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Sample records for management area san

  1. 76 FR 62819 - Notice of Intent To Amend the Resource Management Plan for the San Luis Resource Area, Colorado...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Intent To Amend the Resource Management Plan for the San Luis Resource Area, Colorado, and Associated Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management..., the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) San Luis Valley Public Lands Center, Monte Vista,...

  2. Hydrology, description of computer models, and evaluation of selected water-management alternatives in the San Bernardino area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Danskin, Wesley R.; McPherson, Kelly R.; Woolfenden, Linda R.

    2006-01-01

    The San Bernardino area of southern California has complex water-management issues. As an aid to local water managers, this report provides an integrated analysis of the surface-water and ground-water systems, documents ground-water flow and constrained optimization models, and provides seven examples using the models to better understand and manage water resources of the area. As an aid to investigators and water managers in other areas, this report provides an expanded description of constrained optimization techniques and how to use them to better understand the local hydrogeology and to evaluate inter-related water-management problems. In this report, the hydrology of the San Bernardino area, defined as the Bunker Hill and Lytle Creek basins, is described and quantified for calendar years 1945-98. The major components of the surface-water system are identified, and a routing diagram of flow through these components is provided. Annual surface-water inflow and outflow for the area are tabulated using gaged measurements and estimated values derived from linear-regression equations. Average inflow for the 54-year period (1945-98) was 146,452 acre-feet per year; average outflow was 67,931 acre-feet per year. The probability of exceedance for annual surface-water inflow is calculated using a Log Pearson Type III analysis. Cumulative surface-water inflow and outflow and ground-water-level measurements indicate that the relation between the surface-water system and the ground-water system changed in about 1951, in about 1979, and again in about 1992. Higher ground-water levels prior to 1951 and between 1979 and 1992 induced ground-water discharge to Warm Creek. This discharge was quantified using streamflow measurements and can be estimated for other time periods using ground-water levels from a monitoring well (1S/4W-3Q1) and a logarithmic-regression equation. Annual wastewater discharge from the area is tabulated for the major sewage and power-plant facilities. More...

  3. SAN RAFAEL PRIMITIVE AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gower, H.D.

    1984-01-01

    No mineral-resource potential was identified during studies of the San Rafael Primitive Area, located at the southern end of the Coast Ranges of California. No petroleum has been produced from the area and there is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources. Limestone occurs in the area but also is found in abundance outside the area. Inasmuch as sampling and analytical techniques have improved significantly since this study was completed a restudy of the area using new methodology is possibly warranted.

  4. Assessing vulnerable and expanding vegetation stands and species in the San Francisco Bay Area for conservation management under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morueta-Holme, N.; Heller, N. E.; McLaughlin, B.; Weiss, S. B.; Ackerly, D.

    2015-12-01

    The distribution of suitable climatic areas for species and vegetation types is expected to shift due to ongoing climate change. While the pace at which current distributions will shift is hard to quantify, predictions of where climatically suitable areas will be in the future can allow us to map 1) areas currently occupied by a species or vegetation type unlikely to persist through the end of this century (vulnerable stands), 2) areas likely to do better in the future and serve as nuclei for population expansion (expanding stands), and 3) areas likely to act as climate refugia (persisting stands). We quantified the vulnerability of 27 individual plant species and 27 vegetation types in the San Francisco Bay Area as well as the conservation importance, vulnerability, and resilience of selected management sites for climate change resilient conservation. To this end, we developed California-wide models of species and vegetation distributions using climate data from the 2014 California Basin Characterization Model at a 270 m resolution, projected to 18 different end-of century climate change scenarios. Combining these distribution models with high resolution maps of current vegetation, we were able to map projected vulnerable, expanding, and persisting stands within the Bay Area. We show that vegetation and species are expected to shift considerably within the study region over the next decades; although we also identify refugia potentially able to offset some of the negative impacts of climate change. We discuss the implications for managers that wish to incorporate climate change in conservation decisions, in particular related to choosing species for restoration, identifying areas to collect seeds for restoration, and preparing for expected major vegetation changes. Our evaluation of individual management sites highlights the need for stronger coordination of efforts across sites to prioritize monitoring and protection of species whose ranges are contracting

  5. Radar image San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay Area in California and its surroundings are shown in this radar image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On this image, smooth areas, such as the bay, lakes, roads and airport runways appear dark, while areas with buildings and trees appear bright. Downtown San Francisco is at the center and the city of Oakland is at the right across the San Francisco Bay. Some city areas, such as the South of Market district in San Francisco, appear bright due to the alignment of streets and buildings with respect to the incoming radar beam. Three of the bridges spanning the Bay are seen in this image. The Bay Bridge is in the center and extends from the city of San Francisco to Yerba Buena and Treasure Islands, and from there to Oakland. The Golden Gate Bridge is to the left and extends from San Francisco to Sausalito. The Richmond-San Rafael Bridge is in the upper right and extends from San Rafael to Richmond. Angel Island is the large island east of the Golden Gate Bridge, and lies north of the much smaller Alcatraz Island. The Alameda Naval Air Station is seen just below the Bay Bridge at the center of the image. Two major faults bounding the San Francisco-Oakland urban areas are visible on this image. The San Andreas fault, on the San Francisco peninsula, is seen on the left side of the image. The fault trace is the straight feature filled with linear reservoirs, which appear dark. The Hayward fault is the straight feature on the right side of the image between the urban areas and the hillier terrain to the east.

    This radar image was acquired by just one of SRTM's two antennas and, consequently, does not show topographic data, but only the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground. This signal, known as radar backscatter, provides insight into the nature of the surface, including its roughness, vegetation cover and urbanization. The overall faint striping pattern in the images is a data processing artifact due to the

  6. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image of the San Francisco Bay region was acquired on March 3, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters about 50 to 300 feet ), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    Image: This image covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 75 kilometers (47 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. The combination of bands portrays vegetation in red, and urban areas in gray. Sediment in the Suisun Bay, San Pablo Bay, San Francisco Bay, and the Pacific Ocean shows up as lighter shades of blue. Along the west coast of the San Francisco Peninsula, strong surf can be seen as a white fringe along the shoreline. A powerful rip tide is visible extending westward from Daly City into the Pacific Ocean. In the lower right corner, the wetlands of the South San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge appear as large dark blue and brown polygons. The high spatial resolution of ASTER allows fine detail to be observed in the scene. The main bridges of the area (San Mateo, San Francisco-Oakland Bay, Golden Gate, Richmond-San Rafael, Benicia-Martinez, and Carquinez) are easily picked out, connecting the different communities in the Bay area. Shadows of the towers along the Bay Bridge can be seen over the adjacent bay water. With enlargement the entire road network can be easily mapped; individual buildings are visible, including the shadows of the high-rises in downtown San Francisco.

    Inset: This enlargement of the San Francisco Airport highlights the high spatial resolution of ASTER. With further enlargement and careful examination, airplanes can be seen at the terminals.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth

  7. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This cloud free color infrared view of San Francisco and Bay Area, CA (38.0N, 122.5W) is unusual because the city is normally concealed from view by clouds and fog. Gray tones represent urban areas and the red toned areas are vegetated. Within the city, parks easily stand out from the well-developed parts of the city as enclaves of color. The trace of the San Andreas fault shows as a straight valley running across the San Francisco peninsula.

  8. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    These images of the San Francisco Bay region were acquired on March 3, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. Each covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 75 kilometers (47 miles) long. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image the Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    Upper Left: The color infrared composite uses bands in the visible and reflected infrared. Vegetation is red, urban areas are gray; sediment in the bays shows up as lighter shades of blue. Thanks to the 15 meter (50-foot) spatial resolution, shadows of the towers along the Bay Bridge can be seen.

    Upper right: A composite of bands in the short wave infrared displays differences in soils and rocks in the mountainous areas. Even though these regions appear entirely vegetated in the visible, enough surface shows through openings in the vegetation to allow the ground to be imaged.

    Lower left: This composite of multispectral thermal bands shows differences in urban materials in varying colors. Separation of materials is due to differences in thermal emission properties, analogous to colors in the visible.

    Lower right: This is a color coded temperature image of water temperature, derived from the thermal bands. Warm waters are in white and yellow, colder waters are blue. Suisun Bay in the upper right is fed directly from the cold Sacramento River. As the water flows through San Pablo and San Francisco Bays on the way to the Pacific, the waters warm up.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is

  9. Management and conservation of San Francisco Bay salt ponds: Effects of pond salinity, area, tide, and season on pacific flyway waterbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warnock, N.; Page, G.W.; Ruhlen, T.D.; Nur, N.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Hanson, J.T.

    2002-01-01

    Throughout the world, coastal salt ponds provide habitat for large numbers and diversities of waterbirds. San Francisco Bay contains the most important coastal salt pond complexes for waterbirds in the United States, supporting more than a million waterbirds through the year. As an initial step in attempting to understand how the anticipated conversion of salt ponds to tidal marsh might affect the Bay's bird populations, the number of birds using salt ponds on high and low tides was counted during the winter months of 1999/00 and 2000/01. Behavior and habitat use of birds in these ponds were assessed, and the effects of tide cycle, pond salinity, and pond area on bird use were examined. We recorded 75 species of waterbirds in surveys of salt ponds in the South Bay from September 1999 to February 2001, totaling over a million bird use days on high tide. Shorebirds and dabbling ducks were the most abundant groups of birds using the salt ponds. Waterbird numbers and diversity were significantly affected by the salinity of ponds in a non-linear fashion with lower numbers and diversity on the highest salinity ponds. With the exception of ducks and Eared Grebe (Podiceps nigricollis), tide height at the Bay significantly affected bird numbers in the salt ponds with ponds at high tides having higher numbers of birds than the same ponds on low tides. Considerable numbers of birds fed in the salt ponds on high and low tides, although this varied greatly by species. Habitat use varied by tide. Management recommendations include maintaining ponds of varying salinities and depths. Restoring salt ponds to tidal marsh should proceed with caution to avoid loss of waterbird diversity and numbers in San Francisco Bay.

  10. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Although clouds obscure part of the city of San Francisco and the mouth of the Bay (37.5N, 122.0W), many cultural and natural features in the immediate vicinity are obvious. The Bay Bridge which was damaged in the 1989 earthquake, Candlestick Park, San Mateo and Dumbarton Bridges as well as the various colored settling ponds rimming the south end of the Bay, the San Andreas and Calaveras faults and many of the major highways can be seen.

  11. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Although clouds obscure part of the city of San Francisco and the mouth of the Bay (37.5N, 122.0W), many cultural and natural features in the immediate vicinity are obvious. The Bay Bridge which was damaged in the 1989 earthquake, Candlestick Park, San Mateo and Dumbarton Bridges as well as the various colored settling ponds rimming the south end of the Bay, the San Andreas and Calaveras faults and many of the major highways can be seen. Color infrared photography is very useful for haze penetration and greater definition of the imagery as well as vegetation detection, depicted as shades of red.

  12. 75 FR 19422 - Notice of Closure of Airport Mesa/Carizzo Creek Shooting Area in Eastern San Diego County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Closure of Airport Mesa/Carizzo Creek Shooting Area in Eastern San... as the Airport Mesa/Carrizo Creek shooting area located in eastern San Diego County, California. The... along the top of Airport Mesa. DATES: The closure order is effective as of September 23, 2009...

