Science.gov

Sample records for management area a-ax

  1. Investigation of Accelerated Casing Corrosion in Two Wells at Waste Management Area A-AX

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Schaef, Herbert T.; Williams, Bruce A.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Legore, Virginia L.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Clayton, Ray E.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 3.13 and 3.14. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in August 2005. An overall goal of the Groundwater Performance Assessment Project, led by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and per guidance in DOE Order 5400.1, includes characterizing and defining trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of the environment. To meet these goals, numerous Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) monitoring wells have been installed throughout the Hanford Site. In 2003, it was determined that two RCRA monitoring wells (299-E24-19 and 299-E25-46) in Waste Management Area (WMA) A-AX failed due to rapid corrosion of the stainless steel casing over a significant length of the wells. Complete casing corrosion occurred between 276.6 and 277.7 feet below ground surface (bgs) in well 299- E24-19 and from 274.4 to 278.6 feet bgs in well 299-E25-46. CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., asked scientists from PNNL to perform detailed analyses of vadose zone sediment samples collected in the vicinity of the WMA A-AX from depths comparable to those where the rapid corrosion occurred in hopes of ascertaining the cause of the rapid corrosion.

  2. Investigation of Accelerated Casing Corrosion in Two Wells at Waste Management Area A-AX

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R JEFFREY.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Williams, Bruce A.; Valenta, Michelle M.; LeGore, Virginia L.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Clayton, Ray E.

    2005-08-29

    The sidewall core samples from well 299-E24-19, which were comprised of a mixture of bentonite and silt lens material, had an average porewater chloride concentration of 376 mg/L. The sidewall core samples collected from well 299-E25-46 had calculated porewater chloride concentrations ranging from 1,200 to more than 10,000 mg/L. Clearly, the sidewall core samples tested were capable of generating porewaters with sufficient chloride concentrations to cause corrosion of the stainless steel well casing. Furthermore, analysis of the sidewall core samples yielded a clear relationship between chloride concentration and well casing corrosion. The sidewall core samples containing the greatest amount of chloride, 3000 {micro}g/g of sediment, came from the well that experienced the longest length of casing failure (4.2 feet in well 299-E25-46). All of the sidewall core samples tested from both decommissioned wells contained more chloride than the Wyoming bentonite test material. However, since chloride was present as a trace constituent in all of the sidewall core samples (less than 0.4 weight percent), it is possible that it could have been introduced to the system as a ''contaminant'' contained in the bentonite backfill material. Therefore, it is likely that chloride leached from the bentonite material and/or chloride carried by/as a constituent of the liquid waste stream caused the advanced well casing corrosion found at wells 299-E24-19 and 299-E25-46 via crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. The sample of Enviroplug{trademark} No.8 high swelling Wyoming bentonite was characterized for its potential to generate porewaters of sufficient chlorinity to lead to accelerated corrosion of type 304L stainless steel. Overall, the bentonite sample had considerably high water extractable concentrations of sodium, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, and alkalinity (measured as calcium carbonate). Interpretation of the laboratory data indicated that the Wyoming bentonite test sample was capable of generating localized vadose zone porewater with chloride concentrations in excess of 700 mg/L. However, the vadose zone at Hanford is primarily composed of coarse-grained sands with an in-situ moisture content ranging from 5-12%. Therefore, it is doubtful enough moisture will be available throughout the majority of the vadose zone to sufficiently ''wet'' the bentonite and leach chloride from the material. Consequently, Wyoming bentonite material should be suitable as an annulus filling agent in all low-moisture zones and those regions that lack the potential to accumulate perched water. This report contains all the geochemical and selected physical characterization data collected on archived vadose zone sediment recovered during the early 1990s installation of four RCRA monitoring wells: 299-E24-19, 299-E24-20, 299-E24-22, and 299-E25-46, sidewall core samples collected during the decommissioning (in 2004) of wells 299-E24-19 and 299-E25-46, splitspoon core samples collected during the installation (in 2004) of two RCRA monitoring wells: 299-E24-33 and 299-E25-95, a sample of Wyoming bentonite, as well as a perched water sample collected during the installation of well 299-E24-33. Laboratory tests were conducted to characterize the sediment and to identify water-leachable constituents. Testing consisted primarily of 1:1 sediment:water extractions, which were used to calculate the elemental concentrations of water soluble constituents in the solid and to estimate in-situ porewater chloride concentrations. Additionally, 8M nitric acid extractions and X-ray diffraction analysis of the solids were used to provide a measure of the total leachable sediment content of constituents and to search for the formation of new crystalline phases that may have formed during the corrosion process, respectively.

  3. RCRA Groundwater Monitoring Plan for Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Area A-AX at the Hanford Site, Interim Change Notice 2

    SciTech Connect

    Narbutovskih, Susan M.

    2004-11-05

    This ICN documents the installation of two additional downgradient monitoring wells and two additional upgradient wells. It updates the monitoring network. The project scientist will provide a schedule change request providing the list of additional wells to the sample scheduler.

  4. Managing Runoff from Cropland Areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop yields may be negatively impacted if excessive amounts of runoff are lost from agricultural areas. Nutrients, pesticides, and pathogens transported in runoff can contribute to environmental concerns within streams and lakes. Therefore, it is important to properly manage runoff from cropland are...

  5. 50 CFR 665.798 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management area. 665.798 Section 665.798 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION....798 Management area. The western Pacific Pelagic fishery management area includes all areas of...

  6. 50 CFR 665.798 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management area. 665.798 Section 665.798 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION....798 Management area. The western Pacific Pelagic fishery management area includes all areas of...

  7. 50 CFR 665.798 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management area. 665.798 Section 665.798 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION....798 Management area. The western Pacific Pelagic fishery management area includes all areas of...

  8. 50 CFR 665.798 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management area. 665.798 Section 665.798 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION....798 Management area. The western Pacific Pelagic fishery management area includes all areas of...

  9. 50 CFR 665.798 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management area. 665.798 Section 665.798 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION....798 Management area. The western Pacific Pelagic fishery management area includes all areas of...

  10. 50 CFR 665.422 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management area. 665.422 Section 665.422 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The Mariana coral reef management area consists of the U.S. EEZ around Guam and the...

  11. 50 CFR 665.598 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management area. 665.598 Section 665.598 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... § 665.598 Management area. The PRIA fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of Palmyra Atoll,...

  12. 50 CFR 665.398 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management area. 665.398 Section 665.398 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The Mariana fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of Guam and CNMI with the...

  13. 50 CFR 665.98 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management area. 665.98 Section 665.98 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The American Samoa fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of the Territory of...

  14. 50 CFR 665.422 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management area. 665.422 Section 665.422 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The Mariana coral reef management area consists of the U.S. EEZ around Guam and the...

  15. 50 CFR 660.703 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management area. 660.703 Section 660.703 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The fishery management area for the regulation of fishing for HMS has the...

  16. 50 CFR 665.422 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management area. 665.422 Section 665.422 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The Mariana coral reef management area consists of the U.S. EEZ around Guam and the...

  17. 50 CFR 665.422 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management area. 665.422 Section 665.422 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The Mariana coral reef management area consists of the U.S. EEZ around Guam and the...

  18. 50 CFR 665.598 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management area. 665.598 Section 665.598 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... § 665.598 Management area. The PRIA fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of Palmyra Atoll,...

  19. 50 CFR 665.98 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management area. 665.98 Section 665.98 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The American Samoa fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of the Territory of...

  20. 50 CFR 665.598 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management area. 665.598 Section 665.598 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... § 665.598 Management area. The PRIA fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of Palmyra Atoll,...

  1. 50 CFR 660.703 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management area. 660.703 Section 660.703 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The fishery management area for the regulation of fishing for HMS has the...

  2. 50 CFR 665.398 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management area. 665.398 Section 665.398 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The Mariana fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of Guam and CNMI with the...

  3. 50 CFR 665.98 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management area. 665.98 Section 665.98 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The American Samoa fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of the Territory of...

  4. 50 CFR 660.703 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management area. 660.703 Section 660.703 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The fishery management area for the regulation of fishing for HMS has the...

  5. 50 CFR 665.598 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management area. 665.598 Section 665.598 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... § 665.598 Management area. The PRIA fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of Palmyra Atoll,...

  6. 50 CFR 665.422 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management area. 665.422 Section 665.422 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The Mariana coral reef management area consists of the U.S. EEZ around Guam and the...

  7. 50 CFR 665.398 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management area. 665.398 Section 665.398 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The Mariana fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of Guam and CNMI with the...

  8. 50 CFR 665.398 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management area. 665.398 Section 665.398 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The Mariana fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of Guam and CNMI with the...

  9. 50 CFR 665.598 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management area. 665.598 Section 665.598 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... § 665.598 Management area. The PRIA fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of Palmyra Atoll,...

  10. 50 CFR 660.703 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management area. 660.703 Section 660.703 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The fishery management area for the regulation of fishing for HMS has the...

  11. 50 CFR 665.398 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management area. 665.398 Section 665.398 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The Mariana fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of Guam and CNMI with the...

  12. 50 CFR 665.98 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management area. 665.98 Section 665.98 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The American Samoa fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of the Territory of...

  13. 50 CFR 665.98 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management area. 665.98 Section 665.98 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The American Samoa fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of the Territory of...

  14. 50 CFR 660.703 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management area. 660.703 Section 660.703 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The fishery management area for the regulation of fishing for HMS has the...

  15. 43 CFR 4710.3 - Management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management areas. 4710.3 Section 4710.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD...

  16. 43 CFR 4710.3 - Management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management areas. 4710.3 Section 4710.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD...

  17. 43 CFR 4710.3 - Management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management areas. 4710.3 Section 4710.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD...

  18. 43 CFR 4710.3 - Management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management areas. 4710.3 Section 4710.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD...

  19. THE A-X INFRARED BANDS OF ALUMINUM OXIDE IN STARS: SEARCH AND NEW DETECTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, D. P. K.; Mathew, Blesson; Ashok, N. M.; Varricatt, W. P.; Launila, O.

    2012-07-01

    We describe a search for the A-X infrared bands of AlO with a view toward better understanding the characteristics of this radical. These bands are infrequently encountered in astronomical sources but surprisingly were very prominent in the spectra of two well-known, novalike variables (V838 Mon and V4332 Sgr) thereby motivating us to explore the physical conditions necessary for their excitation. In this study, we present the detection of A-X bands in the spectra of 13 out of 17 stars, selected on the basis of their J - K colors as potential candidates for detection of these bands. The majority of the AlO detections are in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, viz., nine OH/IR stars, two Mira variables, and two bright infrared sources. Our study shows that the A-X bands are fairly prevalent in sources with low temperature and O-rich environments. Interesting variation in the strength of the AlO bands in one of the sources (IRAS 18530+0817) is reported and the cause for this is examined. Possible applications of the present study are discussed in terms of the role of AlO in alumina dust formation, the scope for estimating the radioactive {sup 26}Al content in AGB stars from the A-X bands, and providing possible targets for further mm/radio studies of AlO which has recently been discovered at millimeter wavelengths.

  20. Potential enhancement of osteoclastogenesis by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 3a/X1 protein.

    PubMed

    Obitsu, Saemi; Ahmed, Nursarat; Nishitsuji, Hironori; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Nakahama, Ken-ichi; Morita, Ikuo; Nishigaki, Kazuo; Hayashi, Takaya; Masuda, Takao; Kannagi, Mari

    2009-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) causes a lung disease with high mortality. In addition, osteonecrosis and bone abnormalities with reduced bone density have been observed in patients following recovery from SARS, which were partly but not entirely explained by the short-term use of steroids. Here, we demonstrate that human monocytes, potential precursors of osteoclasts, partly express angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a cellular receptor of SARS-CoV, and that expression of an accessory protein of SARS-CoV, 3a/X1, in murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7 cells, enhanced NF-kappaB activity and differentiation into osteoclast-like cells in the presence of receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL). Furthermore, human epithelial A549 cells expressed ACE2, and expression of 3a/X1 in these cells up-regulated TNF-alpha, which is known to accelerate osteoclastogenesis. 3a/X1 also enhanced RANKL expression in mouse stromal ST2 cells. These findings indicate that SARS-CoV 3a/X1 might promote osteoclastogenesis by direct and indirect mechanisms. PMID:19685004

  1. Operational Management of Area Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, George W.

    Three phases leading to the automation of the mechanical building systems on the Harvard campus are described. The systems allow a single operator to monitor and control all the mechanical systems, plus fire, flood, and security alarms, for all buildings in a large area of the campus. (JT)

  2. 50 CFR 665.222 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management area. 665.222 Section 665.222 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.222...

  3. 50 CFR 665.222 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management area. 665.222 Section 665.222 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.222...

  4. 50 CFR 665.198 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management area. 665.198 Section 665.198 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.198...

  5. 50 CFR 665.198 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management area. 665.198 Section 665.198 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.198...

  6. 50 CFR 665.222 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management area. 665.222 Section 665.222 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.222...

  7. 50 CFR 665.222 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management area. 665.222 Section 665.222 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.222...

  8. 50 CFR 665.222 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management area. 665.222 Section 665.222 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.222...

  9. 50 CFR 665.198 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management area. 665.198 Section 665.198 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.198...

  10. 50 CFR 665.198 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management area. 665.198 Section 665.198 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.198...

  11. 50 CFR 665.198 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management area. 665.198 Section 665.198 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.198...

  12. Managing ecotourism visitation in protected areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, J.L.; Farrell, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    Ecotourism management seeks to integrate and balance several potentially conflicting objectives: protection of natural and cultural resources, provision of recreation opportunities and generation of economic benefits. In the absence of effective planning and management, ecotourism can lead to significant negative impacts on vegetation, soil, water, wildlife, historic resources, cultures, and visitor experiences. This chapter reviews visitor-related natural resource and experience impacts associated with ecotourism within protected areas. The influence of factors that control the nature and extent of impacts are also reviewed, including type and amount of use, the variable resistance and resilience of environmental attributes such as vegetation and soil types, and the role of management in shaping visitation, resources and facilities to support visitation while minimizing associated impacts. Implications for managing the effects of protected area visitation are highlighted, including carrying capacity decision frameworks and selecting management strategies and tactics.

  13. Managing Documents in the Wider Area: Intelligent Document Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bittleston, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Discusses techniques for managing documents in wide area networks, reviews technique limitations, and offers recommendations to database designers. Presented techniques include: increasing bandwidth, reducing data traffic, synchronizing documentation, partial synchronization, audit trials, navigation, and distribution control and security. Two…

  14. Integrated groundwater quality management in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartjes, F. A.; Otte, P. F.

    2012-04-01

    Traditionally, groundwater assessments and remediations are approached at the scale of individual groundwater plumes. In urban areas, however, this management of individual groundwater plumes is often problematic for technical, practical or financial reasons, since the groundwater quality is often affected by a combination of sources, including (former) industrial activities, spills and leachate from uncontrolled landfills and building materials. As a result, often a whole series of intermingling contamination plumes is found in large volumes of groundwater. In several countries in the world, this led to stagnation of groundwater remediation in urban areas. Therefore, in the Netherlands there is a tendency managing groundwater in urban areas from an integrated perspective and on a larger scale. This so-called integrated groundwater quality management is often more efficient and hence, cheaper, since the organisation of the management of a cluster of groundwater plumes is much easier than it would be if all individual groundwater plumes were managed at different points in time. Integrated groundwater quality management should follow a tailor-made approach. However, to facilitate practical guidance was developed. This guidance relates to the delineation of the domain, the management of sources for groundwater contamination, procedures for monitoring, and (risk-based) assessment of the groundwater quality. Function-specific risk-based groundwater quality criteria were derived to support the assessment of the groundwater quality.

  15. Space shuttle entry terminal area energy management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    A historical account of the development for Shuttle's Terminal Area Energy Management (TAEM) is presented. A derivation and explanation of logic and equations are provided as a supplement to the well documented guidance computation requirements contained within the official Functional Subsystem Software Requirements (FSSR) published by Rockwell for NASA. The FSSR contains the full set of equations and logic, whereas this document addresses just certain areas for amplification.

  16. The histone variant H2A.X is a regulator of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Weyemi, Urbain; Redon, Christophe E; Choudhuri, Rohini; Aziz, Towqir; Maeda, Daisuke; Boufraqech, Myriem; Parekh, Palak R; Sethi, Taresh K; Kasoji, Manjula; Abrams, Natalie; Merchant, Anand; Rajapakse, Vinodh N; Bonner, William M

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), considered essential for metastatic cancer, has been a focus of much research, but important questions remain. Here, we show that silencing or removing H2A.X, a histone H2A variant involved in cellular DNA repair and robust growth, induces mesenchymal-like characteristics including activation of EMT transcription factors, Slug and ZEB1, in HCT116 human colon cancer cells. Ectopic H2A.X re-expression partially reverses these changes, as does silencing Slug and ZEB1. In an experimental metastasis model, the HCT116 parental and H2A.X-null cells exhibit a similar metastatic behaviour, but the cells with re-expressed H2A.X are substantially more metastatic. We surmise that H2A.X re-expression leads to partial EMT reversal and increases robustness in the HCT116 cells, permitting them to both form tumours and to metastasize. In a human adenocarcinoma panel, H2A.X levels correlate inversely with Slug and ZEB1 levels. Together, these results point to H2A.X as a regulator of EMT. PMID:26876487

  17. The histone variant H2A.X is a regulator of the epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Weyemi, Urbain; Redon, Christophe E.; Choudhuri, Rohini; Aziz, Towqir; Maeda, Daisuke; Boufraqech, Myriem; Parekh, Palak R.; Sethi, Taresh K.; Kasoji, Manjula; Abrams, Natalie; Merchant, Anand; Rajapakse, Vinodh N.; Bonner, William M.

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), considered essential for metastatic cancer, has been a focus of much research, but important questions remain. Here, we show that silencing or removing H2A.X, a histone H2A variant involved in cellular DNA repair and robust growth, induces mesenchymal-like characteristics including activation of EMT transcription factors, Slug and ZEB1, in HCT116 human colon cancer cells. Ectopic H2A.X re-expression partially reverses these changes, as does silencing Slug and ZEB1. In an experimental metastasis model, the HCT116 parental and H2A.X-null cells exhibit a similar metastatic behaviour, but the cells with re-expressed H2A.X are substantially more metastatic. We surmise that H2A.X re-expression leads to partial EMT reversal and increases robustness in the HCT116 cells, permitting them to both form tumours and to metastasize. In a human adenocarcinoma panel, H2A.X levels correlate inversely with Slug and ZEB1 levels. Together, these results point to H2A.X as a regulator of EMT. PMID:26876487

  18. Habitat changes: Mount Haggin Wildlife Management Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frisina, M.R.; Keigley, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    In 1984, a rest-rotation grazing system was established on the Mount Haggin Wildlife Management Area (MHWMA) in southwest Montana. The area is a mixture of wet and dry meadow types, grass/shrublands, and forest. Prior to implementing the grazing system, photo-monitoring points were established on the MHWMA at locations were cattle concentrate were grazing. The area consists of a three pasture rest-rotation system incorporating 20,000 acres. Photo essays revealed changes in riparian, lowland, and upland sites within the grazing system. In addition, gross changes in the amount of willow present were documented.

  19. Local Area Network Management: An Unresolved Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howden, Norman

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of management issues involved with local area networks (LAN) among information organizations focuses on a project at the University of North Texas that was designed to investigate problems associated with LAN. Topics discussed include purchasing decisions for hardware and software, and integration among various groups of users. (Eight…

  20. Solid Waste Management in Recreational Forest Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spooner, Charles S.

    The Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, requested the Bureau of Solid Waste Management to conduct a study of National Forest recreation areas to establish waste generation rates for major recreation activities and to determine the cost of solid waste handling for selected Forest Service Districts. This report describes the 1968 solid…

  1. Stark Interference of Electric and Magnetic Dipole Transitions in the A-X Band of OH.

    PubMed

    Schewe, H Christian; Zhang, Dongdong; Meijer, Gerard; Field, Robert W; Sartakov, Boris G; Groenenboom, Gerrit C; van der Avoird, Ad; Vanhaecke, Nicolas

    2016-04-15

    An experimental method is demonstrated that allows determination of the ratio between the electric (E1) and magnetic (M1) transition dipole moments in the A-X band of OH, including their relative sign. Although the transition strengths differ by more than 3 orders of magnitude, the measured M1-to-E1 ratio agrees with the ratio of the ab initio calculated values to within 3%. The relative sign is found to be negative, also in agreement with theory. PMID:27127965

  2. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lobster management areas. 697.18 Section... Measures § 697.18 Lobster management areas. The following lobster management areas are established for... American lobster EEZ management areas is available upon request to the Office of the Regional...

