Science.gov

Sample records for manage chronic disease

  1. New Directions in Chronic Disease Management

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hun-Sung; Cho, Jae-Hyoung

    2015-01-01

    A worldwide epidemic of chronic disease, and complications thereof, is underway, with no sign of abatement. Healthcare costs have increased tremendously, principally because of the need to treat chronic complications of non-communicable diseases including cardiovascular disease, blindness, end-stage renal disease, and amputation of extremities. Current healthcare systems fail to provide an appropriate quality of care to prevent the development of chronic complications without additional healthcare costs. A new paradigm for prevention and treatment of chronic disease and the complications thereof is urgently required. Several clinical studies have clearly shown that frequent communication between physicians and patients, based on electronic data transmission from medical devices, greatly assists in the management of chronic disease. However, for various reasons, these advantages have not translated effectively into real clinical practice. In the present review, we describe current relevant studies, and trends in the use of information technology for chronic disease management. We also discuss limitations and future directions. PMID:26194075

  2. Case Management of Adolescents with Chronic Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankard, Bettina A.

    This training guide presents a model for optimum delivery of the primary duties, tasks, and steps required in the comprehensive case management of adolescents with chronic disease. Using a team approach to coordinated health care, the guide involves the patient and family as key members of the care team along with the physician, nurse, dietitian,…

  3. Optimizing Chronic Disease Management Mega-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    PATH-THETA Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Background As Ontario’s population ages, chronic diseases are becoming increasingly common. There is growing interest in services and care models designed to optimize the management of chronic disease. Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness and expected budget impact of interventions in chronic disease cohorts evaluated as part of the Optimizing Chronic Disease Management mega-analysis. Data Sources Sector-specific costs, disease incidence, and mortality were calculated for each condition using administrative databases from the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. Intervention outcomes were based on literature identified in the evidence-based analyses. Quality-of-life and disease prevalence data were obtained from the literature. Methods Analyses were restricted to interventions that showed significant benefit for resource use or mortality from the evidence-based analyses. An Ontario cohort of patients with each chronic disease was constructed and followed over 5 years (2006–2011). A phase-based approach was used to estimate costs across all sectors of the health care system. Utility values identified in the literature and effect estimates for resource use and mortality obtained from the evidence-based analyses were applied to calculate incremental costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Given uncertainty about how many patients would benefit from each intervention, a system-wide budget impact was not determined. Instead, the difference in lifetime cost between an individual-administered intervention and no intervention was presented. Results Of 70 potential cost-effectiveness analyses, 8 met our inclusion criteria. All were found to result in QALY gains and cost savings compared with usual care. The models were robust to the majority of sensitivity analyses undertaken, but due to structural limitations and time constraints, few sensitivity analyses were conducted. Incremental cost savings per patient who received intervention ranged between

  4. Educational session: managing chronic myeloid leukemia as a chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Hochhaus, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Elucidation of the pathogenesis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has transformed this disease from being invariably fatal to being the type of leukemia with the best prognosis. Median survival associated with CML is estimated at > 20 years. Nevertheless, blast crisis occurs at an incidence of 1%-2% per year, and once this has occurred, treatment options are limited and survival is short. Due to the overall therapeutic success, the prevalence of CML is gradually increasing. The optimal management of this disease includes access to modern therapies and standardized surveillance methods for all patients, which will certainly create challenges. Furthermore, all available TKIs show mild but frequent side effects that may require symptomatic therapy. Adherence to therapy is the key prerequisite for efficacy of the drugs and for long-term success. Comprehensive information on the nature of the disease and the need for the continuous treatment using the appropriate dosages and timely information on efficacy data are key factors for optimal compliance. Standardized laboratory methods are required to provide optimal surveillance according to current recommendations. CML occurs in all age groups. Despite a median age of 55-60 years, particular challenges are the management of the disease in children, young women with the wish to get pregnant, and older patients. The main challenges in the long-term management of CML patients are discussed in this review. PMID:22160024

  5. Health Technologies for the Improvement of Chronic Disease Management

    PubMed Central

    Nikitovic, M; Brener, S

    2013-01-01

    Background As part of ongoing efforts to improve the Ontario health care system, a mega-analysis examining the optimization of chronic disease management in the community was conducted by Evidence Development and Standards, Health Quality Ontario (previously known as the Medical Advisory Secretariat [MAS]). Objective The purpose of this report was to identify health technologies previously evaluated by MAS that may be leveraged in efforts to optimize chronic disease management in the community. Data Sources The Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series and field evaluations conducted by MAS and its partners between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2011. Review Methods Technologies related to at least 1 of 7 disease areas of interest (type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, stroke, and chronic wounds) or that may greatly impact health services utilization were reviewed. Only technologies with a moderate to high quality of evidence and associated with a clinically or statistically significant improvement in disease management were included. Technologies related to other topics in the mega-analysis on chronic disease management were excluded. Evidence-based analyses were reviewed, and outcomes of interest were extracted. Outcomes of interest included hospital utilization, mortality, health-related quality of life, disease-specific measures, and economic analysis measures. Results Eleven analyses were included and summarized. Technologies fell into 3 categories: those with evidence for the cure of chronic disease, those with evidence for the prevention of chronic disease, and those with evidence for the management of chronic disease. Conclusions The impact on patient outcomes and hospitalization rates of new health technologies in chronic disease management is often overlooked. This analysis demonstrates that health technologies can reduce the burden of illness; improve patient

  6. Chronic beryllium disease: Diagnosis and management

    SciTech Connect

    Rossman, M.D.

    1996-10-01

    Chronic beryllium disease is predominantly a pulmonary granulomatosis that was originally described in 1946. Symptoms usually include dyspnea and cough. Fever, anorexia, and weight loss are common. Skin lesions are the most common extrathoracic manifestation. Granulomatous hepatitis, hypercalcemia, and kidney stones can also occur. Radiographic and physiologic abnormalities are similar to those in sarcoidosis. While traditionally the pathologic changes included granulomas and cellular interstitial changes, the hallmark of the disease today is the well-formed granuloma. Immunologic studies have demonstrated a cell-mediated response to beryllium that is due to an accumulation of CD4{sup +} T cells at the site of disease activity. Diagnosis depends on the demonstration of pathologic changes (i.e., granuloma) and evidence that the granuloma was caused by a hypersensitivity to beryllium (i.e., positive lung proliferative response to beryllium). Using these criteria, the diagnosis of chronic beryllium disease can now be made before the onset of clinical symptoms. Whether, with early diagnosis, the natural course of this condition will be the same as when it was traditionally diagnosed is not known. Currently, corticosteroids are used to treat patients with significant symptoms or evidence of progressive disease. 21 refs.

  7. The case for disease management in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Randolph A; Scott, Susan; Mattern, William D; Mohini, Ravinder; Nissenson, Allen R

    2006-04-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing epidemic in the United States and worldwide, with nearly two thirds of CKD patients also having diabetes, hypertension, or both. Morbidity and mortality among patients with CKD are high, as are the costs associated with care, which is highly fragmented. Disease management (DM) programs are designed to coordinate the delivery of care to patients, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce costs along the continuum of care. The goals of DM programs in CKD patients are to fill the gaps in current care by focusing on four key areas: (1) slowing the progression of CKD, (2) identifying and managing the complications of CKD, (3) identifying and managing associated comorbid conditions, and (4) smoothing the transition to renal replacement therapy (RRT). To be successful, this approach requires multidisciplinary collaboration among physicians (eg, primary care physicians, endocrinologists, cardiologists, nephrologists, surgeons) and participating caregivers including nurses, dieticians, social workers, and pharmacists. Patient identification, limited reimbursement, late patient referral, and lack of primary care physician and nephrologist knowledge about the importance and details of CKD management are all barriers that must be overcome for such programs to be successfully implemented. Considering the magnitude of the opportunity, DM applied to CKD is a promising approach to the care of this vulnerable population. PMID:16620194

  8. Chronic disease management and the development of virtual communities.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alan D

    2007-01-01

    The current volume and expected increases in the number of patients with chronic diseases are concerned significant and substantial. Patients with chronic diseases have a great need to personally manage their health-related behaviour, such as food consumption, and its impact on their health indicators, like blood pressure, body weight, blood sugar, cholesterol, to name a few. Current healthcare systems are unable to meet the needs of patients with chronic diseases for management, due to the need for acute care. An analysis of the needs was performed and recommendations for virtual communities were made to help patients with chronic diseases monitor and manage their health. Virtual communities have the potential to meet the need to assist with monitoring activities, education, community membership, and the sale of products and services. However, they also face risks inherent to accepting and storing any form of personal health information, and of remaining in compliance with the Health Insurance Portability and Accessibility Act of 2001. PMID:18048306

  9. Management of Chronic Infectious Diseases in School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    This document contains guidelines for developing policies and procedures related to chronic infectious diseases, as recommended by the Illinois Task Force on School Management of Infectious Disease. It is designed to help school personnel understand how infectious diseases can be transmitted, and to assist school districts in the development and…

  10. Clinical management of the uraemic syndrome in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Vanholder, Raymond; Fouque, Denis; Glorieux, Griet; Heine, Gunnar H; Kanbay, Mehmet; Mallamaci, Francesca; Massy, Ziad A; Ortiz, Alberto; Rossignol, Patrick; Wiecek, Andrzej; Zoccali, Carmine; London, Gérard Michel

    2016-04-01

    The clinical picture of the uraemic syndrome is a complex amalgam of accelerated ageing and organ dysfunction, which progress in parallel to chronic kidney disease. The uraemic syndrome is associated with cardiovascular disease, metabolic bone disease, inflammation, protein energy wasting, intestinal dysbiosis, anaemia, and neurological and endocrine dysfunction. In this Review, we summarise specific, modern management options for the uraemic syndrome in chronic kidney disease. Although large randomised controlled trials are scarce, based on data from randomised controlled trials and observational studies, as well as pathophysiological reasoning, a therapeutic algorithm can be developed for this complex and multifactorial condition, with interventions targeting several modifiable factors simultaneously. PMID:26948372

  11. Heart Failure Update: Chronic Disease Management Programs.

    PubMed

    Fountain, Lorna B

    2016-03-01

    With high mortality and readmission rates among patients with heart failure (HF), multiple disease management models have been and continue to be tested, with mixed results. Early postdischarge care improves outcomes for patients. Telemonitoring also can assist in reducing mortality and HF-related hospitalizations. Office-based team care improves patient outcomes, with important components including rapid access to physicians, partnerships with clinical pharmacists, education, monitoring, and support. Pay-for-performance measures developed for HF, primarily use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta blockers, also improve patient outcomes, but the influence of adherence to other measures has been minimal. Evaluating comorbid conditions, including diabetes and hypertension, and making drug adjustments for patients with HF to include blood pressure control and use of metformin, when possible, can reduce mortality and morbidity. PMID:26974003

  12. Alberta's systems approach to chronic disease management and prevention utilizing the expanded chronic care model.

    PubMed

    Delon, Sandra; Mackinnon, Blair

    2009-01-01

    Alberta's integrated approach to chronic disease management programming embraces client-centred care, supports self-management and facilitates care across the continuum. This paper presents strategies implemented through collaboration with primary care to improve care of individuals with chronic conditions, evaluation evidence supporting success and lessons learned from the Alberta perspective. PMID:20057258

  13. Screening and Management of Depression for Adults With Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression is the leading cause of disability and the fourth leading contributor to the global burden of disease. In Canada, the 1-year prevalence of major depressive disorder was approximately 6% in Canadians 18 and older. A large prospective Canadian study reported an increased risk of developing depression in people with chronic diseases compared with those without such diseases. Objectives To systematically review the literature regarding the effectiveness of screening for depression and/or anxiety in adults with chronic diseases in the community setting. To conduct a non-systematic, post-hoc analysis to evaluate whether a screen-and-treat strategy for depression is associated with an improvement in chronic disease outcomes. Data Sources A literature search was performed on January 29, 2012, using OVID MEDLINE, OVID MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, OVID EMBASE, OVID PsycINFO, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Wiley Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database, for studies published from January 1, 2002 until January 29, 2012. Review Methods No citations were identified for the first objective. For the second, systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials that compared depression management for adults with chronic disease with usual care/placebo were included. Where possible, the results of randomized controlled trials were pooled using a random-effects model. Results Eight primary randomized controlled trials and 1 systematic review were included in the post-hoc analysis (objective 2)—1 in people with diabetes, 2 in people with heart failure, and 5 in people with coronary artery disease. Across all studies, there was no evidence that managing depression improved chronic disease outcomes. The quality of evidence (GRADE) ranged from low to moderate. Some of the study results (specifically in coronary artery disease populations) were suggestive of benefit, but

  14. Managing acute and chronic renal stone disease.

    PubMed

    Moran, Conor P; Courtney, Aisling E

    2016-02-01

    Nephrolithiasis, or renal stone disease, is common and the incidence is increasing globally. In the UK the lifetime risk is estimated to be 8-10%. On a population level, the increase in stone incidence, erosion of gender disparity, and younger age of onset is likely to reflect increasing prevalence of obesity and a Western diet with a high intake of animal protein and salt. Stones can be detected by a variety of imaging techniques. The gold standard is a non-contrast CT of kidneys, ureters and bladder (CT KUB) which can identify > 99% of stones. CT KUB should be the primary mode of imaging for all patients with colic unless contraindicated. In such instances, or if a CT KUB is not available, an ultrasound KUB is an alternative. This has advantages in terms of radiation exposure and cost, but is limited in sensitivity, particularly for ureteric stones. Once diagnosed, a plain film KUB can be used for follow-up of radiopaque stones. For most patients diclofenac is a reasonable first choice of analgesia, e.g. 50-100 mg rectally, or 75 mg IM. Opioid medication can worsen nausea and be less effective, but should be used if there is a contraindication to NSAIDs. A combination of diclofenac, paracetamol, and/or codeine regularly can provide adequate pain control in many cases. Failure of this analgesic combination should prompt consideration of secondary care support. If a ureteric stone < 5 mm in diameter is identified, the expectation is that this will pass without intervention. Initially medical management is still useful for stones between 5 and 10mm in diameter, but urology input is more likely to be necessary as up to 50% of these may require intervention. Stones that are >10 mm in diameter should be discussed with the urology service as they are unlikely to pass spontaneously. PMID:27032222

  15. Cost Analysis of Chronic Disease Self-Management Programmes Being Delivered in South Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Timothy F.; Palmer, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic disease accounts for the majority of healthcare costs. The Chronic Disease Self-Management Programme (CDSMP) has been shown to be effective in reducing the burden of chronic disease. Objectives: The objective of this study was to measure the cost of delivering the Chronic Disease Self-Management Programme (CDSMP) in order to…

  16. Self-management education and support in chronic disease management.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Patrick T

    2012-06-01

    With the changing health care environment, prevalence of chronic health conditions, and burgeoning challenges of health literacy, obesity, and homelessness, self-management support provides an opportunity for clinicians to enhance effectiveness and, at the same time, to engage patients to participate in managing their own personal care. This article reviews the differences between patient education and self-management and describes easy-to-use strategies that foster patient self-management and can be used by health care providers in the medical setting. It also highlights the importance of linking patients to nonmedical programs and services in the community. PMID:22608868

  17. Open source electronic health records and chronic disease management

    PubMed Central

    Goldwater, Jason C; Kwon, Nancy J; Nathanson, Ashley; Muckle, Alison E; Brown, Alexa; Cornejo, Kerri

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study and report on the use of open source electronic health records (EHR) to assist with chronic care management within safety net medical settings, such as community health centers (CHC). Methods and Materials The study was conducted by NORC at the University of Chicago from April to September 2010. The NORC team undertook a comprehensive environmental scan, including a literature review, a dozen key informant interviews using a semistructured protocol, and a series of site visits to CHC that currently use an open source EHR. Results Two of the sites chosen by NORC were actively using an open source EHR to assist in the redesign of their care delivery system to support more effective chronic disease management. This included incorporating the chronic care model into an CHC and using the EHR to help facilitate its elements, such as care teams for patients, in addition to maintaining health records on indigent populations, such as tuberculosis status on homeless patients. Discussion The ability to modify the open-source EHR to adapt to the CHC environment and leverage the ecosystem of providers and users to assist in this process provided significant advantages in chronic care management. Improvements in diabetes management, controlled hypertension and increases in tuberculosis vaccinations were assisted through the use of these open source systems. Conclusions The flexibility and adaptability of open source EHR demonstrated its utility and viability in the provision of necessary and needed chronic disease care among populations served by CHC. PMID:23813566

  18. The empirical foundations of telemedicine interventions for chronic disease management.

    PubMed

    Bashshur, Rashid L; Shannon, Gary W; Smith, Brian R; Alverson, Dale C; Antoniotti, Nina; Barsan, William G; Bashshur, Noura; Brown, Edward M; Coye, Molly J; Doarn, Charles R; Ferguson, Stewart; Grigsby, Jim; Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Kvedar, Joseph C; Linkous, Jonathan; Merrell, Ronald C; Nesbitt, Thomas; Poropatich, Ronald; Rheuban, Karen S; Sanders, Jay H; Watson, Andrew R; Weinstein, Ronald S; Yellowlees, Peter

    2014-09-01

    The telemedicine intervention in chronic disease management promises to involve patients in their own care, provides continuous monitoring by their healthcare providers, identifies early symptoms, and responds promptly to exacerbations in their illnesses. This review set out to establish the evidence from the available literature on the impact of telemedicine for the management of three chronic diseases: congestive heart failure, stroke, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. By design, the review focuses on a limited set of representative chronic diseases because of their current and increasing importance relative to their prevalence, associated morbidity, mortality, and cost. Furthermore, these three diseases are amenable to timely interventions and secondary prevention through telemonitoring. The preponderance of evidence from studies using rigorous research methods points to beneficial results from telemonitoring in its various manifestations, albeit with a few exceptions. Generally, the benefits include reductions in use of service: hospital admissions/re-admissions, length of hospital stay, and emergency department visits typically declined. It is important that there often were reductions in mortality. Few studies reported neutral or mixed findings. PMID:24968105

  19. The Empirical Foundations of Telemedicine Interventions for Chronic Disease Management

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, Gary W.; Smith, Brian R.; Alverson, Dale C.; Antoniotti, Nina; Barsan, William G.; Bashshur, Noura; Brown, Edward M.; Coye, Molly J.; Doarn, Charles R.; Ferguson, Stewart; Grigsby, Jim; Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Kvedar, Joseph C.; Linkous, Jonathan; Merrell, Ronald C.; Nesbitt, Thomas; Poropatich, Ronald; Rheuban, Karen S.; Sanders, Jay H.; Watson, Andrew R.; Weinstein, Ronald S.; Yellowlees, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The telemedicine intervention in chronic disease management promises to involve patients in their own care, provides continuous monitoring by their healthcare providers, identifies early symptoms, and responds promptly to exacerbations in their illnesses. This review set out to establish the evidence from the available literature on the impact of telemedicine for the management of three chronic diseases: congestive heart failure, stroke, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. By design, the review focuses on a limited set of representative chronic diseases because of their current and increasing importance relative to their prevalence, associated morbidity, mortality, and cost. Furthermore, these three diseases are amenable to timely interventions and secondary prevention through telemonitoring. The preponderance of evidence from studies using rigorous research methods points to beneficial results from telemonitoring in its various manifestations, albeit with a few exceptions. Generally, the benefits include reductions in use of service: hospital admissions/re-admissions, length of hospital stay, and emergency department visits typically declined. It is important that there often were reductions in mortality. Few studies reported neutral or mixed findings. PMID:24968105

  20. Chronic Disease Self-Management by People With HIV.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Karalyn; Slavin, Sean; Pitts, Marian K; Elliott, Julian H

    2016-05-01

    As HIV has transitioned into a chronic disease, reappraisal of clinical management has occurred with chronic disease self-management (CDSM) as one possibility. However, despite extensive work on CDSM across a range of diseases, little attention has focused on psychosocial contexts of the lives of people for whom programs are intended. This article reports semi-structured interviews used to explore health practices and motivations of 33 people with HIV (PWHIV) in Australia. Within participants' accounts, different forms of subjectivity and agency emerged with implications for how they understood and valued health-related behaviors. Four themes arose: health support and disclosure, social support and stigma, employment/structure, and health decisions beyond HIV. The experience of stigma and its intersection with CDSM remains relatively un-chartered. This study found stigma shapes agency and engagement with health. Decisions concerning health behaviors are often driven by perceived social and emotional benefit embedded in concerns of disclosure and stigma. PMID:26290540

  1. Engineering for reliability in at-home chronic disease management

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Logan; Eschler, Jordan; Lozano, Paula; McClure, Jennifer B.; Vizer, Lisa M.; Ralston, James D.; Pratt, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with chronic conditions face challenges with maintaining lifelong adherence to self-management activities. Although reminders can help support the cognitive demands of managing daily and future health tasks, we understand little of how they fit into people’s daily lives. Utilizing a maximum variation sampling method, we interviewed and compared the experiences of 20 older adults with diabetes and 19 mothers of children with asthma to understand reminder use for at-home chronic disease management. Based on our participants’ experiences, we contend that many self-management failures should be viewed as systems failures, rather than individual failures and non-compliance. Furthermore, we identify key principles from reliability engineering that both explain current behavior and suggest strategies to improve patient reminder systems. PMID:25954384

  2. Online Patient Education for Chronic Disease Management: Consumer Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Win, Khin Than; Hassan, Naffisah Mohd; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Probst, Yasmine

    2016-04-01

    Patient education plays an important role in chronic disease management. The aim of this study is to identify patients' preferences in regard to the design features of effective online patient education (OPE) and the benefits. A review of the existing literature was conducted in order to identify the benefits of OPE and its essential design features. These design features were empirically tested by conducting survey with patients and caregivers. Reliability analysis, construct validity and regression analysis were performed for data analysis. The results identified patient-tailored information, interactivity, content credibility, clear presentation of content, use of multimedia and interpretability as the essential design features of online patient education websites for chronic disease management. PMID:26846749

  3. Collaborative Help in Chronic Disease Management: Supporting Individualized Problems

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Jina; Ackerman, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Coping with chronic illness disease is a long and lonely journey, because the burden of managing the illness on a daily basis is placed upon the patients themselves. In this paper, we present our findings for how diabetes patient support groups help one another find individualized strategies for managing diabetes. Through field observations of face-to-face diabetes support groups, content analysis of an online diabetes community, and interviews, we found several help interactions that are critical in helping patients in finding individualized solutions. Those are: (1) patients operationalize their experiences to easily contextualize and share executable strategies; (2) operationalization has to be done within the larger context of sharing illness trajectories; and (3) the support groups develop common understanding towards diabetes management. We further discuss how our findings translate into design implications for supporting chronic illness patients in online community settings. PMID:25360442

  4. Self-Management Support Interventions for Persons With Chronic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Franek, J

    2013-01-01

    Background Self-management support interventions such as the Stanford Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) are becoming more widespread in attempt to help individuals better self-manage chronic disease. Objective To systematically assess the clinical effectiveness of self-management support interventions for persons with chronic diseases. Data Sources A literature search was performed on January 15, 2012, using OVID MEDLINE, OVID MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, OVID EMBASE, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Wiley Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database for studies published between January 1, 2000, and January 15, 2012. A January 1, 2000, start date was used because the concept of non-disease-specific/general chronic disease self-management was first published only in 1999. Reference lists were examined for any additional relevant studies not identified through the search. Review Methods Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing self-management support interventions for general chronic disease against usual care were included for analysis. Results of RCTs were pooled using a random-effects model with standardized mean difference as the summary statistic. Results Ten primary RCTs met the inclusion criteria (n = 6,074). Nine of these evaluated the Stanford CDSMP across various populations; results, therefore, focus on the CDSMP. Health status outcomes: There was a small, statistically significant improvement in favour of CDSMP across most health status measures, including pain, disability, fatigue, depression, health distress, and self-rated health (GRADE quality low). There was no significant difference between modalities for dyspnea (GRADE quality very low). There was significant improvement in health-related quality of life according to the EuroQol 5-D in favour of CDSMP, but inconsistent findings across other quality-of-life measures. Healthy behaviour

  5. Laboratory medicine and mobile health technologies at crossroads: Perspectives for the management of chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Gruson, Damien; Ko, Gabriel

    2016-10-01

    Management of chronic diseases represents a leading health and economic issue worldwide. Biomarkers are critical for the diagnosis and management of both communicable and non-communicable chronic diseases, and mobile health (mHealth) technologies are about to change the "game" with regard to the management of patients with such chronic diseases. The development of efficient, accurate and interactive solutions that integrate biomarkers and mHealth opens new perspectives for caregivers for the management of chronic illness. PMID:26983900

  6. Chronic Disease Self-Management: A Hybrid Concept Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Wendy R.; Lasiter, Sue; Ellis, Rebecca Bartlett; Buelow, Janice M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases require chronic disease self-management (CDSM). Existing CDSM interventions, while improving outcomes, often do not lead to long-lasting effects. To render existing and new CDSM interventions more effective, an exploration of the concept of CDSM from both the literature and patient perspectives is needed. Purpose To describe the current conceptualization of CDSM in the literature, identify potential inadequacies in this conceptualization based on a comparison of literature- and patient-based CDSM descriptions, and to offer a more comprehensive definition of CDSM. Method A hybrid concept analysis was completed. Discussion In the literature, CDSM is defined as behaviors influenced by individual characteristics. Patients in the fieldwork phase discussed aspects of CDSM not well-represented in the literature. Conclusions CDSM is a complex process involving behaviors at multiple levels of a person's environment. Pilot work to develop and test CDSM interventions based on both individual and external characteristics is needed. PMID:25241136

  7. Hyperphosphatemia Management in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Shaman, Ahmed M; Kowalski, Stefan R

    2016-07-01

    Hyperphosphatemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is a potentially life altering condition that can lead to cardiovascular calcification, metabolic bone disease (renal osteodystrophy) and the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). It is also associated with increased prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and mortality rates. To effectively manage hyperphosphatemia in CKD patients it is important to not only consider pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment options but also to understand the underlying physiologic pathways involved in phosphorus homoeostasis. This review will therefore provide both a background into phosphorus homoeostasis and the management of hyperphosphatemia in CKD patients. In addition, it will cover some of the most important reasons for failure to control hyperphosphatemia with emphasis on the effect of the gastric pH on phosphate binders efficiency. PMID:27330380

  8. Recognizing and managing chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Stephanie J; Flowers, Mary E D

    2008-01-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is an immune-mediated disorder that occurs frequently after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Most cases are diagnosed within the first year at a median of 4 to 6 months after HCT, but 5-10% of cases are initially diagnosed beyond the first post-transplant year. Chronic GVHD most often involves the skin and mouth, but almost any other organ system can be involved. Correct diagnosis is critical so that appropriate therapy can be started promptly to minimize symptoms and prevent irreversible organ damage. Initial treatment should be with cortico-steroid-based therapy. Optimal secondary treatment as not been established, although a large number of agents may provide benefits. A 2004 NIH conference focused on development of consensus criteria for chronic GVHD. Six papers published in 2005 and 2006 propose consensus definitions for chronic GVHD diagnosis and scoring, pathology, biomarkers, response criteria, supportive care and design of clinical trials. This review will focus on common clinical presentations and principles for managing chronic GVHD. The most frequently used secondary therapies and ongoing trials are summarized. New concepts from the NIH consensus conference are discussed. PMID:19074071

  9. [Self-Management in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease].

    PubMed

    Chiou, Chou-Ping; Lu, Yung-Chuan; Hung, Shih-Yuan

    2016-04-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients typically self-manage their disease-care program. Self-management requires the investment of considerable time and energy in health management and in following the multifaceted CKD treatment regimen. CKD, a progressive disease, is classified into five stages that correspond to the five stages of decline in kidney function, as measured using the glomerular filtration rate (GRF). Each of these stages requires that a patient modify his / her lifestyle and shoulder the responsibility for day-to-day health management tasks. Key to promoting self-management is the partnership and collaboration between healthcare providers and patients. Tasks in this partnership include patient assessment and communication, regimen adherence, emotional management, negotiation of care plans, and the enhancement of self-efficacy, with the aims of creating positive changes in behavior, promoting correct symptoms interpretation and reporting, and promoting the appropriate use of resources. Nurses may help patients maneuver this initially frightening and sometimes difficult terrain with strategies that are tailored to each CKD stage. PMID:27026551

  10. Erectile dysfunction in chronic kidney disease: From pathophysiology to management

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulou, Eirini; Varouktsi, Anna; Lazaridis, Antonios; Boutari, Chrysoula; Doumas, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is encountered in millions of people worldwide, with continuously rising incidence during the past decades, affecting their quality of life despite the increase of life expectancy in these patients. Disturbance of sexual function is common among men with CKD, as both conditions share common pathophysiological causes, such as vascular or hormonal abnormalities and are both affected by similar coexisting comorbid conditions such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The estimated prevalence of erectile dysfunction reaches 70% in end stage renal disease patients. Nevertheless, sexual dysfunction remains under-recognized and under-treated in a high proportion of these patients, a fact which should raise awareness among clinicians. A multifactorial approach in management and treatment is undoubtedly required in order to improve patients’ quality of life and cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:26167462

  11. A distributed approach to alarm management in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Estudillo-Valderrama, Miguel A; Talaminos-Barroso, Alejandro; Roa, Laura M; Naranjo-Hernández, David; Reina-Tosina, Javier; Aresté-Fosalba, Nuria; Milán-Martín, José A

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the feasibility study of using a distributed approach for the management of alarms from chronic kidney disease patients. In a first place, the key issues regarding alarm definition, classification, and prioritization according to available normalization efforts are analyzed for the main scenarios addressed in hemodialysis. Then, the middleware proposed for alarm management is described, which follows the publish/subscribe pattern, and supports the Object Management Group data distribution service (DDS) standard. This standard facilitates the real-time monitoring of the exchanged information, as well as the scalability and interoperability of the solution developed regarding the different stakeholders and resources involved. Finally, the results section shows, through the proof of concept studied, the viability of DDS for the activation of emergency protocols in terms of alarm prioritization and personalization, as well as some remarks about security, privacy, and real-time communication performance. PMID:25014977

  12. Factors Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease Self-Management.

    PubMed

    Washington, Tiffany; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Browne, Teri

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affected 26 million U.S. adults. Many end-stage CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis experience self-management challenges. However, factors associated with CKD self-management are under-identified. This article describes a mixed-methods study to identify factors associated with self-management in end-stage CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis. A total of 107 patients age 50 and older were interviewed. Overall, participants had low mean scores for exercise (2.46), communication with physicians (2.50), and cognitive symptom management (0.89) and were adherent for greater than 11 days in a 2-week period with fluid (11.86) and diet (11.65) regimens. There were statistically significant age group differences in the self-management behavior of fluid adherence (p < .05) and communication with physicians (p = .05). None of the respondents discussed communicating with their physicians or cognitive symptom management, yet 90% and 77% of the respondents reported engaging in these behaviors, respectively. The findings from this study support the need for public health social work interventions aimed at increasing self-management behaviors in end-stage CKD patients. PMID:26799496

  13. 78 FR 13376 - Chronic Wasting Disease Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Shenandoah National Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... National Park Service Chronic Wasting Disease Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Shenandoah... regulations, the National Park Service (NPS) is preparing a Chronic Wasting Disease Management Plan and... National Park and, should the disease become established, to slow the spread of the disease. To ensure...

  14. Pulmonary thromboembolic disease. Clinical management of acute and chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Torbicki, Adam

    2010-07-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism falls between the areas of pulmonology and cardiology, internal medicine and intensive care, radiology and nuclear medicine, and hematology and cardiothoracic surgery. Depending on their clinical background, physicians faced with a patient with a pulmonary thromboembolism may speak different languages and adopt different treatment approaches. Now, however, there is an opportunity to end the Tower of Babel surrounding pulmonary thromboembolism. There is a growing acknowledgement that the key clinical problems in both acute pulmonary embolism and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension are linked to right ventricular pressure overload and right ventricular failure. As a result, cardiologists and cardiac intensive care specialists are taking an increasing interest in understanding and combating these conditions. The European Society of Cardiology was the first to elaborate comprehensive clinical practice guidelines for pulmonary thromboembolism and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. The task forces involved in producing these guidelines included radiologists, pulmonologists, hematologists, intensive care physicians and surgeons, which ensured that the final document was universally acceptable. The aim of this article was to provide an overview of the epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and prevention of acute pulmonary thromboembolism and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, while taking into account European Society of Cardiology guidelines and incorporating new evidence where necessary. PMID:20609317

  15. Management of gouty arthritis in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Abdellatif, Abdul A; Elkhalili, Naser

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a comorbid condition that affects, based on recent estimates, between 47% and 54% of patients with gouty arthritis. However, data from randomized controlled trials in patients with gouty arthritis and CKD are limited, and current gouty arthritis treatment guidelines do not address the challenges associated with managing this patient population. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and colchicine are recommended first-line treatments for acute gouty arthritis attacks. However, in patients with CKD, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are not recommended because their use can exacerbate or cause acute kidney injury. Also, colchicine toxicity is increased in patients with CKD, and dosage reduction is required based on level of kidney function. Allopurinol, febuxostat, and pegloticase are all effective treatments for controlling elevated uric acid levels after the treatment of an acute attack. However, in patients with CKD, required allopurinol dosage reductions may limit efficacy; pegloticase requires further investigation in this population, and febuxostat has not been studied in patients with creatinine clearance<30 mL/min. This article reviews the risks and benefits associated with currently available pharmacologic agents for the management of acute and chronic gouty arthritis including urate-lowering therapy in patients with CKD. Challenges specific to primary care providers are addressed, including guidance to help them decide when to collaborate with, or refer patients to, rheumatology and nephrology specialists based on the severity of gout and CKD. PMID:22960848

  16. Smart garments in chronic disease management: progress and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosla, Ajit

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents the progress made developments in the area of Smart Garments for chronic disease management over last 10 years. A large number of health monitoring smart garments and wearable sensors have been manufactured to monitor patient's physiological parameters such as electrocardiogram, blood pressure, body temperature, heart rate, oxygen saturation, while patient is not in hospital. In last few years with the advancement in smartphones and cloud computing it is now possible to send the measure physiological data to any desired location. However there are many challenges in the development of smart garment systems. The two major challenges are development of new lightweight power sources and there is a need for global standardization and a road map for development of smart garments. In this paper we will discuss current state-of-theart smart garments and wearable sensor systems. Also discussed will be the new emerging trends in smart garment research and development.

  17. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease management: the evidence base.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, N R

    2001-11-01

    In long-term management of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a number of medications improve pulmonary function test results. The long-term clinical benefits of those drugs would seem intuitive, but there is very little strong evidence that long-term outcomes in COPD are substantially affected by those drugs. Nevertheless, symptom improvement such as dyspnea reduction is certainly strong reason to use those agents. The 2 most compelling bodies of evidence in stable COPD are for oxygen therapy in the chronically hypoxemic patient and pulmonary rehabilitation to improve exercise tolerance and dyspnea. Inhaled corticosteroids also appear to be useful in patients at risk for frequent exacerbations. In acute exacerbations, the rationale for therapy comes in part from the large body of literature regarding acute asthma therapy. Bronchodilator therapy and corticosteroids both seem to reduce the severity and the duration of exacerbations. Moreover, routine antibiotic use seems beneficial, and the role of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation with patients suffering impending respiratory failure from acute COPD exacerbations is well supported by the literature. PMID:11679148

  18. National Study of Chronic Disease Self-Management: Age Comparison of Outcome Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ory, Marcia G.; Smith, Matthew Lee; Ahn, SangNam; Jiang, Luohua; Lorig, Kate; Whitelaw, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The adult population is increasingly experiencing one or more chronic illnesses and living with such conditions longer. The Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) helps participants cope with chronic disease-related symptomatology and improve their health-related quality of life. Nevertheless, the long-term effectiveness of…

  19. The South Australia Health Chronic Disease Self-Management Internet Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorig, Kate; Ritter, Philip L.; Plant, Kathryn; Laurent, Diana D.; Kelly, Pauline; Rowe, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of an online chronic disease self-management program for South Australia residents. Method: Data were collected online at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. The intervention was an asynchronous 6-week chronic disease self-management program offered online. The authors measured eight health status measures,…

  20. A Chronic Disease Prevention and Management Corridor© to Supporting System-Level Transformations for Chronic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Sampalli, Tara; Christian, Erin; Edwards, Lynn; Ryer, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Improving care for chronic conditions requires system-level transformations to ensure multiple levels of adoption and sustainability of the implemented improvements. These comprehensive solutions require transformations and supports at various levels, leadership and process changes at service/program level. Recognizing the importance of an organization-wide strategy to mitigate the growing issue of chronic disease prevention and management, a novel system-level approach has been developed in a district health authority in Nova Scotia, Canada. In this paper, the contextual factors and efforts that led to the conceptual framework of the Chronic Disease Prevention and Management (CDPM) "Corridor©" to management of chronic conditions are discussed. The CDPM Corridor© essentially constitutes a system-level redesign process; common elements, tools and resources; and a hub of supports for chronic disease prevention and management. The CDPM Corridor PMID:26718253

  1. Chronic Lyme disease: misconceptions and challenges for patient management.

    PubMed

    Halperin, John J

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease, infection with the tick-borne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, causes both specific and nonspecific symptoms. In untreated chronic infection, specific manifestations such as a relapsing large-joint oligoarthritis can persist for years, yet subside with appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Nervous system involvement occurs in 10%-15% of untreated patients and typically involves lymphocytic meningitis, cranial neuritis, and/or mononeuritis multiplex; in some rare cases, patients have parenchymal inflammation in the brain or spinal cord. Nervous system infection is similarly highly responsive to antimicrobial therapy, including oral doxycycline. Nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue, perceived cognitive slowing, headache, and others occur in patients with Lyme disease and are indistinguishable from comparable symptoms occurring in innumerable other inflammatory states. There is no evidence that these nonspecific symptoms reflect nervous system infection or damage, or that they are in any way specific to or diagnostic of this or other tick-borne infections. When these symptoms occur in patients with Lyme disease, they typically also subside after antimicrobial treatment, although this may take time. Chronic fatigue states have been reported to occur following any number of infections, including Lyme disease. The mechanism underlying this association is unclear, although there is no evidence in any of these infections that these chronic posttreatment symptoms are attributable to ongoing infection with B. burgdorferi or any other identified organism. Available appropriately controlled studies indicate that additional or prolonged courses of antimicrobial therapy do not benefit patients with a chronic fatigue-like state after appropriately treated Lyme disease. PMID:26028977

  2. Chronic Lyme disease: misconceptions and challenges for patient management

    PubMed Central

    Halperin, John J

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease, infection with the tick-borne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, causes both specific and nonspecific symptoms. In untreated chronic infection, specific manifestations such as a relapsing large-joint oligoarthritis can persist for years, yet subside with appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Nervous system involvement occurs in 10%–15% of untreated patients and typically involves lymphocytic meningitis, cranial neuritis, and/or mononeuritis multiplex; in some rare cases, patients have parenchymal inflammation in the brain or spinal cord. Nervous system infection is similarly highly responsive to antimicrobial therapy, including oral doxycycline. Nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue, perceived cognitive slowing, headache, and others occur in patients with Lyme disease and are indistinguishable from comparable symptoms occurring in innumerable other inflammatory states. There is no evidence that these nonspecific symptoms reflect nervous system infection or damage, or that they are in any way specific to or diagnostic of this or other tick-borne infections. When these symptoms occur in patients with Lyme disease, they typically also subside after antimicrobial treatment, although this may take time. Chronic fatigue states have been reported to occur following any number of infections, including Lyme disease. The mechanism underlying this association is unclear, although there is no evidence in any of these infections that these chronic posttreatment symptoms are attributable to ongoing infection with B. burgdorferi or any other identified organism. Available appropriately controlled studies indicate that additional or prolonged courses of antimicrobial therapy do not benefit patients with a chronic fatigue-like state after appropriately treated Lyme disease. PMID:26028977

  3. Patient education for phosphorus management in chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This review explores the challenges and solutions in educating patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to lower serum phosphorus while avoiding protein insufficiency and hypercalcemia. Methods: A literature search including terms “hyperphosphatemia,” “patient education,” “food fatigue,” “hypercalcemia,” and “phosphorus–protein ratio” was undertaken using PubMed. Results: Hyperphosphatemia is a strong predictor of mortality in advanced CKD and is remediated via diet, phosphorus binders, and dialysis. Dietary counseling should encourage the consumption of foods with the least amount of inorganic or absorbable phosphorus, low phosphorus-to-protein ratios, and adequate protein content, and discourage excessive calcium intake in high-risk patients. Emerging educational initiatives include food labeling using a “traffic light” scheme, motivational interviewing techniques, and the Phosphate Education Program – whereby patients no longer have to memorize the phosphorus content of each individual food component, but only a “phosphorus unit” value for a limited number of food groups. Phosphorus binders are associated with a clear survival advantage in CKD patients, overcome the limitations associated with dietary phosphorus restriction, and permit a more flexible approach to achieving normalization of phosphorus levels. Conclusion: Patient education on phosphorus and calcium management can improve concordance and adherence and empower patients to collaborate actively for optimal control of mineral metabolism. PMID:23667310

  4. Managing Inflammatory Manifestations in Patients with Chronic Granulomatous Disease.

    PubMed

    Magnani, Alessandra; Mahlaoui, Nizar

    2016-10-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by lack of phagocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, which results in inflammatory dysregulation and increased susceptibility to infections. Patients with CGD may develop severe obstructive disorders of the digestive tract as a result of their dysregulated inflammatory response. Despite a growing focus on inflammatory manifestations in CGD, the literature data on obstructive complications are far less extensive than those on infectious complications. Diagnosis and management of patients with concomitant predispositions to infections and hyperinflammation are particularly challenging. Although the inflammatory and granulomatous manifestations of CGD usually respond rapidly to steroid treatment, second-line therapies (immunosuppressants and biologics) may be required in refractory cases. Indeed, immunosuppressants (such as anti-tumor necrosis factor agents, thalidomide, and anakinra) have shown some efficacy, but the value of this approach is controversial, given the questionable risk-to-benefit ratio and the small numbers of patients treated to date. Significant progress in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (the only curative treatment for CGD) has been made through better supportive care and implementation of improved, reduced-intensity conditioning regimens. Gene therapy may eventually be an option for patients lacking a suitable donor; clinical trials with new, safer vectors are ongoing at a few centers. PMID:27299584

  5. Managing diabetes in hospitalized patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Shridhar N; Tanenberg, Robert J

    2016-04-01

    Because few randomized trials have been done, little is known about appropriate glycemic control in hospitalized patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes mellitus. These patients are at high risk of hypoglycemia. It is prudent to monitor glucose closely, set less-stringent blood sugar goals, avoid oral antidiabetic agents, and possibly reduce insulin dosage. PMID:27055204

  6. Incident chronic kidney disease: trends in management and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Robert M.; Chang, Alex R.; Wood, Kenneth E.; Coresh, Josef; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Grams, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    Background Management trends in early chronic kidney disease (CKD) and their associations with clinical outcomes have not previously been reported. Methods We evaluated incident (Stage G3A) CKD patients from an integrated health care system in 2004–06, 2007–09 and 2010–12 to determine adjusted trends in screening (urinary protein quantification), treatment [prescription for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), and statin] and nephrology referral. For the same time periods, adjusted rates for mortality, progression to Stage G4 CKD and hospitalization for myocardial infarction or heart failure were calculated and compared across time periods. Results There were 728, 788 and 956 patients with incident CKD in 2004–06, 2007–09 and 2010–12, respectively. Adjusted rates of proteinuria quantification (31, 39 and 51 screens/100 person-years), statin prescription (53, 63 and 64 prescriptions/100 person-years) and nephrology referral (2, 3 and 5 referrals/100 person-years) all increased over time (P for trend <0.001 in all cases). ACEI/ARB prescription rates did not change (88, 83 and 80 prescriptions/100 person-years, P = 0.68). Adjusted death rates (7, 5 and 6 deaths/100 person-years), CKD progression (9, 10 and 7 progressors/100 person-years) and cardiovascular hospitalization (10, 8 and 9 hospitalizations per 100/person-years) did not change (P for trend >0.4 in all cases). Conclusion In this integrated health care system, management of incident CKD over the past decade has intensified. PMID:27274830

  7. Strategies for Management of the Early Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Yeon; Rhee, Chin Kook; Jung, Ki Suck

    2016-01-01

    Lung function reportedly declines with age and that this decline is accelerated during disease progression. However, a recent study showed that the decline might peak in the mild and moderate stage. The prognosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can be improved if the disease is diagnosed in its early stages, prior to the peak of decline in lung function. This article reviews recent studies on early COPD and the possibility of applying the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation 2008 and 2015 for early detection of COPD in Korea. PMID:27433171

  8. Stroke and Chronic Kidney Disease: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, and Management Across Kidney Disease Stages

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Daniel E.; Dad, Taimur

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cerebrovascular disease and stroke are very common at all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD), likely representing both shared risk factors as well as synergy among risk factors. More subtle ischemic brain lesions may be particularly common in the CKD population, with subtle manifestations including cognitive impairment. For individuals with nondialysis CKD, the prevention, approach to, diagnosis, and management of stroke is similar to the general, non-CKD population. For individuals with end-stage renal disease, far less is known regarding the prevention of stroke. Stroke prophylaxis using warfarin in dialysis patients with atrial fibrillation in particular remains of uncertain benefit. End-stage renal disease patients can be managed aggressively in the setting of acute stroke. Outcomes after stroke at all stages of CKD are poor, and improving these outcomes should be the subject of future clinical trials. PMID:26355250

  9. CHRONIOUS: an open, ubiquitous and adaptive chronic disease management platform for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic kidney disease (CKD) and renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Rosso, R; Munaro, G; Salvetti, O; Colantonio, S; Ciancitto, F

    2010-01-01

    CHRONIOUS is an highly innovative Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) research Initiative that aspires to implement its vision for ubiquitous health and lifestyle monitoring. The 17 European project partners are strictly working together since February 2008 to realize and open platform to manage and monitor elderly patients with chronic diseases and many difficulties to reach hospital centers for routine controls. The testing activities will be done in Italy and Spain involving COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) and CKD (Chronic Kidney Disease) patients, these being widespread and highly expensive in terms of social and economic costs. Patients, equipped by wearable technologies and sensors and interacting with lifestyle interfaces, will be assisted by healthcare personnel able to check the health record and critical conditions through the Chronious platform data analysis and decision support system. Additionally, the new ontology based literature search engine will help the clinicians in the standardization of care delivery process. This paper is to present the main project objectives and its principal components from the intelligent system point of view. PMID:21096301

  10. Medical foods: products for the management of chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Sarah L; Baggott, Joseph E

    2006-11-01

    Medical foods are a specific category of therapeutic agents created under the Orphan Drug Act of 1988, which separated medical foods from drugs for regulatory purposes. Products in this category share the requirements that they are intended for the nutritional management of a specific disease, are used under the guidance of a physician, and contain ingredients that are generally recognized as safe (GRAS). An example of medical foods are formulations intended to manage patients with inborn errors in amino acid metabolism. Newer medical foods are designed to manage hyperhomocysteinemia, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, inflammatory conditions, cancer cachexia, and other diseases. PMID:17131945

  11. Modeling a Mobile Health Management Business Model for Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ying-Li; Chang, Polun

    2016-01-01

    In these decades, chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a global public health problem. Information technology (IT) tools have been used widely to empower the patients with chronic disease (e.g., diabetes and hypertension). It is also a potential application to advance the CKD care. In this project, we analyzed the requirements of a mobile health management system for healthcare workers, patients and their families to design a health management business model for CKD patients. PMID:27332476

  12. Challenges in the management of chronic noncommunicable diseases by Indonesian community pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Puspitasari, Hanni P.; Aslani, Parisa; Krass, Ines

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We explored factors influencing Indonesian primary care pharmacists’ practice in chronic noncommunicable disease management and proposed a model illustrating relationships among factors. Methods: We conducted in-depth, semistructured interviews with pharmacists working in community health centers (Puskesmas, n=5) and community pharmacies (apotek, n=15) in East Java Province. We interviewed participating pharmacists using Bahasa Indonesia to explore facilitators and barriers to their practice in chronic disease management. We audiorecorded all interviews, transcribed ad verbatim, translated into English and analyzed the data using an approach informed by “grounded-theory”. Results: We extracted five emergent themes/factors: pharmacists’ attitudes, Puskesmas/apotek environment, pharmacy education, pharmacy professional associations, and the government. Respondents believed that primary care pharmacists have limited roles in chronic disease management. An unfavourable working environment and perceptions of pharmacists’ inadequate knowledge and skills were reported by many as barriers to pharmacy practice. Limited professional standards, guidelines, leadership and government regulations coupled with low expectations of pharmacists among patients and doctors also contributed to their lack of involvement in chronic disease management. We present the interplay of these factors in our model. Conclusion: Pharmacists’ attitudes, knowledge, skills and their working environment appeared to influence pharmacists’ contribution in chronic disease management. To develop pharmacists’ involvement in chronic disease management, support from pharmacy educators, pharmacy owners, professional associations, the government and other stakeholders is required. Our findings highlight a need for systematic coordination between pharmacists and stakeholders to improve primary care pharmacists’ practice in Indonesia to achieve continuity of care. PMID:26445618

  13. Management of chronic hepatitis B in severe liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Fung, James; Lai, Ching-Lung; Yuen, Man-Fung

    2014-01-01

    In the past few decades, chronic hepatitis B (CHB) has evolved from a disease that was untreatable and progressive, to one that can be easily controlled with antiviral therapy. However, patients with severe liver disease still remain difficult to treat despite the availability of highly potent nucleos(t)ide analogs. These include those with underlying cirrhosis, severe flares of CHB, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and for those undergoing liver transplantation. For those with established cirrhosis, antiviral therapy should be considered for all, as unpredictable flares can still occur, which can be fatal for those with advanced chronic liver disease. However, even with effective viral suppression, the development of HCC can still occur. For patients with severe flares of CHB, although the use of antiviral can improve long term outcomes, a significant proportion may still die without liver transplantation. The short term prognosis of these patients is dependent on both the severity of flare and underlying pre-existing liver disease. In patients with decompensated cirrhosis, liver failure secondary to severe flares, or those with HCC, liver transplantation may be curative. After liver transplantation, long term antiviral therapy is required to prevent graft loss from recurrent hepatitis B infection. The use of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) in combination with an oral antiviral agent has been the mainstay of post-transplant antiviral regimen for over a decade. With newer and more potent antiviral agents such as tenofovir and entecavir, use of these agents along with HBIG have demonstrated to be effective in preventing significant recurrence in the long term. PMID:25473157

  14. Managing chronic diseases in the malaysian primary health care - a need for change.

    PubMed

    Ramli, As; Taher, Sw

    2008-01-01

    Chronic diseases are the major cause of death and disability in Malaysia, accounted for 71% of all deaths and 69% of the total burden of disease. The WHO in its report Preventing Chronic Disease: A Vital Investment has highlighted the inaction of most governments of the low and middle income countries in tackling the problem urgently, is clear and unacceptable. The acute care paradigm is no longer adequate for the changing pattern of diseases in today's and tomorrow's world. An evolution of primary health care system beyond the acute care model to embrace the concept of caring for long term health problems is imperative in the wake of the rising epidemic of chronic diseases and its crushing burden resulting in escalating healthcare costs. Compelling evidence from around the world showed that there are innovative and cost-effective community-based interventions to reduce the morbidity and mortality attributable to chronic diseases, but these are rarely translated into high quality population-wide chronic disease care. This paper describes the current situation of chronic disease management in the Malaysian primary care setting - to highlight the need for change, discuss the barriers to the implementation of effective chronic disease management programmes in the community, and consider fundamental solutions needed to instigate the change in our setting. PMID:25606105

  15. Attrition in Chronic Disease Self-Management Programs and Self-Efficacy at Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verevkina, Nina; Shi, Yunfeng; Fuentes-Caceres, Veronica Alejandra; Scanlon, Dennis Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Among other goals, the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) is designed to improve self-efficacy of the chronically ill. However, a substantial proportion of the enrollees often leave CDSMPs before completing the program curriculum. This study examines factors associated with program attrition in a CDSMP implemented in a community…

  16. Advances and New Approaches to Managing Sleep-Disordered Breathing Related to Chronic Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Sevilla Berrios, Ronaldo A; Gay, Peter C

    2016-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common disease affecting about 20 million US adults. Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) problems are frequent and poorly characterized for patients with COPD. Both the well-known success of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in the acute COPD exacerbation in the hospital setting and that NIV is the cornerstone of chronic therapy for SDBs have urged the attention of the medical community to determine the impact of NIV on chronic COPD management with and without coexisting SDBs. Early observational studies showed decreased long-term survival rates on patients with COPD with concomitant chronic hypercapnia when compared with normocapnic patients. PMID:27236061

  17. Unravelling the Tensions Between Chronic Disease Management and End-of-Life Planning.

    PubMed

    Thorne, Sally; Roberts, Della; Sawatzky, Richard

    2016-01-01

    An increasing appreciation for the burden that chronic conditions represent for people and for societies has triggered an evolving body of popular and professional conceptualizations of the nature of the chronic disease challenge. In this discussion article, we trace the trajectory of thinking about chronic illness care, surfacing underlying assumptions and drivers that have shaped current dominant models of service delivery. We note significant gaps in these conceptualizations, especially with respect to the reality that many chronic conditions are life limiting. Contrasting chronic disease theorizing with the conversations that have arisen around end-of-life care for other kinds of health conditions, we argue for a shift in our thinking to accommodate the implications of life limitation in our service delivery planning. We see significant leadership potential in optimizing the role nurses can play across the chronic disease trajectory by integrating the healthy optimism of self-care management with the profound compassion of a person-centered palliative approach. PMID:27333631

  18. [Chronic interstitial lung disease in children: Diagnostic approach and management].

    PubMed

    Fuger, M; Clair, M-P; El Ayoun Ibrahim, N; L'Excellent, S; Nizery, L; O'Neill, C; Tabone, L; Truffinet, O; Yakovleff, C; de Blic, J

    2016-05-01

    Chronic interstitial lung disease (ILD) in children is a heterogeneous group of rare lung disorders characterized by an inflammatory process of the alveolar wall and the pulmonary interstitium that induces gas exchange disorders. The diagnostic approach to an ILD involves three essential steps: recognizing the ILD, appreciating the impact, and identifying the cause. The spectrum of clinical findings depends to a large extent on age. In the newborn, the beginning is often abrupt (neonatal respiratory distress), whereas there is a more gradual onset in infants (failure to thrive, tachypnea, indrawing of the respiratory muscles). In older children, the onset is insidious and the diagnosis can only be made at an advanced stage of the disease. The diagnosis is based on noninvasive methods (clinical history, respiratory function tests, chest X-ray, and high-resolution CT scan) and invasive techniques (bronchoalveolar lavage, transbronchial biopsy, video-assisted thoracoscopic biopsy, and open lung biopsy). The treatment of interstitial lung disease in children depends on the nature of the underlying pathology. The most common therapeutic approach involves the use of corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents for their anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects. Children with ILD also need support therapy (oxygen therapy, nutritional support, treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension, vaccination). Lung transplantation is discussed in patients with severe respiratory failure. PMID:27021883

  19. Management of hyperglycemia in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Aires Neto, Patrícia; Gomes, Henrique Vieira; Campos, Mário

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes currently accounts for approximately 45% of cases of end-stage renal failure in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Several observational studies have identified a positive correlation between measures of glycemic control and cardiovascular and microvascular benefits. Several randomized prospective studies have been conducted to quantify the impact of strict glycemic control on morbidity and mortality. These studies have consistently demonstrated an association between strict glycemic control and a reduction in microvascular events, but these results contrast with the lack of consistent results regarding macrovascular events. Treating diabetes has always been challenging. This challenge is increased in chronic kidney disease, due to changes in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of insulin and most oral antidiabetic agents. The available pharmacotherapeutic arsenal for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus currently involves approximately 6 different pharmacological classes of oral antidiabetic agents and different modalities of insulin therapy. PMID:23807643

  20. Early chronic kidney disease: diagnosis, management and models of care.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Olivier J; O'Donoghue, Donal J; Ritchie, James; Kanavos, Panos G; Narva, Andrew S

    2015-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is prevalent in many countries, and the costs associated with the care of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are estimated to exceed US$1 trillion globally. The clinical and economic rationale for the design of timely and appropriate health system responses to limit the progression of CKD to ESRD is clear. Clinical care might improve if early-stage CKD with risk of progression to ESRD is differentiated from early-stage CKD that is unlikely to advance. The diagnostic tests that are currently used for CKD exhibit key limitations; therefore, additional research is required to increase awareness of the risk factors for CKD progression. Systems modelling can be used to evaluate the impact of different care models on CKD outcomes and costs. The US Indian Health Service has demonstrated that an integrated, system-wide approach can produce notable benefits on cardiovascular and renal health outcomes. Economic and clinical improvements might, therefore, be possible if CKD is reconceptualized as a part of primary care. This Review discusses which early CKD interventions are appropriate, the optimum time to provide clinical care, and the most suitable model of care to adopt. PMID:26055354

  1. A Mobile Care Coordination System for the Management of Complex Chronic Disease.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Sarah; Kim, Katherine K

    2016-01-01

    There is global concern about healthcare cost, quality, and access as the prevalence of complex and chronic diseases, such as heart disease, continues to grow. Care for patients with complex chronic disease involves diverse practitioners and multiple transitions between medical centers, physician practices, clinics, community resources, and patient homes. There are few systems that provide the flexibility to manage these varied and complex interactions. Participatory and user-centered design methodology was applied to the first stage of building a mobile platform for care coordination for complex, chronic heart disease. Key informant interviews with patients, caregivers, clinicians, and care coordinators were conducted. Thematic analysis led to identification of priority user functions including shared care plan, medication management, symptom management, nutrition, physical activity, appointments, personal monitoring devices, and integration of data and workflow. Meaningful stakeholder engagement contributes to a person-centered system that enhances health and efficiency. PMID:27332252

  2. Chronic disease management in children based on the five domains of health.

    PubMed

    So, Wing Lung Alvin

    2013-01-01

    Through a case study of a child with cystic fibrosis, the interactions among various domains of health have been discussed-namely, biomedical, physical, psychological/behavioural, and social. In pediatrics, development is another key domain relevant to the management of a chronic disease. An individualised management plan for this case has been outlined, and consideration of this framework may be worthwhile when managing other paediatric patients with chronic disease. Patient empowerment and parental education, as well as good co-ordination of health service delivery, are imperative to holistic patient care. PMID:23691412

  3. Adapting Stanford's Chronic Disease Self-Management Program to Hawaii's Multicultural Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomioka, Michiyo; Braun, Kathryn L.; Compton, Merlita; Tanoue, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Stanford's Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) has been proven to increase patients' ability to manage distress. We describe how we replicated CDSMP in Asian and Pacific Islander (API) communities. Design and Methods: We used the "track changes" tool to deconstruct CDSMP into its various components (e.g.,…

  4. The Impact of a Telephone-Based Chronic Disease Management Program on Medical Expenditures

    PubMed Central

    Talens, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The impact of a payer-provided telephone-based chronic disease management program on medical expenditures was evaluated using claims data from 126,245 members in employer self-ensured health plans (16,224 with a chronic disease in a group enrolled in the self-management program, 13,509 with a chronic disease in a group not participating in the program). A random effects regression model controlling for retrospective risk, age, sex, and diagnosis with a chronic disease was used to determine the impact of program participation on market-adjusted health care expenditures. Further confirmation of results was obtained by an ordinary least squares model comparing market- and risk-adjusted costs to the length of participation in the program. Participation in the program is associated with an average annual savings of $1157.91 per enrolled member in health care expenditures. Savings increase with the length of participation in the program. The results support the use of telephone-based patient self-management of chronic disease as a cost-effective means to reduce health care expenditures in the working-age population. (Population Health Management 2016;19:156–162) PMID:26348843

  5. The Impact of a Telephone-Based Chronic Disease Management Program on Medical Expenditures.

    PubMed

    Avery, George; Cook, David; Talens, Sheila

    2016-06-01

    The impact of a payer-provided telephone-based chronic disease management program on medical expenditures was evaluated using claims data from 126,245 members in employer self-ensured health plans (16,224 with a chronic disease in a group enrolled in the self-management program, 13,509 with a chronic disease in a group not participating in the program). A random effects regression model controlling for retrospective risk, age, sex, and diagnosis with a chronic disease was used to determine the impact of program participation on market-adjusted health care expenditures. Further confirmation of results was obtained by an ordinary least squares model comparing market- and risk-adjusted costs to the length of participation in the program. Participation in the program is associated with an average annual savings of $1157.91 per enrolled member in health care expenditures. Savings increase with the length of participation in the program. The results support the use of telephone-based patient self-management of chronic disease as a cost-effective means to reduce health care expenditures in the working-age population. (Population Health Management 2016;19:156-162). PMID:26348843

  6. [Western and traditional Chinese medicine disease management programs of chronic heart failure].

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhaoming; Sheng, Xiaogang; Pan, Guangming

    2012-06-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is one of the greatest disease in modem medicine as chronic disease . It cost lots of financial resources to deal with. Western and traditional Chinese medicine Disease management programs (DMP) can notability improve the qualities of life and reduce the expenses for CHF. The disease management programs of CHF have achieved kind of success, but the management programs method witch is of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) characteristic idea carry into testing execution in few TCM hospitals only. This article review the necessary of DMP research, advances in research of DMP research, and relationship between management programs method of Western and traditional Chinese medicine and illness state improvement of CHF patients. PMID:22997809

  7. Chronic kidney disease

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic; Renal failure - chronic; Chronic renal insufficiency; Chronic kidney failure; Chronic renal failure ... Chronic kidney disease (CKD) slowly gets worse over months or years. You may not notice any symptoms for some ...

  8. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and ischemic heart disease comorbidity: overview of mechanisms and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Campo, Gianluca; Pavasini, Rita; Malagù, Michele; Mascetti, Susanna; Biscaglia, Simone; Ceconi, Claudio; Papi, Alberto; Contoli, Marco

    2015-04-01

    In the last few years, many studies focused their attention on the relationship between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and ischemic heart disease (IHD), showing that these diseases are mutually influenced. Many different biological processes such as hypoxia, systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, heightened platelet reactivity, arterial stiffness and right ventricle modification interact in the development of the COPD-IHD comorbidity, which therefore deserves special attention in early diagnosis and treatment. Patients with COPD-IHD comorbidity have a worst outcome, when compared to patients with only COPD or only IHD. These patients showed a significant increase on risk of adverse events and of hospital readmissions for recurrent myocardial infarction, heart failure, coronary revascularization, and acute exacerbation of COPD. Taken together, these complications determine a significant increase in mortality. In most cases death occurs for cardiovascular cause, soon after an acute exacerbation of COPD or a cardiovascular adverse event. Recent data regarding incidence, mechanisms and prognosis of this comorbidity, along with the development of new drugs and interventional approaches may improve the management and long-term outcome of COPD-IHD patients. The aim of this review is to describe the current knowledge on COPD-IHD comorbidity. Particularly, we focused our attention on underlying pathological mechanisms and on all treatment and strategies that may improve and optimize the clinical management of COPD-IHD patients. PMID:25645653

  9. Management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in India: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Ailsa J; PA, Mahesh; Patel, Raju KK; Majeed, Azeem

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Chronic diseases are fast becoming the largest health burden in India. Despite this, their management in India has not been well studied. We aimed to systematically review the nature and efficacy of current management strategies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in India. Methods We used database searches (MEDLINE, EMBASE, IndMED, CENTRAL and CINAHL), journal hand-searches, scanning of reference lists and contact with experts to identify studies for systematic review. We did not review management strategies aimed at chronic diseases more generally, nor management of acute exacerbations. Due to the heterogeneity of reviewed studies, meta-analysis was not appropriate. Thus, narrative methods were used. Setting India Participants All adult populations resident in India Main outcome measures 1. Trialled interventions and outcomes 2. Extent and efficacy of current management strategies 3. Above outcomes by subgroup Results We found information regarding current management – particularly regarding the implementation of national guidelines and primary prevention – to be minimal. This led to difficulty in interpreting studies of management strategies, which were varied and generally of positive effect. Data regarding current management outcomes were very few. Conclusions The current understanding of management strategies for COPD in India is limited due to a lack of published data. Determination of the extent of current use of management guidelines, availability and use of treatment, and current primary prevention strategies would be useful. This would also provide evidence on which to interpret existing and future studies of management outcomes and novel interventions. PMID:23481100

  10. [Using the health literacy concept to promote self-management in a chronic kidney disease patient].