  13. A Study of the Effects of Gas Well Compressor Noise on Breeding Bird Populations of the Rattlesnake Canyon Habitat Management Area, San Juan County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    LaGory, K.E.; Chang, Young-Soo; Chun, K.C.; Reeves, T.; Liebich, R.; Smith, K.

    2001-06-04

    This report, conducted from May through July 2000, addressed the potential effect of compressor noise on breeding birds in gas-production areas administered by the FFO, specifically in the Rattlesnake Canyon Habitat Management Area northeast of Farmington, New Mexico. The study was designed to quantify and characterize noise output from these compressors and to determine if compressor noise affected bird populations in adjacent habitat during the breeding season.

  14. Geology of the Tulare Formation and other continental deposits, Kettleman City area, San Joaquin Valley, California, with a section on ground-water management considerations and use of texture maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    The Tulare Formation and other continental deposits of Pliocene to Holocene age crop out over most of the area near Kettleman City in the San Joaquin Valley of California. The deposits range in thickness from 0 to more than 4,000 feet and overlie the upper Mya zone of the San Joaquin Formation of Pliocene age. Some features of their base reflect structural deformation during Quaternary time. Many freshwater fossils occur in the Tulare Formation itself, including the largest fossil assemblage of clams and snails known on the Pacific Coast. Sediments in the Tulare Formation and other continental deposits consist mainly of unconsolidated deposits of clay, silt, sand, and gravel. Texture maps of the Tulare Formation and other continental deposits show the distribution, both laterally and vertically, of the coarse- and fine-grained sediment in the area. Such maps can be used by water managers for selecting areas for recharge and discharge operations and by ground-water modelers for assigning relative values of hydraulic conductivity and storage coefficient. (USGS)

  15. San Francisco Bay Area Environmental Education Needs Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Duane

    To identify environmental technician positions in the public and private sectors of the San Francisco Bay Area as well as to determine the skills and knowledge necessary for employment in the field, questionnaires were distributed to companies, agencies, individuals of the private sector in the area, and 33 institutions offering an Occupational…

  16. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. 165.1185 Section 165.1185 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  17. Relocated American Indians in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ablon, Joan

    1964-01-01

    American Indians who come to the San Francisco Bay Area choose to associate primarily with other Indians of their own or differing tribes in both informal and formal social interaction. Urbanization of Indians occurs on a large scale because of government relocation programs; however, the background in small rural folk communities creates a…

  18. Solar for Your Present Home. San Francisco Bay Area Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnaby, Charles S.; And Others

    This publication provides information about present uses of solar energy for space, water, and swimming pool heating that are practical for the San Francisco Bay area. It attempts to provide interested persons with the information needed to make decisions regarding installations of solar heating systems. The point of view taken is that any…

  19. 3D Geologic Model of the San Diego Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danskin, W. R.; Cromwell, G.; Glockhoff, C.; Martin, D.

    2015-12-01

    Prior geologic studies of the San Diego area, including northern Baja California, Mexico, focused on site investigations, characterization of rock formations, or earthquake hazards. No comprehensive, quantitative model characterizing the three-dimensional (3D) geology of the entire area has been developed. The lack of such a model limits understanding of large-scale processes, such as development of ancient landforms, and groundwater movement and availability. To evaluate these regional processes, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study to better understand the geologic structure of the San Diego area. A cornerstone of this study is the installation and analysis of 77 wells at 12 multiple-depth monitoring-well sites. Geologic information from these wells was combined with lithologic data from 81 oil exploration wells and municipal and private water wells, gravity and seismic interpretations, and paleontological interpretations. These data were analyzed in conjunction with geologic maps and digital elevation models to develop a 3D geologic model of the San Diego area, in particular of the San Diego embayment. Existing interpretations of regional surficial geology, faulting, and tectonic history provided the framework for this model, which was refined by independent evaluation of subsurface geology. Geologic formations were simplified into five sedimentary units (Quaternary, Plio-Pleistocene, Oligocene, Eocene and Cretaceous ages), and one basal crystalline unit (primarily Cretaceous and Jurassic). Complex fault systems are represented in the model by ten fault strands that maintain overall displacement. The 3D geologic model corroborates existing geologic concepts of the San Diego area, refines the extent of subsurface geology, and allows users to holistically evaluate subsurface structures and regional hydrogeology.

  20. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, San Francisco Bay Area, Calif.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The cities of San Francisco and the East Bay are highlighted in this computer-generated perspective viewed from west of the Golden Gate. San Francisco occupies the peninsula jutting into the picture from the right. Golden Gate Park is the long rectangle near its left end and the Presidiois the green area at its tip, from which Golden Gate Bridge crosses to Marin. Treasure Island is the bright spot above San Francisco and Alcatraz Island is the small smudge below and to the left. Across the bay from San Francisco lie Berkeley (left) and Oakland (right). Mount Diablo, a landmark visible for many miles, rises in the distance at the upper right.

    This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 5 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 3, 2, and 1 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated two times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    The Landsat Thematic Mapper image used here came from an on-line mosaic of Landsat images for the continental United States (http://mapus.jpl.nasa.gov), a part of NASA's Digital Earth effort.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation

  1. San Francisco Bay Area Fault Observations Displayed in Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackey, H.; Hernandez, M.; Nayak, P.; Zapata, I.; Schumaker, D.

    2006-12-01

    According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the San Francisco Bay Area has a 62% probability of experiencing a major earthquake in the next 30 years. The Hayward fault and the San Andreas fault are the two main faults in the Bay Area that are capable of producing earthquakes of magnitude 6.7 or larger - a size that could profoundly affect many of the 7 million people who live in the Bay Area. The Hayward fault has a 27% probability of producing a major earthquake in next 30 years, and the San Andreas fault has a 21% probability. Our research group, which is part of the SF-ROCKS high school outreach program, studied the Hayward and San Andreas faults. The goal of our project was to observe these faults at various locations, measure the effects of creep, and to present the data in Google Earth, a freeware tool for the public to easily view and interact with these and other seismic-hazard data. We examined the Hayward and San Andreas faults (as mapped by USGS scientists) in Google Earth to identify various sites where we could possibly find evidence of fault creep. We next visited these sites in the field where we mapped the location using a hand- held Global Positioning System, identified and photographed fault evidence, and measured offset features with a ruler or tape measure. Fault evidence included en echelon shears in pavement, warped buildings, and offset features such as sidewalks. Fault creep offset measurements range from 1.5 19 cm. We also identified possible evidence of fault creep along the San Andreas fault in South San Francisco where it had not been previously described. In Google Earth, we plotted our field sites, linked photographs showing evidence of faulting, and included detailed captions to explain the photographs. We will design a webpage containing the data in a Keyhole Markup Language (KML) file format for display in Google Earth. Any interested person needs only to download the free version of Google Earth software and visit our

  2. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, San Francisco Bay Area, Calif.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The defining landmarks of San Francisco, its bay and the San Andreas Fault are clearly seen in this computer-generated perspective viewed from the south. Running from the bottom of the scene diagonally up to the left, the trough of the San Andreas Fault is occupied by Crystal Springs Reservoir and San Andreas Lake. Interstate 280 winds along the side of the fault. San Francisco International Airport is the angular feature projecting into the bay just below San Bruno Mountain, the elongated ridge cutting across the peninsula. The hills of San Francisco can be seen beyond San Bruno Mountain and beyond the city, the Golden Gate.

    This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced color Landsat 5satellite image. Topographic expression is exaggerated two times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D

  3. Galileo Resolutions: Ganymede and the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    These frames demonstrate the dramatic improvement in the resolution of pictures that NASA's Galileo spacecraft is returning compared to previous images of the Jupiter system. The spacecraft's many orbits allow numerous close flyby's of Jupiter and its moons. The top left frame shows the best resolution (1.3 kilometers per picture element or pixel) data of the Uruk Sulcus region on Jupiter's moon Ganymede which was available after the 1979 flyby of the Voyager 2 spacecraft. The top right frame shows the same area as captured by Galileo during its closer flyby of Ganymede on June 27, 1996 at a range of 7,448 kilometers (4.628 miles). For comparison, the bottom frames show images of the San Francisco Bay area trimmed to the size of the Ganymede images and adjusted to similar resolutions.

    The Galileo image of Uruk Sulcus has a resolution of about 74 meters per pixel. The area shown is about 35 by 55 kilometers (25 by 34 miles). North is to the top, and the sun illuminates the surface from the lower left. The image taken by the Solid State Imaging (CCD) system reveals details of the structure and shape of the ridges which permit scientists to determine their origin and their relation to other terrains. These new views are helping to unravel the complex history of this planet-sized moon.

    The left SF Bay area image is from an image obtained by an Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer aboard an NOAA satellite. The right SF Bay area image is from a LandSat Thematic Mapper. Golden Gate Park is clearly visible as a narrow dark rectangle towards the middle of this image. Both images were trimmed and adjusted to resolutions similar to the Ganymede images.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and

  4. Ecological Impact of LAN: San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craine, Eric Richard; Craine, Brian L.

    2015-08-01

    The San Pedro River in Southeastern Arizona is home to nearly 45% of the 900 total species of birds in the United States; millions of songbirds migrate though this unique flyway every year. As the last undammed river in the Southwest, it has been called one of the “last great places” in the US. Human activity has had striking and highly visible impacts on the San Pedro River. As a result, and to help preserve and conserve the area, much of the region has been designated the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area (SPRNCA). Attention has been directed to impacts of population, water depletion, and border fence barriers on the riparian environment. To date, there has been little recognition that light at night (LAN), evolving with the increased local population, could have moderating influences on the area. STEM Laboratory has pioneered techniques of coordinated airborne and ground based measurements of light at night, and has undertaken a program of characterizing LAN in this region. We conducted the first aerial baseline surveys of sky brightness in 2012. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) shapefiles allow comparison and correlation of various biological databases with the LAN data. The goal is to better understand how increased dissemination of night time lighting impacts the distributions, behavior, and life cycles of biota on this ecosystem. We discuss the baseline measurements, current data collection programs, and some of the implications for specific biological systems.

  5. CHAMA-SOUTHERN SAN JUAN MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, Maurice R.; Lindquist, Alec E.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Chama-southern San Juan Mountains Wilderness study area in Colorado revealed demonstrated coal resources in an area of substantiated coal resource potential and areas of probable resource potential for petroleum and metals including molydenum, copper, zinc, lead, and silver. The coal deposit that underlies the northwestern part of the study area at its westernmost extension requires further study for a more accurate determination of the coal resources that underlie the area. Drilling also is required to determine depth, magnitude, and tenor of the postulated porphyry deposit containing copper and molybdenum in the northernmost part of the study area. Geophysical surveys and detailed geologic mapping in advance of drilling are needed in the areas delineated as having potential for oil and gas resources.

  6. 33 CFR 334.980 - Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas....980 Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean around San Nicolas Island, Calif., extending about 3 miles seaward from...

  7. 33 CFR 334.980 - Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas....980 Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean around San Nicolas Island, Calif., extending about 3 miles seaward from...

  8. 33 CFR 334.980 - Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas....980 Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean around San Nicolas Island, Calif., extending about 3 miles seaward from...

  9. 33 CFR 334.980 - Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas....980 Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean around San Nicolas Island, Calif., extending about 3 miles seaward from...

  10. Projected Bioclimatic Change for the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torregrosa, A.; Taylor, M.; Flint, L. E.; Flint, A. L.; Weiss, S. B.