  3. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lobster management areas. 697.18 Section... Measures § 697.18 Lobster management areas. The following lobster management areas are established for... American lobster EEZ management areas is available upon request to the Office of the Regional...

  4. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lobster management areas. 697.18 Section... Measures § 697.18 Lobster management areas. The following lobster management areas are established for... American lobster EEZ management areas is available upon request to the Office of the Regional...

  5. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lobster management areas. 697.18 Section... Measures § 697.18 Lobster management areas. The following lobster management areas are established for... American lobster EEZ management areas is available upon request to the Office of the Regional...

  6. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lobster management areas. 697.18 Section... Measures § 697.18 Lobster management areas. The following lobster management areas are established for... American lobster EEZ management areas is available upon request to the Office of the Regional...

  7. 43 CFR 4710.3-1 - Herd management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Management Considerations § 4710.3-1 Herd management areas. Herd management areas shall be established for the maintenance of wild horse and burro herds. In delineating...

  8. 43 CFR 4710.3-1 - Herd management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Management Considerations § 4710.3-1 Herd management areas. Herd... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Herd management areas. 4710.3-1...

  9. High resolution absolute absorption cross sections of the B ̃(1)A'-X ̃(1)A' transition of the CH2OO biradical.

    PubMed

    Foreman, Elizabeth S; Kapnas, Kara M; Jou, YiTien; Kalinowski, Jarosław; Feng, David; Gerber, R Benny; Murray, Craig

    2015-12-28

    Carbonyl oxides, or Criegee intermediates, are formed from the gas phase ozonolysis of alkenes and play a pivotal role in night-time and urban area atmospheric chemistry. Significant discrepancies exist among measurements of the strong B ̃(1)A'-X ̃(1)A' electronic transition of the simplest Criegee intermediate, CH2OO in the visible/near-UV. We report room temperature spectra of the B ̃(1)A'-X ̃(1)A' electronic absorption band of CH2OO acquired at higher resolution using both single-pass broadband absorption and cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The new absorption spectra confirm the vibrational structure on the red edge of the band that is absent from ionization depletion measurements. The absolute absorption cross sections over the 362-470 nm range are in good agreement with those reported by Ting et al. Broadband absorption spectra recorded over the temperature range of 276-357 K were identical within their mutual uncertainties, confirming that the vibrational structure is not due to hot bands. PMID:26595457

  10. Mixed Waste Focus Area program management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Beitel, G.A.

    1996-10-01

    This plan describes the program management principles and functions to be implemented in the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). The mission of the MWFA is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments and regulators. The MWFA will develop, demonstrate and deliver implementable technologies for treatment of mixed waste within the DOE Complex. Treatment refers to all post waste-generation activities including sampling and analysis, characterization, storage, processing, packaging, transportation and disposal.

  11. Management of Environmental Risks in Coastal Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caprioli, M.; Trizzino, R.; Pagliarulo, R.; Scarano, M.; Mazzone, F.; Scognamiglio, A.

    2015-08-01

    The present work deals with the assessment and management of environmental risk conditions in a typical costal area of Southern Italy. This area, located in the Salento peninsula, is subject to recurrent widespread instability phenomena due to the presence of steep rocky cliffs. Along the coast there are numerous beach resorts that are very crowded in the summer season. The environmental hazard deriving from the possible rock falls is unacceptably high for the people safety. Moreover, the land-based mapping of the dangerous natural structures is very difficult and time and resources expending. In this context, we carried out an UAV survey along about 1 km of coast, near the towns of San Foca, Torre dell'Orso and Sant' Andrea ( Lecce, Southern Italy). The UAV platform was equipped with a photogrammetric measurement system that allowed us to obtain a mobile mapping of the fractured fronts of dangerous rocky cliffs. UAV-images data have been processed using dedicated software (Agisoft Photoscan). The total error obtained was of centimeter-order that is a very satisfactory result. The environmental information has been arranged in an ArcGIS platform in order to assess the risk levels. The possibility to repeat the survey at time intervals more or less close together depending on the measured levels of risk and to compare the output allows following the trend of the dangerous phenomena. In conclusion, for inaccessible locations of dangerous rocky bodies the UAV survey coupled with a GIS methodology proved to be a key engineering tool for the management of environmental risks.

  12. Polyadenylated and 3' processed mRNAs are transcribed from the mouse histone H2A.X gene.

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, T; Kato, T; Morita, T; Nozaki, M; Kubota, H; Yagi, H; Matsushiro, A

    1991-01-01

    We have isolated a cDNA clone encoding a mouse histone H2A.X from a cDNA library of teratocarcinoma F9 cells. The predicted amino acid sequence of this clone is 97% identical to human histone H2A.X. The first 119 residues of the mouse H2A.X were very similar (96-97%) to those of the major H2A histones (H2A.1 and H2A.2) of mouse and the long carboxy terminal sequence of H2A.X was homologous with those of several lower eukaryotes. Northern blot analysis revealed that this cDNA hybridized with two mRNAs in different sizes, 0.5 kb and 1.4 kb. The two mRNAs were present in tissue culture cells, and in spleen, thymus and testes of mice, but the ratio of abundance of the two transcripts differed in different cells and tissues. The shorter mRNA contained the highly conserved palindromic sequence typical of the 3' end of replication-dependent histone genes. The amount of this transcript was coupled to DNA synthesis and rapidly decreased in culture cells. It was synthesized just after the beginning of S-phase and degraded just after the end of S-phase. On the other hand, the longer mRNA was polyadenylated at 0.9 kb downstream from the palindromic sequence. This transcript was very stable when compared with the shorter one. These results indicate that these two mRNAs are transcribed from a single gene and maintained differently during the cell cycle, perhaps to maintain a partially replication-dependent level of histone H2A.X. Images PMID:2041781

  13. Nevada Test 1999 Waste Management Monitoring Report, Area 3 and Area 5 radioactive waste management sites

    SciTech Connect

    Yvonne Townsend

    2000-05-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels, whereas radon concentrations are not above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the alluvial aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorology data indicate that 1999 was a dry year: rainfall totaled 3.9 inches at the Area 3 RWMS (61 percent of average) and 3.8 inches at the Area 5 RWMS (75 percent of average). Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 1999 rainfall infiltrated less than one foot before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium data indicate very slow migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were insignificant. All 1999 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing as expected at isolating buried waste.

  14. 2002 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Y. E. Townsend

    2003-06-01

    Environmental, subsidence, and meteorological monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS)(refer to Figure 1). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater,meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada (BN) reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorological data indicate that 2002 was a dry year: rainfall totaled 26 mm (1.0 in) at the Area 3 RWMS and 38 mm (1.5 in) at the Area 5 RWMS. Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 2002 rainfall infiltrated less than 30 cm (1 ft) before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium monitoring data indicate slow subsurface migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were lower than in previous years. Special investigations conducted in 2002 included: a comparison between waste cover water contents measured by neutron probe and coring; and a comparison of four methods for measuring radon concentrations in air. All 2002 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing within expectations of the model and parameter assumptions for the facility Performance Assessments (PAs).

  15. 23 CFR 450.320 - Congestion management process in transportation management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Congestion management process in transportation management areas. 450.320 Section 450.320 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Programming § 450.320 Congestion management process in transportation management areas. (a) The...

  16. 23 CFR 450.320 - Congestion management process in transportation management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Congestion management process in transportation management areas. 450.320 Section 450.320 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Programming § 450.320 Congestion management process in transportation management areas. (a) The...

  17. 23 CFR 450.320 - Congestion management process in transportation management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Congestion management process in transportation management areas. 450.320 Section 450.320 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Programming § 450.320 Congestion management process in transportation management areas. (a) The...

  18. 23 CFR 450.320 - Congestion management process in transportation management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Congestion management process in transportation management areas. 450.320 Section 450.320 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Programming § 450.320 Congestion management process in transportation management areas. (a) The...

  19. 23 CFR 450.320 - Congestion management process in transportation management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Congestion management process in transportation management areas. 450.320 Section 450.320 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Programming § 450.320 Congestion management process in transportation management areas. (a) The...

  20. 50 CFR 92.11 - Regional management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Regional management areas. 92.11 Section 92.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA Program Structure § 92.11 Regional management areas. (a)...

  1. Modernizing Training Options for Natural Areas Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedl, Sarah E.; Ober, Holly K.; Stein, Taylor V.; Andreu, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    A recent shift in desires among working professionals from traditional learning environments to distance education has emerged due to reductions in travel and training budgets. To accommodate this, the Natural Areas Training Academy replaced traditionally formatted workshops with a hybrid approach. Surveys of participants before and after this…

  2. Volcanic hazard management in dispersed volcanism areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, Jose Manuel; Garcia, Alicia; Ortiz, Ramon

    2014-05-01

    Traditional volcanic hazard methodologies were developed mainly to deal with the big stratovolcanoes. In such type of volcanoes, the hazard map is an important tool for decision-makers not only during a volcanic crisis but also for territorial planning. According to the past and recent eruptions of a volcano, all possible volcanic hazards are modelled and included in the hazard map. Combining the hazard map with the Event Tree the impact area can be zoned and defining the likely eruptive scenarios that will be used during a real volcanic crisis. But in areas of disperse volcanism is very complex to apply the same volcanic hazard methodologies. The event tree do not take into account unknown vents, because the spatial concepts included in it are only related with the distance reached by volcanic hazards. The volcanic hazard simulation is also difficult because the vent scatter modifies the results. The volcanic susceptibility try to solve this problem, calculating the most likely areas to have an eruption, but the differences between low and large values obtained are often very small. In these conditions the traditional hazard map effectiveness could be questioned, making necessary a change in the concept of hazard map. Instead to delimit the potential impact areas, the hazard map should show the expected behaviour of the volcanic activity and how the differences in the landscape and internal geo-structures could condition such behaviour. This approach has been carried out in La Palma (Canary Islands), combining the concept of long-term hazard map with the short-term volcanic scenario to show the expected volcanic activity behaviour. The objective is the decision-makers understand how a volcanic crisis could be and what kind of mitigation measurement and strategy could be used.

  3. Rainwater Wildlife Area Management Plan : Executive Summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen B.; Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation in Oregon.

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of the project is to protect, enhance, and mitigate fish and wildlife resources impacted by Columbia River Basin hydroelectric development. The effort is one of several wildlife mitigation projects in the region developed to compensate for terrestrial habitat losses resulting from the construction of McNary and John Day Hydroelectric facilities located on the mainstem Columbia River. While this project is driven primarily by the purpose and need to mitigate for wildlife habitat losses, it is also recognized that management strategies will also benefit many other non-target fish and wildlife species and associated natural resources. The Northwest Power Act directs the NPPC to develop a program to ''protect, mitigate, and enhance'' fish and wildlife of the Columbia River and its tributaries. The overarching goals include: A Columbia River ecosystem that sustains an abundant, productive, and diverse community of fish and wildlife; Mitigation across the basin for the adverse effects to fish and wildlife caused by the development and operation of the hydrosystem; Sufficient populations of fish and wildlife for abundant opportunities for tribal trust and treaty right harvest and for non-tribal harvest; and Recovery of the fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of the hydrosystem that are listed under the Endangered Species Act.

  4. Lodging Management Career Questionnaire of Greater Philadelphia Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Robert C., Jr.; Wetzel, Susan J.

    A survey was undertaken by Delaware County Community College's (Pennsylvania) Hotel/Restaurant Management program: (1) to provide students with local up-to-date information regarding the lodging industry in the Greater Philadelphia area; and (2) to provide information regarding necessary skills as perceived by the managers for the purpose of…

  5. 50 CFR 665.403 - Bottomfish fishery area management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bottomfish fishery area management. 665.403 Section 665.403 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC...

  6. 50 CFR 665.403 - Bottomfish fishery area management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bottomfish fishery area management. 665.403 Section 665.403 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC...

  7. Underground Test Area Subproject Project Management Plan, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-03

    This Project Management Plan (PMP) describes the manner in which the US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) will manage the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Subproject at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It provides the basic guidance for implementation and the organizational structure for meeting the UGTA objectives.

  8. 50 CFR Figure 24 to Part 679 - Arctic Management Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Arctic Management Area 24 Figure 24 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt....

  9. 50 CFR Figure 24 to Part 679 - Arctic Management Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Arctic Management Area 24 Figure 24 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt....

  10. 50 CFR 665.403 - Bottomfish fishery area management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bottomfish fishery area management. 665.403 Section 665.403 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC...

  11. 50 CFR 665.403 - Bottomfish fishery area management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bottomfish fishery area management. 665.403 Section 665.403 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC...

  12. 50 CFR 665.403 - Bottomfish fishery area management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bottomfish fishery area management. 665.403 Section 665.403 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC...

  13. Managing extreme natural disasters in coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Kesavan, P C; Swaminathan, M S

    2006-08-15

    Extreme natural hazards, particularly the hydro-meteorological disasters, are emerging as a cause of major concern in the coastal regions of India and a few other developing countries. These have become more frequent in the recent past, and are taking a heavy toll of life and livelihoods. Low level of technology development in the rural areas together with social, economic and gender inequities enhance the vulnerability of the largely illiterate, unskilled, and resource-poor fishing, farming and landless labour communities. Their resilience to bounce back to pre-disaster level of normality is highly limited. For the planet Earth at crossroads, the imminent threat, however, is from a vicious spiral among environmental degradation, poverty and climate change-related natural disasters interacting in a mutually reinforcing manner. These, in turn, retard sustainable development, and also wipe out any small gains made thereof. To counter this unacceptable trend, the M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation has developed a biovillage paradigm and rural knowledge centres for ecotechnological and knowledge empowerment of the coastal communities at risk. Frontier science and technologies blended with traditional knowledge and ecological prudence result in ecotechnologies with pro-nature, pro-poor and pro-women orientation. The rural communities are given training and helped to develop capacity to adopt ecotechnologies for market-driven eco-enterprises. The modern information and communication-based rural knowledge centres largely operated by trained semi-literate young women provide time- and locale-specific information on weather, crop and animal husbandry, market trends and prices for local communities, healthcare, transport, education, etc. to the local communities. The ecotechnologies and time- and locale-specific information content development are need-based and chosen in a 'bottom-up' manner. The use of recombinant DNA technology for genetic shielding of agricultural

  14. Managing extreme natural disasters in coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesavan, P. C.; Swaminathan, M. S.

    2006-08-01

    Extreme natural hazards, particularly the hydro-meteorological disasters, are emerging as a cause of major concern in the coastal regions of India and a few other developing countries. These have become more frequent in the recent past, and are taking a heavy toll of life and livelihoods. Low level of technology development in the rural areas together with social, economic and gender inequities enhance the vulnerability of the largely illiterate, unskilled, and resource-poor fishing, farming and landless labour communities. Their resilience to bounce back to pre-disaster level of normality is highly limited. For the planet Earth at crossroads, the imminent threat, however, is from a vicious spiral among environmental degradation, poverty and climate change-related natural disasters interacting in a mutually reinforcing manner. These, in turn, retard sustainable development, and also wipe out any small gains made thereof. To counter this unacceptable trend, the M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation has developed a biovillage paradigm and rural knowledge centres for ecotechnological and knowledge empowerment of the coastal communities at risk. Frontier science and technologies blended with traditional knowledge and ecological prudence result in ecotechnologies with pro-nature, pro-poor and pro-women orientation. The rural communities are given training and helped to develop capacity to adopt ecotechnologies for market-driven eco-enterprises. The modern information and communication-based rural knowledge centres largely operated by trained semi-literate young women provide time- and locale-specific information on weather, crop and animal husbandry, market trends and prices for local communities, healthcare, transport, education, etc. to the local communities. The ecotechnologies and time- and locale-specific information content development are need-based and chosen in a ‘bottom-up’ manner. The use of recombinant DNA technology for genetic shielding of agricultural

  15. 50 CFR 665.806 - Prohibited area management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries § 665.806 Prohibited area management. (a) Longline fishing prohibited areas... States may not be used to fish for western Pacific pelagic MUS in the American Samoa large...

  16. 50 CFR 665.806 - Prohibited area management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries § 665.806 Prohibited area management. (a) Longline fishing prohibited areas... the United States may not be used to fish for western Pacific pelagic MUS in the American Samoa...

  17. Defence force activities in marine protected areas: environmental management of Shoalwater Bay Training Area, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wen; Wang, Xiaohua; Paull, David; Kesby, Julie

    2010-05-01

    Environmental management of military activities is of growing global concern by defence forces. As one of the largest landholders in Australia, the Australian Defence Force (ADF) is increasingly concerned with sustainable environmental management. This paper focuses on how the ADF is maintaining effective environmental management, especially in environmentally sensitive marine protected areas. It uses Shoalwater Bay Training Area (SWBTA) as a research example to examine environmental management strategies conducted by the ADF. SWBTA is one of the most significant Defence training areas in Australia, with a large number of single, joint and combined military exercises conducted in the area. With its maritime component contained in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA), and abutting Queensland’s State Marine Parks, it has high protection values. It is therefore vital for the ADF to adopt environmentally responsible management while they are conducting military activities. As to various tools employed to manage environmental performance, the ISO 14001 Environmental Management System (EMS) is widely used by the ADF. This paper examines military activities and marine environmental management within SWBTA, using the Talisman Saber (TS) exercise series as an example. These are extensive joint exercises conducted by the ADF and the United States defence forces. The paper outlines relevant legislative framework and environmental policies, analyses how the EMS operates in environmental management of military activities, and how military activities comply with these regulations. It discusses the implementation of the ADF EMS, including risk reduction measures, environmental awareness training, consultation and communication with stakeholders. A number of environmental management actions used in the TS exercises are presented to demonstrate the EMS application. Our investigations to this point indicate that the ADF is

  18. Managing protected areas under climate change: challenges and priorities.

    PubMed

    Rannow, Sven; Macgregor, Nicholas A; Albrecht, Juliane; Crick, Humphrey Q P; Förster, Michael; Heiland, Stefan; Janauer, Georg; Morecroft, Mike D; Neubert, Marco; Sarbu, Anca; Sienkiewicz, Jadwiga

    2014-10-01

    The implementation of adaptation actions in local conservation management is a new and complex task with multiple facets, influenced by factors differing from site to site. A transdisciplinary perspective is therefore required to identify and implement effective solutions. To address this, the International Conference on Managing Protected Areas under Climate Change brought together international scientists, conservation managers, and decision-makers to discuss current experiences with local adaptation of conservation management. This paper summarizes the main issues for implementing adaptation that emerged from the conference. These include a series of conclusions and recommendations on monitoring, sensitivity assessment, current and future management practices, and legal and policy aspects. A range of spatial and temporal scales must be considered in the implementation of climate-adapted management. The adaptation process must be area-specific and consider the ecosystem and the social and economic conditions within and beyond protected area boundaries. However, a strategic overview is also needed: management at each site should be informed by conservation priorities and likely impacts of climate change at regional or even wider scales. Acting across these levels will be a long and continuous process, requiring coordination with actors outside the "traditional" conservation sector. To achieve this, a range of research, communication, and policy/legal actions is required. We identify a series of important actions that need to be taken at different scales to enable managers of protected sites to adapt successfully to a changing climate. PMID:24722848

  19. Managing Protected Areas Under Climate Change: Challenges and Priorities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rannow, Sven; Macgregor, Nicholas A.; Albrecht, Juliane; Crick, Humphrey Q. P.; Förster, Michael; Heiland, Stefan; Janauer, Georg; Morecroft, Mike D.; Neubert, Marco; Sarbu, Anca; Sienkiewicz, Jadwiga

    2014-10-01

    The implementation of adaptation actions in local conservation management is a new and complex task with multiple facets, influenced by factors differing from site to site. A transdisciplinary perspective is therefore required to identify and implement effective solutions. To address this, the International Conference on Managing Protected Areas under Climate Change brought together international scientists, conservation managers, and decision-makers to discuss current experiences with local adaptation of conservation management. This paper summarizes the main issues for implementing adaptation that emerged from the conference. These include a series of conclusions and recommendations on monitoring, sensitivity assessment, current and future management practices, and legal and policy aspects. A range of spatial and temporal scales must be considered in the implementation of climate-adapted management. The adaptation process must be area-specific and consider the ecosystem and the social and economic conditions within and beyond protected area boundaries. However, a strategic overview is also needed: management at each site should be informed by conservation priorities and likely impacts of climate change at regional or even wider scales. Acting across these levels will be a long and continuous process, requiring coordination with actors outside the "traditional" conservation sector. To achieve this, a range of research, communication, and policy/legal actions is required. We identify a series of important actions that need to be taken at different scales to enable managers of protected sites to adapt successfully to a changing climate.