    PubMed

    Sun, Jia-Hui; Lin, Chiu-Chu

    2014-02-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) must learn and use self-management skills to control their disease and delay disease progression. Comprehension of instructions is thus critical to integrating self-management principles into daily life. In this case report, the client had difficulty implementing the behavioral changes necessary to control diet and blood sugar due to the lack of proper and sufficient information. The authors applied health literacy concepts to assess the client's knowledge and skills related to disease control and then provided health teaching at a level appropriate to the client's health literacy level. This individualized care enhanced the client's confidence and motivation to implement self-care activities. Healthcare professionals should help patients overcome barriers to reading and verbal communication to help low-health-literacy patients successfully self-manage their chronic disease. Clients may thus learn to report their symptoms clearly and accurately. PMID:24519350

  11. Healthy aging: programs for self-management of chronic disease second of a 2-part series.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Kathleen A

    2012-05-01

    Part 1 of this series described several healthy aging evidence-based programs and discussed collaborative opportunities for senior care pharmacists within these programs. Offered in community-based settings such as Area Agencies on Aging and senior centers, these programs focus on falls prevention, physical activity, depression management, and substance abuse prevention. This article-Part 2-explores chronic disease self-management programs (CDSMPs) that are designed to help older adults manage their chronic conditions by giving them self-confidence in their ability to control symptoms and manage the progression of their illnesses. In general, self-management programs provide older adults with education and tools to enable them to cope with chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, respiratory diseases, chronic pain, and arthritis. The programs help participants handle stress, better manage their medications, discuss the benefits of and encourage physical activity and good nutrition, and communicate more effectively with health care providers, including pharmacists. Participants develop action plans related to these issues through structured planning and feedback exercises. As of January 2011, more than 70,000 older Americans have completed a CDSMP. PMID:22591977

  12. Managing pregnancy in chronic kidney disease: improving outcomes for mother and baby.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Alyssa; Mohammadi, Fadak; Jesudason, Shilpanjali

    2016-01-01

    Parenthood is a central focus for women with chronic kidney disease, but raises important fears and uncertainties about risks to their own and their baby's health. Pregnancy in women with background kidney disease, women receiving dialysis, or those with a functioning kidney transplant poses a challenging clinical scenario, associated with high maternal-fetal morbidity and potential impact on maternal renal health. Improvements in care over recent decades have led to a paradigm shift with cautious optimism and growing interest regarding pregnancies in women with chronic kidney disease. In this review, we discuss obstetric and renal outcomes, and practical aspects of management of pregnancy in this complex cohort. PMID:27471410

  13. Managing pregnancy in chronic kidney disease: improving outcomes for mother and baby

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Alyssa; Mohammadi, Fadak; Jesudason, Shilpanjali

    2016-01-01

    Parenthood is a central focus for women with chronic kidney disease, but raises important fears and uncertainties about risks to their own and their baby’s health. Pregnancy in women with background kidney disease, women receiving dialysis, or those with a functioning kidney transplant poses a challenging clinical scenario, associated with high maternal–fetal morbidity and potential impact on maternal renal health. Improvements in care over recent decades have led to a paradigm shift with cautious optimism and growing interest regarding pregnancies in women with chronic kidney disease. In this review, we discuss obstetric and renal outcomes, and practical aspects of management of pregnancy in this complex cohort. PMID:27471410

  14. Remote patient management: technology-enabled innovation and evolving business models for chronic disease care.

    PubMed

    Coye, Molly Joel; Haselkorn, Ateret; DeMello, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Remote patient management (RPM) is a transformative technology that improves chronic care management while reducing net spending for chronic disease. Broadly deployed within the Veterans Health Administration and in many small trials elsewhere, RPM has been shown to support patient self-management, shift responsibilities to non-clinical providers, and reduce the use of emergency department and hospital services. Because transformative technologies offer major opportunities to advance national goals of improved quality and efficiency in health care, it is important to understand their evolution, the experiences of early adopters, and the business models that may support their deployment. PMID:19124862

  15. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Hattab, Yousef; Alhassan, Sulaiman; Balaan, Marvin; Lega, Mark; Singh, Anil C

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic smoking-related lung disease associated with significant mortality and morbidity. It carries an enormous economic burden on the health care system. This results in a significant social impact on affected patients and their families. In this article, we review COPD in general, critical care management of patients presenting with acute exacerbation of COPD, and methods of prevention. PMID:26919673

  16. [Anesthetic management of nephrectomy in a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patient with recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax].

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Mysore Chandramouli Basappaji; Bhat Pai, Rohini; Rao, Raghavendra P

    2016-01-01

    Nephrectomies are usually performed under general anesthesia alone or in combination with regional anesthesia and rarely under regional anesthesia alone. We report the management of a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a history of recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax undergoing nephrectomy under regional anesthesia alone. PMID:27343353

  17. Cyber-Management of People with Chronic Disease: A Potential Solution to eHealth Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laakso, E-Liisa; Armstrong, Kylie; Usher, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    The evolving eHealth agenda presents a range of potential opportunities for the management and prevention of chronic disease. This paper identifies issues and barriers to the uptake of eHealth and describes a strategy ("Healthy Outcomes for Australians"[C]-HOFA) for creating a central knowledge filter and cyber space method for tracking health…

  18. Anesthetic management of nephrectomy in a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patient with recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Mysore Chandramouli Basappaji; Bhat Pai, Rohini; Rao, Raghavendra P

    2016-01-01

    Nephrectomies are usually performed under general anesthesia alone or in combination with regional anesthesia and rarely under regional anesthesia alone. We report the management of a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a history of recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax undergoing nephrectomy under regional anesthesia alone. PMID:27343795

  19. Integrating a mobile health setup in a chronic disease management network.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hang; Ireland, Derek; Jayasena, Rajiv; Curmi, Jamie; Karunanithi, Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Supporting self management of chronic disease in collaboration with primary healthcare has been a national priority in order to mitigate the emerging disease burden on the already strained healthcare system. However, in practice, the uptake of self-management programs and compliance with clinical guidelines remain poor. Time constraints due to work commitments and lack of efficient monitoring tools have been the major barrier to the uptake and compliance. In this paper, we present a newly integrated mobile health system with a clinical chronic disease management network called cdmNet, which has already been validated to facilitate General Practitioners (GPs) to provide collaborative disease management services. The newly integrated solution takes advantage of the latest mobile web and wireless Bluetooth communication techniques to enable patients to record health data entries through ubiquitous mobile phones, and allows the data to be simultaneously shared by multidisciplinary care teams. This integration would enable patients to self-manage their chronic disease conditions in collaboration with GPs and hence, improve the uptake and compliance. Additionally, the proposed integration will provide a useful framework encouraging the translation of innovative mobile health technologies into highly regulated healthcare systems. PMID:23823283

  20. Patient and disease characteristics associated with activation for self-management in patients with diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic heart failure and chronic renal disease: a cross-sectional survey study.

    PubMed

    Bos-Touwen, Irene; Schuurmans, Marieke; Monninkhof, Evelyn M; Korpershoek, Yvonne; Spruit-Bentvelzen, Lotte; Ertugrul-van der Graaf, Inge; de Wit, Niek; Trappenburg, Jaap

    2015-01-01

    A substantial proportion of chronic disease patients do not respond to self-management interventions, which suggests that one size interventions do not fit all, demanding more tailored interventions. To compose more individualized strategies, we aim to increase our understanding of characteristics associated with patient activation for self-management and to evaluate whether these are disease-transcending. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in primary and secondary care in patients with type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM-II), Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Chronic Heart Failure (CHF) and Chronic Renal Disease (CRD). Using multiple linear regression analysis, we analyzed associations between self-management activation (13-item Patient Activation Measure; PAM-13) and a wide range of socio-demographic, clinical, and psychosocial determinants. Furthermore, we assessed whether the associations between the determinants and the PAM were disease-transcending by testing whether disease was an effect modifier. In addition, we identified determinants associated with low activation for self-management using logistic regression analysis. We included 1154 patients (53% response rate); 422 DM-II patients, 290 COPD patients, 223 HF patients and 219 CRD patients. Mean age was 69.6±10.9. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed 9 explanatory determinants of activation for self-management: age, BMI, educational level, financial distress, physical health status, depression, illness perception, social support and underlying disease, explaining a variance of 16.3%. All associations, except for social support, were disease transcending. This study explored factors associated with varying levels of activation for self-management. These results are a first step in supporting clinicians and researchers to identify subpopulations of chronic disease patients less likely to be engaged in self-management. Increased scientific efforts are needed to explain the greater

  1. SIGSAC Software: A tool for the Management of Chronic Disease and Telecare.

    PubMed

    Claudia, Bustamante; Claudia, Alcayaga; Ilta, Lange; Iñigo, Meza

    2012-01-01

    Chronic disease management is highly complex because multiple interventions are required to improve clinical outcomes. From the patient's perspective, his main problems are dealing with self-management without support and feeling isolated between clinical visits. A strategy for providing continuous self-management support is the use of communication technologies, such as the telephone. However, to be efficient and effective, an information system is required for telecare planning and follows up. The use of electronic clinical records facilitates the implementation of telecare, but those systems often do not allow to combine usual care (visits to the health clinics) with telecare. This paper presents the experience of developing an application called SIGSAC (Software de Información, Gestión y Seguimiento para el Autocuidado Crónico) for Chronic Disease Management and Telecare follow up. PMID:24199051

  2. SIGSAC Software: A tool for the Management of Chronic Disease and Telecare

    PubMed Central

    Claudia, Bustamante; Claudia, Alcayaga; Ilta, Lange; Iñigo, Meza

    2012-01-01

    Chronic disease management is highly complex because multiple interventions are required to improve clinical outcomes. From the patient’s perspective, his main problems are dealing with self-management without support and feeling isolated between clinical visits. A strategy for providing continuous self-management support is the use of communication technologies, such as the telephone. However, to be efficient and effective, an information system is required for telecare planning and follows up. The use of electronic clinical records facilitates the implementation of telecare, but those systems often do not allow to combine usual care (visits to the health clinics) with telecare. This paper presents the experience of developing an application called SIGSAC (Software de Información, Gestión y Seguimiento para el Autocuidado Crónico) for Chronic Disease Management and Telecare follow up. PMID:24199051

  3. Utilization of Feeding Tubes in the Management of Feline Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Ross, Sheri

    2016-11-01

    Esophagostomy feeding tubes are useful, and in many cases essential, for the comprehensive management of cats with moderate to advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). They should be considered a lifelong therapeutic appliance to facilitate the global management of cats with CKD thus providing improved therapeutic efficacy and quality-of-life. Esophagostomy tubes facilitate the maintenance of adequate hydration and increase owner compliance by facilitating the administration of medications. Finally, feeding tubes provide a means to deliver a stage-appropriate dietary prescription for cats with CKD and maintain an adequate nutritional plane in a patient that otherwise would be subject to chronic wasting. PMID:27499006

  4. The Role of Surgery in the Management of Patients With Refractory Chronic Granulomatous Disease Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Downing, Melissa M.; Kamal, Natasha; Inchauste, Suzanne M.; Khangura, Sajneet K.; Malech, Harry L.; Holland, Steven M.; Hughes, Marybeth S.; Heller, Theo; Sherry, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic granulomatous disease is a rare immunodeficiency complicated by dysregulated inflammation and granulomatous complications of the gastrointestinal tract. The management of chronic granulomatous disease colitis presents the dilemma of an immunocompromised host requiring immunosuppressive therapy which can potentiate fatal infections. Objective To identify the types of gastrointestinal surgery performed in patients and determine the role of surgery in the management of refractory colitis. Design and Settings A retrospective single institution chart review was performed. Patients Of 268 patients with chronic granulomatous disease treated at the National Institutes of Health between 1985 and 2011, 98 (37%) were identified as having colitis; 27 (10%) had a history of gastrointestinal luminal surgery. Main outcome measures Patient characteristics, type of gastrointestinal surgery and clinical outcomes were documented. Results A total of 62 gastrointestinal luminal surgeries were performed in 27 patients with chronic granulomatous disease and colitis. All 27 had a history of perineal disease requiring intervention. Four (15%) had additional surgery performed for reasons other than colitis. Otherwise, 12 (44%) had surgery limited to the perineum, 2 (7%) had a segmental resection and 13 (48%) underwent fecal diversion with ileostomy or colostomy. Despite local procedures, 7 (58%) patients in the perineal only group remained symptomatic. Both patients with a segmental resection had persistent perineal disease and 1 had a recurrent colovesicular fistula. Of the 13 ostomy patients, 11 initially received a diverting ostomy. Eight (73%) of these ultimately required additional procedures for refractory disease and 4 (36%) developed peristomal pyoderma gangrenosum. Four patients who underwent proctocolectomy with end ileostomy, either initially (2) or as a definitive procedure (2), experienced resolution of colitis and perineal disease. Limitations This study is

  5. Management of Chronic Infectious Diseases in School Children. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    This manual contains current guidelines for Illinois school personnel to follow when working with children who have infectious diseases. The first chapter focuses on school district development of policies and procedures and program implementation. The next chapter provides information on characteristics, mode of transmission, prevention, and…

  6. Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection: Disease Revisit and Management Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Man-Fung; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Chen, Ding-Shinn; Chen, Pei-Jer; Dusheiko, Geoffrey M; Hou, Jin-Lin; Maddrey, Willis C; Mizokami, Masashi; Seto, Wai-Kay; Zoulim, Fabien; Lai, Ching-Lung

    2016-04-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection evolves from immune-tolerance phase, through immune clearance phase to a quiescent phase or reactivation as hepatitis B e antigen-negative hepatitis. Persistent infection may result in the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Host factors including gender, age, family history, HLA-DP, and viral factors including HBV DNA, genotypes, precore mutations, pre-S deletions, and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) level are associated with the development of these complications. Risk scores for the development of HCC have been derived. Patients with persistently elevated alanine aminotransferase levels (>30 for males; >19 U/L for females) and HBV DNA levels >2000 IU/mL should be treated. Patients with established cirrhosis with detectable HBV DNA should also be treated. The recommended first-line agents include pegylated interferon and 2 nucleos(t)ide analogs, entecavir and tenofovir. NAs require long-term treatment to maintain suppression of HBV DNA. They have been shown to decrease hepatic fibrosis, or reverse cirrhosis and to reduce the development of HCC. They have very low rates (0% to 1.2%) of resistance. HBsAg seroclearance, although the ideal endpoint, is only achievable in 10% to 12% of patients by multicenter trials usually studying relatively young patients. Patients on long-term treatment should be monitored for viral breakthrough that may be due to noncompliance or the development of resistance. Newer agents are under trials to enhance the rate of HBsAg seroclearance. However, even with the current NAs, long-term treatment of >6 years can markedly reduce the covalently closed circular DNA, the viral component responsible for initiation of viral replication. PMID:26840752

  7. Preconception care: screening and management of chronic disease and promoting psychological health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A large proportion of women around the world suffer from chronic diseases including mental health diseases. In the United States alone, over 12% of women of reproductive age suffer from a chronic medical condition, especially diabetes and hypertension. Chronic diseases significantly increase the odds for poor maternal and newborn outcomes in pregnant women. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence was conducted to ascertain the possible impact of preconception care for preventing and managing chronic diseases and promoting psychological health on maternal, newborn and child health outcomes. A comprehensive strategy was used to search electronic reference libraries, and both observational and clinical controlled trials were included. Cross-referencing and a separate search strategy for each preconception risk and intervention ensured wider study capture. Results Maternal prepregnancy diabetic care is a significant intervention that reduces the occurrence of congenital malformations by 70% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 59-78%) and perinatal mortality by 69% (95% CI: 47-81%). Furthermore, preconception management of epilepsy and phenylketonuria are essential and can optimize maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes if given before conception. Ideally changes in antiepileptic drug therapy should be made at least 6 months before planned conception. Interventions specifically targeting women of reproductive age suffering from a psychiatric condition show that group-counseling and interventions leading to empowerment of women have reported non-significant reduction in depression (economic skill building: Mean Difference (MD) -7.53; 95% CI: -17.24, 2.18; counseling: MD-2.92; 95% CI: -13.17, 7.33). Conclusion While prevention and management of the chronic diseases like diabetes and hypertension, through counseling, and other dietary and pharmacological intervention, is important, delivering solutions to prevent and respond to women

  8. Optimizing nonpharmacological management following an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Samantha L; Goldstein, Roger; Desveaux, Laura; Tulloch, Verity; Brooks, Dina

    2014-01-01

    Though the guidelines for the optimal management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) following an acute exacerbation (AE) are well established, issues associated with poor adherence to nonpharmacological interventions such as self-management advice and pulmonary rehabilitation will impact on hospital readmission rates and health care costs. Systems developed for clinically stable patients with COPD may not be sufficient for those who are post-exacerbation. A redesign of the manner in which such interventions are delivered to patients following an AECOPD is necessary. Addressing two or more components of the chronic care model is effective in reducing health care utilization in patients with COPD, with self-management support contributing a key role. By refining self-management support to incorporate the identification and treatment of psychological symptoms and by providing health care professionals adequate time and training to deliver respiratory-specific advice and self-management strategies, adherence to nonpharmacological therapies following an AE may be enhanced. Furthermore, following up patients in their own homes allows for the tailoring of advice and for the delivery of consistent health care messages which may enable knowledge to be retained. By refining the delivery of nonpharmacological therapies following an AECOPD according to components of the chronic care model, adherence may be improved, resulting in better disease management and possibly reducing health care utilization. PMID:25378920

  9. A stepwise approach for effective management of chronic pain in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Casteleijn, Niek F.; Visser, Folkert W.; Drenth, Joost P.H.; Gevers, Tom J.G.; Groen, Gerbrand J.; Hogan, Marie C.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Drenth, J.P.H.; de Fijter, J.W.; Gansevoort, R.T.; Peters, D.J.M.; Wetzels, J.; Zietse, R.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain, defined as pain existing for >4–6 weeks, affects >60% of patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic disease (ADPKD). It can have various causes, indirectly or directly related to the increase in kidney and liver volume in these patients. Chronic pain in ADPKD patients is often severe, impacting physical activity and social relationships, and frequently difficult to manage. This review provides an overview of pathophysiological mechanisms that can lead to pain and discusses the sensory innervation of the kidneys and the upper abdominal organs, including the liver. In addition, the results of a systematic literature search of ADPKD-specific treatment options are presented. Based on pathophysiological knowledge and evidence derived from the literature an argumentative stepwise approach for effective management of chronic pain in ADPKD is proposed. PMID:25165181

  10. Update on Medical Management of Clinical Manifestations of Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Quimby, Jessica M

    2016-11-01

    Dysregulation of normal kidney functions in chronic kidney disease (CKD) leads to several pathophysiologic abnormalities that have the potential to significantly clinically affect the CKD patient. This article discusses the clinical impact of hypertension, hypokalemia, anemia, dysrexia, nausea/vomiting, and constipation in the CKD patient and therapies for these conditions. These clinical manifestations of disease may not occur in every patient and may also develop later during the progression of disease. Therefore, monitoring for, identifying, and addressing these factors is considered an important part of the medical management of CKD. PMID:27593576

  11. Diagnosis and management of chronic lung disease in deployed military personnel.

    PubMed

    Morris, Michael J; Lucero, Pedro F; Zanders, Thomas B; Zacher, Lisa L

    2013-08-01

    Military personnel are a unique group of individuals referred to the pulmonary physician for evaluation. Despite accession standards that limit entrance into the military for individuals with various pre-existing lung diseases, the most common disorders found in the general population such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease remain frequently diagnosed. Military personnel generally tend to be a more physically fit population who are required to exercise on a regular basis and as such may have earlier presentations of disease than their civilian counterparts. Exertional dyspnea is a common complaint; establishing a diagnosis may be challenging given the subtle nature of symptoms and lack of specificity with pulmonary function testing. The conflicts over the past 10 years in Iraq and Afghanistan have also given rise to new challenges for deployed military. Various respiratory hazards in the deployed environment include suspended geologic dusts, burn pits, vehicle exhaust emissions, industrial air pollution, and isolated exposure incidents and may give rise to both acute respiratory symptoms and chronic lung disease. In the evaluation of deployed military personnel, establishing the presence of actual pulmonary disease and the relationship of existing disease to deployment is an ongoing issue to both military and civilian physicians. This paper reviews the current evidence for chronic lung disease in the deployed military population and addresses any differences in diagnosis and management. PMID:23470637

  12. Managing chronic oedema and venous disease with made-to-order garments.

    PubMed

    Todd, Marie; Elwell, Rebecca; Pritchard, Emma

    2016-04-01

    Selecting the most appropriate compression garments is vital in the long-term management of venous disease and chronic oedema. The range of styles has improved greatly over the years and many garments are available on the UK Drug Tariff. Practitioners now have a wide range of options to choose from including the type of fabric, colour, compression class, and style of garment. These options increase the pratitioner's ability to select the most suitable garments and combine clinical and aesthetic needs, with the ultimate aim of improving compliance. The focus of this article is to highlight the aims and qualities of the various types of compression garments available, discuss the rationale for prescribing choice, and describe the benefits of Haddenham's Veni made-to-order compression leg garments in the management of chronic oedema and venous disease. Three case studies will demonstrate the effectiveness of the Veni made-to-order range of compression garments. PMID:27046425

  13. Chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder: Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, and management.

    PubMed

    Moschella, Carla

    2016-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease affects 23 million Americans and is associated with many complications, one of the most complex of which is mineral and bone disorder. Pathophysiologic mechanisms begin to occur early in CKD but when the glomerular filtration rate declines to <50% of normal, biochemical and bone matrix abnormalities, which vary and are multifactorial, begin to be clinically apparent. Mainstays of treatment remain management of hyperphosphatemia and prevention or treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:27272731

  14. [Clinical pathway management of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease based on state machine].

    PubMed

    Tan, Jian; Hao, Liwei; Cheng, Yuanxiong; Xu, Tongliang; Song, Yingnuo

    2014-04-01

    We propose a clinical pathway of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) based on state machine. Clinical event-driven response was utilized to control workflow execution of the AECOPD clinical pathway. By comparison with the traditional clinical pathway management, clinical numerical results showed that the proposed method was better in hospitalization days, average hospitalization expense and aberration rate, and better handled the variability in the AECOPD clinical pathway execution. PMID:24752111

  15. Integrating telecare for chronic disease management in the community: What needs to be done?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Telecare could greatly facilitate chronic disease management in the community, but despite government promotion and positive demonstrations its implementation has been limited. This study aimed to identify factors inhibiting the implementation and integration of telecare systems for chronic disease management in the community. Methods Large scale comparative study employing qualitative data collection techniques: semi-structured interviews with key informants, task-groups, and workshops; framework analysis of qualitative data informed by Normalization Process Theory. Drawn from telecare services in community and domestic settings in England and Scotland, 221 participants were included, consisting of health professionals and managers; patients and carers; social care professionals and managers; and service suppliers and manufacturers. Results Key barriers to telecare integration were uncertainties about coherent and sustainable service and business models; lack of coordination across social and primary care boundaries, lack of financial or other incentives to include telecare within primary care services; a lack of a sense of continuity with previous service provision and self-care work undertaken by patients; and general uncertainty about the adequacy of telecare systems. These problems led to poor integration of policy and practice. Conclusion Telecare services may offer a cost effective and safe form of care for some people living with chronic illness. Slow and uneven implementation and integration do not stem from problems of adoption. They result from incomplete understanding of the role of telecare systems and subsequent adaption and embeddedness to context, and uncertainties about the best way to develop, coordinate, and sustain services that assist with chronic disease management. Interventions are therefore needed that (i) reduce uncertainty about the ownership of implementation processes and that lock together health and social care agencies

  16. Web 2.0 Chronic Disease Self-Management for Older Adults: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Chaney, Beth; Barry, Adam E; Chavarria, Enmanuel; Tennant, Bethany; Walsh-Childers, Kim; Sriram, P.S; Zagora, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Background Participatory Web 2.0 interventions promote collaboration to support chronic disease self-management. Growth in Web 2.0 interventions has led to the emergence of e-patient communication tools that enable older adults to (1) locate and share disease management information and (2) receive interactive healthcare advice. The evolution of older e-patients contributing to Web 2.0 health and medical forums has led to greater opportunities for achieving better chronic disease outcomes. To date, there are no review articles investigating the planning, implementation, and evaluation of Web 2.0 chronic disease self-management interventions for older adults. Objective To review the planning, implementation, and overall effectiveness of Web 2.0 self-management interventions for older adults (mean age ≥ 50) with one or more chronic disease(s). Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using six popular health science databases. The RE-AIM (Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance) model was used to organize findings and compute a study quality score (SQS) for 15 reviewed articles. Results Most interventions were adopted for delivery by multidisciplinary healthcare teams and tested among small samples of white females with diabetes. Studies indicated that Web 2.0 participants felt greater self-efficacy for managing their disease(s) and benefitted from communicating with health care providers and/or website moderators to receive feedback and social support. Participants noted asynchronous communication tools (eg, email, discussion boards) and progress tracking features (eg, graphical displays of uploaded personal data) as being particularly useful for self-management support. Despite high attrition being noted as problematic, this review suggests that greater Web 2.0 engagement may be associated with improvements in health behaviors (eg, physical activity) and health status (eg, HRQoL). However, few studies indicated statistically

  17. Managing type 2 diabetes in Soweto-The South African Chronic Disease Outreach Program experience.

    PubMed

    Katz, Ivor; Schneider, Helen; Shezi, Zodwa; Mdleleni, Golebemang; Gerntholtz, Trevor; Butler, Omar; Manderson, Lenore; Naicker, Sarala

    2009-08-01

    Diabetes (DM) and its resultant complications are a problem worldwide, and especially in developing countries like South Africa (SA). Risk factors associated with DM are potentially modifiable, but DM control is poor. Problems in SA include high prevalence of morbidity from DM and hypertension (HTN), lack of recognition of the importance of chronic kidney disease (CKD), late presentation to health care services, lack of education of health providers and patients, and poor quality of care in primary health care settings (PHC). In response, there has been growing advocacy for prevention strategies and improved support and education for primary health care nurses (PHCNs). A Chronic Disease Outreach Program (CDOP), based on the chronic care model was used to follow patients with DM and HTN, support PHCN, and improve health systems for management in Soweto. A group of 257 DM patients and 186 PHCN were followed over 2 years, with the study including the evaluation of 'functional' and clinical outcomes, diary recordings outlining program challenges, and a questionnaire assessing PHCNs' knowledge and education support, and the value of CDOP. CDOP was successful in supporting PHCNs, detecting patients with advanced disease, and ensuring early referral to a specialist center. It improved early detection and referral of high risk, poorly controlled patients and had an impact on PHCNs' knowledge. Its weaknesses include poor follow up due to poor existing health systems and the programs' inability to integrate into existing chronic disease services. The study also revealed an overworked, poorly supported, poorly educated and frustrated primary health care team. PMID:19640820

  18. Patients with Complex Chronic Diseases: Perspectives on Supporting Self-Management

    PubMed Central

    Trauth, Jeanette M.; Ling, Bruce S.; Anderson, Roger T.; Piatt, Gretchen A.; Kilbourne, Amy M.; Goodman, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    A Complex Chronic Disease (CCD) is a condition involving multiple morbidities that requires the attention of multiple health care providers or facilities and possibly community (home)-based care. A patient with CCD presents to the health care system with unique needs, disabilities, or functional limitations. The literature on how to best support self-management efforts in those with CCD is lacking. With this paper, the authors present the case of an individual with diabetes and end-stage renal disease who is having difficulty with self-management. The case is discussed in terms of intervention effectiveness in the areas of prevention, addiction, and self-management of single diseases. Implications for research are discussed. PMID:18026814

  19. An eHealth Platform to Manage Chronic Disease in Primary Care: An Innovative Approach.

    PubMed

    Talboom-Kamp, Esther Pwa; Verdijk, Noortje A; Harmans, Lara M; Numans, Mattijs E; Chavannes, Niels H

    2016-01-01

    The number of individuals with chronic illness and multimorbidity is growing due to the rapid ageing of the population and the greater longevity of individuals. This causes an increasing workload in care, which results in a growing need for structural changes of the health care system. In recent years this led to a strong focus on promoting "self-management" in chronically ill patients. Research showed that patients who understand more about their disease, health, and lifestyle have better experiences and health outcomes, and often use less health care resources; the effect is even more when these patients are empowered to and responsible for managing their health and disease. In addition to the skills of patients, health care professionals need to shift to a role of teacher, partner, and professional supervisor of their patients. One way of supervising patients is by the use of electronic health (eHealth), which helps patients manage and control their disease. The application of eHealth solutions can provide chronically ill patients high-quality care, to the satisfaction of both patients and health care professionals, alongside a reduction in health care consumption and costs. PMID:26860333

  20. Quality of chronic kidney disease management in primary care: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Van Gelder, Vincent A.; Scherpbier-De Haan, Nynke D.; De Grauw, Wim J.C.; Vervoort, Gerald M.M.; Van Weel, Chris; Biermans, Marion C.J.; Braspenning, Jozé C.C.; Wetzels, Jack F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Early detection and appropriate management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in primary care are essential to reduce morbidity and mortality. Aim To assess the quality of care (QoC) of CKD in primary healthcare in relation to patient and practice characteristics in order to tailor improvement strategies. Design and setting Retrospective study using data between 2008 and 2011 from 47 general practices (207 469 patients of whom 162 562 were adults). Method CKD management of patients under the care of their general practitioner (GP) was qualified using indicators derived from the Dutch interdisciplinary CKD guideline for primary care and nephrology and included (1) monitoring of renal function, albuminuria, blood pressure, and glucose, (2) monitoring of metabolic parameters, and alongside the guideline: (3) recognition of CKD. The outcome indicator was (4) achieving blood pressure targets. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was applied to identify associated patient and practice characteristics. Results Kidney function or albuminuria data were available for 59 728 adult patients; 9288 patients had CKD, of whom 8794 were under GP care. Monitoring of disease progression was complete in 42% of CKD patients, monitoring of metabolic parameters in 2%, and blood pressure target was reached in 43.1%. GPs documented CKD in 31.4% of CKD patients. High QoC was strongly associated with diabetes, and to a lesser extent with hypertension and male sex. Conclusion Room for improvement was found in all aspects of CKD management. As QoC was higher in patients who received structured diabetes care, future CKD care may profit from more structured primary care management, e.g. according to the chronic care model. Key pointsQuality of care for chronic kidney disease patients in primary care can be improved.In comparison with guideline advice, adequate monitoring of disease progression was observed in 42%, of metabolic parameters in 2%, correct recognition of impaired renal

  1. An inconvenient truth: a sustainable healthcare system requires chronic disease prevention and management transformation.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Matthew W; Zamora, Nicholas E; Hindmarsh, Michael F

    2007-01-01

    Canada's initial success at shortening wait times will not transform our healthcare system unless it is matched with equal success in the prevention and management of chronic diseases. A growing body of evidence highlights the significant gap between recommended care and actual care received for those at risk for or living with chronic illnesses. This quality gap not only results in significant preventable morbidity and mortality but also lengthens wait times for healthcare services and threatens the sustainability of our healthcare system. A national strategy on chronic disease prevention and management (CDPM) that leverages the federal, provincial and territorial (FPT) response to wait times will not only transform chronic illness care but also help to ensure the sustainability of our healthcare system. We begin this paper by highlighting some of the facts behind this inconvenient truth. We then review and provide examples of several best practices in CDPM. We suggest that these best practices provide the foundation for a national CDPM strategy and argue that the FPT mandate for wait times be expanded to encompass CDPM and result in "care guarantees." We conclude with a high-level preliminary analysis of costs and benefits of this strategy to transform CDPM in Canada. PMID:17595546

  2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000091.htm Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common lung disease. Having COPD ...

  3. Clinical decision support, systems methodology, and telemedicine: their role in the management of chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Carson, E R; Cramp, D G; Morgan, A; Roudsari, A V

    1998-06-01

    In this paper, the design and evaluation of decision support systems, including those incorporating a telematic component, are considered. It is argued that effective design and evaluation are dependent upon the adoption of appropriate methodology set firmly within a systemic framework. Systems modeling is proposed as an approach to system design, with evaluation adopting an approach incorporating evaluability analysis and formative and summative evaluation, including the use of stakeholder matrix analysis. The relevance of such systemic methodology is demonstrated in the context of diabetes and end-stage renal disease as examples of the generic clinical problem of the management of chronic disease. PMID:10719517

  4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the clinical management of an acute exacerbation

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, J; Wedzicha, J

    2004-01-01

    Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease impose a considerable burden of morbidity, mortality, and health care cost. Management guidelines outlining best practice, based largely on consensus expert opinion, were produced by a number of organisations during the last decade. Current interest in the field is high. This has resulted in the publication of many further studies which have extended our understanding of the pathology involved and provided, for the first time, an evidence base for many of the therapeutic options. In this review we aim to bring the non-specialist reader up to date with current management principles and the evidence underlying such interventions. PMID:15356350

  5. An eHealth Platform to Manage Chronic Disease in Primary Care: An Innovative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Verdijk, Noortje A; Harmans, Lara M; Numans, Mattijs E; Chavannes, Niels H

    2016-01-01

    The number of individuals with chronic illness and multimorbidity is growing due to the rapid ageing of the population and the greater longevity of individuals. This causes an increasing workload in care, which results in a growing need for structural changes of the health care system. In recent years this led to a strong focus on promoting “self-management” in chronically ill patients. Research showed that patients who understand more about their disease, health, and lifestyle have better experiences and health outcomes, and often use less health care resources; the effect is even more when these patients are empowered to and responsible for managing their health and disease. In addition to the skills of patients, health care professionals need to shift to a role of teacher, partner, and professional supervisor of their patients. One way of supervising patients is by the use of electronic health (eHealth), which helps patients manage and control their disease. The application of eHealth solutions can provide chronically ill patients high-quality care, to the satisfaction of both patients and health care professionals, alongside a reduction in health care consumption and costs. PMID:26860333

  6. Chronic respiratory diseases in developing countries: the burden and strategies for prevention and management.

    PubMed Central

    Aït-Khaled, N.; Enarson, D.; Bousquet, J.

    2001-01-01

    In developing countries, chronic respiratory diseases represent a challenge to public health because of their frequency, severity, projected trends, and economic impact. Health care planners, for example, are faced with a dramatic increase in tobacco use and must establish priorities for the allocation of limited resources. Nevertheless, smoking prevention and standardized management programmes for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease should be implemented in developing countries whenever possible. International measures will be required to reverse tobacco smoking trends, and international agencies could define essential drugs and equipment and encourage the use of generic drugs, particularly for corticosteroids inhaled at high dosages. For such programmes to be effective, producers of high-quality generics will need to be identified, and the medications added to national lists of essential drugs and included in procurement procedures. Other recommendations for alleviating the burden of chronic respiratory diseases in developing countries are: adapting guidelines to local contexts and ensuring their distribution; upgrading equipment at district level; purchasing high-quality drugs at low prices; routine training and supervision of health services personnel; and regular monitoring of performance. Social mobilization by professional societies, nongovernmental organizations, and the mass media will also increase government commitment to tobacco control and standardized case management. PMID:11693980

  7. Management of acute and post-operative pain in chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Malvinder S

    2013-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is common and patients with many co-morbid conditions frequently have to undergo surgical procedures and, therefore, require effective pain management. The pharmacokinetics of various analgesic agents are not well studied in patients with chronic kidney disease and the risk of accumulation of the main drug or their metabolites, resulting in serious adverse events, is a common scenario on medical and surgical wards. It is common for these patients to be cared for by 'non-nephrologists' who often prescribe the standard dose of the commonly used analgesics, without taking into consideration the patient's kidney function. It is important to recognize the problems and complications associated with the use of standard doses of analgesics, and highlight the importance of adjusting analgesic dosage based on kidney function to avoid complications while still providing adequate pain relief. PMID:24358847

  8. Using expert judgments to improve chronic wasting disease risk management in Canada.

    PubMed

    Oraby, Tamer; Tyshenko, Michael G; Westphal, Margit; Darshan, Shalu; Croteau, Maxine C; Aspinall, Willy; Elsaadany, Susie; Cashman, Neil; Krewski, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTARCT Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a neurodegenerative, protein misfolding disease affecting cervids in North America in epidemic proportions. While the existence of CWD has been known for more than 40 years, risk management efforts to date have not been able to curtail the spread of this condition. An expert elicitation exercise was carried out in May 2011 to obtain the views of international experts on both the etiology of CWD and possible CWD risk management strategies. This study presents the results of the following three components of the elicitation exercise: (1) expert views of the most likely scenarios for the evolution of the CWD among cervid populations in Canada, (2) ranking analyses of the importance of direct and indirect transmission routes, and (3) rating analyses of CWD control measures in farmed and wild cervids. The implications of these findings for the development of CWD risk management strategies are described in a Canadian context. PMID:27556565

  9. ICT use for information management in healthcare system for chronic disease patient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawrzyniak, Zbigniew M.; Lisiecka-Biełanowicz, Mira

    2013-10-01

    Modern healthcare systems are designed to fulfill needs of the patient, his system environment and other determinants of the treatment with proper support of technical aids. A whole system of care is compatible to the technical solutions and organizational framework based on legal rules. The purpose of this study is to present how can we use Information and Communication Technology (ICT) systemic tools in a new model of patient-oriented care, improving the effectiveness of healthcare for patients with chronic diseases. The study material is the long-term process of healthcare for patients with chronic illness. Basing on the knowledge of the whole circumstances of patient's ecosystem and his needs allow us to build a new ICT model of long term care. The method used is construction, modeling and constant improvement the efficient ICT layer for the patient-centered healthcare model. We present a new constructive approach to systemic process how to use ICT for information management in healthcare system for chronic disease patient. The use of ICT tools in the model for chronic disease can improve all aspects of data management and communication, and the effectiveness of long-term complex healthcare. In conclusion: ICT based model of healthcare can be constructed basing on the interactions of ecosystem's functional parts through information feedback and the provision of services and models as well as the knowledge of the patient itself. Systematic approach to the model of long term healthcare assisted functionally by ICT tools and data management methods will increase the effectiveness of patient care and organizational efficiency.

  10. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Peter J; Burney, Peter G J; Silverman, Edwin K; Celli, Bartolome R; Vestbo, Jørgen; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Wouters, Emiel F M

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common disease with high global morbidity and mortality. COPD is characterized by poorly reversible airway obstruction, which is confirmed by spirometry, and includes obstruction of the small airways (chronic obstructive bronchiolitis) and emphysema, which lead to air trapping and shortness of breath in response to physical exertion. The most common risk factor for the development of COPD is cigarette smoking, but other environmental factors, such as exposure to indoor air pollutants - especially in developing countries - might influence COPD risk. Not all smokers develop COPD and the reasons for disease susceptibility in these individuals have not been fully elucidated. Although the mechanisms underlying COPD remain poorly understood, the disease is associated with chronic inflammation that is usually corticosteroid resistant. In addition, COPD involves accelerated ageing of the lungs and an abnormal repair mechanism that might be driven by oxidative stress. Acute exacerbations, which are mainly triggered by viral or bacterial infections, are important as they are linked to a poor prognosis. The mainstay of the management of stable disease is the use of inhaled long-acting bronchodilators, whereas corticosteroids are beneficial primarily in patients who have coexisting features of asthma, such as eosinophilic inflammation and more reversibility of airway obstruction. Apart from smoking cessation, no treatments reduce disease progression. More research is needed to better understand disease mechanisms and to develop new treatments that reduce disease activity and progression. PMID:27189863

  11. Chronic Disease Self-Management Program in the Workplace: Opportunities for Health Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Wilson, Mark G.; DeJoy, David M.; Padilla, Heather; Zuercher, Heather; Corso, Phaedra; Vandenberg, Robert; Lorig, Kate; Ory, Marcia G.

    2015-01-01

    Disease management is becoming increasingly important in workplace health promotion given the aging workforce, rising chronic disease prevalence, and needs to maintain a productive and competitive American workforce. Despite the widespread availability of the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP), and its known health-related benefits, program adoption remains low in workplace settings. The primary purpose of this study is to compare personal and delivery characteristics of adults who attended CDSMP in the workplace relative to other settings (e.g., senior centers, healthcare organizations, residential facilities). This study also contrasts characteristics of CDSMP workplace participants to those of the greater United States workforce and provides recommendations for translating CDSMP for use in workplace settings. Data were analyzed from 25,664 adults collected during a national dissemination of CDSMP. Only states and territories that conducted workshops in workplace settings were included in analyses (n = 13 states and Puerto Rico). Chi-squared tests and t-tests were used to compare CDSMP participant characteristics by delivery site type. CDSMP workplace participant characteristics were then compared to reports from the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. Of the 25,664 CDSMP participants in this study, 1.7% (n = 435) participated in workshops hosted in worksite settings. Compared to CDSMP participants in non-workplace settings, workplace setting participants were significantly younger and had fewer chronic conditions. Differences were also observed based on chronic disease types. On average, CDSMP workshops in workplace settings had smaller class sizes and workplace setting participants attended more workshop sessions. CDSMP participants in workplace settings were substantially older and a larger proportion were female than the general United States workforce. Findings indicate opportunities to translate CDSMP for use in the workplace to

  12. Chronic Wasting Disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richards, Bryan

    2007-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an always-fatal, neurological illness occurring in North American cervids (members of the deer family), including white-tailed deer, mule deer, elk and moose. Since its discovery in 1967, CWD has spread geographically and increased in prevalence locally. CWD is contagious; it can be transmitted freely within and among free-ranging populations. It is likely that diseased animals can transmit CWD to healthy animals long before they become clinically ill. Managing CWD in free-ranging populations is extremely difficult, therefore preventative measures designed to reduce the chance for disease spread are critically important.

  13. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: GOLD executive summary.

    PubMed

    Rabe, Klaus F; Hurd, Suzanne; Anzueto, Antonio; Barnes, Peter J; Buist, Sonia A; Calverley, Peter; Fukuchi, Yoshinosuke; Jenkins, Christine; Rodriguez-Roisin, Roberto; van Weel, Chris; Zielinski, Jan

    2007-09-15

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains a major public health problem. It is the fourth leading cause of chronic morbidity and mortality in the United States, and is projected to rank fifth in 2020 in burden of disease worldwide, according to a study published by the World Bank/World Health Organization. Yet, COPD remains relatively unknown or ignored by the public as well as public health and government officials. In 1998, in an effort to bring more attention to COPD, its management, and its prevention, a committed group of scientists encouraged the U.S. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the World Health Organization to form the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). Among the important objectives of GOLD are to increase awareness of COPD and to help the millions of people who suffer from this disease and die prematurely of it or its complications. The first step in the GOLD program was to prepare a consensus report, Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of COPD, published in 2001. The present, newly revised document follows the same format as the original consensus report, but has been updated to reflect the many publications on COPD that have appeared. GOLD national leaders, a network of international experts, have initiated investigations of the causes and prevalence of COPD in their countries, and developed innovative approaches for the dissemination and implementation of COPD management guidelines. We appreciate the enormous amount of work the GOLD national leaders have done on behalf of their patients with COPD. Despite the achievements in the 5 years since the GOLD report was originally published, considerable additional work is ahead of us if we are to control this major public health problem. The GOLD initiative will continue to bring COPD to the attention of governments, public health officials, health care workers, and the general public, but a concerted effort by all involved in

  14. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: GOLD executive summary.

    PubMed

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Hurd, Suzanne S; Agustí, Alvar G; Jones, Paul W; Vogelmeier, Claus; Anzueto, Antonio; Barnes, Peter J; Fabbri, Leonardo M; Martinez, Fernando J; Nishimura, Masaharu; Stockley, Robert A; Sin, Don D; Rodriguez-Roisin, Roberto

    2013-02-15

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a global health problem, and since 2001, the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) has published its strategy document for the diagnosis and management of COPD. This executive summary presents the main contents of the second 5-year revision of the GOLD document that has implemented some of the vast knowledge about COPD accumulated over the last years. Today, GOLD recommends that spirometry is required for the clinical diagnosis of COPD to avoid misdiagnosis and to ensure proper evaluation of severity of airflow limitation. The document highlights that the assessment of the patient with COPD should always include assessment of (1) symptoms, (2) severity of airflow limitation, (3) history of exacerbations, and (4) comorbidities. The first three points can be used to evaluate level of symptoms and risk of future exacerbations, and this is done in a way that splits patients with COPD into four categories-A, B, C, and D. Nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic management of COPD match this assessment in an evidence-based attempt to relieve symptoms and reduce risk of exacerbations. Identification and treatment of comorbidities must have high priority, and a separate section in the document addresses management of comorbidities as well as COPD in the presence of comorbidities. The revised document also contains a new section on exacerbations of COPD. The GOLD initiative will continue to bring COPD to the attention of all relevant shareholders and will hopefully inspire future national and local guidelines on the management of COPD. PMID:22878278

  15. Management of Chronic Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa: Cross-Fertilisation between HIV/AIDS and Diabetes Care

    PubMed Central

    van Olmen, Josefien; Schellevis, François; Van Damme, Wim; Kegels, Guy; Rasschaert, Freya

    2012-01-01

    There is growing attention for chronic diseases in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and for bridges between the management of HIV/AIDS and other (noncommunicable) chronic diseases. This becomes more urgent with increasing numbers of people living with both HIV/AIDS and other chronic conditions. This paper discusses the commonalities between chronic diseases by reviewing models of care, focusing on the two most dominant ones, diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and HIV/AIDS. We argue that in order to cope with care for HIV patients and diabetes patients, health systems in SSA need to adopt new strategies taking into account essential elements of chronic disease care. We developed a “chronic dimension framework,” which analyses the “disease dimension,” the “health provider dimension,” the patient or “person dimension,” and the “environment dimension” of chronic diseases. Applying this framework to HIV/AIDS and DM2 shows that it is useful to think about management of both in tandem, comparing care delivery platforms and self-management strategies. A literature review on care delivery models for diabetes and HIV/AIDS in SSA revealed potential elements for cross-fertilisation: rapid scale-up approaches through the public health approach by simplification and decentralisation; community involvement, peer support, and self-management strategies; and strengthening health services. PMID:23209477

  16. Interventions to enhance adherence to dietary advice for preventing and managing chronic diseases in adults

    PubMed Central

    Desroches, Sophie; Lapointe, Annie; Ratté, Stéphane; Gravel, Karine; Légaré, France; Turcotte, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been recognized that poor adherence can be a serious risk to the health and wellbeing of patients, and greater adherence to dietary advice is a critical component in preventing and managing chronic diseases. Objectives To assess the effects of interventions for enhancing adherence to dietary advice for preventing and managing chronic diseases in adults. Search methods We searched the following electronic databases up to 29 September 2010: The Cochrane Library (issue 9 2010), PubMed, EMBASE (Embase.com), CINAHL (Ebsco) and PsycINFO (PsycNET) with no language restrictions. We also reviewed: a) recent years of relevant conferences, symposium and colloquium proceedings and abstracts; b) web-based registries of clinical trials; and c) the bibliographies of included studies. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials that evaluated interventions enhancing adherence to dietary advice for preventing and managing chronic diseases in adults. Studies were eligible if the primary outcome was the client’s adherence to dietary advice. We defined ‘client’ as an adult participating in a chronic disease prevention or chronic disease management study involving dietary advice. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility of the studies. They also assessed the risk of bias and extracted data using a modified version of the Cochrane Consumers and Communication Review Group data extraction template. Any discrepancies in judgement were resolved by discussion and consensus, or with a third review author. Because the studies differed widely with respect to interventions, measures of diet adherence, dietary advice, nature of the chronic diseases and duration of interventions and follow-up, we conducted a qualitative analysis. We classified included studies according to the function of the intervention and present results in a narrative table using vote counting for each category of intervention. Main results

  17. Impact of mHealth Chronic Disease Management on Treatment Adherence and Patient Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hamine, Saee; Faulx, Dunia; Green, Beverly B; Ginsburg, Amy Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Background Adherence to chronic disease management is critical to achieving improved health outcomes, quality of life, and cost-effective health care. As the burden of chronic diseases continues to grow globally, so does the impact of non-adherence. Mobile technologies are increasingly being used in health care and public health practice (mHealth) for patient communication, monitoring, and education, and to facilitate adherence to chronic diseases management. Objective We conducted a systematic review of the literature to evaluate the effectiveness of mHealth in supporting the adherence of patients to chronic diseases management (“mAdherence”), and the usability, feasibility, and acceptability of mAdherence tools and platforms in chronic disease management among patients and health care providers. Methods We searched PubMed, Embase, and EBSCO databases for studies that assessed the role of mAdherence in chronic disease management of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and chronic lung diseases from 1980 through May 2014. Outcomes of interest included effect of mHealth on patient adherence to chronic diseases management, disease-specific clinical outcomes after intervention, and the usability, feasibility, and acceptability of mAdherence tools and platforms in chronic disease management among target end-users. Results In all, 107 articles met all inclusion criteria. Short message service was the most commonly used mAdherence tool in 40.2% (43/107) of studies. Usability, feasibility, and acceptability or patient preferences for mAdherence interventions were assessed in 57.9% (62/107) of studies and found to be generally high. A total of 27 studies employed randomized controlled trial (RCT) methods to assess impact on adherence behaviors, and significant improvements were observed in 15 of those studies (56%). Of the 41 RCTs that measured effects on disease-specific clinical outcomes, significant improvements between groups were reported in 16 studies (39

  18. Chronic Kidney Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Chronic Kidney Diseases KidsHealth > For Kids > Chronic Kidney Diseases Print ... re talking about your kidneys. What Are the Kidneys? Your kidneys are tucked under your lower ribs ...

  19. Chronic kidney disease

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic kidney disease is the slow loss of kidney function over time. The main job of the kidneys is to ... Chronic kidney disease (CKD) slowly gets worse over months or years. You may not notice any symptoms for some time. ...

  20. Chronic granulomatous disease

    MedlinePlus

    CGD; Fatal granulomatosis of childhood; Chronic granulomatous disease of childhood; Progressive septic granulomatosis ... In chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), immune system cells called ... some types of bacteria and fungi. This disorder leads to long- ...

  1. Guidelines for diagnosis and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Joint ICS/NCCP (I) recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Dheeraj; Agarwal, Ritesh; Aggarwal, Ashutosh Nath; Maturu, V. N.; Dhooria, Sahajal; Prasad, K. T.; Sehgal, Inderpaul S.; Yenge, Lakshmikant B.; Jindal, Aditya; Singh, Navneet; Ghoshal, A. G.; Khilnani, G. C.; Samaria, J. K.; Gaur, S. N.; Behera, D.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major public health problem in India. Although several International guidelines for diagnosis and management of COPD are available, yet there are lot of gaps in recognition and management of COPD in India due to vast differences in availability and affordability of healthcare facilities across the country. The Indian Chest Society (ICS) and the National College of Chest Physicians (NCCP) of India have joined hands to come out with these evidence-based guidelines to help the physicians at all levels of healthcare to diagnose and manage COPD in a scientific manner. Besides the International literature, the Indian studies were specifically analyzed to arrive at simple and practical recommendations. The evidence is presented under these five headings: (a) definitions, epidemiology, and disease burden; (b) disease assessment and diagnosis; (c) pharmacologic management of stable COPD; (d) management of acute exacerbations; and (e) nonpharmacologic and preventive measures. The modified grade system was used for classifying the quality of evidence as 1, 2, 3, or usual practice point (UPP). The strength of recommendation was graded as A or B depending upon the level of evidence. PMID:24049265

  2. Facilitating superior chronic disease management through a knowledge-based systems development model.

    PubMed

    Wickramasinghe, Nilmini S; Goldberg, Steve

    2008-01-01

    To date, the adoption and diffusion of technology-enabled solutions to deliver better healthcare has been slow. There are many reasons for this. One of the most significant is that the existing methodologies that are normally used in general for Information and Communications Technology (ICT) implementations tend to be less successful in a healthcare context. This paper describes a knowledge-based adaptive mapping to realisation methodology to traverse successfully from idea to realisation rapidly and without compromising rigour so that success ensues. It is discussed in connection with trying to implement superior ICT-enabled approaches to facilitate superior Chronic Disease Management (CDM). PMID:19174365

  3. Improving heart failure in home care with chronic disease management and telemonitoring.

    PubMed

    Hall, Pamela; Morris, Mollie

    2010-01-01

    Home Health Compare rates for Emergent Care and Acute Hospitalization increased undesirably for Athens Regional Home Health. Data revealed that the increase was due to heart failure exacerbation. It was hypothesized that a chronic disease management program with telemonitoring, to include chest fluid bioimpedance, would allow for earlier intervention, thus preventing emergency department visits and acute care readmissions. This article describes the agency's performance improvement initiative that resulted in a decrease in these rates while improving patient outcomes and increasing agency referrals. PMID:21057230

  4. Management of Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Chronic Inflammatory Diseases: Current Evidence and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lindhardsen, Jesper; Kristensen, Søren Lund; Ahlehoff, Ole

    2016-02-01

    An increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been observed in a range of chronic inflammatory diseases (CID), including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriasis, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The increased risk of CVDs and reduced life expectancy in these conditions has stimulated considerable research and started an ongoing discussion on the need for a multidisciplinary approach and dedicated guidelines on CVD prevention in these patients. In addition, the possibility of inhibiting inflammation as a means to preventing CVD in these patients has gained considerable interest in recent years. We briefly summarize the current level of evidence of the association between CIDs and CVD and cardiovascular risk management recommendations. Perspectives of ongoing and planned trials are discussed in consideration of potential ways to improve primary and secondary CVD prevention in patients with CID. PMID:26293235

  5. Comorbidities and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Prevalence, Influence on Outcomes, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Putcha, Nirupama; Drummond, M. Bradley; Wise, Robert A.; Hansel, Nadia N.

    2016-01-01

    Comorbidities impact a large proportion of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with over 80% of patients with COPD estimated to have at least one comorbid chronic condition. Guidelines for the treatment of COPD are just now incorporating comorbidities to their management recommendations of COPD, and it is becoming increasingly clear that multimorbidity as well as specific comorbidities have strong associations with mortality and clinical outcomes in COPD, including dyspnea, exercise capacity, quality of life, healthcare utilization, and exacerbation risk. Appropriately, there has been an increased focus upon describing the burden of comorbidity in the COPD population and incorporating this information into existing efforts to better understand the clinical and phenotypic heterogeneity of this group. In this article, we summarize existing knowledge about comorbidity burden and specific comorbidities in COPD, focusing on prevalence estimates, association with outcomes, and existing knowledge about treatment strategies. PMID:26238643

  6. [National disease management guidelines (NVL) for chronic CAD : What is new, what is particularly important?].

    PubMed

    Werdan, K

    2016-09-01

    Coronary heart disease (CAD) is widespread and affects 1 in 10 of the population in the age group 40-79 years in Germany. The German national management guidelines on chronic CAD comprise evidence and expert-based recommendations for the diagnostics of chronic stable CAD as well as for interdisciplinary/multidisciplinary therapy and care of patients with stable CAD. The focus is on the diagnostics, prevention, medication therapy, revascularization, rehabilitation, general practitioner care and coordination of care. Recommendations for optimizing cooperation between all medical specialties involved as well as the definition of mandatory and appropriate measures are essential aims of the guidelines both to improve the quality of care and to strengthen the position of the patient. PMID:27586137

  7. A game plan: Gamification design principles in mHealth applications for chronic disease management.

    PubMed

    Miller, Aaron S; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Seto, Emily

    2016-06-01

    Effective chronic disease management is essential to improve positive health outcomes, and incentive strategies are useful in promoting self-care with longevity. Gamification, applied with mHealth (mobile health) applications, has the potential to better facilitate patient self-management. This review article addresses a knowledge gap around the effective use of gamification design principles, or mechanics, in developing mHealth applications. Badges, leaderboards, points and levels, challenges and quests, social engagement loops, and onboarding are mechanics that comprise gamification. These mechanics are defined and explained from a design and development perspective. Health and fitness applications with gamification mechanics include: bant which uses points, levels, and social engagement, mySugr which uses challenges and quests, RunKeeper which uses leaderboards as well as social engagement loops and onboarding, Fitocracy which uses badges, and Mango Health, which uses points and levels. Specific design considerations are explored, an example of the efficacy of a gamified mHealth implementation in facilitating improved self-management is provided, limitations to this work are discussed, a link between the principles of gaming and gamification in health and wellness technologies is provided, and suggestions for future work are made. We conclude that gamification could be leveraged in developing applications with the potential to better facilitate self-management in persons with chronic conditions. PMID:24986104

  8. National Priority Setting of Clinical Practice Guidelines Development for Chronic Disease Management

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    By November 2013, a total of 125 clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been developed in Korea. However, despite the high burden of diseases and the clinical importance of CPGs, most chronic diseases do not have available CPGs. Merely 83 CPGs are related to chronic diseases, and only 40 guidelines had been developed in the last 5 yr. Considering the rate of the production of new evidence in medicine and the worsening burden from chronic diseases, the need for developing CPGs for more chronic diseases is becoming increasingly pressing. Since 2011, the Korean Academy of Medical Sciences and the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have been jointly developing CPGs for chronic diseases. However, priorities have to be set and resources need to be allocated within the constraint of a limited funding. This study identifies the chronic diseases that should be prioritized for the development of CPGs in Korea. Through an objective assessment by using the analytic hierarchy process and a subjective assessment with a survey of expert opinion, high priorities were placed on ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular diseases, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, osteoarthritis, neck pain, chronic kidney disease, and cirrhosis of the liver. PMID:26713047

  9. Medical management of chronic liver diseases in children (part I): focus on curable or potentially curable diseases.

    PubMed

    El-Shabrawi, Mortada H F; Kamal, Naglaa M

    2011-12-01

    The management of children with chronic liver disease (CLD) mandates a multidisciplinary approach. CLDs can be classified into 'potentially' curable, treatable non-curable, and end-stage diseases. Goals pertaining to the management of CLDs can be divided into prevention or minimization of progressive liver damage in curable CLD by treating the primary cause; prevention or control of complications in treatable CLD; and prediction of the outcome in end-stage CLD in order to deliver definitive therapy by surgical procedures, including liver transplantation. Curative, specific therapies aimed at the primary causes of CLDs are, if possible, best considered by a pediatric hepatologist. Medical management of CLDs in children will be reviewed in two parts, with part I (this article) specifically focusing on 'potentially' curable CLDs. Dietary modification is the cornerstone of management for galactosemia, hereditary fructose intolerance, and certain glycogen storage diseases, as well as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. It is also essential in tyrosinemia, in addition to nitisinone [2-(nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione] therapy, as well as in Wilson disease along with copper-chelating agents such as D-penicillamine, triethylenetetramine dihydrochloride, and ammonium tetrathiomolybdate. Zinc and antioxidants are adjuvant drugs in Wilson disease. New advances in chronic viral hepatitis have been made with the advent of oral antivirals. In children, currently available drugs for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus infection are standard interferon (IFN)-α-2, pegylated IFN-α-2 (PG-IFN), and lamivudine. In adults, adefovir and entecavir have also been licensed, whereas telbivudine, emtricitabine, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, clevudine, and thymosin α-1 are currently undergoing clinical testing. For chronic hepatitis C virus infection, the most accepted treatment is PG-IFN plus ribavirin. Corticosteroids, with or without azathioprine, remain the basic

  10. Sleep Disorders in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Etiology, Impact, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Budhiraja, Rohit; Siddiqi, Tauseef A.; Quan, Stuart F.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality and may frequently be complicated by sleep disorders. Insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea are commonly encountered in patients with COPD. Nocturnal hypoxemia is also prevalent in COPD may occur despite adequate awake oxygenation and can be especially severe in rapid eye movement sleep. Additionally, several factors—some of them unique to COPD—can contribute to sleep-related hypoventilation. Recognition of hypoventilation can be vital as supplemental oxygen therapy itself can acutely worsen hypoventilation and lead to disastrous consequences. Finally, accruing data establish an association between restless leg syndrome and COPD— an association that may be driven by hypoxemia and/or hypercapnia. Comorbid sleep disorders portend worse sleep quality, diminished quality of life, and multifarious other adverse consequences. The awareness and knowledge regarding sleep comorbidities in COPD has continued to evolve over past many years. There are still several lacunae, however, in our understanding of the etiologies, impact, and therapies of sleep disorders, specifically in patients with COPD. This review summarizes the latest concepts in prevalence, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of diverse sleep disorders in COPD. Citation: Budhiraja R, Siddiqi TA, Quan SF. Sleep disorders in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: etiology, impact, and management. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(3):259–270. PMID:25700872

  11. Workshop Characteristics Related to Chronic Disease Self-Management Education Program Attendance

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G.; Jiang, Luohua; Lorig, Kate; Kulinski, Kristie P.; Ahn, SangNam

    2015-01-01

    Using the national dissemination of Chronic Disease Self-Management Education (CDSME) programs, the purposes of this study were to (1) document intervention attendance rates as related to the number of participants enrolled in the workshop and (2) compare the relationship between workshop attendance and workshop size by delivery site rurality and type. Data were analyzed from the first 100,000 middle-aged and older adults who participated in CDSME workshops spanning 45 states, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Communities Putting Prevention to Work: Chronic Disease Self-Management Program initiative. Descriptive statistics are reported for all participants, then separately by each delivery site type. Ratios between the number of workshop participants and the number of workshop sessions attended were calculated and graphed based on the rurality of delivery and separately for the leading five delivery site types. Associations between the number of workshop participants and the number of sessions attended differed by delivery site rurality and type. Findings have implications for participant retention and workshop delivery costs, which can assist program deliverers to strategically plan implementation efforts in their areas. PMID:25964943

  12. The role of lifestyle changes in the management of chronic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity worldwide has dramatically increased during the last three decades. With obesity comes a variety of adverse health outcomes which are grouped under the umbrella of metabolic syndrome. The liver in particular seems to be significantly impacted by fat deposition in the presence of obesity. In this article we discuss several liver conditions which are directly affected by overweight and obese status, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic infection with hepatitis C virus and post-liver transplant status. The deleterious effects of obesity on liver disease and overall health can be significantly impacted by a culture that fosters sustained nutritional improvement and regular physical activity. Here we summarize the current evidence supporting non-pharmacological, lifestyle interventions that lead to weight reduction, improved physical activity and better nutrition as part of the management and treatment of these liver conditions. PMID:21645344

  13. The role of lifestyle changes in the management of chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Nobili, Valerio; Carter-Kent, Christine; Feldstein, Ariel E

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity worldwide has dramatically increased during the last three decades. With obesity comes a variety of adverse health outcomes which are grouped under the umbrella of metabolic syndrome. The liver in particular seems to be significantly impacted by fat deposition in the presence of obesity. In this article we discuss several liver conditions which are directly affected by overweight and obese status, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic infection with hepatitis C virus and post-liver transplant status. The deleterious effects of obesity on liver disease and overall health can be significantly impacted by a culture that fosters sustained nutritional improvement and regular physical activity. Here we summarize the current evidence supporting non-pharmacological, lifestyle interventions that lead to weight reduction, improved physical activity and better nutrition as part of the management and treatment of these liver conditions. PMID:21645344

  14. The TAR model: use of therapeutic state transitions for quality assurance reporting in chronic disease management.

    PubMed

    Gaikwad, R; Warren, J; Kenealy, T

    2007-01-01

    Chronic disease management represents one of the challenges for health informatics and demands the appropriate application of information technology for improved patient care. This paper presents an approach to quality assurance reporting wherein the recommendations of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines are considered in the context of empirical therapeutic state-transitions (in terms of changes in individual patient prescriptions over time). We apply a Transition-based Audit Report (TAR) model to antihypertensive prescribing and related data as stored in a New Zealand General Practice Management System database. The results provide a set of quality indicators and specific patient cohorts for potential practice quality improvement with strong linkage to the selected guidelines and observed practice patterns. We see the TAR model primarily as a tool to enable internal quality improvement efforts, but also to be of relevance for focusing pay-for-performance programs. PMID:17911839

  15. Evaluating a Chronic Disease Management Improvement Collaboration: Lessons in Design and Implementation Fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Kaye; Amar, Claudia; Elicksen-Jensen, Keesa

    2016-01-01

    For the Canadian Foundation for Healthcare Improvement (CFHI), the Atlantic Healthcare Collaboration (AHC) was a pivotal opportunity to build upon its experience and expertise in delivering regional change management training and to apply and refine its evaluation and performance measurement approach. This paper reports on its evaluation principles and approach, as well as the lessons learned as CFHI diligently coordinated and worked with improvement project (IP) teams and a network of stakeholders to design and undertake a suite of evaluative activities. The evaluation generated evidence and learnings about various elements of chronic disease prevention and management (CDPM) improvement processes, individual and team capacity building and the role and value of CFHI in facilitating tailored learning activities and networking among teams, coaches and other AHC stakeholders. PMID:27009643

  16. Community-Based Participatory Research With Native American Communities: The Chronic Disease Self-Management Program

    PubMed Central

    Jernigan, Valarie Blue Bird

    2016-01-01

    Health disparities among Native Americans persist despite efforts to translate evidence-based programs from research to practice. Few evidence-based, theory-driven prevention and management interventions have been successfully translated within Native American communities. The use of community-based participatory research (CBPR) has shown promise in this process. This article provides an overview of the use of CBPR with Native American communities and discusses the translation of the Stanford Chronic Disease Self-Management Program, using a CBPR approach, with an urban Native American community. This article highlights not only how the CBPR process facilitates the successful translation of the Stanford program but also how CBPR is used within this community to build community capacity. PMID:19376928

  17. Update on Pharmaceutical and Minimally Invasive Management Strategies for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rafii, Rokhsara; Albertson, Timothy E.; Louie, Samuel; Chan, Andrew L.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a debilitating pulmonary disorder with systemic effects, and it is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States. COPD patients not only develop respiratory limitations, but can also demonstrate systemic wasting, features of depression, and can succumb to social isolation. Smoking cessation is crucial, and pharmacotherapy with bronchodilators is helpful in symptom management. Inhaled corticosteroids may be beneficial in some patients. In addition, pulmonary rehabilitation and palliative care are important components under the right clinical circumstance. This review highlights current guidelines and management strategies for COPD and emphasizes novel pharmacotherapy and minimally invasive (nonsurgical) lung-volume reduction interventions that may prove to be of significant benefit in the future. PMID:21660228

  18. Physicians’ perceptions of capacity building for managing chronic disease in seniors using integrated interprofessional care models

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Linda; Heckman, George; McKelvie, Robert; Jong, Philip; D’Elia, Teresa; Hillier, Loretta M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore the barriers to and facilitators of adapting and expanding a primary care memory clinic model to integrate care of additional complex chronic geriatric conditions (heart failure, falls, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and frailty) into care processes with the goal of improving outcomes for seniors. Design Mixed-methods study using quantitative (questionnaires) and qualitative (interviews) methods. Setting Ontario. Participants Family physicians currently working in primary care memory clinic teams and supporting geriatric specialists. Methods Family physicians currently working in memory clinic teams (n = 29) and supporting geriatric specialists (n = 9) were recruited as survey participants. Interviews were conducted with memory clinic lead physicians (n = 16). Statistical analysis was done to assess differences between family physician ratings and geriatric specialist ratings related to the capacity for managing complex chronic geriatric conditions, the role of interprofessional collaboration within primary care, and funding and staffing to support geriatric care. Results from both study methods were compared to identify common findings. Main findings Results indicate overall support for expanding the memory clinic model to integrate care for other complex conditions. However, the current primary care structure is challenged to support optimal management of patients with multiple comorbidities, particularly as related to limited funding and staffing resources. Structured training, interprofessional teams, and an active role of geriatric specialists within primary care were identified as important facilitators. Conclusion The memory clinic model, as applied to other complex chronic geriatric conditions, has the potential to build capacity for high-quality primary care, improve health outcomes, promote efficient use of health care resources, and reduce health care costs. PMID:25932482

  19. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients' Experiences of an Enhanced Self-Management Model of Care.