    2011-12-01

    Past and future climate data for the San Francisco Bay Area were classified using the Rivas-Martinez (R-M) system to group long-term annual climate averages into categories with biotic significance based on thermotypic and ombrotypic regimes. Bioclimate maps were generated at 270 meter resolution for ten San Francisco Bay Area counties for six 30-year periods from 1911 to 2100 which include the historical 1) 1911-1940, 2) 1941-1970, 3) 1971-2000, and future 4) 2011-2040, 5) 2041-2070, and 6) 2071-2100. Historic averages were generated from PRISM climate data. Future climate projections were generated from two IPCC-based future scenarios (A2 and B1) and two coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory and the Parallel Climate Model). Strong congruence was found among the boundaries for historic bioclimates and current vegetation types. However, future scenarios had varying patterns of losses and gains in bioclimate classes and these tracked mesoclimate gradients. Comparisons between projected bioclimatic categories and modeled future climatic water deficit show strong correspondence except in zones of deep alluvial deposits. Maps show areas of bioclimatic stability, e.g. areas that did not change under any future projection, versus areas with significant bioclimatic shifts in all future scenarios. These analyses and maps will be useful for assessing natural resource vulnerability to climate change and natural resource conservation-based climate adaptation decisions.

  11. 77 FR 68813 - Notice of Closure of Airport Mesa/Carizzo Creek Shooting Area in Eastern San Diego County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Closure of Airport Mesa/Carizzo Creek Shooting Area in Eastern San... Land Management (BLM) has closed approximately 210 acres of public land described as the Airport Mesa... Airport Mesa. DATES: The closure order is effective as of June 19, 2012, until June 19, 2014. FOR...

  12. 78 FR 25299 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Resource Management Plan for the San Pedro Riparian National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Intent To Prepare a Resource Management Plan for the San Pedro... Conservation Area), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Tucson Field Office, Tucson, Arizona, intends to... methods: Email: blm_az_tfo_sprnca_rmp@blm.gov . Fax: 520-258-7238. Mail: Bureau of Land Management......

  13. 33 CFR 334.980 - Pacific Ocean, around San Nicholas Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, around San... REGULATIONS § 334.980 Pacific Ocean, around San Nicholas Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area—(1) Perimeter (restricted). The waters of the Pacific Ocean around San Nicholas Island,...

  14. SPUR: Moving San Diego, California Schools toward Integrated Pest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon

    1991-01-01

    The preparation of a report, slide show, and brochure to promote awareness of the hazards of toxic pest control for school pest management personnel in the San Diego Unified School District is discussed. The future plans of the coalition are proposed. (CW)

  15. The San Francisco Joint Institutional Transportation Systems Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Ira; LaPointe, Robert

    1981-01-01

    Transportation systems management (TSM) programs are discussed, particularly the 1977 program of the University of California, San Francisco, which led to traffic reduction and improved vehicle flow. The city's implementation plan for a similar TSM program for 14 educational institutions and hospitals is described. (MLW)

  16. SAN JUAN BAY ESTUARY, COMPREHENSIVE CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan (CCMP) contains information about the overall health of the San Juan Bay Estuary (SJBE) as well as proposed solutions to identified problems. These solutions, or Action Plans, are the result of a more than 4-year process of cons...

  17. A Framework for Managing Inter-Site Storage Area Networks using Grid Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Ben; McCall, Fritz; Smorul, Mike

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Maryland Institute for Advanced Computer Studies are studying mechanisms for installing and managing Storage Area Networks (SANs) that span multiple independent collaborating institutions using Storage Area Network Routers (SAN Routers). We present a framework for managing inter-site distributed SANs that uses Grid Technologies to balance the competing needs to control local resources, share information, delegate administrative access, and manage the complex trust relationships between the participating sites.

  18. Groundwater and surface-water resources in the Bureau of Land Management Moab Master Leasing Plan area and adjacent areas, Grand and San Juan Counties, Utah, and Mesa and Montrose Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masbruch, Melissa D.; Shope, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Canyon Country District Office is preparing a leasing plan known as the Moab Master Leasing Plan (Moab MLP) for oil, gas, and potash mineral rights in an area encompassing 946,469 acres in southeastern Utah. The BLM has identified water resources as being potentially affected by oil, gas, and potash development and has requested that the U.S. Geological Survey prepare a summary of existing water-resources information for the Moab MLP area. This report includes a summary and synthesis of previous and ongoing investigations conducted in the Moab MLP and adjacent areas in Utah and Colorado from the early 1930s through the late 2000s. Eight principal aquifers and six confining units were identified within the study area. Permeability is a function of both the primary permeability from interstitial pore connectivity and secondary permeability created by karst features or faults and fractures. Vertical hydraulic connection generally is restricted to strongly folded and fractured zones, which are concentrated along steeply dipping monoclines and in narrow regions encompassing igneous and salt intrusive masses. Several studies have identified both an upper and lower aquifer system separated by the Pennsylvanian age Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation evaporite, which is considered a confining unit and is present throughout large parts of the study area. Surface-water resources of the study area are dominated by the Colorado River. Several perennial and ephemeral or intermittent tributaries join the Colorado River as it flows from northeast to southwest across the study area. An annual spring snowmelt and runoff event dominates the hydrology of streams draining mountainous parts of the study area, and most perennial streams in the study area are snowmelt-dominated. A bimodal distribution is observed in hydrographs from some sites with a late-spring snowmelt-runoff peak followed by smaller peaks of shorter duration during the late

  19. A history of intertidal flat area in south San Francisco Bay, California: 1858 to 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaffe, Bruce; Foxgrover, Amy

    2006-01-01

    A key question in salt pond restoration in South San Francisco Bay is whether sediment sinks created by opening ponds will result in the loss of intertidal flats. Analyses of a series of bathymetric surveys of South San Francisco Bay made from 1858 to 2005 reveal changes in intertidal flat area in both space and time that can be used to better understand the pre-restoration system. This analysis also documents baseline conditions of intertidal flats that may be altered by restoration efforts. From 1858 to 2005, intertidal flat area decreased by about 25% from 69.2 +6.4/-7.6 km2 to 51.2 +4.8/-5.8 km2. Intertidal flats in the north tended to decrease in area during the period of this study whereas those south of Dumbarton Bridge were either stable or increased in area. From 1983 to 2005, intertidal flats south of Dumbarton Bridge increased from 17.6 +1.7/-2.5 km2 to 24.2 +1.0/-1.8 km2. Intertidal flats along the east shore of the bay tended to be more erosional and decreased in area while those along the west shore of the bay did not significantly change in area. Loss of intertidal flats occurred intermittently along the eastern shore of the bay north of the Dumbarton Bridge. There was little or no loss from 1931 to 1956 and from 1983 to 2005. Predictions of future change in intertidal flat area that do not account for this spatial and temporal variability are not likely to be accurate. The causes of the spatial and temporal variability in intertidal flat area in South San Francisco Bay are not fully understood, but appear related to energy available to erode sediments, sediment redistribution from north to south in the bay, and sediment available to deposit on the flats. Improved understanding of sediment input to South San Francisco Bay, especially from Central Bay, how it is likely to change in the future, the redistribution of sediment within the bay, and ultimately its effect on intertidal flat area would aid in the management of restoration of South San

  20. 3D Model of the San Emidio Geothermal Area

    SciTech Connect

    James E. Faulds

    2013-12-31

    The San Emidio geothermal system is characterized by a left-step in a west-dipping normal fault system that bounds the western side of the Lake Range. The 3D geologic model consists of 5 geologic units and 55 faults. Overlying Jurrassic-Triassic metasedimentary basement is a ~500 m-1000 m thick section of the Miocene lower Pyramid sequence, pre- syn-extensional Quaternary sedimentary rocks and post-extensional Quaternary rocks. 15-30º eastward dip of the stratigraphy is controlled by the predominant west-dipping fault set. Both geothermal production and injection are concentrated north of the step over in an area of closely spaced west dipping normal faults.

  1. 33 CFR 334.870 - San Diego Harbor, Calif.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Diego Harbor, Calif.; restricted area. 334.870 Section 334.870 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.870 San Diego Harbor, Calif.; restricted area. (a) Restricted...

  2. 78 FR 67300 - Anchorage Regulations: Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; Restricted Anchorage Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ...By this direct final rule, the Coast Guard is amending the restricted anchorage areas of San Nicolas Island, California. At the request of the United States Navy, the Coast Guard will remove the west area anchorage restriction and decrease the size of the east area anchorage restriction (see figure 1 located in the docket). After these amendments are finalized, the restricted anchorage at San......

  3. 33 CFR 334.921 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. 334.921 Section 334.921 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....921 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. All...

  4. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted area....

  5. 33 CFR 334.921 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. 334.921 Section 334.921 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....921 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. All...

  6. 33 CFR 334.921 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. 334.921 Section 334.921 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....921 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. All...

  7. 33 CFR 334.921 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. 334.921 Section 334.921 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....921 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. All...

  8. 33 CFR 334.921 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. 334.921 Section 334.921 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....921 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. All...

  9. 33 CFR 334.860 - San Diego Bay, Calif., Naval Amphibious Base; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Diego Bay, Calif., Naval... Bay, Calif., Naval Amphibious Base; restricted area. (a) The Area. The water of the Pacific Ocean in Middle San Diego Bay in an area extending from the northern and eastern boundary of the Naval...

  10. 33 CFR 334.860 - San Diego Bay, Calif., Naval Amphibious Base; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false San Diego Bay, Calif., Naval... Bay, Calif., Naval Amphibious Base; restricted area. (a) The Area. The water of the Pacific Ocean in Middle San Diego Bay in an area extending from the northern and eastern boundary of the Naval...

  11. Resistance Management for San Jose Scale (Hemiptera: Diaspididae).

    PubMed

    Buzzetti, K; Chorbadjian, R A; Nauen, R

    2015-12-01

    The San Jose scale Diaspidiotus perniciosus Comstock is one of the most important pests of deciduous fruit trees. The major cause of recent outbreaks in apple orchards is thought to be the development of insecticide resistance, specifically organophosphates. The first report was given in North America, and now, in Chile. In the present study, San Jose scale populations collected from two central regions of Chile were checked for their susceptibility to different mode of action insecticides in order to establish alternatives to manage this pest. No evidence of cross resistance between organophosphates insecticides and acetamiprid, buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, spirotetramat, sulfoxaflor, or thiacloprid was found. Baselines of LC50-LC95 for different life stages of San Jose scale are given, as reference to future studies of resistance monitoring. The systemic activity of acetamiprid, spirotetramat, and thiacloprid was higher than the contact residue effect of these compounds. For sulfoxaflor, both values were similar. Program treatments including one or more of these compounds are compared in efficacy and impact on resistance ratio values. In order to preserve new insecticides as an important tool to control San Jose scale, resistance management programs should be implemented, considering insecticide mode of action classes alternated or mixed. PMID:26470382

  12. Geology and nickel mineralization of the Julian-Cuyamaca area, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Creasey, S.C.

    1946-01-01

    The Julian-Cuyamaca area is in the San Diego Mountains, one of the Peninsular Ranges of southern California. It lies in San Diego County, about 3 miles south of Julian, and approximately 60 miles northeast of San Diego. The area was mapped, and its nickel mineralization studied, from March to June, 1944; the work was part of the U. S. Geological Survey's program of strategic mineral investigations.

  13. Integrated Surveying Techniques for Sensitive Areas: San Felice Sul Panaro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarin, M.; Buttolo, V.; Guerra, F.; Vernier, P.