  20. Nevada Test Site 2008 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2009-06-23

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2008 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities.

  1. Remote Sensing and Ecosystem Modeling for Protected Area Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melton, F.; Michaelis, A.; Votava, P.; Milesi, C.; Hashimoto, H.; Hiatt, S.; Nemani, R.

    2007-12-01

    Managers of U.S. national parks and international protected areas are under increasing pressure to monitor changes in park ecosystems resulting from climate and land use change within and adjacent to park boundaries. Despite great interest in these areas and the fact that some U.S. parks receive as many as 3.5 million visitors per year, U.S. and international protected areas are often sparsely instrumented, making it difficult for resource managers to quickly identify trends and changes in landscape conditions. Remote sensing and ecosystem modeling offer protected area managers important tools for monitoring of ecosystem conditions and scientifically based decision-making. These tools, however, can generate large data volumes and can require labor-intensive data processing making them difficult for protected area managers to use. To overcome these obstacles, the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) is currently being applied to automate the production, analysis, and delivery of a suite of data products from NASA satellites and ecosystem models to assist managers of U.S. national parks. TOPS uses ecosystem models to combine satellite data with ground-based observations to produce nowcasts and forecasts of ecosystem conditions. We are utilizing TOPS to deliver data products via a browser-based interface to NPS resource managers in near real- time for use in landscape monitoring and operational decision-making. Current products include measures of vegetation condition, ecosystem productivity, soil moisture, snow cover, climate, and fire occurrence. The use of TOPS component models and technologies streamlines the data processing chain and automates the process of ingesting and synthesizing heterogeneous data inputs. In addition, we describe the use of TOPS to automate the identification of trends and anomalies in ecosystem conditions, enabling protected area managers to track park-wide conditions daily, identify significant changes, focus monitoring

  2. General principles for integrating geoheritage conservation in protected area management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, John E.; Crofts, Roger

    2015-04-01

    Development of more integrated approaches to the management of protected areas requires not only the protection of geosites, but also the effective application of geoconservation principles that apply more widely to the sustainable management of natural systems. Key guiding principles include: working with natural processes; managing natural systems and processes in a spatially integrated manner; accepting the inevitability of natural change; considering the responses of geomorphological processes to the effects of global climate change; recognising the sensitivity of natural systems and managing them within the limits of their capacity to absorb change; basing conservation management of active systems on a sound understanding of the underlying physical processes; making provision for managing visitors at sensitive sites; and acknowledging the interdependency of geodiversity and biodiversity management. As well as recognising the value of geoheritage in its own right, a more integrated approach to conservation across the full range of IUCN Protected Area Management Categories would benefit both biodiversity and geodiversity, through application of the concept of 'conserving nature's stage' and adopting an ecosystem approach.

  3. Hydrologic research at the Princeton, Minnesota management systems evaluation area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delin, G.N.; Landon, M.K.; Anderson, J.L.; Dowdy, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) program is part of a multi-scale, inter-agency initiative to evaluate the effects of agricultural management systems on water quality. The program resulted from the integration of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Research Plan for Water Quality and the U.S Geological Survey (USGS) Mid-Continent Herbicide Initiative and is part of the President's Water Quality Initiative. The mid-continental corn belt was selected for study because it is an area where about 60% of the Nation's pesticides and nitrogen fertilizers are used.

  4. Evaluation of municipal solid waste management in egyptian rural areas.

    PubMed

    El-Messery, Mamdouh A; Ismail, Gaber A; Arafa, Anwaar K

    2009-01-01

    A two years study was conducted to evaluate the solid waste management system in 143 villages representing the Egyptian rural areas. The study covers the legal responsibilities, service availability, environmental impacts, service providers, financial resources, private sector participation and the quality of collection services. According to UN reports more than 55% of Egyptian population lives in rural areas. A drastic change in the consumption pattern altered the quantity and quality of the generated solid wastes from these areas. Poor solid waste management systems are stigmata in most of the Egyptian rural areas. This causes several environmental and health problems. It has been found that solid waste collection services cover only 27% of the surveyed villages, while, the statistics show that 75% of the surveyed villages are formally covered. The service providers are local villager units, private contractors and civil community associations with a percentage share 71%, 24% and 5% respectively. The operated services among these sectors were 25%, 71% and 100% respectively. The share of private sector in solid waste management in rural areas is still very limited as a result of the poverty of these communities and the lack of recyclable materials in their solid waste. It has been found that direct throwing of solid waste on the banks of drains and canals as well as open dumping and uncontrolled burning of solid waste are the common practice in most of the Egyptian rural areas. The available land for landfill is not enough, pitiable designed, defectively constructed and unreliably operated. Although solid waste generated in rural areas has high organic contents, no composting plant was installed. Shortage in financial resources allocated for valorization of solid waste management in the Egyptian rural areas and lower collection fees are the main points of weakness which resulted in poor solid waste management systems. On the other hand, the farmer's participation

  5. PREFERRED WATERFLOOD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR THE SPRABERRY TREND AREA

    SciTech Connect

    David S. Schechter

    2004-08-31

    The naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area is one of the largest reservoirs in the domestic U.S. and is the largest reservoir in area extent in the world. Production from Spraberry sands is found over a 2,500 sq. mile area and Spraberry reservoirs can be found in an eight county area in west Texas. Over 150 operators produce 65,000 barrels of oil per day (bopd) from the Spraberry Trend Area from more than 9,000 production wells. Recovery is poor, on the order of 7-10% due to the profoundly complicated nature of the reservoir, yet billions of barrels of hydrocarbons remain. We estimate over 15% of remaining reserves in domestic Class III reservoirs are in Spraberry Trend Area reservoirs. This tremendous domestic asset is a prime example of an endangered hydrocarbon resource in need of immediate technological advancements before thousands of wells are permanently abandoned. This report describes the final work of the project, ''Preferred Waterflood Management Practices for the Spraberry Trend Area.'' The objective of this project is to significantly increase field-wide production in the Spraberry Trend in a short time frame through the application of preferred practices for managing and optimizing water injection. Our goal is to dispel negative attitudes and lack of confidence in water injection and to document the methodology and results for public dissemination to motivate waterflood expansion in the Spraberry Trend. This objective has been accomplished through research in three areas: (1) detail historical review and extensive reservoir characterization, (2) production data management, and (3) field demonstration. This provides results of the final year of the three-year project for each of the three areas.

  6. Measuring impact of protected area management interventions: current and future use of the Global Database of Protected Area Management Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Coad, Lauren; Leverington, Fiona; Knights, Kathryn; Geldmann, Jonas; Eassom, April; Kapos, Valerie; Kingston, Naomi; de Lima, Marcelo; Zamora, Camilo; Cuardros, Ivon; Nolte, Christoph; Burgess, Neil D.; Hockings, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are at the forefront of conservation efforts, and yet despite considerable progress towards the global target of having 17% of the world's land area within protected areas by 2020, biodiversity continues to decline. The discrepancy between increasing PA coverage and negative biodiversity trends has resulted in renewed efforts to enhance PA effectiveness. The global conservation community has conducted thousands of assessments of protected area management effectiveness (PAME), and interest in the use of these data to help measure the conservation impact of PA management interventions is high. Here, we summarize the status of PAME assessment, review the published evidence for a link between PAME assessment results and the conservation impacts of PAs, and discuss the limitations and future use of PAME data in measuring the impact of PA management interventions on conservation outcomes. We conclude that PAME data, while designed as a tool for local adaptive management, may also help to provide insights into the impact of PA management interventions from the local-to-global scale. However, the subjective and ordinal characteristics of the data present significant limitations for their application in rigorous scientific impact evaluations, a problem that should be recognized and mitigated where possible. PMID:26460133

  7. Measuring impact of protected area management interventions: current and future use of the Global Database of Protected Area Management Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Coad, Lauren; Leverington, Fiona; Knights, Kathryn; Geldmann, Jonas; Eassom, April; Kapos, Valerie; Kingston, Naomi; de Lima, Marcelo; Zamora, Camilo; Cuardros, Ivon; Nolte, Christoph; Burgess, Neil D; Hockings, Marc

    2015-11-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are at the forefront of conservation efforts, and yet despite considerable progress towards the global target of having 17% of the world's land area within protected areas by 2020, biodiversity continues to decline. The discrepancy between increasing PA coverage and negative biodiversity trends has resulted in renewed efforts to enhance PA effectiveness. The global conservation community has conducted thousands of assessments of protected area management effectiveness (PAME), and interest in the use of these data to help measure the conservation impact of PA management interventions is high. Here, we summarize the status of PAME assessment, review the published evidence for a link between PAME assessment results and the conservation impacts of PAs, and discuss the limitations and future use of PAME data in measuring the impact of PA management interventions on conservation outcomes. We conclude that PAME data, while designed as a tool for local adaptive management, may also help to provide insights into the impact of PA management interventions from the local-to-global scale. However, the subjective and ordinal characteristics of the data present significant limitations for their application in rigorous scientific impact evaluations, a problem that should be recognized and mitigated where possible. PMID:26460133

  8. Water Management and Sediment Control for Urbanizing Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Columbus, OH.

    This handbook, developed for use by the Soil Conservation Service and property owners, land developers, local government agencies, and consulting firms, is designed to provide information on water management and minimizing erosion on land undergoing development in urban areas. The standards and specifications listed in this handbook are to provide…

  9. Bridging Disciplines with the Riparian Area Management Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockerill, Kristan M.; Titus, Jonathan H.

    2004-01-01

    Faculty at Columbia University's Earth Semester created the interdisciplinary Riparian Area Management Project to help students integrate information and skills from life sciences, geosciences, social sciences, and humanities focused coursework. Structured as a "consulting" contract, students were required to make a policy recommendation utilizing…

  10. Building Capacity for Protected Area Management in Lao PDR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Madhu; Johnson, Arlyne; Spence, Kelly; Sypasong, Ahnsany; Bynum, Nora; Sterling, Eleanor; Phimminith, Thavy; Praxaysombath, Bounthob

    2014-04-01

    Declining biodiversity in protected areas in Laos is attributed to unsustainable exploitation of natural resources. At a basic level, an important need is to develop capacity in academic and professional training institutions to provide relevant training to conservation professionals. The paper (a) describes the capacity building approach undertaken to achieve this goal, (b) evaluates the effectiveness of the approach in building capacity for implementing conservation and (c) reviews implementation outcomes. Strong linkages between organizations implementing field conservation, professional training institutions, and relevant Government agencies are central to enhancing effectiveness of capacity building initiatives aimed at improving the practice of conservation. Protected area management technical capacity needs will need to directly influence curriculum design to insure both relevance and effectiveness of training in improving protected area management. Sustainability of capacity building initiatives is largely dependent on the level of interest and commitment by host-country institutions within a supportive Government policy framework in addition to engagement of organizations implementing conservation.

  11. GRA prospectus: optimizing design and management of protected areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernknopf, Richard; Halsing, David

    2001-01-01

    Protected areas comprise one major type of global conservation effort that has been in the form of parks, easements, or conservation concessions. Though protected areas are increasing in number and size throughout tropical ecosystems, there is no systematic method for optimally targeting specific local areas for protection, designing the protected area, and monitoring it, or for guiding follow-up actions to manage it or its surroundings over the long run. Without such a system, conservation projects often cost more than necessary and/or risk protecting ecosystems and biodiversity less efficiently than desired. Correcting these failures requires tools and strategies for improving the placement, design, and long-term management of protected areas. The objective of this project is to develop a set of spatially based analytical tools to improve the selection, design, and management of protected areas. In this project, several conservation concessions will be compared using an economic optimization technique. The forest land use portfolio model is an integrated assessment that measures investment in different land uses in a forest. The case studies of individual tropical ecosystems are developed as forest (land) use and preservation portfolios in a geographic information system (GIS). Conservation concessions involve a private organization purchasing development and resource access rights in a certain area and retiring them. Forests are put into conservation, and those people who would otherwise have benefited from extracting resources or selling the right to do so are compensated. Concessions are legal agreements wherein the exact amount and nature of the compensation result from a negotiated agreement between an agent of the conservation community and the local community. Funds are placed in a trust fund, and annual payments are made to local communities and regional/national governments. The payments are made pending third-party verification that the forest expanse

  12. 76 FR 37059 - Siuslaw National Forest; Oregon; Oregon Dunes NRA Management Area 10 (C) Route and Area Designation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... Forest Service Siuslaw National Forest; Oregon; Oregon Dunes NRA Management Area 10 (C) Route and Area... Dunes Plan) in order to: (1) Designate Off Highway Vehicle (OHV), also called Off Road Vehicle (ORV) routes within Management Area (MA) 10 (C) of the Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area (ODNRA) beyond...

  13. Small Water System Management Program: 100 K Area

    SciTech Connect

    Hunacek, G.S. Jr.

    1995-06-29

    Purposes of this document are: to provide an overview of the service and potable water system presently in service at the Hanford Site`s 100 K Area; to provide future system forecasts based on anticipated DOE activities and programs; to delineate performance, design, and operations criteria; and to describe planned improvements. The objective of the small water system management program is to assure the water system is properly and reliably managed and operated, and continues to exist as a functional and viable entity in accordance with WAC 246-290-410.

  14. Determining management strategies for the Sarikum Nature Protection Area.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Sevgi

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, many environmental problems have become important factors in promoting the economic need to develop tourist activity: climate change such as energy wars, increasing hunger and aridity, population increases in urban areas, excessive and unthinking use of natural resources, difficult international relations, economic competition, and increasing environmental stress. Trends in global tourism have changed with changes in culture and our attitude to nature. Changes in both the profile and consumption patterns of tourists have called for the need to balance the use of natural and cultural assets with the need to adequately protect them. In this study, the Sarikum Nature Protection Area (SNPA) was selected as a case study because of its significance as a Turkish wetland area and the variety of different ecosystems coexisting within it. The study focussed on management strategies, but also provides a broader strategy for an area that currently has no management plan. Strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analyses of the area were gathered and analyzed using R'WOT analysis (ranking + SWOT), a multi-criteria assessment method, in order to determine strategies, obtain the participation of interest groups, and assess their opinions and attitudes. The analysis showed the following: the rich biological diversity and the existence of endemic species were the reserve's most significant strength; the presence of natural areas in surrounding regions was the most significant opportunity; the shortage of infrastructure and lack of legal regulation of ecotourism was the most significant weakness; and the lack of a management plan was the most immediate threat. PMID:25678353

  15. Fluid management plan for the Project Shoal Area Offsites Subproject

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) has initiated the Offsites Subproject to characterize the hazards posed to human health and the environment as a result of underground nuclear testing activities at facilities other than the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A primary Subproject objective is to gather adequate data to characterize the various Subproject sites through the collection of surface and subsurface soil samples and by drilling several wells for the collection of groundwater data. The Project Shoal Area (PSA) is one of the Subproject`s Nevada sites and is subject to the requirements set forth in the Federal Facility Compliance Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (DOE, 1996a). In accordance with the FFACO, a Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed for work at the PSA (designated as Corrective Action Unit Number 416). This Fluid Management Plan (FMP) provides guidance for the management of fluids generated from wells constructed at the PSA. Long-term monitoring and future activities at the site, if required, will be set forth in additional documents as required by the FFACO. The ultimate method for disposition of fluids generated by site operations depends upon sample analysis and process knowledge in relation to fluid management criteria. Section 2 describes well site operations; Section 3 discusses fluid management criteria; Section 4 includes the fluid monitoring program; Section 5 presents the fluid management strategy; Section 6 provides for fluid management during routine well monitoring; and Section 7 contains reporting criteria.

  16. Implementation of a local area network for nursing management.

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, R. H.; Reiley, P.; McKinney, J.; Toomey, B.; Powers, E.; McCausland, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the planning and implementation of a Local Area Network (LAN) for the nursing service of a 504-bed urban teaching hospital. The major goals of the network were: support for nurse executives, nurse managers, and the departmental assistants assigned to administrative offices; increased efficiency and effectiveness of the nursing administrative areas; and improved communication systems. Collaboration between the nursing service and the Computer Information Center (CIC) resulted in a network of over 70 workstations, spanning 11 buildings. The network provides access to multiple programs that support clinical, managerial, and research activities. Gateways provide access to the hospital's two mainframes. PMID:1807569

  17. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Waste Management Area U: First Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, Floyd N.; Chou, Charissa J.

    2000-08-04

    As a result of the most recent recalculation one of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in downgradient well 299-W19-41, triggering a change from detection monitoring to groundwater quality assessment program. The major contributors to the higher specific conductance are nonhazardous constituents (i.e., sodium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate). Nitrate, chromium, and technetium-99 are present and are increasing; however, they are significantly below their drinking waster standards. Interpretation of groundwater monitoring data indicates that both the nonhazardous constituents causing elevated specific conductance in groundwater and the tank waste constituents present in groundwater at the waste management area are a result of surface water infiltration in the southern portion of the facility. There is evidence for both upgradient and waste management area sources for observed nitrate concentrations. There is no indication of an upgradient source for the observed chromium and technetium-99.

  18. Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Safety Assessment Document

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, K.K.; Kendall, E.W.; Brown, J.J.

    1980-02-01

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Safety Assessment Document evaluates site characteristics, facilities and operating practices which contribute to the safe handling and storage/disposal of radioactive wastes at the Nevada Test Site. Physical geography, cultural factors, climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology (with emphasis on radionuclide migration), ecology, natural phenomena, and natural resources are discussed and determined to be suitable for effective containment of radionuclides. Also considered, as a separate section, are facilities and operating practices such as monitoring; storage/disposal criteria; site maintenance, equipment, and support; transportation and waste handling; and others which are adequate for the safe handling and storage/disposal of radioactive wastes. In conclusion, the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site is suitable for radioactive waste handling and storage/disposal for a maximum of twenty more years at the present rate of utilization.

  19. Environmental Policy Beliefs of Stakeholders in Protected Area Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Kostas

    2007-04-01

    Although the importance of understanding stakeholder beliefs regarding environmental policy has been noted by many authors, research focusing on the heterogeneity of stakeholder views is still very scarce and concentrated on a product-oriented definition of stakeholders. The aim of the present study is to address this gap by examining environmental policy beliefs of stakeholder groups engaged in protected area management. Questionnaires containing 73 five-point Likert scale items were administered to eight different stakeholder groups involved in the management of Greek protected areas. Items referred to core beliefs on environmental policy, namely, the value framework and sustainable development, and secondary beliefs, that is, beliefs on social consensus and ecotourism development. Our study used as a starting point respondent recruitment on the basis of a traditional product-centered approach. We investigated whether environmental policy beliefs can be used to effectively segregate stakeholders in well-defined segments, which override the product-oriented definition of stakeholders. Indeed, K-means clustering revealed an innovation-introduction and an implementation-charged sample segment. The instrument utilized in this research proved quite reliable and valid in measuring stakeholder environmental policy beliefs. Furthermore, the methodology implied that stakeholder groups differ in a significant number of belief-system elements. On the other hand, stakeholder groups were effectively distinguished on a small set of both core and secondary beliefs. Therefore, the instrument used can be an effective tool for determining and monitoring environmental policy beliefs of stakeholders in protected area management. This is of considerable importance in the Greek case, given the recent establishment of 27 administrative bodies of protected areas, all of which are required to incorporate public consultation into management practices.

  20. Environmental policy beliefs of stakeholders in protected area management.

    PubMed

    Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Kostas

    2007-04-01

    Although the importance of understanding stakeholder beliefs regarding environmental policy has been noted by many authors, research focusing on the heterogeneity of stakeholder views is still very scarce and concentrated on a product-oriented definition of stakeholders. The aim of the present study is to address this gap by examining environmental policy beliefs of stakeholder groups engaged in protected area management. Questionnaires containing 73 five-point Likert scale items were administered to eight different stakeholder groups involved in the management of Greek protected areas. Items referred to core beliefs on environmental policy, namely, the value framework and sustainable development, and secondary beliefs, that is, beliefs on social consensus and ecotourism development. Our study used as a starting point respondent recruitment on the basis of a traditional product-centered approach. We investigated whether environmental policy beliefs can be used to effectively segregate stakeholders in well-defined segments, which override the product-oriented definition of stakeholders. Indeed, K-means clustering revealed an innovation-introduction and an implementation-charged sample segment. The instrument utilized in this research proved quite reliable and valid in measuring stakeholder environmental policy beliefs. Furthermore, the methodology implied that stakeholder groups differ in a significant number of belief-system elements. On the other hand, stakeholder groups were effectively distinguished on a small set of both core and secondary beliefs. Therefore, the instrument used can be an effective tool for determining and monitoring environmental policy beliefs of stakeholders in protected area management. This is of considerable importance in the Greek case, given the recent establishment of 27 administrative bodies of protected areas, all of which are required to incorporate public consultation into management practices. PMID:17265109

  1. Jet-Cooled ~A-~X Spectra of the β-HYDROXYETHYLPEROXY and β-HYDROXYETHYLPEROXY-OD Radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming-Wei; Just, Gabriel M. P.; Codd, Terrance; Miller, Terry A.