    PubMed

    Patel, Neil; Jones, Pauline; Adamson, Vikki; Spiteri, Monica; Kinmond, Kathryn

    2016-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is debilitating and costly. Self-management is championed to empower individuals to better manage their condition and also to efficiently utilize health resources. As a multi-disciplinary team, we conducted focus group research with individuals living with COPD who were participating in a longitudinal study to use an electronic "diary" to monitor, record, and transmit their own health status, plus receiving regular nurse visits. The main aims of the focus groups were to investigate how far individuals embraced the electronic diary and experienced it as an aid to the self-management of their condition. We also looked at the importance of the nurse visits to the process. Thematic analysis revealed that patients responded positively to the use of technology (the electronic diary), including psychological benefits of perceived support offered by the remote symptom surveillance. Findings also showed patients' increased awareness and monitoring of personal symptoms together with an improved understanding of disease self-management. Nurse support emerged as an important "human" factor in the process. In addition, a reduction in hospital admission was observed, thus reducing costs to the health service. PMID:25711841

  20. The Role of Session Zero in Successful Completion of Chronic Disease Self-Management Program Workshops

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Luohua; Smith, Matthew Lee; Chen, Shuai; Ahn, SangNam; Kulinski, Kristie P.; Lorig, Kate; Ory, Marcia G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) has been widely disseminated among various racial and ethnic populations. In addition to the six required CDSMP workshop sessions, the delivery sites have the option to offer a Session Zero (or zero class), an information session offered prior to Session One as a marketing tool. Despite assumptions that a zero class is helpful, little is known about the prevalence of these additional sessions or their impact on retaining participants in CDSMP workshops. This study aims to describe the proportion of CDSMP workshops that offered Session Zero and examine the association between Session Zero and workshop completion rates. Methods: Data were analyzed from 80,987 middle-aged and older adults collected during a two-year national dissemination of CDSMP. Generalized estimating equation regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between Session Zero and successful workshop completion (attending four or more of the six workshop sessions). Results: On average, 21.04% of the participants attended workshops that offered Session Zero, and 75.33% successfully completed the CDSMP workshop. The participants of the workshops that offered Session Zero had significantly higher odds of completing CDSMP workshops than those who were not offered Session Zero (OR = 1.099, P = <0.001) after controlling for participants’ demographic characteristics, race, ethnicity, living status, household income, number of chronic conditions, and workshop delivery type. Conclusion: As one of the first studies reporting the importance of an orientation session for participant retention in chronic disease management intervention projects, our findings suggest offering an orientation session may increase participant retention in similar translational efforts. PMID:25964918

  1. Public health service options for affordable and accessible noncommunicable disease and related chronic disease prevention and management

    PubMed Central

    Brownie, Sharon; Hills, Andrew P; Rossiter, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Globally, nations are confronted with the challenge of providing affordable health services to populations with increasing levels of noncommunicable and chronic disease. Paradoxically, many nations can both celebrate increases in life expectancy and bemoan parallel increases in chronic disease prevalence. Simply put, despite living longer, not all of that time is spent in good health. Combined with factors such as rising levels of obesity and related noncommunicable disease, the demand for health services is requiring nations to consider new models of affordable health care. Given the level of disease burden, all staff, not just doctors, need to be part of the solution and encouraged to innovate and deliver better and more affordable health care, particularly preventative primary health care services. This paper draws attention to a range of exemplars to encourage and stimulate readers to think beyond traditional models of primary health service delivery. Examples include nurse-led, allied health-led, and student-led clinics; student-assisted services; and community empowerment models. These are reported for the interest of policy makers and health service managers involved in preventative and primary health service redesign initiatives. PMID:25473294

  2. In-Home Care for Optimizing Chronic Disease Management in the Community

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The emerging attention on in-home care in Canada assumes that chronic disease management will be optimized if it takes place in the community as opposed to the health care setting. Both the patient and the health care system will benefit, the latter in terms of cost savings. Objectives To compare the effectiveness of care delivered in the home (i.e., in-home care) with no home care or with usual care/care received outside of the home (e.g., health care setting). Data Sources A literature search was performed on January 25, 2012, using OVID MEDLINE, OVID MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, OVID EMBASE, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Wiley Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database, for studies published from January 1, 2006, until January 25, 2012. Review Methods An evidence-based analysis examined whether there is a difference in mortality, hospital utilization, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), functional status, and disease-specific clinical measures for in-home care compared with no home care for heart failure, atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, chronic wounds, and chronic disease / multimorbidity. Data was abstracted and analyzed in a pooled analysis using Review Manager. When needed, subgroup analysis was performed to address heterogeneity. The quality of evidence was assessed by GRADE. Results The systematic literature search identified 1,277 citations from which 12 randomized controlled trials met the study criteria. Based on these, a 12% reduced risk for in-home care was shown for the outcome measure of combined events including all-cause mortality and hospitalizations (relative risk [RR]: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.80–0.97). Patients receiving in-home care had an average of 1 less unplanned hospitalization (mean difference [MD]: –1.03; 95% CI: –1.53 to –0.53) and an average of 1 less

  3. Overview of the prevalence, impact, and management of depression and anxiety in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Panagioti, Maria; Scott, Charlotte; Blakemore, Amy; Coventry, Peter A

    2014-01-01

    More than one third of individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience comorbid symptoms of depression and anxiety. This review aims to provide an overview of the burden of depression and anxiety in those with COPD and to outline the contemporary advances and challenges in the management of depression and anxiety in COPD. Symptoms of depression and anxiety in COPD lead to worse health outcomes, including impaired health-related quality of life and increased mortality risk. Depression and anxiety also increase health care utilization rates and costs. Although the quality of the data varies considerably, the cumulative evidence shows that complex interventions consisting of pulmonary rehabilitation interventions with or without psychological components improve symptoms of depression and anxiety in COPD. Cognitive behavioral therapy is also an effective intervention for managing depression in COPD, but treatment effects are small. Cognitive behavioral therapy could potentially lead to greater benefits in depression and anxiety in people with COPD if embedded in multidisciplinary collaborative care frameworks, but this hypothesis has not yet been empirically assessed. Mindfulness-based treatments are an alternative option for the management of depression and anxiety in people with long-term conditions, but their efficacy is unproven in COPD. Beyond pulmonary rehabilitation, the evidence about optimal approaches for managing depression and anxiety in COPD remains unclear and largely speculative. Future research to evaluate the effectiveness of novel and integrated care approaches for the management of depression and anxiety in COPD is warranted. PMID:25419126

  4. Managing and monitoring chronic non-communicable diseases in a primary health care clinic, Lilongwe, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Manjomo, R. C.; Mwagomba, B.; Ade, S.; Ali, E.; Ben-Smith, A.; Khomani, P.; Bondwe, P.; Nkhoma, D.; Douglas, G. P.; Tayler-Smith, K.; Chikosi, L.; Gadabu, O. J.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: Patients with chronic non-communicable diseases attending a primary health care centre, Lilongwe, Malawi. Objective: Using an electronic medical record monitoring system, to describe the quarterly and cumulative disease burden, management and outcomes of patients registered between March 2014 and June 2015. Design: A cross-sectional study. Results: Of 1135 patients, with new registrations increasing each quarter, 66% were female, 21% were aged ⩾65 years, 20% were obese, 53% had hypertension alone, 18% had diabetes alone, 12% had asthma, 10% had epilepsy and 7% had both hypertension and diabetes. In every quarter, about 30% of patients did not attend the clinic and 19% were registered as lost to follow-up (not seen for ⩾1 year) in the last quarter. Of those attending, over 90% were prescribed medication, and 80–90% with hypertension and/or diabetes had blood pressure/blood glucose measured. Over 85% of those with epilepsy had no seizures and 60–75% with asthma had no severe attacks. Control of blood pressure (41–51%) and diabetes (15–38%) was poor. Conclusion: It is feasible to manage patients with non-communicable diseases in a primary health care setting in Malawi, although more attention is needed to improve clinic attendance and the control of hypertension and diabetes. PMID:27358797

  5. Canadian Thoracic Society recommendations for management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease--2003.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Denis E; Aaron, Shawn; Bourbeau, Jean; Hernandez, Paul; Marciniuk, Darcy; Balter, Meyer; Ford, Gordon; Gervais, Andre; Goldstein, Roger; Hodder, Rick; Maltais, Francois; Road, Jeremy

    2003-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common cause of disability and death in Canada. Moreover, morbidity and mortality from COPD continue to rise, and the economic burden is enormous. The main goal of the Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS) Evidence-Based Guidelines is to optimize early diagnosis, prevention and management of COPD in Canada. Targeted spirometry is strongly recommended to expedite early diagnosis in smokers and exsmokers who develop respiratory symptoms, and who are at risk for COPD. Smoking cessation remains the single most effective intervention in accordance with the increasing severity of symptoms and disability. Long-acting anticholinergics and beta2-agonist inhalers should be prescribed for patients who remain symptomatic despite short-acting bronchodilatory therapy. Inhaled steroids should not be used as first-line therapy in COPD but have a role in preventing exacerbations in patients with more advanced disease who suffer recurrent exacerbations. Management strategies consisting of combined modern pharmacotherapy and nonpharmacotherapeutic interventions (eg, pulmonary rehabilitation/exercise training) can effectively improve symptoms, activity levels and quality of life, even in patients with severe COPD. Acute exacerbations of COPD cause significant morbidity and mortality and should be treated promptly with bronchodilators and a short course of oral steroids; antibiotics should be prescribed for purulent exacerbations. Patients with advanced COPD and respiratory failure require a comprehensive management plan that incorporates structured end-of-life care. PMID:12861361

  6. Self-management interventions in stages 1 to 4 chronic kidney disease: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Welch, Janet L; Johnson, Michelle; Zimmerman, Lani; Russell, Cynthia L; Perkins, Susan M; Decker, Brian S

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence, effect on health outcomes, and economic impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) have created interest in self-management interventions to help slow disease progression to kidney failure. Seven studies were reviewed to identify knowledge gaps and future directions for research. All studies were published between 2010 and 2013; no investigations were conducted in the United States. Knowledge gaps included the focus on medical self-management tasks with no attention to role or emotional tasks, lack of family involvement during intervention delivery, and an inability to form conclusions about the efficacy of interventions because methodological rigor was insufficient. Educational content varied across studies. Strategies to improve self-management skills and enhance self-efficacy varied and were limited in scope. Further development and testing of theory-based interventions are warranted. There is a critical need for future research using well-designed trials with appropriately powered sample sizes, well-tested instruments, and clear and consistent reporting of results. PMID:25239136

  7. Self-Management Interventions in Stages 1-4 Chronic Kidney Disease: An Integrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Michelle; Zimmerman, Lani; Russell, Cynthia L.; Perkins, Susan M.; Decker, Brian S.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence, effect on health outcomes, and economic impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) have created interest in self-management interventions to help slow disease progression to kidney failure. Seven studies were reviewed to identify knowledge gaps and future directions for research. All studies were published between 2010 and 2013; no investigations were conducted in the United States. Knowledge gaps included the focus on medical self-management tasks with no attention to role or emotional tasks, lack of family involvement during intervention delivery, and an inability to form conclusions about the efficacy of interventions because methodological rigor was insufficient. Educational content varied across studies. Strategies to improve self-management skills and enhance self-efficacy varied and were limited in scope. Further development and testing of theory-based interventions are warranted. There is a critical need for future research using well-designed trials with appropriately powered sample sizes, well-tested instruments, and clear and consistent reporting of results. PMID:25239136

  8. Specialized Nursing Practice for Chronic Disease Management in the Primary Care Setting

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In response to the increasing demand for better chronic disease management and improved health care efficiency in Ontario, nursing roles have expanded in the primary health care setting. Objectives To determine the effectiveness of specialized nurses who have a clinical role in patient care in optimizing chronic disease management among adults in the primary health care setting. Data Sources and Review Methods A literature search was performed using OVID MEDLINE, OVID MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, OVID EMBASE, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Wiley Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database. Results were limited to randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews and were divided into 2 models: Model 1 (nurse alone versus physician alone) and Model 2 (nurse and physician versus physician alone). Effectiveness was determined by comparable outcomes between groups in Model 1, or improved outcomes or efficiency in Model 2. Results Six studies were included. In Model 1, there were no significant differences in health resource use, disease-specific measures, quality of life, or patient satisfaction. In Model 2, there was a reduction in hospitalizations and improved management of blood pressure and lipids among patients with coronary artery disease. Among patients with diabetes, there was a reduction in hemoglobin A1c but no difference in other disease-specific measures. There was a trend toward improved process measures, including medication prescribing and clinical assessments. Results related to quality of life were inconsistent, but patient satisfaction with the nurse-physician team was improved. Overall, there were more and longer visits to the nurse, and physician workload did not change. Limitations There was heterogeneity across patient populations, and in the titles, roles, and scope of practice of the specialized nurses. Conclusions Specialized nurses with

  9. Transmission of chronic wasting disease in Wisconsin white-tailed deer: implications for disease spread and management.

    PubMed

    Jennelle, Christopher S; Henaux, Viviane; Wasserberg, Gideon; Thiagarajan, Bala; Rolley, Robert E; Samuel, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the rate of infection or mode of transmission for wildlife diseases, and the implications of alternative management strategies. We used hunter harvest data from 2002 to 2013 to investigate chronic wasting disease (CWD) infection rate and transmission modes, and address how alternative management approaches affect disease dynamics in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer population. Uncertainty regarding demographic impacts of CWD on cervid populations, human and domestic animal health concerns, and potential economic consequences underscore the need for strategies to control CWD distribution and prevalence. Using maximum-likelihood methods to evaluate alternative multi-state deterministic models of CWD transmission, harvest data strongly supports a frequency-dependent transmission structure with sex-specific infection rates that are two times higher in males than females. As transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are an important and difficult-to-study class of diseases with major economic and ecological implications, our work supports the hypothesis of frequency-dependent transmission in wild deer at a broad spatial scale and indicates that effective harvest management can be implemented to control CWD prevalence. Specifically, we show that harvest focused on the greater-affected sex (males) can result in stable population dynamics and control of CWD within the next 50 years, given the constraints of the model. We also provide a quantitative estimate of geographic disease spread in southern Wisconsin, validating qualitative assessments that CWD spreads relatively slowly. Given increased discovery and distribution of CWD throughout North America, insights from our study are valuable to management agencies and to the general public concerned about the impacts of CWD on white-tailed deer populations. PMID:24658535

  10. Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in Wisconsin White-Tailed Deer: Implications for Disease Spread and Management

    PubMed Central

    Jennelle, Christopher S.; Henaux, Viviane; Wasserberg, Gideon; Thiagarajan, Bala; Rolley, Robert E.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the rate of infection or mode of transmission for wildlife diseases, and the implications of alternative management strategies. We used hunter harvest data from 2002 to 2013 to investigate chronic wasting disease (CWD) infection rate and transmission modes, and address how alternative management approaches affect disease dynamics in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer population. Uncertainty regarding demographic impacts of CWD on cervid populations, human and domestic animal health concerns, and potential economic consequences underscore the need for strategies to control CWD distribution and prevalence. Using maximum-likelihood methods to evaluate alternative multi-state deterministic models of CWD transmission, harvest data strongly supports a frequency-dependent transmission structure with sex-specific infection rates that are two times higher in males than females. As transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are an important and difficult-to-study class of diseases with major economic and ecological implications, our work supports the hypothesis of frequency-dependent transmission in wild deer at a broad spatial scale and indicates that effective harvest management can be implemented to control CWD prevalence. Specifically, we show that harvest focused on the greater-affected sex (males) can result in stable population dynamics and control of CWD within the next 50 years, given the constraints of the model. We also provide a quantitative estimate of geographic disease spread in southern Wisconsin, validating qualitative assessments that CWD spreads relatively slowly. Given increased discovery and distribution of CWD throughout North America, insights from our study are valuable to management agencies and to the general public concerned about the impacts of CWD on white-tailed deer populations. PMID:24658535

  11. National dissemination of chronic disease self-management education programs: an incremental examination of delivery characteristics.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G; Ahn, SangNam; Kulinski, Kristie P; Jiang, Luohua; Horel, Scott; Lorig, Kate

    2014-01-01

    With a near 20-year developmental history as an evidence-based program, the suite of Chronic Disease Self-Management Education (CDSME) programs were selected in 2010 for grand-scale dissemination in a federally supported initiative to improve the health of older Americans. The primary charge of this national effort was to establish a sustainable program delivery system for empowering American adults with one or more chronic conditions to better manage their health. The current study focused on a series of dissemination and implementation science research questions to: (1) examine the geographic distribution of participation in this initiative across the Unites States; (2) describe workshop characteristics engaged to reach program participants in various settings; and (3) describe personal characteristics of the first 100,000 participants. Each subsequent entering cohort was descriptively examined to indicate whether there was constancy or change in delivery sites and populations reached over time. Findings show a strengthening of the workshop delivery infrastructure in that it took 9.4 months to reach the first 25,000 participants in 853 counties compared to 5.4 months to reach the last 25,000 participants in 1,109 counties. The workshop delivery characteristics and participant characteristics remained relatively consistent across increments of 25,000 participants reached, although general trends were observed for some variables. For example, after reaching the first 25,000 participants, subsequent groups of 25,000 participants were reached more quickly. Additionally, workshops were increasingly delivered in ZIP Codes with higher percentages of families residing below the federal poverty line. As more participants were reached, more participants with chronic conditions were enrolled. This national translational study illustrates the rapid expansion of CDSME programs throughout the United States and capability to reach diverse populations in a variety of

  12. National Dissemination of Chronic Disease Self-Management Education Programs: An Incremental Examination of Delivery Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G.; Ahn, SangNam; Kulinski, Kristie P.; Jiang, Luohua; Horel, Scott; Lorig, Kate

    2015-01-01

    With a near 20-year developmental history as an evidence-based program, the suite of Chronic Disease Self-Management Education (CDSME) programs were selected in 2010 for grand-scale dissemination in a federally supported initiative to improve the health of older Americans. The primary charge of this national effort was to establish a sustainable program delivery system for empowering American adults with one or more chronic conditions to better manage their health. The current study focused on a series of dissemination and implementation science research questions to: (1) examine the geographic distribution of participation in this initiative across the Unites States; (2) describe workshop characteristics engaged to reach program participants in various settings; and (3) describe personal characteristics of the first 100,000 participants. Each subsequent entering cohort was descriptively examined to indicate whether there was constancy or change in delivery sites and populations reached over time. Findings show a strengthening of the workshop delivery infrastructure in that it took 9.4 months to reach the first 25,000 participants in 853 counties compared to 5.4 months to reach the last 25,000 participants in 1,109 counties. The workshop delivery characteristics and participant characteristics remained relatively consistent across increments of 25,000 participants reached, although general trends were observed for some variables. For example, after reaching the first 25,000 participants, subsequent groups of 25,000 participants were reached more quickly. Additionally, workshops were increasingly delivered in ZIP Codes with higher percentages of families residing below the federal poverty line. As more participants were reached, more participants with chronic conditions were enrolled. This national translational study illustrates the rapid expansion of CDSME programs throughout the United States and capability to reach diverse populations in a variety of

  13. Contemporary management of phosphorus retention in chronic kidney disease: a review.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Fateme Shamekhi

    2015-12-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is the most common metabolic complications of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Large observational studies have identified hyperphosphatemia as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality in dialysis patients and subsequent studies found that subtle increases in serum phosphate levels even within the normal range are also associated with increased risk for death in predialysis and non-kidney disease population. On the basis of these results, current national practice guidelines advocate more aggressive treatment of hyperphosphatemia to lower serum phosphate targets than in the past . Treatment of hyperphosphatemia requires to strict management through dietary restriction, oral phosphate binders, and dialysis. Calcium-based phosphate binders have low cost and widespread use but cause vascular calcification and hypercalcemia. Non-calcium-based phosphate binders are effective but expensive. Bixalomer is a new Ca-free, metal-free, potent phosphate binder, non-hydrochloride, and non-absorptive polymer, which improves metabolic acidosis. FGF-23 appears as a promising target for novel therapeutic approaches to improve clinical outcomes of CKD patients. This review focuses on novel therapeutic approaches dealing with hyperphosphatemia in chronic kidney disease. PMID:26032778

  14. [Consensus document for the detection and management of chronic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Castelao, Alberto; Górriz, José L; Bover, Jordi; Segura-de la Morena, Julián; Cebollada, Jesús; Escalada, Javier; Esmatjes, Enric; Fácila, Lorenzo; Gamarra, Javier; Gràcia, Silvia; Hernández-Moreno, Julio; Llisterri-Caro, José L; Mazón, Pilar; Montañés, Rosario; Morales-Olivas, Francisco; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel; de Pablos-Velasco, Pedro; de Santiago, Ana; Sánchez-Celaya, Marta; Suárez, Carmen; Tranche, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important global health problem, involving to 10% of the Spanish population, promoting high morbidity and mortality for the patient and an elevate consumption of the total health resources for the National Health System. This is a summary of an executive consensus document of ten scientific societies involved in the care of the renal patient, that actualizes the consensus document published in 2007. The central extended document can be consulted in the web page of each society. The aspects included in the document are: Concept, epidemiology and risk factors for CKD. Diagnostic criteria, evaluation and stages of CKD, albuminuria and glomerular filtration rate estimation. Progression factors for renal damage. Patient remission criteria. Follow-up and objectives of each speciality control. Nephrotoxicity prevention. Cardio-vascular damage detection. Diet, life-style and treatment attitudes: hypertension, dyslipidaemia, hyperglycemia, smoking, obesity, hyperuricemia, anemia, mineral and bone disorders. Multidisciplinary management for Primary Care, other specialities and Nephrology. Integrated management of CKD patient in haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and renal transplant patients. Management of the uremic patient in palliative care. We hope that this document may be of help for the multidisciplinary management of CKD patients by summarizing the most updated recommendations. PMID:25282133

  15. [Consensus document for the detection and management of chronic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Castelao, Alberto; Górriz, José L; Bover, Jordi; Segura-de la Morena, Julián; Cebollada, Jesús; Escalada, Javier; Esmatjes, Enric; Fácila, Lorenzo; Gamarra, Javier; Gràcia, Silvia; Hernández-Moreno, Julio; Llisterri-Caro, José L; Mazón, Pilar; Montañés, Rosario; Morales-Olivas, Francisco; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel; de Pablos-Velasco, Pedro; de Santiago, Ana; Sánchez-Celaya, Marta; Suárez, Carmen; Tranche, Salvador

    2014-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important global health problem, involving to 10% of the Spanish population, promoting high morbidity and mortality for the patient and an elevate consumption of the total health resources for the National Health System. This is a summary of an executive consensus document of ten scientific societies involved in the care of the renal patient, that actualizes the consensus document published in 2007. The central extended document can be consulted in the web page of each society. The aspects included in the document are: Concept, epidemiology and risk factors for CKD. Diagnostic criteria, evaluation and stages of CKD, albuminuria and glomerular filtration rate estimation. Progression factors for renal damage. Patient remission criteria. Follow-up and objectives of each speciality control. Nephrotoxicity prevention. Cardio-vascular damage detection. Diet, life-style and treatment attitudes: hypertension, dyslipidaemia, hyperglycemia, smoking, obesity, hyperuricemia, anemia, mineral and bone disorders. Multidisciplinary management for Primary Care, other specialities and Nephrology. Integrated management of CKD patient in haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and renal transplant patients. Management of the uremic patient in palliative care. We hope that this document may be of help for the multidisciplinary management of CKD patients by summarizing the most updated recommendations. PMID:25288498

  16. [Consensus document for the detection and management of chronic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Castelao, Alberto; Górriz, José L; Bover, Jordi; Segura-de la Morena, Julián; Cebollada, Jesús; Escalada, Javier; Esmatjes, Enric; Fácila, Lorenzo; Gamarra, Javier; Gràcia, Silvia; Hernández-Moreno, Julio; Llisterri-Caro, José L; Mazón, Pilar; Montañés, Rosario; Morales-Olivas, Francisco; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel; de Pablos-Velasco, Pedro; de Santiago, Ana; Sánchez-Celaya, Marta; Suárez, Carmen; Tranche, Salvador

    2014-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important global health problem, involving to 10% of the Spanish population, promoting high morbidity and mortality for the patient and an elevate consumption of the total health resources for the National Health System. This is a summary of an executive consensus document of ten scientific societies involved in the care of the renal patient, that actualizes the consensus document published in 2007. The central extended document can be consulted in the web page of each society. The aspects included in the document are: Concept, epidemiology and risk factors for CKD. Diagnostic criteria, evaluation and stages of CKD, albuminuria and glomerular filtration rate estimation. Progression factors for renal damage. Patient remission criteria. Follow-up and objectives of each speciality control. Nephrotoxicity prevention. Cardio-vascular damage detection. Diet, life-style and treatment attitudes: hypertension, dyslipidaemia, hyperglycemia, smoking, obesity, hyperuricemia, anemia, mineral and bone disorders. Multidisciplinary management for Primary Care, other specialities and Nephrology. Integrated management of CKD patient in haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and renal transplant patients. Management of the uremic patient in palliative care. We hope that this document may be of help for the multidisciplinary management of CKD patients by summarizing the most updated recommendations. PMID:25171835

  17. Management of Proteinuria in Dogs and Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Vaden, Shelly L; Elliott, Jonathan

    2016-11-01

    Proteinuria is a negative prognostic indicator for dogs and cats with chronic kidney disease. A normal dog or cat should excrete very little protein and have a urine protein:creatinine ratio that is less than 0.4 or less than 0.2, respectively; persistent proteinuria above this magnitude warrants attention. Administration of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and/or angiotensin receptor blockers, blood pressure control and nutritional modification are considered a standard of care for renal proteinuria. Renal biopsy and administration of immunosuppressive agents should be considered in animals with glomerular proteinuria that have not responded to standard therapy. Targeted patient monitoring is essential when instituting management of proteinuria. PMID:27485278

  18. Non-invasive ventilation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: management of acute type 2 respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Roberts, C M; Brown, J L; Reinhardt, A K; Kaul, S; Scales, K; Mikelsons, C; Reid, K; Winter, R; Young, K; Restrick, L; Plant, P K

    2008-10-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in the management of acute type 2 respiratory failure in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents one of the major technical advances in respiratory care over the last decade. This document updates the 2002 British Thoracic Society guidance and provides a specific focus on the use of NIV in COPD patients with acute type 2 respiratory failure. While there are a variety of ventilator units available most centres now use bi-level positive airways pressure units and this guideline refers specifically to this form of ventilatory support although many of the principles encompassed are applicable to other forms of NIV. The guideline has been produced for the clinician caring for COPD patients in the emergency and ward areas of acute hospitals. PMID:18975486

  19. Precision medicine in chronic disease management: the MS BioScreen

    PubMed Central

    Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Henry, Roland; Cree, Bruce AC; Crane, Jason C; Lizee, Antoine; Olson, Marram P; Santaniello, Adam V.; Datta, Esha; Zhu, Alyssa H.; Bevan, Carolyn J.; Gelfand, Jeffrey M.; Graves, Jennifer A.; Goodin, Douglas E.; Green, Ari; von Büdingen, H.-Christian; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Zamvil, Scott S.; Crabtree-Hartman, Elizabeth; Nelson, Sarah; Baranzini, Sergio E.; Hauser, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    We present a precision medicine application developed for multiple sclerosis (MS): the MS BioScreen. This new tool addresses the challenges of dynamic management of a complex chronic disease; the interaction of clinicians and patients with such a tool illustrates the extent to which translational digital medicine – i.e. the application of information technology to medicine—has the potential to radically transform medical practice. We introduce three key evolutionary phases in displaying data to health care providers, patients, and researchers: visualization (accessing data), contextualization (understanding the data), and actionable interpretation (real-time use of the data to assist decision-making). Together these form the stepping-stones that are expected to accelerate standardization of data across platforms, promote evidence-based medicine, support shared decision-making, and ultimately lead to improved outcomes. PMID:25263997

  20. Prognosis and management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) at the end of life.

    PubMed

    Davison, Rachel; Sheerin, Neil S

    2014-02-01

    The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases with age. As people are living longer, nephrologists are responsible for a progressively older cohort of patients with substantial comorbidities. Patients with CKD have a significant symptom burden and can benefit from intervention and symptom control from an early stage in the illness. It is also increasingly recognised that renal replacement therapy may not always offer an improvement in symptoms or a survival advantage to older patients with high levels of comorbidity. For these reasons, non-dialytic (conservative) management and end-of-life care is becoming part of routine nephrology practice. Such patients will also frequently be encountered in other specialities, requiring generalists to have some renal-specific skills and knowledge. Although there have been significant advances in this field in recent years, the optimum model of care and some of the care preferences of patients remain challenges that need to be addressed. PMID:24319094

  1. Patients with chronic kidney disease: safety aspects in the preoperative management.

    PubMed

    Malovrh, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health problem worldwide. Early detection and treatment of CKD can often prevent or delay some of the negative outcomes of CKD. This chapter shows how treatment of hypertension, proteinuria and metabolic disorders slow down the deterioration of renal function. Irrespective of the mode of renal replacement therapy, maintaining the veins in the upper extremities is of vital importance. Below are suggestions on how to protect blood vessels of the upper limbs and when to start preparing for the construction of vascular access. In this chapter, it is also shown how necessary it is to conduct a clinical evaluation of the blood vessels, which is required before the start of vascular access management. The methodology of noninvasive evaluation of vessels by duplex sonography is also presented. This method is very useful, especially if the vessels are not clinically visible, as well as the information concerning the morphological and functional properties of blood vessels. PMID:25676289

  2. Organic and inorganic dietary phosphorus and its management in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Noori, Nazanin; Sims, John J; Kopple, Joel D; Shah, Anuja; Colman, Sara; Shinaberger, Christian S; Bross, Rachelle; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2010-04-01

    Dietary phosphorus control is often a main strategy in the management of patients with chronic kidney disease. Dietary protein is a major source of phosphorus intake. Recent data indicate that imposed dietary phosphorus restriction may compromise the need for adequate protein intake, leading to protein-energy wasting and possibly to increased mortality. The two main sources of dietary phosphorus are organic, including animal and vegetarian proteins, and inorganic, mostly food preservatives. Animal-based foods and plant are abundant in organic phosphorus. Usually 40% to 60% of animal-based phosphorus is absorbed; this varies by degree of gastrointestinal vitamin-D-receptor activation, whereas plant phosphorus, mostly associated with phytates, is less absorbable by human gastrointestinal tract. Up to 100% of inorganic phosphorus in processed foods may be absorbed; ie, phosphorus in processed cheese and some soda (cola) drinks. A recent study suggests that a higher dietary phosphorus-protein intake ratio is associated with incremental death risk in patients on long-term hemodialysis. Hence, for phosphorus management in chronic kidney disease, in addition to absolute dietary phosphorus content, the chemical structure (inorganic versus organic), type (animal versus plant), and phosphorus-protein ratio should be considered. We recommend foods and supplements with no or lowest quantity of inorganic phosphorus additives, more plant-based proteins, and a dietary phosphorus-protein ratio of less than 10 mg/g. Fresh (nonprocessed) egg white (phosphorus-protein ratio less than 2 mg/g) is a good example of desirable food, which contains a high proportion of essential amino acids with low amounts of fat, cholesterol, and phosphorus. PMID:20404416

  3. Computer templates in chronic disease management: ethnographic case study in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Swinglehurst, Deborah; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Roberts, Celia

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate how electronic templates shape, enable and constrain consultations about chronic diseases. Design Ethnographic case study, combining field notes, video-recording, screen capture with a microanalysis of talk, body language and data entry—an approach called linguistic ethnography. Setting Two general practices in England. Participants and methods Ethnographic observation of administrative areas and 36 nurse-led consultations was done. Twenty-four consultations were directly observed and 12 consultations were video-recorded alongside computer screen capture. Consultations were transcribed using conversation analysis conventions, with notes on body language and the electronic record. The analysis involved repeated rounds of viewing video, annotating field notes, transcription and microanalysis to identify themes. The data was interpreted using discourse analysis, with attention to the sociotechnical theory. Results Consultations centred explicitly or implicitly on evidence-based protocols inscribed in templates. Templates did not simply identify tasks for completion, but contributed to defining what chronic diseases were, how care was being delivered and what it meant to be a patient or professional in this context. Patients’ stories morphed into data bytes; the particular became generalised; the complex was made discrete, simple and manageable; and uncertainty became categorised and contained. Many consultations resembled bureaucratic encounters, primarily oriented to completing data fields. We identified a tension, sharpened by the template, between different framings of the patient—as ‘individual’ or as ‘one of a population’. Some clinicians overcame this tension, responding creatively to prompts within a dialogue constructed around the patient's narrative. Conclusions Despite their widespread implementation, little previous research has examined how templates are actually used in practice. Templates do not simply document the

  4. The formation and management of middle ear granulation tissue in chronic ear disease.

    PubMed

    Roland, Peter S

    2004-01-01

    Granulation tissue is an important pathogenic feature of all types of chronic ear disease, and it can be controlled and treated with good aural toilet, appropriate antibiotic therapy, topical steroids, and chemical cautery or surgical debridement. PMID:14986396

  5. Implications of chronic wasting disease, cougar predation, and reduced recruitment for elk management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, G.A.; Weber, D.C.; Roddy, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging diseases and expanding carnivore populations may have profound implications for ungulate harvest management and population regulation. To better understand effects of chronic wasting disease (CWD) and cougar (Puma concolor) predation, we studied mortality and recruitment of elk (Cervus elaphus) at Wind Cave National Park (WICA) during 2005-2009. We marked 202 elk (83 subadult M and 119 subadult and ad F) with Global Positioning System (GPS) collars, observed 28 deaths during 74,220 days of monitoring, and investigated 42 additional deaths of unmarked elk found dead. Survival rates were similar for males and females and averaged 0.863 (SE = 0.025) annually. Leading causes of mortality included hunting (0.065, SE = 0.019), CWD (0.034, SE = 0.012), and cougar predation (0.029, SE = 0.012). Marked elk killed by hunters and cougars typically were in good physical condition and not infected with CWD. Effects of mortality on population growth were exacerbated by low rates of pregnancy (subadults = 9.5%, SE = 6.6%; ad = 76.9%, SE = 4.2%) and perinatal survival (0.49, SE = 0.085 from 1 Feb to 1 Sep). Chronic wasting disease, increased predation, and reduced recruitment reduced the rate of increase for elk at WICA to approximately ?? = 1.00 (SE = 0.027) during the past decade. Lower rates of increase are mitigating effects of elk on park vegetation, other wildlife, and neighboring lands and will facilitate population control, but may reduce opportunities for elk hunting outside the park. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  6. Activating Patients for Sustained Chronic Disease Self-Management: Thinking Beyond Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dye, Cheryl J; Williams, Joel E; Evatt, Janet H

    2016-04-01

    This article describes the impact of an 8-week community program implemented by trained volunteers on the hypertension self-management of 185 patients who were batch randomized to intervention or wait-list control groups. Compared with control group participants, a higher proportion of treatment group participants moved from the cognitive to behavioral stages of motivational readiness for being physically active (P < .001), practicing healthy eating habits (P = .001), handling stress well (P = .001), and living an overall healthy lifestyle (P = .003). They also demonstrated a greater average increase in perceived competence for self-management, F(1.134) = 4.957, P = .028, η2 = .036, and a greater increase in mean hypertension-related knowledge, F(1.160) = 16.571, P < .0005, η(2) = .094. Enduring lifestyle changes necessary for chronic disease self-management require that psychosocial determinants of health behavior are instilled, which is typically beyond standard medical practice. We recommend peer-led, community-based programs as a complement to clinical care and support the increasing health system interest in promoting population health beyond clinical walls. PMID:26792906

  7. Epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and management of chronic kidney disease in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Minoru; Yanagisawa, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy has markedly reduced acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related deaths and opportunistic infectious diseases. This has resulted in prolonged survival of individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, this improvement in survival has been accompanied by an increase in the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease. CKD is now epidemic among HIV-infected populations in both Western and Eastern countries. Risk factors associated with CKD in HIV-infected populations include aging, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, co-infection with hepatitis C virus, a low CD4 cell count, and a high HIV viral load. Clinical experience has shown that HIV-infected individuals often have one or more concurrent risk factors for CKD. The cumulative effect of multiple risk factors on the development of CKD should be noted in this population. Glomerular disease directly related to HIV infection, so-called HIV-associated nephropathy, remains an important cause of CKD among a limited HIV population of African descent, but is less likely to be common among other urban HIV populations. The impact of exposure to nephrotoxic antiretroviral agents on the development of kidney disease is both an old and a new concern. In particular, the association of tenofovir with kidney tubular injury has been an area of great interest. The findings regarding tenofovir’s adverse effect on long-term kidney function vary among studies. The early identification and treatment of CKD is recommended for reducing the burden of patients requiring dialysis in HIV-infected populations. Periodic monitoring of urinary concentrations of albumin, protein, and tubular injury markers such as low-molecular-weight proteins may be useful for the early diagnosis of patients at risk for incident CKD. This review focuses on recent epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and management of CKD in a contemporary HIV-infected population. PMID:26167463

  8. Assessment of a primary and tertiary care integrated management model for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Bolíbar, Ignasi; Plaza, Vicente; Llauger, Mariantònia; Amado, Ester; Antón, Pedro A; Espinosa, Ana; Domínguez, Leandra; Fraga, Mar; Freixas, Montserrat; de la Fuente, Josep A; Liguerre, Iskra; Medrano, Casimira; Peiro, Meritxell; Pou, Mariantònia; Sanchis, Joaquin; Solanes, Ingrid; Valero, Carles; Valverde, Pepi

    2009-01-01

    Background The diagnosis and treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Spain continues to present challenges, and problems are exacerbated when there is a lack of coordinated follow-up between levels of care. This paper sets out the protocol for assessing the impact of an integrated management model for the care of patients with COPD. The new model will be evaluated in terms of 1) improvement in the rational utilization of health-care services and 2) benefits reflected in improved health status and quality of life for patients. Methods/Design A quasi-experimental study of the effectiveness of a COPD management model called COPD PROCESS. The patients in the study cohorts will be residents of neighborhoods served by two referral hospitals in Barcelona, Spain. One area comprises the intervention group (n = 32,248 patients) and the other the control group (n = 32,114 patients). The study will include pre- and post-intervention assessment 18 months after the program goes into effect. Analyses will be on two datasets: clinical and administrative data available for all patients, and clinical assessment information for a cohort of 440 patients sampled randomly from the intervention and control areas. The main endpoints will be the hospitalization rates in the two health-care areas and quality-of-life measures in the two cohorts. Discussion The COPD PROCESS model foresees the integrated multidisciplinary management of interventions at different levels of the health-care system through coordinated routine clinical practice. It will put into practice diagnostic and treatment procedures that are based on current evidence, multidisciplinary consensus, and efficient use of available resources. Care pathways in this model are defined in terms of patient characteristics, level of disease severity and the presence or absence of exacerbation. The protocol covers the full range of care from primary prevention to treatment of complex cases. PMID

  9. Harvest Health: Translation of the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program for Older African Americans in a Senior Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitlin, Laura N.; Chernett, Nancy L.; Harris, Lynn Fields; Palmer, Delores; Hopkins, Paul; Dennis, Marie P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We describe the translation of K. R. Lorig and colleagues' Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) for delivery in a senior center and evaluate pre-post benefits for African American participants. Design and Methods: Modifications to the CDSMP included a name change; an additional introductory session; and course augmentations…

  10. N-Acetylcysteine mucolysis in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Sadowska, Anna M

    2012-06-01

    To develop an efficient therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been tested as a medication that can suppress various pathogenic processes in this disease. NAC is a thiol compound, which provides sulfhydryl groups. NAC can act as a precursor of reduced glutathione and as a direct reactive oxygen species scavenger, hence regulating the redox status in the cells. In this way NAC can interfere with several signaling pathways that play a role in regulating apoptosis, angiogenesis, cell growth and inflammatory response. Mucus hypersecretion has been reported in COPD and in other respiratory conditions. Two pathological processes have been described to play an important role in COPD, namely oxidative stress and inflammation. Both of these processes can induce mucin gene expression leading to mucin production. NAC, therefore, may influence mucin expression by acting on oxidative stress and inflammation, and play a role as a mucolytic agent. In this review we focus on the mucolysis of NAC in the management of COPD. PMID:22361928

  11. The management of hyperphosphatemia by lanthanum carbonate in chronic kidney disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Shigematsu, Takashi; Nakashima, Yuri; Ohya, Masaki; Tatsuta, Koichi; Koreeda, Daisuke; Yoshimoto, Wataru; Yamanaka, Shintaro; Sakaguchi, Toshifumi; Hanba, Yoshiyuki; Mima, Toru; Negi, Shigeo

    2012-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemia has been shown to be involved not only in the onset and progression of secondary hyperparathyroidism but also in vascular calcification. In addition, it influences the clinical course of patients with chronic kidney disease. Phosphate (Pi) binder is required in the management of hyperparaphosphatemia, because dietary Pi restriction and Pi removal by hemodialysis alone are insufficient. Lanthanum carbonate, a powerful Pi binder, has a similar effect to aluminum hydroxide in reducing serum Pi levels. As it is excreted via the liver, lanthanum carbonate has an advantage in patients with renal failure. The effect of lanthanum carbonate on serum Pi levels is almost two times higher than that of calcium (Ca) carbonate, which is commonly used. Lanthanum carbonate and Ca carbonate have an additive effect. Worldwide, there is 6 years worth of clinical treatment data on lanthanum carbonate; however, we have 3 years of clinical use in Japanese patients with hyperphosphatemia. No serious side effects have been reported. However, the most important concern is bone toxicity, which has been observed with use of aluminum hydroxide. For this study, clinical research involved analysis of bone biopsies. Although osteomalacia is the most noticeable side effect, this was not observed. Both the high- and the low-turnover bone disease concentrated into a normal bone turnover state. However, as the authors have less than 10 years’ clinical experience with lanthanum carbonate, patients should be monitored carefully. In addition, it is necessary to demonstrate whether potent treatment effects on hyperphosphatemia improve the long-term outcome. PMID:22723728

  12. Ipratropium bromide in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: effect on health service expenditures.

    PubMed

    Sclar, D A; Legg, R F; Skaer, T L; Robison, L M; Nemic, N L

    1994-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is estimated to affect 32 million Americans, is the fifth leading cause of death in the United States. This retrospective study was designed to discern the economic utility of initial pharmacotherapy with various individual drugs in the management of COPD, as well as subsequent costs incurred as disease progression necessitated combination therapy. Data for this analysis were derived from the computer archive of a network-model health maintenance organization. During the first 6 months post-diagnosis for COPD, results indicated a significant (P < or = 0.05) increase in expenditures for physicians, hospital care, and total health service utilization for patients prescribed theophylline, a corticosteroid (triamcinolone or beclomethasone) delivered via a metered-dose inhaler, or albuterol delivered via a metered-dose inhaler as initial monotherapy compared with patients prescribed ipratropium bromide (IB) delivered via a metered-dose inhaler. Patients receiving initial pharmacotherapy with ipratropium bromide and subsequently adding albuterol used significantly less health care services (P < or = 0.05) during the first 15 months post-diagnosis for COPD than did patients prescribed all other combination therapies we evaluated. PMID:7923323

  13. Adapting Stanford’s Chronic Disease Self-Management Program to Hawaii’s Multicultural Population

    PubMed Central

    Tomioka, Michiyo; Braun, Kathryn L.; Compton, Merlita; Tanoue, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Stanford’s Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) has been proven to increase patients’ ability to manage distress. We describe how we replicated CDSMP in Asian and Pacific Islander (API) communities. Design and Methods: We used the “track changes” tool to deconstruct CDSMP into its various components (e.g., recruitment and staffing) and the “adaptation traffic light” to identify allowable modifications to the original program. We monitored local leaders’ fidelity of delivery of CDSMP and tracked participants’ attendance, satisfaction, and 6-month outcomes. Results: Between July 2007 and February 2010, 584 completed a CDSMP workshop. Baseline and 6-month data were available for 422 (72%), including 53 Caucasians, 177 Asians, and 194 Pacific Islanders. All 3 groups realized significant decreases in social and role activity limitations and significant increases in communication with physicians. Asians and Pacific Islanders also realized significant increases in self-rated health and time spent engaging in stretching/strengthening exercise. Asians also reported significant reductions in health distress and self-reported physician visits and increases in time spent in aerobic exercise, ability to cope with symptoms, and self-efficacy. Implications: Our experience suggests that CDSMP can be modified for increased cultural appropriateness for API communities while maintaining the key components responsible for behavior change. PMID:21719630

  14. Challenges for nephrology nurses in the management of children with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Miller, Deborah; Macdonald, Dina; Kolnacki, Ken; Simek, Teresa

    2004-01-01

    An important treatment goal for pediatric nephrology caregivers is the optimization of a child's capacity for normal growth and development. However, the physiologic and metabolic derangements associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) significantly alter these processes, creating important challenges in the care of affected children. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines support early recognition and treatment of CKD-related complications to improve growth and development and, ultimately, quality of life for children with this chronic condition. PMID:15303424

  15. Canadian Thoracic Society recommendations for management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease – 2007 update

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, Denis E; Aaron, Shawn; Bourbeau, Jean; Hernandez, Paul; Marciniuk, Darcy D; Balter, Meyer; Ford, Gordon; Gervais, Andre; Goldstein, Roger; Hodder, Rick; Kaplan, Alan; Keenan, Sean; Lacasse, Yves; Maltais, Francois; Road, Jeremy; Rocker, Graeme; Sin, Don; Sinuff, Tasmin; Voduc, Nha

    2007-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major respiratory illness in Canada that is both preventable and treatable. Our understanding of the pathophysiology of this complex condition continues to grow and our ability to offer effective treatment to those who suffer from it has improved considerably. The purpose of the present educational initiative of the Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS) is to provide up to date information on new developments in the field so that patients with this condition will receive optimal care that is firmly based on scientific evidence. Since the previous CTS management recommendations were published in 2003, a wealth of new scientific information has become available. The implications of this new knowledge with respect to optimal clinical care have been carefully considered by the CTS Panel and the conclusions are presented in the current document. Highlights of this update include new epidemiological information on mortality and prevalence of COPD, which charts its emergence as a major health problem for women; a new section on common comorbidities in COPD; an increased emphasis on the meaningful benefits of combined pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapies; and a new discussion on the prevention of acute exacerbations. A revised stratification system for severity of airway obstruction is proposed, together with other suggestions on how best to clinically evaluate individual patients with this complex disease. The results of the largest randomized clinical trial ever undertaken in COPD have recently been published, enabling the Panel to make evidence-based recommendations on the role of modern pharmacotherapy. The Panel hopes that these new practice guidelines, which reflect a rigorous analysis of the recent literature, will assist caregivers in the diagnosis and management of this common condition. PMID:17885691

  16. Comparison of primary health-care models in the management of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Cueto-Manzano, Alfonso M; Martínez-Ramírez, Héctor R; Cortés-Sanabria, Laura

    2013-05-01

    Negative lifestyle habits (potential risks for chronic kidney disease, CKD) are rarely modified by physicians in a conventional health-care model (CHCM). Multidisciplinary strategies may have better results; however, there is no information on their application in the early stages of CKD. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare a multiple intervention model versus CHCM on lifestyle and renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and CKD stage 1-2. In a prospective cohort study, a family medicine unit (FMU) was assigned a multiple intervention model (MIM) and another continued with conventional health-care model (CHCM). MIM patients received an educational intervention guided by a multidisciplinary team (family physician (FP), social worker, dietitian, physical trainer); self-help groups functioned with free activities throughout the study. CHCM patients were managed only by the FP, who decided if patients needed referral to other professionals. Thirty-nine patients were studied in each cohort. According to a lifestyle questionnaire, no baseline differences were found between cohorts, but results reflected an unhealthy lifestyle. After 6 months of follow-up, both cohorts showed significant improvement in their dietary habits. Compared to CHCM diet, exercise, emotional management, knowledge of disease, and adherence to treatment showed greater improvement in the MIM. Blood pressure decreased in both cohorts, but body mass index, waist circumference, and HbA1C significantly decreased only in MIM. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was maintained equally in both cohorts, but albuminuria significantly decreased only in MIM. In conclusion, MIM achieves better control of lifestyle-related variables and CKD risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) patients with CKD stage 1-2. Broadly, implementation of a MIM in primary health care may produce superior results that might assist in preventing the progression of CKD. PMID:25018986

  17. Comparison of primary health-care models in the management of chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Cueto-Manzano, Alfonso M; Martínez-Ramírez, Héctor R; Cortés-Sanabria, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Negative lifestyle habits (potential risks for chronic kidney disease, CKD) are rarely modified by physicians in a conventional health-care model (CHCM). Multidisciplinary strategies may have better results; however, there is no information on their application in the early stages of CKD. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare a multiple intervention model versus CHCM on lifestyle and renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and CKD stage 1–2. In a prospective cohort study, a family medicine unit (FMU) was assigned a multiple intervention model (MIM) and another continued with conventional health-care model (CHCM). MIM patients received an educational intervention guided by a multidisciplinary team (family physician (FP), social worker, dietitian, physical trainer); self-help groups functioned with free activities throughout the study. CHCM patients were managed only by the FP, who decided if patients needed referral to other professionals. Thirty-nine patients were studied in each cohort. According to a lifestyle questionnaire, no baseline differences were found between cohorts, but results reflected an unhealthy lifestyle. After 6 months of follow-up, both cohorts showed significant improvement in their dietary habits. Compared to CHCM diet, exercise, emotional management, knowledge of disease, and adherence to treatment showed greater improvement in the MIM. Blood pressure decreased in both cohorts, but body mass index, waist circumference, and HbA1C significantly decreased only in MIM. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was maintained equally in both cohorts, but albuminuria significantly decreased only in MIM. In conclusion, MIM achieves better control of lifestyle-related variables and CKD risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) patients with CKD stage 1–2. Broadly, implementation of a MIM in primary health care may produce superior results that might assist in preventing the progression of CKD. PMID:25018986

  18. Chronic Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Lantos, Paul M

    2015-06-01

    Chronic Lyme disease is a poorly defined diagnosis that is usually given to patients with prolonged, unexplained symptoms or with alternative medical diagnoses. Data do not support the proposition that chronic, treatment-refractory infection with Borrelia burgdorferi is responsible for the many conditions that get labeled as chronic Lyme disease. Prolonged symptoms after successful treatment of Lyme disease are uncommon, but in rare cases may be severe. Prolonged courses of antibiotics neither prevent nor ameliorate these symptoms and are associated with considerable harm. PMID:25999227

  19. The Reach of Chronic-Disease Self-Management Education Programs to Rural Populations

    PubMed Central

    Towne, Samuel D.; Smith, Matthew Lee; Ahn, SangNam; Ory, Marcia G.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the sociodemographic characteristics of rural residents who participated in chronic-disease self-management education (CDSME) program workshops and the extent to which CDSME programs were utilized by those with limited access to health care services. We analyzed data from the first 100,000 adults who attended CDSME program workshops during a national dissemination spanning 45 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. Approximately 24% of participants lived in rural areas. Overall, 42% of all participants were minorities; urban areas reached more minority participants (48%) than rural areas (25%). The average age of participants was high in rural (age, μ = 66.1) and urban (age, μ = 67.3) areas. In addition, the average number of chronic conditions was higher (p < 0.01) in rural (μ = 2.6 conditions) versus urban (μ = 2.4 conditions) areas. Successful completion of CDSME programs (i.e., attending four or more of the six workshop sessions) was higher (p < 0.01) in rural versus urban areas (78% versus 77%). Factors associated with higher likelihood of successful completion of CDSME programs included being Black (OR = 1.25) versus White and living in rural (versus urban) areas (OR = 1.09). Factors associated with lower likelihood of successful completion included being male (OR = 0.92) and residing in a primary care Health Professional Shortage Area or HPSA (versus a non-HPSA) (OR = 0.93). Findings highlight the capability of CDSME programs to reach rural residents, yet dissemination efforts can be further enhanced to ensure minorities and individuals in a HPSA utilize this program. Tailored strategies are needed to increase participant recruitment and retention in rural areas to overcome traditional barriers to health service access. PMID:25964906

  20. Emergency department management of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and factors associated with hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Khialani, Bharat; Sivakumaran, Pathmanathan; Keijzers, Gerben; Sriram, Krishna Bajee

    2014-01-01

    Background: Currently there is a paucity of information about biomarkers that can predict hospitalization for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). There is limited data on the consistency of ED management of AECOPD with local COPD guidelines. The aim of this study was to identify biomarkers associated with hospitalization in AECOPD patients and to determine if the ED management was concordant with local COPD guidelines. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective audit of consecutive AECOPD patients presenting to the Gold Coast Hospital ED over a 6-month period. Results: During the study period, 122 AECOPD patients (51% male, mean age (SE) 71 (±11) years) presented to the ED. Ninety-eight (80%) patients were hospitalized. Univariate analysis identified certain factors associated with hospitalization: Older age, former smokers, home oxygen therapy, weekday presentation, SpO2 < 92%, and raised inflammatory markers (white cell count (WCC) and C-reactive protein (CRP)). After adjustment for multiple variable, increased age was significantly associated with hospitalization (odds ratio (OR) 1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00-1.18; P = 0.05). Radiology assessment and pharmacological management was in accordance with COPD guidelines. However, spirometry was performed in 17% of patients and 28% of patients with hypercapneic respiratory failure received noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Conclusion: We identified several factors on univariate analysis that were associated with hospitalization. Further research is required to determine the utility of these biomarkers in clinical practice. Also, while overall adherence to local COPD guidelines was good, there is scope for improvement in performing spirometry and provision of NIV to eligible patients. PMID:25097600

  1. Chronic wasting disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an emerging prion disease of deer, elk, and moose in North America. This fatal neurodegenerative disease was first recognized 50 years ago and its distribution was limited to the Rocky Mountains for several decades. In the past few years, CWD has been found in the ea...

  2. Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    You have two kidneys, each about the size of your fist. Their main job is to filter wastes and excess water out of ... help control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged ...

  3. Sleep and Chronic Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Sleep and Sleep Disorders Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... CDC.gov . Sleep About Us About Sleep Key Sleep Disorders Sleep and Chronic Disease How Much Sleep Do ...

  4. Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)

    MedlinePlus

    ... gland that often results in reduced thyroid function ( hypothyroidism ). Causes Chronic thyroiditis or Hashimoto disease is a ... TSH). This condition is also known as subclinical hypothyroidism. If there is no evidence of thyroid hormone ...

  5. Anemia of chronic disease

    MedlinePlus

    Anemia of inflammation; AOCD; ACD ... Anemia is a lower-than-normal number of red blood cells in the blood. Some conditions can lead to anemia of chronic disease include: Autoimmune disorders , such as ...

  6. Applications of mathematical modeling in managing the spread of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in wild deer under alternative harvesting scenarios.

    PubMed

    Al-Arydah, M; Croteau, M C; Oraby, T; Smith, R J; Krewski, D

    2016-01-01

    The application of a recently developed mathematical model for predicting the spread of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in wild deer was assessed under different scenarios where harvesting is employed in disease management. A process-based mathematical model for CWD transmission in wild deer populations was recently developed and parameterized by Al-arydah et al. (2011) to provide a scientific basis for understanding the factors that affect spread of CWD and evaluate concomitant disease-control strategies. The impact of gender on CWD transmission was shown to have a significant influence on the spread of the disease in the wild. Our model demonstrates a range of harvesting rates in which CWD is controlled and deer populations survive. However, if harvesting rates are too low, the disease remains endemic for decades. Conversely, the Canadian deer population is eradicated if harvesting rates are excessive. Future investigation includes building the model to assess the spread of CWD under different disease-management scenarios. PMID:27556563

  7. Five factor model personality factors moderated the effects of an intervention to enhance chronic disease management self-efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Peter; Chapman, Benjamin; Duberstein, Paul; Jerant, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Peer led interventions can enhance patient self-efficacy for managing chronic illnesses, but little is known regarding the moderators or duration of their effects. We hypothesized Homing in on Health (HIOH), a variant of the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program, would be most effective in patients high in neuroticism and low in extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and/or conscientiousness. Design Analysis of data from subjects (N = 415) enrolled in an ongoing randomized controlled trial Methods Regression analyses were conducted to explore whether Five Factor Model (FFM) personality factors moderated the effects of HIOH, delivered in subjects’ homes or via telephone, on disease management self-efficacy. Data were collected at 6 time points over the course of 1 year. Results Compared with control and telephone HIOH, home HIOH significantly increased self-efficacy, an effect peaking at 6 weeks and fully attenuating by 1 year. Moderation analyses revealed the benefit was confined to patients higher in neuroticism and/or lower in conscientiousness, agreeableness, and extraversion. Conclusions A peer led intervention to enhance disease management self-efficacy had only short-term effects, and FFM personality factors moderated those effects. Measuring personality factors in chronically ill individuals may facilitate targeting of self-management interventions to those most likely to respond. PMID:18808733

  8. Examining Sustainability Factors for Organizations that Adopted Stanford’s Chronic Disease Self-Management Program

    PubMed Central

    Tomioka, Michiyo; Braun, Kathryn L.