    2013-07-01

    The last few years have marked an exponential growth in the use of electronic and computing technologies that opened new possibilities and new scenarios in the Geomatic field. This evolution of tools and methods has led to new ways of approaching survey. For what concerns architecture, the new tools for survey acquisition and 3D modelling allow the representation of an object through a digital model, combining the visual potentials of images, normally used for documentation, with the precision of a metric survey. This research focuses on the application of these new technologies and methodologies on sensitive areas, such as portions of the cities affected by earthquakes. In this field the survey is intended to provide a useful support for other structural analysis, in conservation as well as for restoration studies. However, survey in architecture is still a very complex operation both from a methodological and a practical point of view: it requires a critical interpretation of the artefacts and a deep knowledge of the existing techniques and technologies, which often are very different but need to be integrated within a single general framework. This paper describes the first results of the survey conducted on the church of San Geminiano in San Felice sul Panaro (Modena). Here, different tools and methods were used, in order to create a new system that integrates the most recent and cutting-edge technologies in the Geomatic field. The methodologies used were laser scanning, UAV photogrammetry and topography for the definition of the reference system. The present work will focus on the data acquisition and processing whit these techniques and their integration.

  14. Regional Air Toxics Modeling in California's San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martien, P. T.; Tanrikulu, S.; Tran, C.; Fairley, D.; Jia, Y.; Fanai, A.; Reid, S.; Yarwood, G.; Emery, C.

    2011-12-01

    Regional toxics modeling conducted for California's San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) estimated potential cancer risk from diesel particulate matter (DPM) and four key reactive toxic gaseous pollutants (1,3-butadiene, benzene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde). Concentrations of other non-cancerous gaseous toxic air contaminants, including acrolein, were also generated. In this study, meteorological fields generated from July and December periods in 2000 and emissions from 2005 provided inputs to a three-dimensional air quality model at high spatial resolution (1x1 km^2 grid), from which a baseline set of annual risk values was estimated. Simulated risk maps show highest annual average DPM concentrations and cancer risks were located near and downwind of major freeways and near the Port of Oakland, a major container port in the area. Population weighted risks, using 2000 census data, were found to be highest in highly urbanized areas adjacent to significant DPM sources. For summer, the ratio of mean measured elemental carbon to mean modeled DPM was 0.78, conforming roughly to expectations. But for winter the ratio is 1.13, suggesting other sources of elemental carbon, such as wood smoke, are important. Simulated annual estimates for benzene and 1-3, butadiene compared well to measured annual estimates. Simulated acrolein and formaldehyde significantly under-predicted observed values. Simulations repeated using projected 2015 toxic emissions predicted that potential cancer risk dropped significantly in all areas throughout the SFBA. Emissions estimates for 2015 included the State of California's recently adopted on-road truck rule. Emission estimates of DPM are projected to drop about 70% between 2005 and 2015 in the SFBA, with a commensurate reduction in potential cancer risks. However, due to projected shifts in population during this period, with urban densification close to DPM sources outpacing emission reductions, there are some areas where population-weighted risks

  15. 33 CFR 334.938 - Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. 334.938 Section 334.938 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.938 Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay..., Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island. The regulations in this section shall be enforced...

  16. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. 334.865 Section 334.865 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.865 Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. (a) The...

  17. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. 334.865 Section 334.865 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.865 Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. (a) The...

  18. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. 334.865 Section 334.865 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.865 Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. (a) The...

  19. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1)...

  20. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1)...

  1. 33 CFR 334.950 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.950 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. (a) The danger zones. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area beginning at China Point...

  2. 33 CFR 334.950 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.950 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. (a) The danger zones. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area beginning at China Point...

  3. 33 CFR 334.950 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.950 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. (a) The danger zones. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area beginning at China Point...

  4. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1)...

  5. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1)...

  6. 33 CFR 334.950 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.950 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. (a) The danger zones. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area beginning at China Point...

  7. 33 CFR 334.950 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.950 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. (a) The danger zones. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area beginning at China Point...

  8. 33 CFR 334.860 - San Diego Bay, Calif., Naval Amphibious Base; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false San Diego Bay, Calif., Naval Amphibious Base; restricted area. 334.860 Section 334.860 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.860 San Diego Bay, Calif., Naval Amphibious...

  9. 33 CFR 334.860 - San Diego Bay, Calif., Naval Amphibious Base; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false San Diego Bay, Calif., Naval Amphibious Base; restricted area. 334.860 Section 334.860 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.860 San Diego Bay, Calif., Naval Amphibious...

  10. 33 CFR 334.860 - San Diego Bay, Calif.; Naval Amphibious Base; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false San Diego Bay, Calif.; Naval Amphibious Base; restricted area. 334.860 Section 334.860 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.860 San Diego Bay, Calif.; Naval Amphibious...

  11. Timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and southern resource areas of California. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Waddell, K.L.; Bassett, P.M.

    1997-05-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and Southern Resource Areas of California. Data were collected as part of a statewide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National Forests. The National Forest System provided data from regional inventories of some areas. Area information for parks and other reserves was obtained directly from the organizations managing these areas. Statistical tables summarize all ownerships and provide estimates of land area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest. Estimates of periodic change of timberland area and timber volume are presented for all ownerships outside National Forests.

  12. Water resources of the Descanso Area, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duell, L.F., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Hydrologic information was collected during water year 1988 (October 1987 to September 1988) to evaluate the effects of current pumping on groundwater levels in the Descanso area in south-central San Diego County. Water year 1988 was a period of near-normal precipitation and runoff. The groundwater system in the area consists of aquifers in the metamorphic and granitic bedrock and in the overlying regolith (weathered bedrock). Most wells penetrate both aquifers, but the regolith is the source of most water pumped from wells. Groundwater storage in 1988 was estimated to be 800 to 2,000 acre-ft in the regolith and 300 to 3,000 acre-ft in bedrock. Recharge to the groundwater system from infiltration of precipitation and streamflow was estimated to be about 1,000 acre-ft. Pumpage, which was estimated to be 170 acre-ft, had little effect on groundwater storage. Water levels in wells were nearly the same at the end of the water year as at the beginning. Groundwater quality generally was suitable for domestic uses. Concentrations of iron and manganese , although nontoxic, exceeded California maximum contaminant levels for domestic drinking water in some wells. (USGS)

  13. The San Andreas Fault in the San Francisco Bay area, California: a geology fieldtrip guidebook to selected stops on public lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2005-01-01

    This guidebook contains a series of geology fieldtrips with selected destinations along the San Andreas Fault in part of the region that experienced surface rupture during the Great San Francisco Earthquake of 1906. Introductory materials present general information about the San Andreas Fault System, landscape features, and ecological factors associated with faults in the South Bay, Santa Cruz Mountains, the San Francisco Peninsula, and the Point Reyes National Seashore regions. Trip stops include roadside areas and recommended hikes along regional faults and to nearby geologic and landscape features that provide opportunities to make casual observations about the geologic history and landscape evolution. Destinations include the sites along the San Andreas and Calaveras faults in the San Juan Bautista and Hollister region. Stops on public land along the San Andreas Fault in the Santa Cruz Mountains in Santa Clara and Santa Cruz counties include in the Loma Prieta summit area, Forest of Nicene Marks State Park, Lexington County Park, Sanborn County Park, Castle Rock State Park, and the Mid Peninsula Open Space Preserve. Destinations on the San Francisco Peninsula and along the coast in San Mateo County include the Crystal Springs Reservoir area, Mussel Rock Park, and parts of Golden Gate National Recreation Area, with additional stops associated with the San Gregorio Fault system at Montara State Beach, the James F. Fitzgerald Preserve, and at Half Moon Bay. Field trip destinations in the Point Reyes National Seashore and vicinity provide information about geology and character of the San Andreas Fault system north of San Francisco.

  14. Deployment of the National Transparent Optical Network around the San Francisco Bay Area

    SciTech Connect

    McCammon, K.; Haigh, R.; Armstrong, G.

    1996-06-01

    We report on the deployment and initial operation of the National Transparent Optical Network, an experimental WDM network testbed around the San Francisco Bay Area, during the Optical Fiber Conference (OFC`96) held in San Jose, CA. The deployment aspects of the physical plant, optical and SONET layers are examined along with a discussion of broadband applications which utilized the network during the OFC`96 demonstration. The network features dense WDM technology, transparent optical routing technology using acousto- optic tunable filter based switches, and network modules with add/drop, multicast, and wavelength translation capabilities. The physical layer consisted of over 300 km of Sprint and Pacific Bell conventional single mode fiber which was amplified with I I optical amplifiers deployed in pre-amp, post-amp, and line amp configurations. An out-of-band control network provided datacom channels from remote equipment sites to the SONET network manager deployed at the San Jose Convention Center for the conference. Data transport over five wavelengths was achieved in the 1550 nm window using a variety of signal formats including analog and digital signal transmission on different wavelengths on the same fiber. The network operated throughout the week of OFC`96 and is still in operation today.

  15. Designing and managing the San Joaquin Valley Air Quality Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lagarias, J.S.; Sylte, W.W. )

    1991-09-01

    The field measurement phase of the San Joaquin Valley Air Quality Study, which was conducted in the summer of 1990, was the largest and most sophisticated study of its kind ever conducted in this country. The San Joaquin Valley has the nation's second worst overall air quality problem and is using the study results to conduct regional modeling to refine its control strategies. The study began in 1985 and will continue into the mid-1990s. The origins of the study, and the manner in which it is being funded and administered, reflect a unique and highly successful collaboration among several levels of government and the private sector. The temporary organizational structure formed to manage the study sets an interesting precedent for how political-level leaders can work effectively with the scientific community to conduct a long term technical study.

  16. High-resolution marine seismic reflection data from the San Francisco Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childs, Jonathan R.; Hart, Patrick; Bruns, Terry R.; Marlow, Michael S.; Sliter, Ray

    2000-01-01

    Between 1993 and 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey acquired high-resolution, marine seismic-reflection profile data across submerged portions of known and inferred upper crustal fault zones throughout the greater San Francisco Bay area. Surveys were conducted oversouth San Francisco Bay in the vicinity of the San Bruno shoal (roughly between the San Francisco and Oakland airports), over the offshore extension of the San Andreas fault system west of the Golden Gate, over the Hayward fault to Rodgers Creek fault step-over in San Pablo Bay, and over the Kirby Hills fault where it crosses the western Sacramento Delta. Reconnaissance profiles were acquired elsewhere throughout the San Francisco and San Pablo Bays. These data were acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey, Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team, under the auspices of the Central California/San Francisco Bay Earthquake Hazards Project. Analysis and interpretation of some of these profiles has been published by Marlow and others (1996, 1999). Further analysis and interpretation of these data are available in a USGS. Professional Paper Crustal Structure of the Coastal and Marine San Francisco Bay Region, T. Parsons, editor, http://geopubs.wr.usgs.gov/prof-paper/pp1658/ [link added 2012 mfd].

  17. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  18. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  19. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  20. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  1. Geologic map database of the El Mirage Lake area, San Bernardino and Los Angeles Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David M.; Bedford, David R.