    2010-06-01

    The β-hydroxyethylperoxy (HOCH_2CH_2OO, β-HEP) radical in the atmosphere arises from the reaction of ethene (CH_2CH_2) and hydroxyl radical (OH), followed by the reaction with oxygen (O_2). It is also an important intermediate in the oxidation of ethanol, a component of automotive fuel. High-resolution, jet-cooled cavity ring-down spectroscopy (resolution of Δν≈250MHz, considering the instrumental linewidth and the residual Doppler broadening) has been applied to observe the ~A-~X origin band of the most stable conformer of both β-HEP and mono-deuterated β-HEP (DOCH_2CH_2OO, β-HEP-OD). Broadened rotational contours are observed for both isotopologues, but more resolved structure is shown in the β-HEP-OD spectrum. The evolutionary algorithm approach is applied to analyze the spectra, which gives fitted rotational constants and the homogeneous linewidths for both isotopologues using an asymmetric-top model for the rotational Hamiltonian. Evidence corresponding to a narrower homogeneous linewidth in the β-HEP-OD spectra implies that the broad rotational contour of β-HEP likely involves the motion of the hydrogen of the OH group.

  2. An Integrated Risk Management Model for Source Water Protection Areas

    PubMed Central

    Chiueh, Pei-Te; Shang, Wei-Ting; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2012-01-01

    Watersheds are recognized as the most effective management unit for the protection of water resources. For surface water supplies that use water from upstream watersheds, evaluating threats to water quality and implementing a watershed management plan are crucial for the maintenance of drinking water safe for humans. The aim of this article is to establish a risk assessment model that provides basic information for identifying critical pollutants and areas at high risk for degraded water quality. In this study, a quantitative risk model that uses hazard quotients for each water quality parameter was combined with a qualitative risk model that uses the relative risk level of potential pollution events in order to characterize the current condition and potential risk of watersheds providing drinking water. In a case study of Taipei Source Water Area in northern Taiwan, total coliforms and total phosphorus were the top two pollutants of concern. Intensive tea-growing and recreational activities around the riparian zone may contribute the greatest pollution to the watershed. Our risk assessment tool may be enhanced by developing, recording, and updating information on pollution sources in the water supply watersheds. Moreover, management authorities could use the resultant information to create watershed risk management plans. PMID:23202770

  3. Visualizing diurnal population change in urban areas for emergency management.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Medina, Richard M; Cova, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing need for a quick, simple method to represent diurnal population change in metropolitan areas for effective emergency management and risk analysis. Many geographic studies rely on decennial U.S. Census data that assume that urban populations are static in space and time. This has obvious limitations in the context of dynamic geographic problems. The U.S. Department of Transportation publishes population data at the transportation analysis zone level in fifteen-minute increments. This level of spatial and temporal detail allows for improved dynamic population modeling. This article presents a methodology for visualizing and analyzing diurnal population change for metropolitan areas based on this readily available data. Areal interpolation within a geographic information system is used to create twenty-four (one per hour) population surfaces for the larger metropolitan area of Salt Lake County, Utah. The resulting surfaces represent diurnal population change for an average workday and are easily combined to produce an animation that illustrates population dynamics throughout the day. A case study of using the method to visualize population distributions in an emergency management context is provided using two scenarios: a chemical release and a dirty bomb in Salt Lake County. This methodology can be used to address a wide variety of problems in emergency management. PMID:21491706

  4. Visualizing Diurnal Population Change in Urban Areas for Emergency Management

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Medina, Richard M; Cova, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing need for a quick, simple method to represent diurnal population change in metropolitan areas for effective emergency management and risk analysis. Many geographic studies rely on decennial U.S. Census data that assume that urban populations are static in space and time. This has obvious limitations in the context of dynamic geographic problems. The U.S. Department of Transportation publishes population data at the transportation analysis zone level in fifteen-minute increments. This level of spatial and temporal detail allows for improved dynamic population modeling. This article presents a methodology for visualizing and analyzing diurnal population change for metropolitan areas based on this readily available data. Areal interpolation within a geographic information system is used to create twenty-four (one per hour) population surfaces for the larger metropolitan area of Salt Lake County, Utah. The resulting surfaces represent diurnal population change for an average workday and are easily combined to produce an animation that illustrates population dynamics throughout the day. A case study of using the method to visualize population distributions in an emergency management context is provided using two scenarios: a chemical release and a dirty bomb in Salt Lake County. This methodology can be used to address a wide variety of problems in emergency management.

  5. GIS supported solid waste management in coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Sarptas, H; Alpaslan, N; Dolgen, D

    2005-01-01

    Planning of solid waste management (SWM) facilities in terrestrial as well as coastal areas addresses several situations, and requires considering numerous factors. This leads to large amounts of data and information that must be organized and analyzed. However, in many SWM systems, all of the relevant information cannot be managed properly due to insufficiencies in methods/tools and/or resources. To assist the solid waste decision making process, GIS-based decision support systems can be applied to deal with the multi-attribute and spatial nature of SWM systems. In this study, the application potential of GIS based decision support systems to functional elements of the SWM system are reviewed first. Then particular emphasis is given to landfill site selection. In this context, landfill siting process and key siting criteria were developed to incorporate the environmental, socio-political, engineering, and economic factors for an appropriate solution. To aid decision makers to determine landfill area requirements, an area estimation model, containing population projection and waste quantity forecasting modules, was developed in Visual Basic. Following the development of a graphical user interface, suitable areas for proposed landfill were determined in an IDRISI environment. PMID:16114635

  6. Forrest Conservation Area : Management & Implementation FY 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Brent

    2008-12-01

    The Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribes) acquired the Forrest Conservation Area during July of 2002. The property is located in the Upper John Day subbasin within the Columbia basin. The property consists of two parcels comprising 4,232 acres. The Mainstem parcel consists of 3,445 acres and is located 1/2 mile to the east of Prairie City, Oregon on the mainstem John Day River. The Middle Fork parcel consists of 786 acres and is located one mile to the west of the town of Austin, OR on the Middle Fork John Day River. The Forrest Conservation Area is under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to provide an annual written report generally describing the real property interests of the project and management activities undertaken or in progress. Acquisition of the Forrest Conservation Area was funded by BPA as part of their program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife habitat affected by hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The intent of the Conservation Area is to partially mitigate fish and wildlife impacts for the John Day Dam on the Columbia River as outlined in the Northwest Power Planning Council's Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994, {section}11.1, {section}7.6). While the Tribes hold fee-title to the property, the BPA has assured a level of management funding for the protection and restoration of fish and wildlife habitat through a memorandum of agreement.

  7. Intelligent Resource Management for Local Area Networks: Approach and Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meike, Roger

    1988-01-01

    The Data Management System network is a complex and important part of manned space platforms. Its efficient operation is vital to crew, subsystems and experiments. AI is being considered to aid in the initial design of the network and to augment the management of its operation. The Intelligent Resource Management for Local Area Networks (IRMA-LAN) project is concerned with the application of AI techniques to network configuration and management. A network simulation was constructed employing real time process scheduling for realistic loads, and utilizing the IEEE 802.4 token passing scheme. This simulation is an integral part of the construction of the IRMA-LAN system. From it, a causal model is being constructed for use in prediction and deep reasoning about the system configuration. An AI network design advisor is being added to help in the design of an efficient network. The AI portion of the system is planned to evolve into a dynamic network management aid. The approach, the integrated simulation, project evolution, and some initial results are described.

  8. Management of the water balance and quality in mining areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasanen, Antti; Krogerus, Kirsti; Mroueh, Ulla-Maija; Turunen, Kaisa; Backnäs, Soile; Vento, Tiia; Veijalainen, Noora; Hentinen, Kimmo; Korkealaakso, Juhani

    2015-04-01

    Although mining companies have long been conscious of water related risks they still face environmental management problems. These problems mainly emerge because mine sites' water balances have not been adequately assessed in the stage of the planning of mines. More consistent approach is required to help mining companies identify risks and opportunities related to the management of water resources in all stages of mining. This approach requires that the water cycle of a mine site is interconnected with the general hydrologic water cycle. In addition to knowledge on hydrological conditions, the control of the water balance in the mining processes require knowledge of mining processes, the ability to adjust process parameters to variable hydrological conditions, adaptation of suitable water management tools and systems, systematic monitoring of amounts and quality of water, adequate capacity in water management infrastructure to handle the variable water flows, best practices to assess the dispersion, mixing and dilution of mine water and pollutant loading to receiving water bodies, and dewatering and separation of water from tailing and precipitates. WaterSmart project aims to improve the awareness of actual quantities of water, and water balances in mine areas to improve the forecasting and the management of the water volumes. The study is executed through hydrogeological and hydrological surveys and online monitoring procedures. One of the aims is to exploit on-line water quantity and quality monitoring for the better management of the water balances. The target is to develop a practical and end-user-specific on-line input and output procedures. The second objective is to develop mathematical models to calculate combined water balances including the surface, ground and process waters. WSFS, the Hydrological Modeling and Forecasting System of SYKE is being modified for mining areas. New modelling tools are developed on spreadsheet and system dynamics platforms to

  9. Critical research needs for managing coral reef marine protected areas: perspectives of academics and managers.

    PubMed

    Cvitanovic, C; Wilson, S K; Fulton, C J; Almany, G R; Anderson, P; Babcock, R C; Ban, N C; Beeden, R J; Beger, M; Cinner, J; Dobbs, K; Evans, L S; Farnham, A; Friedman, K J; Gale, K; Gladstone, W; Grafton, Q; Graham, N A J; Gudge, S; Harrison, P L; Holmes, T H; Johnstone, N; Jones, G P; Jordan, A; Kendrick, A J; Klein, C J; Little, L R; Malcolm, H A; Morris, D; Possingham, H P; Prescott, J; Pressey, R L; Skilleter, G A; Simpson, C; Waples, K; Wilson, D; Williamson, D H

    2013-01-15

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a primary policy instrument for managing and protecting coral reefs. Successful MPAs ultimately depend on knowledge-based decision making, where scientific research is integrated into management actions. Fourteen coral reef MPA managers and sixteen academics from eleven research, state and federal government institutions each outlined at least five pertinent research needs for improving the management of MPAs situated in Australian coral reefs. From this list of 173 key questions, we asked members of each group to rank questions in order of urgency, redundancy and importance, which allowed us to explore the extent of perceptional mismatch and overlap among the two groups. Our results suggest the mismatch among MPA managers and academics is small, with no significant difference among the groups in terms of their respective research interests, or the type of questions they pose. However, managers prioritised spatial management and monitoring as research themes, whilst academics identified climate change, resilience, spatial management, fishing and connectivity as the most important topics. Ranking of the posed questions by the two groups was also similar, although managers were less confident about the achievability of the posed research questions and whether questions represented a knowledge gap. We conclude that improved collaboration and knowledge transfer among management and academic groups can be used to achieve similar objectives and enhance the knowledge-based management of MPAs. PMID:23220604

  10. Nevada Test Site, 2006 Waste Management Monitoring Report, Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Hudson

    2007-06-30

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2006 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (U.S. Department of Energy, 2006; Warren and Grossman, 2007; National Security Technologies, LLC, 2007). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure levels around the RWMSs are at or below background levels. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. There is no detectable man-made radioactivity by gamma spectroscopy, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits at the Area 3 RWMS. Measurements at the Area 5 RWMS show that radon flux from waste covers is no higher than natural radon flux from undisturbed soil in Area 5. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. Precipitation during 2006 totaled 98.6 millimeters (mm) (3.9 inches [in.]) at the Area 3 RWMS and 80.7 mm (3.2 in.) at the Area 5 RWMS. Soil-gas tritium monitoring continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Moisture from precipitation at Area 5 remains at the bottom of the bare-soil weighing lysimeter, but this same moisture has been removed from the vegetated weighing lysimeter by evapotranspiration. Vadose zone data from the operational waste pit covers show that evaporation continues to slowly remove soil moisture that came from the heavy precipitation in the fall of 2004 and the spring of

  11. Institutional Control Policies and Implementation for the Area 5 and Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Vefa Yucel, Greg Shott, Denise Wieland, et al.

    2007-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) has implemented varying institutional control policies in performance assessment/composite analysis (PA/CA) calculations for the Area 5 and Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) (Shott et al., 1998; 2000; Bechtel Nevada [BN] and Neptune and Company Inc. [Neptune], 2006). The facilities are within the actively maintained boundaries of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that are enforced by NNSA/NSO. Under current policies, access required for exposure of the member of public (MOP) or the inadvertent human intruder (IHI) is prohibited. Uncertainties affecting institutional control policies are the duration and effectiveness of the controls during the post-closure period. Implementing a uniform set of institutional control policies for the RWMSs that encompasses waste management and environmental restoration programs and is consistent with the end-state vision for the environmental management programs for the NTS (DOE, 2006) is a primary goal of the maintenance program. The NNSA/NSO Performance Management Plan (DOE, 2002) complies with DOE Policy P455.1, 'Use of Risk-Based End States' (DOE, 2003a). Expected future land uses are a driver in selecting acceptable end state conditions and clean-up goals for the NTS. NNSA/NSO Environmental Management's (EM's) land management assumptions and framework for Environmental Management activities are as follows: The NTS will remain under federal control in perpetuity as an NNSA test site, and the large buffer zone surrounding the NTS (the Nevada Test and Training Range) is assumed to remain under the control of the U.S. Air Force. There are no plans for transfer of any NTS lands to other agencies or public entities. Access will continue to be restricted to the NTS and the surrounding areas. For management purposes, NNSA/NV EM activities have been established based on the source of contamination and type of waste

  12. Private mineral rights complicate the management of eastern wilderness areas

    SciTech Connect

    Bowsher, C.A.

    1984-07-26

    Since 1975, the Congress has expanded the National Wilderness Preservation System to areas of eastern national forest lands. Many of these eastern lands contain significant amounts of private mineral rights; as a result, the Department of Agriculture's Forest Service experienced management and legal problems in trying to preserve these lands and control private mineral development. In addition, recent attempts by the federal government to acquire private mineral rights in eastern wilderness areas have caused considerable controversy and Congressional debate because of the high costs associated with these purchases. These problems could increase because many other areas under consideration for wilderness designation in the east contain private mineral rights. GAO believes that consideration of private mineral rights is important in deciding whether other eastern lands should be designated as wilderness. However, the Forest Service did not provide information regarding private mineral rights and their potential acquisition costs when it submitted wilderness recommendations to the Congress in 1979. Therefore, GAO recommends that the Secretary of Agriculture direct the Forest Service to analyze the potential conflicts and costs associated with private mineral rights in potential wilderness areas and provide this data to the Congress. In addition, GAO believes that the Congress should consider providing further guidance to the Forest Service by specifying what action should be taken regarding private mineral rights in eastern wilderness areas.

  13. The Protected Areas Visitor Impact Management (PAVIM) framework: A simplified process for making management decisions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrell, T.A.; Marion, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Ecotourism and protected area visitation in Central and South America have resulted in ecological impacts, which some protected areas managers have addressed by employing visitor impact management frameworks. In this paper, we propose the Protected Area Visitor Impact Management (PAVIM) framework as an alternative to carrying capacity and other frameworks such as Limits of Acceptable Change. We use a set of evaluation criteria to compare the relative positive and negative attributes of carrying capacity, other decision-making frameworks and the new framework, within the context of their actual and potential use in Central and South America. Positive attributes of PAVIM include simplicity, flexibility, cost effectiveness, timeliness, and incorporating input from stakeholders and local residents. Negative attributes include diminished objectivity and cultural sensitivity issues. Further research and application of PAVIM are recommended.

  14. Mine waste management legislation. Gold mining areas in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maftei, Raluca-Mihaela; Filipciuc, Constantina; Tudor, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Problems in the post-mining regions of Eastern Europe range from degraded land and landscapes, huge insecure dumps, surface cracks, soil pollution, lowering groundwater table, deforestation, and damaged cultural potentials to socio economic problems like unemployment or population decline. There is no common prescription for tackling the development of post-mining regions after mine closure nor is there a common definition of good practices or policy in this field. Key words : waste management, legislation, EU Directive, post mining Rosia Montana is a common oh 16 villages; one of them is also called Rosia Montana, a traditional mining Community, located in the Apuseni Mountains in the North-Western Romania. Beneath part of the village area lays one of the largest gold and silver deposits in Europe. In the Rosia Montana area mining had begun ever since the height of the Roman Empire. While the modern approach to mining demands careful remediation of environmental impacts, historically disused mines in this region have been abandoned, leaving widespread environmental damage. General legislative framework Strict regulations and procedures govern modern mining activity, including mitigation of all environmental impacts. Precious metals exploitation is put under GO no. 190/2000 re-published in 2004. The institutional framework was established and organized based on specific regulations, being represented by the following bodies: • The Ministry of Economy and Commerce (MEC), a public institution which develops the Government policy in the mining area, also provides the management of the public property in the mineral resources area; • The National Agency for the development and implementation of the mining Regions Reconstruction Programs (NAD), responsible with promotion of social mitigation measures and actions; • The Office for Industry Privatization, within the Education Ministry, responsible with privatization of companies under the CEM; • The National

  15. Nevada Test Site 2005 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Hudson, Cathy A. Wills

    2006-08-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2005 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (U.S. Department of Energy, 2005; Grossman, 2005; Bechtel Nevada, 2006). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure levels around the RWMSs are at or below background levels. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. There is no detectable man-made radioactivity by gamma spectroscopy, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits at the Area 3 RWMS. Measurements at the Area 5 RWMS show that radon flux from waste covers is no higher than natural radon flux from undisturbed soil in Area 5. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. Precipitation during 2005 totaled 219.1 millimeters (mm) (8.63 inches [in.]) at the Area 3 RWMS and 201.4 mm (7.93 in.) at the Area 5 RWMS. Soil-gas tritium monitoring continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Moisture from precipitation at Area 5 has percolated to the bottom of the bare-soil weighing lysimeter, but this same moisture has been removed from the vegetated weighing lysimeter by evapotranspiration. Vadose zone data from the operational waste pit covers show that precipitation from the fall of 2004 and the spring of 2005 infiltrated past the deepest sensors at 188 centimeters (6.2 feet) and remains in the pit cover

  16. 24 CFR 200.225 - Approvals by Area Managers for limited partners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approvals by Area Managers for limited partners. 200.225 Section 200.225 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... by Area Managers for limited partners. The Area Manager of the HUD Area Office where the...

  17. Nevada Test Site 2000 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Yvonne Townsend

    2001-06-01

    Environmental monitoring data, subsidence monitoring data, and meteorology monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (refer to Figure 1). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels, whereas radon concentrations are not above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorology data indicate that 2000 was an average rainfall year: rainfall totaled 167 mm (6.6 in) at the Area 3 RWMS (annual average is 156 mm [6.5 in]) and 123 mm (4.8 in) at the Area 5 RWMS (annual average is 127 mm [5.0 in]). Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 2000 rainfall infiltrated less than one meter (3 ft) before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium monitoring data indicate slow subsurface migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were lower than in previous years. All 2000 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing well at isolating buried waste.

  18. Nevada Test Site 2001 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Y. E. Townsend

    2002-06-01

    Environmental monitoring data, subsidence monitoring data, and meteorology monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (refer to Figure 1). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada (BN) reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorology data indicate that 2001 was an average rainfall year: rainfall totaled 150 mm (5.9 in) at the Area 3 RWMS and 120 mm (4.7 in) at the Area 5 RWMS. Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 2001 rainfall infiltrated less than one meter (3 ft) before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium monitoring data indicate slow subsurface migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were lower than in previous years. All 2001 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing within expectations of the model and parameter assumptions for the facility performance assessments.