    2015-01-01

    In 2006, funds were received to replicate Stanford’s Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) among eldercare providers in Honolulu. This case study, conducted 1 year after the close of the initial 3-year replication grant, explored factors for sustaining the delivery of CDSMP, with an aim to create guidelines for cultivating sustainability. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with one representative from each of eight eldercare agencies, with the representative specified by the agency. Representatives discussed the presence and strength (low, medium, or high) of sustainability factors, including readiness, champions, technical assistance, perceived fit of CDSMP with their agency, CDSMP modifiability, perceived benefits of CDSMP, and other. Only three of the eight agencies (38%) were still offering CDSMP by the end of 2010. Agencies who sustained CDSMP rated higher on all sustainability factors compared to those that did not sustain the program. Additional factors identified by representatives as important were funding and ongoing access to pools of elders from which to recruit program participants. When replicating evidence-based programs, sustainability factors must be consciously nurtured. For example, readiness must be cultivated, multiple champions must be developed, agencies must be helped to modify the program to best fit their clientele, evaluation findings demonstrating program benefit should be shared, and linkages to funding may be needed. PMID:25964896

  9. The Role of Noninvasive Ventilation in the Hospital and Outpatient Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Hoo, Guy W Soo

    2015-08-01

    Positive pressure noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has become widely accepted in the treatment of both hospitalized and outpatient subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The support has evolved over the past two decades to be part of first-line management in acute exacerbations of COPD and is also instrumental in discontinuing mechanical ventilation in COPD patients with acute respiratory failure. It is also suitable for treatment of COPD with other associated conditions including pneumonia, following lung resectional surgery, with concomitant obstructive sleep apnea and as part of end-of-life care. Short-term application can also facilitate some endoscopic procedures that may otherwise require endotracheal intubation. Outpatient use of NIV in COPD has garnered much attention, but the support has not been as robust as with NIV in hospitalized patients. However, an approach with higher pressures with a goal of significant reduction in daytime PaCO2 may be an effective strategy. NIV can also facilitate exercise training in pulmonary rehabilitation. A portable device which can augment tidal volume during ambulation and other activities of daily living may further expand the use of NIV in COPD patients. PMID:26238646

  10. Etiology and management of dyslipidemia in children with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Mona; Silverstein, Douglas M

    2015-12-01

    Lipids are essential components of cell membranes, contributing to cell fuel, myelin formation, subcellular organelle function, and steroid hormone synthesis. Children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) exhibit various co-morbidities, including dyslipidemia. The prevalence of dyslipidemias in children with CKD and ESRD is high, being present in 39-65% of patients. Elevated lipid levels in children without renal disease are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), while the risk for CVD in pediatric CKD/ESRD is unclear. The pathogenesis of dyslipidemia in CKD features various factors, including increased levels of triglycerides, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, apolipoprotein C3 (ApoC-III), decreased levels of cholesterylester transfer protein and high-density lipoproteins, and aberrations in serum very low-density and intermediate-density lipoproteins. If initial risk assessment indicates that a child with advanced CKD has 2 or more co-morbidities for CVD, first-line treatment should consist of non-pharmacologic management such as therapeutic lifestyle changes and dietary counseling. Pharmacologic treatment of dyslipidemia may reduce the incidence of CVD in children with CKD/ESRD, but randomized trials are lacking. Statins are the only class of lipid-lowering drugs currently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the pediatric population. FDA-approved pediatric labeling for these drugs is based on results from placebo-controlled trial results, showing 30-50% reductions in baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Although statins are generally well tolerated in adults, a spectrum of adverse events has been reported with their use in both the clinical trial and post-marketing settings. PMID:25801207

  11. Development of an Automated Healthcare Kiosk for the Management of Chronic Disease Patients in the Primary Care Setting.

    PubMed

    Ng, Grace; Tan, Nicolette; Bahadin, Juliana; Shum, Eugene; Tan, Sze Wee

    2016-07-01

    An increase in the prevalence of chronic disease has led to a rise in the demand for primary healthcare services in many developed countries. Healthcare technology tools may provide the leverage to alleviate the shortage of primary care providers. Here we describe the development and usage of an automated healthcare kiosk for the management of patients with stable chronic disease in the primary care setting. One-hundred patients with stable chronic disease were recruited from a primary care clinic. They used a kiosk in place of doctors' consultations for two subsequent follow-up visits. Patient and physician satisfaction with kiosk usage were measured on a Likert scale. Kiosk blood pressure measurements and triage decisions were validated and optimized. Patients were assessed if they could use the kiosk independently. Patients and physicians were satisfied with all areas of kiosk usage. Kiosk triage decisions were accurate by the 2nd month of the study. Blood pressure measurements by the kiosk were equivalent to that taken by a nurse (p = 0.30, 0.14). Independent kiosk usage depended on patients' language skills and educational levels. Healthcare kiosks represent an alternative way to manage patients with stable chronic disease. They have the potential to replace physician visits and improve access to primary healthcare. Patients welcome the use of healthcare technology tools, including those with limited literacy and education. Optimization of environmental and patient factors may be required prior to the implementation of kiosk-based technology in the healthcare setting. PMID:27240840

  12. Behavioral Exercise Programs in the Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Catherine J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compared the effectiveness of behavior modification, cognitive modification, and cognitive-behavior modification in increasing compliance with an exercise prescription for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients (N=96). Although all treatment groups showed improvement, the cognitive-behavior modification strategy produced the most…

  13. Contemporary Management of Coronary Artery Disease and Acute Coronary Syndrome in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and End-Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chin-Chou; Chen, Jaw-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have emerged as a worldwide public health problem. Due to the remarkably higher incidence and prevalence of this chronic disease in Taiwan than in other countries, CKD/ESRD has contributed to a significant health burden in Taiwan. Patients with CKD/ESRD have an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) compared to the normal population. Patients with ACS alone can present differently than patients with ACS and CKD/ESRD. Also, due to the lower prevalence of chest pain and ST-segment elevation, CKD/ESRD patients were more difficult to diagnose than other patients. Furthermore, whether advances in ACS management with medical therapy and an early invasive approach could improve patient outcomes with CKD/ESRD is not known. The use of antiplatelets such as aspirin and other antithrombotic agents might reduce the incidence of ACS or stroke in CKD patients. However, such use could also increase bleeding risk and even increase the likelihood of mortality, especially in dialysis patients. While recent clinical data suggest the potential benefit of aggressive management with coronary intervention for CAD and ACS in this category of patients, further clinical studies are still indicated for the proper medical strategy and revascularization therapy to improve the outcomes of CAD and ACS in CKD/ESRD patients, both in Taiwan and worldwide. PMID:27122697

  14. Management of aboriginal and nonaboriginal people with chronic kidney disease in Quebec

    PubMed Central

    Patapas, Jason Michael; Blanchard, Ana Chelene; Iqbal, Sameena; Vasilevsky, Murray; Dannenbaum, David

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To compare quality-of-care indicators for management of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes among the James Bay Cree of Northern Quebec with those among residents of Montreal, Que. Design A cross-sectional survey using medical records from patients seen between 2002 and 2008. Setting Predialysis clinics of the McGill University Health Centre in Montreal. Participants Thirty Cree and 51 nonaboriginal patients older than 18 years of age with type 2 diabetes mellitus and estimated glomerular filtration rates of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Main outcome measures Rates of anemia, iron deficiency, obesity, and renoprotective medication use among aboriginal and nonaboriginal patients. Results Overall, the Cree patients were younger (59 vs 68 years of age, P < .0035) and weighed more (101 vs 77 kg, P < .001). The 2 groups were prescribed medication to control blood pressure, lipids, and phosphate levels at similar rates, but the Cree patients were more likely to receive renoprotective agents (87% vs 65%, P = .04). Despite similar rates of erythropoietin supplementation, the Cree patients were at greater risk of anemia, with an adjusted risk ratio of 2.80 (95% CI 1.01 to 7.87). Conclusion Cree patients with CKD were younger, weighed more, and were more likely to receive renoprotective agents. With the exception of the management of anemia, quality of CKD care was similar between the 2 groups. Anemia education for family physicians and continuous monitoring of quality indicators must be implemented in northern Quebec. PMID:22439172

  15. Evaluation of the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program with low-income, urban, African American older adults.

    PubMed

    Rose, Molly A; Arenson, Christine; Harrod, Pamela; Salkey, Robyn; Santana, Abbie; Diamond, James

    2008-01-01

    A 1-group pretest-posttest design to assess for changes in outcomes at 10 weeks and 6 months was the method used to evaluate the standardized 6-session Chronic Disease Self Management Program (CDSMP) with low income, urban African American older adults. Participants included 153 older adults (primarily African American) with 1 or more chronic health conditions. Classes were provided in the community at senior citizen centers, senior housing, and churches. Significant improvements were noted in selected areas at 10 weeks and 6 months after the program completion. The CDSMP was feasible and well-received with the older adults who participated in the study. PMID:18979330

  16. Surgical Management of Chronic Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Dilip; Natarajan, Sathima

    2015-10-01

    Advances over the past decade have indicated that a complex interplay between environmental factors, genetic predisposition, alcohol abuse, and smoking lead towards the development of chronic pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis is a complex disorder that causes significant and chronic incapacity in patients and a substantial burden on the society. Major advances have been made in the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease and the role of genetic predisposition is increasingly coming to the fore. Advances in noninvasive diagnostic modalities now allow for better diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis at an early stage of the disease. The impact of these advances on surgical treatment is beginning to emerge, for example, patients with certain genetic predispositions may be better treated with total pancreatectomy versus lesser procedures. Considerable controversy remains with respect to the surgical management of chronic pancreatitis. Modern understanding of the neurobiology of pain in chronic pancreatitis suggests that a window of opportunity exists for effective treatment of the intractable pain after which central sensitization can lead to an irreversible pain syndrome in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Effective surgical procedures exist for chronic pancreatitis; however, the timing of surgery is unclear. For optimal treatment of patients with chronic pancreatitis, close collaboration between a multidisciplinary team including gastroenterologists, surgeons, and pain management physicians is needed. PMID:26722211

  17. A novel community-based model to enhance health promotion, risk factor management and chronic disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Carson, Shannon Ryan; Carr, Caroline; Kohler, Graeme; Edwards, Lynn; Gibson, Rick; Sampalli, Tara

    2014-01-01

    Chronic disease is a highly expensive but preventable problem to the healthcare system. Evidence suggests that impacting modifiable behaviours and risk management factors in the areas of physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, stress and obesity can alleviate the burden of chronic disease problem to a large extent. Despite this recognition, the challenge is embedding these recognized priorities into the community and in primary care in a sustainable and meaningful manner. Primary Health Care in Capital Health responded to this challenge by developing and implementing a free, interprofessional and community-based service, namely, the Community Health Teams (CHTs), that offers health and wellness, risk factor management, wellness navigation and behaviour-based programming. In this paper, the development and implementation of the CHTs are discussed. Preliminary outcomes for the model are significant and promising. Formal and large-scale studies are planned to validate these outcomes with additional research rigour. PMID:25591610

  18. Using insights from behavioral economics and social psychology to help patients manage chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Mogler, Braden K; Shu, Suzanne B; Fox, Craig R; Goldstein, Noah J; Victor, Ronald G; Escarce, José J; Shapiro, Martin F

    2013-05-01

    Despite a revolution in therapeutics, the ability to control chronic diseases remains elusive. We present here a conceptual model of the potential role of behavioral tools in chronic disease control. Clinicians implicitly accept the assumption that patients will act rationally to maximize their self-interest. However, patients may not always be the rational actors that we imagine. Major behavioral barriers to optimal health behavior include patients' fear of threats to health, unwillingness to think about problems when risks are known or data are ambiguous, the discounting of risks that are far in the future, failure to act due to lack of motivation, insufficient confidence in the ability to overcome a health problem, and inattention due to pressures of everyday life. Financial incentives can stimulate initiation of health-promoting behaviors by reducing or eliminating financial barriers, but may not produce long-term behavior change without additional interventions. Strategies have been developed by behavioral economists and social psychologists to address each of these barriers to better decision-making. These include: labeling positive behaviors in ways consistent with patient life goals and priorities; greater focus on more immediate risks of chronic diseases; intermediate subgoals as steps to a large health goal; and implementation of specific plans as to when, where, and how an action will be taken. Such strategies hold promise for improving health behaviors and disease control, but most have not been studied in medical settings. The effectiveness of these approaches should be evaluated for their potential as tools for the clinician. PMID:23229906

  19. Web 2.0 systems supporting childhood chronic disease management: A pattern language representation of a general architecture

    PubMed Central

    Timpka, Toomas; Eriksson, Henrik; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Ekberg, Joakim; Nordfeldt, Sam; Hanberger, Lena

    2008-01-01

    Background Chronic disease management is a global health concern. By the time they reach adolescence, 10–15% of all children live with a chronic disease. The role of educational interventions in facilitating adaptation to chronic disease is receiving growing recognition, and current care policies advocate greater involvement of patients in self-care. Web 2.0 is an umbrella term for new collaborative Internet services characterized by user participation in developing and managing content. Key elements include Really Simple Syndication (RSS) to rapidly disseminate awareness of new information; weblogs (blogs) to describe new trends, wikis to share knowledge, and podcasts to make information available on personal media players. This study addresses the potential to develop Web 2.0 services for young persons with a chronic disease. It is acknowledged that the management of childhood chronic disease is based on interplay between initiatives and resources on the part of patients, relatives, and health care professionals, and where the balance shifts over time to the patients and their families. Methods Participatory action research was used to stepwise define a design specification in the form of a pattern language. Support for children diagnosed with diabetes Type 1 was used as the example area. Each individual design pattern was determined graphically using card sorting methods, and textually in the form Title, Context, Problem, Solution, Examples and References. Application references were included at the lowest level in the graphical overview in the pattern language but not specified in detail in the textual descriptions. Results The design patterns are divided into functional and non-functional design elements, and formulated at the levels of organizational, system, and application design. The design elements specify access to materials for development of the competences needed for chronic disease management in specific community settings, endorsement of self

  20. Methods for Streamlining Intervention Fidelity Checklists: An Example from the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, SangNam; Smith, Matthew Lee; Altpeter, Mary; Belza, Basia; Post, Lindsey; Ory, Marcia G.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining intervention fidelity should be part of any programmatic quality assurance (QA) plan and is often a licensure requirement. However, fidelity checklists designed by original program developers are often lengthy, which makes compliance difficult once programs become widely disseminated in the field. As a case example, we used Stanford’s original Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) fidelity checklist of 157 items to demonstrate heuristic procedures for generating shorter fidelity checklists. Using an expert consensus approach, we sought feedback from active master trainers registered with the Stanford University Patient Education Research Center about which items were most essential to, and also feasible for, assessing fidelity. We conducted three sequential surveys and one expert group-teleconference call. Three versions of the fidelity checklist were created using different statistical and methodological criteria. In a final group-teleconference call with seven national experts, there was unanimous agreement that all three final versions (e.g., a 34-item version, a 20-item version, and a 12-item version) should be made available because the purpose and resources for administering a checklist might vary from one setting to another. This study highlights the methodology used to generate shorter versions of a fidelity checklist, which has potential to inform future QA efforts for this and other evidence-based programs (EBP) for older adults delivered in community settings. With CDSMP and other EBP, it is important to differentiate between program fidelity as mandated by program developers for licensure, and intervention fidelity tools for providing an “at-a-glance” snapshot of the level of compliance to selected program indicators. PMID:25964941

  1. A Semantic Web Framework to Support Knowledge Management in Chronic Disease Healthcare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buranarach, Marut; Supnithi, Thepchai; Chalortham, Noppadol; Khunthong, Vasuthep; Varasai, Patcharee; Kawtrakul, Asanee

    Improving quality of healthcare for people with chronic conditions requires informed and knowledgeable healthcare providers and patients. Decision support and clinical information system are two of the main components to support improving chronic care. In this paper, we describe an ongoing initiative that emphasizes the need for healthcare knowledge management to support both components. Ontology-based knowledge acquisition and modeling based on knowledge engineering approach provides an effective mechanism in capturing expert opinion in form of clinical practice guidelines. The Semantic Web framework is adopted in building a knowledge management platform that allows integration between the knowledge with patient databases and supported publications. We discuss one of the challenges, which is to apply the healthcare knowledge into existing healthcare provider environments by focusing on augmenting decision making and improving quality of patient care services.

  2. Integrated care model with self-management in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: from family physicians to specialists.

    PubMed

    Bourbeau, Jean; Saad, Nathalie

    2013-05-01

    Patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has to become a partner and an active participant in his own care, that is, disease self-management. The goal of this article is to present successful and unsuccessful interventions using patient self-management and to propose a model of integrated care more suitable to the needs of COPD patients. This is a narrative review and an opinion article. Many systematic reviews have shown positive outcomes for patients with COPD. These studies have in common a self-management intervention including an action plan in the event of an exacerbation embedded in an integrated health-care system coordinated by a case manager for educational sessions and regular communication. Recently published trials have brought controversy with respect to the effectiveness of self-management programmes, especially in patients with high burden of disease and co-morbidities. It may be more challenging to make the patient with high burden of disease a partner and not without risk of serious adverse events. Finally, our health-care delivery has to be well integrated and more coherent, that is, strategic alliance between primary and secondary care, and supported by interdisciplinary teams for patients with high-risk and complex COPD. Clinical practice has to be structured to address COPD throughout the disease spectrum, that is, secondary versus primary, team work, partnership, self-management and continuity of care. PMID:23382555

  3. Management of glycemia in diabetic patients with stage IV and V chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Roche-Recinos, Andrea; Charlap, Esti; Markell, Mariana

    2015-05-01

    Diabetic kidney disease is a leading cause of end-stage kidney disease worldwide. Data suggest that prevention of progression to end-stage may lie in excellent blood glucose control; however, as kidney disease progresses, the risk of hypoglycemia increases, due to unpredictable insulin kinetics and altered pharmacokinetics of hypoglycemic agents. In addition, whole classes of hypoglycemic agents become contraindicated and regimens must be adjusted for declining kidney function. There is no consensus regarding the best therapy for the patient with advanced chronic kidney disease. In the best of circumstances, the care of these patients will involve intensive monitoring, with the input of a team of health care providers creating a coordinated care plan, including dietary advice and a drug regimen tailored to the specific issues faced by the individual patient. An open dialogue is necessary at all times, as patients may become frustrated and attempt self-treatment using over the counter alternatives. PMID:25772643

  4. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a preventable and treatable disease that makes it difficult to empty air out of the lungs. This difficulty in ...

  5. Comparative Effectiveness of Risk-Stratified Care Management in Reducing Readmissions in Medicaid Adults With Chronic Disease.

    PubMed

    Hewner, Sharon; Wu, Yow-Wu Bill; Castner, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Hospitalized adult Medicaid recipients with chronic disease are at risk for rehospitalization within 90 days of discharge, but most research has focused on the Medicare population. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of population-based care management intensity on inpatient readmissions in Medicaid adults with pre-existing chronic disease. Retrospective analyses of 2,868 index hospital admissions from 2012 New York State Medicaid Data Warehouse claims compared 90-day post-discharge utilization in populations with and without transitional care management interventions. High intensity managed care organization interventions were associated with higher outpatient and lower emergency department post-discharge utilization than low intensity fee-for-service management. However, readmission rates were higher for the managed care cases. Shorter time to readmission was associated with managed care, diagnoses that include heart and kidney failure, shorter length of stay for index hospitalization, and male sex; with no relationship to age. This unexpected result flags the need to re-evaluate readmission as a quality indicator in the complex Medicaid population. Quality improvement efforts should focus on care continuity during transitions and consider population-specific factors that influence readmission. Optimum post-discharge utilization in the Medicaid population requires a balance between outpatient, emergency and inpatient services to improve access and continuity. PMID:26730804

  6. Use of the nutrition facts label in chronic disease management: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Post, Robert E; Mainous, Arch G; Diaz, Vanessa A; Matheson, Eric M; Everett, Charles J

    2010-04-01

    Dietary modifications are common treatment strategies for patients with various chronic diseases, but it is unclear how often these individuals read food labels. The objective of this study was to determine whether patients with chronic disease who are advised to change their eating habits read nutrition labels more than patients who have not been so advised, and whether that impacts their energy and nutrient intake. Analysis of the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of the United States population, was performed. Adults (20 years of age or older) who participated in the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and who had type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and/or hyperlipidemia were included for analysis. There were 3,748 unweighted participants, which represents 170,958,166 in the US population. Proportions of patients with chronic disease who read nutrition labels were compared by chi(2) analysis, mean values of various components of their diet were compared by the two-sample independent t test, and odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were determined by logistic regression. Among patients with chronic disease, the odds of reading food labels when told by their doctor or another health professional to reduce calories or weight was 50% higher than in those without physician intervention (odds ratio=1.50, 95% confidence interval: 1.12 to 2.00). Those who read food labels consumed less energy, saturated fat, carbohydrates, and sugar, and more fiber than those who did not. These findings point to the value of dietary counseling in chronic disease management. PMID:20338291

  7. Early experiences of the use of remote patient monitoring for the long term management of chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Malcolm; Fursse, Joanna; Jones, Russell W

    2008-01-01

    We describe our experiences of using remote patient monitoring to support the long term management and clinical intervention in patients with chronic disease. Within the project we developed new algorithms to determine from vital signs collected on a daily basis, those patients requiring clinical investigation for their condition. Our aim was for patients to achieve and sustain clinically recommended values for parameters. In our study, the telemonitoring prompted clinical intervention in 37% of patients. Our approach proved particularly effective for the newly diagnosed, and for those with long term issues of management. PMID:19164051

  8. The Efficacy of a Nurse-Led Disease Management Program in Improving the Quality of Life for Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi; Liu, Xia; Wen, Yue; Ma, Deng-Yan; Huang, Yue-Yang; Pu, Li; Diao, Yong-Shu

    2016-01-01

    Background The impacts of nurse-led disease management programs on the quality of life for patients with chronic kidney disease have not been extensively studied. Furthermore, results of the existing related studies are inconsistent. The focus of the proposed meta-analysis is to evaluate the efficacy of nurse-led disease management programs in improving the quality of life for patients with chronic kidney disease. Methods Literature survey was performed to identify the eligible studies from PubMed, Current Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials with predefined terms. The outcome measured was quality of life. This meta-analysis was conducted in line with recommendations from the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Results Eight studies comprising a total of 1520 patients were included in this meta-analysis, with 766 patients assigned to the nurse-led disease management program. Nurse-led disease management improved the quality of life in terms of symptoms, sleep, staff encouragement, pain, general health perception, energy/fatigue, overall health and mental component summary when evaluated 6 weeks after the beginning of intervention. When evaluated 12 weeks later, the quality of life in terms of symptoms, sleep, staff encouragement, energy/fatigue, and physical component summary was improved. Stratified by the modalities of dialysis, similar results of pooled analyses were observed for patients with peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis, compared with the overall analyses. The results of sensitivity analyses were the same as the primary analyses. The symmetric funnel plot suggested that the possibility of potential publication bias was relatively low. Conclusion Nurse-led disease management program seems effective to improve some parameters of quality of life for patients with chronic kidney disease. However, the seemingly promising results should be cautiously interpreted and

  9. Chronic Diseases in North-West Tanzania and Southern Uganda. Public Perceptions of Terminologies, Aetiologies, Symptoms and Preferred Management

    PubMed Central

    Nnko, Soori; Bukenya, Dominic; Kavishe, Bazil Balthazar; Biraro, Samuel; Peck, Robert; Kapiga, Saidi; Grosskurth, Heiner; Seeley, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Background Research has shown that health system utilization is low for chronic diseases (CDs) other than HIV. We describe the knowledge and perceptions of CDs identified from rural and urban communities in north-west Tanzania and southern Uganda. Methods Data were collected through a quantitative population survey, a quantitative health facility survey and focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) in subgroups of population survey participants. The main focus of this paper is the findings from the FGDs and IDIs. Results We conducted 24 FGDs, involving approximately 180 adult participants and IDIs with 116 participants (≥18 years). CDs studied included: asthma/chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD), diabetes, epilepsy, hypertension, cardiac failure and HIV- related disease. The understanding of most chronic conditions involved a combination of biomedical information, gleaned from health facility visits, local people who had suffered from a complaint or knew others who had and beliefs drawn from information shared in the community. The biomedical contribution shows some understanding of the aetiology of a condition and the management of that condition. However, local beliefs for certain conditions (such as epilepsy) suggest that biomedical treatment may be futile and therefore work counter to biomedical prescriptions for management. Conclusion Current perceptions of selected CDs may represent a barrier that prevents people from adopting efficacious health and treatment seeking behaviours. Interventions to improve this situation must include efforts to improve the quality of existing health services, so that people can access relevant, reliable and trustworthy services. PMID:26555896

  10. 77 FR 43092 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Chronic Disease...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Chronic Disease Self-Management Education Program Standardized Data Collection... collection requirements relating to the Chronic Disease Self-Management Education Program. DATES: Submit... Disabilities through Chronic Disease Self-Management Education (CDSME) Programs'' cooperative agreement...

  11. Are Behavioural Interventions Doomed to Fail? Challenges to Self-Management Support in Chronic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Vallis, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Self-management and self-management support are concepts very familiar to those of us in diabetes care. These concepts require openness to understanding the behaviours of persons with diabetes broadly, not only behaviours restricted to the biomedical perspective. Understanding the importance of health behaviour change and working within the Expanded Chronic Care Model define the context within which self-management support should occur. The purpose of this perspective is to identify a potential limitation in existing self-management support initiatives. This potential limitation reflects provider issues, not patient issues; that is, true self-management support might require changes by healthcare providers. Specifically, although behavioural interventions within the context of academic research studies are evidence based, behaviour change interventions implemented in general practice settings might prove less effective unless healthcare providers are able to shift from a practice based on the biomedical model to a practice based on the self-management support model. The purpose of this article is to facilitate effective self-management support by encouraging providers to switch from a model of care based on the expert clinician encountering the uninformed help seeker (the biomedical model) to one guided by collaboration grounded in the principles of description, prediction and choice. Key to understanding the value of making this shift are patient-centered communication principles and the tenets of complexity theory. PMID:25837809

  12. International Primary Care Respiratory Group (IPCRG) Guidelines: management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    PubMed

    Bellamy, David; Bouchard, Jacques; Henrichsen, Svein; Johansson, Gunnar; Langhammer, Arnulf; Reid, Jim; van Weel, Chris; Buist, Sonia

    2006-02-01

    COPD is a common and under-diagnosed disease which is increasing in prevalence worldwide. A more aggressive and optimistic approach must be adopted towards its management in primary care. This IPCRG Guideline on the management of COPD in primary care is fully consistent with GOLD guidelines. It highlights the goals of COPD treatment and the need for spirometric testing to make the diagnosis. It covers the classification of the disease according to disease severity, non-pharmacologic therapy including smoking cessation, avoidance of risk factors, patient education, pharmacologic therapy including the use of oxygen treatment, the management of exacerbations, the role of pulmonary rehabilitation, and the need for monitoring and ongoing care for COPD patients. PMID:16701758

  13. Case management and self-management support for frequent users with chronic disease in primary care: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases represent a major challenge for health care and social services. A number of people with chronic diseases require more services due to characteristics that increase their vulnerability. Given the burden of increasingly vulnerable patients on primary care, a pragmatic intervention in four Family Medicine Groups (primary care practices in Quebec, Canada) has been proposed for individuals with chronic diseases (diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, musculoskeletal diseases and/or chronic pain) who are frequent users of hospital services. The intervention combines case management by a nurse with group support meetings encouraging self-management based on the Stanford Chronic Disease Self-Management Program. The goals of this study are to: (1) analyze the implementation of the intervention in the participating practices in order to determine how the various contexts have influenced the implementation and the observed effects; (2) evaluate the proximal (self-efficacy, self-management, health habits, activation and psychological distress) and intermediate (empowerment, quality of life and health care use) effects of the intervention on patients; (3) conduct an economic analysis of the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Methods/Design The analysis of the implementation will be conducted using realistic evaluation and participatory approaches within four categories of stakeholders (Family Medicine Group and health centre management, Family Medicine Group practitioners, patients and their families, health centre or community partners). The data will be obtained through individual and group interviews, project documentation reviews and by documenting the intervention. Evaluation of the effects on patients will be based on a pragmatic randomized before-after experimental design with a delayed intervention control group (six months). Economic analysis will include cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis

  14. Investing in Obesity Treatment: Kaiser Permanente's Approach to Chronic Disease Management.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Adam G; Histon, Trina; Donahoo, W Troy; Hashmi, Shahid; Murali, Sameer; Latare, Peggy; Oliver, Lajune; Slovis, Jennifer; Grall, Sarah; Fisher, David; Solomon, Loel

    2016-09-01

    Kaiser Permanente, an integrated health care delivery system in the USA, takes a "whole systems" approach to the chronic disease of obesity that begins with efforts to prevent it by modifying the environment in communities and schools. Aggressive case-finding and substantial investment in intensive lifestyle modification programs target individuals at high risk of diabetes and other weight-related conditions. Kaiser Permanente regions are increasingly standardizing their approach when patients with obesity require treatment intensification using medically supervised diets, prescription medication to treat obesity, or weight loss surgery. PMID:27342446

  15. Improving the prevention and management of chronic disease in low-income and middle-income countries: a priority for primary health care.

    PubMed

    Beaglehole, Robert; Epping-Jordan, Joanne; Patel, Vikram; Chopra, Mickey; Ebrahim, Shah; Kidd, Michael; Haines, Andy

    2008-09-13

    The burden of chronic diseases, such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and mental disorders is high in low-income and middle-income countries and is predicted to increase with the ageing of populations, urbanisation, and globalisation of risk factors. Furthermore, HIV/AIDS is increasingly becoming a chronic disorder. An integrated approach to the management of chronic diseases, irrespective of cause, is needed in primary health care. Management of chronic diseases is fundamentally different from acute care, relying on several features: opportunistic case finding for assessment of risk factors, detection of early disease, and identification of high risk status; a combination of pharmacological and psychosocial interventions, often in a stepped-care fashion; and long-term follow-up with regular monitoring and promotion of adherence to treatment. To meet the challenge of chronic diseases, primary health care will have to be strengthened substantially. In the many countries with shortages of primary-care doctors, non-physician clinicians will have a leading role in preventing and managing chronic diseases, and these personnel need appropriate training and continuous quality assurance mechanisms. More evidence is needed about the cost-effectiveness of prevention and treatment strategies in primary health care. Research on scaling-up should be embedded in large-scale delivery programmes for chronic diseases with a strong emphasis on assessment. PMID:18790317

  16. Usability Study of a Computer-Based Self-Management System for Older Adults with Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Da

    2012-01-01

    Background Usability can influence patients’ acceptance and adoption of a health information technology. However, little research has been conducted to study the usability of a self-management health care system, especially one geared toward elderly patients. Objective This usability study evaluated a new computer-based self-management system interface for older adults with chronic diseases, using a paper prototype approach. Methods Fifty older adults with different chronic diseases participated. Two usability evaluation methods were involved: (1) a heuristics evaluation and (2) end-user testing with a think-aloud testing method, audio recording, videotaping, and interviewing. A set of usability metrics was employed to determine the overall system usability, including task incompletion rate, task completion time, frequency of error, frequency of help, satisfaction, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use. Interviews were used to elicit participants’ comments on the system design. The quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the qualitative data were analyzed for content. Results The participants were able to perform the predesigned self-management tasks with the current system design and they expressed mostly positive responses about the perceived usability measures regarding the system interface. However, the heuristics evaluation, performance measures, and interviews revealed a number of usability problems related to system navigation, information search and interpretation, information presentation, and readability. Design recommendations for further system interface modifications were discussed. Conclusions This study verified the usability of the self-management system developed for older adults with chronic diseases. Also, we demonstrated that our usability evaluation approach could be used to quickly and effectively identify usability problems in a health care information system at an early stage of the system development

  17. Management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Ghia, Paolo; Hallek, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, the management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia has undergone profound changes that have been driven by an improved understanding of the biology of the disease and the approval of several new drugs. Moreover, many novel drugs are currently under evaluation for rapid approval or have been approved by regulatory agencies, further broadening the available therapeutic armamentarium for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The use of novel biological and genetic parameters combined with a careful clinical evaluation allows us to dissect some of the heterogeneity of the disease and to distinguish patients with a very mild onset and course, who often will not need any treatment, from those with an intermediate prognosis and a third group with a very aggressive course (high-risk leukemia). On this background, it becomes increasingly challenging to select the right treatment strategy. In this paper, we describe our own approach to the management of different patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. PMID:24881042

  18. Nutritional modulation as part of the integrated management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Schols, Annemie

    2003-11-01

    Weight loss is a frequent complication in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is a determining factor for functional capacity, health status and mortality. Weight loss in COPD is a consequence of an inbalance between increased energy requirements and dietary intake. Both metabolic and mechanical inefficiency may contribute to elevated energy expenditure during physical activity, while systemic inflammation has been associated with hypermetabolism at rest. Disease-specific symptoms and systemic inflammation may impair appetite and dietary intake. Altered intermediary metabolism may cause disproportionate wasting of fat-free mass in some patients. A combination of nutritional support and exercise as an anabolic stimulus appears to be the best approach to obtaining marked functional improvement. Patients responding to this treatment even demonstrated a decreased mortality. The effectiveness of anti-catabolic modulation requires further investigation. PMID:15018476

  19. [Chronic kidney disease and nutrition].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Takuya; Kumagai, Hiromichi

    2016-03-01

    Abnormalities of mineral metabolism develop with decline of renal function in chronic kidney disease (CKD), and it is called as a CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). The standard approach for management of CKD-MBD is to keep serum phosphorus, calcium, and parathyroid hormone in the reference range by dietary intervention and medications. It has been recently pointed out that starting the treatment from early CKD is important for suppressing CKD-MBD. PMID:26923973

  20. A Mobile and Intelligent Patient Diary for Chronic Disease Self-Management.

    PubMed

    Van Woensel, William; Roy, Patrice C; Abidi, Samina R; Abidi, Syed S R

    2015-01-01

    By involving patients in their own long-term care, patient self-management approaches aim to increase self-sufficiency and reduce healthcare costs. For example, electronic patient diaries enable patients to collect health data autonomously, increasing self-reliance and reducing strain on health professionals. By deploying patient diaries on mobile platforms, health data collection can occur at any time and place, increasing the mobility of chronic patients who typically need to enter health data frequently. Importantly, an opportunity also arises for mobile clinical decision support, where health feedback is directly issued to patients without relying on connectivity or remote servers. Regardless of the specific self-management strategy, patient and healthcare provider adoption are crucial. Tailoring the system towards the particular patient and toward institution-specific clinical pathways is essential to increasing acceptance. In this paper we discuss a mobile patient diary realizing both the opportunities and challenges of mobile deployment. PMID:26262022

  1. Chronic Kidney Disease and Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... our online catalog. Alternate Language URL Español Chronic Kidney Disease and Medicines: What You Need to Know Page ... you need to know Because you have chronic kidney disease, you should take steps to protect your kidneys. ...

  2. Chronic Wasting Disease: Transmission Mechanisms and the Possibility of Harvest Management

    PubMed Central

    Potapov, Alex; Merrill, Evelyn; Pybus, Margo; Lewis, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    We develop a model of CWD management by nonselective deer harvest, currently the most feasible approach available for managing CWD in wild populations. We use the model to explore the effects of 6 common harvest strategies on disease prevalence and to identify potential optimal harvest policies for reducing disease prevalence without population collapse. The model includes 4 deer categories (juveniles, adult females, younger adult males, older adult males) that may be harvested at different rates, a food-based carrying capacity, which influences juvenile survival but not adult reproduction or survival, and seasonal force of infection terms for each deer category under differing frequency-dependent transmission dynamics resulting from environmental and direct contact mechanisms. Numerical experiments show that the interval of transmission coefficients β where the disease can be controlled is generally narrow and efficiency of a harvest policy to reduce disease prevalence depends crucially on the details of the disease transmission mechanism, in particular on the intensity of disease transmission to juveniles and the potential differences in the behavior of older and younger males that influence contact rates. Optimal harvest policy to minimize disease prevalence for each of the assumed transmission mechanisms is shown to depend on harvest intensity. Across mechanisms, a harvest that focuses on antlered deer, without distinguishing between age classes reduces disease prevalence most consistently, whereas distinguishing between young and older antlered deer produces higher uncertainty in the harvest effects on disease prevalence. Our results show that, despite uncertainties, a modelling approach can determine classes of harvest strategy that are most likely to be effective in combatting CWD. PMID:26963921

  3. Chronic Wasting Disease: Transmission Mechanisms and the Possibility of Harvest Management.

    PubMed

    Potapov, Alex; Merrill, Evelyn; Pybus, Margo; Lewis, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    We develop a model of CWD management by nonselective deer harvest, currently the most feasible approach available for managing CWD in wild populations. We use the model to explore the effects of 6 common harvest strategies on disease prevalence and to identify potential optimal harvest policies for reducing disease prevalence without population collapse. The model includes 4 deer categories (juveniles, adult females, younger adult males, older adult males) that may be harvested at different rates, a food-based carrying capacity, which influences juvenile survival but not adult reproduction or survival, and seasonal force of infection terms for each deer category under differing frequency-dependent transmission dynamics resulting from environmental and direct contact mechanisms. Numerical experiments show that the interval of transmission coefficients β where the disease can be controlled is generally narrow and efficiency of a harvest policy to reduce disease prevalence depends crucially on the details of the disease transmission mechanism, in particular on the intensity of disease transmission to juveniles and the potential differences in the behavior of older and younger males that influence contact rates. Optimal harvest policy to minimize disease prevalence for each of the assumed transmission mechanisms is shown to depend on harvest intensity. Across mechanisms, a harvest that focuses on antlered deer, without distinguishing between age classes reduces disease prevalence most consistently, whereas distinguishing between young and older antlered deer produces higher uncertainty in the harvest effects on disease prevalence. Our results show that, despite uncertainties, a modelling approach can determine classes of harvest strategy that are most likely to be effective in combatting CWD. PMID:26963921

  4. Managing chronic oedema in a patient with arterial disease and leg ulceration.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Robin

    2016-04-01

    Treating lymphoedema in patients with critical arterial disease can be contraindicated. This case study describes current methods of managing lymphoedema in a patient with arterial disease and leg ulcers. The patient, a 65-year-old male, had paraplegia and lower-limb lymphoedema with leg ulceration for 18 years, as well as arterial disease. The patient was referred to the lymphoedema/vascular service in 2013. Duplex ultrasound indicated superficial femoral occlusion. The arterial disease was treated with an angiogram and angioplasty, and when the blood supply was improved, the lymphoedema was treated. Emphasis was placed on self-care and reducing the need for community nurse involvement. Selfcare included compression bandaging, use of FarrowWrap, low-level light therapy, and ulcer dressings. Outcomes were measured using a telemedicine software programme. The patient's lymphoedema was reduced, leg ulcers healed, and quality of life transformed. PMID:27046424

  5. [Pregnancies in hemodialysis and in patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease : epidemiology, management and prognosis].

    PubMed

    Panaye, Marine; Jolivot, Anne; Lemoine, Sandrine; Guebre-Egziabher, Fitsum; Doret, Muriel; Morelon, Emmanuel; Juillard, Laurent

    2014-12-01

    Pregnancy in patients presenting end-stage renal disease is rare and there are currently no recommendations for the management of these patients. In hemodialysis patients, reduced fertility and medical reluctance limit the frequency of pregnancies. Although the prognosis has significantly improved, a significant risk for unfavorable maternal (pre-eclampsia, eclampsia) and fetal (pre-term birth, intrauterine growth restriction, still death) outcome still remains. Increasing dialysis dose with the initiation of daily dialysis sessions, early adaptation of medications to limit teratogenicity and management of chronic kidney disease complications (anemia, hypertension) are required. A tight coordination between nephrologists and obstetricians remains the central pillar of the care. In peritoneal dialysis, pregnancy is also possible with modification of the exchange protocol and reducing volumes. PMID:25457994

  6. Implementation and quantitative evaluation of chronic disease self-management programme in Shanghai, China: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Dongbo; Fu, Hua; McGowan, Patrick; Shen, Yi-e; Zhu, Lizhen; Yang, Huiqin; Mao, Jianguo; Zhu, Shitai; Ding, Yongming; Wei, Zhihua

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Shanghai Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP). METHODS: A randomized controlled trial with six-month follow-up compared patients who received treatment with those who did not receive treatment (waiting-list controls) in five urban communities in Shanghai, China. Participants in the treatment group received education from a lay-led CDSMP course and one copy of a help book immediately; those in the control group received the same education and book six months later. FINDINGS: In total, 954 volunteer patients with a medical record that confirmed a diagnosis of hypertension, heart disease, chronic lung disease, arthritis, stroke, or diabetes who lived in communities were assigned randomly to treatment (n = 526) and control (n = 428) groups. Overall, 430 (81.7%) and 349 (81.5%) patients in the treatment and control groups completed the six-month study. Patients who received treatment had significant improvements in weekly minutes of aerobic exercise, practice of cognitive symptom management, self-efficacy to manage own symptoms, and self-efficacy to manage own disease in general compared with controls. They also had significant improvements in eight indices of health status and, on average, fewer hospitalizations. CONCLUSION: When implemented in Shanghai, the CDSMP was acceptable culturally to Chinese patients. The programme improved participants' health behaviour, self-efficacy, and health status and reduced the number of hospitalizations six months after the course. The locally based delivery model was integrated into the routine of community government organizations and community health services. Chinese lay leaders taught the CDSMP courses as successfully as professionals. PMID:12764513

  7. Development of a questionnaire to evaluate practitioners’ confidence and knowledge in primary care in managing chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the UK, chronic disease, including chronic kidney disease (CKD) is largely managed in primary care. We developed a tool to assess practitioner confidence and knowledge in managing CKD compared to other chronic diseases. This questionnaire was part of a cluster randomised quality improvement interventions in chronic kidney disease (QICKD; ISRCTN56023731). Methods The questionnaire was developed by family physicians, primary care nurses, academics and renal specialists. We conducted three focus groups (n = 7, 6, and 8) to refine the questionnaire using groups of general practitioners, practice nurses and trainees in general practice. We used paper based versions to develop the questionnaire and online surveys to test it. Practitioners in a group of volunteer, trial practices received the questionnaire twice. We measured its reliability using Cohen’s Kappa (K). Results The practitioners in the focus groups reached a consensus as to the key elements to include in the instrument. We achieved a 73.1% (n = 57/78) initial response rate for our questionnaire; of these 57, 54 completed the questionnaire a second time. Family physicians made up the largest single group of respondents (47.4%, n = 27). Initial response showed more female (64.9%, n = 37) than male (35.1%, n = 20) respondents. The reliability results from retesting showed that there was moderate agreement (k > 0.4) on all questions; with many showing substantial agreement (k > 0.6). There was substantial agreement in the questions about loop diuretics (k = 0.608, CI 0.432-0.784, p < 0.001), confidence in managing hypertension (k = 0.628, 95%CI 0.452-0.804, p < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure treatment thresholds in CKD (k = 0.608, 95%CI 0.436-0.780, p < 0.001) and the rate of decline of eGFR that would prompt referral (k = 0.764, 95%CI 0.603-0.925, p < 0.001). Conclusion The QICKD-CCQ is a reliable instrument for measuring confidence and

  8. Practical aspects of inhaler use in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the primary care setting

    PubMed Central

    Yawn, Barbara P; Colice, Gene L; Hodder, Rick

    2012-01-01

    Sustained bronchodilation using inhaled medications in moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) grades 2 and 3 (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines) has been shown to have clinical benefits on long-term symptom control and quality of life, with possible additional benefits on disease progression and longevity. Aggressive diagnosis and treatment of symptomatic COPD is an integral and pivotal part of COPD management, which usually begins with primary care physicians. The current standard of care involves the use of one or more inhaled bronchodilators, and depending on COPD severity and phenotype, inhaled corticosteroids. There is a wide range of inhaler devices available for delivery of inhaled medications, but suboptimal inhaler use is a common problem that can limit the clinical effectiveness of inhaled therapies in the real-world setting. Patients’ comorbidities, other physical or mental limitations, and the level of inhaler technique instruction may limit proper inhaler use. This paper presents information that can overcome barriers to proper inhaler use, including issues in device selection, steps in correct technique for various inhaler devices, and suggestions for assessing and monitoring inhaler techniques. Ensuring proper inhaler technique can maximize drug effectiveness and aid clinical management at all grades of COPD. PMID:22888221

  9. Practical aspects of inhaler use in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the primary care setting.

    PubMed

    Yawn, Barbara P; Colice, Gene L; Hodder, Rick

    2012-01-01

    Sustained bronchodilation using inhaled medications in moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) grades 2 and 3 (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines) has been shown to have clinical benefits on long-term symptom control and quality of life, with possible additional benefits on disease progression and longevity. Aggressive diagnosis and treatment of symptomatic COPD is an integral and pivotal part of COPD management, which usually begins with primary care physicians. The current standard of care involves the use of one or more inhaled bronchodilators, and depending on COPD severity and phenotype, inhaled corticosteroids. There is a wide range of inhaler devices available for delivery of inhaled medications, but suboptimal inhaler use is a common problem that can limit the clinical effectiveness of inhaled therapies in the real-world setting. Patients' comorbidities, other physical or mental limitations, and the level of inhaler technique instruction may limit proper inhaler use. This paper presents information that can overcome barriers to proper inhaler use, including issues in device selection, steps in correct technique for various inhaler devices, and suggestions for assessing and monitoring inhaler techniques. Ensuring proper inhaler technique can maximize drug effectiveness and aid clinical management at all grades of COPD. PMID:22888221

  10. Developing disease management programs.

    PubMed

    Herman, K

    1999-11-01

    Several market forces are driving interest in disease management and its growth, including the need to control costs; improve quality; attract, satisfy, and retain members; and meet accreditation requirements. People with chronic diseases and disabilities represent the most expensive and fastest-growing group of patients in health care, and agencies that develop successful disease management programs for these populations will reap a variety of benefits. PMID:10661985

  11. A review of instruments to measure interprofessional collaboration for chronic disease management for community-living older adults.

    PubMed

    Bookey-Bassett, Sue; Markle-Reid, Maureen; McKey, Colleen; Akhtar-Danesh, Noori

    2016-01-01

    It is acknowledged internationally that chronic disease management (CDM) for community-living older adults (CLOA) is an increasingly complex process. CDM for older adults, who are often living with multiple chronic conditions, requires coordination of various health and social services. Coordination is enabled through interprofessional collaboration (IPC) among individual providers, community organizations, and health sectors. Measuring IPC is complicated given there are multiple conceptualisations and measures of IPC. A literature review of several healthcare, psychological, and social science electronic databases was conducted to locate instruments that measure IPC at the team level and have published evidence of their reliability and validity. Five instruments met the criteria and were critically reviewed to determine their strengths and limitations as they relate to CDM for CLOA. A comparison of the characteristics, psychometric properties, and overall concordance of each instrument with salient attributes of IPC found the Collaborative Practice Assessment Tool to be the most appropriate instrument for measuring IPC for CDM in CLOA. PMID:27026190

  12. Cost-Effectiveness of the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program: Implications for Community-Based Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Rashmita; Ory, Marcia G.; Towne, Samuel D.; Smith, Matthew Lee; Hochhalter, Angela K.; Ahn, SangNam

    2015-01-01

    Chronic conditions are the leading cause of growing healthcare spending, disability, and death in the U.S. In the wake of national health reform, policy makers and healthcare professionals are becoming increasingly concerned in containing healthcare costs while improving quality of patient care. A basic policy question is whether the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP), a widely distributed evidenced-based self-managed program, can be cost-effective in managing chronic conditions while improving quality of life. Utilizing data from the National Study of CDSMP, the primary objective of the current study is to estimate cost-effectiveness of the CDSMP program among individuals with at least one chronic condition. The second objective is to determine how cost-effectiveness ratios vary by depression status. EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) was used to measure health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of CDSMP participants, which was then converted to quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for cost-effectiveness analysis. Participants who completed the CDSMP program experienced higher EQ-5D scores from baseline to 12-month follow-up (increased from 0.736 to 0.755; p < 0.001). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) ranges from $83,285 to $31,285 per QALYs, which can be comparable to the common benchmark of $50,000/QALYs. ICER by baseline depression status indicates that it will cost more per QALYs gained for those diagnosed with depression based on their Patient Health Questionnaire-8 score. However, cautions should be taken while considering this point estimate too literally because the average cost for CDSMP participants was a rough estimate and based on several simplifying assumptions. Identifying cost-effective strategies that can lower the burden of chronic disease among community-dwelling adults is critical for decision makers in allocating limited resources. Policy makers and community organizations can use this information to guide funding decisions and

  13. [Biomarkers for chronic inflammatory diseases].

    PubMed

    Holzinger, D; Föll, D

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory disorders of childhood, such as juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are a challenge for laboratory diagnostics. Firstly, the classical inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) often inadequately reflect disease activity but on the other hand there are few specific biomarkers that can be helpful in managing these diseases. Acute phase proteins reflect the systemic inflammatory response insufficiently as their increase is only the indirect result of local inflammatory processes. Modern inflammation diagnostics aim to reflect these local processes and to allow precise monitoring of disease activity. Experimental biomarkers, such as S100 proteins can detect subclinical inflammatory activity. In addition, established laboratory parameters exist for JIA [antinuclear antibodies (ANA), rheumatoid factor (RF), antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP)] and for chronic IBD (fecal calprotectin) that are useful in the treatment of these diseases. PMID:26608264

  14. Using Healthcare IC Cards to manage the drug doses of chronic disease patients.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jiun-Tze; Hou, Ting-Wei; Yeh, Chiun-Lin; Chao, Chien-Min

    2007-02-01

    In Taiwan's medical system, the Healthcare IC Card is used as form of secure data storage. This research applies the Healthcare IC Card to record the chronic disease patient's recent drug doses, diagnoses and prescriptions. With the Hospital Information System, this research combines the diagnosis records stored in the Healthcare IC Card to establish a platform which could simulate the procedures of a doctor in examining a patient and checking the circumstances of the patient's repetitive drug doses and drugs interactions. The experiment is based on a data log of about 22,000 items of drug prescribed to 43 diabetes patients and about 88,200 items to 192 high blood pressure patients. The results show that the proposed approach would have reduced the waste of medical resources, strengthened Taiwan's medical system and increased the public's health. PMID:16494858

  15. Management of diabetes mellitus in individuals with chronic kidney disease: therapeutic perspectives and glycemic control.

    PubMed

    Betônico, Carolina C R; Titan, Silvia M O; Correa-Giannella, Maria Lúcia C; Nery, Márcia; Queiroz, Márcia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic options for diabetes treatment and their potential side effects, in addition to analyzing the risks and benefits of tight glycemic control in patients with diabetic kidney disease. For this review, a search was performed using several pre-defined keyword combinations and their equivalents: "diabetes kidney disease" and "renal failure" in combination with "diabetes treatment" and "oral antidiabetic drugs" or "oral hypoglycemic agents." The search was performed in PubMed, Endocrine Abstracts and the Cochrane Library from January 1980 up to January 2015. Diabetes treatment in patients with diabetic kidney disease is challenging, in part because of progression of renal failure-related changes in insulin signaling, glucose transport and metabolism, favoring both hyperglycemic peaks and hypoglycemia. Additionally, the decline in renal function impairs the clearance and metabolism of antidiabetic agents and insulin, frequently requiring reassessment of prescriptions. The management of hyperglycemia in patients with diabetic kidney disease is even more difficult, requiring adjustment of antidiabetic agents and insulin doses. The health team responsible for the follow-up of these patients should be vigilant and prepared to make such changes; however, unfortunately, there are few guidelines addressing the nuances of the management of this specific population. PMID:26872083

  16. Identification, summary and comparison of tools used to measure organizational attributes associated with chronic disease management within primary care settings

    PubMed Central

    Lukewich, Julia; Corbin, Renée; VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth G; Edge, Dana S; Williamson, Tyler; Tranmer, Joan E

    2014-01-01

    Rationale, aims and objectives Given the increasing emphasis being placed on managing patients with chronic diseases within primary care, there is a need to better understand which primary care organizational attributes affect the quality of care that patients with chronic diseases receive. This study aimed to identify, summarize and compare data collection tools that describe and measure organizational attributes used within the primary care setting worldwide. Methods Systematic search and review methodology consisting of a comprehensive and exhaustive search that is based on a broad question to identify the best available evidence was employed. Results A total of 30 organizational attribute data collection tools that have been used within the primary care setting were identified. The tools varied with respect to overall focus and level of organizational detail captured, theoretical foundations, administration and completion methods, types of questions asked, and the extent to which psychometric property testing had been performed. The tools utilized within the Quality and Costs of Primary Care in Europe study and the Canadian Primary Health Care Practice-Based Surveys were the most recently developed tools. Furthermore, of the 30 tools reviewed, the Canadian Primary Health Care Practice-Based Surveys collected the most information on organizational attributes. Conclusions There is a need to collect primary care organizational attribute information at a national level to better understand factors affecting the quality of chronic disease prevention and management across a given country. The data collection tools identified in this review can be used to establish data collection strategies to collect this important information. PMID:24840066

  17. Recent advances in managing chronic HCV infection: focus on therapy in patients with severe liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Maan, Raoel; van der Meer, Adriaan J.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection still represents a major public health problem, as it is thought to be responsible for more than 350,000 deaths around the globe on a yearly basis. Fortunately, successful eradication of the virus has been associated with improved clinical outcome and reduced mortality rates. In the past few years, treatment has improved considerably by the implementation of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). From 2014 onwards, sofosbuvir, simeprevir, daclatasvir, ledipasvir, paritaprevir, ombitasvir, and dasabuvir have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA). Regimens with various combinations of these new drugs, without the use of interferon (IFN), proved to be very effective and well tolerated, even among patients with advanced liver disease. Moreover, treatment duration could be shortened to 12 weeks in the majority of patients. The high costs of these DAAs, however, limit the availability of IFN-free therapy worldwide. Even in wealthy countries, it is deemed necessary to prioritize DAA treatment in order to limit the immediate impact on the health budget. As patients with advanced liver disease are in most need of HCV clearance, many countries decided to treat those patients first. In the current review, we focus on the currently available IFN-free treatment options for patients with cirrhosis. We discuss the virological efficacy as well as the clinical relevance of these regimens among this specific patient population. PMID:27006761

  18. Fibrosis assessment: impact on current management of chronic liver disease and application of quantitative invasive tools.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Hou, Jin-Lin

    2016-05-01

    Fibrosis, a common pathogenic pathway of chronic liver disease (CLD), has long been indicated to be significantly and most importantly associated with severe prognosis. Nowadays, with remarkable advances in understanding and/or treatment of major CLDs such as hepatitis C, B, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, there is an unprecedented requirement for the diagnosis and assessment of liver fibrosis or cirrhosis in various clinical settings. Among the available approaches, liver biopsy remains the one which possibly provides the most direct and reliable information regarding fibrosis patterns and changes in the parenchyma at different clinical stages and with different etiologies. Thus, many endeavors have been undertaken for developing methodologies based on the strategy of quantitation for the invasive assessment. Here, we analyze the impact of fibrosis assessment on the CLD patient care based on the data of recent clinical studies. We discuss and update the current invasive tools regarding their technological features and potentials for the particular clinical applications. Furthermore, we propose the potential resolutions with application of quantitative invasive tools for some major issues in fibrosis assessment, which appear to be obstacles against the nowadays rapid progress in CLD medicine. PMID:26742762

  19. Recent advances in managing chronic HCV infection: focus on therapy in patients with severe liver disease.

    PubMed

    Maan, Raoel; van der Meer, Adriaan J

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection still represents a major public health problem, as it is thought to be responsible for more than 350,000 deaths around the globe on a yearly basis. Fortunately, successful eradication of the virus has been associated with improved clinical outcome and reduced mortality rates. In the past few years, treatment has improved considerably by the implementation of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). From 2014 onwards, sofosbuvir, simeprevir, daclatasvir, ledipasvir, paritaprevir, ombitasvir, and dasabuvir have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA). Regimens with various combinations of these new drugs, without the use of interferon (IFN), proved to be very effective and well tolerated, even among patients with advanced liver disease. Moreover, treatment duration could be shortened to 12 weeks in the majority of patients. The high costs of these DAAs, however, limit the availability of IFN-free therapy worldwide. Even in wealthy countries, it is deemed necessary to prioritize DAA treatment in order to limit the immediate impact on the health budget. As patients with advanced liver disease are in most need of HCV clearance, many countries decided to treat those patients first. In the current review, we focus on the currently available IFN-free treatment options for patients with cirrhosis. We discuss the virological efficacy as well as the clinical relevance of these regimens among this specific patient population. PMID:27006761

  20. Management of diabetes mellitus in individuals with chronic kidney disease: therapeutic perspectives and glycemic control

    PubMed Central

    Betônico, Carolina C R; Titan, Silvia M O; Correa-Giannella, Maria Lúcia C; Nery, Márcia; Queiroz, Márcia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic options for diabetes treatment and their potential side effects, in addition to analyzing the risks and benefits of tight glycemic control in patients with diabetic kidney disease. For this review, a search was performed using several pre-defined keyword combinations and their equivalents: “diabetes kidney disease” and “renal failure” in combination with “diabetes treatment” and “oral antidiabetic drugs” or “oral hypoglycemic agents.” The search was performed in PubMed, Endocrine Abstracts and the Cochrane Library from January 1980 up to January 2015. Diabetes treatment in patients with diabetic kidney disease is challenging, in part because of progression of renal failure-related changes in insulin signaling, glucose transport and metabolism, favoring both hyperglycemic peaks and hypoglycemia. Additionally, the decline in renal function impairs the clearance and metabolism of antidiabetic agents and insulin, frequently requiring reassessment of prescriptions. The management of hyperglycemia in patients with diabetic kidney disease is even more difficult, requiring adjustment of antidiabetic agents and insulin doses. The health team responsible for the follow-up of these patients should be vigilant and prepared to make such changes; however, unfortunately, there are few guidelines addressing the nuances of the management of this specific population. PMID:26872083

  1. Percutaneous Transsplenic Access to the Portal Vein for Management of Vascular Complication in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Hee Ho; Kim, Hyo-Cheol Jae, Hwan Jun; Yi, Nam-Joon; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Suh, Kyung-Suk; Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of percutaneous transsplenic access to the portal vein for management of vascular complication in patients with chronic liver diseases. Methods: Between Sept 2009 and April 2011, percutaneous transsplenic access to the portal vein was attempted in nine patients with chronic liver disease. Splenic vein puncture was performed under ultrasonographic guidance with a Chiba needle, followed by introduction of a 4 to 9F sheath. Four patients with hematemesis or hematochezia underwent variceal embolization. Another two patients underwent portosystemic shunt embolization in order to improve portal venous blood flow. Portal vein recanalization was attempted in three patients with a transplanted liver. The percutaneous transsplenic access site was closed using coils and glue. Results: Percutaneous transsplenic splenic vein catheterization was performed successfully in all patients. Gastric or jejunal varix embolization with glue and lipiodol mixture was performed successfully in four patients. In two patients with a massive portosystemic shunt, embolization of the shunting vessel with a vascular plug, microcoils, glue, and lipiodol mixture was achieved successfully. Portal vein recanalization was attempted in three patients with a transplanted liver; however, only one patient was treated successfully. Complete closure of the percutaneous transsplenic tract was achieved using coils and glue without bleeding complication in all patients. Conclusion: Percutaneous transsplenic access to the portal vein can be an alternative route for portography and further endovascular management in patients for whom conventional approaches are difficult or impossible.

  2. Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... 345 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease Page Content On this page: What is anemia? ... should. [ Top ] How is anemia related to chronic kidney disease? Anemia commonly occurs in people with chronic kidney ...

  3. Management of patients with atrial fibrillation and chronic kidney disease in light of the latest guidelines.

    PubMed

    Młodawska, Elżbieta; Tomaszuk-Kazberuk, Anna; Łopatowska, Paulina; Musiał, Włodzimierz J; Małyszko, Jolanta

    2016-05-31

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) frequently occurs in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and the rate reaches even 30% in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Patients with AF and CKD have a significantly higher risk of thrombotic complications, particularly ischemic stroke, and at the same time, a higher bleeding risk (proportionally to the grade of renal failure). In addition, AF and CKD share a number of comorbidities and risk factors, which results in increased mortality rates. Moreover, disturbances in hemostasis are common complications of kidney disease. Their occurrence and severity correlate with worsening renal function, including ESRD. At present, the incidence of bleeding is declining, while thrombotic complications have become the predominant cause of mortality. Prophylactic antithrombotic treatment reduces the rate of stroke and other thrombotic complications. Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) have long been used in anticoagulant therapy, and more recently, non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have been introduced, which are direct thrombin inhibitors. NOACs are a valuable anticoagulant option in this group of patients as long as a summary of product characteristics is followed. They are at least as effective as warfarin, while being safer, especially when it comes to intracranial hemorrhage. Renal function should be evaluated before initiation of NOACs and reevaluated when clinically indicated. Importantly, disturbances in hemostasis in patients with CKD and ESRD may lead to unexpected complications, such as extensive bleeding. If anticoagulation is administered to patients on dialysis, effects of an individual dialysis modality as well as interactions with other drugs given (eg, heparin) should be considered. PMID:27243343

  4. When to consider liver transplant during the management of chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Fox, Rena K

    2014-01-01

    The decision to perform liver transplantation for a particular patient is never the decision of one single individual, although a single individual could preclude transplant as an option if the opportunity for referral is missed. Every physician treating patients with cirrhosis, including primary care physicians and primary gastroenterologists, should watch for the essential turning points at which a patient may become eligible for a transplant referral. Timing of referral could be assessed according to either the type of liver disease or non–disease-specific measures of disease severity. Although the MELD score is an easily accessible and convenient tool it is not as well known as CTP classification, and many cirrhotic patients under long-term management may not be being allocated a MELD score regularly calculated by their primary physicians. Because a slow progression in MELD score may occur without a change in symptoms, reaching the MELD score acceptable for transplant referral may go unrecognized. As generalists face the rising prevalence of NAFLD and the rising prevalence of cirrhosis and HCC from HCV, there will be an increasing need for education in the management of liver disease. It will be necessary for specialists and health care systems to better inform primary care physicians about the recommendations on criteria for transplant referral and the critical windows of opportunity within which they can act. Although there is a recognized knowledge gap that needs to be addressed, once a patient is in medical care, inadequate physician knowledge should never be the cause for late timing or missing the opportunity for referral. PMID:24266919

  5. What's in a name? Concordance is better than adherence for promoting partnership and self-management of chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Randall, Sue; Neubeck, Lis

    2016-01-01

    The choice of language health professionals use to discuss self-management of chronic disease is important and influences patients' self-management. The words compliance, adherence and concordance are used to discuss patients' agreement with prescribed treatment plans, but have different tone and meanings. Models of care linked to the words compliance and adherence are underpinned by interactions between patients and healthcare providers that merely reinforce instructions about treatments. The 'patient-professional partnership' is introduced as a model by Bodenheimer et al. (2002, p. 2469) whereby true partnership working should be an opportunity to pool the expertise of both parties to arrive at mutually agreed goals in concordance. The impact these words might have on partnership working is important in defining the patient-health professional relationship, and for the patients' healthcare outcomes and the potential effect on healthcare utilisation. PMID:27150465

  6. Disease management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soilborne pathogens that cause root diseases spend most of their life cycle in or on the soil. Soil management decisions will influence the survival, growth of these pathogens and severity of disease. Many of the cultural methods that growers have relied on in the past to reduce the impact of the...

  7. Evaluation of Kidney Disease Education on Clinical Outcomes and Knowledge of Self-Management Behaviors of Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Enworom, Chinyere D; Tabi, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a public health problem in United States. Providing kidney disease education (KDE) is an effective and integral part of CKD management. This two-part non-experimental study retrospectively evaluated clinical outcomes of participants of a Medicare Kidney Disease Education (KDE) program and prospectively evaluated kidney disease knowledge of survey participants from the general population of patients with CKD. Results showed that participants of a KDE program demonstrated slower decline in GFR compared to non-participants (M = 18.3 mL/min/1.73m2, SD = 8.3 mL/min/1.73m2 vs. M = 15.0 mL/min/1.73m2, SD = 6.1 mL/min/1.73m2). Providing KDE to individuals with CKD Stage 4 was associated with improved clinical outcomes. PMID:26462309

  8. Role of antibiotics in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Black, Peter N

    2008-04-01

    Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are an important cause of morbidity and healthcare expenditure. In hospitalized patients, antibiotics decrease treatment failure and reduce mortality. There is also evidence for the effectiveness of antibiotics in treating COPD exacerbations in the community, but this is most convincing in patients with severe airflow obstruction and there is uncertainty regarding the value of antibiotics in patients with mild airflow obstruction. Treatment with antibiotics is usually recommended for patients who have an increase in sputum volume, sputum purulence and breathlessness, but the most important determinant of bacterial infection appears to be purulence. There is some evidence to suggest that the decision to use antibiotics can be guided by the use of procalcitonin, although this needs to be confirmed in further studies. Newer broad-spectrum antibiotics may be more effective than older antibiotics but, because of concerns regarding antibiotic resistance, it may be appropriate to reserve them for patients at highest risk of treatment failure. A number of studies suggest that antibiotic courses of 5 days in duration may be as effective as those for 7 days or more in patients with mild-to-moderate exacerbations of COPD. Guidelines do not recommend the use of prophylactic antibiotics in COPD but there is preliminary evidence to suggest that they may reduce the number of exacerbations. Until the full results of these studies are published, it will not be clear if they should be used. PMID:20477251

  9. Guidelines for the assessment and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Canadian Thoracic Society Workshop Group.

