itself and the vulnerability of people. It also examines the specific case of women and children in the current world emergency context. It identifies four broad policy areas that affect women and children in disaster situations and discusses them with examples and field evidence. The first policy area addresses humanitarian assistance and armed conflicts, and armed conflict and international humanitarian law, the use of food as instrument of war, mines and civilian disability, and rape and sexual violence are discussed within this context. The second problem discussed is the issue of unaccompanied and abandoned children in terms of its magnitude and implications for relief response. Thirdly, the article examines the differential risks in emergencies for mortality and morbidity, specifically for women and children. Finally, it addresses certain policies and approaches to disaster rehabilitation which effectively mirror and reinforce inherent inequities in the affected society. The article notes that: (i) the largest proportion of disaster victims today arise from civil strife and food crises and that the majority of those killed, wounded and permanently disabled are women and children; and (ii) the ability of any country to respond effectively to disasters depends on the strength of its health and social infrastructure, and its overall developmental status. It concludes by identifying seven areas where concrete measures could be taken to improve the current situation. PMID:8017082

  12. Monitoring climate and man-made induced variations in terrestrial water storage (TWS) across Africa using GRACE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M. E.; Sultan, M.; Wahr, J. M.; Yan, E.; Bonin, J. A.; Chouinard, K.

    2012-12-01

    It is common practice for researchers engaged in research related to climate change to examine the temporal variations in relevant climatic parameters (e.g., temperature, precipitation) and to extract and examine drought indices reproduced from one or more such parameters. Drought indices (meteorological, agricultural and hydrological) define departures from normal conditions and are used as proxies for monitoring water availability. Many of these indices exclude significant controlling factor(s), do not work well in specific settings and regions, and often require long (≥50 yr) calibration time periods and substantial meteorological data, limiting their application in areas lacking adequate observational networks. Additional uncertainties are introduced by the models used in computing model-dependent indices. Aside from these uncertainties, none of these indices measure the variability in terrestrial water storage (TWS), a term that refers to the total vertically integrated water content in an area regardless of the reservoir in which it resides. Inter-annual trends in TWS were extracted from monthly Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data acquired (04/2002 to 08/2011) over Africa and correlated (in a GIS environment) with relevant temporal remote sensing, geologic, hydrologic, climatic, and topographic datasets. Findings include the following: (1) large sectors of Africa are undergoing statistically significant variations (+36 mm/yr to -16 mm/yr) due to natural and man-made causes; (2) warming of the tropical Atlantic ocean apparently intensified Atlantic monsoons and increased precipitation and TWS over western and central Africa's coastal plains, proximal mountainous source areas, and inland areas as far as central Chad; (3) warming in the central Indian Ocean decreased precipitation and TWS over eastern and southern Africa; (4) the high frequency of negative phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) increased precipitation and TWS over

  13. 19 CFR 10.425 - Transit and transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transit and transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel goods. 10.425 Section 10.425 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC....

  14. 19 CFR 10.425 - Transit and transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transit and transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel goods. 10.425 Section 10.425 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC....

  15. 19 CFR 10.425 - Transit and transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transit and transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel goods. 10.425 Section 10.425 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC....

  16. 19 CFR 10.425 - Transit and transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transit and transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel goods. 10.425 Section 10.425 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC....

  17. 19 CFR 10.425 - Transit and transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transit and transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel goods. 10.425 Section 10.425 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC....

  18. Testing surface gas monitoring methods at sites of natural and man-made CO2 seepage in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D.; Lister, R.; Barkwith, A.; Barlow, T.; Shaw, R.; Strutt, M.; Lombardi, S.; Beaubien, S.; Annunziatellis, A.; Graziani, S.

    2011-12-01

    temporal variability that is best achieved through continuous monitoring methods. Mobile open path laser CO2 and CH4 analysers have proved capable of detecting small gas vents at natural seepage, landfill and experimental sites. Both known and unknown features have been identified and areas accessible to all-terrain vehicles can be covered quickly. Mobile IR methods have also proved effective and can be deployed on foot in areas where vehicle access is not possible. Continuous monitoring has been tested successfully using eddy covariance and accumulation chamber arrays for CO2 flux, and buried or surface mounted monitoring stations for soil gas. Open path lasers can also be deployed at fixed locations for continuous monitoring. Useful experience has been gained through testing at natural and man-made CO2 seepage sites, and this has been transferred to develop and implement monitoring plans at proposed and actual CO2 storage sites.

  19. Man-made marine debris and sea turtle strandings on beaches of the upper Texas and southwestern Louisiana coasts, June 1987 through September 1989. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Duronslet, M.J.; Revera, D.B.; Stanley, K.M.

    1991-02-01

    The upper Texas and southwestern Louisiana coastlines were divided into six sampling zones to survey the amounts, types and rates of accumulation of man-made marine debris, the number of sea turtle strandings, the incidence of sea turtle entanglements in marine debris and the incidence of ingestion of such debris by sea turtles. From June 1987 through September 1989, 473 sample plots were examined for marine debris. Significant differences were detected in mean number of debris items per 100 sq m of beach sampled by year, zone and month. Significant differences in mean weight of debris items per 100 sq m of beach sampled were detected by month and zone. Both number and weights (per 100 sq m) of debris were lowest in the winter months. Number per 100 sq m was greatest in August while weight per 100 sq m peaked in May. Tar balls and plastic items were the most frequently encountered marine debris items. Wooden items had the highest average weights while tar balls and polystyrene foam were the lightest items collected. A total of 171 sea turtles stranded on the surveyed beaches during the study. Of 26 gastrointestinal tracts examined, 16 had ingested some form of man-made debris. Six turtles were entangled in man-made debris and 9 were live stranded.

  20. Estimation of annual effective dose due to natural and man-made radionuclides in the metropolitan area of the Bay of Cadiz (SW of Spain).

    PubMed

    Casas-Ruiz, M; Ligero, R A; Barbero, L

    2012-06-01

    In order to investigate the radiological hazard of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) and man-made (137)Cs radionuclide in the Bay of Cádiz, 149 samples of sediments have been analysed. Activity concentration in all the samples was determined using a HPGe detection system. Activity concentrations values of (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in the samples were 12.6±2.6 (2.5-40.6), 18.5±4.0 (2.8-73.4), 451±45 (105-1342) and 3.2±1.3 (0.2-16.0) Bq kg(-1), respectively. Outdoor external dose rate due to natural and man-made radionuclides was calculated to be 35.79±1.69 (4.71-119.16) nGy h(-1) and annual effective dose was estimated to be 43.89±2.27 (5.78-146.14) µSv y(-1). Results showed low levels of radioactivity due to NORM and man-made (137)Cs radionuclide in marine sediments recovered from the Bay of Cádiz (Spain), discarding any significant radiological risks related to human activities of the area. Furthermore, the obtained data set could be used as background levels for future research. PMID:21896553

  1. The long-term impact of a man-made disaster: An examination of a small town in the aftermath of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Reactor Accident.

    PubMed

    Goldsteen, R; Schorr, J K

    1982-03-01

    This paper explores the long-term effects of a nuclear accident on residents' perceptions of their physical and mental health, their trust of public officials, and their attitudes toward the future risks of nuclear power generation In their community. We find that in the period after the accident at Three Mile Island that there are constant or Increasing levels of distress reported by community residents. We conclude that the effects of a technological disaster may often be more enduring than those natural disaster and that greater research efforts should be made to Investigate the long-term consequences of man-made catastrophies of all types. PMID:20958512

  2. [Genetic variability of the natural populations and man-made forests of Pinus sylvestris L. from Kremenets Hills and Maloe Poles'e].

    PubMed

    Korshikov, I I; Lisnichuk, A N; Velikorid'ko, T I

    2009-01-01

    Comparative analysis of genetic variability of three relic populations and six forest stands of different age grown in Kremenets Hills and Maloye Polesye has been carried out at 19 allozyme loci. All populations and four forest stands were characterized by a low level of heterozygosity (Ho = 0.245-0.300). In two other stands it was significantly higher (H0 = 0.245-0.300). Allelic and genotypic variability of the natural populations are reproduced in the studied stands. However, genetic distance among man-made stands and populations (D(Ncp) = 0.014) is considerably higher than that among three populations (D(Ncp) = 0.003). PMID:20458964

  3. Influence of stratigraphic factors on the failure mechanisms of sinkholes related to man-made underground caves at Cutrofiano (South-Eastern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lollino, Piernicola; Margiotta, Stefano; Parise, Mario

    2013-04-01

    An increasing number of areas in southern Italy are being interested by sinkholes related to the presence of man-made cavities, with underground quarries representing the more problematic typology of anthropogenic caves in terms of instability. The case of Cutrofiano (Apulia, SE Italy) is here presented as a representative case study. This territory is well known for the underground quarrying activity of soft calcarenitic rocks that caused in the last decades widespread phenomena of subsidence at the surface, with extensive damage and problems to the main communication routes in the area. A very complex and intricate network of subterranean galleries is present underground, for a total development on the order of several tens of kilometres. The Gravina Calcarenite Formation, that is the object of the underground quarries, consists of whitish calcarenite with an upper greenish clayey-sandy interval rich in fossils. This formation is overlain by grey sandy clays (Subapennine Clays) grading upward to fossil-rich sands (Brindisi Sands). In recent years, clay mining has been resumed at the ground surface, following the opening of a cement factory, and resulting in the realization of wide open-pit quarries. The local sedimentary sequence is closed by terraced calcarenite deposits, that holds a phreatic groundwater body. The results of detailed geological, geomorphological and geomechanical surveys, supported by laboratory tests, show that in the Cutrofiano area the thickness of the stratigraphical succession, the depth of the underground galleries, the structural conditions of the rock mass, and the failure mechanisms observed within the quarries are variable. The geological model reconstructed represents the base for the implementation of numerical simulations, which are aimed at defining the eventual mechanisms of rock failure, up to the formation of the sinkhole. Local changes in the stratigraphy are very common in the area, due to the overall slight attitude of the

  4. Man-Made Climatic Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsberg, Helmut E.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews environmental studies which show that national climatic fluctuations vary over a wide range. Solar radiation, earth temperatures, precipitation, atmospheric gases and suspended particulates are discussed in relation to urban and extraurban effects. Local weather modifications and attempts at climate control by man seem to have substantial…

  5. An experiment protocol for a search for radio signals of extraterrestrial intelligent origin in the presence of man-made radio frequency sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    Some aspects of signal extraction in a microwave search for evidence of extraterrestrial intelligence are examined. Parametric relations are summarized which are applicable to a microwave search of constrained duration that employs FFT spectrum-analyzer receivers, with sensitivity enhancement by spectrum accumulation and detection by a threshold criterion. Three types of natural and man-made false alarms are identified, the probability of false alarm in a single data channel is computed, and the implications of false alarms for a constant-beamwidth sky survey are considered. It is shown that the key to an efficient search is the prompt and unambiguous elimination of false alarms. An experimental protocol is suggested which eliminates spurious signals primarily through procedural techniques involving antenna repointing, delayed repeated observations, and storage of particular historical parameters for suspect signals.

  6. Is the preference of natural versus man-made scenes driven by bottom–up processing of the visual features of nature?

    PubMed Central

    Kardan, Omid; Demiralp, Emre; Hout, Michael C.; Hunter, MaryCarol R.; Karimi, Hossein; Hanayik, Taylor; Yourganov, Grigori; Jonides, John; Berman, Marc G.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that viewing images of nature scenes can have a beneficial effect on memory, attention, and mood. In this study, we aimed to determine whether the preference of natural versus man-made scenes is driven by bottom–up processing of the low-level visual features of nature. We used participants’ ratings of perceived naturalness as well as esthetic preference for 307 images with varied natural and urban content. We then quantified 10 low-level image features for each image (a combination of spatial and color properties). These features were used to predict esthetic preference in the images, as well as to decompose perceived naturalness to its predictable (modeled by the low-level visual features) and non-modeled aspects. Interactions of these separate aspects of naturalness with the time it took to make a preference judgment showed that naturalness based on low-level features related more to preference when the judgment was faster (bottom–up). On the other hand, perceived naturalness that was not modeled by low-level features was related more to preference when the judgment was slower. A quadratic discriminant classification analysis showed how relevant each aspect of naturalness (modeled and non-modeled) was to predicting preference ratings, as well as the image features on their own. Finally, we compared the effect of color-related and structure-related modeled naturalness, and the remaining unmodeled naturalness in predicting esthetic preference. In summary, bottom–up (color and spatial) properties of natural images captured by our features and the non-modeled naturalness are important to esthetic judgments of natural and man-made scenes, with each predicting unique variance. PMID:25954228

  7. Increases of thrombomodulin activity and antigen level on human umbilical vein endothelial cells treated with asbestos and man-made mineral fibers.