  19. Nevada Test Site 2009 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Radioactive Waste

    2010-06-23

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2009 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NTS. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. All gamma spectroscopy results for air particulates collected at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS were below the minimum detectable concentrations, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. Radon flux from waste covers is well below regulatory limits. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. The 87.6 millimeters (mm) (3.45 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2009 is 43 percent below the average of 152.4 mm (6.00 in.), and the 62.7 mm (2.47 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2009 is 49 percent below the average of 122.5 mm (4.82 in.). Soil-gas tritium monitoring at borehole GCD-05 continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward percolation of precipitation more effectively than evaporation

  20. Mine waste management legislation. Gold mining areas in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maftei, Raluca-Mihaela; Filipciuc, Constantina; Tudor, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Problems in the post-mining regions of Eastern Europe range from degraded land and landscapes, huge insecure dumps, surface cracks, soil pollution, lowering groundwater table, deforestation, and damaged cultural potentials to socio economic problems like unemployment or population decline. There is no common prescription for tackling the development of post-mining regions after mine closure nor is there a common definition of good practices or policy in this field. Key words : waste management, legislation, EU Directive, post mining Rosia Montana is a common oh 16 villages; one of them is also called Rosia Montana, a traditional mining Community, located in the Apuseni Mountains in the North-Western Romania. Beneath part of the village area lays one of the largest gold and silver deposits in Europe. In the Rosia Montana area mining had begun ever since the height of the Roman Empire. While the modern approach to mining demands careful remediation of environmental impacts, historically disused mines in this region have been abandoned, leaving widespread environmental damage. General legislative framework Strict regulations and procedures govern modern mining activity, including mitigation of all environmental impacts. Precious metals exploitation is put under GO no. 190/2000 re-published in 2004. The institutional framework was established and organized based on specific regulations, being represented by the following bodies: • The Ministry of Economy and Commerce (MEC), a public institution which develops the Government policy in the mining area, also provides the management of the public property in the mineral resources area; • The National Agency for the development and implementation of the mining Regions Reconstruction Programs (NAD), responsible with promotion of social mitigation measures and actions; • The Office for Industry Privatization, within the Education Ministry, responsible with privatization of companies under the CEM; • The National

  1. Nevada Test Site 2007 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-06-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2007 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2007a; 2008; Warren and Grossman, 2008). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are at background levels. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. A single gamma spectroscopy measurement for cesium was slightly above the minimum detectable concentration, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits at the Area 3 RWMS. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. Radon flux from waste covers is well below regulatory limits. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. The 136.8 millimeters (mm) (5.39 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2007 is 13 percent below the average of 158.1 mm (6.22 in.), and the 123.8 mm (4.87 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2007 is 6 percent below the average of 130.7 mm (5.15 in.). Soil-gas tritium monitoring at borehole GCD-05U continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward movement percolation of precipitation more effectively

  2. PREFERRED WATERFLOOD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR THE SPRABERRY TREND AREA

    SciTech Connect

    C. M. Sizemore; David S. Schechter

    2003-08-13

    This report describes the work performed during the second year of the project, ''Preferred Waterflood Management Practices for the Spraberry Trend Area''. The objective of this project is to significantly increase field-wide production in the Spraberry Trend in a short time frame through the application of preferred practices for managing and optimizing water injection. Our goal is to dispel negative attitudes and lack of confidence in water injection and to document the methodology and results for public dissemination to motivate waterflood expansion in the Spraberry Trend. To achieve this objective, in this period we concentrated our effort on characterization of Germania Unit using an analog field ET ODaniel unit and old cased hole neutron. Petrophysical Characterization of the Germania Spraberry units requires a unique approach for a number of reasons--limited core data, lack of modern log data and absence of directed studies within the unit. The need for characterization of the Germania unit has emerged as a first step in the review, understanding and enhancement of the production practices applicable within the unit and the trend area in general. In the absence or lack of the afore mentioned resources, an approach that will rely heavily on previous petrophysical work carried out in the neighboring ET O'Daniel unit (6.2 miles away), and normalization of the old log data prior to conventional interpretation techniques will be used. A log-based rock model has been able to guide successfully the prediction of pay and non-pay intervals within the ET O'Daniel unit, and will be useful if found applicable within the Germania unit. A novel multiple regression technique utilizing non-parametric transformations to achieve better correlations in predicting a dependent variable (permeability) from multiple independent variables (rock type, shale volume and porosity) will also be investigated in this study. A log data base includes digitized formats of Gamma Ray, Cased

  3. Nevada National Security Site 2012 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, David B.

    2013-09-10

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2012 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2012; 2013a; 2013b). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are only slightly above detection limits and background levels. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below Derived Concentration Standards for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. Leachate samples collected from the leachate collection system at the mixed low-level waste cell were below established contaminant regulatory limits. The 133.9 millimeters (mm) (5.27 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2012 is 12% below the average of 153.0 mm (6.02 in.), and the 137.6 mm (5.42 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2012 is 11% below the average of 122.4 mm (4.82 in.). Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents

  4. Nevada National Security Site 2011 Waste Management Monitoring Report, Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2012-07-31

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2011 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are only slightly above detection limits and background levels. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. During the last 2 weeks of March 2011, gamma spectroscopy results for air particles showed measurable activities of iodine-131 (131I), cesium-134 (134Cs), and cesium-137 (137Cs). These results are attributed to the release of fission products from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi power plant in Japan. The remaining gamma spectroscopy results for air particulates collected at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS were below minimum detectable concentrations. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. The 86.3 millimeters (mm) (3.40 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2011 is 44% below the average of 154.1 mm (6.07 in.), and the 64.8 mm

  5. Nevada National Security Site 2013 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, D. B.

    2014-08-19

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) within the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2013 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2013; 2014a; 2014b). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are close to detection limits and background levels. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below Derived Concentration Standards for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. Leachate samples collected from the leachate collection system at the mixed low-level waste cell were below established contaminant regulatory limits. The 105.8 millimeters (mm) (4.17 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2013 is 30% below the average of 150.3 mm (5.92 in.), and the 117.5 mm (4.63 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2013 is 5% below the average of 123.6 mm (4.86 in.). Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents

  6. Modelling and managing runoff processes in peri-urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Tabach, E.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D.

    2008-12-01

    Nowadays, a deeper knowledge of the extreme runoff generation requires more inclusive and interactive understanding of its numerous determining factors. This includes not only a better estimation of meteorological extremes under changing climate conditions, but also a better evaluation of infiltration and saturation excesses, of subsurface return flows, as well as, of human impacts on surface runoff. This communication presents a physically based and spatially distributed numerical model for simulation of the hydrologic interactions between the surface and subsurface flows. Further particularities of this model correspond to: (1) a new methodology for the estimation of the precipitation input; and (2) a new modelling methodology to design Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) in urban and peri-urban areas. The multifractal frequency analyses have been used to evaluate the maximum precipitation rate for several durations with the design return period. This method has the advantage to rely on a few robust exponents that are physically meaningful and can be evaluated on discontinuous and/or low frequency samples. The design of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) in urban and peri-urban areas with low permeability soils as well as with high groundwater levels can be used to decrease the floods risk in the inundated zones. Our model was particularly oriented towards the retention in ponds and swales, infiltration into the ground and drainage through perforated pipes to manage the storm water runoff. The methodology explicitly takes into account the interactions with the water table, the evolution of the latter with infiltration and the soil profile. Using GIS, we visualise the resulting runoff processes together with the evolution of water table levels for the two case studies: a county contiguous to Paris (France) and in the Panola Area (USA). The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of SUDS in urban and peri-urban areas and fluvial retention

  7. Nevada National Security Site 2010 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-06-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2010 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2010a; 2010b; 2011). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. All gamma spectroscopy results for air particulates collected at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS were below the minimum detectable concentrations, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. The 246.9 millimeters (mm) (9.72 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2010 is 56 percent above the average of 158.7 mm (6.25 in.), and the 190.4 mm (7.50 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2010 is 50 percent above the average of 126.7 mm (4.99 in.). Soil-gas tritium monitoring at borehole GCD-05 continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward percolation of precipitation more effectively than

  8. Inventory management plan for a research and development local area network

    SciTech Connect

    Strickler, D.; Chester, R.; Ingle, K.; Payne, P.; Rome, J.; Kertis, K.

    1993-08-01

    An inventory management plan is presented for the local area network (LAN) for the Security Aspects of Database Management Systems, a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored project examining computer and network security in a data management environment. The inventory management plan establishes procedures to ensure that changes in system hardware and software are identified and controlled. Management tools are described, and the roles of the project manager, inventory control manager, and research team members in the implementation of inventory management are defined.

  9. An Intelligent Parking Management System for Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Vera-Gómez, Juan A; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; García, Carmelo R; Suárez Moreno, Raúl; Guerra Hernández, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    In this article we describe a low-cost, minimally-intrusive system for the efficient management of parking spaces on both public roads and controlled zones. This system is based on wireless networks of photoelectric sensors that are deployed on the access roads into and out of these areas. The sensors detect the passage of vehicles on these roads and communicate this information to a data centre, thus making it possible to know the number of vehicles in the controlled zone and the occupancy levels in real-time. This information may be communicated to drivers to facilitate their search for a parking space and to authorities so that they may take steps to control traffic when congestion is detected. PMID:27338397

  10. Concepts and algorithms for terminal-area traffic management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, H.; Chapel, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    The nation's air-traffic-control system is the subject of an extensive modernization program, including the planned introduction of advanced automation techniques. This paper gives an overview of a concept for automating terminal-area traffic management. Four-dimensional (4D) guidance techniques, which play an essential role in the automated system, are reviewed. One technique, intended for on-board computer implementation, is based on application of optimal control theory. The second technique is a simplified approach to 4D guidance intended for ground computer implementation. It generates advisory messages to help the controller maintain scheduled landing times of aircraft not equipped with on-board 4D guidance systems. An operational system for the second technique, recently evaluated in a simulation, is also described.

  11. An Intelligent Parking Management System for Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Gómez, Juan A.; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; García, Carmelo R.; Suárez Moreno, Raúl; Guerra Hernández, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    In this article we describe a low-cost, minimally-intrusive system for the efficient management of parking spaces on both public roads and controlled zones. This system is based on wireless networks of photoelectric sensors that are deployed on the access roads into and out of these areas. The sensors detect the passage of vehicles on these roads and communicate this information to a data centre, thus making it possible to know the number of vehicles in the controlled zone and the occupancy levels in real-time. This information may be communicated to drivers to facilitate their search for a parking space and to authorities so that they may take steps to control traffic when congestion is detected. PMID:27338397

  12. 7 CFR 275.18 - Project area/management unit corrective action plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Project area/management unit corrective action plan... SYSTEM Corrective Action § 275.18 Project area/management unit corrective action plan. (a) The State agency shall ensure that corrective action plans are prepared at the project area/management unit...

  13. 7 CFR 275.18 - Project area/management unit corrective action plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Project area/management unit corrective action plan... SYSTEM Corrective Action § 275.18 Project area/management unit corrective action plan. (a) The State agency shall ensure that corrective action plans are prepared at the project area/management unit...

  14. 7 CFR 275.18 - Project area/management unit corrective action plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Project area/management unit corrective action plan... SYSTEM Corrective Action § 275.18 Project area/management unit corrective action plan. (a) The State agency shall ensure that corrective action plans are prepared at the project area/management unit...

  15. 7 CFR 275.18 - Project area/management unit corrective action plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Project area/management unit corrective action plan... SYSTEM Corrective Action § 275.18 Project area/management unit corrective action plan. (a) The State agency shall ensure that corrective action plans are prepared at the project area/management unit...

  16. 7 CFR 275.18 - Project area/management unit corrective action plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Project area/management unit corrective action plan... SYSTEM Corrective Action § 275.18 Project area/management unit corrective action plan. (a) The State agency shall ensure that corrective action plans are prepared at the project area/management unit...

  17. REFERRED WATERFLOOD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR THE SPRABERRY TREND AREA

    SciTech Connect

    C. M. Sizemore; David S. Schechter

    2004-02-13

    This report describes the work performed during the first semi-annual third year of the project, ''Preferred Waterflood Management Practices for the Spraberry Trend Area''. The objective of this project is to significantly increase field-wide production in the Spraberry Trend in a short time frame through the application of preferred practices for managing and optimizing water injection. Our goal is to dispel negative attitudes and lack of confidence in water injection and to document the methodology and results for public dissemination to motivate waterflood expansion in the Spraberry Trend. To achieve this objective, in this period we concentrated our effort on analyzing production and injection data to optimize the reservoir management strategies for Germania Spraberry Unit. This study address the reservoir characterization and monitoring of the waterflooding project and propose alternatives of development of the current and future conditions of the reservoir to improve field performance. This research should serve as a guide for future work in reservoir simulation and can be used to evaluate various scenarios for additional development as well as to optimize the operating practices in the field. The results indicate that under the current conditions, a total of 1.410 million barrels of oil can be produced in the next 20 years through the 64 active wells and suggest that the unit can be successfully flooded with the current injection rate of 1600 BWPD and the pattern consisting of 6 injection wells aligned about 36 degrees respect to the major fracture orientation. In addition, a progress report on GSU waterflood pilot is reported for this period.

  18. Management of fire affected areas. Beyond the environmental question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo

    2016-04-01

    Fire is considered a natural element of the ecosystems. With exception of the polar areas, fire visited with more or less frequency all the earth biomes, determining the ecosystems characteristics, to the point that several species are fire-dependent to survive and are very resilient to their impact. Fire was a fundamental element for human evolution, which allowed us to cook, manipulation of metals, hunt, protect from predators and clear fields for agriculture. In some extension, we are only humans because of fire. In the last millennium fire was used to shape the landscape as we know today. One good example of this is the Mediterranean environment, a landscape where the ecology is not understood without the presence of fire. Until the end of the first half of the last century, fire was used frequently by farmers to landscape management. However, due to rural abandonment, change of life styles, disconnection with rural environment and lack of understanding of fire role in the ecosystems. The perception of fire changed and nowadays is understood by the population as a threat to the ecosystems, rather than a tool that helped to manage the landscape and help us in our evolution. This change of vision promoted the idea that fire has negative impacts in the ecosystems and should be banned from the nature. Something that is impossible. All these perceptions facilitated the implementation of fire-suppression policies, which today are recognized by science as one of the causes of the occurrence of frequent high-severity wildfires, with important impacts on the ecosystems, economy and society. However, most of the ecosystems can regenerate sooner or later, depending of the fire severity and the ecosystem affected. Thus, fire is not an ecological, but social and economic problem, due to lives loss and the temporary destruction of ecosystems, which local communities depend on. In this context, when we are managing fire affected areas, it goes much beyond environmental

  19. Administration for groundwater management in the Kumamoto area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Issei

    Kumamoto Prefecture is famous for its abundance of clear, good-tasting groundwater. As natural water resources many rivers, including the Kuma River, run through and there lie more than a thousand spring spots like those feeding the place around Suizenji and the Lake Ezuko. Though the population of Kumamoto area has long been dependent on groundwater among many water resources, problems are emerging recently concerning both quality and quantity of the water. Kumamoto Prefecture is now expecting sustainable utilization of groundwater for the future by comprehensively managing its quantity and quality in terms of the circulation of groundwater. The prefecture and 16 cities including Kumamoto City made the ‘First Plan for Comprehensive Control of Groundwater in the Kumamoto Area’ in March 1993, followed by its subsequent plan in September 2008. In accordance with them, a variety of measures have been taken in order to store more groundwater, reduce the total amount drawn and prevent the water deterioration. In this article, I mainly describe the contents of these two plans above for controlling the quality and quantity of groundwater in the Kumamoto area.

  20. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Waste Management Area U: First Determination

    SciTech Connect

    FN Hodges; CJ Chou

    2000-08-04

    Waste Management Area U (TWA U) is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The area includes the U Tank Farm, which contains 16 single-shell tanks and their ancillary equipment and waste systems. WMA U is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) as stipulated in 40 CFR Part 265, Subpart F, which is incorporated into the Washington State dangerous waste regulations (WAC 173-303400) by reference. Groundwater monitoring at WMA U has been guided by an interim status indicator evaluation program. As a result of changes in the direction of groundwater flow, background values for the WMA have been recalculated several times during its monitoring history. The most recent recalculation revealed that one of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in downgradient well 299-W19-41. This triggered a change from detection monitoring to a groundwater quality assessment program. The major contributors to the higher specific conductance are nonhazardous constituents, such as bicarbonate, calcium, chloride, magnesium, sodium and sulfate. Chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 are present and are increasing; however, they are significantly below their drinking water standards. The objective of this study is to determine whether the increased concentrations of chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 in groundwater are from WMA U or from an upgradient source. Interpretation of groundwater monitoring data indicates that both the nonhazardous constituents causing elevated specific conductance in groundwater and the tank waste constituents present in groundwater at the WMA are a result of surface water infiltration in the southern portion of the WMA. There is evidence that both upgradient and WMA sources contribute to the nitrate concentrations that were detected. There is no indication of an upgradient source for the chromium and technetium-99 that was detected. Therefore, a source of contamination appears to

  1. Problem area 1 effective water management in agriculture-Product area accomplishments-FY 11 - FY14

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service National Program 211 is composed of four components or problem areas. Problem Area 1, Effective Water Management in Agriculture, focuses on six areas of research that are crucial to safe and effective use of all water resources for agricultural production: 1) I...

  2. Establishment, management, and maintenance of the phoenix islands protected area.

    PubMed

    Rotjan, Randi; Jamieson, Regen; Carr, Ben; Kaufman, Les; Mangubhai, Sangeeta; Obura, David; Pierce, Ray; Rimon, Betarim; Ris, Bud; Sandin, Stuart; Shelley, Peter; Sumaila, U Rashid; Taei, Sue; Tausig, Heather; Teroroko, Tukabu; Thorrold, Simon; Wikgren, Brooke; Toatu, Teuea; Stone, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The Republic of Kiribati's Phoenix Islands Protected Area (PIPA), located in the equatorial central Pacific, is the largest and deepest UNESCO World Heritage site on earth. Created in 2008, it was the first Marine Protected Area (MPA) of its kind (at the time of inception, the largest in the world) and includes eight low-lying islands, shallow coral reefs, submerged shallow and deep seamounts and extensive open-ocean and ocean floor habitat. Due to their isolation, the shallow reef habitats have been protected de facto from severe exploitation, though the surrounding waters have been continually fished for large pelagics and whales over many decades. PIPA was created under a partnership between the Government of Kiribati and the international non-governmental organizations-Conservation International and the New England Aquarium. PIPA has a unique conservation strategy as the first marine MPA to use a conservation contract mechanism with a corresponding Conservation Trust established to be both a sustainable financing mechanism and a check-and-balance to the oversight and maintenance of the MPA. As PIPA moves forward with its management objectives, it is well positioned to be a global model for large MPA design and implementation in similar contexts. The islands and shallow reefs have already shown benefits from protection, though the pending full closure of PIPA (and assessments thereof) will be critical for determining success of the MPA as a refuge for open-ocean pelagic and deep-sea marine life. As global ocean resources are continually being extracted to support a growing global population, PIPA's closure is both timely and of global significance. PMID:25358303

  3. The community resource management area mechanism: a strategy to manage African forest resources for REDD+

    PubMed Central

    Asare, Rebecca A.; Kyei, Andrew; Mason, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change poses a significant threat to Africa, and deforestation rates have increased in recent years. Mitigation initiatives such as REDD+ are widely considered as potentially efficient ways to generate emission reductions (or removals), conserve or sustainably manage forests, and bring benefits to communities, but effective implementation models are lacking. This paper presents the case of Ghana's Community Resource Management Area (CREMA) mechanism, an innovative natural resource governance and landscape-level planning tool that authorizes communities to manage their natural resources for economic and livelihood benefits. This paper argues that while the CREMA was originally developed to facilitate community-based wildlife management and habitat protection, it offers a promising community-based structure and process for managing African forest resources for REDD+. At a theoretical level, it conforms to the ecological, socio-cultural and economic factors that drive resource-users’ decision process and practices. And from a practical mitigation standpoint, the CREMA has the potential to help solve many of the key challenges for REDD+ in Africa, including definition of boundaries, smallholder aggregation, free prior and informed consent, ensuring permanence, preventing leakage, clarifying land tenure and carbon rights, as well as enabling equitable benefit-sharing arrangements. Ultimately, CREMA's potential as a forest management and climate change mitigation strategy that generates livelihood benefits for smallholder farmers and forest users will depend upon the willingness of African governments to support the mechanism and give it full legislative backing, and the motivation of communities to adopt the CREMA and integrate democratic decision-making and planning with their traditional values and natural resource management systems. PMID:23878338

  4. The community resource management area mechanism: a strategy to manage African forest resources for REDD+.

    PubMed

    Asare, Rebecca A; Kyei, Andrew; Mason, John J

    2013-01-01

    Climate change poses a significant threat to Africa, and deforestation rates have increased in recent years. Mitigation initiatives such as REDD+ are widely considered as potentially efficient ways to generate emission reductions (or removals), conserve or sustainably manage forests, and bring benefits to communities, but effective implementation models are lacking. This paper presents the case of Ghana's Community Resource Management Area (CREMA) mechanism, an innovative natural resource governance and landscape-level planning tool that authorizes communities to manage their natural resources for economic and livelihood benefits. This paper argues that while the CREMA was originally developed to facilitate community-based wildlife management and habitat protection, it offers a promising community-based structure and process for managing African forest resources for REDD+. At a theoretical level, it conforms to the ecological, socio-cultural and economic factors that drive resource-users' decision process and practices. And from a practical mitigation standpoint, the CREMA has the potential to help solve many of the key challenges for REDD+ in Africa, including definition of boundaries, smallholder aggregation, free prior and informed consent, ensuring permanence, preventing leakage, clarifying land tenure and carbon rights, as well as enabling equitable benefit-sharing arrangements. Ultimately, CREMA's potential as a forest management and climate change mitigation strategy that generates livelihood benefits for smallholder farmers and forest users will depend upon the willingness of African governments to support the mechanism and give it full legislative backing, and the motivation of communities to adopt the CREMA and integrate democratic decision-making and planning with their traditional values and natural resource management systems. PMID:23878338

  5. Underground test area subproject waste management plan. Revision No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS), located in southern Nevada, was the site of 928 underground nuclear tests conducted between 1951 and 1992. The tests were performed as part of the Atomic Energy Commission and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons testing program. The NTS is managed by the DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV). Of the 928 tests conducted below ground surface at the NTS, approximately 200 were detonated below the water table. As an unavoidable consequence of these testing activities, radionuclides have been introduced into the subsurface environment, impacting groundwater. In the few instances of groundwater sampling, radionuclides have been detected in the groundwater; however, only a very limited investigation of the underground test sites and associated shot cavities has been conducted to date. The Underground Test Area (UGTA) Subproject was established to fill this void and to characterize the risk posed to human health and the environment as a result of underground nuclear testing activities at the NTS. One of its primary objectives is to gather data to characterize the deep aquifer underlying the NTS.