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fifth commonest cause of death in North America and is the only leading cause of death that is increasing in prevalence. Early detection and prevention through smoking cessation are essential to stem this epidemic. Once COPD is diagnosed there is a compelling rationale for vaccination against influenza and possibly pneumococcal pneumonia, although proof of efficacy is lacking. If airways obstruction is present, inhaled quaternary anticholinergic bronchodilators or inhaled beta 2 agonists or both may be of benefit, the former agents showing fewer side effects and often greater efficacy in elderly patients. Theophylline may enhance the effect or increase the duration of the bronchodilatation produced by an inhaled agent and may offer added nonbronchodilatory effects such as improved respiratory muscle endurance and ventilatory stimulation. If significant airflow obstruction persists, an objectively monitored trial of oral steroid therapy is required. Limitation of activity despite optimum medical therapy may be alleviated in selected patients by a supervised exercise rehabilitation program. If hypoxemia is present supplemental oxygen therapy will improve the patient's survival and quality of life. Additional therapies, from respiratory stimulants to lung transplantation, remain under investigation. PMID:1498754

  10. Clinical Utility of Echocardiography for the Diagnosis and Management of Pulmonary Vascular Disease in Young Children With Chronic Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mourani, Peter M.; Sontag, Marci K.; Younoszai, Adel; Ivy, D. Dunbar; Abman, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The goal was to determine the clinical utility of Doppler echocardiography in predicting the presence and severity of pulmonary hypertension in patients with chronic lung disease who subsequently underwent cardiac catheterization. Methods A retrospective review of data for all patients <2 years of age with a diagnosis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, or lung hypoplasia who underwent echocardiography and subsequently underwent cardiac catheterization for evaluation of pulmonary hypertension was performed. The accuracy of echocardiography in diagnosing pulmonary hypertension, on the basis of estimated systolic pulmonary artery pressure, was compared with the detection of pulmonary hypertension with the standard method of cardiac catheterization. Results Thirty-one linked measurements for 25 children were analyzed. Systolic pulmonary artery pressure could be estimated in 61% of studies, but there was poor correlation between echocardiography and cardiac catheterization measures of systolic pulmonary artery pressure in these infants. Compared with cardiac catheterization measurements, echocardiographic estimates of systolic pulmonary artery pressure diagnosed correctly the presence or absence of pulmonary hypertension in 79% of the studies in which systolic pulmonary artery pressure was estimated but determined the severity of pulmonary hypertension (severe pulmonary hypertension was defined as pulmonary/systemic pressure ratio of ≥0.67) correctly in only 47% of those studies. Seven (58%) of 12 children without estimated systolic pulmonary artery pressure demonstrated pulmonary hypertension during subsequent cardiac catheterization. In the absence of estimated systolic pulmonary artery pressure, qualitative echocardiographic findings, either alone or in combination, had worse predictive value for the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension. Conclusion As used in clinical practice, echocardiography often identifies pulmonary

  11. Treatment of chronic kidney disease in the elderly: diet or conservative management.

    PubMed

    Brunori, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    The elderly constitute the fastest-growing group of patients reaching end-stage renal disease and requiring renal replacement therapy. In this group of patients renal failure is only one of the many comorbidities affecting them, and for the nephrologist the decision whether to commence renal replacement therapy when patients present multiple comorbidity is a challenge. In fact, many elderly patients with severe comorbidity have a poor prognosis once dialysis is started, and a conservative management or a low protein diet can be less harmful. Information on survival of elderly patients on these therapies is limited, but in the last years a large body of literature has been published in this field. Rates of dialysis withdrawal are highest among the oldest patients, raising the possibility that the standard information given to patients for dialysis warrant an age-sensitive approach. For the elderly, the information should include risk, benefit and burden associated with dialysis, age-specific estimates of prognosis with dialysis or with conservative management, and potential for loss of independence and decline in functional status and cognitive impairment. Dialysis can impair quality of life of the elderly, and when decision makers choose a treatment they have to keep in mind that specialists should add life to years, and not years to life. When a "no dialysis" option is chosen, an active renal disease management as treatment of anemia, acidosis, fluid balance, hypertension, and active end of life care is required. This approach requires devoted attention from patients, families and caregivers, and a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:22684643

  12. Development and implementation of an integrated chronic disease model in South Africa: lessons in the management of change through improving the quality of clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Asmall, Shaidah

    2015-01-01

    Background South Africa is facing a complex burden of disease arising from a combination of chronic infectious illness and non-communicable diseases. As the burden of chronic diseases (communicable and non-communicable) increases, providing affordable and effective care to the increasing numbers of chronic patients will be an immense challenge. Methods The framework recommended by the Medical Research Council of the United Kingdom for the development and evaluation of complex health interventions was used to conceptualise the intervention. The breakthrough series was utilised for the implementation process. These two frameworks were embedded within the clinical practice improvement model that served as the overarching framework for the development and implementation of the model. Results The Chronic Care Model was ideally suited to improve the facility component and patient experience; however, the deficiencies in other aspects of the health system building blocks necessitated a hybrid model. An integrated chronic disease management model using a health systems approach was initiated across 42 primary health care facilities. The interventions were implemented in a phased approach using learning sessions and action periods to introduce the planned and targeted changes. Conclusion The implementation of the integrated chronic disease management model is feasible at primary care in South Africa provided that systemic challenges and change management are addressed during the implementation process. PMID:26528101

  13. Can chronic disease management programs for patients with type 2 diabetes reduce productivity-related indirect costs of the disease? Evidence from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Adepoju, Omolola E; Bolin, Jane N; Ohsfeldt, Robert L; Phillips, Charles D; Zhao, Hongwei; Ory, Marcia G; Forjuoh, Samuel N

    2014-04-01

    The objective was to assess the impacts of diabetes self-management programs on productivity-related indirect costs of the disease. Using an employer's perspective, this study estimated the productivity losses associated with: (1) employee absence on the job, (2) diabetes-related disability, (3) employee presence on the job, and (4) early mortality. Data were obtained from electronic medical records and survey responses of 376 adults aged ≥18 years who were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of type 2 diabetes self-management programs. All study participants had uncontrolled diabetes and were randomized into one of 4 study arms: personal digital assistant (PDA), chronic disease self-management program (CDSMP), combined PDA and CDSMP, and usual care (UC). The human-capital approach was used to estimate lost productivity resulting from 1, 2, 3, and 4 above, which are summed to obtain total productivity loss. Using robust regression, total productivity loss was modeled as a function of the diabetes self-management programs and other identified demographic and clinical characteristics. Compared to subjects in the UC arm, there were no statistically significant differences in productivity losses among persons undergoing any of the 3 diabetes management interventions. Males were associated with higher productivity losses (+$708/year; P<0.001) and persons with greater than high school education were associated with additional productivity losses (+$758/year; P<0.001). Persons with more than 1 comorbid condition were marginally associated with lower productivity losses (-$326/year; P=0.055). No evidence was found that the chronic disease management programs examined in this trial affect indirect productivity losses. PMID:24152055

  14. The Chronic Disease Self-Management Program: the experience of frequent users of health care services and peer leaders

    PubMed Central

    Hudon, Catherine; Chouinard, Maud-Christine; Diadiou, Fatoumata; Bouliane, Danielle; Lambert, Mireille; Hudon, Émilie

    2016-01-01

    Background. Large amount of evidence supports the contribution of the Stanford Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) to a global chronic disease management strategy. However, many studies have suggested further exploring of the factors influencing acceptance and completion of participants in this program. Objective. This study aimed to describe and examine factors associated with acceptance and completion rates of the CDSMP among frequent users of health care services, and to highlight the experience of patients and peer leaders who facilitated the program. Methods. A descriptive design with mixed sequential data was used. Acceptance and completion rates were calculated and their relationship with patient characteristics was examined in regression analysis (n = 167). Interviews were conducted among patients who accepted (n = 11) and refused (n = 13) to participate and with the program coordinator. Focus groups were held with the seven peer leaders who facilitated the program. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results. Of the 167 patients invited, 60 (36%) accepted to participate in the program. Group format was the most frequent reason to decline the invitation to participate. Twenty-eight participants (47%) completed the program. Participants who dropped out during the program raised different reasons such as poor health and too much heterogeneity among participants. Factors such as location, schedule, content, group composition and facilitation were considered as important elements contributing to the success of the program. Conclusion. The CDSMP could therefore be considered as a self-management support option for this vulnerable clientele, while taking measures to avoid too much heterogeneity among participants to improve completion rates. PMID:26984994

  15. Depression Screening in Chronic Disease Management: A Worksite Health Promotion Initiative.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Elizabeth; Dumas, Bonnie P; Edlund, Barbara J

    2016-03-01

    This pilot project aimed to improve depression symptoms and quality-of-life measures for individuals in a worksite disease management program. Two hundred forty-three individuals were invited to participate, out of which 69 enrolled. The participants had a history of diabetes, hypertension, or hyperlipidemia, and demonstrated depression using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). The project consisted of counseling sessions provided every 2 to 4 weeks by a family nurse practitioner. PHQ-9 scores and those of an instrument that measures quality of life, the Veteran's Rand-12 (VR-12), were compared pre-intervention and post-intervention to evaluate the effectiveness of the project. PHQ-9 and VR-12 Mental Health Component (MHC) scores improved significantly after 3 months of nurse practitioner-led individual counseling sessions. This project demonstrated that depression screening and therapeutic management, facilitated by a nurse practitioner, can improve depression and perceived quality of life in individuals with hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or type 2 diabetes. PMID:26458410

  16. State of the Art Compendium: Canadian Thoracic Society recommendations for the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Denis E; Aaron, Shawn; Bourbeau, Jean; Hernandez, Paul; Marciniuk, Darcy; Balter, Meyer; Ford, Gordon; Gervais, Andre; Goldstein, Roger; Hodder, Rick; Maltais, Francois; Road, Jeremy; McKay, Valoree; Schenkel, Jennifer; Ariel, Annon; Day, Anna; Lacasse, Yves; Levy, Robert; Lien, Dale; Miller, John; Rocker, Graeme; Sinuff, Tasmin; Stewart, Paula; Voduc, Nha; Abboud, Raja; Ariel, Amnon; Becklake, Margo; Borycki, Elizabeth; Brooks, Dina; Bryan, Shirley; Calcutt, Luanne; Chapman, Ken; Choudry, Nozhat; Couet, Alan; Coyle, Steven; Craig, Arthur; Crawford, Ian; Dean, Mervyn; Grossman, Ronald; Haffner, Jan; Heyland, Daren; Hogg, Donna; Holroyde, Martin; Kaplan, Alan; Kayser, John; Lein, Dale; Lowry, Josiah; McDonald, Les; MacFarlane, Alan; McIvor, Andrew; Rea, John; Reid, Darlene; Rouleau, Michel; Samis, Lorelei; Sin, Don; Vandemheen, Katherine; Wedzicha, J A; Weiss, Karl

    2004-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common cause of disability and death in Canada. Moreover, morbidity and mortality from COPD continue to rise, and the economic burden is enormous. The main goal of the Canadian Thoracic Society's evidence-based guidelines is to optimize early diagnosis, prevention and management of COPD in Canada. The main message of the guidelines is that COPD is a preventable and treatable disease. Targeted spirometry is strongly recommended to expedite early diagnosis in smokers and former smokers who develop respiratory symptoms, and who are at risk for COPD. Smoking cessation remains the single most effective intervention to reduce the risk of COPD and to slow its progression. Education, especially self-management plans, are key interventions in COPD. Therapy should be escalated on an individual basis in accordance with the increasing severity of symptoms and disability. Long-acting anticholinergics and beta-2-agonist inhalers should be prescribed for patients who remain symptomatic despite short-acting bronchodilator therapy. Inhaled steroids should not be used as first line therapy in COPD, but have a role in preventing exacerbations in patients with more advanced disease who suffer recurrent exacerbations. Acute exacerbations of COPD cause significant morbidity and mortality and should be treated promptly with bronchodilators and a short course of oral steroids; antibiotics should be prescribed for purulent exacerbations. Patients with advanced COPD and respiratory failure require a comprehensive management plan that incorporates structured end-of-life care. Management strategies, consisting of combined modern pharmacotherapy and nonpharmacotherapeutic interventions (eg, pulmonary rehabilitation and exercise training) can effectively improve symptoms, activity levels and quality of life, even in patients with severe COPD. PMID:15340581

  17. Chronic inflammatory systemic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Straub, Rainer H.; Schradin, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    It has been recognized that during chronic inflammatory systemic diseases (CIDs) maladaptations of the immune, nervous, endocrine and reproductive system occur. Maladaptation leads to disease sequelae in CIDs. The ultimate reason of disease sequelae in CIDs remained unclear because clinicians do not consider bodily energy trade-offs and evolutionary medicine. We review the evolution of physiological supersystems, fitness consequences of genes involved in CIDs during different life-history stages, environmental factors of CIDs, energy trade-offs during inflammatory episodes and the non-specificity of CIDs. Incorporating bodily energy regulation into evolutionary medicine builds a framework to better understand pathophysiology of CIDs by considering that genes and networks used are positively selected if they serve acute, highly energy-consuming inflammation. It is predicted that genes that protect energy stores are positively selected (as immune memory). This could explain why energy-demanding inflammatory episodes like infectious diseases must be terminated within 3–8 weeks to be adaptive, and otherwise become maladaptive. Considering energy regulation as an evolved adaptive trait explains why many known sequelae of different CIDs must be uniform. These are, e.g. sickness behavior/fatigue/depressive symptoms, sleep disturbance, anorexia, malnutrition, muscle wasting—cachexia, cachectic obesity, insulin resistance with hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, alterations of steroid hormone axes, disturbances of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, hypertension, bone loss and hypercoagulability. Considering evolved energy trade-offs helps us to understand how an energy imbalance can lead to the disease sequelae of CIDs. In the future, clinicians must translate this knowledge into early diagnosis and symptomatic treatment in CIDs. PMID:26817483

  18. Challenges in personalised management of chronic diseases-heart failure as prominent example to advance the care process.

    PubMed

    Brunner-La Rocca, Hans-Peter; Fleischhacker, Lutz; Golubnitschaja, Olga; Heemskerk, Frank; Helms, Thomas; Hoedemakers, Thom; Allianses, Sandra Huygen; Jaarsma, Tiny; Kinkorova, Judita; Ramaekers, Jan; Ruff, Peter; Schnur, Ivana; Vanoli, Emilio; Verdu, Jose; Zippel-Schultz, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Europe, accounting for more than 2/3 of all death causes and 75 % of the healthcare costs. Heart failure is one of the most prominent, prevalent and complex chronic conditions and is accompanied with multiple other chronic diseases. The current approach to care has important shortcomings with respect to diagnosis, treatment and care processes. A critical aspect of this situation is that interaction between stakeholders is limited and chronic diseases are usually addressed in isolation. Health care in Western countries requires an innovative approach to address chronic diseases to provide sustainability of care and to limit the excessive costs that may threaten the current systems. The increasing prevalence of chronic diseases combined with their enormous economic impact and the increasing shortage of healthcare providers are among the most critical threats. Attempts to solve these problems have failed, and future limitations in financial resources will result in much lower quality of care. Thus, changing the approach to care for chronic diseases is of utmost social importance. PMID:26913090

  19. Chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Drawz, Paul; Rahman, Mahboob

    2015-06-01

    This issue provides a clinical overview of chronic kidney disease, focusing on prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and patient information. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including ACP Smart Medicine and MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic from these primary sources in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of science writers and physician writers. Editorial consultants from ACP Smart Medicine and MKSAP provide expert review of the content. Readers who are interested in these primary resources for more detail can consult http://smartmedicine.acponline.org, http://mksap.acponline.org, and other resources referenced in each issue of In the Clinic. PMID:26030647

  20. Clinical trial of community nurse mentoring to improve self-management in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Wood-Baker, Richard; Reid, David; Robinson, Andrew; Walters, E Haydn

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) impacts on quality of life and is characterized by exacerbations, which increase health care utilization. Developing self-management behaviors of people with COPD is an attractive strategy to reduce exacerbations. Methods We investigated the effect of a program to increase self-management behaviors delivered by community health nurses, compared with usual care, on health-related quality of life and health care utilization in people with COPD following hospitalization. Participants were recruited during an admission to hospital and allocated according to domicile. The mentor role was to develop self-management strategies collaboratively over the 12-month study duration. Outcomes included quality of life and health care utilization. Results Linear mixed models analyses found a significant benefit in the physical functioning and general health components of the short-form SF-36 questionnaire for the mentored arm, with the average difference between interventions being 5.60 and 4.14, respectively, over 12 months. Survival analysis using a combined endpoint of time to next acute exacerbation requiring rehospitalization or death found a significant benefit favoring the mentored group (P = 0.037). Conclusion A mentoring program designed to improve self-management behaviors in people with COPD following hospitalization increased some quality of life domains and improved important clinical outcomes. PMID:22848153

  1. Establishing an Independent Mobile Health Program for Chronic Disease Self-Management Support in Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Piette, John D.; Valverde, Helen; Marinec, Nicolle; Jantz, Rachel; Kamis, Kevin; de la Vega, Carlos Lazo; Woolley, Timothy; Pinto, Bismarck

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mobile health (m-health) work in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) mainly consists of small pilot programs with an unclear path to scaling and dissemination. We describe the deployment and testing of an m-health platform for non-communicable disease (NCD) self-management support in Bolivia. Methods: Three hundred sixty-four primary care patients in La Paz with diabetes or hypertension completed surveys about their use of mobile phones, health and access to care. One hundred sixty-five of those patients then participated in a 12-week demonstration of automated telephone monitoring and self-management support. Weekly interactive voice response (IVR) calls were made from a platform established at a university in La Paz, under the direction of the regional health ministry. Results: Thirty-seven percent of survey respondents spoke indigenous languages at home and 38% had six or fewer years of education. Eighty-two percent had a mobile phone, 45% used text messaging with a standard phone, and 9% had a smartphone. Smartphones were least common among patients who were older, spoke indigenous languages, or had less education. IVR program participants completed 1007 self-management support calls with an overall response rate of 51%. IVR call completion was lower among older adults, but was not related to patients’ ethnicity, health status, or healthcare access. IVR health and self-care reports were consistent with information reported during in-person baseline interviews. Patients’ likelihood of reporting excellent, very good, or good health (versus fair or poor health) via IVR increased during program participation and was associated with better medication adherence. Patients completing follow-up interviews were satisfied with the program, with 19/20 (95%) reporting that they would recommend it to a friend. Conclusion: By collaborating with LMICs, m-health programs can be transferred from higher-resource centers to LMICs and implemented in ways that

  2. Epoetin zeta in the management of anemia associated with chronic kidney disease, differential pharmacology and clinical utility.

    PubMed

    Davis-Ajami, Mary Lynn; Wu, Jun; Downton, Katherine; Ludeman, Emilie; Noxon, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Epoetin zeta was granted marketing authorization in October 2007 by the European Medicines Agency as a recombinant human erythropoietin erythropoiesis-stimulating agent to treat symptomatic anemia of renal origin in adult and pediatric patients on hemodialysis and adults on peritoneal dialysis, as well as for symptomatic renal anemia in adult patients with renal insufficiency not yet on dialysis. Currently, epoetin zeta can be administered either subcutaneously or intravenously to correct for hemoglobin concentrations ≤10 g/dL (6.2 mmol/L) or with dose adjustment to maintain hemoglobin levels at desired levels not in excess of 12 g/dL (7.5 mmol/L). This review article focuses on epoetin zeta indications in chronic kidney disease, its use in managing anemia of renal origin, and discusses its pharmacology and clinical utility. PMID:24790409

  3. Seamless health care for chronic diseases in a dual health care system: managed care and the role of family physicians.

    PubMed

    Lee, A

    1998-01-01

    Neither private nor state run health care systems are perfect. Although there is increasing evidence that Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) provide comparable care at lower cost, HMOs tend to select healthy patients. The dual health care system in Hong Kong spends about 3.9 per cent of GDP, with health indices among the best in the world. Hong Kong still faces the problem of escalating health care expenditure. One should take advantage of the dual health care system to evolve a new paradigm for a primary-led seamless health care service. The Diabetes Centre of a university teaching hospital together with the University of Community and Family Medicine has started a structured shared care programme in diabetes mellitus, involving general practitioners in both the private and public sectors integrating the primary and secondary care, and the private and public sectors. This programme starts to develop an infrastructure for providing quality care at an affordable cost for a large pool of patients with chronic disease. Unlike other "managed care schemes", this one is not run by profit-oriented companies, but by health professionals with an interest in providing best possible care at an affordable cost. The "disease management" approach needs a care delivery system without traditional boundaries; and a continuous improvement process which develops and refines the knowledge base, guidelines and delivery system. PMID:10351265

  4. Type 1 diabetes stigma in China: a call to end the devaluation of individuals living with a manageable chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Jaacks, Lindsay M; Liu, Wei; Ji, Linong; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J

    2015-02-01

    Stigma is a significant barrier to improving care for individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). This commentary describes this phenomenon in China, where stigma has led to labeling and devaluing of individuals with T1DM. Difficulties finding a spouse and regulations restricting admission to universities and government employment have forced many individuals to hide their diabetes. The shame, fear, and guilt stemming from stigma may preclude the use of insulin pumps; multiple daily injections, which require pre-meal insulin dosing at school or the workplace; participation in research studies; and general health-seeking behaviors. A multifaceted, multilevel approach is urgently needed and should involve improving public awareness and understanding of T1DM; adoption by health care providers of holistic rather than biomedical approaches to disease management; patient counseling on positive coping skills; and expansion of the scope of research to consider the psychosocial realities of diabetes care in China. Recent media attention in the form of a nationally broadcasted documentary on T1DM is an important step in the right direction. We believe that coordinated action by multiple stakeholders can lead to meaningful improvements in treatment, ultimately leading to better physical and emotional health outcomes for individuals living with this manageable chronic disease. PMID:25547225

  5. Primary care physician perceptions on the diagnosis and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in diverse regions of the world

    PubMed Central

    Aisanov, Zaurbek; Bai, Chunxue; Bauerle, Otto; Colodenco, Federico D; Feldman, Charles; Hashimoto, Shu; Jardim, Jose; Lai, Christopher KW; Laniado-Laborin, Rafael; Nadeau, Gilbert; Sayiner, Abdullah; Shim, Jae Jeong; Tsai, Ying Huang; Walters, Richard D; Waterer, Grant

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a multicomponent disorder that leads to substantial disability, impaired quality of life, and increased mortality. Although the majority of COPD patients are first diagnosed and treated in primary care practices, there is comparatively little information on the management of COPD patients in primary care. A web-based pilot survey was conducted to evaluate the primary care physician’s, or general practitioner’s (GP’s), knowledge, understanding, and management of COPD in twelve territories across the Asia-Pacific region, Africa, eastern Europe, and Latin America, using a 10-minute questionnaire comprising 20 questions and translated into the native language of each participating territory. The questionnaire was administered to a total of 600 GPs (50 from each territory) involved in the management of COPD patients and all data were collated and analyzed by an independent health care research consultant. This survey demonstrated that the GPs’ understanding of COPD was variable across the territories, with large numbers of GPs having very limited knowledge of COPD and its management. A consistent finding across all territories was the underutilization of spirometry (median 26%; range 10%–48%) and reliance on X-rays (median 14%; range 5%–22%) for COPD diagnosis, whereas overuse of blood tests (unspecified) was particularly high in Russia and South Africa. Similarly, there was considerable underrecognition of the importance of exacerbation history as an important factor of COPD and its initial management in most territories (median 4%; range 0%–22%). Management of COPD was well below guideline-recommended levels in most of the regions investigated. The findings of this survey suggest there is a need for more ongoing education and information, specifically directed towards GPs outside of Europe and North America, and that global COPD guidelines appear to have limited reach and application in most of the areas

  6. Chronic kidney disease in children

    PubMed Central

    Becherucci, Francesca; Roperto, Rosa Maria; Materassi, Marco; Romagnani, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major health problem worldwide. Although relatively uncommon in children, it can be a devastating illness with many long-term consequences. CKD presents unique features in childhood and may be considered, at least in part, as a stand-alone nosologic entity. Moreover, some typical features of paediatric CKD, such as the disease aetiology or cardiovascular complications, will not only influence the child's health, but also have long-term impact on the life of the adult that they will become. In this review we will focus on the unique issues of paediatric CKD, in terms of aetiology, clinical features and treatment. In addition, we will discuss factors related to CKD that start during childhood and require appropriate treatments in order to optimize health outcomes and transition to nephrologist management in adult life. PMID:27478602

  7. HIV/AIDS, chronic diseases and globalisation.

    PubMed

    Colvin, Christopher J

    2011-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has always been one of the most thoroughly global of diseases. In the era of widely available anti-retroviral therapy (ART), it is also commonly recognised as a chronic disease that can be successfully managed on a long-term basis. This article examines the chronic character of the HIV/AIDS pandemic and highlights some of the changes we might expect to see at the global level as HIV is increasingly normalised as "just another chronic disease". The article also addresses the use of this language of chronicity to interpret the HIV/AIDS pandemic and calls into question some of the consequences of an uncritical acceptance of concepts of chronicity. PMID:21871074

  8. [Chronic pain management: societal impact].

    PubMed

    Serrie, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Pain is a real issue of public health, quality and evolution of a system of health test: this is a major social problem. Pain management meets a humanistic, ethical purpose and dignity of man because of the physical and psychological implications. It induces a disability which excludes the patient of society gradually or suddenly. The physical pain and mental suffering to all ages of life make more vulnerable people weakened by disease. Rebel chronic pain are sources of disability, disabilities, disability and major alterations in the quality of life. All of these data shows the impact of pain and its intensity on the professional conditions, on professional activity and productivity, on the use of care systems (very significant increase in medical consultations, hospitalizations), as well as on the mental and physical health. These results confirmed analyses which consider that the unrelieved pain has a major economic impact on care systems and constitutes a public health problem with around two thirds of persons professionally impacted by pain. The progress of medicine has helped the healing of certain serious diseases, but also favoured acute diseases to turn to chronic diseases. The result is an increase in of lifetime sometimes without disease, but this survival may be also accompanied by disease or disability. Progress, pain and suffering, the end of life, ethics will be the core of the basic thoughts of tomorrow. PMID:27509674

  9. The experiences of close persons caring for people with chronic kidney disease stage 5 on conservative kidney management: Contested discourses of ageing

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Jason; Smith, Glenn; Higgs, Paul; Burns, Aine; Hopkins, Katherine; Jones, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease stage 5 is a global health challenge in the context of population ageing across the world. The range of treatment options available to patients at all ages has increased and includes transplantation and dialysis. However, these options are often seen as inappropriate for older frailer patients who are now offered the option of conservative kidney management, which is presented as a non-invasive alternative to dialysis, involving symptom management and addressing psychosocial needs. In this study, we conducted qualitative interviews with 26 close persons caring for someone with chronic kidney disease stage 5 in the United Kingdom to investigate how conservative kidney management interacted with implicit ideas of ageing, in both the experience of conservative kidney management and the understanding of the prognosis and future care of the kidney disease. Our findings highlighted participant confusion about the nature of conservative kidney management, which stems from an initial lack of clarity about how conservative kidney management differed from conventional treatments for chronic kidney disease stage 5. In particular, some respondents were not aware of the implicit palliative nature of the intervention or indeed the inevitable end-of-life issues. Although these findings can be situated within the context of communication failure, we would further argue that they also bring to the surface tensions in the discourses surrounding ageing and old age, drawing on the use of a ‘natural’ and a ‘normal’ paradigm of ageing. In the context of chronic kidney disease stage 5, more patients are being dialysed at older ages, but conservative kidney management is being advanced as a better option than dialysis in terms of quality of life and experience. However, in doing so, conservative kidney management implicitly draws on a notion of older age that echoes natural ageing rather than advocate a more interventionist approach. The role of discourses

  10. The experiences of close persons caring for people with chronic kidney disease stage 5 on conservative kidney management: contested discourses of ageing.

    PubMed

    Low, Joe; Myers, Jason; Smith, Glenn; Higgs, Paul; Burns, Aine; Hopkins, Katherine; Jones, Louise

    2014-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease stage 5 is a global health challenge in the context of population ageing across the world. The range of treatment options available to patients at all ages has increased and includes transplantation and dialysis. However, these options are often seen as inappropriate for older frailer patients who are now offered the option of conservative kidney management, which is presented as a non-invasive alternative to dialysis, involving symptom management and addressing psychosocial needs. In this study, we conducted qualitative interviews with 26 close persons caring for someone with chronic kidney disease stage 5 in the United Kingdom to investigate how conservative kidney management interacted with implicit ideas of ageing, in both the experience of conservative kidney management and the understanding of the prognosis and future care of the kidney disease. Our findings highlighted participant confusion about the nature of conservative kidney management, which stems from an initial lack of clarity about how conservative kidney management differed from conventional treatments for chronic kidney disease stage 5. In particular, some respondents were not aware of the implicit palliative nature of the intervention or indeed the inevitable end-of-life issues. Although these findings can be situated within the context of communication failure, we would further argue that they also bring to the surface tensions in the discourses surrounding ageing and old age, drawing on the use of a 'natural' and a 'normal' paradigm of ageing. In the context of chronic kidney disease stage 5, more patients are being dialysed at older ages, but conservative kidney management is being advanced as a better option than dialysis in terms of quality of life and experience. However, in doing so, conservative kidney management implicitly draws on a notion of older age that echoes natural ageing rather than advocate a more interventionist approach. The role of discourses of ageing

  11. Clinical Scenarios in Chronic Kidney Disease: Chronic Tubulointerstitial Diseases.

    PubMed

    Meola, Mario; Samoni, Sara; Petrucci, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Chronic tubulointerstitial diseases are a common final pathway toward chronic renal failure regardless the primary damage (glomerular, vascular or directly the tubulointerstitium). Chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis (CTN) is characterized by interstitial scarring, fibrosis and tubule atrophy, resulting in progressive chronic kidney disease. Most frequent causes of CTN are drugs, heavy metals, obstructive uropathy, nephrolithiasis, reflux disease, immunologic diseases, neoplasia, ischemia, metabolic diseases, genetics and miscellaneous. At ultrasound (US), kidneys' morphological aspect is similar in all forms of chronic interstitial nephropathy and only chronic pyelonephritis with or without reflux shows distinguishing characteristics. In interstitial nephropathy, kidneys' profiles are finely irregular and corticomedullary differentiation is altered because of a diffused hyperechogenicity. The only indirect sign of chronic interstitial damage can be derived from the value of intrarenal resistive indexes that hardly overcome 0.75. US is mandatory in clinical chronic pyelonephritis work-up because it provides information on kidney's diameter and on growth nomogram in children. Renal profiles can be more or less altered depending on the number of cortical scars and the presence of pseudonodular areas of segmental compensatory hypertrophy. In the early stages, US diagnosis of renal tuberculosis is difficult because parenchymal lesions are non-specific. US sensitivity in the diagnosis of hydronephrosis is very high, close to 100% and, finally, US is the first choice imaging technique in the diagnosis of urinary lithiasis. PMID:27169608

  12. Chronic Granulomatous Disease.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Amit; Bhattad, Sagar; Singh, Surjit

    2016-04-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is the most common symptomatic phagocytic defect. It is caused by mutations in genes encoding protein subunits of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex. CGD is characterized by a defective intracellular killing of phagocytosed organisms due to a defective oxidative burst in the neutrophils and macrophages. It is inherited in either X-linked recessive or autosomal recessive pattern. Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus species are the most common organisms reported. Infections with Burkholderia, Serratia, and Nocardia warrant a screen for CGD. Suppurative lymphadenitis, cutaneous abscesses, pneumonia and diarrhea constitute the most common problems in children with CGD. A small percentage of children develop autoimmune manifestations (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, colitis, autoimmune hepatitis) and warrant immunosuppression. X-linked carriers of CGD are at an increased risk of developing autoimmune diseases. Nitroblue-tetrazolium dye reduction test and dihydro-rhodamine assay by flow cytometry are the screening tests for this disorder. While most children do well on long term antibiotic and antifungal prophylaxis, those with severe forms warrant hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The role of regular interferon-γ injections is debatable. Evidence for white cell transfusions is sparse, and gene therapy is under trial.This current review highlights various aspects and studies in CGD. X-linked form of CGD has been noted to carry a poorer prognosis compared to autosomal recessive variants. However, recent evidence suggests that outcome in CGD is determined by the amount of residual NADPH oxidase activity irrespective of mode of inheritance. PMID:26865172

  13. Chronic Granulomatous Disease.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shreya

    2015-05-01

    Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) is an inherited immunodeficiency disorder characterized by defective functioning of NADPH oxidase enzyme in the phagocytes. This leads to recurrent infections by catalase positive organisms and later, granuloma formation in multiple organs. This condition usually presents in the age group of 2-5 y and is uncommon in neonates. In this case report, we describe a rare case of CGD in a 40-day-old male child who initially presented with a history of erythematous pustular rash on left forearm and refusal to feeds. He remained unresponsive to regular antibiotics. CT chest and abdomen revealed multiple ill-defined lesions suggestive of granulomas or developing abscesses. Immunodeficiency workup showed negative Nitroblue Tetrazolium test and positive Dihydrorhodamine test (flow cytometry). A diagnosis of CGD was then made and treated accordingly. The aim of this report is to highlight the fact that although it is rare for CGD to present at such an early age, but in a neonate with multiple granulomas or abscesses, it should be considered as a differential and worked up accordingly. Early diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve the prognosis. PMID:26155526

  14. Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) is an inherited immunodeficiency disorder characterized by defective functioning of NADPH oxidase enzyme in the phagocytes. This leads to recurrent infections by catalase positive organisms and later, granuloma formation in multiple organs. This condition usually presents in the age group of 2-5 y and is uncommon in neonates. In this case report, we describe a rare case of CGD in a 40-day-old male child who initially presented with a history of erythematous pustular rash on left forearm and refusal to feeds. He remained unresponsive to regular antibiotics. CT chest and abdomen revealed multiple ill-defined lesions suggestive of granulomas or developing abscesses. Immunodeficiency workup showed negative Nitroblue Tetrazolium test and positive Dihydrorhodamine test (flow cytometry). A diagnosis of CGD was then made and treated accordingly. The aim of this report is to highlight the fact that although it is rare for CGD to present at such an early age, but in a neonate with multiple granulomas or abscesses, it should be considered as a differential and worked up accordingly. Early diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve the prognosis. PMID:26155526

  15. Use of Health Information and Communication Technologies to Promote Health and Manage Behavioral Risk Factors Associated with Chronic Disease: Applications in the Field of Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stellefson, Michael; Alber, Julia M.; Wang, Min Qi; Eddy, James M.; Chaney, Beth H.; Chaney, J. Don

    2015-01-01

    This special issue provides real-world examples of the diverse methods health education researchers are using to expand existing applications of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for health promotion and chronic disease management. The original and review articles presented in this special issue investigate eHealth, mHealth, and…

  16. Engaging Patients in Online Self-Care Technologies for Chronic Disease Management.

    PubMed

    Picton, Peter; Wiljer, David; Urowitz, Sara; Cafazzo, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    A common perception is that the use of Internet-based self-care systems is best suited for a younger, tech-proficient population, and that these systems will increase the burden on patients with complex chronic conditions. The study stratified patients with diabetes into three regimens of use of an Internet-based diabetes self-care portal. Results show that patients were more likely to adhere to a diurnal regimen than a variable regimen, and older patients, over the age of 60, were more adherent than younger patients, regardless of regimen. This suggests that common misconceptions should be reconsidered when prescribing Internet-based interventions for patients with chronic illness. PMID:27009709

  17. Managing chronic bladder diseases with the administration of exogenous glycosaminoglycans: an update on the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Lazzeri, Massimo; Hurle, Rodolfo; Casale, Paolo; Buffi, NicolòMaria; Lughezzani, Giovanni; Fiorini, Girolamo; Peschechera, Roberto; Pasini, Luisa; Zandegiacomo, Silvia; Benetti, Alessio; Taverna, Gianluigi; Guazzoni, Giorgio; Barbagli, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Although the pathophysiology of acute chronic cystitis and other ‘sensory’ disorders, i.e. painful bladder syndrome (PBS) or interstitial cystitis (IC), often remains multifactorial, there is a wide consensus that such clinical conditions may arise from a primary defective urothelium lining or from damaged glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). A ‘cascade’ of events starting from GAG injury, which fails to heal, may lead to chronic bladder epithelial damage and neurogenic inflammation. To restore the GAG layer is becoming the main aim of new therapies for the treatment of chronic cystitis and PBS/IC. Preliminary experiences with GAG replenishment for different pathological conditions involving the lower urinary tract have been reported. There is a range of commercially available intravesical formulations of these components, alone or in combination. Literature evidence shows that exogenous intravesical hyaluronic acid markedly reduces recurrences of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Patients treated with exogenous GAGs have fewer UTI recurrences, a longer time to recurrence and a greater improvement in quality of life. Exogenous intravesical GAGs have been used for the treatment of PBS/IC. Despite the limitations of most of the studies, findings confirmed the role of combination therapy with hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate as a safe and effective option for the treatment of PBS/IC. To prevent and/or treat radiotherapy and chemotherapy induced cystitis, GAG replenishment therapy has been used showing preliminary encouraging results. The safety profile of exogenous GAGs has been reported to be very favourable, without adverse events of particular significance. PMID:27034722

  18. Nephrology Update: Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sharmeela; Rahman, Mahboob

    2016-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects more than 1 in 10 individuals in the United States. The care of these patients must be managed by family physicians and nephrology subspecialists. The kidneys often are affected by systemic processes such as diabetes and hypertension, and optimal management of these conditions is critical to slow decline in renal function in CKD patients. These patients are at high risk of cardiovascular disease, and statin therapy is recommended for adults with CKD who are at least age 50 years and not receiving dialysis. Patients with CKD and anemia can be treated with iron therapy and often with an erythropoietin-stimulating agent. Electrolyte abnormalities are managed with dietary changes and drugs. Sodium restriction and modification of dietary protein intake also may be needed. Consultation with a renal dietitian may be helpful. Because many drugs are metabolized by the kidneys, physicians should ensure that drug dosages are appropriate for the level of renal function. Early consultation with or referral to a nephrology subspecialist for patients with reduced renal function, resistant hypertension or electrolyte levels, and other conditions have been associated with improved outcomes in CKD patients. PMID:27163761

  19. A re-evaluation of the role of inhaled corticosteroids in the management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    D’Urzo, Anthony; Donohue, James F; Kardos, Peter; Miravitlles, Marc; Price, David

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) (in fixed combinations with long-acting β2-agonists [LABAs]) are frequently prescribed for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), outside their labeled indications and recommended treatment strategies and guidelines, despite having the potential to cause significant side effects. Areas covered: Although the existence of asthma in patients with asthma–COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) clearly supports the use of anti-inflammatory treatment (typically an ICS/LABA combination, as ICS monotherapy is usually not indicated for COPD), the current level of ICS/LABA use is not consistent with the prevalence of ACOS in the COPD population. Data have recently become available showing the comparative efficacy of fixed bronchodilator combinations (long-acting muscarinic antagonist [LAMA]/LABA with ICS/LABA combinations). Additionally, new information has emerged on ICS withdrawal without increased risk of exacerbations, under cover of effective bronchodilation. Expert opinion: For patients with COPD who do not have ACOS, a LAMA/LABA combination may be an appropriate starting therapy, apart from those with mild disease who can be managed with a single long-acting bronchodilator. Patients who remain symptomatic or present with exacerbations despite effectively delivered LAMA/LABA treatment may require additional drug therapy, such as ICS or phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors. When prescribing an ICS/LABA, the risk:benefit ratio should be considered in individual patients. PMID:26194213

  20. 'Learning Diabetes'--a multi-media learning package for patients, carers and professionals to improve chronic disease management.

    PubMed

    Day, J L; Rayman, G; Hall, L; Davies, P

    1997-01-01

    A multi-media program for those with insulin and non-insulin dependent diabetes, and for their carers, has been produced. It is delivered on CDROM and contains an extensive amount of very high quality generated video of patients using short clips (maximum 2 min) totalling 2.5 h in 240 files using MPEG compression. The video is combined with a wide range of graphic based activities engaging the user in fully interactive processes and allowing them to obtain extensive understanding of the disease and to relate to attitudes and perceptions about it from those with the same condition. The program is robust and appears to meet the educational needs for its extent of interactivity, degree of choice for the user and provision of information based on real patient experience. It is easily used and modified to meet users of different socio-cultural needs and can be translated into different languages. It offers the opportunity not only for increased learning and improved self-management of those with diabetes, but also greater understanding by those who care for them, both professional and non-professional. Using the same framework, programs are being developed for other chronic diseases including asthma and hypertension. PMID:9183782

  1. Chronic Liver Disease and Hispanic Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and Hispanic Americans Among the Hispanic/Latino population, chronic liver disease is a leading cause of death. While the ...

  2. Improving the identification and management of chronic kidney disease in primary care: lessons from a staged improvement collaborative

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Gill; Oliver, Kathryn; Humphreys, John; Rothwell, Katy; Hegarty, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Quality problem Undiagnosed chronic kidney disease (CKD) contributes to a high cost and care burden in secondary care. Uptake of evidence-based guidelines in primary care is inconsistent, resulting in variation in the detection and management of CKD. Initial assessment Routinely collected general practice data in one UK region suggested a CKD prevalence of 4.1%, compared with an estimated national prevalence of 8.5%. Of patients on CKD registers, ∼30% were estimated to have suboptimal management according to Public Health Observatory analyses. Choice of solution An evidence-based framework for implementation was developed. This informed the design of an improvement collaborative to work with a sample of 30 general practices. Implementation A two-phase collaborative was implemented between September 2009 and March 2012. Key elements of the intervention included learning events, improvement targets, Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles, benchmarking of audit data, facilitator support and staff time reimbursement. Evaluation Outcomes were evaluated against two indicators: number of patients with CKD on practice registers; percentage of patients achieving evidence-based blood pressure (BP) targets, as a marker for CKD care. In Phase 1, recorded prevalence of CKD in collaborative practices increased ∼2-fold more than that in comparator local practices; in Phase 2, this increased to 4-fold, indicating improved case identification. Management of BP according to guideline recommendations also improved. Lessons learned An improvement collaborative with tailored facilitation support appears to promote the uptake of evidence-based guidance on the identification and management of CKD in primary care. A controlled evaluation study is needed to rigorously evaluate the impact of this promising improvement intervention. PMID:25525148

  3. Non-disclosure of chronic kidney disease in primary care and the limits of instrumental rationality in chronic illness self-management.

    PubMed

    Daker-White, Gavin; Rogers, Anne; Kennedy, Anne; Blakeman, Thomas; Blickem, Christian; Chew-Graham, Carolyn

    2015-04-01

    Early detection of long term conditions is predicated on assumptions that lifestyle changes and medications can be used to reduce or manage the risk of condition progression. However, ambiguity remains about the nature and place of diagnostic disclosure to people in newly recognised or asymptomatic 'pre' conditions such as early stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). The disclosure of a diagnosis is relevant to instigating strategies which rely on actively engaging patients as self-managers of their own care. Whilst primary care routinely records a diagnosis of early stage CKD, little is known about how patients learn about the fact that they have CKD or how they respond to this. This study aimed to explore patients' experiences of disclosure of CKD in primary care settings. A nested qualitative study of participants recruited to a trial of an intervention for CKD patients in Greater Manchester, UK was undertaken. A purposive sample of 26 patients, with a mean age of 72 years (range 59-89, median 71), were interviewed during 2012. Interview transcripts were analysed using constant comparative techniques. Narrative accounts reflected limited or partial disclosure of CKD; often cast in vague terms as "nothing to worry about". How patients described themselves in terms of participation and their tendencies towards 'active' or 'passive' involvement in consultations emerged as important components of narratives around disclosure. The findings illuminate the ways in which diagnosis is oriented in a context where it is possible to meet the requirements for remuneration under a pay for performance system of primary care, whilst apparently not disclosing a label or a diagnosis to patients. This challenges the presumptions inherent in wider health policy objectives that are increasingly built on the notion of responsible patients and the ethos of the active support of self-management for pre-conditions. PMID:25748112

  4. Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bortoletto, Pietro; Lyman, Kyle; Camacho, Andres; Fricchione, Marielle; Khanolkar, Aaruni

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an uncommon primary immunodeficiency that can be inherited in an X-linked (XL) or an autosomal recessive (AR) manner. We reviewed our large, single-center US experience with CGD. Methods: We reviewed 27 patients at Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago from March 1985 to November 2013. Fisher exact test was used to compare differences in categorical variables, and Student t test was used to compare means for continuous variables. Serious infections were defined as those requiring intravenous antibiotics or hospitalization. Results: There were 23 males and 4 females; 19 were XL and 8 were AR. The average age at diagnosis was 3.0 years; 2.1 years for XL and 5.3 years for AR inheritance (P = 0.02). There were 128 serious infections. The most frequent infectious agents were Staphylococcus aureus (n = 13), Serratia (n = 11), Klebsiella (n = 7), Aspergillus (n = 6) and Burkholderia (n = 4). The most common serious infections were pneumonia (n = 38), abscess (n = 32) and lymphadenitis (n = 29). Thirteen patients had granulomatous complications. Five patients were below the 5th percentile for height and 4 were below the 5th percentile for weight. Average length of follow-up after diagnosis was 10.1 years. Twenty-four patients were compliant and maintained on interferon-γ, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and an azole. The serious infection rate was 0.62 per patient-year. Twenty-three patients are alive (1 was lost to follow-up). Conclusions: We present a large, single-center US experience with CGD. Twenty-three of 27 patients are alive after 3276 patient-months of follow-up (1 has been lost to follow-up), and our serious infection rate was 0.62 per patient-year. PMID:26181896

  5. Chronic autoimmune thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Litta Modignani, R; Barantani, E; Mazzolari, M; Pincetti Nervi, M; Macchi, R

    1991-01-01

    A total of 67 patients with chronic autoimmune thyroid disease were followed, mainly as outpatients, for a period of a few months to over 15 years. The diagnosis was euthyroidism (n = 16, 23.8%), subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 20, 29.8%), primary hypothyroidism (n = 28, 41.7%) or hashitoxicosis (n = 3, 4.47%). Patients with goiters fit Hashimoto's original description of "struma lymphomatosa". The diagnosis was made on clinical grounds and the usual laboratory hormonal tests. Histological examination was carried out at surgery or by fine needle aspiration in 35 patients (52.2%), and a clinical diagnosis was made in 32 (47.7%). Three patients had juvenile Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Most patients were in the fourth, fifth or sixth decade (64.8%), and of these 12 (18%) had subclinical hypothyroidism, which should be suspected when thyrotropin (TSH) is twice the upper normal limit. In these cases thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) testing and evaluation of anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) and anti-microsomal antigen antibodies (MsAb) are mandatory. Hypothyroidism with few symptoms develops insidiously in young or elderly patients; the most sensitive test is TSH assay in conjunction with tests for TgAb and MsAb. L-thyroxine administration may be harmful in older patients with late diagnosed primary hypothyroidism. Thyroid supplementation is suggested for patients with subclinical hypothyroidism if TSH values are above 10 mU/L; otherwise they should be followed up annually, as should patients with positive thyroid autoantibodies who are still euthyroid. PMID:1804288

  6. Delayed Progression to Dialysis with Early and Intensive Management of Predialysis Chronic Kidney Disease: A Case-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    In addition to hypertension and diabetes, disorders in mineral metabolism and bone disease (e.g. affecting phosphorus, calcium, parathyroid hormone, and vitamin D) are common complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and contribute to morbidity and mortality. Consequently, CKD requires multifactorial treatment to slow CKD progression and avoid end-stage renal disease. CKD progression and treatment outcomes are monitored by measuring the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), which decreases by 2–12 ml/min/1.73 m2 per year depending on the stage of CKD and comorbidities, such as diabetes. This paper presents representative case studies illustrating the delay and reversal of CKD progression with comprehensive, individualized treatment regimens, including non-calcium phosphate binders, antihypertensives, lipid-lowering drugs, calcimimetics, and other drugs as required, to treat each component of CKD including CKD-mineral and bone disorder. Four patients are included, with an average age of 70–81 years and CKD stage 3 or 4 accompanied by various comorbidities, most notably diabetes and hypertension. The range of treatment and follow-up durations was 6–7 years. In each case, there was evidence of slowing or prevention of CKD progression, according to eGFR and serum creatinine, regardless of the patient's age or CKD stage. Despite a baseline eGFR of <20 ml/min/1.73 m2 in 1 female patient, after 6 years of follow-up, her eGFR had stabilized and was maintained at >15 ml/min/1.73 m2. These observations reinforce the value of early nephrology referral and comprehensive management of CKD and underlying conditions (hypertension and diabetes) beginning at eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2. PMID:24167516

  7. Chronic Kidney Disease and Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alternate Language URL Español Chronic Kidney Disease and Medicines: What You Need to Know Page Content What ... pharmacist and provider need to know about your medicine and supplement use Your kidneys do not filter ...

  8. Management of atrial fibrillation in patients with chronic kidney disease in Europe Results of the European Heart Rhythm Association Survey.

    PubMed

    Potpara, Tatjana S; Lenarczyk, Radoslaw; Larsen, Torben B; Deharo, Jean-Claude; Chen, Jian; Dagres, Nikolaos

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this European Heart Rhythm (EHRA) Scientific Initiatives Committee EP Wire Survey was to assess 'real-world' practice in the management of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the European Eelectrophysiology centres. Of 41 responding centres, 39 (95.1%) and 37 (90.2%) routinely evaluated renal function in AF patients at first presentation and during follow-up, respectively, but 13 centres (31.7%) re-assessed advanced CKD only at ≥1-year intervals. While the use of oral anticoagulants (OACs) in mild-to-moderate CKD patients was mostly guided by individual patient stroke risk, 31% of the centres used no therapy, or aspirin or the left appendage occlusion in patients with advanced CKD and HAS-BLED ≥ 3. Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) were preferred in patients with severe CKD or under renal replacement therapy (RRT), any non-VKA in patients with mild CKD, and apixaban in patients with moderate CKD. Rhythm control was preferred in patients with mild-to-moderate CKD (48.7% of centres), and rate control in patients with severe CKD (51.2% of centres). In 20 centres (48.8%), AF ablation was not performed in advanced CKD patients. Most centres performed AF ablation on OAC, but heparin bridging was still used in >10% of centres. Our survey has shown that the importance of renal function monitoring in AF patients is well recognized in clinical practice. In patients with mild-to-moderate CKD, AF is mostly managed according to the guideline recommendations, but more data are needed to guide the management of AF in patients with severe CKD or RRT. PMID:26733617

  9. A primary healthcare approach to the management of chronic disease in Ethiopia: an example for other countries.

    PubMed

    Mamo, Yoseph; Seid, Etalem; Adams, Sarah; Gardiner, Amy; Parry, Eldryd

    2007-06-01

    Chronic non-communicable diseases such as epilepsy, diabetes, cardiac disease and hypertension represent a growing but neglected burden in developing countries. Rural sufferers, distant from health facilities, bear this most acutely. In response, a community care programme has been developed at Jimma University Hospital and its allied health centres in rural southwest Ethiopia. This involves general duty nurses at rural health centres being trained to provide care for chronic disease patients, with regular supervision from the hospital physicians. The programme allows treatment to be provided away from the main hospital so that those who cannot afford to travel can access care near their homes. Improved access increases the request for care, and helps to address the large unmet need for chronic disease treatment. This is a good model in which rural healthcare delivery through a team can bring widespread benefit. In this article chronic disease care is discussed with a particular focus on diabetes and epilepsy. The model can be replicated in more or less developed countries and may also be relevant for HIV care. PMID:17633941

  10. The Relationship between Organizational Climate and Quality of Chronic Disease Management

    PubMed Central

    Benzer, Justin K; Young, Gary; Stolzmann, Kelly; Osatuke, Katerine; Meterko, Mark; Caso, Allison; White, Bert; Mohr, David C

    2011-01-01

    Objective To test the utility of a two-dimensional model of organizational climate for explaining variation in diabetes care between primary care clinics. Data Sources/Study Setting Secondary data were obtained from 223 primary care clinics in the Department of Veterans Affairs health care system. Study Design Organizational climate was defined using the dimensions of task and relational climate. The association between primary care organizational climate and diabetes processes and intermediate outcomes were estimated for 4,539 patients in a cross-sectional study. Data Collection/Extraction Methods All data were collected from administrative datasets. The climate data were drawn from the 2007 VA All Employee Survey, and the outcomes data were collected as part of the VA External Peer Review Program. Climate data were aggregated to the facility level of analysis and merged with patient-level data. Principal Findings Relational climate was related to an increased likelihood of diabetes care process adherence, with significant but small effects for adherence to intermediate outcomes. Task climate was generally not shown to be related to adherence. Conclusions The role of relational climate in predicting the quality of chronic care was supported. Future research should examine the mediators and moderators of relational climate and further investigate task climate. PMID:21210799

  11. Early experience in using telemonitoring for the management of chronic disease in primary care.

    PubMed

    Fursse, Joanna; Clarke, Malcolm; Jones, Russell; Khemka, Sneh; Findlay, Genevieve

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the use of telemonitoring in three long-term conditions: chronic heart failure (CHF), type 2 diabetes and essential hypertension. Participants were provided with a home telemonitoring unit for a 12-week period and entered physiological data each day. The data were sent automatically via the participant's telephone line to a server and could be viewed via a web browser. An intervention algorithm was developed to improve the accuracy with which patients requiring intervention were recognized compared to existing systems based on a simple threshold. Thirty patients completed the 12-week trial. One patient dropped out, giving data on 29 patients (mean age 70 years, 17 women). The algorithm prompted a clinical intervention in 11 patients (38%). The average time that elapsed before the first intervention was 47 days (SD 21). Primarily the interventions (72%) resulted in changes to medication and health advice. The results suggest that four weeks is sufficient time in which to recognize the need to intervene clinically and that in 12 weeks it is possible to effect a change towards a target. PMID:18430275

  12. Managing chronic pain in adults.

    PubMed

    Barrie, Janette; Loughlin, Diane

    2014-10-21

    The management of chronic pain is complex. Services and support for people living with chronic pain are variable despite the publication of a number of reports highlighting the problem. Due to the epidemiology of pain, nurses deliver care to patients with persistent pain in a variety of settings. It is important that nurses have the knowledge, skills and correct attitude to deliver compassionate, person-centred care, in line with best practice in chronic pain management. PMID:25315569

  13. Challenges in the Management of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; Chichra, Astha; Nguyen, Vinh Q; Gadiraju, Taraka V; Le Jemtel, Thierry H

    2016-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) commonly coexist in clinical practice. The prevalence of COPD among HFrEF patients ranges from 20 to 32 %. On the other hand; HFrEF is prevalent in more than 20 % of COPD patients. With an aging population, the number of patients with coexisting COPD and HFrEF is on rise. Coexisting COPD and HFrEF presents a unique diagnostic and therapeutic clinical conundrum. Common symptoms shared by both conditions mask the early referral and detection of the other. Beta blockers (BB), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and aldosterone antagonists have been shown to reduce hospitalizations, morbidity, and mortality in HFrEF while long-acting inhaled bronchodilators (beta-2-agonists and anticholinergics) and corticosteroids have been endorsed for COPD treatment. The opposing pharmacotherapy of BBs and beta-2-agonists highlight the conflict in prescribing BBs in COPD and beta-2-agonists in HFrEF. This has resulted in underutilization of evidence-based therapy for HFrEF in COPD patients owing to fear of adverse effects. This review aims to provide an update and current perspective on diagnostic and therapeutic management of patients with coexisting COPD and HFrEF. PMID:26780914

  14. Anesthetic management in parturients with chronic kidney disease undergoing elective Caesarean delivery: Our experience of nine cases

    PubMed Central

    Modi, M. P.; Vora, K. S.; Parikh, G. P.; Shah, V. R.; Misra, V. V.; Jasani, A. F.

    2014-01-01

    In this retrospective study, we describe the anesthetic management and its implications in parturients with chronic kidney disease (CKD; n = 9), who underwent elective caesarean delivery. Nine parturients with CKD of various etiologies, who underwent elective Caesarean delivery, were included in this study. Spinal anest-hesia was administered in all parturients with normal coagulation profile through a 25-gauze spinal needle (Quincke) with 0.5% (H) bupivacaine in L2-3 space and T6 level was achieved. Hemodynamics and side effects such as nausea, vomiting, headache, and backache were record. The mean age was 28.22 ± 4.43 years. The mean levels of serum creatinine and serum potassium were 2.78 ± 1.29 mg/dl and 4.11 ± 0.46 meq/l, respectively. Mean baseline values of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and pulse rate were higher which decreased after spinal anesthesia. However, the incidence of hypotension, which required mephentermine treatment, was 11.1%. One patient had symptoms of nausea and vomiting/dizziness at the time of hypotension, which disappeared after treatment with 5 mg of intravenous mephentermine. Baseline value of PR remained high throughout the operation. Parturients with CKD with normal coagulation profile remained hemodynamically stable under spinal anesthesia with minimal side effects. However, a large number of studies are required to determine the safety of spinal anesthesia in this setting. PMID:24574626

  15. Heterogeneous data fusion and intelligent techniques embedded in a mobile application for real-time chronic disease management.

    PubMed

    Bellos, Christos; Papadopoulos, Athanassios; Rosso, Roberto; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2011-01-01

    CHRONIOUS system is an integrated platform aiming at the management of chronic disease patients. One of the most important components of the system is a Decision Support System (DSS) that has been developed in a Smart Device (SD). This component decides on patient's current health status by combining several data, which are acquired either by wearable sensors or manually inputted by the patient or retrieved from the specific database. In case no abnormal situation has been tracked, the DSS takes no action and remains deactivated until next abnormal situation pack of data are being acquired or next scheduled data being transmitted. The DSS that has been implemented is an integrated classification system with two parallel classifiers, combining an expert system (rule-based system) and a supervised classifier, such as Support Vector Machines (SVM), Random Forests, artificial Neural Networks (aNN like the Multi-Layer Perceptron), Decision Trees and Naïve Bayes. The above categorized system is useful for providing critical information about the health status of the patient. PMID:22256271

  16. Levodropropizine in the management of cough associated with cancer or nonmalignant chronic disease--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Schildmann, Eva Katharina; Rémi, Constanze; Bausewein, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Cough associated with cancer or nonmalignant chronic disease is common and distressing. Levodropropizine, a peripherally acting drug, has been used as an alternative antitussive to opioids. The authors aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of levodropropizine in relieving cough associated with cancer or nonmalignant chronic disease. The authors searched five databases and hand searched relevant journals to identify randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials assessing the antitussive effect of levodropropizine for cough associated with cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), interstitial lung disease, or chronic heart failure. Study quality was assessed using a modified version of the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination criteria. The search yielded 58 references. Six were checked in more detail, and four studies were included. Two were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) testing levodropropizine against dihydrocodeine and moguisteine, and two were nonrandomized placebo-controlled studies, all with important limitations and high risk of bias. Levodropropizine was significantly more effective than placebo in reducing cough frequency and severity, and equally effective as dihydrocodeine or moguisteine. It was generally well tolerated. The authors conclude that the evidence for the antitussive efficacy of levodropropizine in these patients is scarce, and is further limited by the methodological weaknesses of the primary studies. Further well-designed research is needed to support its use. PMID:21806417

  17. Invasive mucormycosis in chronic granulomatous disease.

    PubMed

    Al-Otaibi, Abdulnasir M; Al-Shahrani, Dayel A; Al-Idrissi, Eman M; Al-Abdely, Hail M

    2016-05-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare opportunistic fungal infection that occurs in certain immunocompromised patients. We present 2 cases of invasive mucormycosis due to Rhizopus spp. in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) and discuss their clinical presentation, management challenges, and outcomes. PMID:27146621

  18. Invasive mucormycosis in chronic granulomatous disease

    PubMed Central

    Al-Otaibi, Abdulnasir M.; Al-Shahrani, Dayel A.; Al-Idrissi, Eman M.; Al-Abdely, Hail M.

    2016-01-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare opportunistic fungal infection that occurs in certain immunocompromised patients. We present 2 cases of invasive mucormycosis due to Rhizopus spp. in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) and discuss their clinical presentation, management challenges, and outcomes. PMID:27146621

  19. Development of a Multi-Agent m-Health Application Based on Various Protocols for Chronic Disease Self-Management.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Sang; Cho, Hune; Kim, Hwa Sun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a mobile health application (Self-Management mobile Personal Health Record: "SmPHR") to ensure the interoperability of various personal health devices (PHDs) and electronic medical record systems (EMRs) for continuous self-management of chronic disease patients. The SmPHR was developed for Android 4.0.3, and implemented according to the optimized standard protocol for each interface of healthcare services adopted by the Continua Health Alliance (CHA). That is, the Personal Area Network (PAN) interface between the application and PHD implements ISO/IEEE 11073-20,601, 10,404, 10,407, 10,415, 10,417, and Bluetooth Health Device Profile (HDP), and EMRs with a wide area network (WAN) interface implement HL7 V2.6; the Health Record Network (HRN) interface implements Continuity of Care Document (CCD) and Continuity of Care Record (CCR). Also, for SmPHR, we evaluated the transmission error rate between the interface using four PHDs and personal health record systems (PHRs) from previous research, with 611 users and elderly people after receiving institutional review board (IRB) approval. In the evaluation, the PAN interface showed 15 (2.4 %) errors, and the WAN and HRN interface showed 13 (2.1 %) errors in a total of 611 transmission attempts. Also, we received opinions regarding SmPHR from 15 healthcare professionals who took part in the clinical trial. Thus, SmPHR can be provided as an interconnected PHR mobile health service to patients, allowing 'plug and play' of PHDs and EMRs through various standard protocols. PMID:26573657

  20. Chronic Beryllium Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... an immune response or “allergy” to beryllium metal, ceramic or alloy, termed beryllium sensitization (BeS). Beryllium sensitization ... Mroz MM, Newman LS. Beryllium disease screening in ceramics industry: Blood test performance and exposure-disease relations. ...