    PubMed

    Urano, H; Gotoh, S; Shirahata, A; Higashi, K; Karasaki, Y

    1997-07-01

    The potential influences of crocidolite asbestos fibers and man made mineral fibers (potassium titanate whisker and magnesium sulfate whisker) on a procoagulant system of human umbilical vein-endothelial cells (HUVECs) were investigated by measuring the activity and antigen level of thrombomodulin (TM) on the cell surface. Statistically significant increases in both the TM activity and TM antigen level were observed on HUVECs treated with crocidolite asbestos fibers for 48 h and 72 h compared to untreated cells at low concentrations of the fibers which showed no sign of a cytotoxic effect on the cells. An extensive increase in both the TM activity and TM antigen level was also observed on HUVECs treated with potassium titanate whisker or magnesium sulfate whisker for 48 h and 72 h. A statistical analysis revealed that these fibers had almost the same effects on the increases in both TM activity and the TM antigen level of HUVECs treated with the fibers for 48 h and 72 h, but a treatment of magnesium sulfate whisker at more than 1.25 micrograms/ml for 24 h was slightly more effective in increasing TM activity on HUVECs compared to other fibers (p < 0.05). The [3H]leucine incorporation in HUVECs increased when the cells were treated with crocidolite asbestos or man-made mineral fibers (MMMFs), indicating that the increases in TM activity and the TM antigen level on HUVECs directly exposed to those fibers may not reflect the sole induction of anticoagulant activities, but the general cell damage induced by the fibers. PMID:9248219

  8. Effect of chlorine and temperature on free-living protozoa in operational man-made water systems (cooling towers and hot sanitary water systems) in Catalonia.

    PubMed

    Canals, Oriol; Serrano-Suárez, Alejandra; Salvadó, Humbert; Méndez, Javier; Cervero-Aragó, Sílvia; Ruiz de Porras, Vicenç; Dellundé, Jordi; Araujo, Rosa

    2015-05-01

    In recent decades, free-living protozoa (FLP) have gained prominence as the focus of research studies due to their pathogenicity to humans and their close relationship with the survival and growth of pathogenic amoeba-resisting bacteria. In the present work, we studied the presence of FLP in operational man-made water systems, i.e. cooling towers (CT) and hot sanitary water systems (HSWS), related to a high risk of Legionella spp. outbreaks, as well as the effect of the biocides used, i.e. chlorine in CT and high temperature in HSWS, on FLP. In CT samples, high-chlorine concentrations (7.5 ± 1.5 mg chlorine L(-1)) reduced the presence of FLP by 63.8 % compared to samples with low-chlorine concentrations (0.04 ± 0.08 mg chlorine L(-1)). Flagellates and amoebae were observed in samples collected with a level of 8 mg chlorine L(-1), which would indicate that some FLP, including the free-living amoeba (FLA) Acanthamoeba spp., are resistant to the discontinuous chlorine disinfection method used in the CT studied. Regarding HSWS samples, the amount of FLP detected in high-temperatures samples (53.1 ± 5.7 °C) was 38 % lower than in low-temperature samples (27.8 ± 5.8 °C). The effect of high temperature on FLP was chiefly observed in the results obtained by the culture method, in which there was a clear reduction in the presence of FLP at temperatures higher than 50 °C, but not in those obtained by PCR. The findings presented here show that the presence of FLP in operational man-made water systems should be taken into account in future regulations. PMID:25410311

  9. Object level HSI-LIDAR data fusion for automated detection of difficult targets.

    PubMed

    Kanaev, A V; Daniel, B J; Neumann, J G; Kim, A M; Lee, K R

    2011-10-10

    Data fusion from disparate sensors significantly improves automated man-made target detection performance compared to that of just an individual sensor. In particular, it can solve hyperspectral imagery (HSI) detection problems pertaining to low-radiance man-made objects and objects in shadows. We present an algorithm that fuses HSI and LIDAR data for automated detection of man-made objects. LIDAR is used to define a set of potential targets based on physical dimensions, and HSI is then used to discriminate between man-made and natural objects. The discrimination technique is a novel HSI detection concept that uses an HSI detection score localization metric capable of distinguishing between wide-area score distributions inherent to natural objects and highly localized score distributions indicative of man-made targets. A typical man-made localization score was found to be around 0.5 compared to natural background typical localization scores being less than 0.1. PMID:21997101

  10. Currents, Water Budget and Turn-Over Time Within A Man-Made Coastal Mega-Structure: Palm Jumeirah, Southern Arabian Gulf, United Arab Emirates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcante, G.; Kjerfve, B.

    2009-05-01

    Large-scale land reclamation projects along the coastline of Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE), are set to expand from 45 km of natural shoreline to more than 1,500 km by 2010. The increasing scale of coastal development in Dubai has large-scale effects on water movement throughout the project area. Palm Jumeirah is the oldest, most well-developed of several man-made coastal mega-constructions in Dubai. This construction project started 6 years ago, has an overall surface area of 7.9 km2 and a footprint of 23 km2, and is connected to the coast via a 5-km long spine from the mainland to the crescent tip. We made time series observations of hydrographic properties and currents within the Palm Jumeirah Lagoon (PJL) during 29 days in April/May 2008 to examine the current flows, water budget, salt transport, and turn-over time. The currents and water flow within the PJL were quite variable, with stronger currents, greater material transports, lower water temperatures, and slightly lower salinities in areas close to the entrances where flushing is ample. Due to the shallow water depths, we found only weak vertical stratification during a tidal cycle. The lagoon system is comprised of 18 blind channels surrounded by a semi-circular open channel, which in turn is linked to the coastal waters by 4 gaps (one each on the East and West sides and two at the base of the development) in the rocky breakwater that surrounds the development. We found substantial differences in water discharge between the east and west gaps, with high discharge on average exiting the east gap and extremely low water discharge exiting the west gap. Our results indicate that the PJL is flushed unequally between the east and west sides with residence times of 1.2 and 42 days for the east and west sides of the development, respectively. Previous studies of water residence time using the DELFT3D hydrodynamics simulation modeling software did not capture this difference accurately, estimating residence

  11. Parasite fauna of bream Abramis brama and roach Rutilus rutilus from a man-made waterway and a freshwater habitat in northern Germany.

    PubMed

    Rückert, Sonja; Klimpel, Sven; Palm, Harry Wilhelm

    2007-03-13

    Fifty specimens each of bream Abramis brama and roach Rutilus rutilus were examined for metazoan parasite fauna and trichodinid ciliates; 25 specimens of each species were collected from the Kiel Canal, a man-made waterway, and a nearby freshwater lake, the Dieksee. This is the first detailed parasitological examination of A. brama and R. rutilus at these locations: 30 parasite species were found, comprising 4 protozoans, 4 myxozoans, 5 digeneans, 3 monogeneans, 2 cestodes, 6 nematodes, 2 acanthocephalans, 3 crustaceans and 1 hirudinean. The crustacean Caligus lacustris occurred in both habitats while 2 other crustacean species, 2 acanthocephalans and 1 hirudinean were recorded exclusively for the lake habitat. Larval as well as adult stages of the different parasite species were found, indicating that both fish species act as intermediate and final hosts in both habitats. The Kiel Canal (total of 17 parasite species) showed a lower parasite species richness for A. brama and R. rutilus (14 and 10 parasite species, respectively) than the lake (25 parasite species). A. brama had a higher parasite richness (22 species) than R. rutilus (16 species) in the lake habitat. Most parasites collected were of freshwater origin. Consequently, the observed infection pattern of both fish species in the waterway is mainly influenced by the limited salinity tolerance of freshwater parasites, which are negatively affected even by a salinity of 2.3 to 4.5. In the central Kiel Canal, neither fish species was infected with marine parasites of low host specifity. These parasites are either limited by the low salinity at this sampling site (<4.5 to 6.0) or they cannot enter the canal due to the environmental conditions prevailing in this artificial brackish water habitat. Thus, the canal may comprise a natural barrier preventing the distribution of North Sea parasites into the Baltic Sea. However, the brackish water Baltic Sea nematodes Paracuaria adunca and Cosmocephalus obvelatus were

  12. Study of the atmospheric flashes and man-made global phenomena ultraviolet and infrared glow of the night air on the board of satellite "VERNOV"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garipov, Gali; Panasyuk, Mikhael; Svertilov, Sergey; Bogomolov, Vitaliy; Barinova, Vera; Saleev, Kirill

    2016-04-01

    The set of scientific payload for optical observation on-board of "Vernov" satellite, launched at July 8, 2014, had measured transient (millisecond) flashes in the atmosphere in two wavelength bands: ultraviolet (UV,240-380nm) and red-infrared (IR,610-800nm). Global distribution of the flashes, their frequency and time parameters are studied in this work. Transient flashes measured from the satellite frequently were detected in high latitudes in winter time. Flashes in equatorial region were observed in series which were stretched along magnetic meridian and some of them were detected in cloudless regions. At night time when the Earth atmosphere was observed in nadir direction there were registered the optical signals of artificial origin, distributed along the meridian in an extended region of latitude in the Northern and Southern hemispheres of the Earth, modulated by low frequency and at the coincidence of the orbits with the geographic location of the powerful radio stations. Examples of the waveforms of such signals in UV and IR spectral ranges and their global distribution are presented in this presentation. Particular attention is paid to man-made causes of the glow in the ionosphere under the influence of the high power radio wave transmitters of low (LF) and high frequencies (HF). The height of the luminescence source and components of the atmosphere, which can be the sources of this radiation, are discussed.

  13. Benzo[a]pyrene-enhanced mutagenesis by man-made mineral fibres in the lung of lamda-lacI transgenic rats.

    PubMed

    Topinka, J; Loli, P; Hurbáková, M; Kováciková, Z; Volkovová, K; Wolff, T; Oesterle, D; Kyrtopoulos, S A; Georgiadis, P

    2006-03-20

    In an attempt to examine the interaction of man-made mineral fibres with benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), homozygous X-lacI transgenic F344 rats were intratracheally treated with rock (stone) wool RWI and glass wool MMVF 10 fibres together with B[a]P. To analyze the induction of gene mutations by fibres and B[a]P in lung, single doses of 1 and 2 mg fibres/animal or multiple doses of 2 mg fibres/animal were administered weekly on 4 consecutive weeks (total dose 8 mg/animal). B[a]P (10 mg/animal) was administered either simultaneously with fibres (for single dose treatment with fibres) or together with the last fiber treatment (for multiple dose treatment with fibres). Animals were scarified 4 weeks after the last treatment. Benzo[a]pyrene administered simultaneously with RW1 fibres exhibited a strong synergistic effect on mutagenicity, the observed mutant frequency (MF) being more than three-fold higher than the net sum of the MF induced after separate administration of both agents. Our data suggest that DNA adducts induced by simultaneous B[a]P and fiber treatment lead to a strong increase in mutatant frequencies. PMID:16375931

  14. Elimination of Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bulinus tropicus and Lymnaea natalensis by the ampullarid snail, Marisa cornuarietis, in a man-made dam in northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nguma, J F; McCullough, F S; Masha, E

    1982-03-01

    Marisa cornuarietis is a well known ampullarid competitor/predator of Biomphalaria glabrata in Puerto Rico. For the first time in Africa a flourishing population of Marisa has been established in a small, permanent, man-made dam at Kisangara, near Moshi, Tanzania. Prior to the release of M. cornuarietis in June 1977, this dam supported thriving populations of the pulmonate snail hosts Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Lymnaea natalensis; Bulinus tropicus and the melaniid Melanoides tuberculata were also common. Some 24 months after the establishment of Marisa the three pulmonate species had been eliminated; only M. tuberculata remained at about the same population density as originally recorded. Marisa has not caused any obvious adverse environmental impact in the dam. There is at present no valid evidence that this ampullarid would be a threat to local rice production, which is the only crop at risk, but carefully designed field trials should be undertaken to confirm or refute this view. In view of the vast number of permanent, lentic habitats throughout the Afrotropical region, which act as important transmission sites of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, the role of Marisa cornuarietis as a cost-effective biological control agent in integrated control operations deserves henceforth to be energetically explored. PMID:6122367

  15. Dissolution of man-made vitreous fibers in rat alveolar macrophage culture and Gamble's saline solution: influence of different media and chemical composition of the fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Luoto, K; Holopainen, M; Karppinen, K; Perander, M; Savolainen, K

    1994-01-01

    The effect of different chemical compositions of man-made vitreous fibers (MMVF) on their dissolution by alveolar macrophages (AM) in culture and in Gamble's solution was studied. The fibers were exposed to cultured rat AMs, culture medium alone; or Gamble's saline solution for 2, 4, or 8 days. The dissolution of the fibers was studied by measuring the amount of silicon (Si), iron (Fe), and aluminum (Al) in each medium. The AMs in culture dissolved Fe and Al from the fibers but the dissolution of Si was more marked in the cell culture medium without cells and in the Gamble's solution. The dissolution of Si, Fe, and Al was different for different fibers, and increased as a function of time. The Fe and Al content of the fibers correlated negatively with the dissolution of Si by AMs from the MMVF, i.e., when the content of Fe and Al of the fibers increased the dissolution of Si decreased. These results suggest that the chemical composition of MMVFs has a marked effect on their dissolution. AMs seem to affect the dissolution of Fe and Al from the fibers. This suggests that in vitro models with cells in the media rather than only culture media or saline solutions would be preferable in dissolution studies of MMVFs. PMID:7882911