    2000-01-01

    This geologic map database for the El Mirage Lake area describes geologic materials for the dry lake, parts of the adjacent Shadow Mountains and Adobe Mountain, and much of the piedmont extending south from the lake upward toward the San Gabriel Mountains. This area lies within the western Mojave Desert of San Bernardino and Los Angeles Counties, southeastern California. The area is traversed by a few paved highways that service the community of El Mirage, and by numerous dirt roads that lead to outlying properties. An off-highway vehicle area established by the Bureau of Land Management encompasses the dry lake and much of the land north and east of the lake. The physiography of the area consists of the dry lake, flanking mud and sand flats and alluvial piedmonts, and a few sharp craggy mountains. This digital geologic map database, intended for use at 1:24,000-scale, describes and portrays the rock units and surficial deposits of the El Mirage Lake area. The map database was prepared to aid in a water-resource assessment of the area by providing surface geologic information with which deepergroundwater-bearing units may be understood. The area mapped covers the Shadow Mountains SE and parts of the Shadow Mountains, Adobe Mountain, and El Mirage 7.5-minute quadrangles. The map includes detailed geology of surface and bedrock deposits, which represent a significant update from previous bedrock geologic maps by Dibblee (1960) and Troxel and Gunderson (1970), and the surficial geologic map of Ponti and Burke (1980); it incorporates a fringe of the detailed bedrock mapping in the Shadow Mountains by Martin (1992). The map data were assembled as a digital database using ARC/INFO to enable wider applications than traditional paper-product geologic maps and to provide for efficient meshing with other digital data bases prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey's Southern California Areal Mapping Project.

  2. Hydrogeologic characterization of the Modesto Area, San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burow, Karen R.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Hevesi, Joseph A.; Weissmann, Gary S.

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogeologic characterization was done to develop an understanding of the hydrogeologic setting near Modesto by maximizing the use of existing data and building on previous work in the region. A substantial amount of new lithologic and hydrologic data are available that allow a more complete and updated characterization of the aquifer system. In this report, geologic units are described, a database of well characteristics and lithology is developed and used to update the regional stratigraphy, a water budget is estimated for water year 2000, a three-dimensional spatial correlation map of aquifer texture is created, and recommendations for future data collection are summarized. The general physiography of the study area is reflected in the soils. The oldest soils, which have low permeability, exist in terrace deposits, in the interfan areas between the Stanislaus, Tuolumne, and Merced Rivers, at the distal end of the fans, and along the San Joaquin River floodplain. The youngest soils have high permeability and generally have been forming on the recently deposited alluvium along the major stream channels. Geologic materials exposed or penetrated by wells in the Modesto area range from pre-Cretaceous rocks to recent alluvium; however, water-bearing materials are mostly Late Tertiary and Quaternary in age. A database containing information from more than 3,500 drillers'logs was constructed to organize information on well characteristics and subsurface lithology in the study area. The database was used in conjunction with a limited number of geophysical logs and county soil maps to define the stratigraphic framework of the study area. Sequences of red paleosols were identified in the database and used as stratigraphic boundaries. Associated with these paleosols are very coarse grained incised valley-fill deposits. Some geophysical well logs and other sparse well information suggest the presence of one of these incised valley-fill deposits along and adjacent to the

  3. 75 FR 41819 - Reorganization/Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 61 San Juan, Puerto Rico, Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Reorganization/Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 61 San Juan, Puerto Rico, Area...), the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) adopts the following Order: Whereas, the Puerto Rico Trade... (proposed Sites 14, 15 and 16) in the San Juan, Puerto Rico, area within and adjacent to the San...

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls in the exterior caulk of San Francisco Bay Area buildings, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Klosterhaus, Susan; McKee, Lester J; Yee, Donald; Kass, Jamie M; Wong, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Extensive evidence of the adverse impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to wildlife, domestic animals, and humans has now been documented for over 40 years. Despite the ban on production and new use of PCBs in the United States in 1979, a number of fish consumption advisories remain in effect, and there remains considerable uncertainty regarding ongoing environmental sources and management alternatives. Using a blind sampling approach, 25 caulk samples were collected from the exterior of ten buildings in the San Francisco Bay Area and analyzed for PCBs using congener-specific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and chlorine using portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF). PCBs were detected in 88% of the caulk samples collected from the study area buildings, with 40% exceeding 50 ppm. Detectable PCB concentrations ranged from 1 to 220,000 ppm. These data are consistent with previous studies in other cities that have identified relatively high concentrations of PCBs in concrete and masonry buildings built between 1950 and 1980. Portable XRF was not a good predictor of the PCB content in caulk and the results indicate that portable XRF analysis may only be useful for identifying caulk that contains low concentrations of Cl (≤ 10,000 ppm) and by extension low or no PCBs. A geographic information system-based approach was used to estimate that 10,500 kg of PCBs remain in interior and exterior caulk in buildings located in the study area, which equates to an average of 4.7 kg PCBs per building. The presence of high concentrations in the exterior caulk of currently standing buildings suggests that building caulk may be an ongoing source of PCBs to the San Francisco Bay Area environment. Further studies to expand the currently small international dataset on PCBs in caulking materials in buildings of countries that produced or imported PCBs appear justified in the context of both human health and possible ongoing environmental release. PMID:24518434

  5. Map Showing Susceptibility to Earthquake-Induced Landsliding, San Juan Metropolitan Area, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Santiago, Marilyn; Larsen, Matthew C.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of slope angle and rock type using a geographic information system indicates that about 68 percent of the San Juan metropolitan area has low to no susceptibility to earthquake-induced landslides. This is at least partly due to the fact that 45 percent of the San Juan metropolitan area is constructed on slopes of 3 degrees or less, which are too gentle for landslides to occur. The areas with the highest susceptibility to earthquake-induced landslides account for 6 percent of the surface area. Almost one-quarter (24 percent) of the San Juan metropolitan area is moderately susceptible to earthquake-induced landslides. These areas are mainly in the southern portions of the San Juan metropolitan area, where housing development pressures are currently high because of land availability and the esthetics of greenery and hillside views. The combination of new development and moderate earthquake-induced landslide susceptibility indicate that the southern portions of the San Juan metropolitan area are be at greatest risk.

  6. 33 CFR 165.1152 - San Pedro Bay, California-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Navigation Area (RNA) consists of the water area enclosed by the Los Angeles-Long Beach breakwater and a line... 118°10.80′ W (2) The San Pedro Bay RNA consists of the following named sub-areas, defined by lines... 12 knots through the water within the RNA. (2) A vessel navigating within the RNA, shall have...

  7. 33 CFR 165.1152 - San Pedro Bay, California-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Navigation Area (RNA) consists of the water area enclosed by the Los Angeles-Long Beach breakwater and a line... 118°10.80′ W (2) The San Pedro Bay RNA consists of the following named sub-areas, defined by lines... 12 knots through the water within the RNA. (2) A vessel navigating within the RNA, shall have...

  8. 33 CFR 165.1152 - San Pedro Bay, California-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Navigation Area (RNA) consists of the water area enclosed by the Los Angeles-Long Beach breakwater and a line... 118°10.80′ W (2) The San Pedro Bay RNA consists of the following named sub-areas, defined by lines... 12 knots through the water within the RNA. (2) A vessel navigating within the RNA, shall have...

  9. 33 CFR 165.1152 - San Pedro Bay, California-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Navigation Area (RNA) consists of the water area enclosed by the Los Angeles-Long Beach breakwater and a line... 118°10.80′ W (2) The San Pedro Bay RNA consists of the following named sub-areas, defined by lines... 12 knots through the water within the RNA. (2) A vessel navigating within the RNA, shall have...

  10. 33 CFR 165.1152 - San Pedro Bay, California-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Navigation Area (RNA) consists of the water area enclosed by the Los Angeles-Long Beach breakwater and a line... 118°10.80′ W (2) The San Pedro Bay RNA consists of the following named sub-areas, defined by lines... 12 knots through the water within the RNA. (2) A vessel navigating within the RNA, shall have...

  11. 33 CFR 334.938 - Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. 334.938 Section 334.938 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.938...

  12. 33 CFR 334.938 - Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. 334.938 Section 334.938 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.938...

  13. 33 CFR 334.938 - Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. 334.938 Section 334.938 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.938...

  14. Geology of the Red House Cliffs area, San Juan County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullens, Thomas E.

    1955-01-01

    The Red Cliffs area comprises 296 square miles of canyon and plateau country in southwestern San Juan County, Utah.  The rocks that crop out in the area are mostly deposits of terrestrial environment and are of Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, and Quaternary ages.  The aggregate thickness of these rock is about 3,500 feet.

  15. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Naval Air Station North Island... REGULATIONS § 334.865 Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. (a) The area... designee. (6) When security conditions dictate, Naval security forces may impose strict enforcement...

  16. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Naval Air Station North Island... REGULATIONS § 334.865 Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. (a) The area... designee. (6) When security conditions dictate, Naval security forces may impose strict enforcement...

  17. Optimal pumping strategies for managing shallow, poorquality groundwater, western San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barlow, P.; Wagner, B.; Belitz, K.

    1995-01-01

    Continued agricultural productivity in the western San Joaquin Valley, California, is threatened by the presence of shallow, poor-quality groundwater that can cause soil salinization. We evaluate the management alternative of using groundwater pumping to control the altitude of the water table and provide irrigation water requirements. A transient, three-dimensional, groundwater flow model was linked with nonlinear optimization to simulate management alternatives for the groundwater flow system. Optimal pumping strategies have been determined that substantially reduce the area subject to a shallow water table and bare-soil evaporation (that is, areas with a water table within 2.1 m of land surface) and the rate of drainflow to on-farm drainage systems. Optimal pumping strategies are constrained by the existing distribution of wells between the semiconfined and confined zones of the aquifer, by the distribution of sediment types (and associated hydraulic conductivities) in the western valley, and by the historical distribution of pumping throughout the western valley.

  18. Real-Time GPS Monitoring for Earthquake Rapid Assessment in the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillemot, C.; Langbein, J. O.; Murray, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Science Center has deployed a network of eight real-time Global Positioning System (GPS) stations in the San Francisco Bay area and is implementing software applications to continuously evaluate the status of the deformation within the network. Real-time monitoring of the station positions is expected to provide valuable information for rapidly estimating source parameters should a large earthquake occur in the San Francisco Bay area. Because earthquake response applications require robust data access, as a first step we have developed a suite of web-based applications which are now routinely used to monitor the network's operational status and data streaming performance. The web tools provide continuously updated displays of important telemetry parameters such as data latency and receive rates, as well as source voltage and temperature information within each instrument enclosure. Automated software on the backend uses the streaming performance data to mitigate the impact of outages, radio interference and bandwidth congestion on deformation monitoring operations. A separate set of software applications manages the recovery of lost data due to faulty communication links. Displacement estimates are computed in real-time for various combinations of USGS, Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and Bay Area Regional Deformation (BARD) network stations. We are currently comparing results from two software packages (one commercial and one open-source) used to process 1-Hz data on the fly and produce estimates of differential positions. The continuous monitoring of telemetry makes it possible to tune the network to minimize the impact of transient interruptions of the data flow, from one or more stations, on the estimated positions. Ongoing work is focused on using data streaming performance history to optimize the quality of the position, reduce drift and outliers by switching to the best set of stations within the network, and

  19. Top-down methane emissions estimates for the San Francisco Bay Area from 1990 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairley, David; Fischer, Marc L.