  1. Comorbidity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Negewo, Netsanet A; McDonald, Vanessa M; Gibson, Peter G

    2015-11-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) often experience comorbid conditions. The most common comorbidities that have been associated with COPD include cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer, metabolic disorder, osteoporosis, anxiety and depression, skeletal muscle dysfunction, cachexia, gastrointestinal diseases, and other respiratory conditions. Not only are comorbidities common but they also considerably influence disease prognosis and patients׳ health status, and are associated with poor clinical outcomes. However, perusal of literature indicates that little has been done so far to effectively assess, manage, and treat comorbidities in patients with COPD. The aim of this review is to comprehensively narrate the comorbid conditions that often coexist with COPD, along with their reported prevalence and their significant impacts in the disease management of COPD. A perspective on integrated disease management approaches for COPD is also discussed. PMID:26521102

  2. Key Features Of Peer Support In Chronic Disease Prevention And Management.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Edwin B; Ballesteros, Juana; Bhushan, Nivedita; Coufal, Muchieh M; Kowitt, Sarah D; McDonough, A Manuela; Parada, Humberto; Robinette, Jennifer B; Sokol, Rebeccah L; Tang, Patrick Y; Urlaub, Diana

    2015-09-01

    Peer support from community health workers, promotores de salud, and others through community and health care organizations can provide social support and other assistance that enhances health. There is substantial evidence for both the effectiveness and the cost-effectiveness of peer support, as well as for its feasibility, reach, and sustainability. We discuss findings from Peers for Progress, a program of the American Academy of Family Physicians Foundation, to examine when peer support does not work, guide dissemination of peer support programs, and help integrate approaches such as e-health into peer support. Success factors for peer support programs include proactive implementation, attention to participants' emotions, and ongoing supervision. Reaching those whom conventional clinical and preventive services too often fail to reach; reaching whole populations, such as people with diabetes, rather than selected samples; and addressing behavioral health are strengths of peer support that can help achieve health care that is efficient and of high quality. Challenges for policy makers going forward include encouraging workforce development, balancing quality control with maintaining key features of peer support, and ensuring that underresourced organizations can develop and manage peer support programs. PMID:26355054

  3. Children, Sports, and Chronic Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Barry

    1990-01-01

    Discusses four chronic diseases (cystic fibrosis, congenital heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and asthma) that affect American children. Many have their physical activities unnecessarily restricted, though sports and exercise can actually alleviate symptoms and improve their psychosocial development. Physicians are encouraged to prescribe…

  4. A Customizable Model for Chronic Disease Coordination: Lessons Learned From the Coordinated Chronic Disease Program.

    PubMed

    Voetsch, Karen; Sequeira, Sonia; Chavez, Amy Holmes

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provided funding and technical assistance to all states and territories to implement the Coordinated Chronic Disease Program, marking the first time that all state health departments had federal resources to coordinate chronic disease prevention and control programs. This article describes lessons learned from this initiative and identifies key elements of a coordinated approach. We analyzed 80 programmatic documents from 21 states and conducted semistructured interviews with 7 chronic disease directors. Six overarching themes emerged: 1) focused agenda, 2) identification of functions, 3) comprehensive planning, 4) collaborative leadership and expertise, 5) managed resources, and 6) relationship building. These elements supported 4 essential activities: 1) evidence-based interventions, 2) strategic use of staff, 3) consistent communication, and 4) strong program infrastructure. On the basis of these elements and activities, we propose a conceptual model that frames overarching concepts, skills, and strategies needed to coordinate state chronic disease prevention and control programs. PMID:27032986

  5. A Customizable Model for Chronic Disease Coordination: Lessons Learned From the Coordinated Chronic Disease Program

    PubMed Central

    Sequeira, Sonia; Chavez, Amy Holmes

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provided funding and technical assistance to all states and territories to implement the Coordinated Chronic Disease Program, marking the first time that all state health departments had federal resources to coordinate chronic disease prevention and control programs. This article describes lessons learned from this initiative and identifies key elements of a coordinated approach. We analyzed 80 programmatic documents from 21 states and conducted semistructured interviews with 7 chronic disease directors. Six overarching themes emerged: 1) focused agenda, 2) identification of functions, 3) comprehensive planning, 4) collaborative leadership and expertise, 5) managed resources, and 6) relationship building. These elements supported 4 essential activities: 1) evidence-based interventions, 2) strategic use of staff, 3) consistent communication, and 4) strong program infrastructure. On the basis of these elements and activities, we propose a conceptual model that frames overarching concepts, skills, and strategies needed to coordinate state chronic disease prevention and control programs. PMID:27032986

  6. Phosphate metabolism in chronic kidney disease: from pathophysiology to clinical management.

    PubMed

    Spasovski, Goce; Massy, Ziad; Vanholder, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is considered as an independent risk factor for surrogate clinical endpoints like vascular calcification (VC) and bone disease, or hard clinical outcomes like cardiovascular events. To date, various treatment options for phosphate removal or reduction are available. The great expectations put into calcium-based phosphate binders were mitigated because of their possible contribution to progressive VC, particularly in patients treated simultaneously with active vitamin D derivatives. Thus, a paradigm change occurred whereby the main clinical concern shifted from the avoidance of hypocalcemia to that of the consequences of inducting a positive calcium balance. Sevelamer-HCl treatment allowed a comparable control of hyperphosphatemia with a lower risk of hypercalcemia than calcium-based phosphate binders, and a slower progression of VC; however, convincing evidence of improved clinical outcomes in dialysis patients is lacking. Although data on the safety and efficacy of lanthanum carbonate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia have been provided in long-term clinical studies, there is still an ongoing scientific debate about its possible long-term toxicity. Moreover, there are no data from randomized clinical trials demonstrating beneficial effects of La carbonate treatment on VC or cardiovascular outcomes. In the absence of convincing clinical trials testing the effects of non-metal-based phosphate binders on cardiovascular and global outcomes it appears reasonable to maintain bone health and mineral homeostasis by mainly relying on adaptations of standard therapies. Noncalcium, non-aluminum-based binders might be reserved for patients with major mineral metabolism abnormalities and a high risk of VC. PMID:19708981

  7. Chronic tracheobronchial disease in the dog.

    PubMed

    Padrid, P; Amis, T C

    1992-09-01

    Tracheobronchial collapse and chronic bronchitis (CB) are the two most common forms of chronic tracheobronchial disease in dogs. These conditions may exist independently of one another, although CB and some degree of tracheobronchial collapse often co-exist in the same patient. Diagnosis of CB can be established on clinical grounds alone, whereas radiographic or bronchoscopic evidence is required to confirm the diagnosis of tracheobronchial collapse. Although glucocorticoid drug therapy remains one of the most effective methods for managing CB, surgical implantation of a prosthetic airway device may be of great benefit for some dogs with a focal area of collapsing trachea. With early diagnosis and aggressive medical and surgical management, the prognosis for many dogs with chronic tracheobronchial disease is good for reasonable quality of life. PMID:1523790

  8. The Roles of Chronic Disease Complexity, Health System Integration, and Care Management in Post-Discharge Healthcare Utilization in a Low-Income Population.

    PubMed

    Hewner, Sharon; Casucci, Sabrina; Castner, Jessica

    2016-08-01

    Economically disadvantaged individuals with chronic disease have high rates of in-patient (IP) readmission and emergency department (ED) utilization following initial hospitalization. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between chronic disease complexity, health system integration (admission to accountable care organization [ACO] hospital), availability of care management interventions (membership in managed care organization [MCO]), and 90-day post-discharge healthcare utilization. We used de-identified Medicaid claims data from two counties in western New York. The study population was 114,295 individuals who met inclusion criteria, of whom 7,179 had index hospital admissions in the first 9 months of 2013. Individuals were assigned to three disease complexity segments based on presence of 12 prevalent conditions. The 30-day inpatient (IP) readmission rates ranged from 6% in the non-chronic segment to 12% in the chronic disease complexity segment and 21% in the organ system failure complexity segment. Rehospitalization rates (both inpatient and emergency department [ED]) were lower for patients in MCOs and ACOs than for those in fee-for-service care. Complexity of chronic disease, initial hospitalization in a facility that was part of an ACO, MCO membership, female gender, and longer length of stay were associated with a significantly longer time to readmission in the first 90 days, that is, fewer readmissions. Our results add to evidence that high-value post-discharge utilization (fewer IP or ED rehospitalizations and early outpatient follow-up) require population-based transitional care strategies that improve continuity between settings and take into account the illness complexity of the Medicaid population. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27284973

  9. Mental health and relational self-management experiences of patients with type 2 diabetes and stage 3 chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Sakraida, Teresa Joan; Robinson, Marylou V

    2012-11-01

    Self-management (SM) behaviors reduce disease burden from advancing diabetic kidney disease. From a parent study about patients' transition experience to SM, this study report presents coping resources that support SM and barriers from two focus group interviews (n = 6). Ethnographic analysis identified two patterns: (a) mental health self-management characterized by coping, and (b) relational self-management characterized by social support. Practice implications include focused assessment of perceived social support and social network, dating advisement, and workplace management. Future study considerations include inquiry about diabetes and dating relationships and workplace resources for SM support. PMID:23146013

  10. Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... on ClinicalTrials.gov . Related Links​ Primary Immune Deficiency Diseases (PIDDs) Immune System National Library of Medicine, Genetics Home Reference ​​​ Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain ... and Infectious Diseases web site to work incorrectly. Please visit your ...

  11. The development and pilot testing of the Self-management Programme of Activity, Coping and Education for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (SPACE for COPD)

    PubMed Central

    Apps, Lindsay D; Mitchell, Katy E; Harrison, Samantha L; Sewell, Louise; Williams, Johanna E; Young, Hannah ML; Steiner, Michael; Morgan, Mike; Singh, Sally J

    2013-01-01

    Purpose There is no independent standardized self-management approach available for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this project was to develop and test a novel self-management manual for individuals with COPD. Patients Participants with a confirmed diagnosis of COPD were recruited from primary care. Methods A novel self-management manual was developed with health care professionals and patients. Five focus groups were conducted with individuals with COPD (N = 24) during development to confirm and enhance the content of the prototype manual. The Self-management Programme of Activity, Coping and Education for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (SPACE for COPD) manual was developed as the focus of a comprehensive self-management approach facilitated by health care professionals. Preference for delivery was initial face-to-face consultation with telephone follow-up. The SPACE for COPD manual was piloted with 37 participants in primary care. Outcome measures included the Self-Report Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire, Incremental Shuttle Walk Test, and Endurance Shuttle Walking Test (ESWT); measurements were taken at baseline and 6 weeks. Results The pilot study observed statistically significant improvements for the dyspnea domain of the Self-Report Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire and ESWT. Dyspnea showed a mean change of 0.67 (95% confidence interval 0.23–1.11, P = 0.005). ESWT score increased by 302.25 seconds (95% confidence interval 161.47–443.03, P < 0.001). Conclusion This article describes the development and delivery of a novel self-management approach for COPD. The program, incorporating the SPACE for COPD manual, appears to provoke important changes in exercise capacity and breathlessness for individuals with COPD managed in primary care. PMID:23874093

  12. Endoscopic management of chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Oza, Veeral M; Kahaleh, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a common gastrointestinal illness, which affects the quality of life with substantial morbidity and mortality. The management includes medical, endoscopic and surgical approaches with the need for interaction between various specialties, calling for a concerted multidisciplinary approach. However, at the time of this publication, guidelines to establish care of these patients are lacking. This review provides the reader with a comprehensive overview of the studies summarizing the various treatment options available, including medical, surgical and endoscopic options. In addition, technological advances such as endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogrophy, endoscopic shock wave lithotripsy and endoscopic ultrasound can now be offered with reasonable success for pancreatic decompression, stricture dilatation with stent placement, stone fragmentation, pseudocyst drainage, and other endoscopic interventions such as celiac plexus block for pain relief. We emphasize the endoscopic options in this review, and attempt to extract the most up to date information from the current literature. The treatment of CP and its complications are discussed extensively. Complications such as biliary strictures. pancreatic pseudocysts, and chronic pain are common issues that arise as long-term complications of CP. These often require endoscopic or surgical management and possibly a combination of approaches, however choosing amongst the various therapeutic and palliative modalities while weighing the risks and benefits, makes the management of CP challenging. Treatment goals should be not just to control symptoms but also to prevent disease progression. Our aim in this paper is to advocate and emphasize an evidence based approach for the management of CP and associated long term complications. PMID:23330050

  13. [Chronic Kidney Disease and Bone].

    PubMed

    James, Junichiro

    2016-08-01

    Both bone and kidney are members of the physiological network sharing a purpose of systemic mineral metabolism. In patients with chronic kidney disease whose kidney function is lost, the organ functions of other mineral metabolism network member including bone fail into uncontrollable due to dysregulated feedback system. This is the concept of Chronic Kidney Disease(related)- Mineral and Bone Disorder(CKD-MBD). However, the bone metabolic abnormalities in patients with chronic kidney disease cannot be explained merely by the framework of this mineral metabolism network. Although dialysis patients show several times higher hip fracture risk than general population, the main pathogenesis seems not to be their disordered mineral metabolism. We need to consider "uremic osteoporosis" characterized by deteriorated bone material properties due to uremic condition. PMID:27461505

  14. Chronic granulomatous disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... immune system cells called phagocytes are unable to kill some types of bacteria and fungi. This disorder ... diagnose the disease and find out whether the mother is a carrier Genetic testing to confirm the ...

  15. About Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rate Your Risk Quiz Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans are ... checks Your Kidneys and You Meetings Featured Story Kidney Walk The Kidney Walk is the nation's largest ...

  16. Diet and Chronic Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Factors that improve insulin sensitivity usually lead to improvements in risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Naturally occurring bioactive compounds that have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity include chromium and polyphenols found in c...

  17. Niacin and Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Taketani, Yutaka; Masuda, Masashi; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Tatsumi, Sawako; Segawa, Hiroko; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasing problem worldwide. The number of end-stage renal disease patients requiring treatment by dialysis is estimated to be increasing by 10,000 patients per year in Japan. Furthermore, an estimated 13 million people are living with CKD in Japan. Various complications are associated with CKD, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). More than one-third of CKD patients die from CVD. Thus, prevention of CVD is a primary concern for the treatment of CKD patients. CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is a serious complication that typically leads to CVD. Hyperphosphatemia is thought to be a central-risk factor for CKD-MBD. Therefore, managing hyperphosphatemia is crucial to prevent CKD-MBD and CVD. It is difficult to achieve the target serum phosphate level through dietary modifications alone in patients with hyperphosphatemia, because most foods contain phosphate. Thus, phosphate binders such as calcium carbonate are commonly prescribed to CKD patients with hyperphosphatemia, but these have undesirable side effects. Inhibition of intestinal phosphate transport activity has also been investigated as an alternative approach for controlling serum phosphate levels in CKD patients. Nicotinamide, which is the amide of niacin, can inhibit intestinal phosphate transport. Niacin and related compounds have also been developed as drugs for hyperlipidemia conditions, especially hypertriglyceridemia with low high-density lipoprotein. This type of dyslipidemia is frequently observed in CKD patients and is a modifiable risk factor for CVD. Thus, niacin and related compounds may have utility for the treatment of both hyperphosphatemia and dyslipidemia in CKD patients to prevent CVD. PMID:26598845

  18. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction in Advanced Nursing Practice: A Nonpharmacologic Approach to Health Promotion, Chronic Disease Management, and Symptom Control.

    PubMed

    Williams, Hants; Simmons, Leigh Ann; Tanabe, Paula

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss how advanced practice nurses (APNs) can incorporate mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) as a nonpharmacologic clinical tool in their practice. Over the last 30 years, patients and providers have increasingly used complementary and holistic therapies for the nonpharmacologic management of acute and chronic diseases. Mindfulness-based interventions, specifically MBSR, have been tested and applied within a variety of patient populations. There is strong evidence to support that the use of MBSR can improve a range of biological and psychological outcomes in a variety of medical illnesses, including acute and chronic pain, hypertension, and disease prevention. This article will review the many ways APNs can incorporate MBSR approaches for health promotion and disease/symptom management into their practice. We conclude with a discussion of how nurses can obtain training and certification in MBSR. Given the significant and growing literature supporting the use of MBSR in the prevention and treatment of chronic disease, increased attention on how APNs can incorporate MBSR into clinical practice is necessary. PMID:25673578

  19. Osteoporosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Malay; Bhardwaj, Rajeev; Madabhavi, Irappa; Khatana, Jasmin

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lifestyle-related chronic inflammatory pulmonary disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. COPD is associated with various comorbidities found in all stages of COPD. The comorbidities have significant impact in terms of morbidity, mortality, and economic burden in COPD. Management of comorbidities should be incorporated into the comprehensive management of COPD as this will also have an effect on the outcome in COPD patients. Various comorbidities reported in COPD include cardiovascular disease, skeletal muscle dysfunction, anemia, metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a significant comorbidity in COPD patients. Various risk factors, such as tobacco smoking, systemic inflammation, vitamin D deficiency, and the use of oral or inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) are responsible for its occurrence in patients with COPD. This review will focus on the prevalence, pathogenesis, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoporosis in COPD patients. PMID:25788838

  20. Osteoporosis in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Malay; Bhardwaj, Rajeev; Madabhavi, Irappa; Khatana, Jasmin

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lifestyle-related chronic inflammatory pulmonary disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. COPD is associated with various comorbidities found in all stages of COPD. The comorbidities have significant impact in terms of morbidity, mortality, and economic burden in COPD. Management of comorbidities should be incorporated into the comprehensive management of COPD as this will also have an effect on the outcome in COPD patients. Various comorbidities reported in COPD include cardiovascular disease, skeletal muscle dysfunction, anemia, metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a significant comorbidity in COPD patients. Various risk factors, such as tobacco smoking, systemic inflammation, vitamin D deficiency, and the use of oral or inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) are responsible for its occurrence in patients with COPD. This review will focus on the prevalence, pathogenesis, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoporosis in COPD patients. PMID:25788838

  1. Iron management in chronic kidney disease: conclusions from a "Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes" (KDIGO) Controversies Conference.

    PubMed

    Macdougall, Iain C; Bircher, Andreas J; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Obrador, Gregorio T; Pollock, Carol A; Stenvinkel, Peter; Swinkels, Dorine W; Wanner, Christoph; Weiss, Günter; Chertow, Glenn M

    2016-01-01

    Before the introduction of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) in 1989, repeated transfusions given to patients with end-stage renal disease caused iron overload, and the need for supplemental iron was rare. However, with the widespread introduction of ESAs, it was recognized that supplemental iron was necessary to optimize hemoglobin response and allow reduction of the ESA dose for economic reasons and recent concerns about ESA safety. Iron supplementation was also found to be more efficacious via intravenous compared to oral administration, and the use of intravenous iron has escalated in recent years. The safety of various iron compounds has been of theoretical concern due to their potential to induce iron overload, oxidative stress, hypersensitivity reactions, and a permissive environment for infectious processes. Therefore, an expert group was convened to assess the benefits and risks of parenteral iron, and to provide strategies for its optimal use while mitigating the risk for acute reactions and other adverse effects. PMID:26759045

  2. Osteoporosis across chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Guarino, M; Loperto, I; Camera, S; Cossiga, V; Di Somma, C; Colao, A; Caporaso, N; Morisco, F

    2016-06-01

    Osteoporosis is a complication of chronic liver disease, with impact on morbidity, quality of life, and survival. The progress of medicine and the new therapies stretched the disease's natural history and improved the survival of patients with liver disease. So, it is fundamental to make better the quality of life and to prevent complications. Metabolic bone disorders are common complications of chronic liver disease (CLD). Patients with CLD have an increased risk of bone fractures, with significant impact on morbidity, quality of life, and even on survival. Bone diseases, including osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and osteopenia, are frequently observed in many types of liver disease. The pathogenesis of damage and the mechanisms of bone loss are different in relation to the specific liver disease. The relevance of these conditions induced many authors to create a new nosographic entity known as "hepatic osteodystrophy", although this term is rarely used anymore and it is now commonly referred to as osteopenia or osteoporosis associated with chronic liver disease. This review is based on the personal experiences of the authors and upon research done of the available literature on this subject matter. The authors searched the PubMed database for publications containing the term "liver disease" in combination with "bone disease", "hepatic osteodistrophy", "osteoporosis", "osteopenia", "osteomalacia", and "fractures". They selected publications from the past 10 years but did not exclude older seminal publications, especially for colestatic liver diseases. This review of literature shows that osteoporosis crosses all CLD. It is important to underline that the progress of medicine and the new therapies stretched the disease's natural history and improved the survival of patients with CLD. It is fundamental to make better the quality of life and it is mandatory to prevent complications and in particular the osteoporotic ones, especially fractures. PMID:26846777

  3. Chronic Bronchitis and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Criner, Gerard J.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic bronchitis (CB) is a common but variable phenomenon in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It has numerous clinical consequences, including an accelerated decline in lung function, greater risk of the development of airflow obstruction in smokers, a predisposition to lower respiratory tract infection, higher exacerbation frequency, and worse overall mortality. CB is caused by overproduction and hypersecretion of mucus by goblet cells, which leads to worsening airflow obstruction by luminal obstruction of small airways, epithelial remodeling, and alteration of airway surface tension predisposing to collapse. Despite its clinical sequelae, little is known about the pathophysiology of CB and goblet cell hyperplasia in COPD, and treatment options are limited. In addition, it is becoming increasingly apparent that in the classic COPD spectrum, with emphysema on one end and CB on the other, most patients lie somewhere in the middle. It is known now that many patients with severe emphysema can develop CB, and small airway pathology has been linked to worse clinical outcomes, such as increased mortality and lesser improvement in lung function after lung volume reduction surgery. However, in recent years, a greater understanding of the importance of CB as a phenotype to identify patients with a beneficial response to therapy has been described. Herein we review the epidemiology of CB, the evidence behind its clinical consequences, the current understanding of the pathophysiology of goblet cell hyperplasia in COPD, and current therapies for CB. PMID:23204254

  4. NAFLD and Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Marcuccilli, Morgan; Chonchol, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in developed countries and it is now considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Evidence linking NAFLD to the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is emerging as a popular area of scientific interest. The rise in simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation as well as the significant cost associated with the presence of chronic kidney disease in the NAFLD population make this entity a worthwhile target for screening and therapeutic intervention. While several cross-sectional and case control studies have been published to substantiate these theories, very little data exists on the underlying cause of NAFLD and CKD. In this review, we will discuss the most recent publications on the diagnosis of NAFLD as well new evidence regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD and CKD as an inflammatory disorder. These mechanisms include the role of obesity, the renin-angiotensin system, and dysregulation of fructose metabolism and lipogenesis in the development of both disorders. Further investigation of these pathways may lead to novel therapies that aim to target the NAFLD and CKD. However, more prospective studies that include information on both renal and liver histology will be necessary in order to understand the relationship between these diseases. PMID:27089331

  5. Management of chronic musculoskeletal pain.

    PubMed

    Uhl, Richard L; Roberts, Timothy T; Papaliodis, Dean N; Mulligan, Michael T; Dubin, Andrew H

    2014-02-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain results from a complex interplay of mechanical, biochemical, psychological, and social factors. Effective management is markedly different from that of acute musculoskeletal pain. Understanding the physiology of pain transmission, modulation, and perception is crucial for effective management. Pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies such as psychotherapy and biofeedback exercises can be used to manage chronic pain. Evidence-based treatment recommendations have been made for chronic pain conditions frequently encountered by orthopaedic surgeons, including low back, osteoarthritic, posttraumatic, and neuropathic pain. Extended-release tramadol; select tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and anticonvulsants; and topical medications such as lidocaine, diclofenac, and capsaicin are among the most effective treatments. However, drug efficacy varies significantly by indication. Orthopaedic surgeons should be familiar with the widely available safe and effective nonnarcotic options for chronic musculoskeletal pain. PMID:24486756

  6. Mortality Benefit of a Fourth-Generation Synchronous Telehealth Program for the Management of Chronic Cardiovascular Disease: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chi-Sheng; Yu, Jiun-Yu; Lin, Yen-Hung; Chen, Ying-Hsien; Huang, Ching-Chang; Lee, Jen-Kuang; Chuang, Pao-Yu; Chen, Ming-Fong

    2016-01-01

    Background We have shown that a fourth-generation telehealth program that analyzes and responds synchronously to data transferred from patients is associated with fewer hospitalizations and lower medical costs. Whether a fourth-generation telehealth program can reduce all-cause mortality has not yet been reported for patients with chronic cardiovascular disease. Objective We conducted a clinical epidemiology study retrospectively to determine whether a fourth-generation telehealth program can reduce all-cause mortality for patients with chronic cardiovascular disease. Methods We enrolled 576 patients who had joined a telehealth program and compared them with 1178 control patients. A Cox proportional hazards model was fitted to analyze the impact of risk predictors on all-cause mortality. The model adjusted for age, sex, and chronic comorbidities. Results There were 53 (9.3%) deaths in the telehealth group and 136 (11.54%) deaths in the control group. We found that the telehealth program violated the proportional hazards assumption by the Schoenfeld residual test. Thus, we fitted a Cox regression model with time-varying covariates. The results showed an estimated hazard ratio (HR) of 0.866 (95% CI 0.837-0.896, P<.001; number needed to treat at 1 year=55.6, 95% CI 43.2-75.7 based on HR of telehealth program) for the telehealth program on all-cause mortality after adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities. The time-varying interaction term in this analysis showed that the beneficial effect of telehealth would increase over time. Conclusions The results suggest that our fourth-generation telehealth program is associated with less all-cause mortality compared with usual care after adjusting for chronic comorbidities. PMID:27177497

  7. Intermediate Outcomes of a Chronic Disease Self-Management Program for Spanish-Speaking Older Adults in South Florida, 2008–2010

    PubMed Central

    Seff, Laura R.; Bastida, Elena; Albatineh, Ahmed N.; Page, Timothy F.; Palmer, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence and negative health effects of chronic diseases are disproportionately high among Hispanics, the largest minority group in the United States. Self-management of chronic conditions by older adults is a public health priority. The objective of this study was to examine 6-week differences in self-efficacy, time spent performing physical activity, and perceived social and role activities limitations for participants in a chronic disease self-management program for Spanish-speaking older adults, Tomando Control de su Salud (TCDS). Methods Through the Healthy Aging Regional Collaborative, 8 area agencies delivered 82 workshops in 62 locations throughout South Florida. Spanish-speaking participants who attended workshops from October 1, 2008, through December 31, 2010, were aged 55 years or older, had at least 1 chronic condition, and completed baseline and post-test surveys were included in analysis (N = 682). Workshops consisted of six, 2.5-hour sessions offered once per week for 6 weeks. A self-report survey was administered at baseline and again at the end of program instruction. To assess differences in outcomes, a repeated measures general linear model was used, controlling for agency and baseline general health. Results All outcomes showed improvement at 6 weeks. Outcomes that improved significantly were self-efficacy to manage disease, perceived social and role activities limitations, time spent walking, and time spent performing other aerobic activities. Conclusion Implementation of TCDS significantly improved 4 of 8 health promotion skills and behaviors of Spanish-speaking older adults in South Florida. A community-based implementation of TCDS has the potential to improve health outcomes for a diverse, Spanish-speaking, older adult population. PMID:23987252

  8. Pharmaceutical supply for disaster victims who need chronic disease management in region with aging population based on lessons learned from the Noto Peninsula Earthquake in 2007.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Junko; Nishita, Yoshihiro; Kimura, Kazuko

    2008-09-01

    The lessons from the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake and Chuuetsu Earthquake showed us how difficult it is to keep chronic disease management for survivors of such large-scale earthquakes, particularly for elderly people. To solve the problem, an ordinance for enforcement on exceptional practices was issued for the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law Article 49 Clause 1. The law allows selling prescription medicines for patients with chronic diseases who have difficulties to continue their medications due to a large-scale disaster. To make it work, the patient should demonstrate that he or she continuously received the medication by presenting either Medication Notebook or prescription book recorded by the pharmacist. However, the Separation Rate of Prescription and Dispensing in Japan is still low; in particular, that in Ishikawa prefecture, where the Noto Peninsula Earthquake (M 6.9) occurred on March 25, 20007, is very low. It means that few victims hold a Medication Notebook. In consideration of this situation, we conducted a questionnaire survey of elderly victims of the Noto Peninsula Earthquake with a key-informant-interview during the period from July through August, 2007. This study revealed that: 1) Only 16% (18/110) of respondents kept a Medication Notebook; 2) 75% (82/110) had chronic diseases and received medication regularly; 3) Of 81 who had chronic diseases, 42% (34/91) were dispensed at the same pharmacy always, (The rest received from either clinic or changing pharmacy according to clinic location); and 4) Diseases that the respondents had were hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and so on. Based on these results, we discuss the establishment of a pharmaceutical supply system that can effectively distribute appropriate medicines to patients under difficult situations following a large-scale disaster in Japan. PMID:18758141

  9. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Brusasco, Vito; Martinez, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    COPD is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. The morphological basis for airflow obstruction results from a varying combination of obstructive changes in peripheral conducting airways and destructive changes in respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli. A reduction of vascularity within the alveolar septa has been reported in emphysema. Typical physiological changes reflect these structural abnormalities. Spirometry documents airflow obstruction when the FEV1/FVC ratio is reduced below the lower limit of normality, although in early disease stages FEV1 and airway conductance are not affected. Current guidelines recommend testing for bronchoreversibility at least once and the postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC be used for COPD diagnosis; the nature of bronchodilator response remains controversial, however. One major functional consequence of altered lung mechanics is lung hyperinflation. FRC may increase as a result of static or dynamic mechanisms, or both. The link between dynamic lung hyperinflation and expiratory flow limitation during tidal breathing has been demonstrated. Hyperinflation may increase the load on inspiratory muscles, with resulting length adaptation of diaphragm. Reduction of exercise tolerance is frequently noted, with compelling evidence that breathlessness and altered lung mechanics play a major role. Lung function measurements have been traditionally used as prognostic indices and to monitor disease progression; FEV1 has been most widely used. An increase in FVC is also considered as proof of bronchodilatation. Decades of work has provided insight into the histological, functional, and biological features of COPD. This has provided a clearer understanding of important pathobiological processes and has provided additional therapeutic options. PMID:24692133

  10. [Chronic prostatitis and Bechterew's disease].

    PubMed

    Kohlicek, J; Svec, V

    1977-11-01

    A group of patients between 35 and 65 years old with chronic prostatitis were examined for the presence of Becherew's disease. In this connection the New York and Roman criterions for morbus Bechterew were applied. There were found one ankyosing spondylarthritis, one ankylosis of the sacroiliac joint, and 11 times a tentative sacroileitis were stated. Altogether the proved and tentative findings were only 3.68 per cent of all examinations. In our countries the morbus Bechterew is found in 0,21 per cent of the normal population. So the protion of the Bechterew's disease in patients with chronic prostatitis is indeed a little higher than average, but not so frequent as often pretended in recent times. After a second series 58 patients being treated because of Bechterew's disease of different stages and different terms were examined for the possibility of a simultaneously elapsing chronic prostatitis. A chronic prostatitis was found in 38 per cent of these patients which correspondents to the incidence published in literature for the medium-age manhood. Nobody of the test persons had complaints on the part of the urologenital tract. PMID:602457

  11. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Devine, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a growing healthcare problem that is expected to worsen as the population ages and the worldwide use of tobacco products increases. Smoking cessation is the only effective means of prevention. Employers are in a unique position to help employees stop smoking. During the long asymptomatic phase, lung function nevertheless continues to decline; therefore, many patients seek medical attention only when they are at an advanced stage or when they have experienced an acute exacerbation. To help preserve patients' quality of life and reduce healthcare costs related to this chronic disease, clinicians need to accurately diagnose the condition and appropriately manage patients through the long course of their illness. This article discusses the current approach to patient management. PMID:25126252

  12. Longitudinal evaluation of physician payment reform and team-based care for chronic disease management and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, Tara; Kopp, Alexander; Moineddin, Rahim; Glazier, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We evaluated a large-scale transition of primary care physicians to blended capitation models and team-based care in Ontario, Canada, to understand the effect of each type of reform on the management and prevention of chronic disease. Methods: We used population-based administrative data to assess monitoring of diabetes mellitus and screening for cervical, breast and colorectal cancer among patients belonging to team-based capitation, non–team-based capitation or enhanced fee-for-service medical homes as of Mar. 31, 2011 (n = 10 675 480). We used Poisson regression models to examine these associations for 2011. We then used a fitted nonlinear model to compare changes in outcomes between 2001 and 2011 by type of medical home. Results: In 2011, patients in a team-based capitation setting were more likely than those in an enhanced fee-for-service setting to receive diabetes monitoring (39.7% v. 31.6%, adjusted relative risk [RR] 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18 to 1.25), mammography (76.6% v. 71.5%, adjusted RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.07) and colorectal cancer screening (63.0% v. 60.9%, adjusted RR 1.03, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.04). Over time, patients in medical homes with team-based capitation experienced the greatest improvement in diabetes monitoring (absolute difference in improvement 10.6% [95% CI 7.9% to 13.2%] compared with enhanced fee for service; 6.4% [95% CI 3.8% to 9.1%] compared with non–team-based capitation) and cervical cancer screening (absolute difference in improvement 7.0% [95% CI 5.5% to 8.5%] compared with enhanced fee for service; 5.3% [95% CI 3.8% to 6.8%] compared with non–team-based capitation). For breast and colorectal cancer screening, there were no significant differences in change over time between different types of medical homes. Interpretation: The shift to capitation payment and the addition of team-based care in Ontario were associated with moderate improvements in processes related to diabetes care, but the

  13. Pharmacological Management of Elderly Patients with Asthma-Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Overlap Syndrome: Room for Speculation?

    PubMed

    Castiglia, Daniela; Battaglia, Salvatore; Benfante, Alida; Sorino, Claudio; Scichilone, Nicola

    2016-06-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are two distinct diseases that share a condition of chronic inflammation of the airways and bronchial obstruction. In clinical settings, it is not rare to come across patients who present with clinical and functional features of both diseases, posing a diagnostic dilemma. The overlap condition has been termed asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS), and mainly occurs in individuals with long-standing asthma, especially if they are also current or former smokers. Patients with ACOS have poorer health-related quality of life and a higher exacerbation rate than subjects with asthma or COPD alone. Whether ACOS is a distinct nosological entity with genetic variants or rather a condition of concomitant diseases that overlap is still a matter of debate. However, there is no doubt that extended life expectancy has increased the prevalence of asthma and COPD in older ages, and thus the probability that overlap conditions occur in clinical settings. In addition, age-associated changes of the lung create the basis for the two entities to converge on the same subject. ACOS patients may benefit from a stepwise treatment similar to that of asthma and COPD; however, the proposed therapeutic algorithms are only speculative and extrapolated from studies that are not representative of the ACOS population. Inhaled corticosteroids are the mainstay of therapy, and always in conjunction with long-acting bronchodilators. The potential heterogeneity of the overlap syndrome in terms of inflammatory features (T helper-1 vs. T helper-2 pathways) may be responsible for the different responses to treatments. The interaction between respiratory drugs and concomitant diseases should be carefully evaluated. Similarly, the effect of non-respiratory drugs, such as aspirin, statins, and β-blockers, on lung function needs to be properly assessed. PMID:27138954

  14. [Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: The golden decade. Implications for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    López-Giraldo, Alejandra; Rodríguez-Roisin, Robert; Agustí, Alvar

    2015-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex and heterogeneous illness, which causes an important socio-economic burden. The last decade has witnessed significant advances in the understanding and knowledge of COPD with a paradigm shift in both the assessment and management of the disease. The article here reviews these changes with a particular focus on the last revision (2013) of the Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:24820902

  15. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1.5 MB] More Data Age-adjusted death rates for selected causes of death, by sex, race, and Hispanic origin (chronic lower respiratory disease includes chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, and other ...

  16. Pericytes in chronic lung disease.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Jessica E; Johnson, Jill R

    2014-01-01

    Pericytes are mesenchymal cells embedded within the abluminal surface of the endothelium of microvessels such as capillaries, pre-capillary arterioles, post-capillary and collecting venules, where they maintain microvascular homeostasis and participate in angiogenesis. In addition to their roles in supporting the vasculature and facilitating leukocyte extravasation, pericytes have been recently investigated as a subpopulation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) due to their capacity to differentiate into numerous cell types including the classic MSC triad, i.e. osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Other studies in models of fibrotic inflammatory disease of the lung have demonstrated a vital role of pericytes in myofibroblast activation, collagen deposition and microvascular remodelling, which are hallmark features of chronic lung diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, pulmonary fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension. Further studies into the mechanisms of the pericyte-to-myofibroblast transition and migration to fibrotic foci will hopefully clarify the role of these cells in chronic lung disease and confirm the importance of pericytes in human fibrotic pulmonary disease. PMID:25034005

  17. Evaluating spatial overlap and relatedness of white-tailed deer in a chronic wasting disease management zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, Michael D.; Magle, Seth B.; Van Deelen, Timothy R.; Robinson, Stacie J.; Mathews, Nancy E.

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife disease transmission, at a local scale, can occur from interactions between infected and susceptible conspecifics or from a contaminated environment. Thus, the degree of spatial overlap and rate of contact among deer is likely to impact both direct and indirect transmission of infectious diseases such chronic wasting disease (CWD) or bovine tuberculosis. We identified a strong relationship between degree of spatial overlap (volume of intersection) and genetic relatedness for female white-tailed deer in Wisconsin’s area of highest CWD prevalence. We used volume of intersection as a surrogate for contact rates between deer and concluded that related deer are more likely to have contact, which may drive disease transmission dynamics. In addition, we found that age of deer influences overlap, with fawns exhibiting the highest degree of overlap with other deer. Our results further support the finding that female social groups have higher contact among related deer which can result in transmission of infectious diseases. We suggest that control of large social groups comprised of closely related deer may be an effective strategy in slowing the transmission of infectious pathogens, and CWD in particular.

  18. Management of Chronic Urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Grahame, Ann

    1987-01-01

    Effective treatment of chronic urticaria depends on identification of the etiologic factor, if possible, and its subsequent elimination, although symptoms may be suppressed by appropriate medication. The investigation of the patient who presents with chronic urticaria is discussed, with emphasis on the need for a detailed history, meticulous physical examination (including a search for occult infection) and full routine hematologic, biochemical and radiologic monitoring. The author discusses the use of intradermal skin tests, scratch tests for inhalants and the need for skin biopsy and gastro-intestinal tract screening. Dietary treatments reviewed include the elimination diet and the elemental diet, which is used in combination with gradual re-introduction of foods. Symptomatic treatments, including antihistamines, the newer H1-histamine receptor antagonists, used with tricyclic antidepressants and with combination therapy, and systemic corticosteroid therapy are also discussed. PMID:21263827

  19. Potentially disruptive life events: what are the immediate impacts on chronic disease management? A case-crossover analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gagne, Joshua J; Song, Zirui; Brill, Gregory; Choudhry, Niteesh K

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the association between unexpected potentially disruptive life events in a patient or family member that may challenge an individual's ability to take medications as prescribed and the discontinuation of evidence-based medications for common, chronic conditions. Understanding the relationship between medication adherence and life stressors, especially those that can be identified using administrative data, may help identify patients at risk of non-adherence. Design Observational self-controlled case-crossover design. Setting Individuals in a nationally representative US commercial health insurance database. Participants Adult individuals who initiated an oral hypoglycaemic, antihypertensive and/or statin and subsequently stopped the medication for ≥90 days. Main outcome measure Potentially disruptive life events among patients and their family members measured in the 30 days just before the medication was discontinued (‘hazard period’) compared with the 30 days before this period (‘control period’). These events included personal injury, hospitalisation, emergency room visits, changes in insurance coverage, acute stress or acute anxiety. Results Among the 326 519 patients meeting study criteria who discontinued their chronic disease medications, 88 896 (27.2%) experienced at least one potentially disruptive life event. Newly experiencing an injury (OR: 1.26, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.42), an emergency room visit (OR: 1.19, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.26) and acute stress (OR: 1.19, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.31) were associated with discontinuation. Life events among patients’ family members did not appear to be associated with medication discontinuation or occurred less frequently just prior to discontinuation. Conclusions Potentially disruptive life events among individuals identified using routinely collected claims data are associated with discontinuation of chronic disease medications. Awareness of these events may help providers or payers

  20. Management of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in patients with end-stage renal disease: a review

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre Valadez, Jonathan; García Juárez, Ignacio; Rincón Pedrero, Rodolfo; Torre, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, mainly in those on hemodialysis (HD). The seroprevalence of HCV in developing countries ranges between 7% and 40%. Risk factors for this infection in the CKD population include the number of blood transfusions, duration of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and prevalence of HCV in HD. Chronic HCV infection in patients with ESRD is associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality in the pre and post kidney transplant periods. The increase in mortality is directly associated with liver complications and an elevated cardiovascular risk in HCV-infected patients on hemodialysis. Antiviral treatment may improve the prognosis of patients with HCV, and standard interferon remains the cornerstone of treatment. Treatment of HCV in patients with CKD is complex, but achieving a sustained viral response may decrease the frequency of complications after transplantation. It appears that HCV-infected patients who remain on maintenance dialysis are at increased risk of death compared with HCV patients undergoing renal transplantation. PMID:25767389

  1. Arterial disease in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Moody, William E; Edwards, Nicola C; Chue, Colin D; Ferro, Charles J; Townend, Jonathan N

    2013-03-01

    End stage renal disease is associated with a very high risk of premature cardiovascular death and morbidity. Early stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) is also associated with an increased frequency of cardiovascular events and is a common but poorly recognised and undertreated risk factor. Cardiovascular disease in CKD can be attributed to two distinct but overlapping pathological processes, namely atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis. While the risk of athero-thrombotic events such as myocardial infarction is elevated, arteriosclerosis is the predominant pathophysiological process involving fibrosis and thickening of the medial arterial layer. This results in increased arterial stiffness causing left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis and the exposure of vulnerable vascular beds such as the brain and kidney to high pressure fluctuations causing small vessel disease. These pathophysiological features are manifest by a high risk of lethal arrhythmia, congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction and stroke. Recent work has highlighted the importance of aldosterone and disordered bone mineral metabolism. PMID:23118349

  2. Chronic prostatitis: management strategies.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Adam B; Macejko, Amanda; Taylor, Aisha; Nadler, Robert B

    2009-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has redefined prostatitis into four distinct entities. Category I is acute bacterial prostatitis. It is an acute prostatic infection with a uropathogen, often with systemic symptoms of fever, chills and hypotension. The treatment hinges on antimicrobials and drainage of the bladder because the inflamed prostate may block urinary flow. Category II prostatitis is called chronic bacterial prostatitis. It is characterized by recurrent episodes of documented urinary tract infections with the same uropathogen and causes pelvic pain, urinary symptoms and ejaculatory pain. It is diagnosed by means of localization cultures that are 90% accurate in localizing the source of recurrent infections within the lower urinary tract. Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis comprises NIH category IV. This entity is, by definition, asymptomatic and is often diagnosed incidentally during the evaluation of infertility or prostate cancer. The clinical significance of category IV prostatitis is unknown and it is often left untreated. Category III prostatitis is called chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). It is characterized by pelvic pain for more than 3 of the previous 6 months, urinary symptoms and painful ejaculation, without documented urinary tract infections from uropathogens. The syndrome can be devastating, affecting 10-15% of the male population, and results in nearly 2 million outpatient visits each year. The aetiology of CP/CPPS is poorly understood, but may be the result of an infectious or inflammatory initiator that results in neurological injury and eventually results in pelvic floor dysfunction in the form of increased pelvic muscle tone. The diagnosis relies on separating this entity from chronic bacterial prostatitis. If there is no history of documented urinary tract infections with a urinary tract pathogen, then cultures should be taken when patients are symptomatic. Prostatic localization cultures, called the

  3. Development and Application of Chronic Disease Risk Prediction Models

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sun Min; Stefani, Katherine M.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, non-communicable chronic diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and a large proportion of chronic diseases are preventable through risk factor management. However, the prevention efficacy at the individual level is not yet satisfactory. Chronic disease prediction models have been developed to assist physicians and individuals in clinical decision-making. A chronic disease prediction model assesses multiple risk factors together and estimates an absolute disease risk for the individual. Accurate prediction of an individual's future risk for a certain disease enables the comparison of benefits and risks of treatment, the costs of alternative prevention strategies, and selection of the most efficient strategy for the individual. A large number of chronic disease prediction models, especially targeting cardiovascular diseases and cancers, have been suggested, and some of them have been adopted in the clinical practice guidelines and recommendations of many countries. Although few chronic disease prediction tools have been suggested in the Korean population, their clinical utility is not as high as expected. This article reviews methodologies that are commonly used for developing and evaluating a chronic disease prediction model and discusses the current status of chronic disease prediction in Korea. PMID:24954311

  4. Managing hyperphosphatemia in patients with chronic kidney disease on dialysis with ferric citrate: latest evidence and clinical usefulness

    PubMed Central

    Fadem, Stephen Z.; Kant, Kotagal S.; Bhatt, Udayan; Sika, Mohammed; Lewis, Julia B.; Negoi, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Ferric citrate is a novel phosphate binder that allows the simultaneous treatment of hyperphosphatemia and iron deficiency in patients being treated for end-stage renal disease with hemodialysis (HD). Multiple clinical trials in HD patients have uniformly and consistently demonstrated the efficacy of the drug in controlling hyperphosphatemia with a good safety profile, leading the US Food and Drug Administration in 2014 to approve its use for that indication. A concurrent beneficial effect, while using ferric citrate as a phosphate binder, is its salutary effect in HD patients with iron deficiency being treated with an erythropoietin-stimulating agent (ESA) in restoring iron that becomes available for reversing chronic kidney disease (CKD)-related anemia. Ferric citrate has also been shown in several studies to diminish the need for intravenous iron treatment and to reduce the requirement for ESA. Ferric citrate is thus a preferred phosphate binder that helps resolve CKD-related mineral bone disease and iron-deficiency anemia. PMID:26336594

  5. Managing hyperphosphatemia in patients with chronic kidney disease on dialysis with ferric citrate: latest evidence and clinical usefulness.

    PubMed

    Yagil, Yoram; Fadem, Stephen Z; Kant, Kotagal S; Bhatt, Udayan; Sika, Mohammed; Lewis, Julia B; Negoi, Dana

    2015-09-01

    Ferric citrate is a novel phosphate binder that allows the simultaneous treatment of hyperphosphatemia and iron deficiency in patients being treated for end-stage renal disease with hemodialysis (HD). Multiple clinical trials in HD patients have uniformly and consistently demonstrated the efficacy of the drug in controlling hyperphosphatemia with a good safety profile, leading the US Food and Drug Administration in 2014 to approve its use for that indication. A concurrent beneficial effect, while using ferric citrate as a phosphate binder, is its salutary effect in HD patients with iron deficiency being treated with an erythropoietin-stimulating agent (ESA) in restoring iron that becomes available for reversing chronic kidney disease (CKD)-related anemia. Ferric citrate has also been shown in several studies to diminish the need for intravenous iron treatment and to reduce the requirement for ESA. Ferric citrate is thus a preferred phosphate binder that helps resolve CKD-related mineral bone disease and iron-deficiency anemia. PMID:26336594

  6. Factors Associated with Successful Completion of the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program among Middle-Aged and Older Asian-American Participants: A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, SangNam; Smith, Matthew Lee; Cho, Jinmyoung; Jiang, Luohua; Post, Lindsey; Ory, Marcia G.

    2014-01-01

    Asian-Americans are a small but fast-growing population in the United States who are increasingly experiencing multiple chronic diseases. While the evidence-based Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) has been disseminated among various racial and ethnic populations, few studies specifically investigate participants with an Asian background. The study aims to identify characteristics of middle-aged and older Asian-American CDSMP participants (older than 50 years) and investigate factors related to successful workshop completion (i.e., attending 4+ of the 6 sessions) among this population. Data were analyzed from 2,716 middle-aged and older Asian-Americans collected during a 2-year national dissemination of CDSMP. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify individual- and workshop-level covariates related to successful workshop completion. The majority of participants were female, living with others, and living in metro areas. The average age was 71.3 years old (±9.2), and the average number of chronic conditions was 2.0 (±1.5). Successful completion of CDSMP workshops among participants was associated with their number of chronic conditions (OR = 1.10, P = 0.011), living in non-metro areas (OR = 1.77, P = 0.009), attending workshops from area agencies on aging (OR = 1.56, P = 0.018), and attending a workshop with higher completion rates (OR = 1.03, P < 0.001). This study is the first large-scale examination of Asian-American participants enrolled in CDSMP and highlights characteristics related to intervention attendance among this under-studied minority population. Knowing such characteristics is important for serving the growing number of Asian-Americans with chronic conditions. PMID:25964933

  7. Healthcare Cost Savings Estimator Tool for Chronic Disease Self-Management Program: A New Tool for Program Administrators and Decision Makers

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, SangNam; Smith, Matthew Lee; Altpeter, Mary; Post, Lindsey; Ory, Marcia G.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic disease self-management education (CDSME) programs have been delivered to more than 100,000 older Americans with chronic conditions. As one of the Stanford suite of evidence-based CDSME programs, the chronic disease self-management program (CDSMP) has been disseminated in diverse populations and settings. The objective of this paper is to introduce a practical, universally applicable tool to assist program administrators and decision makers plan implementation efforts and make the case for continued program delivery. This tool was developed utilizing data from a recent National Study of CDSMP to estimate national savings associated with program participation. Potential annual healthcare savings per CDSMP participant were calculated based on averted emergency room visits and hospitalizations. While national data can be utilized to estimate cost savings, the tool has built-in features allowing users to tailor calculations based on their site-specific data. Building upon the National Study of CDSMP’s documented potential savings of $3.3 billion in healthcare costs by reaching 5% of adults with one or more chronic conditions, two heuristic case examples were also explored based on different population projections. The case examples show how a small county and large metropolitan city were not only able to estimate healthcare savings ($38,803 for the small county; $732,290 for the large metropolitan city) for their existing participant populations but also to project significant healthcare savings if they plan to reach higher proportions of middle-aged and older adults. Having a tool to demonstrate the monetary value of CDSMP can contribute to the ongoing dissemination and sustainability of such community-based interventions. Next steps will be creating a user-friendly, internet-based version of Healthcare Cost Savings Estimator Tool: CDSMP, followed by broadening the tool to consider cost savings for other evidence-based programs. PMID:25964946

  8. Placental Origins of Chronic Disease.

    PubMed

    Burton, Graham J; Fowden, Abigail L; Thornburg, Kent L

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence links an individual's susceptibility to chronic disease in adult life to events during their intrauterine phase of development. Biologically this should not be unexpected, for organ systems are at their most plastic when progenitor cells are proliferating and differentiating. Influences operating at this time can permanently affect their structure and functional capacity, and the activity of enzyme systems and endocrine axes. It is now appreciated that such effects lay the foundations for a diverse array of diseases that become manifest many years later, often in response to secondary environmental stressors. Fetal development is underpinned by the placenta, the organ that forms the interface between the fetus and its mother. All nutrients and oxygen reaching the fetus must pass through this organ. The placenta also has major endocrine functions, orchestrating maternal adaptations to pregnancy and mobilizing resources for fetal use. In addition, it acts as a selective barrier, creating a protective milieu by minimizing exposure of the fetus to maternal hormones, such as glucocorticoids, xenobiotics, pathogens, and parasites. The placenta shows a remarkable capacity to adapt to adverse environmental cues and lessen their impact on the fetus. However, if placental function is impaired, or its capacity to adapt is exceeded, then fetal development may be compromised. Here, we explore the complex relationships between the placental phenotype and developmental programming of chronic disease in the offspring. Ensuring optimal placentation offers a new approach to the prevention of disorders such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity, which are reaching epidemic proportions. PMID:27604528

  9. Heritability of chronic venous disease

    PubMed Central

    Krusche, Petra; Wolf, Andreas; Krawczak, Michael; Timm, Birgitt; Nikolaus, Susanna; Frings, Norbert; Schreiber, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Varicose veins without skin changes have a prevalence of approximately 20% in Northern and Western Europe whereas advanced chronic venous insufficiency affects about 3% of the population. Genetic risk factors are thought to play an important role in the aetiology of both these chronic venous diseases (CVD). We evaluated the relative genetic and environmental impact upon CVD risk by estimating the heritability of the disease in 4,033 nuclear families, comprising 16,434 individuals from all over Germany. Upon clinical examination, patients were classified according to the CEAP guidelines as either C2 (simple varicose veins), C3 (oedema), C4 (skin changes without ulceration), C5 (healed ulceration), or C6 (active ulcers). The narrow-sense heritability (h2) of CVD equals 17.3% (standard error 2.5%, likelihood ratio test P = 1.4 × 10−13). The proportion of disease risk attributable to age (at ascertainment) and sex, the two main risk factors for CVD, was estimated as 10.7% (Kullback–Leibler deviance R2). The heritability of CVD is high, thereby suggesting a notable genetic component in the aetiology of the disease. Systematic population-based searches for CVD susceptibility genes are therefore warranted. PMID:20354728

  10. Vitamin D in Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chau, Yahn-Yir

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in both the pediatric and adult chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. CKD is characterized by dysregulation of vitamin D and mineral metabolism. Secondary hyperparathyroidism and its management puts patients with CKD at increased cardiovascular risk. Emergence of experimental and some clinical data suggesting beneficial effects of vitamin D on proteinuria, blood pressure, inflammation and cardiovascular outcomes has pushed it to the center stage of CKD research. Pediatric data on vitamin D dysregulation and its consequences are still in its infancy. Ongoing prospective studies such as Chronic Kidney disease in Children (CKiD) and the Cardiovascular Comorbidity in Children with CKD (4 C) should help to delineate the evolution of disturbances in mineral metabolism and its adverse effects on growth, CKD progression and cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:22544696

  11. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an overview.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Deborah

    As chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the major causes of worldwide mortality, it is important to prevent, diagnose and manage it. COPD creates a huge burden on the NHS and has a significant impact on patients. This is a problem with the increase in morbidity and mortality rates. In primary care there is a lack of knowledge, under-use of quality-assured spirometry and under-diagnosis in about half of all cases. To be able to effectively diagnose, assess and manage COPD, health professionals must understand the physiology and aetiology of the disease. COPD is similar to asthma in its presentation and physiology but management of the condition can differ. The authors therefore looked at the similarities between the two conditions and what tests one can use to make a diagnosis of COPD. PMID:27081728

  12. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine in the supportive management of patients with chronic cytopaenic marrow diseases -- a phase I/II clinical study.

    PubMed

    Linn, Yeh-Ching; Lu, Jiahui; Lim, Lay-Cheng; Sun, Huili; Sun, Jue; Zhou, Yongming

    2011-08-01

    We report on a phase I/II, single arm clinical trial studying the safety and efficacy of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in patients with various chronic cytopaenic marrow diseases including myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), myelofibrosis (MF), aplastic anaemia (AA) and thalassemia intermedia, who either have failed, are unfit for or refused currently available Western medical treatment. Patients took oral herbal concoctions according to their TCM syndromes for 24 weeks while continuing with western medical management. The median age of this group of 31 patients was 61 (26--84) years old and median disease duration was 5 years (0.3--40 years). TCM herbs were well tolerated in these patients with multiple comorbidities and previous disease-related complications. Twenty-three patients completed the study with 5 (2 with MDS, 2 with MF and 1 with SAA) achieving some degree of haematological improvement. EORTC quality of life indicators improved in more than half of patients. This small study offers positive results and provides the basis for future larger studies which should randomize patients with MDS, MF and AA managed with standard Western medical treatment to without and with upfront combinations with TCM herbs. This will conclusively define the role of TCM in the supportive management of these diseases. This study was registered with Clinicaltrial.gov as NCT01224496. PMID:21742281

  13. [Conservative and surgical management of chronic Rhinosinustitis].

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Hergen; Negoias, Simona; Caversaccio, Marco Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis is a common complex medical condition associated with high therapy costs and quality of life impairment. The European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps (EPOS) 2012 delineates the current standard of management of the patient with chronic rhinosinusitis for both defined disease forms: with and without polyps. Medical history and endoscopic or CT findings are needed for the correct diagnosis. Therapy of chronic rhinosinusitis aims at achieving a local disease control and reducing patients' symptoms. The center point of conservative therapy of both forms is the topical application of steroids together with nasal saline irrigations. In case of persistence of symptoms or in severe chronic rhinosinusitis with polyps, different local application methods of steroids or short systemic steroid cures should be considered. In case of insufficient disease control with conservative treatment, functional endoscopic sinus surgery is the accepted as “gold standard”. Purpose of the surgical management is opening of the sinus ostia in order to improve sinus ventilation and mucociliary clearance as well as to facilitate a wide distribution of topical drugs. Due to technical advances, endoscopic sinus has been reported to be a safe and effective procedure. PMID:27132639

  14. [Skin and chronic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Raffaella; Mancini, Elena; Santoro, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Kidneys and skin are seldom considered associated, but their relationship is more closer than generally believed. In some immunological diseases (SLE...) and genetic syndromes (tuberous sclerosis, Fabrys disease...) the cutaneous manifestations are integral parts of the clinical picture. In advanced uremia, besides the well-known itching skin lesions, calciphylaxis may appear, a typical example of cutaneous involvement secondary to the metabolic complications (calcium-phosphate imbalance) of the renal disease. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis appears only in patients with renal failure and it has a very severe prognosis due to the systemic organ involvement. Moreover, there is a heterogeneous group of metabolic diseases, with renal involvement, that may be accompanied by skin lesions, either related to the disease itself or to its complications (diabetes mellitus, porphyrias). In systemic amyloidosis, fibrils may deposit even in dermis leading to different skin lesions. In some heroin abusers, in the presence of suppurative lesions in the sites of needle insertion, renal amyloidosis should be suspected, secondary to the chronic inflammation. Atheroembolic disease is nowadays frequently observed, as a consequence of the increasing number of invasive intravascular manoeuvres. Skin manifestations like livedo reticularis or the blue toe syndrome are the most typical signs, but often renal dysfunction is also present. In all these conditions, the skin lesion may be a first sign, a warning, that should arouse the suspicion of a more complex pathology, even with renal involvement. Being aware of this relationship is fundamental to accelerate the diagnostic process. PMID:25315722

  15. Recent updates in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Garvey, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), characterized by chronic airways inflammation and progressive airflow limitation, is a common, preventable and treatable disease. Worldwide, COPD is a major cause of morbidity and mortality; smoking tobacco is the most important risk factor. This translational review of recent updates in COPD care for the primary care audience, includes recommendations from the 2015 Global Initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease (GOLD) report on diagnosis, pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment, prevalence of comorbidities, management of exacerbations and the asthma and COPD overlap syndrome, with a focus on the importance and benefit of physical activity and exercise in COPD patients. Exacerbations and comorbidities contribute to the overall severity of COPD in individual patients. Management of exacerbations includes reducing the impact of the current exacerbation and preventing development of subsequent episodes. Healthcare professionals need to be alert to comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease, anxiety/depression, lung cancer, infections and diabetes, which are common in COPD patients and can have a significant impact on HRQoL and prognosis. Pulmonary rehabilitation is recommended by a number of guidelines for all symptomatic COPD patients, regardless of severity, and involves exercise training, patient education, nutritional advice and psychosocial support. At all stages of COPD, regular physical activity and exercise can aid symptom control, improve HRQoL, reduce rates of hospitalization, and improve morbidity and respiratory mortality. Healthcare professionals play a pivotal role in improving HRQoL and health-related outcomes in COPD patients to meet their specific needs and in providing appropriate diagnosis, management and advice on smoking cessation. PMID:26560514

  16. Chronic Disease and Childhood Development: Kidney Disease and Transplantation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Susan D.; Simmons, Roberta G.

    As part of a larger study of transplantation and chronic disease and the family, 124 children (10-18 years old) who were chronically ill with kidney disease (n=72) or were a year or more post-transplant (n=52) were included in a study focusing on the effects of chronic kidney disease and transplantation on children's psychosocial development. Ss…

  17. Pharmacological pain management in chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Olesen, Søren S; Juel, Jacob; Graversen, Carina; Kolesnikov, Yuri; Wilder-Smith, Oliver HG; Drewes, Asbjørn M

    2013-01-01

    Intense abdominal pain is a prominent feature of chronic pancreatitis and its treatment remains a major clinical challenge. Basic studies of pancreatic nerves and experimental human pain research have provided evidence that pain processing is abnormal in these patients and in many cases resembles that seen in neuropathic and chronic pain disorders. An important ultimate outcome of such aberrant pain processing is that once the disease has advanced and the pathophysiological processes are firmly established, the generation of pain can become self-perpetuating and independent of the initial peripheral nociceptive drive. Consequently, the management of pain by traditional methods based on nociceptive deafferentation (e.g., surgery and visceral nerve blockade) becomes difficult and often ineffective. This novel and improved understanding of pain aetiology requires a paradigm shift in pain management of chronic pancreatitis. Modern mechanism based pain treatments taking into account altered pain processing are likely to increasingly replace invasive therapies targeting the nociceptive source, which should be reserved for special and carefully selected cases. In this review, we offer an overview of the current available pharmacological options for pain management in chronic pancreatitis. In addition, future options for pain management are discussed with special emphasis on personalized pain medicine and multidisciplinarity. PMID:24259960

  18. Lifestyle and Self-Management by Those Who Live It: Patients Engaging Patients in a Chronic Disease Model

    PubMed Central

    Jesse, Michelle T; Rubinstein, Elizabeth; Eshelman, Anne; Wee, Corinne; Tankasala, Mrunalini; Li, Jia; Abouljoud, Marwan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients pursuing organ transplantation have complex medical needs, undergo comprehensive evaluation for possible listing, and require extensive education. However, transplant patients and their supports frequently report the need for more lifestyle and self-management strategies for living with organ transplantation. Objectives: First, to explore feasibility of a successful, patient-run transplant lifestyle educational group (Transplant Living Community), designed to complement medical care and integrated into the clinical setting; and second, to report the major themes of patients’ and supports’ qualitative and quantitative feedback regarding the group. Methods: Informal programmatic review and patient satisfaction surveys. Results: A total of 1862 patient satisfaction surveys were disseminated and 823 were returned (response rate, 44.2%). Patients and their supports reported positive feedback regarding the group, including appreciation that the volunteer was a transplant recipient and gratitude for the lifestyle information. Five areas were associated with the success of Transplant Living Community: 1) a “champion” dedicated to the program and its successful integration into a multidisciplinary team; 2) a health care environment receptive to integration of a patient-led group with ongoing community development; 3) a high level of visibility to physicians and staff, patients, and supports; 4) a clearly presented and manageable lifestyle plan (“Play Your ACES”a [Attitude, Compliance, Exercise, and Support]), and 5) a strong volunteer structure with thoughtful training with the ultimate objective of volunteers taking ownership of the program. Conclusion: It is feasible to integrate a sustainable patient-led lifestyle and self-management educational group into a busy tertiary care clinic for patients with complex chronic illnesses. PMID:27455056

  19. Economic aspects of chronic diseases in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Van Minh, Hoang; Lan Huong, Dao; Bao Giang, Kim; Byass, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Introduction There remains a lack of information on economic aspects of chronic diseases. This paper, by gathering available and relevant research findings, aims to report and discuss current evidence on economic aspects of chronic diseases in Vietnam. Methods Data used in this paper were obtained from various information sources: international and national journal articles and studies, government documents and publications, web-based statistics and fact sheets. Results In Vietnam, chronic diseases were shown to be leading causes of deaths, accounting for 66% of all deaths in 2002. The burdens caused by chronic disease morbidity and risk factors are also substantial. Poorer people in Vietnam are more vulnerable to chronic diseases and their risk factors, other than being overweight. The estimated economic loss caused by chronic diseases for Vietnam in 2005 was about US$20 million (0.033% of annual national GDP). Chronic diseases were also shown to cause economic losses for families and individuals in Vietnam. Both population-wide and high-risk individual interventions against chronic disease were shown to be cost-effective in Vietnam. Conclusion Given the evidence from this study, actions to prevent chronic diseases in Vietnam are clearly urgent. Further research findings are required to give greater insights into economic aspects of chronic diseases in Vietnam. PMID:20057939

  20. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents for the management of anemia of chronic kidney disease: past advancements and current innovations.

    PubMed

    Dutka, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Over the last century, remarkable advances have been made in the care of patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD), resulting in improved prognosis. However, for decades after the advent of dialysis, anemia-associated symptoms continued to adversely affect patients' daily lives. The identification, isolation, and eventual cloning of erythropoietin and its receptor led to development of erythropoiesis stimulating agents, revolutionizing anemia management. Continued advancements have paved the way for the discovery of novel erythropoiesis stimulating agents with enhanced properties. This article charts the history of anemia management in patients with ESRD, including the discovery of erythropoietin, and briefly reviews the development, mechanism of action, and select attributes of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. PMID:23469411

  1. Protein-controlled versus restricted protein versus low protein diets in managing patients with non-dialysis chronic kidney disease: a single centre experience in Australia.