  16. Impact of climate change and man-made irrigation systems on the transmission risk, long-term trend and seasonality of human and animal fascioliasis in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Afshan, Kiran; Fortes-Lima, Cesar A; Artigas, Patricio; Valero, Adela M; Qayyum, Mazhar; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2014-05-01

    Large areas of the province of Punjab, Pakistan are endemic for fascioliasis, resulting in high economic losses due to livestock infection but also affecting humans directly. The prevalence in livestock varies pronouncedly in space and time (1-70%). Climatic factors influencing fascioliasis presence and potential spread were analysed based on data from five meteorological stations during 1990-2010. Variables such as wet days (Mt), water-budget-based system (Wb-bs) indices and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), were obtained and correlated with geographical distribution, seasonality patterns and the two-decade evolution of fascioliasis in livestock throughout the province. The combined approach by these three indices proved to furnish a useful tool to analyse the complex epidemiology that includes (i) sheep-goats and cattlebuffaloes presenting different immunological responses to fasciolids; (ii) overlap of Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica; (iii) co-existence of highlands and lowlands in the area studied; and (iv) disease transmission following bi-seasonality with one peak related to natural rainfall and another peak related to man-made irrigation. Results suggest a human infection situation of concern and illustrate how climate and anthropogenic environment modifications influence both geographical distribution and seasonality of fascioliasis risks. Increased fascioliasis risk throughout the Punjab plain and its decrease in the northern highlands of the province became evident during the study period. The high risk in the lowlands is worrying given that Punjab province largely consists of low-altitude, highly irrigated plains. The importance of livestock in this province makes it essential to prioritise adequate control measures. An annual treatment scheme to control the disease is recommended to be applied throughout the whole province. PMID:24893010

  17. Adapting to a Changing World: Unraveling the Role of Man-Made Habitats as Alternative Feeding Areas for Slender-Billed Gull (Chroicocephalus genei)

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Francisco; Navarro, Joan; Afán, Isabel; Hobson, Keith A.; Delgado, Antonio; Forero, Manuela G.

    2012-01-01

    Current rates of wildlife habitat loss have placed increasing demands on managers to develop, validate and implement tools aimed at improving our ability to evaluate such impacts on wildlife. Here, we present a case study conducted at the Natural Area of Doñana (SW Spain) where remote sensing and stable isotope (δ13C, δ15N) analyses of individuals were combined to unravel (1) the effect of variations in availability of natural food resources (i.e. from natural marshes) on reproductive performance of a Slender-billed Gull (Chroicocephalus genei) population, and (2) the role of two adjacent, artificial systems (a fish farm and saltmines) as alternate anthropogenic feeding areas. Based on long-term (1983–2004) remote-sensing, we inferred the average extent of flooded area at the marshland (a proxy to natural resource availability) annually. Estimated flooded areas (ranging from extreme drought [ca. 151 ha, 1995] to high moisture [15,049 ha, 2004]) were positively related to reproductive success of gulls (estimated for the 1993–2004 period, and ranging from ca. 0 to 1.7 fledglings per breeding pairs), suggesting that habitat availability played a role in determining their reproductive performance. Based on blood δ13C and δ15N values of fledglings, 2001–2004, and a Bayesian isotopic mixing model, we conclude that saltmines acted as the main alternative foraging habitat for gulls, with relative contributions increasing as the extent of marshland decreased. Although adjacent, anthropogenic systems have been established as the preferred breeding sites for this gull population, dietary switches towards exploitation of alternative (anthropogenic) food resources negatively affected the reproductive output of this species, thus challenging the perception that these man-made systems are necessarily a reliable buffer against loss of natural feeding habitats. The methodology and results derived from this study could be extended to a large suite of threatened natural

  18. Concrete-Water-Interaction and Ikaite (CaCO3.6H2O) Precipitation in a Man-Made River Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boch, R.; Dietzel, M.; Reichl, P.; Leis, A.; Pölt, P.; Baldermann, A.

    2014-12-01

    Centimetre-thick, beige-colored and soft crusts were observed shortly after construction of a man-made river bed, i.e. a small natural river was bypassed flowing through a new bed lined with concrete and blocks. Hydrochemical investigations during wintertime - when water temperatures dropped down close to freezing - showed surprisingly high pH values up to 13.0 and elevated Ca2+ concentrations up to 200 mg/l. Both, the artifical and natural (downstream) section of the river bed were affected by the anomalous hydrochemistry and formation of prominent secondary precipitates. In order to better understand the particular and rapid water-rock-interaction, a hydrochemical monitoring program was launched and several of the delicate precipitates were recovered in refrigerator boxes in their original solution. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory within a few hours after sampling and stored at 1 °C. XRD and FT-IR patterns clearly revealed the predominant occurrence of "ikaite" in the crusts next to minor amounts of other carbonates (calcite, aragonite, vaterite) and detrital minerals. Ikaite - calcium carbonate hexahydrate - is a worldwide rarely documented carbonate mineral. This mineral is metastable and needs particular and narrow conditions in order to precipitate from solutions, i.e. a very limited water-temperature range between 0 and 4 °C (with ambient-pressure and low-salinity), highly alkaline pH conditions, high supersaturation values, and in many cases carbonate precipitation inhibitors (e.g. phosphates). Outside these conditions it disintegrates into calcite and water within minutes to hours. The few places of ikaite formation include Ikka Fjord in Greenland, Arctic- and Antarctic sea-ice and some sites of water mixing at Mono Lake, California. Combining detailed field monitoring results, solid-phase analyses and regional meteorological data (rainfall, water discharge, temperature) with hydrogeochemical modeling allows constraining the mechanisms of

  19. CHAMBARA: The changing hydrography and man made biomass burning in Africa: a concept for earth observations from the International Space Station.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Christian

    2010-05-01

    In parallel to vegetation mapping exemplified by VEGETATION and spectral thematic instruments as MERIS, other important natural and man-made phenomena characterize the equatorial and low latitude regions region covered especially well by the International Space Station orbit. The agreement between the space agencies evolves now to a lifetime of the ISS up to 2025. Two themes can be proposed: hydrography and biomass burning. Hydrography has an extreme human importance as human life and agriculture depend on water, transport as well; also the hydroelectric energy which could be harnessed from the hydrological network is tremendous and would allow a sustainable development of the entire region. The CHAMBARA proposed concept differs from other satellite observation programmes in a sense that the images are taken either according either to pre-planned scientific campaigns controlled from an operation centre either according to real time unexpected events or emergencies. For example, biomass burning imaging campaigns are organised at the end of the dry season, while deltas and lake are monitored at specific points of the dry seasons and, if the cloud cover allows it, at periods of the wet season. In exceptional cases, as natural disasters or rapidly varying scenes, the operation centre will reschedule the programme and even ask for exceptional crew assistance. This project aims at this point to the European and African scientific communities specialized on Sub-Saharan Africa which is currently studied by several Belgian scientific institutions but its techniques could also be extended to the Amazon basin, tropical Asia and Oceania. The equipment proposed will be an advanced true colour rapid camera, external mounting is wished in order to free the optical window but nadir pointing should be the nominal position. An example of the concept is given by the serendipitous image ISS004E11 Central African observation (ISS photograph, May 16, 2002, centered near 8.6 degrees

  20. Social Studies Objectives, K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC.

    Six objectives which form the framework of a K-12 social studies program of Department of Defense Dependents Schools are outlined. The objectives are to evaluate the relationship between human beings and their social, natural, and man-made environment; analyze the origins and interrelationships of beliefs, values, and behavior patterns; solve…

  1. SAB report: Radionuclides in drinking water. Review of the Office of Drinking Water`s criteria documents and related reports for uranium, radon, and man-made beta-gamma emitters by the radiation advisory committee

    SciTech Connect

    1991-12-01

    EPA`s Office of Drinking Water developed draft criteria documents and related reports that were the basis for new drinking water standards for uranium, radium, radon and man-made beta-gamma emitting radionuclides during the period November 1989-July 1990. The overall quality of the four draft criteria documents submitted to the Subcommittee for its review was not good. Taken as a set, the documents are inconsistent in approach and with Agency practice in the derivation of drinking water criteria for other contaminants.

  2. Design of a scene simulator in land-based aerospace lab with the man-made light source system based on quantum theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xilin; Yi, Wan; Fang, Wenhui; Yi, Hanwei

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a method with the technique of combination filtering of spectrum and the technique of DSP control for the simulation and recognition of the spontaneously lightening object and stellar map in the universe. The magnitude and the spectrum of a star can be simulated in a wide dynamic range. We established the mathematical models of the Vega's visible light spectrum and luminous flux density. Tungsten-halogen lamp as a light source is used to fit the linear light of the spontaneously lightening object in the universe. Through the experiment, it shows that the more sub-channels there are while filtering spectrum in the visible spectrum, and the more degrees the variable neutral density filters and the narrow-band attenuators have, more close to the actual spectrum the simulated spectrum is. It is proved that using the PID technique is beneficial to the output of the accurate and steady radiation from the light sources. The experiment shows that the using of this method can get perfect result in fitting and simulating the spectrum, magnitude and the stellar map of the spontaneously lightening object . The analysis of the consistent result and the experimental error is also discussed in detail in this paper.

  3. An object-identity probability cueing paradigm during grasping observation: the facilitating effect is present only when the observed kinematics is suitable for the cued object

    PubMed Central

    Craighero, Laila; Mele, Sonia; Zorzi, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Electrophysiological and psychophysical data indicate that grasping observation automatically orients attention toward the incoming interactions between the actor’s hand and the object. The aim of the present study was to clarify if this effect facilitates the detection of a graspable object with the observed action as compared to an ungraspable one. We submitted participants to an object-identity probability cueing experiment in which the two possible targets were of the same dimensions but one of them presented sharp tips at one extreme while the other presented flat faces. At the beginning of each trial the most probable target was briefly shown. After a variable interval, at the same position, the same (75%) or a different target (25%) was presented. Participants had to press a key in response to target appearance. Superimposed to the video showing cue and target, an agent performing the reaching and grasping of the target was presented. The kinematics of the action was or was not suitable for grasping the cued target, according to the absence or presence of the sharp tips. Results showed that response was modulated by the probability of target identity but only when the observed kinematics was suitable to grasp the attended target. A further experiment clarified that response modulation was never present when the superimposed video always showed the agent at a rest position. These findings are discussed at the light of neurophysiological and psychophysical literature, considering the relationship between the motor system and the perception of objects and of others’ actions. We conclude that the prediction of the mechanical events that arise from the interactions between the hand and the attended object is at the basis of the capability to select a graspable object in space. PMID:26483732

  4. Indicative role of urban tree vegetation in the assessment of natural and man-made complex in Akhtubinsk and its local areas.

    PubMed

    Gonchar, L V; Volkova, I V

    2016-09-01

    The study was conducted as a part of the selection of the objects of phytomonitoring for the environmental assessment on the value of fluctuating asymmetry of bilateral morphological parameters. The territorial structure of flora of tree layer in Akhtubinsk and its local areas was determined as of 2013. The living conditions and species and quantitative composition of the tree layer of urban landscape were examined. The vital status of trees was assessed on a ten-point scale of the categories: good condition; satisfactory; weakened plants (Bukharina and Dvoeglazova 2010). The quantitative assessment of biodiversity of tree layer was made on the basis of conventional indices of individual dominance and dominating structures, as well as the method of multivariate statistical analysis. This is an objective method that has been used by other authors in a variety of the environmental studies for a long time, but it has not been actively used in the studies of the Astrakhan area vegetation yet. The results of the study make it possible to believe that the most appropriate indicator of tree vegetation for biomonitoring of intact floodplain, residential and recreational areas in the urban territory in the arid climate of the Volga-Akhtuba floodplain is the Chinese elm (Ulmus parvifolia Jacq.),as the most widespread, numerous and sensitive. It is noted that the tree vegetation cannot be a universal bioindicator of the urban environment in Akhtubinsk and its local areas by fluctuating asymmetry of bilateral morphological parameters. PMID:27485614

  5. Subsidence by liquefaction-fluidization in man-made strata around Tokyo bay, Japan: from geological survey on damaged part at the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazaoka, O.; Kameyama, S.; Shigeno, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Morisaki, M.; Kagawa, A.; Yoshida, T.; Kimura, M.; Sakai, Y.; Ogura, T.; Kusuda, T.; Furuno, K.