    2015-04-01

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) that is now included in both California State and San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) bottom-up emission inventories as part of California's effort to reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions. Here we provide a top-down estimate of methane (CH4) emissions from the SFBA by combining atmospheric measurements with the comparatively better estimated emission inventory for carbon monoxide (CO). Local enhancements of CH4 and CO are estimated using measurements from 14 air quality sites in the SFBA combined together with global background measurements. Mean annual CH4 emissions are estimated from the product of Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD) emission inventory CO and the slope of ambient local CH4 to CO. The resulting top-down estimates of CH4 emissions are found to decrease slightly from 1990 to 2012, with a mean value of 240 ± 60 GgCH4 yr-1 (at 95% confidence) in the most recent (2009-2012) period, and correspond to reasonably a constant factor of 1.5-2.0 (at 95% confidence) times larger than the BAAQMD CH4 emission inventory. However, we note that uncertainty in these emission estimates is dominated by the variation in CH4:CO enhancement ratios across the observing sites and we expect the estimates could represent a lower-limit on CH4 emissions because BAAQMD monitoring sites focus on urban air quality and may be biased toward CO rather than CH4 sources.

  20. Reach: A Multicultural Education Resource Handbook for the San Francisco Bay Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Vivian; Tricamo, Terese

    The guide will help elementary and secondary school teachers to identify resources for multicultural education in the San Francisco Bay Area. Over 250 entries are included about American Indians, Mexican Americans, Chinese and Japanese Americans, Greek Americans, Jews, and Afro Americans, the groups most thoroughly represented. Almost every entry…

  1. ASBESTOS IN DRINKING WATER AND CANCER INCIDENCE IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Age-adjusted, sex- and race-specific 1969-1971 cancer incidence ratios for the 722 census tracts of the San Francisco-Oakland Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area were compared with measured chrysotile asbestos counts in tract drinking waters. The water supplies serving the are...

  2. The State of Latino Education in the San Francisco Bay Area: A Crisis in Student Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chacon, Mario

    A study examined educational attainment among Latino students in the six-county San Francisco Bay Area. California's Standardized Testing and Reporting (STAR) Program results for 1998-99 were used to assess student achievement in reading and mathematics for grades 4, 7, and 10. Data were also collected on enrollment, dropout rates, percentage of…

  3. Planning for airport access: An analysis of the San Francisco Bay area. Technological options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Current transportation technology and expected technological trends are reviewed. These technologies are assessed within the framework of the airport access system in the San Francisco Bay area. Four types of technological options are considered: (1) automotive systems, (2) commuter air systems, (3) automated guideways, and (4) water systems.

  4. Planning for airport access: An analysis of the San Francisco Bay area. The setting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The regional setting for the three San Franscisco Bay area airports is described. The general role of the airports in the national air transportation system, the demand for air transportation, and the relationship of airport location to the demand for air transportation are examined. The problem of airport access is also considered. Various access modes, their destination, frequency, and cost are presented.

  5. 78 FR 58266 - Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; California; San Joaquin Valley, South...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; California; San Joaquin... standard. DATES: The proposed rule published on August 27, 2009 (74 FR 43654) is withdrawn with respect to...-4102, israels.ken@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On August 27, 2009 (74 FR 43654), EPA...

  6. Slip rates on San Francisco Bay area faults from anelastic deformation of the continental lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geist, Eric L.; Andrews, D. J.

    2000-11-01

    Long-term slip rates on major faults in the San Francisco Bay area are predicted by modeling the anelastic deformation of the continental lithosphere in response to regional relative plate motion. The model developed by Bird and Kong [1994] is used to simulate lithospheric deformation according to a Coulomb frictional rheology of the upper crust and a dislocation creep rheology at depth. The focus of this study is the long-term motion of faults in a region extending from the creeping section of the San Andreas fault to the south up to the latitude of Cape Mendocino to the north. Boundary conditions are specified by the relative motion between the Pacific plate and the Sierra Nevada-Great Valley microplate [Argus and Gordon, 2000]. Rheologic-frictional parameters are specified as independent variables, and prediction errors are calculated with respect to geologic estimates of slip rates and maximum compressive stress directions. The model that best explains the region-wide observations is one in which the coefficient of friction on all of the major faults is less than 0.15, with the coefficient of friction for the San Andreas fault being approximately 0.09, consistent with previous inferences of San Andreas fault friction. Prediction error increases with lower fault friction on the San Andreas, indicating a lower bound of μSAF > 0.08. Discrepancies with respect to previous slip rate estimates include a higher than expected slip rate along the peninsula segment of the San Andreas fault and a slightly lower than expected slip rate along the San Gregorio fault.

  7. Fault zone connectivity: slip rates on faults in the san francisco bay area, california.

    PubMed

    Bilham, R; Bodin, P

    1992-10-01

    The slip rate of a fault segment is related to the length of the fault zone of which it is part. In turn, the slip rate of a fault zone is related to its connectivity with adjoining or contiguous fault zones. The observed variation in slip rate on fault segments in the San Francisco Bay area in California is consistent with connectivity between the Hayward, Calaveras, and San Andreas fault zones. Slip rates on the southern Hayward fault taper northward from a maximum of more than 10 millimeters per year and are sensitive to the active length of the Maacama fault. PMID:17835127

  8. 33 CFR 334.1160 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. 334.1160 Section 334.1160 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1160 San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. (a) The danger zone. A sector in San Pablo Bay adjacent to the westerly shore of Mare Island with a...

  9. 33 CFR 334.1160 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. 334.1160 Section 334.1160 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1160 San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. (a) The danger zone. A sector in San Pablo Bay adjacent to the westerly shore of Mare Island with a...

  10. The role of tidal marsh restoration in fish management in the San Francisco Estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herbold, Bruce; Baltz, Donald; Brown, Larry R.; Grossinger, Robin; Kimmerer, Wim J.; Lehman, Peggy W.; Moyle, Peter B.; Nobriga, Matthew L.; Simenstad, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Tidal marsh restoration is an important management issue in the San Francisco Estuary (estuary). Restoration of large areas of tidal marsh is ongoing or planned in the lower estuary (up to 6,000 ha, Callaway et al. 2011). Large areas are proposed for restoration in the upper estuary under the Endangered Species Act biological opinions (3,237 ha) and the Bay Delta Conservation Plan (26,305 ha). In the lower estuary, tidal marsh has proven its value to a wide array of species that live within it (Palaima 2012). In the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta (Delta), one important function ascribed to restoration of freshwater tidal marshes is that they make large contributions to the food web of fish in open waters (BDCP 2013). The Ecosystem Restoration Program ascribed a suite of ecological functions to tidal marsh restoration, including habitat and food web benefits to native fish (CDFW 2010). This background was the basis for a symposium, Tidal Marshes and Native Fishes in the Delta: Will Restoration Make a Difference? held at the University of California, Davis, on June 10, 2013. This paper summarizes conclusions the authors drew from the symposium.

  11. Maps of the Bonsall area of the San Luis Rey River valley, San Diego County, California, showing geology, hydrology, and ground-water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.

    1985-01-01

    In November 1984, 84 wells and 1 spring in the Bonsall area of the San Luis Rey River valley were inventoried by U.S. Geological Survey personnel. Depth to water in 38 wells ranged from 1.3 to 38 ft and 23 wells had depths to water less than 10 feet. Dissolved solids concentration of water from 29 wells and 1 spring sampled in autumn 1983 and spring 1984 ranged from 574 to 2,370 mgs/L. Groundwater with a dissolved solids concentration less than 1,000 mgs/L was generally restricted to the eastern part of the aquifer. The total volume of alluvial fill in the Bonsall area is 113,000 acre-feet; the amount of groundwater storage available in the alluvial aquifer is 18,000 acre-feet. The alluvial aquifer is, in part, surrounded and underlain by colluvium and weathered crystalline rock that add some additional groundwater storage capacity to the system. Data in this report are presented on five maps showing well locations , thickness of alluvial fill, water level contours in November 1983 and hydrographs of selected wells, groundwater quality in spring 1960 and graphs showing changes in dissolved solids concentrations of water from selected wells with time, and groundwater quality in spring 1984. This report is part of a larger cooperative project between the Rainbow Municipal Irrigation District and the U.S. Geological Survey. The purpose of the larger project is to develop an appropriate groundwater management plan for the Bonsall area of the San Luis Rey River valley. (USGS)

  12. External impacts of an intraurban air transportation system in the San Francisco Bay area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, J. Y.; Gebman, J. R.; Kirkwood, T. F.; Mcclure, P. T.; Stucker, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    The effects are studied of an intraurban V/STOL commuter system on the economic, social, and physical environment of the San Francisco Bay Area. The Bay Area was chosen mainly for a case study; the real intent of the analysis is to develop methods by which the effects of such a system could be evaluated for any community. Aspects of the community life affected include: income and employment, benefits and costs, noise, air pollution, and road congestion.

  13. 78 FR 53477 - Notice of Relocation of the Bureau of Land Management's San Pedro Project Office in Sierra Vista, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Relocation of the Bureau of Land Management's San Pedro Project Office in Sierra Vista, AZ AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces the relocation of the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) San......

  14. Climate Change and Conservation Planning in California: The San Francisco Bay Area Upland Habitat Goals Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branciforte, R.; Weiss, S. B.; Schaefer, N.

    2008-12-01

    Climate change threatens California's vast and unique biodiversity. The Bay Area Upland Habitat Goals is a comprehensive regional biodiversity assessment of the 9 counties surrounding San Francisco Bay, and is designing conservation land networks that will serve to protect, manage, and restore that biodiversity. Conservation goals for vegetation, rare plants, mammals, birds, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and invertebrates are set, and those goals are met using the optimization algorithm MARXAN. Climate change issues are being considered in the assessment and network design in several ways. The high spatial variability at mesoclimatic and topoclimatic scales in California creates high local biodiversity, and provides some degree of local resiliency to macroclimatic change. Mesoclimatic variability from 800 m scale PRISM climatic norms is used to assess "mesoclimate spaces" in distinct mountain ranges, so that high mesoclimatic variability, especially local extremes that likely support range limits of species and potential climatic refugia, can be captured in the network. Quantitative measures of network resiliency to climate change include the spatial range of key temperature and precipitation variables within planning units. Topoclimatic variability provides a finer-grained spatial patterning. Downscaling to the topoclimatic scale (10-50 m scale) includes modeling solar radiation across DEMs for predicting maximum temperature differentials, and topographic position indices for modeling minimum temperature differentials. PRISM data are also used to differentiate grasslands into distinct warm and cool types. The overall conservation strategy includes local and regional connectivity so that range shifts can be accommodated.

  15. Mineral resources of the San Rafael Swell Wilderness Study Areas, including Muddy Creek, Crack Canyon, San Rafael Reef, Mexican Mountain, and Sids Mountain Wilderness Study Areas, Emery County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Bartsch-Winkler, S.; Dickerson, R.P.; Barton, H.W.; McCafferty, A.E.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Koyuncu, H.; Lee, K.; Duval, J.S. ); Munts, S.R.; Benjamin, D.A.; Close, T.J.; Lipton, D.A.; Neumann, T.R.; Willet, S.L. )

    1990-09-01

    This paper reports on the San Rafael Swell Wilderness Study areas, which includes the Muddy Creek, Crack Canyon, San Rafael Reef, Mexican Mountain, and Sids Mountain Wilderness Study Areas, in Emery County, south-central Utah. Within and near the Crack Canyon Wilderness Study Area are identified subeconomic uranium and vanadium resources. Within the Carmel Formation are inferred subeconomic resources of gypsum in the Muddy Creek, San Rafael Reef, and Sids Mountain Wilderness Study Areas. Other commodities evaluated include geothermal energy, gypsum, limestone, oil and gas, sand and gravel, sandstone, semiprecious gemstones, sulfur petrified wood, and tar sand.