  6. An Overview Of Pavement Management System For Industrial Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hokam, Vivek S.

    2012-03-01

    ACT With the current surge in national economy the industrial traffic has increased many folds in terms of quantity of load and traffic volume. This results in early deterioration of the roads. Also the serviceability reduces hampering the industry's supply of raw material and transport of finished goods. An efficient road transportation system is of vitally important for smooth operations of industrial units. Construction of new roads needs an enormous investment. However, once constructed the road network system requires huge resources to maintain serviceability and to ensure safe passage at an appropriate speed and with low VOC (Vehicle Operating Cost). Road maintenance is therefore an essential function and should be carried out on a timely basis. The cost of providing and maintaining the roads for the industrial areas at an acceptable serviceability level is quite high. It is therefore essential for a transportation engineer to attempt establishing an acceptable pavement condition level from economic, safety and environmental point of view. In today's economic environment of constrained budgets, as the existing road infrastructure has aged, a more systematic approach towards determining maintenance and rehabilitation needs is necessary. The efficient pavement management system shall provide objective information and useful analysis to ensure consistent and cost effective decisions related to preservation of existing industrial road network in healthy condition.

  7. Search for the OH (X(2)Pi) Meinel band emission in meteors as a tracer of mineral water in comets: detection of N(2)(+) (A-X)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Laux, Christophe O.

    2004-01-01

    We report the discovery of the N(2)(+) A-X Meinel band in the 780-840 nm meteor emission from two Leonid meteoroids that were ejected less than 1000 years ago by comet 55P/Tempel-Tuttle. Our analysis indicates that the N(2)(+) molecule is at least an order of magnitude less abundant than expected, possibly as a result of charge transfer reactions with meteoric metal atoms. This new band was found while searching for rovibrational transitions in the X(2)Pi electronic ground state of OH (the OH Meinel band), a potential tracer of water bound to minerals in cometary matter. The electronic A-X transition of OH has been identified in other Leonid meteors. We did not detect this OH Meinel band, which implies that the excited A state is not populated by thermal excitation but by a mechanism that directly produces OH in low vibrational levels of the excited A(2)Sigma state. Ultraviolet dissociation of atmospheric or meteoric water vapor is such a mechanism, as is the possible combustion of meteoric organics.

  8. Business Management Concept Areas for Two-Year Postsecondary Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Lee; Gentry, Eileen

    1978-01-01

    A core of educational concepts in business ownership and management for two-year postsecondary institutions is outlined: economic systems, economic decisionmaking, organizational structure, management principles, marketing factors, accounting, legal obligations, financial structure, risk-taking and insurance, taxes, data processing, and social…

  9. Stored Grain Insect Area-wide Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When wheat is mixed with wheat from other locations as it moves through the grain-marketing system, insect infestation can be spread to larger quantities of wheat, which increases the overall cost of insect pest management. In Kansas and Oklahoma, insect infestations currently are managed primarily...

  10. Herbicides in ground water beneath Nebraska's Management Systems Evaluation Area.

    PubMed

    Spalding, Roy F; Exner, Mary E; Snow, Daniel D; Cassada, David A; Burbach, Mark E; Monson, Stephen J

    2003-01-01

    Profiles of ground water pesticide concentrations beneath the Nebraska Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) describe the effect of 20 yr of pesticide usage on ground water in the central Platte Valley of Nebraska. During the 6-yr (1991-1996) study, 14 pesticides and their transformation products were detected in 7848 ground water samples from the unconfined water table aquifer. Triazine and acetamide herbicides applied on the site and their transformation products had the highest frequencies of detection. Atrazine [6-chloro-N-ethyl-N'-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,-diamine] concentrations decreased with depth and ground water age determined with 3H/3He dating techniques. Assuming equivalent atrazine input during the past 20 yr, the measured average changes in concentration with depth (age) suggest an estimated half-life of >10 yr. Hydrolysis of atrazine and deethylatrazine (DEA; 2-chloro-4-amino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) to hydroxyatrazine [6-hydroxy-N-ethyl-N'-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine] appeared to be the major degradation route. Aqueous hydroxyatrazine concentrations are governed by sorption on the saturated sediments. Atrazine was detected in the confined Ogallala aquifer in ultra-trace concentrations (0.003 microg L(-1)); however, the possibility of introduction during reverse circulation drilling of these deep wells cannot be eliminated. In fall 1997 sampling, metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl) acetamide] was detected in 57% of the 230 samples. Metolachlor oxanilic acid [(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl) amino]oxo-acetic acid] was detected in most samples. In ground water profiles, concentrations of metolachlor ethane sulfonic acid [2-[(ethyl-6-methylphenyl)(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)amino]-2-oxo-ethanesulfonic acid] exceeded those of deethylatrazine. Alachlor [2-chloro-N-(2,6-diethylphenyl)-N-(methoxymethyl)acetamide] was detected in <1% of the samples; however, alachlor

  11. Preferred Waterflood Management Practices for the Spraberry Trend Area

    SciTech Connect

    Sizemore, C.M.; Schechter, David S.; Vance, Harold

    2003-03-10

    The objectives of this report was to propose the location of new injection wells, to review wellbore status in Germania unit and to forecast the incremental oil recovery based on waterflooding performance in other waterflood pilot area in order to demonstrate the benefit of waterflooding in Germania unit area.

  12. 76 FR 34248 - Equestrian Stables at Meadowood Special Recreation Management Area, VA; Information Sharing Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Equestrian Stables at Meadowood Special Recreation Management Area, VA; Information Sharing Meeting AGENCY... equestrian stables at Meadowood Special Recreation Management Area (SRMA), located in Lorton, VA, and...

  13. 2005 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2006-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2005 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site. In additon to providing groundwater monitoring results, this report also includes information regarding site hydrogeology, well construction, sample collection, and meteorological data measured at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site, Ny County, Nevada.

  14. 50 CFR 70.3 - State cooperation in national fish hatchery area management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State cooperation in national fish hatchery area management. 70.3 Section 70.3 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS NATIONAL FISH...

  15. 50 CFR 70.3 - State cooperation in national fish hatchery area management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false State cooperation in national fish hatchery area management. 70.3 Section 70.3 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS NATIONAL FISH...

  16. 50 CFR Appendix E to Part 622 - Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Areas E Appendix E to Part 622 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt. 622, App. E Appendix E to Part 622—Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas Table 1...

  17. 50 CFR 70.3 - State cooperation in national fish hatchery area management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false State cooperation in national fish hatchery area management. 70.3 Section 70.3 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS NATIONAL FISH...

  18. 50 CFR 70.3 - State cooperation in national fish hatchery area management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false State cooperation in national fish hatchery area management. 70.3 Section 70.3 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS NATIONAL FISH...

  19. 50 CFR 70.3 - State cooperation in national fish hatchery area management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false State cooperation in national fish hatchery area management. 70.3 Section 70.3 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS NATIONAL FISH...

  20. Management and development of local area network upgrade prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fouser, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    Given the situation of having management and development users accessing a central computing facility and given the fact that these same users have the need for local computation and storage, the utilization of a commercially available networking system such as CP/NET from Digital Research provides the building blocks for communicating intelligent microsystems to file and print services. The major problems to be overcome in the implementation of such a network are the dearth of intelligent communication front-ends for the microcomputers and the lack of a rich set of management and software development tools.

  1. Avoiding and managing complications in the periorbital area and midface.

    PubMed

    Undavia, Satyen; Yoo, Donald B; Nassif, Paul S

    2015-05-01

    The eyes play a central role in the perception of facial beauty. The goal of periorbital rejuvenation surgery is to restore youthful proportions and focus attention on the eyes. Blepharoplasty is the third most common cosmetic procedure performed today. Because of the attention placed on the periorbital region, preventing and managing complications is important. Obtaining a thorough preoperative history and physical examination can significantly reduce the incidence of many of the complications. This article focuses on the preoperative evaluation as it relates to preventable complications, followed by common intraoperative and postoperative complications and their management. PMID:25921575

  2. MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO STORMWATER MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Uncaptured stormwater runoff from urban and urbanizing areas has negative impacts on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Alters hydrologic regimes through conversion of precipitation to runoff, lowers extent of infiltration. Aggravates nonpoint source pollution issues.

  3. 50 CFR 665.806 - Prohibited area management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... exemption issued under § 665.818. (1) Tutuila Island, Manua Islands, and Rose Atoll (AS-1). The Tutuila Island, Manua Islands, and Rose Atoll large vessel prohibited area is the portion of the EEZ...

  4. 50 CFR 665.806 - Prohibited area management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... pursuant to an exemption issued under § 665.818. (1) Tutuila Island, Manua Islands, and Rose Atoll (AS-1). The large vessel prohibited area around Tutuila Island, the Manua Islands, and Rose Atoll consists...

  5. 50 CFR 648.62 - Northern Gulf of Maine (NGOM) scallop management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Northern Gulf of Maine (NGOM) scallop management area. 648.62 Section 648.62 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the...

  6. WATER QUALITY FROM OXBOW LAKES WITHIN THE MISSISSIPPI DELTA MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS EVALUATION AREA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives of this paper were to examine and document pre-management water quality conditions on three oxbow lakes and resulting changes following the implementation of Best Management Practices within the Mississippi Delta Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA). Experimental design of the Missi...

  7. 76 FR 22917 - Dog Management Plan/Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Golden Gate National Recreation Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... National Park Service Dog Management Plan/Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Golden Gate National... comment period for Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Dog Management Plan, Golden Gate National Recreation Area. SUMMARY: The National Park Service has prepared a Draft Dog Management Plan...

  8. 76 FR 3652 - Dog Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... National Park Service Dog Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Golden Gate National Recreation... Impact Statement for the Dog Management Plan, Golden Gate National Recreation Area. SUMMARY: Pursuant to...) is releasing a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Dog Management Plan (Draft...

  9. 44 CFR 60.3 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-prone areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... criteria for flood-prone areas. 60.3 Section 60.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY... Program CRITERIA FOR LAND MANAGEMENT AND USE Requirements for Flood Plain Management Regulations §...

  10. 44 CFR 60.3 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-prone areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... criteria for flood-prone areas. 60.3 Section 60.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY... Program CRITERIA FOR LAND MANAGEMENT AND USE Requirements for Flood Plain Management Regulations §...

  11. The Mississippi Delta Management Systems Evaluation Area Project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Globally, agricultural lands are considered to be a major source of nonpoint source pollutants such as sediment, pesticides and nutrients in the United States. In the United States, national laws such as the Clean Water Act recognize specific agricultural practices known as "Best Management Practic...

  12. PREFERRED WATERFLOOD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR THE SPRABERRY TREND AREA

    SciTech Connect

    David S. Schechter

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this project is to significantly increase field-wide production in the Spraberry Trend in a short time frame by application of preferred practices for managing and optimizing water injection. A secondary and synergistic objective is purification and injection of produced water into Spraberry reservoirs.

  13. A Framework for Managing Inter-Site Storage Area Networks using Grid Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Ben; McCall, Fritz; Smorul, Mike

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Maryland Institute for Advanced Computer Studies are studying mechanisms for installing and managing Storage Area Networks (SANs) that span multiple independent collaborating institutions using Storage Area Network Routers (SAN Routers). We present a framework for managing inter-site distributed SANs that uses Grid Technologies to balance the competing needs to control local resources, share information, delegate administrative access, and manage the complex trust relationships between the participating sites.

  14. 50 CFR Figure 23 to Part 679 - Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2) 23 Figure 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 23 Figure 23 to Part 679—Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2) ER21DE12.003...

  15. 50 CFR Figure 23 to Part 679 - Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2) 23 Figure 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 23 Figure 23 to Part 679—Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2) ER07JA04.007...

  16. 50 CFR Figure 23 to Part 679 - Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2) 23 Figure 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 23 Figure 23 to Part 679—Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2) ER21DE12.003...

  17. 50 CFR Figure 23 to Part 679 - Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2) 23 Figure 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 23 Figure 23 to Part 679—Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2) ER07JA04.007...

  18. 50 CFR Figure 23 to Part 679 - Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2) 23 Figure 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 23 Figure 23 to Part 679—Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2) ER07JA04.007...

  19. PREFERRED WATERFLOOD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR THE SPRABERRY TREND AREA

    SciTech Connect

    David S. Schechter

    2003-03-31

    The objective of this report is to significantly increase field-wide production in the Spraberry Trend in a short time frame through the application of preferred practices for managing and optimizing water injection. Our goal is to dispel negative attitudes and lack of confidence in water injection and to document the methodology and results for public dissemination to motivate waterflood expansion in the Spraberry Trend.

  20. Managing coastal area resources by stated choice experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Wirtz, Kai W.

    2010-02-01

    In many coastal regions, oil spills can be considered as one of the most important and certainly the most noticeable forms of marine pollution. Efficient contingency management responding to oil spills on waters, which aims at minimizing pollution effects on coastal resources, turns out to be critically important. Such a decision making highly depends on the importance attributed to different coastal economic and ecological resources. Economic uses can, in principal, be addressed by standard measures such as value added. However, there is a missing of market in the real world for natural goods. Coastal resources such as waters and beach cannot be directly measured in money terms, which increases the risk of being neglected in a decision making process. This paper evaluates these natural goods of coastal environment in a hypothetical market by employing stated choice experiments. Oil spill management practice in German North Sea is used as an example. Results from a pilot survey show that during a combat process, beach and eider ducks are of key concerns for households. An environmental friendly combat option has to be a minor cost for households. Moreover, households with less children, higher monthly income and a membership of environmental organization are more likely to state that they are willing to pay for combat option to prevent coastal resources from an oil pollution. Despite that choice experiments require knowledge of designing questionnaire and statistical skills to deal with discrete choices and conducting a survey is time consumed, the results have important implications for oil spill contingency management. Overall, such a stated preference method can offer useful information for decision makers to consider coastal resources into a decision making process and can further contribute to finding a cost-effective oil preventive measure, also has a wide application potential in the field of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM).

  1. Managing Stress and Burnout among Helpers in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, John C.

    Individuals who work in the helping professions (physicians, counselors, nurses, pastors, and social workers) often work with individuals in stressful crisis situations. In addition to working in high stress situations, helpers in rural areas also suffer from isolation from support networks and peers that are available to urban helpers. This…

  2. Community Based Information Systems for Education Management in Urban Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khosla, Renu

    Lack of education causes and is caused by poverty. In urban areas, it adds to the vulnerability of the poor, resulting in inaccessible schools and irrelevant curricula. Building urban communities and harnessing social capital can create an environment where the poor will have greater opportunities for making decisions that influence their lives.…

  3. Project Management Meets Change Management - A Success Story. Focus Area: Tech Perspectives TI012SN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing the concepts and terminology from Project Management, the process of planning and executing a Change Management (CM) Infrastructure improvement project is described. The primary audience for this presentation includes both experienced and relatively new CM administrators and their managers. It also includes anyone with an interest in the application of project management knowledge to CM administration. There are several benefits: the complexity of the CM tool technology is more manageable, CM administrators get to use project management knowledge to complete a project (not "firefighting"), improve relations with your customers (that means developers and managers), and get the opportunity to do it again.

  4. Characterization Report for the 92-Acre Area of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office manages two low-level Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site. The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste. This report summarizes characterization and monitoring work pertinent to the 92-Acre Area in the southeast part of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites. The decades of characterization and assessment work at the Area 5 RWMS indicate that the access controls, waste operation practices, site design, final cover design, site setting, and arid natural environment contribute to a containment system that meets regulatory requirements and performance objectives for the short- and long-term protection of the environment and public. The available characterization and Performance Assessment information is adequate to support design of the final cover and development of closure plans. No further characterization is warranted to demonstrate regulatory compliance. U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office is proceeding with the development of closure plans for the six closure units of the 92-Acre Area.

  5. Evaluation of sludge management alternatives in Istanbul metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Cakmakci, M; Erdim, E; Kinaci, C; Akca, L

    2005-01-01

    The main concern of this paper was to predict the sludge quantities generated from 18 wastewater treatment plants, which were stated to be established in the "Istanbul Water Supply, Sewerage and Drainage, Sewage Treatment and Disposal Master Plan", 10 of which are in operation at present. Besides this, obtaining the required data to compare various treatment schemes was another goal of the study. Especially, the estimation of the sludge quantity in the case of enhanced primary sedimentation was of importance. Wastewater sludge management strategies were discussed in order to develop suggestions for Istanbul Metropolitan city. Within this context, the wastewater treatment facilities, mentioned in the Master Plan that had been completed by 2000, were evaluated in terms of sludge production rates, locations and technical and management aspects. Disposal alternatives of the wastewater treatment sludge were also evaluated in this study. Using of the dewatered sludge as a landfill cover material seems the best alternative usage. Up to the year of 2040, the requirement of cover material for landfills in Istanbul will be met by the dewatered sludge originated from wastewater treatment plants in the region. PMID:16114625

  6. Measuring benefits of protected area management: trends across realms and research gaps for freshwater systems.

    PubMed

    Adams, Vanessa M; Setterfield, Samantha A; Douglas, Michael M; Kennard, Mark J; Ferdinands, Keith

    2015-11-01

    Protected areas remain a cornerstone for global conservation. However, their effectiveness at halting biodiversity decline is not fully understood. Studies of protected area benefits have largely focused on measuring their impact on halting deforestation and have neglected to measure the impacts of protected areas on other threats. Evaluations that measure the impact of protected area management require more complex evaluation designs and datasets. This is the case across realms (terrestrial, freshwater, marine), but measuring the impact of protected area management in freshwater systems may be even more difficult owing to the high level of connectivity and potential for threat propagation within systems (e.g. downstream flow of pollution). We review the potential barriers to conducting impact evaluation for protected area management in freshwater systems. We contrast the barriers identified for freshwater systems to terrestrial systems and discuss potential measurable outcomes and confounders associated with protected area management across the two realms. We identify key research gaps in conducting impact evaluation in freshwater systems that relate to three of their major characteristics: variability, connectivity and time lags in outcomes. Lastly, we use Kakadu National Park world heritage area, the largest national park in Australia, as a case study to illustrate the challenges of measuring impacts of protected area management programmes for environmental outcomes in freshwater systems. PMID:26460127

  7. Controls for Reusable Launch Vehicles During Terminal Area Energy Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driessen, Brian J.