    2015-11-01

    Geological disaster by liquefaction-fluidization happened on southern part of the Quaternary Paleo-Kanto submarine basin at the 2011 Earthquake off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku. Liquefaction-fluidization phenomena occurred mainly in man-made strata over shaking 5+ intensity of Japan Meteorological Agency scale. Many subsided spots, 10-50 m width, 20-100 m length and less than 1 m depth, by liquefaction-fluidization distributed on reclaimed land around northern Tokyo bay. Large amount of sand and groundwater spouted out in the terrible subsided parts. But there are little subsidence and no jetted sand outside the terrible subsided part. Liquefaction-fluidization damaged part at the 1987 earthquake east off Chiba prefecture re-liquefied and fluidized in these parts at the 2011 great earthquake. The damaged area were more wide on the 2011 earthquake than the 1987 quake. Detailed classification maps of subsidence by liquefaction-fluidization on the 2011 grate earthquake were made by fieldwork in Chiba city around Tokyo bay. A mechanism of subsidence by liquefaction-fluidization in man-made strata was solved by geological survey with continuous large box cores on the ACE Liner and large relief peals of the cores at a typical subsided part.

  6. Cortical Dynamics of Contextually Cued Attentive Visual Learning and Search: Spatial and Object Evidence Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Tsung-Ren; Grossberg, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    How do humans use target-predictive contextual information to facilitate visual search? How are consistently paired scenic objects and positions learned and used to more efficiently guide search in familiar scenes? For example, humans can learn that a certain combination of objects may define a context for a kitchen and trigger a more efficient…

  7. Cortical dynamics of contextually cued attentive visual learning and search: spatial and object evidence accumulation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tsung-Ren; Grossberg, Stephen

    2010-10-01

    How do humans use target-predictive contextual information to facilitate visual search? How are consistently paired scenic objects and positions learned and used to more efficiently guide search in familiar scenes? For example, humans can learn that a certain combination of objects may define a context for a kitchen and trigger a more efficient search for a typical object, such as a sink, in that context. The ARTSCENE Search model is developed to illustrate the neural mechanisms of such memory-based context learning and guidance and to explain challenging behavioral data on positive-negative, spatial-object, and local-distant cueing effects during visual search, as well as related neuroanatomical, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging data. The model proposes how global scene layout at a first glance rapidly forms a hypothesis about the target location. This hypothesis is then incrementally refined as a scene is scanned with saccadic eye movements. The model simulates the interactive dynamics of object and spatial contextual cueing and attention in the cortical What and Where streams starting from early visual areas through medial temporal lobe to prefrontal cortex. After learning, model dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (area 46) primes possible target locations in posterior parietal cortex based on goal-modulated percepts of spatial scene gist that are represented in parahippocampal cortex. Model ventral prefrontal cortex (area 47/12) primes possible target identities in inferior temporal cortex based on the history of viewed objects represented in perirhinal cortex. PMID:21038974

  8. The First Man-Made Nuclear Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worth Seagondollar, L.

    2004-10-01

    This talk is part Nuclear Physics, part description of the greatest war-time experience possible for a young graduate student, and part eye-witness description of the 1945 plutonium fission devise explosion in the New Mexico desert. Living and working in the secret Manhattan District laboratory was truly unique. Hearing talks by Nobel Laureates (past & future), participating in nuclear experiments that determined the critical masses for U-235 and Pu-239, having near-catastrophic accidents, working with an armed guard watching you, having Enrico Fermi ask you to come to his office--these are unforgettable memories. There will be a description of 3 days in the New Mexico desert and a description of the early morning nuclear explosion at the Trinity Site and a description of that Site 30 days later.

  9. Geohazards: Natural and man-made

    SciTech Connect

    McCall, G.J.H.; Laming, D.J.C.; Scott, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    This book of conference presentations from a meeting of the Geological Society of London in 1989 includes 20 papers grouped in 5 sections. Sections include the following: volcanos; earthquakes; landslides; quiet hazards such as sea-level changes and loss of soils or biodiversity; discussion of the question of what can be done to reduce such disasters. Interaction of man's activities to initiate disasters, to increase the scope of disasters and/or to mitigate them is included in a number of papers. In the fourth section a final paper provides a summary of the food-soil, energy-climate, waste-garbage, and water-contamination interactions.

  10. Natural Disasters and Man-Made Catastrophes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonergan, David

    2011-01-01

    This article categorizes and discusses the kinds of cataclysmic events that threaten the human race and the natural world. A useful set of definitions is provided, and an annotated bibliography of a representative assortment of reference books and monographs.

  11. Active microwave remote sensing research program plan. Recommendations of the Earth Resources Synthetic Aperture Radar Task Force. [application areas: vegetation canopies, surface water, surface morphology, rocks and soils, and man-made structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A research program plan developed by the Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications to provide guidelines for a concentrated effort to improve the understanding of the measurement capabilities of active microwave imaging sensors, and to define the role of such sensors in future Earth observations programs is outlined. The focus of the planned activities is on renewable and non-renewable resources. Five general application areas are addressed: (1) vegetation canopies, (2) surface water, (3) surface morphology, (4) rocks and soils, and (5) man-made structures. Research tasks are described which, when accomplished, will clearly establish the measurement capabilities in each area, and provide the theoretical and empirical results needed to specify and justify satellite systems using imaging radar sensors for global observations.

  12. A joint research project -- Investigating man-made vitreous fiber (MMVF) insulation removal practices in the power industry, with preliminary results of potential worker exposure to airborne MMVF fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Axten, C.W.; Anoush, F.

    1996-10-01

    Man-made vitreous fibers (MMVFs) are components of a large number of important products manufactured worldwide, and include glass wool, rock and slag wool, and refractory ceramic fibers. These fibers are distinguished from each other by their chemical composition, physical properties and methods of production. Glass wool, or fiber glass as it is more commonly known is a borosilicate compound, produced from molten sand and inorganic materials under highly controlled conditions, Rock and slag wool, sometimes collectively referred to as mineral wool, is comprised of calcium-magnesium-aluminum-silicate glass. Slag wool is produced by melting a mixture of various blast furnace iron ore slags and other raw materials such as clay, sand and limestone in a coke fired cupola. Rock wool is produced using the same process, with a mixture of various natural and synthetic rock sources that yield the desired composition. In both rock and slag wool manufacturing, typically one raw material is the primary component, with other material added to supplement chemical deficiencies. The purpose of this study was to develop a flexible, representative, and valid exposure database for fiber glass and rock and slag wool insulation removal and reinstallation in a cross section of industrial environments with excellent supporting documentation. This information will be used to make more informed decisions to further worker health and safety through recommendation of exposure controls, product modifications, and personal protective equipment use and/or work practice controls.

  13. Progesterone to ovariectomized mice enhances cognitive performance in the spontaneous alternation, object recognition, but not placement, water maze, and contextual and cued conditioned fear tasks

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Cheryl A.; Walf, Alicia A.

    2008-01-01

    Research on how steroid hormones mediate mnemonic processes have focused on effects of 17β-estradiol (E2); yet, progesterone (P4) co-varies with E2 across endogenous hormonal milieu, and itself may influence cognitive processes. We investigated the hypothesis that acute P4 treatment enhances cognitive performance compared to vehicle. Ovariectomized (OVX) c57/BL6J mice were randomly assigned to be subcutaneously injected with oil vehicle or P4 (10 mg/kg). Mice were trained in the spontaneous alternation, object recognition, object placement, water maze, or fear conditioning tasks, and injected with vehicle or P4 before training or immediately post-training, and then were tested 1, 4, or 24 h later. The data obtained from these experiments supported our hypothesis. P4 increased the percentage of spontaneous alterations made in a T-maze more so than did vehicle. P4, compared to vehicle, increased the percentage of time spent exploring the novel object in the object recognition task, but did not alter performance in the object placement task. P4, compared to vehicle, decreased latencies to reach the location in the water maze where the platform had been during training in a probe trial, but did not alter performance in the control, cued trial. Compared to vehicle, P4 treatment increased freezing in contextual and cued fear testing. Thus, acute P4 treatment to OVX mice can improve cognitive performance across a variety of tasks. PMID:18455450

  14. Environmental Management System (EMS) objectives & targets : annual results summary %3CU%2B2013%3E FY10.

    SciTech Connect

    Waffelaert, Pascale S.; Vetter, Douglas Walter

    2011-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratory/New Mexico's (SNL/NM) Environmental Management System is the integrated approach for members of the workforce to identify and manage environmental risks. Each fiscal year (FY) significant environmental aspects are identified and the environmental programs associated with them are charged with the task of routinely monitoring and measuring the objectives and targets that are designed to mitigate the impact of SNL/NM's operations on the environment. An annual summary of the results achieved towards meeting established objectives and targets provides a connection to and rational for annually revised significant aspects. The purpose of this document is to summarize the results achieved and documented in FY2010.

  15. Metal objects mapping after small charge explosions. A study on AISI 304Cu steel with two different grain sizes.

    PubMed

    Firrao, Donato; Matteis, Paolo; Scavino, Giorgio; Ubertalli, Graziano; Ienco, Maria G; Pellati, Gabriella; Piccardo, Paolo; Pinasco, Maria R; Stagno, Enrica; Costanza, Girolamo; Montanari, Roberto; Tata, Maria E; Brandimarte, Giovanni; Petralia, Santo

    2006-05-01

    Evidence of exposure of a metal component to a small charge explosion can be detected by observing microstructural modifications; they may be present even if the piece does not show noticeable overall plastic deformations. Particularly, if an austenitic stainless steel (or another metal having a face-centered cubic structure and a low stacking fault energy) is exposed to an explosive shock wave, high-speed deformation induces primarily mechanical twinning, whereas, in nonexplosive events, a lower velocity plastic deformation first induces slip. The occurrence of mechanical twins can be detected even if the surface is damaged or oxidized in successive events. In the present research, optical metallography (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) were used to detect microstructural modifications caused on AISI 304Cu steel disks by small-charge explosions. Spherical charges of 54.5 or 109 g TNT equivalent mass were used at explosive-to-target distances from 6.5 to 81.5 cm, achieving peak pressures from 160 to 0.5 MPa. Explosions induced limited or no macro-deformation. Two alloy grain sizes were tested. Surface OM and SEM evidenced partial surface melting, zones with recrystallization phenomena, and intense mechanical twinning, which was also detected by STM and X-ray diffraction. In the samples' interior, only twins were seen, up to some distance from the explosion impinged surface and again, at the shortest charge-to-sample distances, in a thin layer around the reflecting surface. For forensic science locating purposes after explosions, the maximum charge-to-target distance at which the phenomena disappear was singled out for each charge or grain size and related to the critical resolved shear stress for twinning. PMID:16696699

  16. Playing on the Typewriter, Typing on the Piano: Manipulation Knowledge of Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myung, Jong-yoon; Blumstein, Sheila E.; Sedivy, Julie C.

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments investigated sensory/motor-based functional knowledge of man-made objects: manipulation features associated with the actual usage of objects. In Experiment 1, a series of prime-target pairs was presented auditorily, and participants were asked to make a lexical decision on the target word. Participants made a significantly faster…

  17. Seismic data from man-made impacts on the moon.

    PubMed

    Latham, G; Ewing, M; Dorman, J; Press, F; Toksoz, N; Sutton, G; Meissner, R; Duennebier, F; Nakamura, Y; Kovach, R; Yates, M

    1970-11-01

    Unusually long reverberations were recorded from two lunar impacts by a seismic station installed on the lunar surface by the Apollo 12 astronauts. Seismic data from these impacts suggest that the lunar mare in the region of the Apollo 12 landing site consists of material with very low seismic velocities near the surface, with velocity increasing with depth to 5 to 6 kilometers per second (for compressional waves) at a depth of 20 kilometers. Absorption of seismic waves in this structure is extremely low relative to typical continental crustal materials on earth. It is unlikely that a major boundary similar to the crustmantle interface on earth exists in the outer 20 kilometers of the moon. A combination of dispersion and scattering of surface waves probably explains the lunar seismic reverberation. Scattering of these waves implies the presence of heterogeneity within the outer zone of the mare on a scale of from several hundred meters (or less) to several kilometers. Seismic signals from 160 events of natural origin have been recorded during the first 7 months of operation of the Apollo 12 seismic station. At least 26 of the natural events are small moonquakes. Many of the natural events are thought to be meteoroid impacts. PMID:17799298

  18. Environmental Health concerns in natural and man-made environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergtholdt, C. P.

    1975-01-01

    Industrial hygene and environmental health aspects of ground operation at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory were investigated. Major areas of concern are: (1) toxic substances, (2) noise pollution, (3) electromagnetic radiation; and (4) biohazards and sanitation. Each of these categories are also studied in a closed environment, such as encountered aboard of a spacecraft.