  16. System designed for issuing landslide alerts in the San Francisco Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finley, D.

    1987-01-01

    A system for forecasting landslides during major storms has been developed for the San Francisco Bay area by the U.S Geological Survey and was successfully tested during heavy storms in the bay area during February 1986. Based on the forecasts provided by the USGS, the National Weather Service (NWS) included landslide warnings in its regular weather forecasts or in special weather statements transmitted to local radio and television stations and other news media. USGS scientists said the landslide forecasting and warning system for the San Francisco Bay area can be used as a prototype in developing similar systems for other parts of the Nation susceptible to landsliding. Studies show damage from landslides in the United States averages an estimated $1.5 billion per year. 

  17. Near-Surface Structure of the Peninsula Segment of the San Andreas Fault, San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, C.; Catchings, R.; Rymer, M. J.; Goldman, M.; Grove, K.; Prentice, C. S.

    2013-12-01

    The peninsula segment of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) is a section of the fault that has the potential to produce the next large earthquake in the San Francisco Bay Area, yet the slip history of the peninsula segment is relatively unknown. In most places, the surface location of the SAF has been determined primarily on the basis of geomorphic features and from mapping surface ruptures associated with the 1906 M7.9 San Francisco earthquake. To more precisely locate traces of the SAF along the San Francisco peninsula in the subsurface, we acquired a high-resolution seismic imaging survey, using both seismic refraction and reflection profiling, south of Upper Crystal Springs Reservoir near Woodside, California in June 2012. We acquired coincident P- and S-wave data using a 60-channel seismograph system connected via cable to 40-Hz vertical-component and 4-Hz horizontal-component geophones, with spacing at 1-m intervals along a 60-m-long transect across the SAF. Seismic sources (shots) were generated by hammer impacts on a steel plate or aluminum block at each geophone location. All shots were recorded on all channels. This survey design permitted simultaneous acquisition of reflection and refraction data such that both refraction tomography and reflection images were developed. Analysis of the P- and S-wave data, using refraction tomography, shows abrupt variations in the P-wave (Vp) and S-wave (Vs) velocities, including the 1,500 m/s velocity contour that outlines the top to groundwater and images of Vp/Vs and Poisson's ratios. P-wave velocities range from about 700 m/s at the surface to more than 4000 m/s at 20-m depth. S-wave velocities range from about 300 m/s at the surface to about 800 m/s at 20-m depth. The combined data indicate that the near-surface trace of the SAF dips steeply to the southwest in the upper few tens of meters. Variations in the velocity images also suggest the possibility of two additional near-surface fault traces within about 25 m of the

  18. The densest meteorite collection area in hot deserts: The San Juan meteorite field (Atacama Desert, Chile)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattacceca, Jérôme; Valenzuela, Millarca; Uehara, Minoru; Jull, A. J. Timothy; Giscard, Marlène; Rochette, Pierre; Braucher, Régis; Suavet, Clement; Gounelle, Matthieu; Morata, Diego; Munayco, Pablo; Bourot-Denise, Michèle; Bourles, Didier; Demory, François

    2011-09-01

    Abstract- We describe the geological, morphological, and climatic setting of the San Juan meteorite collection area in the Central Depression of the Atacama Desert (Chile). Our recovery activities yielded 48 meteorites corresponding to a minimum of 36 different falls within a 3.88 km2 area. The recovery density is in the range 9-12 falls km-2 depending on pairing, making it the densest among meteorite collection areas in hot deserts. This high meteorite concentration is linked to the long-standing hyperaridity of the area, the stability of the surface pebbles (> Ma), and very low erosion rates of surface pebbles (approximately 30 cm Ma-1 maximum). The San Juan meteorite population is characterized by old terrestrial ages that range from zero to beyond 40 ka, and limited weathering compared with other dense collection areas in hot desert. Chemical weathering in San Juan is slow and mainly controlled by the initial porosity of meteorites. As in the Antarctic and other hot deserts, there is an overabundance of H chondrites and a shortage of LL chondrites compared with the modern falls population, suggesting a recent (< few ka) change in the composition of the meteorite flux to Earth.

  19. Technical Analysis of In-Valley Drainage Management Strategies for the Western San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presser, Theresa S.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.

    2008-01-01

    The western San Joaquin Valley is one of the most productive farming areas in the United States, but salt-buildup in soils and shallow groundwater aquifers threatens this area?s productivity. Elevated selenium concentrations in soils and groundwater complicate drainage management and salt disposal. In this document, we evaluate constraints on drainage management and implications of various approaches to management considered in: *the San Luis Drainage Feature Re-Evaluation (SLDFRE) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (about 5,000 pages of documentation, including supporting technical reports and appendices); *recent conceptual plans put forward by the San Luis Unit (SLU) contractors (i.e., the SLU Plans) (about 6 pages of documentation); *approaches recommended by the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program (SJVDP) (1990a); and *other U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) models and analysis relevant to the western San Joaquin Valley. The alternatives developed in the SLDFRE EIS and other recently proposed drainage plans (refer to appendix A for details) differ from the strategies proposed by the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program (1990a). The Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) in March 2007 signed a record of decision for an in-valley disposal option that would retire 194,000 acres of land, build 1,900 acres of evaporation ponds, and develop a treatment system to remove salt and selenium from drainwater. The recently proposed SLU Plans emphasize pumping drainage to the surface, storing approximately 33% in agricultural water re-use areas, treating selenium through biotechnology, enhancing the evaporation of water to concentrate salt, and identifying ultimate storage facilities for the remaining approximately 67% of waste selenium and salt. The treatment sequence of reuse, reverse osmosis, selenium bio-treatment, and enhanced solar evaporation is unprecedented and untested at the scale needed to meet plan requirements. All drainage management strategies that have been proposed

  20. Benefits of an Advanced Quantitative Precipitation Information System - San Francisco Bay Area Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifelli, R.; Johnson, L. E.; White, A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Advancements in monitoring and prediction of precipitation and severe storms can provide significant benefits for water resource managers, allowing them to mitigate flood damage risks, capture additional water supplies and offset drought impacts, and enhance ecosystem services. A case study for the San Francisco Bay area provides the context for quantification of the benefits of an Advanced Quantitative Precipitation Information (AQPI) system. The AQPI builds off more than a decade of NOAA research and applications of advanced precipitation sensors, data assimilation, numerical models of storms and storm runoff, and systems integration for real-time operations. An AQPI would dovetail with the current National Weather Service forecast operations to provide higher resolution monitoring of rainfall events and longer lead time forecasts. A regional resource accounting approach has been developed to quantify the incremental benefits assignable to the AQPI system; these benefits total to $35 M/yr in the 9 county Bay region. Depending on the jurisdiction large benefits for flood damage avoidance may accrue for locations having dense development in flood plains. In other locations forecst=based reservoir operations can increase reservoir storage for water supplies. Ecosystem services benefits for fisheries may be obtained from increased reservoir storage and downstream releases. Benefits in the transporation sectors are associated with increased safety and avoided delays. Compared to AQPI system implementation and O&M costs over a 10 year operations period, a benefit - cost (B/C) ratio is computed which ranges between 2.8 to 4. It is important to acknowledge that many of the benefits are dependent on appropriate and adequate response by the hazards and water resources management agencies and citizens.

  1. Geologic Map of the San Luis Hills Area, Conejos and Costilla Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Ren A.; Machette, Michael N.

    1989-01-01

    This report is a digital image of the U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-1906, 'Geologic map of the San Luis Hills area, Conejos and Costilla Counties, Colorado,' which was published in 1989 by Thompson and Machette, scale 1:50,000 but has been unavailable in a digital version. The map area represents the southwestern portion of the Alamosa 30' x 60' quadrangle, which is currently being remapped by the U.S. Geological Survey. The northern and eastern margins of the San Luis Hills area have been remapped at greater detail and thus small portions of the map area have been updated. The northern margin is shown on U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1392, the northeastern portion is shown on U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1124, and the eastern margin is shown on U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2007-1074. The most significant changes to the 1989 map area are recognition of Lake Alamosa and its deposits (Alamosa Formation), remapping of bedrock in the northeastern San Luis Hills, and redating of volcanic units in the San Luis Hills. Although unpublished, new 40Ar/39Ar ages for volcanic units in the Conejos and Hinsdale Formations add precision to the previous K/Ar-dated rocks, but do not change the basic chronology of the units. The digital version of this map was prepared by Theodore R. Brandt by scanning the original map at 300 pixels per inch, prior to creating the press-quality (96 Mb) and standard (5 Mb) .pdf files.

  2. Top-down methane emissions estimates for the San Francisco Bay Area from 1990 to 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Fairley, David; Fischer, Marc L.

    2015-01-30

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) that is now included in both California State and San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) bottom-up emission inventories as part of California's effort to reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions. Here we provide a top-down estimate of methane (CH4) emissions from the SFBA by combining atmospheric measurements with the comparatively better estimated emission inventory for carbon monoxide (CO). Local enhancements of CH4 and CO are estimated using measurements from 14 air quality sites in the SFBA combined together with global background measurements. Mean annual CH4 emissions are estimated from the product of Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD) emission inventory CO and the slope of ambient local CH4 to CO. The resulting top-down estimates of CH4 emissions are found to decrease slightly from 1990 to 2012, with a mean value of 240 ± 60 GgCH4 yr⁻¹ (at 95% confidence) in the most recent (2009–2012) period, and correspond to reasonably a constant factor of 1.5–2.0 (at 95% confidence) times larger than the BAAQMD CH4 emission inventory. However, we note that uncertainty in these emission estimates is dominated by the variation in CH4:CO enhancement ratios across the observing sites and we expect the estimates could represent a lower-limit on CH4 emissions because BAAQMD monitoring sites focus on urban air quality and may be biased toward CO rather than CH4 sources.

  3. Top-down methane emissions estimates for the San Francisco Bay Area from 1990 to 2012

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fairley, David; Fischer, Marc L.

    2015-01-30

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) that is now included in both California State and San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) bottom-up emission inventories as part of California's effort to reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions. Here we provide a top-down estimate of methane (CH4) emissions from the SFBA by combining atmospheric measurements with the comparatively better estimated emission inventory for carbon monoxide (CO). Local enhancements of CH4 and CO are estimated using measurements from 14 air quality sites in the SFBA combined together with global background measurements. Mean annual CH4 emissions are estimated from the product of Bay Area Air Qualitymore » Management District (BAAQMD) emission inventory CO and the slope of ambient local CH4 to CO. The resulting top-down estimates of CH4 emissions are found to decrease slightly from 1990 to 2012, with a mean value of 240 ± 60 GgCH4 yr⁻¹ (at 95% confidence) in the most recent (2009–2012) period, and correspond to reasonably a constant factor of 1.5–2.0 (at 95% confidence) times larger than the BAAQMD CH4 emission inventory. However, we note that uncertainty in these emission estimates is dominated by the variation in CH4:CO enhancement ratios across the observing sites and we expect the estimates could represent a lower-limit on CH4 emissions because BAAQMD monitoring sites focus on urban air quality and may be biased toward CO rather than CH4 sources.« less

  4. Managing Runoff from Cropland Areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop yields may be negatively impacted if excessive amounts of runoff are lost from agricultural areas. Nutrients, pesticides, and pathogens transported in runoff can contribute to environmental concerns within streams and lakes. Therefore, it is important to properly manage runoff from cropland are...