    2005-01-01

    During the terminal energy management phase of flight (last of three phases) for a reusable launch vehicle, it is common for the controller to receive guidance commands specifying desired values for (i) the roll angle roll q(sub roll), (ii) the acceleration a(sub n) in the body negative z direction, -k(sub A)-bar, and (iii) omega(sub 3), the projection of onto the body-fixed axis k(sub A)-bar, is always indicated by guidance to be zero. The objective of the controller is to regulate the actual values of these three quantities, i.e make them close to the commanded values, while maintaining system stability.

  8. Development and application of an ecosystem management approach for protected natural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajeunesse, Denyse; Domon, Gérald; Drapeau, Pierre; Cogliastro, Alain; Bouchard, André

    1995-07-01

    Preservation of small natural areas is not in itself a sufficient measure to maintain the integrity of the ecosystems for which they were initially set aside. Intense pressure from recreational use is just one of the many human-caused stresses that may degrade natural areas. Therefore, land-use planning and management from an ecological perspective is necessary to assess, ensure, and in some cases increase, the ecological integrity of protected natural areas. An ecosystem management approach for small protected natural areas with high recreational use is presented, based on three interrelated components: an ecological evaluation procedure of ecosystems, the implementation of management interventions on ecosystems, and the development of a monitoring scheme of ecosystem components. The ecological evaluation procedure combines two concepts: the biotic value of vegetation and wildlife and the abiotic fragility of the soils. This combined evaluation process results in the creation of a sensitivity map that can be used as a management tool for planners and managers. Management interventions, the second component of the management approach, are derived from concepts of ecological succession. Intentional human interventions are used to maintain the ecological integrity of ecosystems or in some cases to restore degraded sites. For the third component, only the basic principles of the monitoring program will be discussed. A pilot project in one of the Montreal urban community protected areas is presented to illustrate aspects of the proposed ecosystem management approach.

  9. Role of hedgerows in agrosilvopastoral management of mountain Mediterranean areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsatsiadis, E.; Ispikoudis, I.; Papanastasis, V. P.

    2009-04-01

    Hedgerows are part of the traditional agrosilvopastoral systems in the Mediterranean region. They are widely distributed all over the mountain areas and constitute important elements of the rural landscape. Their presence is dated back to the ancient times, uninterruptedly continued up to our days. They originate and coexist with agriculture and for this reason they are closely related to human activities. Hedgerows are associated with a great range of ecological, economic and social benefits. They ensure a refuge to a high number of animal and plant species and act as corridors, allowing dispersal and movement of them among habitats. They provide shelter from wind and dust, timber, fruits and other products, forage to domestic and wild animals, aesthetic qualities and protection from soil erosion. Recent studies emphasize their functional role in rural landscapes through the flow of wind, water, nutrients, energy and biota. In this paper, we studied an extensive network of hedgerows bordering cultivated fields in a mountainous village of western Macedonia, in northwestern Greece. The area covered amounts to about 1200 ha and is dominated by farms mainly cultivated with cereals, while vineyards and lucerne crops are also present. Hedgerows have been created and maintained by farmers. Their structure and composition vary greatly. Vegetation consists of trees, spontaneous or planted, shrubs and herbaceous species. In addition to bordering of farms, hedgerows provide several other goods and services. The most important use though is grazing by livestock, especially after cereal harvesting, in the summer and early autumn months. Thereby, they constitute a traditional agrosilvopastoral system. Measurements included type of hedgerows (earth or stone walls), morphology such as length, width, and height as well as vegetative cover and species composition. In addition, the ecological, economic and social roles of them were investigated through interviews with their owners

  10. Is It Working? Lysimeter Monitoring in the Southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in the southern Willamette Valley and many more across the Pacific Northwest. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (SWV GWMA) was established in 2004 due to nitrate levels in the groundwater ...

  11. Operational water management applications of snowcovered area observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.; Salomonson, V. V.; Foster, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    An effort was made to evaluate the utility of satellite snowcover observations for seasonal streamflow prediction. On a representative, large watershed(10 to the 5th power to 10 to the sixth power sq km) it was found, based on six years of data, that meteorological satellite observations of snow cover early in the snowmelt season exhibit a relationship to seasonal runoff having a statistically significant coefficient of determination of 0.92. Analyses of LANDSAT-1 snow-cover observations over the Wind River Mountains of Wyoming reveals that for areas with infrequent cloud cover the extent of snowcover and its change with time can be monitored on watersheds as small as 10 sq km in areal extent. The change in the snow cover with time as observed from LANDSAT-1 is found to reflect major differences in seasonal runoff from high altitude (mean altitude 3 km) and low altitude ( 3 km) watersheds. There are quantitative indications that LANDSAT observations over small watersheds could be used in a manner similar to that employed for meteorological satellite observations to relate the percent of a basin snowcovered on a given data to seasonal runoff.

  12. Increased parasitism of limpets by a trematode metacercaria in fisheries management areas of central Chile: effects on host growth and reproduction : management areas and parasitism.

    PubMed

    Aldana, Marcela; Pulgar, José M; Orellana, Nathalie; Patricio Ojeda, F; García-Huidobro, M Roberto

    2014-06-01

    The rapid increase in body size and abundance of most species inside Management and Exploitations Areas for Benthic Resources (MEABRs) has led to the proposal of these areas as a good complement for achieving the conservation objectives of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). However, when evaluating MEABRs and MPAs as conservation and/or management tools, their impact upon parasite populations has rarely been considered, despite the fact that epidemiological theory suggests an increased susceptibility to parasitism under high population abundance. We evaluated the effects of MEABRs on the parasite abundance of Proctoeces lintoni and its impact on the growth of the host limpet Fissurella crassa in central Chile. Parasitic magnitude was higher inside MEABRs than in Open-Access Areas, and parasitized limpets showed a greater shell length, muscular foot biomass, and gonadosomatic index compared to non-parasitized limpets of the same age. Our results suggest that the life cycle of P. lintoni and, consequently, its trophic links have been strengthened inside MEABRs. The increased growth rate could reduce the time required to reach the minimum catch size and increase the reproductive and muscular output of the host population. Thus, parasitism should be considered in the conservation and management of economically important mollusk hosts. PMID:24142461

  13. Strategies for laser-induced fluorescence detection of nitric oxide in high-pressure flames. I. A-X(0,0) excitation.

    PubMed

    Bessler, Wolfgang G; Schulz, Christof; Lee, Tonghun; Jeffries, Jay B; Hanson, Ronald K

    2002-06-20

    Three different high-pressure flame measurement strategies for NO laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) with A-X(0,0) excitation have been studied previously with computational simulations and experiments in flames up to 15 bars. Interference from O2 LIF is a significant problem in lean flames for NO LIF measurements, and pressure broadening and quenching lead to increased interference with increased pressure. We investigate the NO LIF signal strength, interference by hot molecular oxygen, and temperature dependence of the three previous schemes and for two newly chosen excitation schemes with wavelength-resolved LIF measurements in premixed methane and air flames at pressures between 1 and 60 bars and a range of fuel/air ratios. In slightly lean flames with an equivalence ratio of 0.83 at 60 bars, the contribution of O2 LIF to the NO LIF signal varies between 8% and 29% for the previous schemes. The O2 interference is best suppressed with excitation at 226.03 nm. PMID:12078680

  14. Strategies for laser-induced fluorescence detection of nitric oxide in high-pressure flames. I. A-X (0,0) excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessler, Wolfgang G.; Schulz, Christof; Lee, Tonghun; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.

    2002-06-01

    Three different high-pressure flame measurement strategies for NO laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) with A-X (0,0) excitation have been studied previously with computational simulations and experiments in flames up to 15 bars. Interference from O2 LIF is a significant problem in lean flames for NO LIF measurements, and pressure broadening and quenching lead to increased interference with increased pressure. We investigate the NO LIF signal strength, interference by hot molecular oxygen, and temperature dependence of the three previous schemes and for two newly chosen excitation schemes with wavelength-resolved LIF measurements in premixed methane and air flames at pressures between 1 and 60 bars and a range of fuel /air ratios. In slightly lean flames with an equivalence ratio of 0.83 at 60 bars, the contribution of O2 LIF to the NO LIF signal varies between 8% and 29% for the previous schemes. The O2 interference is best suppressed with excitation at 226.03 nm.

  15. Critical source area management of agricultural phosphorus: experiences, challenges and opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concept of critical source areas of phosphorus (P) loss produced by coinciding source and transport factors has been studied since the mid 1990s. It is widely recognized that identification of such areas has led to targeting of management strategies and conservation practices that more effectiv...

  16. 75 FR 6218 - New Melones Lake Area Resource Management Plan, Tuolumne and Calaveras Counties, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... published in the Federal Register on November 2, 2009 (74 FR 56656). The written comment period on the Draft... Bureau of Reclamation New Melones Lake Area Resource Management Plan, Tuolumne and Calaveras Counties, CA... a Final RMP/EIS for the New Melones Lake Area. The Final RMP/EIS describes and presents...

  17. Identifying Critical Areas for the Management of Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying fields that need attention is critical to ensure conservation programs improve water quality. Targeting critical management areas (CMAs) within fields is essential to maximize cultivation area while minimizing environmental impacts. The objective of this study was to develop a physicall...

  18. Transition Management and Social Innovation in Rural Areas: Lessons from Social Farming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Iacovo, Francesco; Moruzzo, Roberta; Rossignoli, Cristiano; Scarpellini, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The article reflects on transition management in rural areas and the possible implications for extension services able to support social innovation and rural change, starting from experiences on social farming in different areas of Italy. Design/methodology/approach: By presenting three case studies we investigate the role of social…

  19. Reference Guide for Teaching Selected Duty Areas from Business, Marketing and Management Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, John H.

    This reference guide was designed to assist business, marketing, and management educators in locating textbook/instructional materials for use in teaching duty areas and task lists for grades 11-14. Duty areas and task lists are matched with selected textbook/instructional publications for the secretarial, general office clerk, and information…

  20. 44 CFR 60.5 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas. 60.5 Section 60.5 Emergency Management and Assistance... Management Regulations § 60.5 Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas. The... flood-related erosion-prone areas shall be based. If the Federal Insurance Administrator has...

  1. 44 CFR 60.5 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas. 60.5 Section 60.5 Emergency Management and Assistance... Management Regulations § 60.5 Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas. The... flood-related erosion-prone areas shall be based. If the Federal Insurance Administrator has...

  2. 44 CFR 60.5 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas. 60.5 Section 60.5 Emergency Management and Assistance... Management Regulations § 60.5 Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas. The... flood-related erosion-prone areas shall be based. If the Federal Insurance Administrator has...

  3. 44 CFR 60.5 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas. 60.5 Section 60.5 Emergency Management and Assistance... Management Regulations § 60.5 Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas. The... flood-related erosion-prone areas shall be based. If the Federal Insurance Administrator has...

  4. 44 CFR 60.5 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas. 60.5 Section 60.5 Emergency Management and Assistance... Management Regulations § 60.5 Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas. The... flood-related erosion-prone areas shall be based. If the Federal Insurance Administrator has...

  5. Estimating Radiological Doses to Predators Foraging in a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Area

    SciTech Connect

    L.Soholt; G.Gonzales; P.Fresquez; K.Bennett; E.Lopez

    2003-03-01

    Since 1957, Los Alamos National Laboratory has operated Area G as its low-level, solid radioactive waste management and disposal area. Although the waste management area is developed, plants, small mammals, and avian and mammalian predators still occupy the less disturbed and revegetated portions of the land. For almost a decade, we have monitored the concentrations of selected radionuclides in soils, plants, and small mammals at Area G. The radionuclides tritium, plutonium-238, and plutonium-239 are regularly found at levels above regional background in all three media. Based on radionuclide concentrations in mice collected from 1994 to 1999, we calculated doses to higher trophic levels (owl, hawk, kestrel, and coyote) that forage on the waste management area. These predators play important functions in the regional ecosystems and are an important part of local Native American traditional tales that identify the uniqueness of their culture. The estimated doses are compared to Department of Energy's interim limit of 0.1 rad/day for the protection of terrestrial wildlife. We used exposure parameters that were derived from the literature for each receptor, including Environmental Protection Agency's exposure factors handbook. Estimated doses to predators ranged from 9E-06 to 2E-04 rad/day, assuming that they forage entirely on the waste management area. These doses are greater than those calculated for predators foraging exclusively in reference areas, but are still well below the interim dose limit. We believe that these calculated doses represent upper-bound estimates of exposure for local predators because the larger predators forage over areas that are much greater than the 63-acre waste management area. Based on these results, we concluded that predators foraging on this area do not face a hazard from radiological exposure under current site conditions.

  6. Predicting the presence and cover of management relevant invasive plant species on protected areas.

    PubMed

    Iacona, Gwenllian; Price, Franklin D; Armsworth, Paul R

    2016-01-15

    Invasive species are a management concern on protected areas worldwide. Conservation managers need to predict infestations of invasive plants they aim to treat if they want to plan for long term management. Many studies predict the presence of invasive species, but predictions of cover are more relevant for management. Here we examined how predictors of invasive plant presence and cover differ across species that vary in their management priority. To do so, we used data on management effort and cover of invasive plant species on central Florida protected areas. Using a zero-inflated multiple regression framework, we showed that protected area features can predict the presence and cover of the focal species but the same features rarely explain both. There were several predictors of either presence or cover that were important across multiple species. Protected areas with three days of frost per year or fewer were more likely to have occurrences of four of the six focal species. When invasive plants were present, their proportional cover was greater on small preserves for all species, and varied with surrounding household density for three species. None of the predictive features were clearly related to whether species were prioritized for management or not. Our results suggest that predictors of cover and presence can differ both within and across species but do not covary with management priority. We conclude that conservation managers need to select predictors of invasion with care as species identity can determine the relationship between predictors of presence and the more management relevant predictors of cover. PMID:26599567

  7. Application of a Groundwater Modeling Tool for Managing Hydrologically Connected Area in State of Nebraska, US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.; Flyr, B.; Bradley, J.; Pun, M.; Schneider, J.; Wietjes, J.; Chinta, S.

    2014-12-01

    Determination of the nature and degree of hydrologically connected groundwater and surface water resources is of paramount importance to integrated water management within the State of Nebraska to understand the impact of water uses on available supplies, such as depletion of streams and aquifers caused by groundwater pumping. The ability to quantify effects of surface water-groundwater hydrologic connection and interactions, is regarded as one of the most important steps towards effectively managing water resources in Nebraska and provides the basis for designating management areas. Designation of management areas allows the state and other management entities to focus various efforts and resources towards those projects that have the greatest impact to water users. Nebraska Department of Natural Resources (NDNR) developed a groundwater modeling tool, Cycle Well Analysis, to determine the areas defined to have a high degree of connectivity between groundwater and surface water (in accordance with the state regulations). This tool features two graphic user interfaces to allow the analysis to be fully compatible with most MODFLOW-based numerical groundwater models currently utilized by NDNR. Case studies showed that the tool, in combination of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), can be used to quantify the degree of stream depletion and delineate the boundary of hydrologically connected areas within different political boundaries and subbasins in Nebraska. This approach may be applied to other regions with similar background and need for integrated water management.

  8. Development of a Groundwater Management Model for the Project Shoal Area

    SciTech Connect

    G. Lamorey; S. Bassett; R. Schumer; D. Boyle; G. Pohll; J. Chapman

    2006-09-01

    This document describes the development of a user-friendly and efficient groundwater management model of the Project Shoal Area (PSA and surrounding area that will allow the U.S. Department of Energy and State of Nevada personnel to evaluate the impact of proposed water-use scenarios. The management model consists of a simple hydrologic model within an interactive groundwater management framework. This framework is based on an object user interface that was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and has been used by the Desert Research Institute researchers and others to couple disparate environmental resource models, manage temporal and spatial data, and evaluate model results for management decision making. This framework was modified and applied to the PSA and surrounding Fairview Basin. The utility of the management model was demonstrated through the application of hypothetical future scenarios including mineral mining, regional expansion of agriculture, and export of water to large urban areas outside the region. While the results from some of the scenarios indicated potential impacts to groundwater levels near the PSA and others did not, together they demonstrate the utility of the management tool for the evaluation of proposed changes in groundwater use in or near the PSA.

  9. Striving for sustainable wildlife management: the case of Kilombero Game Controlled Area, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Haule, K S; Johnsen, F H; Maganga, S L S

    2002-09-01

    The sustainability of wildlife resources in Africa is threatened by poaching for trophies and meat as well as changes in land use. In order to motivate local people for sustainable wildlife management, efforts to transfer decision-making power as well as benefits from central to local level have been made in several countries. Such efforts have not yet been seen in Kilombero Game Controlled Area, which is the area covered by the present study. The paper documents the importance of wildlife to local people, explores local people's perceptions on wildlife management and identifies constraints to sustainable wildlife management. A total of 177 household interviews in 5 villages and 129 interviews of pupils in schools have been conducted. The majority of pupils reported that their latest meal of meat was from a wild animal, and the most common species was buffalo. Apart from availability of cheap wildlife meat, advantages from living close to wildlife include the use of various parts of animals for, e.g. medical and ritual uses, and various plant products from wildlife habitats. Disadvantages include damages to crops, predation on livestock, and injuries to humans. The estimated loss of yield due to raiding by wildlife amounted to 21.9 and 47.8% of the harvest of rice and maize, respectively. Traditional wildlife management in Kilombero includes few rules to avoid resource depletion, because depletion has traditionally not been a problem due to low hunting technology and low human population. Government management includes strict rules, with hunting quotas as the main instrument, but the government has failed to enforce the rules. Ongoing discussions on new approaches to wildlife management like co-management and community-based management were largely unknown to the villagers in the area. Both poaching and agricultural expansion threaten the sustainability of Kilombero Game Controlled Area. It is suggested that transfers of decision-making power and benefits to local

  10. Flood Assessment Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2007-07-01

    A flood assessment was conducted at the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1-1). The study area encompasses the watershed of Yucca Flat, a closed basin approximately 780 square kilometers (km2) (300 square miles) in size. The focus of this effort was on a drainage area of approximately 94 km2 (36 mi2), determined from review of topographic maps and aerial photographs to be the only part of the Yucca Flat watershed that could directly impact the Area 3 RWMS. This smaller area encompasses portions of the Halfpint Range, including Paiute Ridge, Jangle Ridge, Carbonate Ridge, Slanted Buttes, Cockeyed Ridge, and Banded Mountain. The Area 3 RWMS is located on coalescing alluvial fans emanating from this drainage area.

  11. Climate Change, Coral Reef Ecosystems, and Management Options for Marine Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Brian D.; Gleason, Daniel F.; McLeod, Elizabeth; Woodley, Christa M.; Airamé, Satie; Causey, Billy D.; Friedlander, Alan M.; Grober-Dunsmore, Rikki; Johnson, Johanna E.; Miller, Steven L.; Steneck, Robert S.

    2009-12-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) provide place-based management of marine ecosystems through various degrees and types of protective actions. Habitats such as coral reefs are especially susceptible to degradation resulting from climate change, as evidenced by mass bleaching events over the past two decades. Marine ecosystems are being altered by direct effects of climate change including ocean warming, ocean acidification, rising sea level, changing circulation patterns, increasing severity of storms, and changing freshwater influxes. As impacts of climate change strengthen they may exacerbate effects of existing stressors and require new or modified management approaches; MPA networks are generally accepted as an improvement over individual MPAs to address multiple threats to the marine environment. While MPA networks are considered a potentially effective management approach for conserving marine biodiversity, they should be established in conjunction with other management strategies, such as fisheries regulations and reductions of nutrients and other forms of land-based pollution. Information about interactions between climate change and more “traditional” stressors is limited. MPA managers are faced with high levels of uncertainty about likely outcomes of management actions because climate change impacts have strong interactions with existing stressors, such as land-based sources of pollution, overfishing and destructive fishing practices, invasive species, and diseases. Management options include ameliorating existing stressors, protecting potentially resilient areas, developing networks of MPAs, and integrating climate change into MPA planning, management, and evaluation.