  19. Radiation belt electron precipitation by man-made VLF transmissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamble, Rory J.; Rodger, Craig J.; Clilverd, Mark A.; Sauvaud, Jean-André; Thomson, Neil R.; Stewart, S. L.; McCormick, Robert J.; Parrot, Michel; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques

    2008-10-01

    Enhancements of drift-loss cone fluxes in the inner radiation belt have been observed to coincide with the geographic location of the powerful VLF transmitter NWC. In this paper we expand upon the earlier study to examine the occurrence frequency of drift-loss cone enhancements observed above transmitters and the intensity of the flux enhancements and to demonstrate the linkage to transmitter operation. Our study has confirmed the strong dependence that these enhancements have upon nighttime ionospheric conditions. No enhancements were observed during daytime periods, consistent with the increased ionospheric absorption. We have also confirmed the persistent occurrence of the wisp features east of the NWC transmitter. The enhancements are initially observed within a few degrees west of NWC and are present in 95% of the nighttime orbital data east of the transmitter for time periods when the transmitter is broadcasting. No enhancements are observed when NWC is not broadcasting. This provides conclusive evidence of the linkage between these drift-loss cone electron flux enhancements and transmissions from NWC. When contrasted with periods when NWC is nonoperational, there are typically ˜430 times more 100-260 keV resonant electrons present in the drift-loss cone across L = 1.67-1.9 owing to NWC transmissions. There are almost no wisp-like enhancements produced by the transmitter NPM, despite its low-latitude location and relatively high output power. The lack of any wisp enhancement for L < 1.6 suggests that nonducted propagation is an inefficient mechanism for scattering electrons, which explains the lower cutoff in L of the NWC-generated wisps and the lack of NPM-generated wisps.

  20. Natural and man-made radioactivity: Chernobyl soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmore, Gavin; Flowers, Alan

    2014-05-01

    In 1986 a reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant suffered a large explosion. The result had wide-ranging impacts. 31 severely exposed emergency workers died from acute radiation syndrome and 19 more later died from different causes. The perhaps controversial prediction by some authors is that around 4,000 will eventually die as a result of the increased cancer risk. A 19-mile restriction zone exists around the former reactor, but during the past 25 years radiation levels have fallen and it is now possible to take part in conducted tours of the deserted city of Pripyat, and the Chernobyl reactor site. Soil levels, however, remain highly radioactive, particularly in the restricted area. Kingston University holds:- • Soil profile sets from 3 locations in Belarus, with repeats at same location 1996 and 2000. • Lake sediment core samples. • Soil profiles at forestry sites. • Surface samples in a region suspected to have actinide content at 200km from Chernobyl. In addition to the above the impact of naturally occurring radon on human health around Chernobyl should not be ignored. About 23 per cent of homes in Ukraine are estimated to have radon levels above 100 Bq m-3, whilst concentrations of 10,000 Bq m-3 or more are known to exist in public water supplies. Some researchers have also suggested that mean annual doses of irradiation of the population caused by radon and it's progeny in air in buildings exceeds the doses received now by inhabitants of settlements located in the territories polluted by Chernobyl-derived nuclides in the Mogilev and Gomel regions in Belarus. This project incorporates a temporal comparison of transport results in undisturbed soils variously over a number of years, demonstrating relative measurements using both the original and new samples. This project will also focus on lake sediments from Southern Belarus and is a 'work in progress'. However, what we can say at this stage is that it is notable that the long lived isotopes of Cs-137 and Sr-90 strongly chemically bind into both the sandy and clay soils found in Southern Belarus, consequently have low solubility, and hence the temporal radiation levels from soil contamination change only slowly at near the half-life of these isotopes, with weathering being a minor contribution to reducing the radiation dose rates, in regions with such soil chemistry.

  1. Survey of man-made electrical noise affecting radio broadcasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bisignani, W. T.; Garner, W. B.

    1969-01-01

    Survey, consisting of limited noise measurements, was made to augment and verify existing data at HF and VHF and to obtain basic data at UHF. Exact frequencies were determined by the absence of intentionally generated signals around three selected frequencies.

  2. Man-made rotary nanomotors: a review of recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwanoh; Guo, Jianhe; Liang, Z. X.; Zhu, F. Q.; Fan, D. L.

    2016-05-01

    The development of rotary nanomotors is an essential step towards intelligent nanomachines and nanorobots. In this article, we review the concept, design, working mechanisms, and applications of state-of-the-art rotary nanomotors made from synthetic nanoentities. The rotary nanomotors are categorized according to the energy sources employed to drive the rotary motion, including biochemical, optical, magnetic, and electric fields. The unique advantages and limitations for each type of rotary nanomachines are discussed. The advances of rotary nanomotors is pivotal for realizing dream nanomachines for myriad applications including microfluidics, biodiagnosis, nano-surgery, and biosubstance delivery.

  3. The Rickover effect: How one man made a difference

    SciTech Connect

    Rockwell, T.

    1992-12-31

    This book chronicles the life of Admiral Hyman G. Rickover from 1939 to 1986. Admiral Rickover was a key figure in building America`s nuclear navy. This story shows how the general thrust of Rickover`s nuclear program changed as time went on. Initially, the aim was to build a decisive weapon. Then, as it became clear that this program was to be the means by which nuclear power `for the homes, farms, and factories` was to become a reality, the program emphasized harnessing this basic new source of energy. Later, as industry was brought in to accomplish these goals, it became evident that the program would have to focus on upgrading the quality of American industry. And finally, as the deficiencies of industry were seen to be rooted in basic weaknesses in education and motivation.

  4. Man-made rotary nanomotors: a review of recent developments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwanoh; Guo, Jianhe; Liang, Z X; Zhu, F Q; Fan, D L

    2016-05-19

    The development of rotary nanomotors is an essential step towards intelligent nanomachines and nanorobots. In this article, we review the concept, design, working mechanisms, and applications of state-of-the-art rotary nanomotors made from synthetic nanoentities. The rotary nanomotors are categorized according to the energy sources employed to drive the rotary motion, including biochemical, optical, magnetic, and electric fields. The unique advantages and limitations for each type of rotary nanomachines are discussed. The advances of rotary nanomotors is pivotal for realizing dream nanomachines for myriad applications including microfluidics, biodiagnosis, nano-surgery, and biosubstance delivery. PMID:27152885

  5. Durability of ceramic and novel man-made mineral fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, I C; Brown, R C; Jubb, G A; Pickering, P; Hoskins, J A

    1994-01-01

    In vitro solubility testing is an important means of assessing the likely behavior of fibers that are respired and accumulate in the lung. The problem has been that such tests often do not mirror the dissolution and removal mechanisms seen in vivo. Comparison of iron and silica solubility values of various types of mineral fiber showed no obvious correlation. Treating a mineral fiber containing high levels of calcium with normal balanced salt solutions produces a precipitate of calcium phosphate on the fiber surface. This deposit was not seen in fibers isolated from the lung of exposed animals. New solutions have been developed and with variations in the methods of exposing fibers, results similar to those seen in vivo have been obtained. Suitable fluid phases have been examined in static and flow-through systems. The relationship of solubility to biological activity is discussed. Images Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 6. Figure 6. Figure 6. PMID:7882958

  6. Coping with a Man-Made Crisis: Lessons from Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowen, Scott S.

    2009-01-01

    In the fall of 2005, Tulane University responded to Katrina's devastation by undertaking a significant re-envisioning of the university's mission and strategy. Tulane needed to survive financially without sacrificing the core academic strengths that have drawn so many students to them: a holistic undergraduate experience that leverages the…

  7. Strategies for Control of Man-Made Eutrophication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grundy, Richard D.

    1971-01-01

    The key concerns for both long- and short-term control strategies for cultural eutrophication are: (1) controls which reflect the regional character of the problem, and (2) concern for the potential public health and environmental implications of the nonphosphate detergent formulations. (Author/CP)

  8. Soil erosion in a man-made landscape: the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, A.; Ruiz Sinoga, J. D.; Cammeraat, L. H.

    2012-04-01

    Mediterranean-type ecosystems are characterised by a seasonally contrasted distribution of precipitation, by the coincidence of the driest and hottest season in summer, by an often-mountainous terrain, and by a long history of intense human occupation, especially around the Mediterranean Sea. The history of the Mediterranean lands is the history of human impacts on the soil system, and soil erosion is the most intense and widespread impact on this land where high intensity and uneven rainfall is found. A review of the soil erosion rates measured in the Mediterranean basin will be shown. The measurements done by means of erosion pins, topographical measurements, rainfall simulators, Gerlach collectors in open or close plots, watershed/basin measurements, reservoirs siltation and historical data will be shown. A review of the soil erosion models applied in the Mediterranean will be shown. The tentative approach done until October 2011 show that the soil erosion rates on Mediterranean type ecosystems are not as high as was supposed by the pioneers in the 70's. And this is probably due to the fact that the soils are very shallow and sediments are not available after millennia of high erosion rates. This is related to the large amount of rock fragments are covering the soil, and the rock outcrops that are found in the upper slope trams and the summits. Soil erosion in the Mediterranean is seasonal due to the rainfall concentration in winter, and highly variable within years as the high intensity rainfall events control the sediment production. Natural vegetation is adapted to the Mediterranean environmental conditions, and they are efficient to control the soil losses. An example are the forest fire that increase the soil losses but this is a temporal change as after 2-4 years the soil erosion rates are similar to the pre-fire period. Agriculture lands are the source of sediments although the highest erosion rates are found in badland areas that cover a small part of the Mediterranean lands. The methods applied to measure or estimate the soil erosion should be improved to make them comparable. An agreement is necessary to decide the size of the plots, the material and equipment to be used and the future research topics. This research study is being supported by the the research project CGL2008-02879/BTE

  9. Man-made velocity estimators based on insect vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, Sreeja; O'Carroll, David; Abbott, Derek

    2005-04-01

    The study of insect vision is of significant interest to engineers for inspiring the design of future motion-sensitive smart sensor devices, for collision avoidance applications. Although insects are relatively simple organisms compared to vertebrates, they are blessed with a very efficient visual system, which enables them to navigate with great ease and accuracy. Biologically inspired motion detection models are bound to replace the conventional machine vision technology because of their simplicity and significant advantages in a number of applications. The dominant model for insect motion detection, first proposed by Hassentein and Reichardt in 1956, has gained widespread acceptance in the invertebrate vision community. The template model is another known model proposed later by Horridge in 1990, which permits simple tracking techniques and lends itself easily to both hardware and software. In this paper, we compare these two different motion detecting strategies. It was found from the data obtained from the intracellular recordings of the steady-state responses of wide-field neurons in the hoverfly Volucella, that the shape of the curves obtained agree with the theoretical predictions made by Dror. In order to compare this with the template model, we carried out an experiment to obtain the velocity response curves of the template model to the same image statistics. The results lead us to believe that the fly motion detector emulates a modified Reichardt correlator. In the second part of the paper, modifications are made to the Reichardt detector that improve its performance in velocity detection by reducing its dependance on contrast and image structure. Our recent neurobiological experiments suggest that adaptive mechanisms decrease the EMD (elementary motion detector) dependence on pattern contrast and improve reliability. So appropriate modelling of an adaptive feedback mechanism is carried out to normalize contrast of input signals in order to improve the reliability and robustness of velocity estimation.

  10. Man-made minds: The promise of artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Waldrop, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI), the art of designing machines that are both omniscient and sensible, has become the crowning challenge of today's information explosion. Physicist/science writer Waldrop explains the prodigious difficulties of endowing computers with the ability to learn, to reason, to understand. He reports on progress (and setbacks) at major AI research centers. Here scientists of many disciplines are beginning to simulate human vision, and they are designing AI programs to supervise ever more sophisticated industrial and communications systems. Underlying all AI research, the author points out, is the quest to understand the processes of human thought - which poses AI's most baffling question: Can a machine ever be made to actually think. At the practical level, AI is likely to give us within the next twenty years computer/robots that will converse in everyday language; provide expert advice on a wide spectrum of personal, professional, and business concerns; and serve as a responsive home tutor or an instant, world-wide librarian. Globally, AI is the ultimate prize in international technological competition. And in its expanding military role, AI, is being called on to supply the infallible mastermind for Star Wars ''defenses'' and other strategic systems.