    PubMed

    Chan, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition has been an important part of medical management in patients with chronic kidney disease for more than a century. Since the 1970s, due to technological advances in renal replacement therapy (RRT) such as dialysis and transplantation, the importance of nutrition intervention in non-dialysis stages has diminished. In addition, it appears that there is a lack of high-level evidence to support the use of diet therapy, in particular the use of low protein diets to slow down disease progression. However, nutrition abnormalities are known to emerge well before dialysis is required and are associated with poor outcomes post-commencing dialysis. To improve clinical outcomes it is prudent to incorporate practice research and quality audits into routine care, as part of the continuous clinical practice improvement process. This article summarises the experience of and current practices in a metropolitan tertiary teaching hospital in Sydney, Australia. PMID:27624699

  2. Spanish-Speaking Patients’ Engagement in Interactive Voice Response (IVR) Chronic Disease Self-Management Support Calls: Analyses of Data from Three Countries

    PubMed Central

    Piette, John D.; Marinec, Nicolle; Gallegos-Cabriales, Esther C.; Gutierrez-Valverde, Juana Mercedes; Rodriguez-Saldaña, Joel; Mendoz-Alevares, Milton; Silveira, Maria J.

    2013-01-01

    We used data from Interactive Voice Response (IVR) self-management support studies in Honduras, Mexico, and the United States (US) to determine whether IVR calls to Spanish-speaking patients with chronic illnesses is a feasible strategy for improving monitoring and education between face-to-face visits. 268 patients with diabetes or hypertension participated in 6–12 weeks of weekly IVR follow-up. IVR calls emanated from US servers with connections via Voice over IP. More than half (54%) of patients enrolled with an informal caregiver who received automated feedback based on the patient’s assessments, and clinical staff received urgent alerts. Participants had on average 6.1 years of education, and 73% were women. After 2,443 person weeks of follow-up, patients completed 1,494 IVR assessments. Call completion rates were higher in the US (75%) than in Honduras (59%) or Mexico (61%; p<0.001). Patients participating with an informal caregiver were more likely to complete calls (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04, 2.25) while patients reporting fair or poor health at enrollment were less likely (AOR:0.59; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.92). Satisfaction rates were high, with 98% of patients reporting that the system was easy to use, and 86% reporting that the calls helped them a great deal in managing their health problems. In summary, IVR self-management support is feasible among Spanish-speaking patients with chronic disease, including those living in less-developed countries. Voice over IP can be used to deliver IVR disease management services internationally; involving informal caregivers may increase patient engagement. PMID:23532005

  3. Pharmacists Can Manage Some Chronic Conditions Effectively, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... determine how well pharmacists might perform if they led the management of a person's chronic disease, Wilt ... people. The findings suggest that patients receiving pharmacist-led care were more likely to achieve target goals ...

  4. Pharmacists Can Manage Some Chronic Conditions Effectively, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... might need, such as an injection for knee pain or removal of a wart, he said. To determine how well pharmacists might perform if they led the management of a person's chronic disease, Wilt and his colleagues reviewed 63 published ...

  5. Pulmonary rehabilitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Saey, D; Bernard, S; Gagnon, P; Laviolette, L; Soicher, J; Maltais, F; Esgagne, P; Coats, V; Devost, A-A

    2009-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and an important worldwide cause of disability and handicap. Centered around exercise training, pulmonary rehabilitation is a global, multidisciplinary, individualized and comprehensive approach acting on the patient as a whole and not only on the pulmonary component of the disease. Pulmonary rehabilitation is now well recognized as an effective and key intervention in the management of several respiratory diseases particularly in COPD. Modern and effective pulmonary rehabilitation programs are global, multidisciplinary, individualized and use comprehensive approach acting on the patient as a whole and not only on the pulmonary component of the disease. In the last two decades interest for pulmonary rehabilitation is on the rise and a growing literature including several guidelines is now available. This review addresses the recent developments in the broad area of pulmonary rehabilitation as well as new methods to consider in the development of future and better programs. Modern literature for rationale, physiopathological basis, structure, exercise training as well challenges for pulmonary rehabilitation programs are addressed. Among the main challenges of pulmonary rehabilitation, efforts have to be devoted to improve accessibility to early rehabilitation strategies, not only to patients with COPD but to those with other chronic respiratory diseases. PMID:19776711

  6. Management of chronic refractory cough.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Peter G; Vertigan, Anne E

    2015-01-01

    Chronic refractory cough (CRC) is defined as a cough that persists despite guideline based treatment. It is seen in 20-46% of patients presenting to specialist cough clinics and it has a substantial impact on quality of life and healthcare utilization. Several terms have been used to describe this condition, including the recently introduced term cough hypersensitivity syndrome. Key symptoms include a dry irritated cough localized around the laryngeal region. Symptoms are not restricted to cough and can include globus, dyspnea, and dysphonia. Chronic refractory cough has factors in common with laryngeal hypersensitivity syndromes and chronic pain syndromes, and these similarities help to shed light on the pathophysiology of the condition. Its pathophysiology is complex and includes cough reflex sensitivity, central sensitization, peripheral sensitization, and paradoxical vocal fold movement. Chronic refractory cough often occurs after a viral infection. The diagnosis is made once the main diseases that cause chronic cough have been excluded (or treated) and cough remains refractory to medical treatment. Several treatments have been developed over the past decade. These include speech pathology interventions using techniques adapted from the treatment of hyperfunctional voice disorders, as well as the use of centrally acting neuromodulators such as gabapentin and pregabalin. Potential new treatments in development also show promise. PMID:26666537

  7. Interventions used in disease management programmes for patients with chronic illness—which ones work? Meta-analysis of published reports

    PubMed Central

    Weingarten, Scott R; Henning, James M; Badamgarav, Enkhe; Knight, Kevin; Hasselblad, Vic; Gano, Anacleto; Ofman, Joshua J

    2002-01-01

    Objective To systematically evaluate the published evidence regarding the characteristics and effectiveness of disease management programmes. Design Meta-analysis. Data sources Computerised databases for English language articles during 1987-2001. Study selection 102 articles evaluating 118 disease management programmes. Main outcome measures Pooled effect sizes calculated with a random effects model. Results Patient education was the most commonly used intervention (92/118 programmes), followed by education of healthcare providers (47/118) and provider feedback (32/118). Most programmes (70/118) used more than one intervention. Provider education, feedback, and reminders were associated with significant improvements in provider adherence to guidelines (effect sizes (95% confidence intervals) 0.44 (0.19 to 0.68), 0.61 (0.28 to 0.93), and 0.52 (0.35 to 0.69) respectively) and with significant improvements in patient disease control (effect sizes 0.35 (0.19 to 0.51), 0.17 (0.10 to 0.25), and 0.22 (0.1 to 0.37) respectively). Patient education, reminders, and financial incentives were all associated with improvements in patient disease control (effect sizes 0.24 (0.07 to 0.40), 0.27 (0.17 to 0.36), and 0.40 (0.26 to 0.54) respectively). Conclusions All studied interventions were associated with improvements in provider adherence to practice guidelines and disease control. The type and number of interventions varied greatly, and future studies should directly compare different types of intervention to find the most effective. What is already known on this topicDisease management programmes have gained popularity in recent years as a means of improving the quality and efficiency of care of patients with chronic diseasesA limited number of trials have documented the effectiveness of disease management in specific situations, but uncertainty remains about its overall value and which interventions are most effectiveWhat this study addsProgrammes using education, feedback

  8. Angiogenesis and chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The number of patients requiring renal replacement therapy due to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is increasing worldwide. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and the importance of CKD as a risk factor in development of ESRD and in complicating cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been confirmed. In recent years, the involvement of angiogenesis-related factors in the progression of CKD has been studied, and the potential therapeutic effects on CKD of modulating these factors have been identified. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, a potent pro-angiogenic factor, is involved in the development of the kidney, in maintenance of the glomerular capillary structure and filtration barrier, and in the renal repair process after injury. VEGF-A is also involved in the development of early diabetic nephropathy, demonstrated by the therapeutic effects of anti-VEGF-A antibody. Angiopoietin (Ang)-1 induces the maturation of newly formed blood vessels, and the therapeutic effects of Ang-1 in diabetic nephropathy have been described. In experimental models of diabetic nephropathy, the therapeutic effects of angiogenesis inhibitors, including angiostatin, endostatin and tumstatin peptides, the isocoumarin NM-3, and vasohibin-1, have been reported. Further analysis of the involvement of angiogenesis-related factors in the development of CKD is required. Determining the disease stage at which therapy is most effective and developing an effective drug delivery system targeting the kidney will be essential for pro-or anti-angiogenic strategies for patients with CKD. PMID:20687922

  9. Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy of chronic inflammatory bowel disease

    SciTech Connect

    Oppenheimer, D.A.; Jones, H.H.

    1982-12-01

    The case of a 14-year old girl with painful periostitis and ulcerative colitis is reported. The association of chronic inflammatory bowel disease with osteoarthropathy is rare and has previously been reported in eight patients. The periosteal reaction found in association with inflammatory bowel disease is apparently related to a chronic disease course and may cause extreme localized pain.

  10. Human Immunodeficiency Virus as a Chronic Disease: Evaluation and Management of Nonacquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome-Defining Conditions.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Villar, Sergio; Gutiérrez, Félix; Miralles, Celia; Berenguer, Juan; Rivero, Antonio; Martínez, Esteban; Moreno, Santiago

    2016-04-01

    In the modern antiretroviral therapy (ART) era, motivated people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who have access to therapy are expected to maintain viral suppression indefinitely and to receive treatment for decades. Hence, the current clinical scenario has dramatically shifted since the early 1980s, from treatment and prevention of opportunistic infections and palliative care to a new scenario in which most HIV specialists focus on HIV primary care, ie, the follow up of stable patients, surveillance of long-term toxicities, and screening and prevention of age-related conditions. The median age of HIV-infected adults on ART is progressively increasing. By 2030, 3 of every 4 patients are expected to be aged 50 years or older in many countries, more than 80% will have at least 1 age-related disease, and approximately one third will have at least 3 age-related diseases. Contemporary care of HIV-infected patients is evolving, and questions about how we might monitor and perhaps even treat HIV-infected adults have emerged. Through key published works, this review briefly describes the most prevalent comorbidities and age-associated conditions and highlights the differential features in the HIV-infected population. We also discuss the most critical aspects to be considered in the care of patients with HIV for the management and prevention of age-associated disease. PMID:27419169

  11. Human Immunodeficiency Virus as a Chronic Disease: Evaluation and Management of Nonacquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome-Defining Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Villar, Sergio; Gutiérrez, Félix; Miralles, Celia; Berenguer, Juan; Rivero, Antonio; Martínez, Esteban; Moreno, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    In the modern antiretroviral therapy (ART) era, motivated people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who have access to therapy are expected to maintain viral suppression indefinitely and to receive treatment for decades. Hence, the current clinical scenario has dramatically shifted since the early 1980s, from treatment and prevention of opportunistic infections and palliative care to a new scenario in which most HIV specialists focus on HIV primary care, ie, the follow up of stable patients, surveillance of long-term toxicities, and screening and prevention of age-related conditions. The median age of HIV-infected adults on ART is progressively increasing. By 2030, 3 of every 4 patients are expected to be aged 50 years or older in many countries, more than 80% will have at least 1 age-related disease, and approximately one third will have at least 3 age-related diseases. Contemporary care of HIV-infected patients is evolving, and questions about how we might monitor and perhaps even treat HIV-infected adults have emerged. Through key published works, this review briefly describes the most prevalent comorbidities and age-associated conditions and highlights the differential features in the HIV-infected population. We also discuss the most critical aspects to be considered in the care of patients with HIV for the management and prevention of age-associated disease. PMID:27419169

  12. "Exercise as medicine" in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, T J; Shur, N F; Smith, A C

    2016-08-01

    Exercise and physical activity are increasingly becoming key tools in the treatment and prevention of several medical conditions including arthritis and diabetes; this notion has been termed "exercise as medicine". Exercise has favorable effects on reducing cardiovascular risk, inflammation, cachexia, and hypertension, in addition to increasing physical functioning, strength, and cardio-respiratory capacity. Chronic kidney disease, a condition that affects around 10% of the population, is often overlooked as a target for exercise-based therapy. Despite the vast range of severity in kidney disease (e.g., pre-dialysis, dialysis, transplant), exercise has a potential role in all patients suffering from the condition. In this review, we summarise the important role exercise may have in the clinical management of kidney disease and how this form of 'medicine' should be best administered and 'prescribed'. PMID:27334146

  13. Chronic non-communicable diseases.

    PubMed

    Unwin, N; Alberti, K G M M

    2006-01-01

    Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD) account for almost 60% of global mortality, and 80% of deaths from NCD occur in low- and middle-income countries. One quarter of these deaths--almost 9 million in 2005--are in men and women aged <60 years. Taken together, NCD represent globally the single largest cause of mortality in people of working age, and their incidences in younger adults are substantially higher in the poor countries of the world than in the rich. The major causes of NCD-attributable mortality are cardiovascular disease (30% of total global mortality), cancers (13%), chronic respiratory disease (7%) and diabetes (2%). These conditions share a small number of behavioural risk factors, which include a diet high in saturated fat and low in fresh fruit and vegetables, physical inactivity, tobacco smoking, and alcohol excess. In low- and middle-income countries such risk factors tend to be concentrated in urban areas and their prevalences are increasing as a result of rapid urbanization and the increasing globalisation of the food, tobacco and alcohol industries. Because NCD have a major impact on men and women of working age and their elderly dependents, they result in lost income, lost opportunities for investment, and overall lower levels of economic development. Reductions in the incidences of many NCD and their complications are, however, already possible. Up to 80% of all cases of cardiovascular disease or type-2 diabetes and 40% of all cases of cancer, for example, are probably preventable based on current knowledge. In addition, highly cost-effective measures exist for the prevention of some of the complications of established cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Achieving these gains will require a broad range of integrated, population-based interventions as well as measures focused on the individuals at high risk. At present, the international-assistance community provides scant resources for the control of NCD in poor countries, partly, at least

  14. An Informatics-based Chronic Disease Practice

    PubMed Central

    Nordyke, Robert A.; Kulikowski, Casimir A.

    1998-01-01

    The authors present the case study of a 35-year informatics-based single subspecialty practice for the management of patients with chronic thyroid disease. This extensive experience provides a paradigm for the organization of longitudinal medical information by integrating individual patient care with clinical research and education. The kernel of the process is a set of worksheets easily completed by the physician during the patient encounter. It is a structured medical record that has been computerized since 1972, enabling analysis of different groups of patients to answer questions about chronic conditions and the effects of therapeutic interventions. The recording process and resulting studies severe as an important vehicle for medical education about the nuances of clinical practice. The authors suggest ways in which computerized medical records can become an integral part of medical practice, rather than a luxury or novelty. PMID:9452988

  15. Differences in care between general medicine and respiratory specialists in the management of patients hospitalized for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Wijayaratne, Kurugamage; Wilson, Jessica; Sivakumaran, Pathmanathan; Sriram, Krishna B.

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT: Hospitalized patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) may be managed by either respiratory specialists (RS) or general medicine physicians (GMP). While previous studies have audited the hospital AECOPD management of RS, only a small number of studies have evaluated the management of GMP. AIMS: The aims of this study were to firstly examine the differences in AECOPD management of GMP and RS and secondly compare their care to national COPD guidelines. METHODS: A retrospective review was undertaken of consecutive AECOPD patients admitted to two hospitals (one hospital where all AECOPD patients were managed by RS and another where all AECOPD patients were managed by GMP) over a 3-month period. Electronic medical records, medical case notes, pathology and radiology data for the admission were reviewed. RESULTS: There were 201 COPD exacerbations in 169 patients (49.7% male, mean age 72.3). GMP managed 84 (41.7%) exacerbations. In comparison to RS, GMP performed fewer spirometry tests, blood gas analysis and less frequently treated patients with guideline-recommended medications. Referral to pulmonary rehabilitation was poor for both groups of clinicians. Median length of stay was shorter in GMP patients versus RS patients (3 days vs. 5 days, P = 0.001). There were no differences in the 12-month re-admission (41.7% vs. 38.5%, P = 0.664) and mortality rates (10.7% vs. 6%, P = 0.292) between both groups of patients. CONCLUSION: Our study found differences in the hospital AECOPD management of GMP and RS, but these did not translate into different clinical outcomes between their patients. We also found suboptimal adherence to national COPD guidelines, suggesting that there is scope for improvement in the AECOPD management of both groups of clinicians. PMID:24250732

  16. Stop chronic kidney disease progression: Time is approaching.

    PubMed

    Sharaf El Din, Usama Abdel Azim; Salem, Mona Mansour; Abdulazim, Dina Ossama

    2016-05-01

    Progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is inevitable. However, the last decade has witnessed tremendous achievements in this field. Today we are optimistic; the dream of withholding this progression is about to be realistic. The recent discoveries in the field of CKD management involved most of the individual diseases leading the patients to end-stage renal disease. Most of these advances involved patients suffering diabetic kidney disease, chronic glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, renal amyloidosis and chronic tubulointerstitial disease. The chronic systemic inflammatory status and increased oxidative stress were also investigated. This inflammatory status influences the anti-senescence Klotho gene expression. The role of Klotho in CKD progression together with its therapeutic value are explored. The role of gut as a major source of inflammation, the pathogenesis of intestinal mucosal barrier damage, the role of intestinal alkaline phosphatase and the dietary and therapeutic implications add a novel therapeutic tool to delay CKD progression. PMID:27152262

  17. Stop chronic kidney disease progression: Time is approaching

    PubMed Central

    Sharaf El Din, Usama Abdel Azim; Salem, Mona Mansour; Abdulazim, Dina Ossama

    2016-01-01

    Progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is inevitable. However, the last decade has witnessed tremendous achievements in this field. Today we are optimistic; the dream of withholding this progression is about to be realistic. The recent discoveries in the field of CKD management involved most of the individual diseases leading the patients to end-stage renal disease. Most of these advances involved patients suffering diabetic kidney disease, chronic glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, renal amyloidosis and chronic tubulointerstitial disease. The chronic systemic inflammatory status and increased oxidative stress were also investigated. This inflammatory status influences the anti-senescence Klotho gene expression. The role of Klotho in CKD progression together with its therapeutic value are explored. The role of gut as a major source of inflammation, the pathogenesis of intestinal mucosal barrier damage, the role of intestinal alkaline phosphatase and the dietary and therapeutic implications add a novel therapeutic tool to delay CKD progression. PMID:27152262

  18. Overview of the pharmacological challenges facing physicians in the management of patients with concomitant cardiovascular disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Campo, Gianluca; Pavasini, Rita; Biscaglia, Simone; Contoli, Marco; Ceconi, Claudio

    2015-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and heart failure (HF), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are often concomitant because they share both risk factors (smoke) and pathological pathways (systemic inflammation). Cardiovascular disease and COPD association is increasing overtime. Several registries clearly showed a negative impact on the clinical outcome of the concomitant presence of CVD and COPD. Patients with CVD and COPD present an increased risk for myocardial infarction, HF, and hospital admission for acute exacerbation of COPD, with a negative impact on prognosis. To reduce the effect of this negative association, it is of paramount importance the pharmacological treatment with both cardiovascular and respiratory drugs, according to current guidelines. Nevertheless, several registries and studies showed that evidence-based drugs (both cardiovascular and respiratory) are often under administered in this subset of patients. In this overview, we summarize the available data regarding the use of cardiovascular drugs (antiplatelet agents, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, β-blockers, and statins) in COPD patients, with or without concomitant IHD. Furthermore, we report advantages and disadvantages of respiratory drugs (β2 agonists, anti-cholinergics, and corticosteroids) administration in COPD patients with CVD. PMID:27533997

  19. Care Coordination/Home Telehealth: the systematic implementation of health informatics, home telehealth, and disease management to support the care of veteran patients with chronic conditions.

    PubMed

    Darkins, Adam; Ryan, Patricia; Kobb, Rita; Foster, Linda; Edmonson, Ellen; Wakefield, Bonnie; Lancaster, Anne E

    2008-12-01

    Between July 2003 and December 2007, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) introduced a national home telehealth program, Care Coordination/Home Telehealth (CCHT). Its purpose was to coordinate the care of veteran patients with chronic conditions and avoid their unnecessary admission to long-term institutional care. Demographic changes in the veteran population necessitate VHA increase its noninstitutional care (NIC) services 100% above its 2007 level to provide care for 110,000 NIC patients by 2011. By 2011, CCHT will meet 50% of VHA's anticipated NIC provision. CCHT involves the systematic implementation of health informatics, home telehealth, and disease management technologies. It helps patients live independently at home. Between 2003 and 2007, the census figure (point prevalence) for VHA CCHT patients increased from 2,000 to 31,570 (1,500% growth). CCHT is now a routine NIC service provided by VHA to support veteran patients with chronic conditions as they age. CCHT patients are predominantly male (95%) and aged 65 years or older. Strict criteria determine patient eligibility for enrollment into the program and VHA internally assesses how well its CCHT programs meet standardized clinical, technology, and managerial requirements. VHA has trained 5,000 staff to provide CCHT. Routine analysis of data obtained for quality and performance purposes from a cohort of 17,025 CCHT patients shows the benefits of a 25% reduction in numbers of bed days of care, 19% reduction in numbers of hospital admissions, and mean satisfaction score rating of 86% after enrolment into the program. The cost of CCHT is $1,600 per patient per annum, substantially less than other NIC programs and nursing home care. VHA's experience is that an enterprise-wide home telehealth implementation is an appropriate and cost-effective way of managing chronic care patients in both urban and rural settings. PMID:19119835

  20. Fatigue in chronic kidney disease: Definition, assessment and treatment.

    PubMed

    Zalai, Dora; Bohra, Miqdad

    2016-01-01

    Chronic fatigue--an overwhelming subjective feeling of mental or physical exhaustion--impacts patients' everyday functioning and quality of life, delays recovery after hemodialysis, and increases mortality. There are a number of factors that may perpetuate clinically significant fatigue among individuals with chronic kidney disease, including sleep disorders, depression, sedentary lifestyle, anemia, and chronic inflammation. Some of these factors (i.e., anemia and inflammation) are in the forefront of clinical attention, whereas the other contributing factors often remain unrecognized. This article provides a pragmatic overview of the definition, assessment, maintaining factors, and management of fatigue in chronic kidney disease. Given that chronic fatigue is a major determinant of patients' quality of life, nurses can bring about a fundamental improvement in patients' well-being if they recognize the most common fatigue-perpetuating factors and facilitate fatigue management interventions. PMID:27215061

  1. Anemia of Inflammation and Chronic Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Organizations (PDF, 270 KB). Alternate Language URL Anemia of Inflammation and Chronic Disease Page Content On ... Nutrition Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is anemia? Anemia is a condition in which a person ...

  2. [Troponins and chronic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Di Lullo, Luca; Barbera, Vincenzo; Santoboni, Alberto; Bellasi, Antonio; Cozzolino, Mario; De Pascalis, Antonio; Rivera, Rodolfo; Balducci, Alessandro; Russo, Domenico; Ronco, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Coronary thrombosis was recognized since 19th century as clinical entity with bad outcomes; only in 1912 it was reported that acute myocardial infarction had to been distinguished from angina pectoris. First diagnostic test was electrocardiogram, while white blood cells count and erythrocytes sedimentation rate were the only available laboratory tests. Late in the 60s and 70s glutammic oxaloacetic and glutamic pyravate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase were added to biomarkers pool to provide a diagnosis of myocardial infarction related to myocardial cells injury. Only in 1987 assays for cardiac troponin were developed to assess structural damage of myocardial cells and in 2010 high sensibility troponins first dosage kits became available. It is well known that the population with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is at greater risk for cardiovascular disease and death than the general population. The use and interpretation of high sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays have been particularly challenging in these patients with the majority having elevated levels at baseline. Aim of this review is to evaluate hs-cTn in patients with CKD for the diagnosis of AMI and for the prognostic significance of elevated levels in CKD patients without AMI. PMID:26252257

  3. Emerging communities of child-healthcare practice in the management of long-term conditions such as chronic kidney disease: qualitative study of parents’ accounts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Parents of children and young people with long-term conditions who need to deliver clinical care to their child at home with remote support from hospital-based professionals, often search the internet for care-giving information. However, there is little evidence that the information available online was developed and evaluated with parents or that it acknowledges the communities of practice that exist as parents and healthcare professionals share responsibility for condition management. Methods The data reported here are part of a wider study that developed and tested a condition-specific, online parent information and support application with children and young people with chronic-kidney disease, parents and professionals. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 fathers and 24 mothers who had recently tested the novel application. Data were analysed using Framework Analysis and the Communities of Practice concept. Results Evolving communities of child-healthcare practice were identified comprising three components and several sub components: (1) Experiencing (parents making sense of clinical tasks) through Normalising care, Normalising illness, Acceptance & action, Gaining strength from the affected child and Building relationships to formalise a routine; (2) Doing (Parents executing tasks according to their individual skills) illustrated by Developing coping strategies, Importance of parents’ efficacy of care and Fear of the child’s health failing; and (3) Belonging/Becoming (Parents defining task and group members’ worth and creating a personal identity within the community) consisting of Information sharing, Negotiation with health professionals and Achieving expertise in care. Parents also recalled factors affecting the development of their respective communities of healthcare practice; these included Service transition, Poor parent social life, Psycho-social affects, Family chronic illness, Difficulty in learning new procedures

  4. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli; Scarlata, Simone; Pennazza, Giorgio; Santonico, Marco; Pedone, Claudio

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) dramatically increases with age, and COPD complicated by chronic respiratory failure may be considered a geriatric condition. Unfortunately, most cases remain undiagnosed because of atypical clinical presentation and difficulty with current respiratory function diagnostic standards. Accordingly, the disease is under-recognized and undertreated. This is expected to impact noticeably the health status of unrecognized COPD patients because a timely therapy could mitigate the distinctive and important effects of COPD on the health status. Comorbidity also plays a pivotal role in conditioning both the health status and the therapy of COPD besides having major prognostic implication. Several problems affect the overall quality of the therapy for the elderly with COPD, and current guidelines as well as results from pharmacological trials only to some extent apply to this patient. Finally, physicians of different specialties care for the elderly COPD patient: physician's specialty largely determines the kind of approach. In conclusion, COPD, in itself a complex disease, becomes difficult to identify and to manage in the elderly. Interdisciplinary efforts are desirable to provide the practicing physician with a multidisciplinary guide to the identification and treatment of COPD. PMID:24183233

  5. Obesity, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Michael E; do Carmo, Jussara M; da Silva, Alexandre A; Juncos, Luis A; Wang, Zhen; Hall, John E

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for essential hypertension, diabetes, and other comorbid conditions that contribute to development of chronic kidney disease. Obesity raises blood pressure by increasing renal tubular sodium reabsorption, impairing pressure natriuresis, and causing volume expansion via activation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system and by physical compression of the kidneys, especially when there is increased visceral adiposity. Other factors such as inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipotoxicity may also contribute to obesity-mediated hypertension and renal dysfunction. Initially, obesity causes renal vasodilation and glomerular hyperfiltration, which act as compensatory mechanisms to maintain sodium balance despite increased tubular reabsorption. However, these compensations, along with increased arterial pressure and metabolic abnormalities, may ultimately lead to glomerular injury and initiate a slowly developing vicious cycle that exacerbates hypertension and worsens renal injury. Body weight reduction, via caloric restriction and increased physical activity, is an important first step for management of obesity, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. However, this strategy may not be effective in producing long-term weight loss or in preventing cardiorenal and metabolic consequences in many obese patients. The majority of obese patients require medical therapy for obesity-associated hypertension, metabolic disorders, and renal disease, and morbidly obese patients may require surgical interventions to produce sustained weight loss. PMID:24600241

  6. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Prevalence and Mortality

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator describes data on chronic pulmonary disease (COPD) prevalence and deaths across the U.S. for the time periods 1997-2009 and 1979-2007, respectively. COPD, also known as chronic lung disease, may be partly caused or exacerbated by environmental exposures such as ...

  7. Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S

    2012-03-29

    This document describes how Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) meets the requirements and management practices of federal regulation 10 CFR 850, 'Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP).' This revision of the LLNL CBDPP incorporates clarification and editorial changes based on lessons learned from employee discussions, observations and reviews of Department of Energy (DOE) Complex and commercial industry beryllium (Be) safety programs. The information is used to strengthen beryllium safety practices at LLNL, particularly in the areas of: (1) Management of small parts and components; and (2) Communication of program status to employees. Future changes to LLNL beryllium activities and on-going operating experience will be incorporated into the program as described in Section S, 'Performance Feedback.'

  8. Feasibility of Mobile Phone-Based Management of Chronic Illness

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Joshua C.; Schatz, Bruce R.

    2010-01-01

    According to the CDC, chronic conditions such as heart disease, cancer, and diabetes cause 75% of healthcare spending in the United States and contribute to nearly seven in ten American deaths. However, despite the prevalence and high-cost of chronic disease, they are also among the most preventable of health problems1. How can we use technology to improve self-care, reduce costs, and lessen the burden on medical professionals? Devices to help manage chronic illness have been marketed for years, but are these specialized devices really necessary? In this paper, the authors identify the aspects of the major chronic illnesses that most need to be controlled and monitored in the US today and explore the feasibility of using current mobile phone technology to improve the management of chronic illness. Here we show that even the average mobile phone is capable of improving the management of all relevant health features in some way. PMID:21347080

  9. A community-based approach to non-communicable chronic disease management within a context of advancing universal health coverage in China: progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Nanzi; Long, Qian; Tang, Xiaojun; Tang, Shenglan

    2014-01-01

    Paralleled with the rapid socio-economic development and demographic transition, an epidemic of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs) has emerged in China over the past three decades, resulting in increased disease and economic burdens. Over the past decade, with a political commitment of implementing universal health coverage, China has strengthened its primary healthcare system and increased investment in public health interventions. A community-based approach to address NCDs has been acknowledged and recognized as one of the most cost-effective solutions. Community-based strategies include: financial and health administrative support; social mobilization; community health education and promotion; and the use of community health centers in NCD detection, diagnosis, treatment, and patient management. Although China has made good progress in developing and implementing these strategies and policies for NCD prevention and control, many challenges remain. There are a lack of appropriately qualified health professionals at grass-roots health facilities; it is difficult to retain professionals at that level; there is insufficient public funding for NCD care and management; and NCD patients are economically burdened due to limited benefit packages covering NCD treatment offered by health insurance schemes. To tackle these challenges we propose developing appropriate human resource policies to attract greater numbers of qualified health professionals at the primary healthcare level; adjusting the service benefit packages to encourage the use of community-based health services; and increase government investment in public health interventions, as well as investing more on health insurance schemes. PMID:25082410

  10. Helping a Child Manage a Chronic Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160011.html Helping a Child Manage a Chronic Illness Feeling they have control over their ... News) -- Children and teens who feel confident handling a chronic illness on their own appear better able ...

  11. Right Ventricular Dysfunction in Chronic Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kolb, Todd M.; Hassoun, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Right ventricular dysfunction arises in chronic lung disease when chronic hypoxemia and disruption of pulmonary vascular beds contribute to increase ventricular afterload, and is generally defined by hypertrophy with preserved myocardial contractility and cardiac output. Although the exact prevalence is unknown, right ventricular hypertrophy appears to be a common complication of chronic lung disease, and more frequently complicates advanced lung disease. Right ventricular failure is rare, except during acute exacerbations of chronic lung disease or when multiple co-morbidities are present. Treatment is targeted at correcting hypoxia and improving pulmonary gas exchange and mechanics. There are presently no convincing data to support the use of pulmonary hypertension-specific therapies in patients with right ventricular dysfunction secondary to chronic lung disease. PMID:22548815

  12. Effects of chronic disease self-management programs for participants with higher depression scores: secondary analyses of an on-line and a small-group program.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Philip L; Ory, Marcia G; Laurent, Diana D; Lorig, Kate

    2014-12-01

    Depression often accompanies chronic illness. Study aims included determining (1) the level of current depression (Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-8 ≥ 10) for two sets of Chronic Disease Self-Management Programs (CDSMP) participants; (2) if depression or other outcomes improved for those with PHQ-8 ≥ 10; and (3) if outcomes differed for participants with or without depression. This study utilized longitudinal secondary data analysis of depression cohorts (PHQ-8 ≥ 10) from two independent translational implementations of the CDSMP, small-group (N = 175) and Internet-based (N = 110). At baseline, 27 and 55  % of the two samples had PHQ-8 10 or greater. This decreased to 16 and 37  % by 12  months (p < 0.001). Both depressed and non-depressed cohorts demonstrated improvements in most 12-month outcomes (pain, fatigue, activity limitations, and medication adherence). The CDSMP was associated with long-term improvements in depression regardless of delivery mode or location, and the programs appeared beneficial for participants with and without depression. PMID:25584089

  13. Development of a Theory-Based Intervention to Increase Prescription of Inspiratory Muscle Training by Health Professionals in the Management of People with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linda C.; Reid, W. Darlene

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to provide an overview of the literature on barriers to evidence-based practice (EBP) and the effectiveness of implementation interventions in health care; and (2) to outline the development of an implementation intervention for improving the prescription of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) by physical therapists and other health professionals for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Summary of Key Points: Individuals, organizations, and the research itself present barriers to EBP in physical therapy. Despite the evidence supporting the use of IMT, this treatment continues to be under-used in managing COPD. Current health services research shows that traditional information-based approaches to implementation, such as didactic lectures, do not adequately address the challenges health professionals face when trying to make changes in practice. We propose the development of a theory-based intervention to improve health professionals' use of IMT in the management of COPD. It is postulated that a behavioural intervention, based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), may be more effective than an information-based strategy in increasing the prescription of IMT by health professionals. Conclusion: TPB may be used to understand the antecedents of health professionals' behaviour and to guide the development of implementation interventions. Further research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of this proposed intervention in the management of people with COPD. PMID:22654237

  14. Disease and their management.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews diseases of chickpea and their management practices. Some of the most important disease such as Ascochyta blight, Fuarium wilt, Botrytis gray mold, are described in detail. The life cycle and epidemiology of these diseases are discussed in relation to the management practices. ...

  15. Patient Experiences of Depression and Anxiety with Chronic Disease

    PubMed Central

    DeJean, D; Giacomini, M; Vanstone, M; Brundisini, F

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression and anxiety are highly prevalent in patients with chronic disease, but remain undertreated despite significant negative consequences on patient health. A number of clinical groups have developed recommendations for depression screening practices in the chronic disease population. Objectives The objective of this analysis was to review empirical qualitative research on the experiences of patients with chronic disease (e.g., COPD, diabetes, heart disease, stroke) and comorbid depression or anxiety, and to highlight the implications of the screening and management of anxiety and/or depression on chronic disease outcomes. Review Methods We performed literature searches for studies published from January 2002 to May 2012. We applied a qualitative mega-filter to nine condition-specific search filters. Titles and abstracts were reviewed by two reviewers and, for the studies that met the eligibility criteria, full-text articles were obtained. Qualitative meta-synthesis was used to integrate findings across relevant published primary research studies. Qualitative meta-synthesis produced a synthesis of evidence that both retained the original meaning of the authors and offered a new, integrative interpretation of the phenomenon through a process of comparing and contrasting findings across studies. Results The findings of 20 primary qualitative studies were synthesized. Patients tended to experience their chronic conditions and anxiety or depression as either independent or inter-related (i.e., the chronic disease lead to depression/anxiety, the depression/anxiety lead to the chronic disease, or the two conditions exacerbated each other). Potential barriers to screening for depression or anxiety were also identified. Limitations A wider array of issues might have been captured if the analysis had focused on broader psychological responses to the chronic disease experience. However, given the objective to highlight implications for screening for anxiety

  16. A Framework to Assist Health Professionals in Recommending High-Quality Apps for Supporting Chronic Disease Self-Management: Illustrative Assessment of Type 2 Diabetes Apps

    PubMed Central

    Capra, Sandra; Bauer, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Background This paper presents an approach to assist health professionals in recommending high quality apps for supporting chronic disease self-management. Most app reviews focus on popularity, aesthetics, functionality, usability, and information quality. There is no doubt these factors are important in selecting trustworthy apps which are appealing to users, but behavioral theory may be also be useful in matching the apps to user needs. Objective The framework developed aims to be methodologically sound, capable of selecting popular apps which include content covered by evidence-based programs, consistent with behavioral theory, as well as a patient-centered approach for matching apps to patients’ individual needs. Methods A single disease—type 2 diabetes—was selected to illustrate how the framework can be applied as this was deemed to represent the types of strategies used in many chronic diseases. A systematic approach based on behavioral theory and recommendations from best practice guidelines was developed for matching apps to patients’ needs. In March 2014, a series of search strategies was used to identify top-rated iPhone and Android health apps, representing 29 topics from five categories of type 2 diabetes self-management strategies. The topics were chosen from published international guidelines for the management of diabetes. The senior author (KH) assessed the most popular apps found that addressed these topics using the Behavioral Theory Content Survey (BTS), which is based on traditional behavioral theory. A tool to assist decision making when using apps was developed and trialed with health professionals for ease of use and understanding. Results A total of 14 apps were assessed representing all five topic categories of self-management. Total theoretical scores (BTS scores) were less than 50 on a 100-point scale for all apps. Each app scored less than 50% of the total possible BTS score for all four behavioral theories and for most of the 20

  17. Imaging in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Meola, Mario; Samoni, Sara; Petrucci, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) diagnosis and staging are based on estimated or calculated glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urinalysis and kidney structure at renal imaging techniques. Ultrasound (US) has a key role in evaluating both morphological changes (by means of B-Mode) and patterns of vascularization (by means of color-Doppler and contrast-enhanced US), thus contributing to CKD diagnosis and to the follow-up of its progression. In CKD, conventional US allows measuring longitudinal diameter and cortical thickness and evaluating renal echogenicity and urinary tract status. Maximum renal length is usually considered a morphological marker of CKD, as it decreases contemporarily to GFR, and should be systematically recorded in US reports. More recently, it has been found to be a significant correlation of both renal longitudinal diameter and cortical thickness with renal function. Conventional US should be integrated by color Doppler, which shows parenchymal perfusion and patency of veins and arteries, and by spectral Doppler, which is crucial for the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis and provides important information about intrarenal microcirculation. Different values of renal resistive indexes (RIs) have been associated with different primary diseases, as they reflect vascular compliance. Since RIs significantly correlate with renal function, they have been proposed to be independent risk factors for CKD progression, besides proteinuria, low GFR and arterial hypertension. Despite several new applications, US and color Doppler contribute to a definite diagnosis in <50% of cases of CKD, because of the lack of specific US patterns, especially in cases of advanced CKD. However, US is useful to evaluate CKD progression and to screen patients at risk for CKD. The indications and the recommended frequency of color Doppler US could differ in each case and the follow-up should be tailored. PMID:27170301

  18. Tiotropium bromide inhalation powder: a review of its use in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2012-01-22

    The anticholinergic agent tiotropium bromide (Spiriva®) is a long-acting bronchodilator that is indicated for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This article reviews the clinical efficacy and tolerability of tiotropium bromide inhalation powder, administered using the HandiHaler® device, in patients with COPD, as well as reviewing its pharmacological properties and the results of pharmacoeconomic analyses. Shorter-term placebo-controlled trials in patients with COPD demonstrated significantly higher trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) responses with tiotropium bromide than with placebo, confirming it has a duration of action of ≥24 hours and is suitable for once-daily administration. Lung function improved to a greater extent with tiotropium bromide than with ipratropium bromide or, in most instances, salmeterol. Indacaterol was shown to be noninferior to tiotropium bromide in terms of the trough FEV(1) response. The large, 4-year UPLIFT® trial did not show a significant reduction in the annual rate of decline in FEV(1) with tiotropium bromide versus placebo in patients with COPD, although subgroup analyses demonstrated a significantly lower rate of decline with tiotropium bromide than with placebo in some patient groups (e.g. patients with moderate COPD, patients aged ≥50 years, patients not receiving maintenance therapy at baseline). Tiotropium bromide prevented exacerbations in patients with COPD, with a significantly lower exacerbation rate and a significantly longer time to first exacerbation seen with tiotropium bromide than with placebo or salmeterol. Exacerbation rates did not significantly differ between patients receiving tiotropium bromide and those receiving salmeterol/fluticasone propionate. Tiotropium bromide also had beneficial effects on health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) and other endpoints, such as dyspnoea and rescue medication use. Combination therapy with tiotropium bromide plus

  19. IMPACT OF A SERIOUS GAME FOR HEALTH ON CHRONIC DISEASE SELF-MANAGEMENT: PRELIMINARY EFFICACY AMONG COMMUNITY DWELLING ADULTS WITH HYPERTENSION.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Ronald L; Clochesy, John M; Pinto, Melissa D; Burant, Christopher; Pignatiello, Grant

    2015-01-01

    Most Americans will acquire a chronic disease during their lifetime. One of the most prevalent chronic diseases that affect Americans is hypertension (HTN). Despite the known comorbidities and increased mortality rate associated with uncontrolled HTN, most community dwelling adults with HTN do not have sufficient blood pressure control Therefore, the aim of this article is to report the preliminary efficacy of a serious game for health to enhance blood pressure control among community dwelling adults with HTN. A nonprobability sample of 116 community dwelling adults with HTN participated in this nonblinded, randomized controlled trial. Participants were randomly assigned to: (1) an intervention arm that consisted of four exposures to a serious game for health known as eSMART-HD; or (2) an attentional control arm that compromised of four exposures to screen-based HTN education. The primary outcome measure for this trial was blood pressure reduction over a four month observational period. In this study, baseline characteristics and blood pressure measurements were similar between participants in each study arm. There was no significant between-group difference in blood pressure reduction over time. However, there were significant within-group reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressures across time among favoring participants exposed to eSMART-HD. This study establishes the preliminary efficacy of eSMART-HD that can be easily administered to community dwelling adults and facilitate clinically significant reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Future studies should assess the influential components of this promising serious game for health (eSMART-HD) combined with medication management in larger and more diverse samples of community dwelling adults with HTN. PMID:26442364

  20. Diseases and Their Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Important diseases and their management practices of lentil were reviewed. The diseases reveiwed include Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta lentis), Anthracnose (Colletotrichum truncatum), White mold (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum), rust (Uromyces viciae-fabae), Botrytis gray mold (Botrytis cinerea and B. faba...

  1. Effect of a web-based chronic disease management system on asthma control and health-related quality of life: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Asthma is a prevalent and costly disease resulting in reduced quality of life for a large proportion of individuals. Effective patient self-management is critical for improving health outcomes. However, key aspects of self-management such as self-monitoring of behaviours and symptoms, coupled with regular feedback from the health care team, are rarely addressed or integrated into ongoing care. Health information technology (HIT) provides unique opportunities to facilitate this by providing a means for two way communication and exchange of information between the patient and care team, and access to their health information, presented in personalized ways that can alert them when there is a need for action. The objective of this study is to evaluate the acceptability and efficacy of using a web-based self-management system, My Asthma Portal (MAP), linked to a case-management system on asthma control, and asthma health-related quality of life. Methods The trial is a parallel multi-centered 2-arm pilot randomized controlled trial. Participants are randomly assigned to one of two conditions: a) MAP and usual care; or b) usual care alone. Individuals will be included if they are between 18 and 70, have a confirmed asthma diagnosis, and their asthma is classified as not well controlled by their physician. Asthma control will be evaluated by calculating the amount of fast acting beta agonists recorded as dispensed in the provincial drug database, and asthma quality of life using the Mini Asthma Related Quality of Life Questionnaire. Power calculations indicated a needed total sample size of 80 subjects. Data are collected at baseline, 3, 6, and 9 months post randomization. Recruitment started in March 2010 and the inclusion of patients in the trial in June 2010. Discussion Self-management support from the care team is critical for improving chronic disease outcomes. Given the high volume of patients and time constraints during clinical visits, primary care

  2. Nonpharmacologic Management of Chronic Insomnia.

    PubMed

    Maness, David L; Khan, Muneeza

    2015-12-15

    Insomnia affects 10% to 30% of the population with a total cost of $92.5 to $107.5 billion annually. Short-term, chronic, and other types of insomnia are the three major categories according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd ed. The criteria for diagnosis are difficulty falling asleep, difficulty staying asleep, or early awakening despite the opportunity for sleep; symptoms must be associated with impaired daytime functioning and occur at least three times per week for at least one month. Factors associated with the onset of insomnia include a personal or family history of insomnia, easy arousability, poor self-reported health, and chronic pain. Insomnia is more common in women, especially following menopause and during late pregnancy, and in older adults. A comprehensive sleep history can confirm the diagnosis. Psychiatric and medical problems, medication use, and substance abuse should be ruled out as contributing factors. Treatment of comorbid conditions alone may not resolve insomnia. Patients with movement disorders (e.g., restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder), circadian rhythm disorders, or breathing disorders (e.g., obstructive sleep apnea) must be identified and treated appropriately. Chronic insomnia is associated with cognitive difficulties, anxiety and depression, poor work performance, decreased quality of life, and increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Insomnia can be treated with nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic therapies. Nonpharmacologic therapies include sleep hygiene, cognitive behavior therapy, relaxation therapy, multicomponent therapy, and paradoxical intention. Referral to a sleep specialist may be considered for refractory cases. PMID:26760592

  3. Managing chronic pain in family practice.

    PubMed Central

    Librach, S. L.

    1993-01-01

    Pain is common in family practice. In dealing with chronic pain, both the family physician and the patient often have problems in defining and in understanding the origin of chronic pain and in providing effective pain relief. This article explores a practical, holistic approach to understanding and managing chronic pain. PMID:8471902

  4. Insomnia in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Anett V; Novak, Marta; Bohra, Miqdad; Mucsi, Istvan

    2015-07-01

    Insomnia and poor self-perceived sleep are very common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Poor sleep is associated with fatigue, sleepiness, impaired daytime functioning, impaired health-related quality of life, and increased morbidity and mortality. Many illness- and treatment-related factors (metabolic changes, inflammation, altered sleep regulatory mechanisms, symptoms and complications of CKD, comorbid conditions, medications, and renal replacement therapies) may disturb sleep and contribute to the high prevalence of insomnia in this patient population. Accordingly, the approach to both diagnosing and treating this condition is quite complex. Although sleep-related problems are very important for patients with CKD, they largely are under-recognized and undertreated. Very few intervention trials provide an evidence base to support treatment decisions in this particular patient population. With this review we hope to increase awareness of insomnia among professionals involved in the management of patients with CKD and to provide guidance in recognizing and treating this important condition. PMID:26355254

  5. Disaster management of chronic dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Zoraster, Richard; Vanholder, Raymond; Sever, Mehmet S

    2007-01-01

    The chronically ill are often the hardest hit by disruptions in the healthcare system--they may be highly dependent on medications or treatments that suddenly become unavailable, they are more physically fragile than the rest of the population, and for socioeconomic reasons they may be more limited in their ability to prepare or react. Medical professionals involved in disaster response should be prepared to care for individuals suffering from the complications of chronic illness, and they must have some idea of how to do so with limited resources. Dialysis-dependent, end-stage renal disease patients are at especially high risk following disasters. Infrastructure damage may make dialysis impossible for days, and few physicians have experience or training in the nondialytic management of end-stage renal disease. Nondialytic management strategies include dietary restrictions, aggressive attempts at potassium removal via resins and cathartics, and adaptations of acute treatment strategies. Appropriate planning and stockpiling of medications such as Kayexalate are critical to minimizing morbidity and mortality. PMID:18271158

  6. The genetics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Alice M; Stockley, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disease caused by the interaction of genetic susceptibility and environmental influences. There is increasing evidence that genes link to disease pathogenesis and heterogeneity by causing variation in protease anti-protease systems, defence against oxidative stress and inflammation. The main methods of genomic research for complex disease traits are described, together with the genes implicated in COPD thus far, their roles in disease causation and the future for this area of investigation. PMID:17054776

  7. A Review of Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Kaspar, C D W; Bholah, R; Bunchman, T E

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is complex in both adults and children, but the disease is far from the same between these populations. Here we review the marked differences in etiology, comorbidities, impact of disease on growth and quality of life, issues unique to adolescents and transitions to adult care, and special considerations of congenital kidney and urinary tract anomalies for transplantation. PMID:26766175

  8. Evidence-based Evaluation and Management of Chronic Cough.

    PubMed

    Achilleos, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Chronic cough is common and has a significant impact on the wellbeing of patients and the use and cost of health care services. Traditionally the approach to chronic cough in patients who are nonsmokers and are not taking an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor has focused on the diagnosis and management of the upper airway cough syndrome, asthma, and reflux disease. The evaluation of patients with chronic cough frequently involves trials of empiric therapy for these 3 conditions. Chronic cough may be perpetuated by abnormalities of the cough reflex and sensitization of its afferent and central components. PMID:27542423

  9. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - adults - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... visit when they're all better. Save Your Energy at Home Place items you use often in ... or the skin around your fingernails are blue Alternative Names COPD - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive airways disease - ...

  10. Medicare Pays for Chronic Care Management.

    PubMed

    Sorrel, Amy Lynn

    2015-09-01

    As of January, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services began paying for chronic care management of patients with two or more conditions under its Chronic Care Management program. The payment applies to patients in traditional fee-for-service and noncapitated Medicare Advantage plan arrangements. Texas Medical Association leaders caution the program has some hefty requirements. PMID:26360339

  11. Healthcare Decision Support System for Administration of Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Ji-In; Yang, Jung-Gi; Lee, Young-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Objectives A healthcare decision-making support model and rule management system is proposed based on a personalized rule-based intelligent concept, to effectively manage chronic diseases. Methods A Web service was built using a standard message transfer protocol for interoperability of personal health records among healthcare institutions. An intelligent decision service is provided that analyzes data using a service-oriented healthcare rule inference function and machine-learning platform; the rules are extensively compiled by physicians through a developmental user interface that enables knowledge base construction, modification, and integration. Further, screening results are visualized for the self-intuitive understanding of personal health status by patients. Results A recommendation message is output through the Web service by receiving patient information from the hospital information recording system and object attribute values as input factors. The proposed system can verify patient behavior by acting as an intellectualized backbone of chronic diseases management; further, it supports self-management and scheduling of screening. Conclusions Chronic patients can continuously receive active recommendations related to their healthcare through the rule management system, and they can model the system by acting as decision makers in diseases management; secondary diseases can be prevented and health management can be performed by reference to patient-specific lifestyle guidelines. PMID:25152830

  12. An update on the management of chronic lumbar discogenic pain.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2015-09-01

    Lumbar degenerative disc disease without disc herniation, also known as discogenic pain, is an elusive diagnosis of chronic low back pain. Lumbar provocation discography and fusion surgery have been frequently utilized for several decades as the gold standards for the diagnosis and treatment of symptomatic lumbar discogenic pain, though controversial, based on conjecture, rather than evidence. In addition to lumbar fusion, various other operative and nonoperative modalities of treatments are available in managing chronic lumbar discogenic pain. This review provides an updated assessment of the management of chronic lumbar discogenic pain with a critical look at the many modalities of treatments that are currently available. PMID:26255722

  13. Vitamin D deficiency and chronic lung disease.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Christopher R; Arum, Seth M; Smith, Cecilia M

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is increasingly being recognized as a prevalent problem in the general population. Patients with chronic lung diseases such as asthma, cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive lung disease and interstitial pneumonia appear to be at increased risk for vitamin D deficiency for reasons that are not clear. Several studies indicate that vitamin D possesses a range of anti-inflammatory properties and may be involved in processes other than the previously believed functions of calcium and phosphate homeostasis. Various cytokines, cellular elements, oxidative stress and protease/antiprotease levels appear to affect lung fibroproliferation, remodelling and function, which may be influenced by vitamin D levels. Chronic lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease have also been linked to vitamin D on a genetic basis. This immune and genetic influence of vitamin D may influence the pathogenesis of chronic lung diseases. A recent observational study notes a significant association between vitamin D deficiency and decreased pulmonary function tests in a large ambulatory population. The present review will examine the current literature regarding vitamin D deficiency, its prevalence in patients with chronic lung disease, vitamin D anti-inflammatory properties and the role of vitamin D in pulmonary function. PMID:19557213

  14. Anaemia management with subcutaneous epoetin delta in patients with chronic kidney disease (predialysis, haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis): results of an open-label, 1-year study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Anaemia is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and can be managed by therapy with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). Epoetin delta (DYNEPO®, Shire plc) is the only epoetin produced in a human cell line. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of subcutaneously administered epoetin delta for the management of anaemia in CKD patients (predialysis, peritoneal dialysis or haemodialysis) Methods This was a 1-year, multicentre, open-label study. Patients had previously received epoetin subcutaneously and were switched to epoetin delta at an identical dose to their previous therapy. Dose was titrated to maintain haemoglobin at 10.0–12.0 g/dL. The primary endpoint was mean haemoglobin over Weeks 12–24. Secondary analyses included long-term haemoglobin, haematocrit and dosing levels. Safety was assessed by monitoring adverse events, laboratory parameters and physical examinations. Results In total 478 patients received epoetin delta, forming the safety-evaluable population. Efficacy analyses were performed on data from 411 of these patients. Mean ± SD haemoglobin over Weeks 12–24 was 11.3 ± 1.1 g/dL. Mean ± SD weekly dose over Weeks 12–24 was 84.4 ± 72.7 IU/kg. Haemoglobin levels were maintained for the duration of the study. Epoetin delta was well tolerated, with adverse events occurring at rates expected for a CKD patient population; no patient developed anti-erythropoietin antibodies. Conclusion Subcutaneously administered epoetin delta is an effective and well-tolerated agent for the management of anaemia in CKD patients, irrespective of dialysis status. Trial registration http://www.controlled-trials.com ISRCTN68321818 PMID:19243619

  15. Chronic beryllium disease: computed tomographic findings.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nidhi; Patel, Jeet; Mohammed, Tan-Lucien H

    2010-01-01

    Chronic beryllium disease is a rare multisystem granulomatous disease predominantly involving the lungs and resulting from an immunologic response to long-term occupational exposure. Computed tomography of the chest reveals important lung parenchymal and mediastinal findings and plays an important role in the diagnosis and follow-up assessment of patients with chronic beryllium disease. Its significance lies in the exact localization and evaluation of the extent of lesions. We present an overview of the subject and a pictorial review of the spectrum of computed tomographic features of beryllium disease. PMID:21084914

  16. Methylotroph Infections and Chronic Granulomatous Disease.

    PubMed

    Falcone, E Liana; Petts, Jennifer R; Fasano, Mary Beth; Ford, Bradley; Nauseef, William M; Neves, João Farela; Simões, Maria João; Tierce, Millard L; de la Morena, M Teresa; Greenberg, David E; Zerbe, Christa S; Zelazny, Adrian M; Holland, Steven M

    2016-03-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by a defect in production of phagocyte-derived reactive oxygen species, which leads to recurrent infections with a characteristic group of pathogens not previously known to include methylotrophs. Methylotrophs are versatile environmental bacteria that can use single-carbon organic compounds as their sole source of energy; they rarely cause disease in immunocompetent persons. We have identified 12 infections with methylotrophs (5 reported here, 7 previously reported) in patients with CGD. Methylotrophs identified were Granulibacter bethesdensis (9 cases), Acidomonas methanolica (2 cases), and Methylobacterium lusitanum (1 case). Two patients in Europe died; the other 10, from North and Central America, recovered after prolonged courses of antimicrobial drug therapy and, for some, surgery. Methylotrophs are emerging as disease-causing organisms in patients with CGD. For all patients, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was required for correct diagnosis. Geographic origin of the methylotroph strain may affect clinical management and prognosis. PMID:26886412

  17. Palliative care in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Lilly, Evan J; Senderovich, Helen

    2016-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the only major worldwide cause of mortality that is currently increasing in prevalence. Furthermore, COPD is incurable, and the only therapy that has been shown to increase survival is oxygen therapy in selected patients. Compared to patients with cancer, patients with COPD experience similar levels of pain, breathlessness, fatigue, depression, and anxiety and have a worse quality of life but have comparatively little access to palliative care. When these patients do receive palliative care, they tend to be referred later than patients with cancer. Many disease, patient-, and provider-related factors contribute to this phenomenon, including COPD's unpredictable course, misperceptions of palliative care among patients and physicians, and lack of advance care planning discussions outside of crisis situations. A new paradigm for palliative care would introduce palliative treatments alongside, rather than at the exclusion of disease-modifying interventions. This integrated approach would circumvent the issue of difficult prognostication in COPD, as any patient would receive individualized palliative interventions from the time of diagnosis. These points will be covered in this review, which discusses the challenges in providing palliative care to COPD patients, the strategies to mitigate the challenges, management of common symptoms, and the evidence for integrated palliative care models as well as some suggestions for future development. PMID:27481751

  18. Methylotroph Infections and Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    PubMed Central

    Petts, Jennifer R.; Fasano, Mary Beth; Ford, Bradley; Nauseef, William M.; Neves, João Farela; Simões, Maria João; Tierce, Millard L.; de la Morena, M. Teresa; Greenberg, David E.; Zerbe, Christa S.; Zelazny, Adrian M.; Holland, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by a defect in production of phagocyte-derived reactive oxygen species, which leads to recurrent infections with a characteristic group of pathogens not previously known to include methylotrophs. Methylotrophs are versatile environmental bacteria that can use single-carbon organic compounds as their sole source of energy; they rarely cause disease in immunocompetent persons. We have identified 12 infections with methylotrophs (5 reported here, 7 previously reported) in patients with CGD. Methylotrophs identified were Granulibacter bethesdensis (9 cases), Acidomonas methanolica (2 cases), and Methylobacterium lusitanum (1 case). Two patients in Europe died; the other 10, from North and Central America, recovered after prolonged courses of antimicrobial drug therapy and, for some, surgery. Methylotrophs are emerging as disease-causing organisms in patients with CGD. For all patients, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was required for correct diagnosis. Geographic origin of the methylotroph strain may affect clinical management and prognosis. PMID:26886412

  19. Addressing Health Disparities in Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ta-Chien; Fan, I.-Chun; Liu, Michael Shi-Yung; Su, Ming-Daw; Chiang, Po-Huang

    2014-01-01

    According to the official health statistics, Taiwan has the highest prevalence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) in the world. Each year, around 60,000 ESRD patients in Taiwan consume 6% of the national insurance budget for dialysis treatment. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been climbing during 2008–2012. However, the spatial disparities and clustering of CKD at the public health level have rarely been discussed. The aims of this study are to explore the possible population level risk factors and identify any clusters of CKD, using the national health insurance database. The results show that the ESRD prevalence in females is higher than that in males. ESRD medical expenditure constitutes 87% of total CKD medical expenditure. Pre-CKD and pre-ESRD disease management might slow the progression from CKD to ESRD. After applying ordinary least-squares regression, the percentages of high education status and the elderly in the townships are positively correlated with CKD prevalence. Geographically weighted regression and Local Moran’s I are used for identifying the clusters in southern Taiwan. The findings can be important evidence for earlier and targeted community interventions and reducing the health disparities of CKD. PMID:25514144

  20. Is kidney function affecting the management of myocardial infarction? A retrospective cohort study in patients with normal kidney function, chronic kidney disease stage III–V, and ESRD

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Marc; Karam, Boutros; Faddoul, Geovani; Douaihy, Youssef El; Yacoub, Harout; Baydoun, Hassan; Boumitri, Christine; Barakat, Iskandar; Saifan, Chadi; El-Charabaty, Elie; Sayegh, Suzanne El

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are three times more likely to have myocardial infarction (MI) and suffer from increased morbidity and higher mortality. Traditional and unique risk factors are prevalent and constitute challenges for the standard of care. However, CKD patients have been largely excluded from clinical trials and little evidence is available to guide evidence-based treatment of coronary artery disease in patients with CKD. Our objective was to assess whether a difference exists in the management of MI (ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction) among patients with normal kidney function, CKD stage III–V, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on patients admitted to Staten Island University Hospital for the diagnosis of MI between January 2005 and December 2012. Patients were assigned to one of three groups according to their kidney function: Data collected on the medical management and the use of statins, platelet inhibitors, beta-blockers, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers were compared among the three cohorts, as well as medical interventions including: catheterization and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) when indicated. Chi-square test was used to compare the proportions between nominal variables. Binary logistic analysis was used in order to determine associations between treatment modalities and comorbidities, and to account for possible confounding factors. Three hundred and thirty-four patients (mean age 67.2±13.9 years) were included. In terms of management, medical treatment was not different among the three groups. However, cardiac catheterization was performed less in ESRD when compared with no CKD and CKD stage III–V (45.6% vs 74% and 93.9%) (P<0.001). CABG was performed in comparable proportions in the three groups and CABG was not associated with the degree of CKD (P=0.078) in

  1. Is kidney function affecting the management of myocardial infarction? A retrospective cohort study in patients with normal kidney function, chronic kidney disease stage III-V, and ESRD.

    PubMed

    Saad, Marc; Karam, Boutros; Faddoul, Geovani; Douaihy, Youssef El; Yacoub, Harout; Baydoun, Hassan; Boumitri, Christine; Barakat, Iskandar; Saifan, Chadi; El-Charabaty, Elie; Sayegh, Suzanne El

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are three times more likely to have myocardial infarction (MI) and suffer from increased morbidity and higher mortality. Traditional and unique risk factors are prevalent and constitute challenges for the standard of care. However, CKD patients have been largely excluded from clinical trials and little evidence is available to guide evidence-based treatment of coronary artery disease in patients with CKD. Our objective was to assess whether a difference exists in the management of MI (ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction) among patients with normal kidney function, CKD stage III-V, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on patients admitted to Staten Island University Hospital for the diagnosis of MI between January 2005 and December 2012. Patients were assigned to one of three groups according to their kidney function: Data collected on the medical management and the use of statins, platelet inhibitors, beta-blockers, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers were compared among the three cohorts, as well as medical interventions including: catheterization and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) when indicated. Chi-square test was used to compare the proportions between nominal variables. Binary logistic analysis was used in order to determine associations between treatment modalities and comorbidities, and to account for possible confounding factors. Three hundred and thirty-four patients (mean age 67.2±13.9 years) were included. In terms of management, medical treatment was not different among the three groups. However, cardiac catheterization was performed less in ESRD when compared with no CKD and CKD stage III-V (45.6% vs 74% and 93.9%) (P<0.001). CABG was performed in comparable proportions in the three groups and CABG was not associated with the degree of CKD (P=0.078) in binary

  2. Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap: asthmatic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or chronic obstructive asthma?