  12. Climate change, coral reef ecosystems, and management options for marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Keller, Brian D; Gleason, Daniel F; McLeod, Elizabeth; Woodley, Christa M; Airamé, Satie; Causey, Billy D; Friedlander, Alan M; Grober-Dunsmore, Rikki; Johnson, Johanna E; Miller, Steven L; Steneck, Robert S

    2009-12-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) provide place-based management of marine ecosystems through various degrees and types of protective actions. Habitats such as coral reefs are especially susceptible to degradation resulting from climate change, as evidenced by mass bleaching events over the past two decades. Marine ecosystems are being altered by direct effects of climate change including ocean warming, ocean acidification, rising sea level, changing circulation patterns, increasing severity of storms, and changing freshwater influxes. As impacts of climate change strengthen they may exacerbate effects of existing stressors and require new or modified management approaches; MPA networks are generally accepted as an improvement over individual MPAs to address multiple threats to the marine environment. While MPA networks are considered a potentially effective management approach for conserving marine biodiversity, they should be established in conjunction with other management strategies, such as fisheries regulations and reductions of nutrients and other forms of land-based pollution. Information about interactions between climate change and more "traditional" stressors is limited. MPA managers are faced with high levels of uncertainty about likely outcomes of management actions because climate change impacts have strong interactions with existing stressors, such as land-based sources of pollution, overfishing and destructive fishing practices, invasive species, and diseases. Management options include ameliorating existing stressors, protecting potentially resilient areas, developing networks of MPAs, and integrating climate change into MPA planning, management, and evaluation. PMID:19636605

  13. Fuel reduction management practices in riparian areas of the Western USA.

    PubMed

    Stone, Katharine R; Pilliod, David S; Dwire, Kathleen A; Rhoades, Charles C; Wollrab, Sherry P; Young, Michael K

    2010-07-01

    Two decades of uncharacteristically severe wildfires have caused government and private land managers to actively reduce hazardous fuels to lessen wildfire severity in western forests, including riparian areas. Because riparian fuel treatments are a fairly new management strategy, we set out to document their frequency and extent on federal lands in the western U.S. Seventy-four USDA Forest Service Fire Management Officers (FMOs) in 11 states were interviewed to collect information on the number and characteristics of riparian fuel reduction treatments in their management district. Just under half of the FMOs surveyed (43%) indicated that they were conducting fuel reduction treatments in riparian areas. The primary management objective listed for these projects was either fuel reduction (81%) or ecological restoration and habitat improvement (41%), though multiple management goals were common (56%). Most projects were of small extent (93% < 300 acres), occurred in the wildland-urban interface (75%), and were conducted in ways to minimize negative impacts on species and habitats. The results of this survey suggest that managers are proceeding cautiously with treatments. To facilitate project planning and implementation, managers recommended early coordination with resource specialists, such as hydrologists and fish and wildlife biologists. Well-designed monitoring of the consequences of riparian fuel treatments on fuel loads, fire risk, and ecological effects is needed to provide a scientifically-defensible basis for the continued and growing implementation of these treatments. PMID:20499233

  14. Fuel Reduction Management Practices in Riparian Areas of the Western USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Katharine R.; Pilliod, David S.; Dwire, Kathleen A.; Rhoades, Charles C.; Wollrab, Sherry P.; Young, Michael K.

    2010-07-01

    Two decades of uncharacteristically severe wildfires have caused government and private land managers to actively reduce hazardous fuels to lessen wildfire severity in western forests, including riparian areas. Because riparian fuel treatments are a fairly new management strategy, we set out to document their frequency and extent on federal lands in the western U.S. Seventy-four USDA Forest Service Fire Management Officers (FMOs) in 11 states were interviewed to collect information on the number and characteristics of riparian fuel reduction treatments in their management district. Just under half of the FMOs surveyed (43%) indicated that they were conducting fuel reduction treatments in riparian areas. The primary management objective listed for these projects was either fuel reduction (81%) or ecological restoration and habitat improvement (41%), though multiple management goals were common (56%). Most projects were of small extent (93% < 300 acres), occurred in the wildland-urban interface (75%), and were conducted in ways to minimize negative impacts on species and habitats. The results of this survey suggest that managers are proceeding cautiously with treatments. To facilitate project planning and implementation, managers recommended early coordination with resource specialists, such as hydrologists and fish and wildlife biologists. Well-designed monitoring of the consequences of riparian fuel treatments on fuel loads, fire risk, and ecological effects is needed to provide a scientifically-defensible basis for the continued and growing implementation of these treatments.

  15. A United States perspective on long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials.

    PubMed

    Jones, C Rick

    2004-01-01

    The US has far-reaching and extensive experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials. This experience base includes the Department of Energy's continued follow-up with Hiroshima and Nagasaki from the 1940s at the Radiological Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima, Japan, the long-term management of the Marshall Islands Programme, the clean-up of the US nuclear weapons complex and the ongoing management of accident sites such as in Palomares, Spain. This paper discusses the lessons learnt and best practices gained from this far-reaching and extensive experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials. PMID:15238660

  16. A Quantitative Evaluation of the Conservation Umbrella of Spotted Owl Management Areas in the Sierra Nevada

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, Ryan D.; Roberts, L. Jay

    2015-01-01

    Whether by design or default, single species management often serves as an umbrella for species with similar habitat requirements. In recent decades the focus of National Forest management in the Sierra Nevada of California has shifted towards increasing closed canopy mature forest conditions through the protection of areas occupied by the California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis). To evaluate the implications of these habitat changes and the potential umbrella resulting from a system of owl reserves on the broader avian community, we estimated occupancy of birds inside and outside of Spotted Owl Home Range Core Areas in northeastern California. We used point count data in a multi-species hierarchical Bayesian model incorporating the detection history of 81 species over a two-year time period (2005-2006). A small set of vegetation cover and topography covariates were included in the model to account for broad differences in habitat conditions, as well as a term identifying whether or not a site was within a Core Area. Seventeen species had a negative Core Area effect, seven had a positive effect, and the rest were not significant. Estimated species richness was significantly different with 23.1 species per 100 m radius circle outside Core Areas and 21.7 inside Core Areas. The majority of the species negatively associated with Core Areas are tied to early successional and other disturbance-dependent habitats. Conservation and climate vulnerability rankings were mixed. On average we found higher scores (greater risk) for the species positively associated with Core Areas, but a larger number of species with the highest scores were negatively associated with Core Areas. We discuss the implications for managing the Sierra Nevada ecosystem and illustrate the role of monitoring broader suites of species in guiding management of large complex ecosystems. PMID:25905920

  17. A quantitative evaluation of the conservation umbrella of spotted owl management areas in the Sierra Nevada.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Ryan D; Roberts, L Jay

    2015-01-01

    Whether by design or default, single species management often serves as an umbrella for species with similar habitat requirements. In recent decades the focus of National Forest management in the Sierra Nevada of California has shifted towards increasing closed canopy mature forest conditions through the protection of areas occupied by the California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis). To evaluate the implications of these habitat changes and the potential umbrella resulting from a system of owl reserves on the broader avian community, we estimated occupancy of birds inside and outside of Spotted Owl Home Range Core Areas in northeastern California. We used point count data in a multi-species hierarchical Bayesian model incorporating the detection history of 81 species over a two-year time period (2005-2006). A small set of vegetation cover and topography covariates were included in the model to account for broad differences in habitat conditions, as well as a term identifying whether or not a site was within a Core Area. Seventeen species had a negative Core Area effect, seven had a positive effect, and the rest were not significant. Estimated species richness was significantly different with 23.1 species per 100 m radius circle outside Core Areas and 21.7 inside Core Areas. The majority of the species negatively associated with Core Areas are tied to early successional and other disturbance-dependent habitats. Conservation and climate vulnerability rankings were mixed. On average we found higher scores (greater risk) for the species positively associated with Core Areas, but a larger number of species with the highest scores were negatively associated with Core Areas. We discuss the implications for managing the Sierra Nevada ecosystem and illustrate the role of monitoring broader suites of species in guiding management of large complex ecosystems. PMID:25905920

  18. Implications of Spatial Data Variations for Protected Areas Management: An Example from East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowhaniuk, Nicholas; Hartter, Joel; Ryan, Sadie J.

    2014-09-01

    Geographic information systems and remote sensing technologies have become an important tool for visualizing conservation management and developing solutions to problems associated with conservation. When multiple organizations separately develop spatial data representations of protected areas, implicit error arises due to variation between data sets. We used boundary data produced by three conservation organizations (International Union for the Conservation of Nature, World Resource Institute, and Uganda Wildlife Authority), for seven Ugandan parks, to study variation in the size represented and the location of boundaries. We found variation in the extent of overlapping total area encompassed by the three data sources, ranging from miniscule (0.4 %) differences to quite large ones (9.0 %). To underscore how protected area boundary discrepancies may have implications to protected area management, we used a landcover classification, defining crop, shrub, forest, savanna, and grassland. The total area in the different landcover classes varied most in smaller protected areas (those less than 329 km2), with forest and cropland area estimates varying up to 65 %. The discrepancies introduced by boundary errors could, in this hypothetical case, generate erroneous findings and could have a significant impact on conservation, such as local-scale management for encroachment and larger-scale assessments of deforestation.

  19. Interactions Between Spatially Explicit Conservation and Management Measures: Implications for the Governance of Marine Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárcamo, P. Francisco; Gaymer, Carlos F.

    2013-12-01

    Marine protected areas are not established in an institutional and governance vacuum and managers should pay attention to the wider social-ecological system in which they are immersed. This article examines Islas Choros-Damas Marine Reserve, a small marine protected area located in a highly productive and biologically diverse coastal marine ecosystem in northern Chile, and the interactions between human, institutional, and ecological dimensions beyond those existing within its boundaries. Through documents analysis, surveys, and interviews, we described marine reserve implementation (governing system) and the social and natural ecosystem-to-be-governed. We analyzed the interactions and the connections between the marine reserve and other spatially explicit conservation and/or management measures existing in the area and influencing management outcomes and governance. A top-down approach with poor stakeholder involvement characterized the implementation process. The marine reserve is highly connected with other spatially explicit measures and with a wider social-ecological system through various ecological processes and socio-economic interactions. Current institutional interactions with positive effects on the management and governance are scarce, although several potential interactions may be developed. For the study area, any management action must recognize interferences from outside conditions and consider some of them (e.g., ecotourism management) as cross-cutting actions for the entire social-ecological system. We consider that institutional interactions and the development of social networks are opportunities to any collective effort aiming to improve governance of Islas Choros-Damas marine reserve. Communication of connections and interactions between marine protected areas and the wider social-ecological system (as described in this study) is proposed as a strategy to improve stakeholder participation in Chilean marine protected areas.

  20. Interactions between spatially explicit conservation and management measures: implications for the governance of marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Cárcamo, P Francisco; Gaymer, Carlos F

    2013-12-01

    Marine protected areas are not established in an institutional and governance vacuum and managers should pay attention to the wider social-ecological system in which they are immersed. This article examines Islas Choros-Damas Marine Reserve, a small marine protected area located in a highly productive and biologically diverse coastal marine ecosystem in northern Chile, and the interactions between human, institutional, and ecological dimensions beyond those existing within its boundaries. Through documents analysis, surveys, and interviews, we described marine reserve implementation (governing system) and the social and natural ecosystem-to-be-governed. We analyzed the interactions and the connections between the marine reserve and other spatially explicit conservation and/or management measures existing in the area and influencing management outcomes and governance. A top-down approach with poor stakeholder involvement characterized the implementation process. The marine reserve is highly connected with other spatially explicit measures and with a wider social-ecological system through various ecological processes and socio-economic interactions. Current institutional interactions with positive effects on the management and governance are scarce, although several potential interactions may be developed. For the study area, any management action must recognize interferences from outside conditions and consider some of them (e.g., ecotourism management) as cross-cutting actions for the entire social-ecological system. We consider that institutional interactions and the development of social networks are opportunities to any collective effort aiming to improve governance of Islas Choros-Damas marine reserve. Communication of connections and interactions between marine protected areas and the wider social-ecological system (as described in this study) is proposed as a strategy to improve stakeholder participation in Chilean marine protected areas. PMID:24091586

  1. Canonical histone H2Ba and H2A.X dimerize in an opposite genomic localization to H2A.Z/H2B.Z dimers in Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Bogado, Silvina S.; Dalmasso, Carolina; Ganuza, Agustina; Kim, Kami; Sullivan, William J.; Angel, Sergio O.; Vanagas, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Histone H2Ba of Toxoplasma gondii was expressed as recombinant protein (rH2Ba) and used to generate antibody in mouse that is highly specific. Antibody recognizing rH2Ba detects a single band in tachyzoite lysate of the expected molecular weight (12 kDa). By indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) in in vitro grown tachyzoites and bradyzoites, the signal was detected only in the parasite nucleus. The nucleosome composition of H2Ba was determined through co-immunoprecipitation assays. H2Ba was detected in the same immunocomplex as H2A.X, but not with H2A.Z. Through chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays and qPCR, it was observed that H2Ba is preferentially located at promoters of inactive genes and silent regions, accompanying H2A.X and opposed to H2A.Z/H2B.Z dimers. PMID:25286383

  2. BARI+: A Biometric Based Distributed Key Management Approach for Wireless Body Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Khaliq-ur-Rahman Raazi Syed; Lee, Heejo; Lee, Sungyoung; Lee, Young-Koo

    2010-01-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBAN) consist of resource constrained sensing devices just like other wireless sensor networks (WSN). However, they differ from WSN in topology, scale and security requirements. Due to these differences, key management schemes designed for WSN are inefficient and unnecessarily complex when applied to WBAN. Considering the key management issue, WBAN are also different from WPAN because WBAN can use random biometric measurements as keys. We highlight the differences between WSN and WBAN and propose an efficient key management scheme, which makes use of biometrics and is specifically designed for WBAN domain. PMID:22319333

  3. BARI+: a biometric based distributed key management approach for wireless body area networks.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Khaliq-ur-Rahman Raazi Syed; Lee, Heejo; Lee, Sungyoung; Lee, Young-Koo

    2010-01-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBAN) consist of resource constrained sensing devices just like other wireless sensor networks (WSN). However, they differ from WSN in topology, scale and security requirements. Due to these differences, key management schemes designed for WSN are inefficient and unnecessarily complex when applied to WBAN. Considering the key management issue, WBAN are also different from WPAN because WBAN can use random biometric measurements as keys. We highlight the differences between WSN and WBAN and propose an efficient key management scheme, which makes use of biometrics and is specifically designed for WBAN domain. PMID:22319333

  4. Assessment of the effectiveness of protected areas management in Iran: case study in Khojir National Park.

    PubMed

    Kolahi, Mahdi; Sakai, Tetsuro; Moriya, Kazuyuki; Makhdoum, Majid F; Koyama, Lina

    2013-08-01

    The requirement to assess the management effectiveness (ME) in protected areas (PAs) is increasing around the world to help improve management and accountability. An evaluation of ME for Khojir National Park (KNP), one of the Iran's oldest PAs, was conducted using a multi-method approach that consisted of structured interviews, open interviews, and site visits. This was the first ME evaluation in Iran. The structured interview was based on the management effectiveness tracking tool methodology. KNP received an average score of 43 %, which is lower than the global average, illustrating that its general management was in the low-intermediate level. The indices of legal status, resource inventory, planning for land and water use, regulations, and objectives received the highest average scores, whereas education and awareness, community co-management, regular work plan, boundary demarcation, visitor facilities, budget sources, staff training, protection systems, and management plan received the lowest ones. The management system of KNP was generally established, but many problems of the management still need to be resolved. To improve ME, some countermeasures should be taken, such as increasing funding, strengthening capacity building, planning, and adaptive management, and implementing community participation. PMID:23665757

  5. Assessment of the Effectiveness of Protected Areas Management in Iran: Case Study in Khojir National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolahi, Mahdi; Sakai, Tetsuro; Moriya, Kazuyuki; Makhdoum, Majid F.; Koyama, Lina

    2013-08-01

    The requirement to assess the management effectiveness (ME) in protected areas (PAs) is increasing around the world to help improve management and accountability. An evaluation of ME for Khojir National Park (KNP), one of the Iran's oldest PAs, was conducted using a multi-method approach that consisted of structured interviews, open interviews, and site visits. This was the first ME evaluation in Iran. The structured interview was based on the management effectiveness tracking tool methodology. KNP received an average score of 43 %, which is lower than the global average, illustrating that its general management was in the low-intermediate level. The indices of legal status, resource inventory, planning for land and water use, regulations, and objectives received the highest average scores, whereas education and awareness, community co-management, regular work plan, boundary demarcation, visitor facilities, budget sources, staff training, protection systems, and management plan received the lowest ones. The management system of KNP was generally established, but many problems of the management still need to be resolved. To improve ME, some countermeasures should be taken, such as increasing funding, strengthening capacity building, planning, and adaptive management, and implementing community participation.

  6. Conflict in Protected Areas: Who Says Co-Management Does Not Work?

    PubMed Central

    Arts, Bas; Vranckx, An; Léon-Sicard, Tomas; Van Damme, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Natural resource-related conflicts can be extremely destructive and undermine environmental protection. Since the 1990s co-management schemes, whereby the management of resources is shared by public and/or private sector stakeholders, have been a main strategy for reducing these conflicts worldwide. Despite initial high hopes, in recent years co-management has been perceived as falling short of expectations. However, systematic assessments of its role in conflict prevention or mitigation are non-existent. Interviews with 584 residents from ten protected areas in Colombia revealed that co-management can be successful in reducing conflict at grassroots level, as long as some critical enabling conditions, such as effective participation in the co-management process, are fulfilled not only on paper but also by praxis. We hope these findings will re-incentivize global efforts to make co-management work in protected areas and other common pool resource contexts, such as fisheries, agriculture, forestry and water management. PMID:26714036

  7. The impact of stormwater treatment areas and agricultural best management practices on water quality in the Everglades Protection Area.

    PubMed

    Entry, James A; Gottlieb, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    Half of the original Everglades system has been lost to drainage and development. What remains is included within the boundaries of the Everglades Protection Area (EPA), comprised of three Water Conservation Areas (WCAs) and Everglades National Park (Park). Inflows to the EPA contain elevated nutrient concentrations. Best management practices (BMPs) were implemented and six large wetlands called stormwater treatment areas (STAs) were constructed to improve water quality. We analyzed water quality in the WCAs and Park and performed an economic analysis of the STAs to remove nutrients from EPA inflows. In general, nutrient concentrations in all WCAs were higher during the pre-STA period than after the STAs became operational. In WCA2 and the Park, total phosphorus (TP) trends showed more negative slopes prior, as compared to after, the STAs became operational. These results suggest that BMPs lead to large initial decreases in nutrient export resulting in improved downstream water quality. A preliminary economic analysis shows that operation and management of the STAs are complicated and cost intensive. Comparing the cost of phosphorus (P) removal from water entering the EPA using BMPs and STAs may not currently be viable. BMPs prevent P from being applied to, or leaving from agricultural fields while STAs remove P from stormwater. We expect nutrient concentrations in water flowing into and out of the STAs to decline as both BMPs and STAs become more effective. We suggest an economic analysis of BMPs, STAs, and other potential approaches to determine the most cost-effective methods to reduce nutrient concentrations and related stressors affecting the Everglades. PMID:24081816

  8. Nevada Test Site 2000 Annual Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Y. E.Townsend

    2001-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2000 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels (IL) indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. Other information in the report includes, the Cumulative Chronology for Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the groundwater sampling procedure.

  9. Philippine protected areas are not meeting the biodiversity coverage and management effectiveness requirements of Aichi Target 11.

    PubMed

    Mallari, Neil Aldrin D; Collar, Nigel J; McGowan, Philip J K; Marsden, Stuart J

    2016-04-01

    Aichi Target 11 of the Convention on Biological Diversity urges, inter alia, that nations protect at least 17 % of their land, and that protection is effective and targets areas of importance for biodiversity. Five years before reporting on Aichi targets is due, we assessed the Philippines' current protected area system for biodiversity coverage, appropriateness of management regimes and capacity to deliver protection. Although protected estate already covers 11 % of the Philippines' land area, 64 % of its key biodiversity areas (KBAs) remain unprotected. Few protected areas have appropriate management and governance infrastructures, funding streams, management plans and capacity, and a serious mismatch exists between protected area land zonation regimes and conservation needs of key species. For the Philippines to meet the biodiversity coverage and management effectiveness elements of Aichi Target 11, protected area and KBA boundaries should be aligned, management systems reformed to pursue biodiversity-led targets and effective management capacity created. PMID:26666956

  10. Nevada National Security Site 2013 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, David B

    2014-02-13

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada. Groundwater samples from the aquifer immediately below the Area 5 RWMS have been collected and analyzed and static water levels have been measured in this aquifer since 1993. This report updates these data to include the 2013 results. Beginning with this report, analysis results for leachate collected from the mixed-waste cell at the Area 5 RWMS (Cell 18) are also included.