  11. Man-made climatic changes in the Ganges basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adel, Miah M.

    2002-06-01

    Climate data pertaining to the Ganges basin in Bangladesh were analysed to find any climatic changes in the wake of the upstream water diversion by the Farakka Barrage. Whereas the diversions have been continuing from at least 30 international rivers upstream of Bangladesh, the diversion from the Ganges is the best known and has a wider coverage than all other diversions. The diversion reduced the Ganges' discharge through the delta by about 60% from a pre-diversion average value of 1932 m3 s-1, decreased water availability in flood plains, ponds, canals, and ditches by about 50%, dropped the groundwater table, and caused changes in surface features. It took about 5 years of diversions beyond the test run year of 1975 for the environment to react to set 1981 as the baseline year. During the post-baseline era: (1) heating degree days and cooling degree days were respectively 1.33 and 1.44 times more than their counterparts during the pre-baseline era; (2) the summertime and wintertime average temperatures were respectively 1 °C more and 0.5 °C less than the corresponding values during the pre-baseline era; (3) the mode 32 °C of summertime maximum temperatures was 1 °C higher and occurred 414 times more, and the mode 25 °C of wintertime temperature was 1 °C less and occurred 17 times less than the corresponding quantities during the pre-baseline era; (4) the average value of maximum relative humidity has increased by more than 2% and that of minimum relative humidity has dropped by the same amount; (5) the mode 95% and 70% of maximum and minimum relative humidity values have occurred 1322 times and 84 times more respectively than their pre-baseline counterparts; and (6) the frequency for 100 mm or more rainfall and the monthly average rainfalls have dropped by about 50% and 30% respectively. The solution to the climatic changes lies in the restoration of the virgin Ganges flow, dredging of the Ganges and its distributaries to remove shoals and siltation, and re-excavation of canals for water discharge to depleted surface water bodies to re-establish the lost wetland ecosystems. The findings are useful for climate modellers to predict the climatic changes due to changes in surface features, for policy makers of governments of riparian countries constructing dams/barrages on international rivers for unilateral diversion of water, and for donor agencies who finance such projects.

  12. Man-Made Moons: Satellite Communications for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Lawrence P.; And Others

    In an effort to prepare teachers for the coming changes in education caused by the rapidly developing communication satellite technology, this monograph offers a non-technical background to this new development. It begins by explaining the importance of such satellites and offers a layman's guide to the technology of satellite systems. It reviews…

  13. Object Oriented Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ed

    2005-01-01

    We apply the object oriented software engineering (OOSE) design methodology for software objects (SOs) to learning objects (LOs). OOSE extends and refines design principles for authoring dynamic reusable LOs. Our learning object class (LOC) is a template from which individualised LOs can be dynamically created for, or by, students. The properties…

  14. Support plane method applied to ground objects recognition using modelled SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zherdev, Denis A.; Fursov, Vladimir A.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the object recognition problem was solved using support plane method. The modelled SAR images were used as features vectors in the recognition algorithm. Radar signal backscattering of objects in different observing poses is presented in SAR images. For real time simulation, we used simple mixture model of Lambertian-specular reflectivity. To this end, an algorithm of ray tracing is extended for simulating SAR images of 3D man-made models. The suggested algorithm of support plane is very effective in objects recognition using SAR images and RCS diagrams.

  15. The timing of visual object categorization.

    PubMed

    Mack, Michael L; Palmeri, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    AN OBJECT CAN BE CATEGORIZED AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF ABSTRACTION: as natural or man-made, animal or plant, bird or dog, or as a Northern Cardinal or Pyrrhuloxia. There has been growing interest in understanding how quickly categorizations at different levels are made and how the timing of those perceptual decisions changes with experience. We specifically contrast two perspectives on the timing of object categorization at different levels of abstraction. By one account, the relative timing implies a relative timing of stages of visual processing that are tied to particular levels of object categorization: Fast categorizations are fast because they precede other categorizations within the visual processing hierarchy. By another account, the relative timing reflects when perceptual features are available over time and the quality of perceptual evidence used to drive a perceptual decision process: Fast simply means fast, it does not mean first. Understanding the short-term and long-term temporal dynamics of object categorizations is key to developing computational models of visual object recognition. We briefly review a number of models of object categorization and outline how they explain the timing of visual object categorization at different levels of abstraction. PMID:21811480

  16. Photometry of Centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects: 2060 Chiron (1977 UB), 10199 Chariklo (1997 CU26), 38628 Huya (2000 EB173), 28978 Ixion (2001 KX76), and 90482 Orcus (2004 DW)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiazzo, M.; de la Fuente Marcos, C.; de la Fuente Marcos, R.; Carraro, G.; Maris, M.; Montalto, M.

    2016-07-01

    Both Centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) are minor bodies found in the outer Solar System. Centaurs are a transient population that moves between the orbits of Jupiter and Neptune, and they probably diffused out of the TNOs. TNOs move mainly beyond Neptune. Some of these objects display episodic cometary behaviour; a few percent of them are known to host binary companions. Here, we study the light-curves of two Centaurs—2060 Chiron (1977 UB) and 10199 Chariklo (1997 CU26)—and three TNOs—38628 Huya (2000 EB173), 28978 Ixion (2001 KX76), and 90482 Orcus (2004 DW)—and the colours of the Centaurs and Huya. Precise, ˜1~%, R-band absolute CCD photometry of these minor bodies acquired between 2006 and 2011 is presented; the new data are used to investigate the rotation rate of these objects. The colours of the Centaurs and Huya are determined using BVRI photometry. The point spread function of the five minor bodies is analysed, searching for signs of a coma or close companions. Astrometry is also discussed. A periodogram analysis of the light-curves of these objects gives the following rotational periods: 5.5±0.4~h for Chiron, 7.0± 0.6~h for Chariklo, 4.45±0.07~h for Huya, 12.4±0.3~h for Ixion, and 11.9±0.5~h for Orcus. The colour indices of Chiron are found to be B-V=0.53±0.05, V-R=0.37±0.08, and R-I=0.36±0.15. The values computed for Chariklo are V-R=0.62±0.07 and R-I=0.61±0.07. For Huya, we find V-R=0.58±0.09 and R-I=0.64±0.20. Our rotation periods are similar to and our colour values are consistent with those already published for these objects. We find very low levels of cometary activity (if any) and no sign of close or wide binary companions for these minor bodies.

  17. Recognition of low-contrast FLIR tank object based on multiscale fractal character vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Donghui; Zhu, Yaoting; Zhu, Guang-Xi; Xiong, Yan

    1996-05-01

    Low-contrast FLIR tank object detection is a difficulty. This paper presents a new method based on fractal geometry and multiscale analysis for the target detection. A new metric called multiscale fractal character vector which can distinguish man-made objects and natural scenes is defined. And then a segmentation algorithm based on this new metric is given. Finally, experimental results have shown our method can give better segmentation results than the usual segmentation method which is based on H parameter of only one scale image.

  18. [Review of digital ground object spectral library].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Hu; Zhou, Ding-Wu

    2009-06-01

    A higher spectral resolution is the main direction of developing remote sensing technology, and it is quite important to set up the digital ground object reflectance spectral database library, one of fundamental research fields in remote sensing application. Remote sensing application has been increasingly relying on ground object spectral characteristics, and quantitative analysis has been developed to a new stage. The present article summarized and systematically introduced the research status quo and development trend of digital ground object reflectance spectral libraries at home and in the world in recent years. Introducing the spectral libraries has been established, including desertification spectral database library, plants spectral database library, geological spectral database library, soil spectral database library, minerals spectral database library, cloud spectral database library, snow spectral database library, the atmosphere spectral database library, rocks spectral database library, water spectral database library, meteorites spectral database library, moon rock spectral database library, and man-made materials spectral database library, mixture spectral database library, volatile compounds spectral database library, and liquids spectral database library. In the process of establishing spectral database libraries, there have been some problems, such as the lack of uniform national spectral database standard and uniform standards for the ground object features as well as the comparability between different databases. In addition, data sharing mechanism can not be carried out, etc. This article also put forward some suggestions on those problems. PMID:19810544

  19. Object-Based Classification and Change Detection of Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. G.; Harada, I.; Kwak, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Topography and geology are factors to characterize the distribution of natural vegetation. Topographic contour is particularly influential on the living conditions of plants such as soil moisture, sunlight, and windiness. Vegetation associations having similar characteristics are present in locations having similar topographic conditions unless natural disturbances such as landslides and forest fires or artificial disturbances such as deforestation and man-made plantation bring about changes in such conditions. We developed a vegetation map of Japan using an object-based segmentation approach with topographic information (elevation, slope, slope direction) that is closely related to the distribution of vegetation. The results found that the object-based classification is more effective to produce a vegetation map than the pixel-based classification.

  20. Automatic fuzzy object-based analysis of VHSR images for urban objects extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebari, Imane; He, Dong-Chen

    2013-05-01

    We present an automatic approach for object extraction from very high spatial resolution (VHSR) satellite images based on Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA). The proposed solution requires no input data other than the studied image. Not input parameters are required. First, an automatic non-parametric cooperative segmentation technique is applied to create object primitives. A fuzzy rule base is developed based on the human knowledge used for image interpretation. The rules integrate spectral, textural, geometric and contextual object proprieties. The classes of interest are: tree, lawn, bare soil and water for natural classes; building, road, parking lot for man made classes. The fuzzy logic is integrated in our approach in order to manage the complexity of the studied subject, to reason with imprecise knowledge and to give information on the precision and certainty of the extracted objects. The proposed approach was applied to extracts of Ikonos images of Sherbrooke city (Canada). An overall total extraction accuracy of 80% was observed. The correctness rates obtained for building, road and parking lot classes are of 81%, 75% and 60%, respectively.

  1. Visual appearance interacts with conceptual knowledge in object recognition.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Olivia S; Gauthier, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Objects contain rich visual and conceptual information, but do these two types of information interact? Here, we examine whether visual and conceptual information interact when observers see novel objects for the first time. We then address how this interaction influences the acquisition of perceptual expertise. We used two types of novel objects (Greebles), designed to resemble either animals or tools, and two lists of words, which described non-visual attributes of people or man-made objects. Participants first judged if a word was more suitable for describing people or objects while ignoring a task-irrelevant image, and showed faster responses if the words and the unfamiliar objects were congruent in terms of animacy (e.g., animal-like objects with words that described human). Participants then learned to associate objects and words that were either congruent or not in animacy, before receiving expertise training to rapidly individuate the objects. Congruent pairing of visual and conceptual information facilitated observers' ability to become a perceptual expert, as revealed in a matching task that required visual identification at the basic or subordinate levels. Taken together, these findings show that visual and conceptual information interact at multiple levels in object recognition. PMID:25120509

  2. Visual appearance interacts with conceptual knowledge in object recognition

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Olivia S.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Objects contain rich visual and conceptual information, but do these two types of information interact? Here, we examine whether visual and conceptual information interact when observers see novel objects for the first time. We then address how this interaction influences the acquisition of perceptual expertise. We used two types of novel objects (Greebles), designed to resemble either animals or tools, and two lists of words, which described non-visual attributes of people or man-made objects. Participants first judged if a word was more suitable for describing people or objects while ignoring a task-irrelevant image, and showed faster responses if the words and the unfamiliar objects were congruent in terms of animacy (e.g., animal-like objects with words that described human). Participants then learned to associate objects and words that were either congruent or not in animacy, before receiving expertise training to rapidly individuate the objects. Congruent pairing of visual and conceptual information facilitated observers' ability to become a perceptual expert, as revealed in a matching task that required visual identification at the basic or subordinate levels. Taken together, these findings show that visual and conceptual information interact at multiple levels in object recognition. PMID:25120509

  3. Human Object-Similarity Judgments Reflect and Transcend the Primate-IT Object Representation

    PubMed Central

    Mur, Marieke; Meys, Mirjam; Bodurka, Jerzy; Goebel, Rainer; Bandettini, Peter A.; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2013-01-01

    Primate inferior temporal (IT) cortex is thought to contain a high-level representation of objects at the interface between vision and semantics. This suggests that the perceived similarity of real-world objects might be predicted from the IT representation. Here we show that objects that elicit similar activity patterns in human IT (hIT) tend to be judged as similar by humans. The IT representation explained the human judgments better than early visual cortex, other ventral-stream regions, and a range of computational models. Human similarity judgments exhibited category clusters that reflected several categorical divisions that are prevalent in the IT representation of both human and monkey, including the animate/inanimate and the face/body division. Human judgments also reflected the within-category representation of IT. However, the judgments transcended the IT representation in that they introduced additional categorical divisions. In particular, human judgments emphasized human-related additional divisions between human and non-human animals and between man-made and natural objects. hIT was more similar to monkey IT than to human judgments. One interpretation is that IT has evolved visual-feature detectors that distinguish between animates and inanimates and between faces and bodies because these divisions are fundamental to survival and reproduction for all primate species, and that other brain systems serve to more flexibly introduce species-dependent and evolutionarily more recent divisions. PMID:23525516

  4. Adaptive Objectness for Object Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Pengpeng; Pang, Yu; Liao, Chunyuan; Mei, Xue; Ling, Haibin

    2016-07-01

    Object tracking is a long standing problem in vision. While great efforts have been spent to improve tracking performance, a simple yet reliable prior knowledge is left unexploited: the target object in tracking must be an object other than non-object. The recently proposed and popularized objectness measure provides a natural way to model such prior in visual tracking. Thus motivated, in this paper we propose to adapt objectness for visual object tracking. Instead of directly applying an existing objectness measure that is generic and handles various objects and environments, we adapt it to be compatible to the specific tracking sequence and object. More specifically, we use the newly proposed BING objectness as the base, and then train an object-adaptive objectness for each tracking task. The training is implemented by using an adaptive support vector machine that integrates information from the specific tracking target into the BING measure. We emphasize that the benefit of the proposed adaptive objectness, named ADOBING, is generic. To show this, we combine ADOBING with seven top performed trackers in recent evaluations. We run the ADOBING-enhanced trackers with their base trackers on two popular benchmarks, the CVPR2013 benchmark (50 sequences) and the Princeton Tracking Benchmark (100 sequences). On both benchmarks, our methods not only consistently improve the base trackers, but also achieve the best known performances. Noting that the way we integrate objectness in visual tracking is generic and straightforward, we expect even more improvement by using tracker-specific objectness.