    PubMed

    Slats, Annelies; Taube, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are different disease entities. They are both clinical diagnoses, with diagnostic tools to discriminate between one another. However, especially in older patients (>55 years) it seems more difficult to differentiate between asthma and COPD. This has led to the definition of a new phenotype called asthma COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). However, our understanding of ACOS is at a very preliminary stage, as most research has involved subjects with existing diagnoses of asthma or COPD from studies with different definitions for ACOS. This has led to different and sometimes opposing results between studies on several features of ACOS, also depending on the comparison with COPD alone, asthma alone or both, which are summarized in this review.We suggest not using the term ACOS for a patient with features of both asthma and COPD, but to describe a patient with chronic obstructive airway disease as completely as possible, with regard to characteristics that determine treatment response (e.g. eosinophilic inflammation) and prognosis (such as smoking status, exacerbation rate, fixed airflow limitation, hyperresponsiveness, comorbidities). This will provide a far more clinically relevant diagnosis, and would aid in research on treatment in more homogenous groups of patients with chronic airways obstruction. More research is certainly needed to develop more evidence-based definitions for this patient group and to evaluate biomarkers, which will help to further classify these patients, treat them more adequately and unravel the underlying pathophysiological mechanism. PMID:26596632

  3. Psychiatric aspects of chronic disease in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Magen, J

    1990-06-01

    In adolescents with chronic illnesses, the rate of behavioral disorders is 10% to 20% higher than that in their well peers. Rheumatoid arthritis, chronic renal disease, cystic fibrosis, cancer, and many other chronic illnesses constitute risk factors for behavioral disorders in adolescents. Because they are now living longer, more productive lives, adolescents with chronic illnesses are more often seen by their primary care physicians with behavioral disorders that can interfere with disease control. Risk-taking behaviors, difficulties with parents, noncompliance, depression, and isolation may all be manifestations of behavioral disorders. Parents and siblings may also be at risk for disorder. Particular constellations of family and individual characteristics may be associated with behavior disorder. So that these behaviors may be discovered as early as possible, it is important that the primary care physician conceptualize chronically ill adolescents and their families as "at risk." PMID:2190958

  4. Trialling of an optimal health programme (OHP) across chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Ski, Chantal F; Thompson, David R; Castle, David J

    2016-01-01

    Population ageing is a worldwide phenomenon, most advanced in developed countries and expected to continue over the next few decades. As people are surviving longer with age-associated disease and disability, there is an imperative to identify innovative solutions for an already overburdened health care system. Such innovations need to be focused on disease management, taking into consideration the strong associations that have been established between psychosocial factors and pathophysiological mechanisms associated with chronic disease. Aside from personal and community costs, chronic diseases produce a significant economic burden due to the culmination of health care costs and lost productivity. This commentary reports on a programme of research, Translating Research, Integrated Public Health Outcomes and Delivery, which will evaluate an optimal health programme that adopts a person-centred approach and engages collaborative therapy to educate, support and improve the psychosocial health of those with chronic disease. The effectiveness of the optimal health programme will be evaluated across three of the most significant contributors to disease burden: diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease and stroke. Cost-effectiveness will also be evaluated. The findings derived from this series of randomised controlled trials will also provide evidence attesting to the potential applicability of the optimal health programme in other chronic conditions. PMID:27612634

  5. The Role of Technology in Chronic Disease Care.

    PubMed

    Milani, Richard V; Bober, Robert M; Lavie, Carl J

    2016-01-01

    Chronic disease represents the epidemic of our time, present in half the adult population and responsible for 86% of United States (US) healthcare costs and 70% of deaths. The major chronic diseases are primarily due to health risk behaviors that are widely communicable across populations. As a nation, the US has performed poorly in managing chronic disease, in large part because of a failed delivery model of care. New opportunities exist as a result of recent advances in home-based wireless devices, apps and wearables, enabling health delivery systems to monitor disease metrics in near real time. These technologies provide a framework for patient engagement and a new model of care delivery utilizing integrated practice units, both of which are needed to navigate the healthcare needs of the 21st century. PMID:26772623

  6. Chronic fluorosis: The disease and its anaesthetic implications

    PubMed Central

    Kurdi, Madhuri S

    2016-01-01

    Chronic fluorosis is a widespread disease-related to the ingestion of high levels of fluoride through water and food. Prolonged ingestion of fluoride adversely affects the teeth, bones and other organs and alters their anatomy and physiology. Fluoride excess is a risk factor in cardiovascular disease and other major diseases, including hypothyroidism, diabetes and obesity. Although anaesthesiologists may be aware of its skeletal and dental manifestations, other systemic manifestations, some of which may impact anaesthetic management are relatively unknown. Keeping this in mind, the topic of chronic fluorosis was hand searched from textbooks, scientific journals and electronically through Google, PubMed and other scientific databases. This article concentrates on the effect of chronic fluorosis on various organ systems, its clinical features, diagnosis and the anaesthetic implications of the disease. PMID:27053777

  7. Chronic fluorosis: The disease and its anaesthetic implications.

    PubMed

    Kurdi, Madhuri S

    2016-03-01

    Chronic fluorosis is a widespread disease-related to the ingestion of high levels of fluoride through water and food. Prolonged ingestion of fluoride adversely affects the teeth, bones and other organs and alters their anatomy and physiology. Fluoride excess is a risk factor in cardiovascular disease and other major diseases, including hypothyroidism, diabetes and obesity. Although anaesthesiologists may be aware of its skeletal and dental manifestations, other systemic manifestations, some of which may impact anaesthetic management are relatively unknown. Keeping this in mind, the topic of chronic fluorosis was hand searched from textbooks, scientific journals and electronically through Google, PubMed and other scientific databases. This article concentrates on the effect of chronic fluorosis on various organ systems, its clinical features, diagnosis and the anaesthetic implications of the disease. PMID:27053777

  8. Chronic sequelae of foodborne disease.

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    In the past decade the complexity of foodborne pathogens, as well as their adaptability and ability to cause acute illness, and in some cases chronic (secondary) complications, have been newly appreciated. This overview examines long-term consequences of foodborne infections and intoxications to emphasize the need for more research and education. PMID:9366595

  9. The Chronic Gastrointestinal Manifestations of Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Nilce Mitiko; Miller, Steven M.; Evora, Paulo R. Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Chagas disease is an infectious disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The disease mainly affects the nervous system, digestive system and heart. The objective of this review is to revise the literature and summarize the main chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease. The chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease are mainly a result of enteric nervous system impairment caused by T. cruzi infection. The anatomical locations most commonly described to be affected by Chagas disease are salivary glands, esophagus, lower esophageal sphincter, stomach, small intestine, colon, gallbladder and biliary tree. Chagas disease has also been studied in association with Helicobacter pylori infection, interstitial cells of Cajal and the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer. PMID:20037711

  10. Chronic heart failure: contemporary diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Ramani, Gautam V; Uber, Patricia A; Mehra, Mandeep R

    2010-02-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) remains the only cardiovascular disease with an increasing hospitalization burden and an ongoing drain on health care expenditures. The prevalence of CHF increases with advancing life span, with diastolic heart failure predominating in the elderly population. Primary prevention of coronary artery disease and risk factor management via aggressive blood pressure control are central in preventing new occurrences of left ventricular dysfunction. Optimal therapy for CHF involves identification and correction of potentially reversible precipitants, target-dose titration of medical therapy, and management of hospitalizations for decompensation. The etiological phenotype, absolute decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction and a widening of QRS duration on electrocardiography, is commonly used to identify patients at increased risk of progression of heart failure and sudden death who may benefit from prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator placement with or without cardiac resynchronization therapy. Patients who transition to advanced stages of disease despite optimal traditional medical and device therapy may be candidates for hemodynamically directed approaches such as a left ventricular assist device; in selected cases, listing for cardiac transplant may be warranted. PMID:20118395

  11. Chronic Heart Failure: Contemporary Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Ramani, Gautam V.; Uber, Patricia A.; Mehra, Mandeep R.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) remains the only cardiovascular disease with an increasing hospitalization burden and an ongoing drain on health care expenditures. The prevalence of CHF increases with advancing life span, with diastolic heart failure predominating in the elderly population. Primary prevention of coronary artery disease and risk factor management via aggressive blood pressure control are central in preventing new occurrences of left ventricular dysfunction. Optimal therapy for CHF involves identification and correction of potentially reversible precipitants, target-dose titration of medical therapy, and management of hospitalizations for decompensation. The etiological phenotype, absolute decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction and a widening of QRS duration on electrocardiography, is commonly used to identify patients at increased risk of progression of heart failure and sudden death who may benefit from prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator placement with or without cardiac resynchronization therapy. Patients who transition to advanced stages of disease despite optimal traditional medical and device therapy may be candidates for hemodynamically directed approaches such as a left ventricular assist device; in selected cases, listing for cardiac transplant may be warranted. PMID:20118395

  12. Unmet needs in severe chronic upper airway disease (SCUAD).

    PubMed

    Bousquet, Jean; Bachert, Claus; Canonica, Giorgio W; Casale, Thomas B; Cruz, Alvaro A; Lockey, Richard J; Zuberbier, Torsten

    2009-09-01

    Although the majority of patients with chronic upper airway diseases have controlled symptoms during treatment, many patients have severe chronic upper airway diseases (SCUADs). SCUAD defines those patients whose symptoms are inadequately controlled despite adequate (ie, effective, safe, and acceptable) pharmacologic treatment based on guidelines. These patients have impaired quality of life, social functioning, sleep, and school/work performance. Severe uncontrolled allergic rhinitis, nonallergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, aspirin-exacerbated respiratory diseases, or occupational airway diseases are defined as SCUADs. Pediatric SCUADs are still unclear. In developing countries SCUADs exist, but risk factors can differ from those seen in developed countries. Comorbidities are common in patients with SCUADs and might increase their severity. The present document is the position of a group of experts considering that SCUADs should be considered differently from mild chronic upper airway diseases. It reviews the state of the art, highlighting gaps in our knowledge, and proposes several areas for a better understanding, prevention, and management of SCUADs. This document can also serve to optimize the pharmacoeconomic evaluation of SCUADs by means of comparison with mild chronic upper airway diseases. PMID:19660803

  13. The Western Diet and Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Hariharan, Divya; Vellanki, Kavitha; Kramer, Holly

    2015-03-01

    Characteristics of the Western diet that fueled the obesity epidemic may also impact kidney disease incidence and progression. Enlarging portion sizes over the past half century has been accompanied by increased intake of protein, sodium, and processed foods while consumption of fruits and vegetables has declined. Overall dietary patterns play a strong role for chronic disease risk including chronic kidney disease. While dietary patterns high in fresh fruits and vegetables and low in red meats, such as the Mediterranean diet, decrease the risk of chronic diseases, the Western diet, characterized by high intake of red meat, animal fat, sweets, and desserts and low intake of fresh fruits and vegetables and low-fat dairy products, increases risk of chronic diseases. In this article, we review the potential mechanisms whereby several key characteristics of the typical Western diet may impact kidney disease incidence and progression. We also discuss a public health policy initiative to improve dietary choices. Reducing protein intake to the recommended daily allowance of 0.8 g/kg/day and increasing intake of fruit and vegetables and fiber may mitigate kidney disease progression and reduce risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. PMID:25754321

  14. Chronic Wasting Disease Agents in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Meade-White, Kimberly D.; Phillips, Katie; Striebel, James; Race, Richard; Chesebro, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease is a prion disease of cervids. Assessment of its zoonotic potential is critical. To evaluate primate susceptibility, we tested monkeys from 2 genera. We found that 100% of intracerebrally inoculated and 92% of orally inoculated squirrel monkeys were susceptible, but cynomolgus macaques were not, suggesting possible low risk for humans. PMID:24751215

  15. Decade-long trends (1999–2009) in the characteristics, management, and hospital outcomes of patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction with prior diabetes and chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Tisminetzky, Mayra; McManus, David D; Dor, Alon; Miozzo, Ruben; Yarzebski, Jorge; Gore, Joel M; Goldberg, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the increasing magnitude and impact, there are limited data available on the clinical management and in-hospital outcomes of patients who have diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) at the time of hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The objectives of our population-based observational study in residents of central Massachusetts were to describe decade-long trends (1999–2009) in the characteristics, in-hospital management, and hospital outcomes of AMI patients with and without these comorbidities. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 6,018 persons who were hospitalized for AMI on a biennial basis between 1999 and 2009 at all eleven medical centers in central Massachusetts. Our sample consisted of the following four groups: DM with CKD (n=587), CKD without DM (n=524), DM without CKD (n=1,442), and non-DM/non-CKD (n=3,465). Results Diabetic patients with CKD were more likely to have a higher prevalence of previously diagnosed comorbidities, to have developed heart failure acutely, and to have a longer hospital stay compared with non-DM/non-CKD patients. Between 1999 and 2009, there were marked increases in the prescribing of beta-blockers, statins, and aspirin for patients with CKD and DM as compared to those without these comorbidities. In-hospital death rates remained unchanged in patients with DM and CKD, while they declined markedly in patients with CKD without DM (20.2% dying in 1999; 11.3% dying in 2009). Conclusion Despite increases in the prescribing of effective cardiac medications, AMI patients with DM and CKD continue to experience high in-hospital death rates. PMID:25999755

  16. Case Management in Primary Care for Frequent Users of Health Care Services With Chronic Diseases: A Qualitative Study of Patient and Family Experience

    PubMed Central

    Hudon, Catherine; Chouinard, Maud-Christine; Diadiou, Fatoumata; Lambert, Mireille; Bouliane, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Although case management (CM) is increasingly being implemented to address the complex needs of vulnerable clienteles, few studies have examined the patient experience of CM. This study aimed to examine the experience of patients and their family members with care integration as part of a primary care CM intervention. Patients in the study were frequent users of health care services who had chronic diseases. METHODS A descriptive, qualitative approach was conducted involving 25 patients and 8 of their family members. Data were collected through in-depth interviews of the patients and 2 focus groups of family members and were analyzed thematically. RESULTS While some participants did not fully understand the CM intervention and a few believed that it involved too many appointments, the CM nurses were patients’ preferred contact with primary care. The nurses actively involved the patients in developing and carrying out their individualized services plans (ISPs) with other health care partners. Patients felt that their needs were taken into consideration, especially regarding access to the health care system. The case manager facilitated access to information as well as communication and coordination among health care and community partners. This improved communication comforted the patients and nurtured a relationship of trust. Participants were actively involved in decision-making. Their ISPs helped them know where they were going and improved transitions between services. CONCLUSIONS The experience of patients and family members was overall very positive regarding care integration. They reported improved access, communication, coordination, and involvement in decision-making as well as better health care transitions. PMID:26553891

  17. Chronic kidney disease - pediatric risk factors.

    PubMed

    Tasic, Velibor; Janchevska, Aleksandra; Emini, Nora; Sahpazova, Emilija; Gucev, Zoran; Polenakovic, Momir

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge about the progression of chronic kidney disease is an important issue for every pediatric nephrologist and pediatrician in order to implement appropriate measures to prevent wasting of renal function and the final consequence - end stage renal disease with the need for the dialysis and transplantation. Therefore it is important to know, treat or ameliorate the standard risk factors such as hypertension, proteinuria, anemia, hyperparathyroidism etc. In this review devoted to the World Kidney Day 2016 we will pay attention to the low birth parameters, obesity, hyperuricemia and smoking which emerged as particularly important risk factors for children and adolescent with chronic kidney disease. PMID:27442412

  18. Update on Bone Health in Pediatric Chronic Disease.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kristen M

    2016-06-01

    Children and adolescents with chronic disease are predisposed to impaired bone health. Pediatric illness, including type 1 diabetes mellitus, celiac disease, and cystic fibrosis, have significant risk of low bone mineralization and fracture due to underlying inflammation, malabsorption, lack of physical activity, and delayed puberty. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry is the primary imaging method to assess bone health in this population. The purpose of this review is to update readers about the assessment and management of bone health in children with common pediatric chronic illnesses and review recent advances in the prevention and treatment of impaired bone health. PMID:27241973

  19. Chronic kidney disease and the skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    Fractures across the stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) could be due to osteoporosis, some form of renal osteodystrophy defined by specific quantitative histomorphometry or chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder (CKD–MBD). CKD–MBD is a systemic disease that links disorders of mineral and bone metabolism due to CKD to either one or all of the following: abnormalities of calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone or vitamin D metabolism; abnormalities in bone turnover, mineralization, volume, linear growth or strength; or vascular or other soft-tissue calcification. Osteoporosis, as defined by the National Institutes of Health, may coexist with renal osteodystrophy or CKD–MBD. Differentiation among these disorders is required to manage correctly the correct disorder to reduce the risk of fractures. While the World Health Organization (WHO) bone mineral density (BMD) criteria for osteoporosis can be used in patients with stages 1–3 CKD, the disorders of bone turnover become so aberrant by stages 4 and 5 CKD that neither the WHO criteria nor the occurrence of a fragility fracture can be used for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. The diagnosis of osteoporosis in stages 4 and 5 CKD is one of the exclusion—excluding either renal osteodystrophy or CKD–MBD as the cause of low BMD or fragility fractures. Differentiations among the disorders of renal osteodystrophy, CKD–MBD or osteoporosis are dependent on the measurement of specific biochemical markers, including serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and/or quantitative bone histomorphometry. Management of fractures in stages 1–3 CKD does not differ in persons with or without CKD with osteoporosis assuming that there is no evidence for CKD–MBD, clinically suspected by elevated PTH, hyperphosphatemia or fibroblast growth factor 23 due to CKD. Treatment of fractures in persons with osteoporosis and stages 4 and 5 CKD is not evidence-based, with the exception of post-hoc analysis suggesting efficacy and

  20. Renal disease and chronic renal failure in dental practice.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, J J; Wilson, M H; McArdle, N S; Stassen, L F A

    2008-01-01

    Patients with renal diseases are increasingly common in dental practice. This is due to advances in medicine, and the increasing life expectancy of western populations. Chronic renal failure is a serious condition that general dental practitioners may see in their practice. This article discusses the functions of the kidney, and the causes and medical management of chronic renal failure, as well as considerations in the dental management of these patients. Common complications such as infection and bleeding are discussed. General recommendations are made, based on current evidence with respect to prescribing of medications. PMID:18986093

  1. The strength to cope: spirituality and faith in chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Unantenne, Nalika; Warren, Narelle; Canaway, Rachel; Manderson, Lenore

    2013-12-01

    The lifelong management of a chronic condition requires considerable mental fortitude and commitment in social adjustment and adherence to medical advice. In examining strategies of adaptation, we draw on ethnographic research, including interviews with 69 people with type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease. We explore how they incorporate spirituality into their self-management routines, with positive impact on their health and wellbeing, and highlight the role of spiritual practices in supporting people with chronic conditions mentally, physically and socially, so encouraging personal responsibility for one's health and wellbeing. PMID:22083464

  2. Feasibility of a structured group education session to improve self-management of blood pressure in people with chronic kidney disease: an open randomised pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    Khunti, Kamlesh; Stone, Margaret; Farooqi, Azhar; Carr, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to test, at pilot level, a structured group educational intervention to improve self-management of blood pressure in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The current paper explores patient acceptability of the intervention. Design This was an open randomised pilot trial. Participants were randomly assigned to either: A control group (n=41) receiving standard clinical management of hypertension. An intervention group (n=40) receiving standard clinical care plus the educational intervention. Setting Renal outpatient clinics at a single study centre. Participants Patients with early CKD and hypertension were identified and approached for recruitment. Intervention An evidence-based structured group educational intervention (CHEERS) using the principles of social cognitive theory to improve knowledge and self-management skills. Outcomes Recruitment, uptake of the intervention and patient satisfaction were evaluated to explore patient acceptability of the intervention and to determine any differences between patients regarding recruitment and retention. Measures Data on age, sex and ethnicity were collected for all patients approached to take part. For recruited patients, data were also collected on self-efficacy (ability to self-manage). Reasons given by patients declining to take part were recorded. Patients attending the educational session also completed an evaluation form to assess satisfaction. Results A total of 267 patients were approached, and 30% were randomly assigned. Lack of time (48%) and lack of interest (44%) were the main reasons cited for non-participation in the study. Men were significantly more likely to be recruited (p=0.048). The intervention was rated enjoyable and useful by 100% of participants. However, 37.5% of the intervention group failed to attend the educational session after recruitment. Participants failing to attend were significantly more likely to be older (p=0.039) and have lower self-efficacy (p=0

  3. Feasibility of a structured group education session to improve self-management of blood pressure in people with chronic kidney disease: an open randomised pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Jo; Khunti, Kamlesh; Stone, Margaret; Farooqi, Azhar; Carr, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to test, at pilot level, a structured group educational intervention to improve self-management of blood pressure in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The current paper explores patient acceptability of the intervention. Design This was an open randomised pilot trial. Participants were randomly assigned to either: A control group (n=41) receiving standard clinical management of hypertension. An intervention group (n=40) receiving standard clinical care plus the educational intervention. Setting Renal outpatient clinics at a single study centre. Participants Patients with early CKD and hypertension were identified and approached for recruitment. Intervention An evidence-based structured group educational intervention (CHEERS) using the principles of social cognitive theory to improve knowledge and self-management skills. Outcomes Recruitment, uptake of the intervention and patient satisfaction were evaluated to explore patient acceptability of the intervention and to determine any differences between patients regarding recruitment and retention. Measures Data on age, sex and ethnicity were collected for all patients approached to take part. For recruited patients, data were also collected on self-efficacy (ability to self-manage). Reasons given by patients declining to take part were recorded. Patients attending the educational session also completed an evaluation form to assess satisfaction. Results A total of 267 patients were approached, and 30% were randomly assigned. Lack of time (48%) and lack of interest (44%) were the main reasons cited for non-participation in the study. Men were significantly more likely to be recruited (p=0.048). The intervention was rated enjoyable and useful by 100% of participants. However, 37.5% of the intervention group failed to attend the educational session after recruitment. Participants failing to attend were significantly more likely to be older (p=0.039) and have lower self-efficacy (p=0

  4. Health care 2020: reengineering health care delivery to combat chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Milani, Richard V; Lavie, Carl J

    2015-04-01

    Chronic disease has become the great epidemic of our times, responsible for 75% of total health care costs and the majority of deaths in the US. Our current delivery model is poorly constructed to manage chronic disease, as evidenced by low adherence to quality indicators and poor control of treatable conditions. New technologies have emerged that can engage patients and offer additional modalities in the treatment of chronic disease. Modifying our delivery model to include team-based care in concert with patient-centered technologies offers great promise in managing the chronic disease epidemic. PMID:25460529

  5. Management of Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Kammermeier, Jochen; Morris, Mary-Anne; Garrick, Vikki; Furman, Mark; Rodrigues, Astor; Russell, Richard K

    2016-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is rapidly increasing in children so an up to date knowledge of diagnosis, investigation and management is essential. Exclusive enteral nutrition is the first line treatment for active disease. The vast majority of children will need immunosuppressant treatment and around 20% will need treatment with biologics. Recent guidelines have helped make best use of available therapies. PMID:26553907

  6. Framing international trade and chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    There is an emerging evidence base that global trade is linked with the rise of chronic disease in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This linkage is associated, in part, with the global diffusion of unhealthy lifestyles and health damaging products posing a particular challenge to countries still facing high burdens of communicable disease. We developed a generic framework which depicts the determinants and pathways connecting global trade with chronic disease. We then applied this framework to three key risk factors for chronic disease: unhealthy diets, alcohol, and tobacco. This led to specific 'product pathways', which can be further refined and used by health policy-makers to engage with their country's trade policy-makers around health impacts of ongoing trade treaty negotiations, and by researchers to continue refining an evidence base on how global trade is affecting patterns of chronic disease. The prevention and treatment of chronic diseases is now rising on global policy agendas, highlighted by the UN Summit on Noncommunicable Diseases (September 2011). Briefs and declarations leading up to this Summit reference the role of globalization and trade in the spread of risk factors for these diseases, but emphasis is placed on interventions to change health behaviours and on voluntary corporate responsibility. The findings summarized in this article imply the need for a more concerted approach to regulate trade-related risk factors and thus more engagement between health and trade policy sectors within and between nations. An explicit recognition of the role of trade policies in the spread of noncommunicable disease risk factors should be a minimum outcome of the September 2011 Summit, with a commitment to ensure that future trade treaties do not increase such risks. PMID:21726434

  7. Economic value evaluation in disease management programs.

    PubMed

    Magnezi, Racheli; Reicher, Sima; Shani, Mordechai

    2008-05-01

    Chronic disease management has been a rapidly growing entity in the 21st century as a strategy for managing chronic illnesses in large populations. However, experience has shown that disease management programs have not been able to demonstrate their financial value. The objectives of disease management programs are to create quality benchmarks, such as principles and guidelines, and to establish a uniform set of metrics and a standardized methodology for evaluating them. In order to illuminate the essence of disease management and its components, as well as the complexity and the problematic nature of performing economic calculations of their profitability and value, we collected data from several reports that dealt with the economic intervention of disease management programs. The disease management economic evaluation is composed of a series of steps, including the following major categories: data/information technology, information generation, assessment/recommendations, actionable customer plans, and program assessment/reassessment. We demonstrate the elements necessary for economic analysis. Disease management is one of the most innovative tools in the managed care environment and is still in the process of being defined. Therefore, objectives should include the creation of quality measures, such as principles and guidelines, and the establishment of a uniform set of metrics and a standardized methodology for evaluating them. PMID:18605352

  8. Cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease. A clinical update from Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO).

    PubMed

    Herzog, Charles A; Asinger, Richard W; Berger, Alan K; Charytan, David M; Díez, Javier; Hart, Robert G; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Kasiske, Bertram L; McCullough, Peter A; Passman, Rod S; DeLoach, Stephanie S; Pun, Patrick H; Ritz, Eberhard

    2011-09-01

    Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is high, and the presence of CKD worsens outcomes of cardiovascular disease (CVD). CKD is associated with specific risk factors. Emerging evidence indicates that the pathology and manifestation of CVD differ in the presence of CKD. During a clinical update conference convened by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO), an international group of experts defined the current state of knowledge and the implications for patient care in important topic areas, including coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, atrial fibrillation, peripheral arterial disease, and sudden cardiac death. Although optimal strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and management of these complications likely should be modified in the presence of CKD, the evidence base for decision making is limited. Trials targeting CVD in patients with CKD have a large potential to improve outcomes. PMID:21750584

  9. Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rate Your Risk Quiz Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans are ... checks Your Kidneys and You Meetings Featured Story Kidney Walk The Kidney Walk is the nation's largest ...

  10. Sexuality and Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rate Your Risk Quiz Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans are ... checks Your Kidneys and You Meetings Featured Story Kidney Walk The Kidney Walk is the nation's largest ...

  11. Quality of Life in Chronic Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Megari, Kalliopi

    2013-01-01

    During the past decades there was an increasing predominance of chronic disorders, with a large number of people living with chronic diseases that can adversely affect their quality of life. The aim of the present paper is to study quality of life and especially Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in chronic diseases. HRQOL is a multidimensional construct that consists of at least three broad domains – physical, psychological, and social functioning – that are affected by one’s disease and/or treatment. HRQoL is usually measured in chronic conditions and is frequently impaired to a great extent. In addition, factors that are associated with good and poor HRQoL, as well as HRQoL assessment will be discussed. The estimation of the relative impact of chronic diseases on HRQoL is necessary in order to better plan and distribute health care resources aiming at a better HRQoL. [«All the people perceive the concept of living good or being well, that is the same as being happy». (Aristotle. 384-322 BC. Ethica Nichomachea)] PMID:26973912

  12. Chronic Disease in a General Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Lohr, Kathleen N.; Kamberg, Caren J.; Goldberg, George A.; Brook, Robert H.; Keeler, Emmett B.; Calabro, Thomas A.

    1986-01-01

    Using questionnaire and physical screening examination data for a general population of 4,962 adults aged 18 to 61 years enrolled in the Rand Health Insurance Experiment, we calculated the prevalence of 13 chronic illnesses and assessed disease impact. Low-income men had a significantly higher prevalence of anemia, chronic airway disease and hearing impairment than their high-income counterparts, low-income women a higher prevalence of congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hearing impairment and vision impairment. Of our sample, 30% had one chronic condition and 16% had two or more. Several significant pairs or “clusters” of chronic illnesses were found. With few exceptions (diabetes, hypertension), the use of physician care in the previous year for a specific condition tended to be low. Disease impact (worry, activity restriction) was widespread but mild. Persons with angina, congestive heart failure, mild chronic joint disorders and peptic ulcer disease reported a greater impact than persons with other illnesses. PMID:3788141

  13. How we treat chronic graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a common and potentially life-threatening complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). The 2-year cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD requiring systemic treatment is ∼30% to 40% by National Institutes of Health criteria. The risk of chronic GVHD is higher and the duration of treatment is longer after HCT with mobilized blood cells than with marrow cells. Clinical manifestations can impair activities of daily living and often linger for years. Hematology and oncology specialists who refer patients to centers for HCT are often subsequently involved in the management of chronic GVHD when patients return to their care after HCT. Treatment of these patients can be optimized under shared care arrangements that enable referring physicians to manage long-term administration of immunosuppressive medications and supportive care with guidance from transplant center experts. Keys to successful collaborative management include early recognition in making the diagnosis of chronic GVHD, comprehensive evaluation at the onset and periodically during the course of the disease, prompt institution of systemic and topical treatment, appropriate monitoring of the response, calibration of treatment intensity over time in order to avoid overtreatment or undertreatment, and the use of supportive care to prevent complications and disability. PMID:25398933

  14. Chronic Liver Disease and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders Among Asian Americans, chronic liver disease is ... women. At a glance – Cancer Rates for Asian/Pacific Islanders (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  15. Chronic Chagas disease: from basics to laboratory medicine.

    PubMed

    Haberland, Annekathrin; Saravia, Silvia Gilka Munoz; Wallukat, Gerd; Ziebig, Reinhard; Schimke, Ingolf

    2013-02-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, is ranked as the most serious parasitic disease in Latin America and has huge potential to become a worldwide problem, due to increasing migration, and international tourism, as well as infectant transfer by blood contact and transfusion, intrauterine transfer, and organ transplantation. Nearly 30% of chronically-infected patients become symptomatic, often with a latency of 10-30 years, developing life-threatening complications. Of those, nearly 90% develop Chagas heart disease, while the others manifest gastrointestinal disease and neuronal disorders. Besides interrupting the infection cycle and chemo therapeutic infectant elimination, starting therapy early in symptomatic patients is important for counteracting the disease. This would be essentially supported by optimized patient management, involving risk assessment, early diagnosis and monitoring of the disease and its treatment. From economic and logistic viewpoints, the tools of laboratory medicine should be especially able to guarantee this. After summarizing the basics of chronic Chagas disease, such as the epidemiological data, the pathogenetic mechanisms thought to drive symptomatic Chagas disease and also treatment options, we present tools of laboratory medicine that address patient diagnosis, risk assessment for becoming symptomatic and guidance, focusing on autoantibody estimation for risk assessment and heart marker measurement for patient guidance. In addition, increases in levels of inflammation and oxidative stress markers in chronic Chagas disease are discussed. PMID:23045386

  16. Perioperative management in children with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Meredith R; Golianu, Brenda

    2016-08-01

    Children with chronic pain often undergo surgery and effective perioperative management of their pain can be challenging. Identification of the pediatric chronic pain patient preoperatively and development of a perioperative pain plan may help ensure a safer and more comfortable perioperative course. Successful management usually requires multiple different classes of analgesics, regional anesthesia, and adjunctive nonpharmacological therapies. Neuropathic and oncological pain can be especially difficult to treat and usually requires an individualized approach. PMID:27370517

  17. Human albumin eye drops as a therapeutic option for the management of keratoconjunctivitis sicca secondary to chronic graft-versus-host disease after stem-cell allografting

    PubMed Central

    Seki, J.T.; Sakurai, N.; Moldenhauer, S.; Dam, J.; Atenafu, E.G.; Yip, P.M.; Mazzulli, T.; Henderson, T.; Pendergrast, J.; Cserti, C.; Velazquez, J.P.; Simpson, R.; Felluga, G.; Messner, H.A.; Lipton, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Keratoconjunctivitis sicca from chronic graft-versus-host disease (cgvhd) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation is common, leading to severe corneal damage and blindness if not treated. We retrospectively examined the efficacy and safety of pooled human albumin eye drops (haeds) for symptom relief in 40 stem-cell transplantation patients after other alternatives had failed. Methods The Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 4.0) and the cgvhd grading scale were used to compare response in the patients during January 2000 and July 2013. In addition, on days 1 and 30, the haeds were subjected to quality assurance testing for sterility, oncotic pressure, albumin measurement, viscosity, pH, and purity by protein electrophoresis. Results Use of haeds resulted in symptom relief for 37 patients (92.5%); 3 patients (7.5%) failed to improve with use of haeds (p ≤ 0.0001). Of the 37 patients having symptom relief, 7 (19%) improved from grade 3 to no dry eye symptoms. Proportionately, post-treatment symptom improvement by two grade levels, from 3 to 1 (70%), was significantly higher than improvement by one grade level, from 3 to 2 (11%) or from 2 to 1 (19%, p ≤ 0.0001). Time to symptom relief ranged from 2 weeks to 28 weeks. Of the 40 patients, 38 (95%) had no adverse reactions. Days 1 and 30 quality assurance testing results were equivalent. Conclusions Complications of keratoconjunctivitis sicca were well managed and well tolerated with haeds when other remedies failed. Quality assurance testing confirmed that haeds were safe and stable in extreme conditions. PMID:26628876

  18. Management of Chronic Facial Pain

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christopher G.; Dellon, A. Lee; Rosson, Gedge D.

    2009-01-01

    Pain persisting for at least 6 months is defined as chronic. Chronic facial pain conditions often take on lives of their own deleteriously changing the lives of the sufferer. Although much is known about facial pain, it is clear that those physicians who treat these conditions should continue elucidating the mechanisms and defining successful treatment strategies for these life-changing conditions. This article will review many of the classic causes of chronic facial pain due to the trigeminal nerve and its branches that are amenable to surgical therapies. Testing of facial sensibility is described and its utility introduced. We will also introduce some of the current hypotheses of atypical facial pain and headaches secondary to chronic nerve compressions and will suggest possible treatment strategies. PMID:22110799

  19. Chronic urticaria: new management options.

    PubMed

    Greenberger, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Chronic urticaria is defined as episodic or daily hives lasting for at least 6 weeks and impairs quality of life. Two main subtypes include chronic idiopathic (spontaneous) urticaria and inducible (physical) urticaria, but some patients have urticarial vasculitis. "Autoimmune chronic urticaria" implies the presence of histamine releasing or mast cell activating autoantibodies to IgE or FcϵRI, the high affinity receptor on mast cells and basophils. In patients not readily controlled with labeled dosages of second generation H1 receptor antagonists (antihistamines), there is evidence for reduction of urticaria using up to 4 fold increases in labeled dosages. The biologic modifier, omalizumab, helps to reduce lesions of chronic urticaria within 1-2 weeks. PMID:25383135

  20. Clinicopharmacological profile of the fixed-dose combination of aclidinium bromide and formoterol fumarate in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Babu, K Suresh; Morjaria, Jaymin B

    2015-04-01

    The recent Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) guidelines consider symptoms and exacerbation history in addition to the degree of airflow obstruction for classifying patients. The improvement of symptoms is principally provided by bronchodilators, using β2 agonists and antimuscarinic agents. Aclidinium bromide is a novel long-acting antimuscarinic agent licensed for use in patients with COPD. Novel fixed-dose combinations that are either licensed or in their late phase of development include vilanterol/umeclidinium, indacaterol/glycopyrronium, olodaterol/tiotropium and formoterol/aclidinium. Fixed-dose combinations of aclidinium/formoterol have been evaluated in COPD patients and evidence suggests that this is efficacious, safe, has a quick onset of action and is well tolerated. This review provides a clinico-pharmacological profile of this compound. PMID:25754881

  1. Transgenic Mouse Model of Chronic Beryllium Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Terry

    2009-05-26

    Animal models provide powerful tools for dissecting dose-response relationships and pathogenic mechanisms and for testing new treatment paradigms. Mechanistic research on beryllium exposure-disease relationships is severely limited by a general inability to develop a sufficient chronic beryllium disease animal model. Discovery of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) - DPB1Glu69 genetic susceptibility component of chronic beryllium disease permitted the addition of this human beryllium antigen presentation molecule to an animal genome which may permit development of a better animal model for chronic beryllium disease. Using FVB/N inbred mice, Drs. Rubin and Zhu, successfully produced three strains of HLA-DPB1 Glu 69 transgenic mice. Each mouse strain contains a haplotype of the HLA-DPB1 Glu 69 gene that confers a different magnitude of odds ratio (OR) of risk for chronic beryllium disease: HLA-DPB1*0401 (OR = 0.2), HLA-DPB1*0201 (OR = 15), HLA-DPB1*1701 (OR = 240). In addition, Drs. Rubin and Zhu developed transgenic mice with the human CD4 gene to permit better transmission of signals between T cells and antigen presenting cells. This project has maintained the colonies of these transgenic mice and tested the functionality of the human transgenes.

  2. Update on the management of chronic rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Rachel B; Lal, Devyani

    2013-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common disorder characterized by mucosal inflammation of the nose and paranasal sinuses with sinonasal symptoms persisting for greater than 12 weeks. The etiology of CRS is incompletely understood. Current understanding supports inflammation, rather than infection, as the dominant etiologic factor. CRS significantly impacts patients’ quality of life and health care expenditure. There is no standard management of CRS. Treatment strategies differ based on divergent etiologies of the various CRS subclasses. Both systemic and topical agents are used. These interventions differ in CRS with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP), CRS without nasal polyposis (CRSsNP) and specific situations such as allergic fungal rhinosinusitis or aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease. Antibiotics are the most commonly prescribed medication for CRS, but their role in management is not strongly supported by high-level studies. This paper provides a succinct review of the evidence supporting or refuting common therapeutic agents in the management of CRS. Novel and emerging strategies will also be discussed. PMID:23378777

  3. Impact Evaluation of a System-Wide Chronic Disease Management Program on Health Service Utilisation: A Propensity-Matched Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Billot, Laurent; Corcoran, Kate; Feyer, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background The New South Wales Health (NSW Health) Chronic Disease Management Program (CDMP) delivers interventions to adults at risk of hospitalisation for five target chronic conditions that respond well to ambulatory care: diabetes, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, and coronary artery disease. The intervention consists of two main components: (1) care coordination across sectors (acute, ambulatory, and community care from both public and private sectors) and clinical specialties, facilitated by program care coordinators, and (2) health coaching including management of lifestyle risk factors and medications and self-management. These components were broadly prescribed by the head office of NSW Health, which funded the program, and were implemented by regional health services (local health districts) in ways that best suited their own history, environment, workforce, and patient need. We used a propensity-matched cohort study to evaluate health service utilisation after enrolment in the CDMP. Methods and Findings The evaluation cohort included 41,303 CDMP participants enrolled between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2013 who experienced at least one hospital admission or emergency department (ED) presentation for a target condition in the 12 mo preceding enrolment. Potential controls were selected from patients not enrolled in the CDMP but experiencing at least one hospital admission or ED presentation over the same period. Each CDMP patient in the evaluation cohort was matched to one control using 1:1 propensity score matching. The primary outcome was avoidable hospitalisations. Secondary outcomes included avoidable readmissions, avoidable bed days, unplanned hospitalisations, unplanned readmissions, unplanned bed days, ED presentations, and all-cause death. The primary analysis consisted of 30,057 CDMP participants and 30,057 matched controls with a median follow-up of 15 mo. Of those, 25,638 (85.3%) and 25,597 (85

  4. "There's nothing I can't do – I just put my mind to anything and I can do it": a qualitative analysis of how children with chronic disease and their parents account for and manage physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Fereday, Jennifer; MacDougall, Colin; Spizzo, Marianne; Darbyshire, Philip; Schiller, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Background This paper reports the findings of a South Australian qualitative, exploratory study of children and young people living with a chronic disease, and their perceptions and experiences of physical activity. The perceptions and experiences of their parents were also explored. The chronic diseases were type 1 diabetes, asthma and cystic fibrosis. Methods Multiple qualitative data collection techniques were used to elicit the children and young people's perspectives and experiences of physical activity, including focus groups, maps, photos and 'traffic light posters'. The children's parents were interviewed separately to ascertain their views of their child's participation in physical activities. Results Children and young people described their active participation in a wide variety of physical activities including organised sports and play, but made very little mention of any negative influence or impact due to their disease. Their parents' stories described the diligent background planning and management undertaken to enable their child to participate in a wide range of physical activities. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that for these children and young people, having a chronic disease was not perceived as a barrier to participation in organised sport and recreational activities. They were physically active and perceived themselves to be no different from their peers. Their positive beliefs were shared by their parents and the level of participation described was enabled by the high level of parental support and background planning involved in managing their child's health care needs. PMID:19117528

  5. Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Anemia in CKD Page Content On this page: What ... Nutrition Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is anemia? Anemia is a condition in which the body ...

  6. Chronic pain: a non-use disease.

    PubMed

    Pruimboom, L; van Dam, A C

    2007-01-01

    One of the major problems in modern medicine is to find remedies for the group of people with chronic pain syndromes. Low back pain is one of the most frequent syndromes and perhaps the most invalidating of all of them. Chronic pain seems to develop through several pathways affecting the spinal cord and the brain: (1) neuro-anatomical reorganisation, (2) neuro-physiological changes, and (3) activation of glia cells (immune reaction in the central nervous system). Although all of these pathways seem to provide a (partial) plausible explanation for chronic pain, treatments influencing these pathways often fail to alleviate chronic pain patients. This could be because of the probability that chronic pain develops by all three mechanisms of disease. A treatment influencing just one of these mechanisms can only be partially successful. Other factors that seem to contribute to the development of chronic pain are psychosocial. Fear, attention and anxiety are part of the chronic pain syndrome being cause or consequence. The three pathways and the psycho-emotional factors constitute a psycho-neuro-immunological substrate for chronic pain syndromes; a substrate which resembles the substrate for phantom pain and functional invalidity after stroke. Both phantom pain and functional invalidity are considered non-use syndromes. The similarity of the substrate of both these two neurological disorders and chronic pain makes it reasonable to consider chronic pain a non-use disease (the hypothesis). To test this hypothesis, we developed a "paradoxal pain therapy". A therapy which combines the constraint induced movement therapy and strategies to dissociate pain from conditioning factors like fear, anxiety and attention. The aim of the therapy is to establish a behaviour perpendicular on the pathological pain-behaviour. Clinically, the treatment seems promising, although we just have preliminary results. Further clinical and laboratory studies are needed to measure eventual changes at

  7. Adult stem cells for chronic lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Mora, Ana L; Rojas, Mauricio

    2013-10-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are chronic, progressive and lethal lung diseases. The incidence of IPF and COPD increases with age, independent of exposure to common environmental risk factors. At present, there is limited understanding of the relationship between ageing and the development of chronic lung diseases. One hypothesis is that chronic injury drives to exhaustion the local and systemic repair responses in the lung. These changes are accentuated during ageing where there is a progressive accumulation of senescent cells. Recently, stem cells have emerged as a critical reparative mechanism for lung injury. In this review, we discuss the repair response of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (B-MSC) after lung injury and how their function is affected by ageing. Our own work has demonstrated a protective role of B-MSC in several animal models of acute and chronic lung injury. We recently demonstrated the association, using animal models, between age and an increase in the susceptibility to develop severe injury and fibrosis. At the same time, we have identified functional differences between B-MSC isolated from young and old animals. Further studies are required to understand the functional impairment of ageing B-MSC, ultimately leading to a rapid stem cell depletion or fatigue, interfering with their ability to play a protective role in lung injury. The elucidation of these events will help in the development of rational and new therapeutic strategies for COPD and IPF. PMID:23648014

  8. Ethical considerations in chronic musculoskeletal disease.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, C Ronald; de Melo-Martin, Inmaculada

    2015-06-01

    Chronic diseases compromise the life of the sufferer, encumber their families, and exert intractable burdens on the health-care system. With the aging of the population, such conditions have become the primary determinants of morbidity and mortality and the leading cause of disability in our society. Despite the serious challenges they impose, the ethical discourse engendered by them has lagged behind that of acute care medicine. Of particular relevance are the challenges to individual autonomy, as the dilemmas arising in the chronic care setting have not only medical but personal and societal dimensions, may require the input of multiple participants, and resolve over longer periods of time. As such, the conventional model of autonomy is often inadequate to address problems in the chronic care setting. This paper deals with this dilemma through an examination of a clinical scenario. A framework for the exploration of ethical problems in the chronic care setting is thus presented. PMID:25864103

  9. Vitamin D deficiency in chronic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Iruzubieta, Paula; Terán, Álvaro; Crespo, Javier; Fábrega, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D is an important secosteroid hormone with known effect on calcium homeostasis, but recently there is increasing recognition that vitamin D also is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Vitamin D deficiency has been frequently reported in many causes of chronic liver disease and has been associated with the development and evolution of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and chronic hepatitis C (CHC) virus infection. The role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and CHC is not completely known, but it seems that the involvement of vitamin D in the activation and regulation of both innate and adaptive immune systems and its antiproliferative effect may explain its importance in these liver diseases. Published studies provide evidence for routine screening for hypovitaminosis D in patients with liver disease. Further prospectives studies demonstrating the impact of vitamin D replacement in NAFLD and CHC are required. PMID:25544877

  10. [Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Huerta, Arturo; Domingo, Rebeca; Soler, Néstor

    2010-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic disease causing increasing healthcare costs worldwide. Another respiratory disease causing high costs and morbidity is community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Because of the constant growth in the population with both diseases (CAP and COPD), analyzing their clinical characteristics is important. Several cellular factors are known to contribute to differences in clinical expression: some lead to COPD exacerbations while others lead to symptoms of pneumonia. The use of new biomarkers (procalcitonin, pro-adrenomedullin and copeptin) help to distinguish among these clinical pictures. To decrease morbidity and mortality, clinical guidelines on antibiotic therapy must be followed and this therapy should be prescribed to patients with CAP and COPD. There are also prevention measures such as the pneumococcal vaccine whose role in the prevention of pneumococcal CAP should be further studied. The present review aims to elucidate some of the above-mentioned issues. PMID:20620690

  11. Microcirculation in Acute and Chronic Kidney Diseases.

    PubMed

    Zafrani, Lara; Ince, Can

    2015-12-01

    The renal microvasculature is emerging as a key player in acute and chronic kidney diseases. Renal microvascular disease involves alterations in endothelial barrier permeability, exaggerated inflammation, impairment of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation involving the nitric oxide system, increased oxidative stress, and loss of angiogenic factors. Moreover, evidence suggests that there is a microvascular component to the pathogenesis of renal scarring. New technology is being developed to explore renal microcirculation in vivo in experimental models and humans. This technology will provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of kidney diseases and will help guide specific therapeutic strategies aimed at restoring the renal microcirculation. This article reviews the cellular and molecular mechanisms of renal microvascular dysfunction in acute and chronic kidney diseases and the potential diagnostic and therapeutic implications of these findings. Recent developments in the monitoring of renal microcirculation are described with respect to their advantages and limitations, and future directions are outlined. PMID:26231789

  12. Chronic diseases in captive geriatric female Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Lee, D Rick; Lammey, Michael L

    2012-04-01

    The current aging population of captive chimpanzees is expected to develop age-related diseases and present new challenges to providing their veterinary care. Spontaneous heart disease and sudden cardiac death are the main causes of death in chimpanzees (especially of male animals), but little is known about the relative frequency of other chronic diseases. Furthermore, female chimpanzees appear to outlive the males and scant literature addresses clinical conditions that affect female chimpanzees. Here we characterize the types and prevalence of chronic disease seen in geriatric (older than 35 y) female chimpanzees in the colony at Alamogordo Primate Facility. Of the 16 female chimpanzees that fit the age category, 87.5% had some form of chronic age-related disease. Cardiovascular-related disease was the most common (81.25%) followed by metabolic syndrome (43.75%) and renal disease (31.25%). These data show the incidence of disease in geriatric female chimpanzees and predict likely medical management challenges associated with maintaining an aging chimpanzee population. PMID:22546920

  13. Chronic osteomyelitislike disease with negative bacterial cultures.

    PubMed

    Pelkonen, P; Ryöppy, S; Jääskeläinen, J; Rapola, J; Repo, H; Kaitila, I

    1988-11-01

    During a seven-year period we observed 14 children who had chronic osteomyelitislike disease. The bacterial cultures from the bone lesions were negative. In eight patients the findings were compatible with chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO), in four the findings were compatible with chronic sclerosing osteomyelitis of Garré, and two had osteomyelitis of the clavicle. In patients with CRMO, lymphocyte subpopulations, the responses to mitogens, and the chemotactic and chemokinetic responses showed no consistent abnormalities. After a mean follow-up of 4.5 years (range, one to ten years), all four patients with osteomyelitis of Garré were symptomatic, and two had complications. Only two of the eight patients with CRMO had active disease. The course had been complicated by growth disturbances in one patient and by thoracic outlet syndrome in another. Wegener's granulomatosis later developed in a patient with CRMO. PMID:3177323

  14. [Management of the cardiovascular disease risk during nilotinib treatment in chronic myeloid leukemia: 2015 recommendations from the France Intergroupe des Leucémies Myéloïdes Chroniques].

    PubMed

    Rea, Delphine; Ame, Shanti; Charbonnier, Aude; Coiteux, Valérie; Cony-Makhoul, Pascale; Escoffre-Barbe, Martine; Etienne, Gabriel; Gardembas, Martine; Guerci-Bresler, Agnès; Legros, Laurence; Nicolini, Franck; Tulliez, Michel; Hermet, Eric; Huguet, Françoise; Johnson-Ansah, Hyacinthe; Lapusan, Simona; Quittet, Philippe; Rousselot, Philippe; Mahon, François-Xavier; Messas, Emmanuel

    2016-02-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting the BCR-ABL oncoprotein represent an outstanding progress in chronic myeloid leukemia and long-term progression-free survival has become a reality for a majority of patients. However, tyrosine kinase inhibitors may at best chronicize rather than cure the disease thus current recommendation is to pursue treatment indefinitely. As a consequence, high quality treatment and care must integrate optimal disease control and treatment tolerability. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have an overall favorable safety profile in clinical practice since most adverse events are mild to moderate in intensity. However, recent evidence has emerged that new generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors may sometimes damage vital organs and if not adequately managed, morbidity and mortality may increase. The 2nd generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib is licensed for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia with resistance or intolerance to imatinib and newly diagnosed chronic phase-chronic myeloid leukemia. Nilotinib represents an important therapeutic option but it is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. The purpose of this article by the France Intergroupe des Leucémies Myéloïdes Chroniques is to provide an overview of nilotinib efficacy and cardiovascular safety profile and to propose practical recommendations with the goal to minimize the risk and severity of cardiovascular events in nilotinib-treated patients. PMID:26790711

  15. Management of Chronic Pressure Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary In April 2008, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began an evidence-based review of the literature concerning pressure ulcers. Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/tech/tech_mn.html to review these titles that are currently available within the Pressure Ulcers series. Pressure ulcer prevention: an evidence based analysis The cost-effectiveness of prevention strategies for pressure ulcers in long-term care homes in Ontario: projections of the Ontario Pressure Ulcer Model (field evaluation) Management of chronic pressure ulcers: an evidence-based analysis Objective The Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) conducted a systematic review on interventions used to treat pressure ulcers in order to answer the following questions: Do currently available interventions for the treatment of pressure ulcers increase the healing rate of pressure ulcers compared with standard care, a placebo, or other similar interventions? Within each category of intervention, which one is most effective in promoting the healing of existing pressure ulcers? Background A pressure ulcer is a localized injury to the skin and/or underlying tissue usually over a bony prominence, as a result of pressure, or pressure in conjunction with shear and/or friction. Many areas of the body, especially the sacrum and the heel, are prone to the development of pressure ulcers. People with impaired mobility (e.g., stroke or spinal cord injury patients) are most vulnerable to pressure ulcers. Other factors that predispose people to pressure ulcer formation are poor nutrition, poor sensation, urinary and fecal incontinence, and poor overall physical and mental health. The prevalence of pressure ulcers in Ontario has been estimated to range from a median of 22.1% in community settings to a median of 29.9% in nonacute care facilities. Pressure ulcers have been shown to increase the risk of mortality among geriatric patients by

  16. Mucin overproduction in chronic inflammatory lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Hauber, Hans-Peter; Foley, Susan C; Hamid, Qutayba

    2006-01-01

    Mucus overproduction and hypersecretion are commonly observed in chronic inflammatory lung disease. Mucins are gel-forming glycoproteins that can be stimulated by a variety of mediators. The present review addresses the mechanisms involved in the upregulation of secreted mucins. Mucin induction by neutrophil elastase, bacteria, cytokines, growth factors, smoke and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator malfunction are also discussed. PMID:16983448

  17. Osteoporosis Associated with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Reiko; Inoue, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have revealed that osteoporosis is closely associated with common chronic diseases including diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney disorders, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is a chronic inflammatory airway disease but now well known to be associated with various systemic comorbidities including osteoporosis. Osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures are extremely common in COPD patients, which have significant impacts on their quality of life (QOL), activities of daily life (ADL), respiratory function, and possibly their prognosis. COPD-associated osteoporosis is however extremely under-recognized, hence undertreated. Recent studies have suggested that both decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and impaired bone quality compromise bone strength causing fractures in COPD. In COPD patients, various general clinical risk factors for osteoporosis are present including smoking, older age, low body weight, and physical inactivity. In addition, disease-related risk factors such as decreased pulmonary function, inflammation, glucocorticoid use and vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency have been linked to the development of osteoporosis in COPD. Increased awareness of osteoporosis in COPD, especially that of high prevalence of vertebral fractures is called upon among general physicians as well as pulmonologists. Routine screening for osteoporosis and risk assessment of fractures will enable physicians to diagnose COPD patients with comorbid osteoporosis at an early stage. Timely prevention of developing osteoporosis together with appropriate treatment of established osteoporosis may improve QOL and ADL of the COPD patients, preserve their lung function and eventually result in better prognosis in these patients. PMID:27622174

  18. Osteoporosis Associated with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Ryo; Watanabe, Reiko; Inoue, Daisuke

    2016-08-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have revealed that osteoporosis is closely associated with common chronic diseases including diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney disorders, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is a chronic inflammatory airway disease but now well known to be associated with various systemic comorbidities including osteoporosis. Osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures are extremely common in COPD patients, which have significant impacts on their quality of life (QOL), activities of daily life (ADL), respiratory function, and possibly their prognosis. COPD-associated osteoporosis is however extremely under-recognized, hence undertreated. Recent studies have suggested that both decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and impaired bone quality compromise bone strength causing fractures in COPD. In COPD patients, various general clinical risk factors for osteoporosis are present including smoking, older age, low body weight, and physical inactivity. In addition, disease-related risk factors such as decreased pulmonary function, inflammation, glucocorticoid use and vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency have been linked to the development of osteoporosis in COPD. Increased awareness of osteoporosis in COPD, especially that of high prevalence of vertebral fractures is called upon among general physicians as well as pulmonologists. Routine screening for osteoporosis and risk assessment of fractures will enable physicians to diagnose COPD patients with comorbid osteoporosis at an early stage. Timely prevention of developing osteoporosis together with appropriate treatment of established osteoporosis may improve QOL and ADL of the COPD patients, preserve their lung function and eventually result in better prognosis in these patients. PMID:27622174

  19. Molecular pathways of chronic kidney disease progression.

    PubMed

    Bienaimé, Frank; Canaud, Guillaume; El Karoui, Khalil; Gallazzini, Morgan; Terzi, Fabiola

    2016-04-01

    Chronic kidney disease is characterized by the progressive loss of functional nephrons. This loss means that the remaining nephrons are put under stress and are forced to adapt in order to maintain kidney function. Over the time, the strains imposed by these adaptations result in a vicious circle in which the loss of damaged nephrons results in the damage of the so far healthy nephrons. Hence, the rate of chronic kidney disease progression depends on the ability of the remaining nephrons to cope with stress. This article reviews the molecular pathways involved in the compensation and deterioration process after nephron reduction. In particular, we examine the role of mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC)/serine-threonine protein kinase AKT, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and unfolded protein response pathways, as well as the pleiotropic function of Lipocalin 2. We also discuss the dual role played by some of these pathways in acute and chronic kidney disease. Finally, the relevance of these experimental finding to human chronic kidney disease is discussed. PMID:26972095

  20. Endothelial Dysfunction in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Steyers, Curtis M.; Miller, Francis J.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). As the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is increasingly recognized as an inflammatory process, similarities between atherosclerosis and systemic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, lupus, psoriasis, spondyloarthritis and others have become a topic of interest. Endothelial dysfunction represents a key step in the initiation and maintenance of atherosclerosis and may serve as a marker for future risk of cardiovascular events. Patients with chronic inflammatory diseases manifest endothelial dysfunction, often early in the course of the disease. Therefore, mechanisms linking systemic inflammatory diseases and atherosclerosis may be best understood at the level of the endothelium. Multiple factors, including circulating inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α), reactive oxygen species, oxidized LDL (low density lipoprotein), autoantibodies and traditional risk factors directly and indirectly activate endothelial cells, leading to impaired vascular relaxation, increased leukocyte adhesion, increased endothelial permeability and generation of a pro-thrombotic state. Pharmacologic agents directed against TNF-α-mediated inflammation may decrease the risk of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease in these patients. Understanding the precise mechanisms driving endothelial dysfunction in patients with systemic inflammatory diseases may help elucidate the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in the general population. PMID:24968272

  1. Cooperative disease management programs.

    PubMed

    Jedrey, C M; Chaurette, K A; Winn, L B

    2001-01-01

    Cooperative disease management programs sponsored by pharmaceutical companies and managed care organizations or health care providers can offer significant benefits to patients. They can be structured so as to comply with applicable OIG, FDA, and IRS regulations. Such programs must be structured for the benefit of patients, and not to require the use of or otherwise directly promote the selection of the sponsoring pharmaceutical company's products. PMID:11189793

  2. 28 CFR 79.57 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.57... disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed chronic renal disease must be supported by medical documentation. (b)...

  3. 28 CFR 79.57 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.57... disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed chronic renal disease must be supported by medical documentation. (b)...

  4. 28 CFR 79.57 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.57... disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed chronic renal disease must be supported by medical documentation. (b)...

  5. 28 CFR 79.57 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.57... disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed chronic renal disease must be supported by medical documentation. (b)...

  6. Pregnancy in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Vellanki, Kavitha

    2013-05-01

    Despite vast improvements in fetal outcomes, pregnancy in women with CKD is fraught with hazards; worsening of renal function and complications like preeclampsia and premature delivery are common. To date, there is no accurate formula to calculate glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Also, whether the current CKD classification is better than the older classification at predicting outcomes in pregnant women with CKD is unknown. Women with an estimated GFR ≥1.4 mg/dL are at increased risk of progressive worsening of renal function regardless of the cause of the underlying kidney disease. Preeclampsia is difficult to diagnose in pregnant women with underlying CKD, and serum markers such as soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1) and placental growth factor (PIGF) may lead the way for definitive diagnosis. New-onset lupus or lupus flare is an indication for kidney biopsy during pregnancy; cyclosporine is safe and is the most effective agent that can be used during pregnancy. Women with adult polycystic kidney disease are at increased risk of hypertension and preeclampsia during pregnancy, as well as hepatic cysts later in life, the latter occurring with multiple pregnancies. Strict blood pressure control is important in pregnant women with diabetic nephropathy. A multidisciplinary team that includes nephrologists and obstetricians who deal with high-risk pregnancies should be involved in the care of pregnant women with CKD for successful pregnancy outcomes. PMID:23928386

  7. A Prediction Model for Chronic Kidney Disease Includes Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Monica A.; Taylor, George W.

    2009-01-01

    Background An estimated 75% of the seven million Americans with moderate-to-severe chronic kidney disease are undiagnosed. Improved prediction models to identify high-risk subgroups for chronic kidney disease enhance the ability of health care providers to prevent or delay serious sequelae, including kidney failure, cardiovascular disease, and premature death. Methods We identified 11,955 adults ≥18 years of age in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Chronic kidney disease was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 15 to 59 ml/minute/1.73 m2. High-risk subgroups for chronic kidney disease were identified by estimating the individual probability using β coefficients from the model of traditional and non-traditional risk factors. To evaluate this model, we performed standard diagnostic analyses of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value using 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% probability cutoff points. Results The estimated probability of chronic kidney disease ranged from virtually no probability (0%) for an individual with none of the 12 risk factors to very high probability (98%) for an older, non-Hispanic white edentulous former smoker, with diabetes ≥10 years, hypertension, macroalbuminuria, high cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein, high C-reactive protein, lower income, and who was hospitalized in the past year. Evaluation of this model using an estimated 5% probability cutoff point resulted in 86% sensitivity, 85% specificity, 18% positive predictive value, and 99% negative predictive value. Conclusion This United States population–based study suggested the importance of considering multiple risk factors, including periodontal status, because this improves the identification of individuals at high risk for chronic kidney disease and may ultimately reduce its burden. PMID:19228085

  8. Palliative care for patients with advance chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Douglas, C A

    2014-01-01

    Over the past three decades there has been a dramatic rise in the number of patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. The fastest expanding group receiving dialysis has been the elderly. However, for those patients who are very elderly with co-morbidity, dialysis may not offer a survival advantage. Therefore, active conservative management is a growing service offered by many renal units in the UK and focuses on non-dialytic correction of fluid and electrolyes, management of renal anaemia, and assessment and management of symptoms. The five-year survival of a patient over 75 years of age starting dialysis is 20% and if a patient is over 75 years, has co-morbidity, or a poor performance status, dialysis may not offer any survival advantage. Whether a patient is managed by dialysis or by conservative management the symptom burden suffered is high. These symptoms are under-recognised and often managed poorly because of increased drug toxicity in renal failure. This complex group of patients require close working between renal, palliative care, medicine for the elderly, and community teams, to allow best quality of life and end of life care. This review describes some of the challenges in providing Advanced Care Planning for dialysis and conservatively managed patients, highlights the symptom burden of patients with advanced chronic kidney disease, and offers guidance in how to manage the symptoms effectively. PMID:25318401

  9. Animal models of chronic liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Meyer, Christoph; Xu, Chengfu; Weng, Honglei; Hellerbrand, Claus; ten Dijke, Peter; Dooley, Steven

    2013-03-01

    Chronic liver diseases are frequent and potentially life threatening for humans. The underlying etiologies are diverse, ranging from viral infections, autoimmune disorders, and intoxications (including alcohol abuse) to imbalanced diets. Although at early stages of disease the liver regenerates in the absence of the insult, advanced stages cannot be healed and may require organ transplantation. A better understanding of underlying mechanisms is mandatory for the design of new drugs to be used in clinic. Therefore, rodent models are being developed to mimic human liver disease. However, no model to date can completely recapitulate the "corresponding" human disorder. Limiting factors are the time frame required in humans to establish a certain liver disease and the fact that rodents possess a distinct immune system compared with humans and have different metabolic rates affecting liver homeostasis. These features account for the difficulties in developing adequate rodent models for studying disease progression and for testing new pharmaceuticals to be translated into the clinic. Nevertheless, traditional and new promising animal models that mimic certain attributes of chronic liver diseases are established and being used to deepen our understanding in the underlying mechanisms of distinct liver diseases. This review aims at providing a comprehensive overview of recent advances in animal models recapitulating different features and etiologies of human liver diseases. PMID:23275613

  10. Early origins of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Narang, Indra; Bush, Andrew

    2012-04-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and a significant challenge for adult physicians. However, there is a misconception that COPD is a disease of only adult smokers. There is a growing body of evidence to support the hypothesis that chronic respiratory diseases such as COPD have their origins in early life. In particular, adverse maternal factors will interact with the environment in a susceptible host promoting altered lung growth and development antenatally and in early childhood. Subsequent lung injury and further gene-environment interactions may result in permanent lung injury manifest by airway obstruction predisposing to COPD. This review will discuss the currently available data regarding risk factors in early life and their role in determining the COPD phenotype. PMID:22265926

  11. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations. PMID:27231920

  12. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations. PMID:27231920

  13. Food Insecurity and Chronic Disease123

    PubMed Central

    Laraia, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Household food insecurity has been previously hypothesized to promote dependence on inexpensive, highly palatable foods that are energy dense. Such dependence, and the cyclical nature of having enough food in the beginning of the month followed by food scarcity at the end of the month, could lead to weight gain over a short period of time. Such dependence on energy-dense foods and weight gain may play a direct role in the development of chronic conditions. Other compounding factors that result from exposure to household food insecurity have been well described, including pathways by which stress promotes visceral fat accumulation and chronic disease. This symposium review paper summarizes the literature on the link between food insecurity and the following: 1) diet, 2) weight gain, and 3) chronic disease, especially among women. This paper also proposes a framework for considering how the lived experience of household food insecurity may potentiate the development of chronic disease by activating the stress response among individuals at critical developmental periods in a food-impoverished environment. PMID:23493536

  14. Helping to Combat Chronic Wasting Disease