  5. Love Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusack, Lynne

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the role of "security" or "transition" objects, such as a blanket or stuffed toy, in children's development of self-comfort and autonomy. Notes the influence of parents in the child-object relationship, and discusses children's responses to losing a security object, and the developmental point at which a child will give up such an…

  6. Objective lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olczak, Eugene G. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An objective lens and a method for using same. The objective lens has a first end, a second end, and a plurality of optical elements. The optical elements are positioned between the first end and the second end and are at least substantially symmetric about a plane centered between the first end and the second end.

  7. Integrating reductive and synthetic approaches in biology using man-made cell-like compartments

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Wataru; Saito, Masato; Manabe, Ri-ichiroh; Mori, Hirotada; Yamaguchi, Yoshinori; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2014-01-01

    We propose ‘integrated synthetic genetics' as a novel methodology that integrates reductive and synthetic approaches used in life science research. Integrated synthetic genetics enables determinations of sets of genes required for the functioning of any biological subsystem. This method utilizes artificial cell-like compartments, including a randomly introduced whole gene library, strictly defined components for in vitro transcription and translation and a reporter that fluoresces ‘only when a particular function of a target biological subsystem is active.' The set of genes necessary for the target biological subsystem can be identified by isolating fluorescent artificial cells and multiplex next-generation sequencing of genes included in these cells. The importance of this methodology is that screening for the set of genes involved in a subsystem and reconstructing the entire subsystem can be done simultaneously. This methodology can be applied to any biological subsystem of any species and may remarkably accelerate life science research. PMID:24740007

  8. Schistosomiasis: The Social Challenge of Controlling a Man-Made Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemma, Aklilu

    1973-01-01

    There is an indication of a method for curbing or controlling schistosomiasis or bilharziasis. Modern technological advances in applied pharmacology have not provided a satisfactory remedy but a simple natural product, an endod berry, has been used to control the disease on a self-help basis. (EB)

  9. Failure of man-made cavities in salt and surface subsidence due to sulfur mining

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, G.K.; Lee, C.A.; McClain, W.C.; Senseny, P.E.

    1981-01-01

    An engineering data base relevant to subsidence due to sulfur mining and to structural failure of cavities in salt is established, evaluated and documented. Nineteen failure events are discussed. Based on these documented failure events, capabilities of and inputs to a mathematical model of cavity failure are determined. Two failure events are adequately documented for use in model verification studies. A conclusion of this study that is pertinent to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve is that cavity failures in dome salt are fairly rare, but that as the number of large cavities (especially those having large roof spans) increases, failures will probably be more common unless stability and failure mechanisms of cavities are better understood.

  10. Mapping man-made CO2 emissions using satellite-observed nighttime lights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, T.; Maksyutov, S. S.; Andres, R. J.; Elvidge, C.; Baugh, K.; Hsu, F. C.; Roman, M. O.

    2015-12-01

    The Open-Data Inventory for Anthropogenic Carbon dioxide (ODIAC) is a global high spatial resolution (1x1km) emission dataset for CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. The original version of ODIAC was developed at the Japanese Greenhouse Gas Observing Satellite (GOSAT) project to prescribe their inverse model. ODIAC first introduced the combined use of satellite-observed nighttime light data and individual power plant emission/geolocation information to estimate the spatial extent of fossil fuel CO2. The ODIAC emission data has been widely used by the international carbon cycle research community and appeared in a number of publications in the literature. Since its original publication in 2011, we have made numerous modifications to the ODIAC emission model and the emission data have been updated on annual basis. We are switching from BP statistical data based emission estimates to estimates made by Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In recent versions of ODIAC data, the emission seasonality has been adopted from the CDIAC monthly emission dataset. The emissions from international bunkers, which are not included in the CDIAC gridded emission data, are estimated using the UN Energy Database and included with the spatial distributions. In the next version of ODIAC emission model, we will explore the use of satellite data collected by the NASA's Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite. We will estimate emission spatial distributions using global 500x500m nighttime lights data created from VIIRS data. We will also utilize a combustion detection algorithm Nightfire developed at NOAA National Geophysical Data Center to map gas flaring emissions. We also plan to expand our two emission sector emission distributing approach (power plant emission and non-point source emissions) by introducing a transportation emission sector which should improve emission distributions in urban and rural areas.

  11. Oppurtunities and constraints of closed man-made ecological systems on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, V.; Gitelson, J. I.; Horneck, G.; Kreuzberg, K.

    1994-06-01

    Most scenarios for a manned lunar base include a combination of physical-chemical and bioregenerative life support systems. Especially on the lunar surface, however, there is a series of special environmental factors which seriously affect the organisms suitable for food production and biological regeneration of the habitat atmosphere and water. So, e.g. the lunar day/night period creates difficult problems for higher plant culture. The paper presents the current scientific approaches to bioregenerative life support systems of a lunar base and discusses critically the possibilities of their realization. Moreover, a scientific strategy is developed with the biologist's point of view to implement in a stepwise manner bioregenerative life support modules into a lunar base covering the possibilities of the utilization of chemolytotrophic bacteria, microalgae and higher plants as well as those of animal breeding and protein production in intensive aquaculture systems.

  12. Rapid landscape change in 6th century Jordan: driven by climate or man-made?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucke, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Compared to the rich cities of antiquity, many areas in the Levant appear today degraded. European travel reports of the 19th century and excavations in Jordan created the impression that population numbers were strongly reduced during the Islamic periods, leading to 'empty' lands which were only resettled during the early 20th century. However, our case study near the ancient site Abila of the Decapolis in northern Jordan found that the land was probably never 'empty' and always fertile - but valley fills provide evidence for a rapid and intense landscape change during the Late Byzantine period. This was probably caused by a significant shift to aridity which also triggered socio-economic changes of subsistence strategies from agriculture to pastoralism. The dates of sediments which are available so far indicate that the climatic change seemingly occurred rapidly within approximately 100 years during the late 6th and early 7th century AD, and rubble layers let it seem probable that it was associated with frequent heavy rainfall events. It might have been caused or triggered by a global climate event creating the "year without sun" or 'Mystery Veil' which the Byzantine historian Procopius described in the year 536 AD. If similar events repeat under the current climate change, it will be difficult to mitigate them.

  13. Epidemiology of avian influenza in agricultural and other man-made systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mankind has changed the natural ecosystems of birds through captivity, domestication, agriculture, and commerce which began thousands of years ago and continues through today. This has profoundly changed the existence of LPAI viruses from being a diverse group of viruses circulating asymptomaticall...

  14. Model-based assessment of erosion risks on man-made slopes in recultivation areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunth, F.; Schmidt, J.

    2012-04-01

    The present study deals with non-vegetated slopes of post mining areas which are heavily endangered by soil erosion by water. The prevention of massive on-site damages as well as off-site effects by the emission of acid dump materials is one of the major challenges in the context of recultivation of closed-down open cast mining areas. Hence, the aim of this study is the development of a reproducible methodology to determine erosion risks on slopes in recultivation areas. Moreover, a standardised technique is developed to plan, dimension and test erosion protection measures in recultivation landscapes. The analyses of the study are based on the event-based physical erosion model EROSION 3D. The widely used model is able to predict runoff as well as detachment, transport and deposition of sediments. Its use and validation ranges from erosion prediction from agricultural land to sediment input into water bodies. The required input parameters of EROSION 2D/3D (hydraulic roughness, infiltration rates etc.) were determined under field conditions by simulated rainfall experiments. These field experiments took place on selected non-vegetated plots of the Lusatian mining district in eastern Germany. Due to their huge influence on infiltration and erosion processes special characteristics of coal-containing dump soils (hydrophobicity, air trapping effect) have to be considered and implemented into the model within this survey.

  15. Greenhouse effects due to man-made perturbations of trace gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, W. C.; Yung, Y. L.; Lacis, A. A.; Mo, T.; Hansen, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Nitrous oxide, methane, ammonia, and a number of other trace constituents of the earth's atmosphere have infrared absorption bands in the spectral range from 7 to 14 microns. Despite their small amounts, these gases can have a significant effect on the thermal structure of the atmosphere by transmitting most of the thermal radiation from the earth's surface to the lower atmosphere. In the present paper, this greenhouse effect is computed for a number of trace gases. The nature and climatic implications of possible changes in the concentrations of N2O, CH4, NH3, and HNO3 are discussed.

  16. In situ vitrification: Immobilizing radioactive contaminants in place by melting soils into man-made rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, G.K.; Spalding, B.P. ); Tixier, J.S. )

    1992-01-01

    From 1951 to 1966 over 1 [times] 10[sup 6] Ci of Cs-137, Sr-90, and other radioisotopes in liquid wastes were disposed of in shallow seepage pits at ORNL. In situ methods to stabilize these sites are being investigated because of radiation exposure risks to personnel during excavation and removal activities. A field test at ORNL of In Situ Vitrification (ISV) was performed to evaluate its ability to resistance heating through graphite electrodes to melt contaminated soils in place. The resulting small lava lake cools and solidifies to a rock consisting of glassy and crystalline material. Volatile products released from the surface of the melt are collected and treated. The Sr-90 was incorporated into mineral phases and residual glass that form upon solidification. The Cs-137, however, is incompatible with the mineral structures and is concentrated into the small amount of residual glass that is trapped in the interstices between mineral grains. Leach tests were performed on samples of sludge, sludge + soil, crushed ISV rock, crushed ISV rock + soil, and low surface area fragments of ISV rock. First, sequential extractions with 0.1 N CaCl[sub 2] were used. Then, sequential treatments with 0.1 N HCl were used. Approximately 10% of the Sr-90 was released from the sludge, with or without soil, after CaCl[sub 2] was applied. Subsequent treatment with HCl released essentially all the Sr-90. The Sr-90 in the crushed ISV rock was resistant to cation exchange, with only 0.4% leached after treatment with CaCl[sub 2]. Treatment with HCl released only 4% of the total Sr-90 present in the crushed ISV rock. The low surface area fragments, more representative of expected field conditions, released 10 [times] less of the Sr-90 than the crushed ISV rock samples. The Cs-137 was not significantly leached from any of the samples of sludge or ISV rock.

  17. Natural and Man-Made Chemicals in North American Soils--Continental-Scale Pilot Study Completed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of Canada recently completed a continental-scale pilot study for a proposed geochemical survey of North American soils. This survey will provide baseline soil chemistry data against which future changes in soil composition can be measured and that can be used by Federal, State/Provincial, and local agencies when making risk-assessment and land-use decisions.

  18. Sediment accumulation rates in Conowingo Reservoir as determined by man-made and natural radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, R.I.; Domotor, S.L. ); Summers, J.K.; Wilson, H. ); Olsen, C.R.; Larsen, I.L. )

    1991-05-01

    The Susquehanna River is the major contributor to sediment loadings in the Chesapeake Bay. Because many environmental contaminants are associated with suspended particulates, the degree of particle retention within the reservoirs of the lower Susquehanna River is an important consideration in evaluating contaminant loadings to the Chesapeake Bay. Profiles of weapons-test Cs-137, nuclear power plant-related Cs-134 and Cs-137, and naturally-derived Pb-210 were used to estimate rates of sediment accretion in the Conowingo Reservoir,an impoundmment of the Susquehanna River along the Maryland-Pennsylvania border. Net accretion rates ranged from about 2 cm yr{sup {minus}1} downstream of a nuclear power plant cooling discharge to a high of about 7 cm yr{sup {minus}1} at the mount of an incoming creek. Slight, but consistent, increases in the annual rate of accretion since the creation of the reservoir in 1928 are apparent. The current net average annual sediment load retained by the reservoir is estimated to be 0.4 {times} 10{sup 6} to 1.5 {times} 10{sup 6} metric tons yr{sup {minus}1}. The retained sediment load represents about 8-23% of the long-time average sediment input to the reservoir.

  19. Measurements and preliminary interpretation of K-Reactor foundation response to man-made seismic excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.C.; Stephenson, D.E.

    1992-04-10

    In support of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) effort to develop K-Reactor seismic design basis ground motions, SRTC monitored local high-explosive tests at a free-field'' site adjacent to K-Reactor and on the {minus}40 level on the foundation of K-Reactor. The high-explosive tests were part of the SRTC/United States Geological Survey (USGS) regional refraction and attenuation experiment that used deeply buried high explosive charges near New Ellenton, Snelling, and at more distant South Carolina sites. The primary purpose of the Reactor measurements are to compare the relative amplitude and frequency content of ambient noise and shot generated ground motions measured at the K-Reactor foundation level and in the free-field'' so that foundation effects to ground motions can be documented and possibly incorporated in the facility design basis. Data analysis indicates that one of the five high explosive tests provided sufficient excitations at K-Reactor to produce satisfactory signal-to-noise between about 1 Hz and 15 Hz. Within this frequency band, Fourier spectral amplitude ratios of motions recorded within the first 10 seconds of first motion show substantial reductions (30{endash}50%) on shot radial and transverse components for frequencies greater than about 3 to 5 Hz. Approximately 50% reductions between 10 to 15 Hz were seen on vertical component ratios, and amplifications of 100% at 4 Hz and 5 Hz{endash}6 Hz.

  20. Waterfowl nesting on small man-made islands in prairie wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, R.F., Jr.; Woodward, R.O.; Kirsch, L.M.

    1978-01-01

    Small islands constructed in prairie wetlands were attractive nesting sites for mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis). Nest densities of mallards on islands averaged 135 per ha compared to 0.03 per ha on adjacent upland habitats. Construction time averaged 2 hours per island and cost $50. No maintenance was required during the first 10 years.

  1. Measurements and preliminary interpretation of K-Reactor foundation response to man-made seismic excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.C.; Stephenson, D.E.

    1992-04-10

    In support of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) effort to develop K-Reactor seismic design basis ground motions, SRTC monitored local high-explosive tests at a ``free-field`` site adjacent to K-Reactor and on the {minus}40 level on the foundation of K-Reactor. The high-explosive tests were part of the SRTC/United States Geological Survey (USGS) regional refraction and attenuation experiment that used deeply buried high explosive charges near New Ellenton, Snelling, and at more distant South Carolina sites. The primary purpose of the Reactor measurements are to compare the relative amplitude and frequency content of ambient noise and shot generated ground motions measured at the K-Reactor foundation level and in the ``free-field`` so that foundation effects to ground motions can be documented and possibly incorporated in the facility design basis. Data analysis indicates that one of the five high explosive tests provided sufficient excitations at K-Reactor to produce satisfactory signal-to-noise between about 1 Hz and 15 Hz. Within this frequency band, Fourier spectral amplitude ratios of motions recorded within the first 10 seconds of first motion show substantial reductions (30{endash}50%) on shot radial and transverse components for frequencies greater than about 3 to 5 Hz. Approximately 50% reductions between 10 to 15 Hz were seen on vertical component ratios, and amplifications of 100% at 4 Hz and 5 Hz{endash}6 Hz.

  2. Effectiveness of Man-Made Wetland Systems in Filtering Contaminants from Urban Runoff in Milledgeville, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Mutiti, Samuel; Sadowski, Hannah; Melvin, Christine; Mutiti, Christine

    2015-04-01

    A wetland system made up of linked basins was investigated to determine its role in local flood control and contaminant filtration. The study focused on a wetland basin that is dominated by the Celtis laevigata plant and is underlain by clay, with a small sandy layer approximately 1 m below surface. Field and laboratory data were collected to understand the transport and filtration of phosphate, iron, and nitrate. Field results showed the wetland to effectively reduce iron and phosphates from runoff via groundwater flow. These results also showed an increase in the phosphate concentration of surface water while within the basin, resulting from agitation of wetland sediments. Laboratory column experiments showed more than 90% reduction in phosphorus and iron while nitrate concentrations increased above the input concentration. Phosphate and iron were high in wetland water immediately after a rain event. Nitrate concentrations increased as the water filtered through the sediments due to desorption of previously adsorbed nitrates. This wetland could potentially act as a temporal hot spot and rain events as hot moments for these substances. Therefore, the best flood control measure for this site would be to increase residence time in the wetland. This would help to better manage/control the concentration of phosphate, iron and nitrate pollution in surface waters. PMID:26462080

  3. Barrier Free Access to the Man-Made Environment - A Review of Current Literature. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinfeld, Edward

    Reviewed in the interim report on revision of the existing American National Standards Institute provision is current literature on barrier free design for disabled individuals. The report addresses the following topics: the history of access as a civil right; demographic aspects (including information on task dysfunctions of disabled persons…

  4. Can a man-made universe be achieved by quantum tunneling without an initial singularity?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guth, Alan H.; Haller, K. (Editor); Caldi, D. B. (Editor); Islam, M. M. (Editor); Mallett, R. L. (Editor); Mannheim, P. D. (Editor); Swanson, M. S. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Essentially all modern particle theories suggest the possible existence of a false vacuum state; a metastable state with an energy density that cannot be lowered except by means of a very slow phase transition. Inflationary cosmology makes use of such a state to drive the expansion of the big bang, allowing the entire observed universe to evolve from a very small initial mass. A sphere of false vacuum in the present universe, if larger than a certain critical mass, could inflate to form a new universe which would rapidly detach from its parent. A false vacuum bubble of this size, however, cannot be produced classically unless an initial singularity is present from the outset. The possibility is explored that a bubble of subcritical size, which classically would evolve to a maximum size and collapse, might instead tunnel through a barrier to produce a new universe. The tunneling rate using semiclassical quantum gravity is estimated, and some interesting ambiguities in the formulas are discovered.

  5. Man-made chemicals found in remote areas of the world: the experimental definition for POPs.

    PubMed

    Ballschmite, Karlheinz; Hackenberg, Rudolf; Jarman, Walter M; Looser, Ralf

    2002-01-01

    Members of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN-ECE) signed a legally binding protocol on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in February 1998 under the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. A treaty that intends to control the production, import, export, disposal and use of toxic chemicals that persist for decades in the environment has been formally signed at a conference in May 2001 in Stockholm. The 2001 POP treaty, like the 1998 LRTAP POP protocol, contains a provision on adding further chemicals to the initial group of twelve or fifteen. The occurrence of a compound or a group of compounds in so called remote and pristine areas, e.g. in the Artic or in the Southern Hemisphere, proves its stability under the chemical and biological conditions of the environment. Compounds identified in this way, in samples taken primarily in very remote regions of the planet, are classified by their environmental fate and global distribution as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), regardless of any political assessments. PMID:12214720

  6. Mutagenesis by man-made mineral fibres in the lung of rats.

    PubMed

    Topinka, J b; Loli, P; Dusinská, M; Hurbánková, M; Kováciková, Z; Volkovová, K; Kazimírová, A; Barancoková, M; Tatrai, E; Wolff, T; Oesterle, D; Kyrtopoulos, S A; Georgiadis, P

    2006-03-20

    The potential of two asbestos substitute mineral fibres--rock (stone) wool RW1 and glass wool MMVF10--to induce gene mutations, DNA strand breaks, inflammation and oxidative stress has been studied in rats. Male homozygous lamda-lacI transgenic F344 rats were intratracheally instilled with single doses of 1 and 2 mg/animal of fibres or with multiple doses of 2 mg/animal administered weekly on four consecutive weeks (8 mg in total). Exposure to RW1 fibres for 16 weeks significantly increased mutant frequency (MF) in the lung in a dose-dependent manner, while MMVF10 fibres did not exhibit any increase of MF at any dose. RW1 fibres gave a significant increase of MF at a dose of 1 mg. Four weeks after instillation, neither the single nor the multiple doses significantly increased MF for both fibre types. To investigate mechanisms for induction of mutations, other genotoxicity markers and parameters of inflammatory and oxidative damage were determined in relation to MF. A weak correlation of mutagenicity data with other genotoxicity parameters studied was observed. DNA strand breaks as measured by comet assay were increased in alveolar macrophages and lung epithelial cells of RW1 and MMVF10 treated rats. RWl fibres caused more extensive lung inflammation as measured by release of neutrophils into broncho-alveolar lavage fluid than MMVF10 fibres. The effects were observed 16 weeks post-exposure, indicating a persistence of the pathogenic process during the exposure period. Only minor differences in the extent of inflammatory processes were observed between the doses of 2 mg and 4 x 2 mg, suggesting that any threshold for inflammation lies below the dose of 2 mg. With the exception of the highest dose of MMVF10 fibres after 16 weeks of exposure, no significant increase of oxidative damage as measured by levels of malondialdehyde in lung tissue was observed. MMVF10 fibres caused weaker inflammation in the lung of rats and did not exhibit any mutagenic effect. We conclude that a weak but chronic inflammation (more likely than acute inflammation or direct oxidative damage) in the lung tissue of fibre treated rats characterized by moderate influx of inflammatory cells into BAL is probably responsible for the observed mutagenic effect of RW1 fibres. PMID:16364376

  7. Geolocation of man-made reservoirs across terrains of varying complexity using GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mixon, David M.; Kinner, David A.; Stallard, Robert F.; Syvitski, James P. M.

    2008-10-01

    The Reservoir Sedimentation Survey Information System (RESIS) is one of the world's most comprehensive databases of reservoir sedimentation rates, comprising nearly 6000 surveys for 1819 reservoirs across the continental United States. Sediment surveys in the database date from 1904 to 1999, though more than 95% of surveys were entered prior to 1980, making RESIS largely a historical database. The use of this database for large-scale studies has been limited by the lack of precise coordinates for the reservoirs. Many of the reservoirs are relatively small structures and do not appear on current USGS topographic maps. Others have been renamed or have only approximate (i.e. township and range) coordinates. This paper presents a method scripted in ESRI's ARC Macro Language (AML) to locate the reservoirs on digital elevation models using information available in RESIS. The script also delineates the contributing watersheds and compiles several hydrologically important parameters for each reservoir. Evaluation of the method indicates that, for watersheds larger than 5 km 2, the correct outlet is identified over 80% of the time. The importance of identifying the watershed outlet correctly depends on the application. Our intent is to collect spatial data for watersheds across the continental United States and describe the land use, soils, and topography for each reservoir's watershed. Because of local landscape similarity in these properties, we show that choosing the incorrect watershed does not necessarily mean that the watershed characteristics will be misrepresented. We present a measure termed terrain complexity and examine its relationship to geolocation success rate and its influence on the similarity of nearby watersheds.

  8. Natural and man-made radioactivity in soils and plants around the research reactor of Inshass.

    PubMed

    Higgy, R H; Pimpl, M

    1998-12-01

    The specific radioactivities of the U-series, 232Th, 137Cs and 40K were measured in soil samples around the Inshass reactor in Cairo, using a gamma-ray spectrometer with a HpGe detector. The alpha activity of 238U, 234U and 235U was measured in the same soil samples by surface barrier detectors after radiochemical separation and the obtained results were compared with the specific activities determined by gamma-measurements. The alpha-activity of 238Pu, 239+240Pu, 241Am, 242Cm and 244Cm was measured after radiochemical separation by surface barrier detectors for both soil and plant samples. Then beta-activity of 241Pu was measured using liquid scintillation spectrometry. PMID:9776618

  9. Environmental phototoxicity: Solar ultraviolet radiation affects the toxicity of natural and man-made chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, R.A.; Berenbaum, M.R. )

    1988-04-01

    Ultraviolet radiation appears to be toxic to all forms of unpigmented living cells, including bacteria, protozoa, nematodes, arthropods, fish, birds, and mammals. In addition to the direct absorption of solar energy by cellular constituents, toxicity may occur because of the absorption of sunlight by xenobiotics (or by naturally occurring compounds outside the target cell); these may be converted by light or by subsequent light-promoted reactions that induce cellular damage. This article describes the phototoxicity of photodynamic dyes, light-activated synthetic herbicides, petroleum and its constituents, and naturally occurring chemicals from plants. Detoxification mechanisms are also discussed.

  10. Investigation on the durability of man-made vitreous fibers in rat lungs.

    PubMed Central

    Bellmann, B; Muhle, H; Kamstrup, O; Draeger, U F

    1994-01-01

    Two types of sized stonewool with median lengths of 6.7 and 10.1 microns and median diameters of 0.63 and 0.85 microns, and crocidolite with fibers of median length of 4.8 microns and median diameter of 0.18 microns were instilled intratracheally into female Wistar rats. A single dose of 2 mg in 0.3 ml saline was used for the stonewool samples and 0.1 mg in 0.3 ml saline for crocidolite. The evenness of distribution of fibers in the lung was checked by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Five animals per group were sacrificed after 2 days, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. After low-temperature ashing of the lungs about 200 fibers per animal were analyzed by SEM for length and diameter. The number and mass of fibers in the total lung were calculated. For the stonewool samples the decrease in the number of fibers in the lung ash followed approximately first order kinetics resulting in half-times of 90 and 120 days. The analysis of fiber number and diameter of different length fractions was used to estimate the contribution of three processes of fiber elimination: transport by macrophages for short fibers, breakage of fibers, and dissolution of fibers. (The process of transport by macrophages was found fastest for fibers with length < 2.5 microns). For the elimination of critical fibers with length > 5 microns, the breakage and dissolution were the most important processes. The breakage of fibers was predominant for one of the stonewool samples. The preferential type of the mechanism of fiber elimination is dependent on chemical composition and size distribution. PMID:7882927