  5. Lessons for Integrated Water Resources Management from the San Pedro HELP Basin on the U.S.-Mexico Border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, A.; Goodrich, D.; Varady, R.; Richter, H.

    2007-12-01

    The San Pedro Basin sits within an intermountain ecotone with the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts to the west and east and the Rocky Mountain and Sierra Madre Mountain habitats to the north and south. The headwaters of the basin originate in northern Sonora and flow north into southeast Arizona. As the region's only remaining perennial stream, the San Pedro River serves as an international flyway for over 400 bird species. It is one of the western hemisphere's most ecologically diverse areas with some 20 different biotic communities, and "possesses one of the richest assemblages of land mammal species in the world." Large mining, military, and municipal entities are major users of the same groundwater resources that maintain perennial flow in the San Pedro. This presentation describes empirical evidence of the positive impacts on watershed management of scientists and policy researchers working closely with water managers and elected officials in a functioning HELP basin. We posit that when hydrologists help watershed groups understand the processes controlling water quality and quantity, and when managers and stakeholders connect these processes to social, economic and legal issues then transboundary cooperation in policymaking and water management is most effective. The distinctive physical and socioeconomic characteristics of the basin as well as differences in institutional regulations, water law issues, and their local implementations in Arizona and Sonora are discussed. We illustrate how stakeholders and scientific researchers in both countries strive to balance ecosystem needs with human demands to create new, integrated basin management. Finally, we describe how the accomplishments of the San Pedro collaborative process, including the use of environmental-conflict-resolution tools, have contributed to the UNESCO HELP (Hydrology for the Environment, Life, and Policy) agenda.

  6. Look before you build; geologic studies for safer land development in the San Francisco Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blair-Tyler, Martha

    1995-01-01

    This Circular provides a general description of the types of geologic hazards that exist throughout the United States. In nontechnical language this book describes how geologic information can be incorporated in the land-use development process and contains useful discussion of several examples from the San Francisco Bay area and elsewhere in the United States of how geologic information is already being used in the development process by some cities and counties.

  7. Chemistry and isotopic composition of ground water along a section near the Newmark area, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.; Danskin, Wesley R.; Mendez, Gregory O.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical and isotopic analyses and flow-meter measurements in pumped wells were used to determine the source, movement, and age of ground water along a section of the valley-fill aquifer from the San Jacinto Fault to the base of the San Bernardino Mountains near the Newmark area in the Bunker Hill Basin of southern California. Water samples were collected from four multiple-depth well sites, from different depths within three production wells, and from two nearby streams; these samples were analyzed for major ions, selected trace elements, stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen (delta oxygen-18 and delta deuterium), tritium, and carbon-14. Within the production wells, variations in vertical flowrate with depth were recorded during pumped conditions using a standard spinner tool. Where saturated, the upper 200 feet of unconsolidated deposits contributed as much as 60 percent of the well discharge; deposits at depths greater than 700 feet contributed less than 10 percent. Chemical analyses indicate that three general zones of ground-water quality are present along a north-south section--an oxygenated zone near the base of the San Bernardino Mountains, an oxygen-depleted zone near the San Jacinto Fault, and a deeper zone characterized by concentrations of fluoride greater than 1 mg/L and by a general water-quality composition similar to that of base flow in East Twin Creek. The presence of tritium in water from wells along the section indicates that post-1952 recharge has moved rapidly through the valley-fill aquifer to depths as great as 800 feet. Carbon-14 data indicate that the maximum age of ground water, sampled at depths ranging from 600 to 1,000 feet, is less than 5,000 years before present. Ground water along the study section is much younger than ground water from similar depths in other nearby basins. Delta oxygen-18 and delta deuterium data indicate that as much as 25 percent of the discharge from some wells near the base of the San Bernardino Mountains is

  8. 78 FR 48046 - Safety Zone; Kuoni Destination Management Fireworks; San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information The... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Kuoni Destination Management Fireworks; San... Management Fireworks Display on August 6, 2013. This temporary safety zone is necessary to provide for...

  9. The School Health Innovative Programs: Integrating School Health and Managed Care in San Diego.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taras, Howard; Nader, Philip; Swiger, Holly; Fontanesi, John

    1998-01-01

    Describes the first two years of a San Diego-based collaborative involving managed care organizations (MCO's), school districts, and other health care agencies. By establishing trust, developing overriding principles, and creating an interagency communication infrastructure, this collaborative has encouraged shared management of many student…

  10. 75 FR 28055 - General Management Plan; Joshua Tree National Park; San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, CA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... National Park Service General Management Plan; Joshua Tree National Park; San Bernardino and Riverside... Management Plan (GMP) for Joshua Tree National Park, California. The new GMP will update the overall..., Joshua Tree National Park, Joshua, 74485 National Park Drive, Twentynine Palms, California...

  11. Reconnaissance of geothermal resources near US naval facilities in the San Diego area, California

    SciTech Connect

    Youngs, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    A reconnaissance study has found little evidence of potential geothermal resources useful at naval facilities in the greater San Diego metropolitan area. However, there is a zone of modest elevated water well temperatures and slightly elevated thermal gradients that may include the eastern portion of the Imperial Beach Naval Air Station south of San Diego Bay. An increase of 0.3/sup 0/ to 0.4/sup 0/F/100 ft over the regional thermal gradient of 1.56/sup 0/F/100 ft was conservatively calculated for this zone. The thermal gradient can be used to predict 150/sup 0/F temperatures at a depth of approximately 4000 ft. This zone of greatest potential for a viable geothermal resource lies within a negative gravity anomaly thought to be caused by a tensionally developed graben, approximately centered over the San Diego Bay. Water well production in this zone is good to high, with 300 gpm often quoted as common for wells in this area. The concentration of total dissolved solids (TDS) in the deeper wells in this zone is relatively high due to intrusion of sea water. Productive geothermal wells may have to be drilled to depths economically infeasible for development of the resource in the area of discussion.

  12. Avian Monitoring and Risk Assessment at the San Gorgonio Wind Resource Area

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Tom, J.; Neumann, N.; Erickson, W. P.; Strickland, M. D.; Bourassa, M.; Bay, K. J.; Sernka, K. J.

    2005-08-01

    The primary objective of this study at the San Gorgonio Wind Resource Area was to estimate and compare bird utilization, fatality rates, and the risk index among factors including bird taxonomic groups, wind turbine and reference areas, wind turbine sizes and types, and geographic locations. The key questions addressed to meet this objective include: (1) Are there any differences in the level of bird activity, called ''utilization rate'' or ''use'', with the operating wind plant and within the surrounding undeveloped areas (reference area)?; (2) Are there any differences in the rate of bird fatalities (or avian fatality) within the operating wind plant or the surrounding undeveloped areas (reference area)?; (3) Does bird use, fatality rates, or bird risk index vary according to the geographic location, type and size of wind turbine, and/or type of bird within the operating wind plant and surrounding undeveloped areas (reference area)?; and (4) How do raptor fatality rates at San Gorgonio compare to other wind projects with comparable data?

  13. 50 CFR 665.798 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management area. 665.798 Section 665.798 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION....798 Management area. The western Pacific Pelagic fishery management area includes all areas of...

  14. 50 CFR 665.798 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management area. 665.798 Section 665.798 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION....798 Management area. The western Pacific Pelagic fishery management area includes all areas of...

  15. 50 CFR 665.798 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management area. 665.798 Section 665.798 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION....798 Management area. The western Pacific Pelagic fishery management area includes all areas of...

  16. 50 CFR 665.798 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management area. 665.798 Section 665.798 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION....798 Management area. The western Pacific Pelagic fishery management area includes all areas of...

  17. 50 CFR 665.798 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management area. 665.798 Section 665.798 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION....798 Management area. The western Pacific Pelagic fishery management area includes all areas of...

  18. 76 FR 72405 - San Fernando Valley Area 2 Superfund Site; Notice of Proposed Prospective Purchaser Agreement Re...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY San Fernando Valley Area 2 Superfund Site; Notice of Proposed Prospective Purchaser Agreement Re: 4057 and 4059 Goodwin Avenue, Los Angeles, CA AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)....

  19. Management of Environmental Risks in Coastal Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caprioli, M.; Trizzino, R.; Pagliarulo, R.; Scarano, M.; Mazzone, F.; Scognamiglio, A.

    2015-08-01

    The present work deals with the assessment and management of environmental risk conditions in a typical costal area of Southern Italy. This area, located in the Salento peninsula, is subject to recurrent widespread instability phenomena due to the presence of steep rocky cliffs. Along the coast there are numerous beach resorts that are very crowded in the summer season. The environmental hazard deriving from the possible rock falls is unacceptably high for the people safety. Moreover, the land-based mapping of the dangerous natural structures is very difficult and time and resources expending. In this context, we carried out an UAV survey along about 1 km of coast, near the towns of San Foca, Torre dell'Orso and Sant' Andrea ( Lecce, Southern Italy). The UAV platform was equipped with a photogrammetric measurement system that allowed us to obtain a mobile mapping of the fractured fronts of dangerous rocky cliffs. UAV-images data have been processed using dedicated software (Agisoft Photoscan). The total error obtained was of centimeter-order that is a very satisfactory result. The environmental information has been arranged in an ArcGIS platform in order to assess the risk levels. The possibility to repeat the survey at time intervals more or less close together depending on the measured levels of risk and to compare the output allows following the trend of the dangerous phenomena. In conclusion, for inaccessible locations of dangerous rocky bodies the UAV survey coupled with a GIS methodology proved to be a key engineering tool for the management of environmental risks.

  20. 78 FR 57878 - Notice of Availability of the Proposed Bureau of Land Management Tres Rios Field Office and San...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... visual resources including air and water quality; wildlife habitat; forests and woodlands; and other... Field Office and San Juan National Forest Land and Resource Management Plan/Final Environmental Impact... Resource Management Plan/Final Environmental Impact Statement (LRMP/Final EIS) for the San Juan...

  1. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from...

  2. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from...

  3. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from...

  4. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from...

  5. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from...

  6. Bottom-up, decision support system development : a wetlandsalinity management application in California's San Joaquin Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.

    2006-05-10

    Seasonally managed wetlands in the Grasslands Basin ofCalifornia's San Joaquin Valley provide food and shelter for migratorywildfowl during winter months and sport for waterfowl hunters during theannual duck season. Surface water supply to these wetland contain saltwhich, when drained to the San Joaquin River during the annual drawdownperiod, negatively impacts downstream agricultural riparian waterdiverters. Recent environmental regulation, limiting discharges salinityto the San Joaquin River and primarily targeting agricultural non-pointsources, now addresses return flows from seasonally managed wetlands.Real-time water quality management has been advocated as a means ofmatching wetland return flows to the assimilative capacity of the SanJoaquin River. Past attempts to build environmental monitoring anddecision support systems to implement this concept have failed forreasons that are discussed in this paper. These reasons are discussed inthe context of more general challenges facing the successfulimplementation of environmental monitoring, modelling and decisionsupport systems. The paper then provides details of a current researchand development project which will ultimately provide wetland managerswith the means of matching salt exports with the available assimilativecapacity of the San Joaquin River, when fully implemented. Manipulationof the traditional wetland drawdown comes at a potential cost to thesustainability of optimal wetland moist soil plant habitat in thesewetlands - hence the project provides appropriate data and a feedback andresponse mechanism for wetland managers to balance improvements to SanJoaquin River quality with internally-generated information on the healthof the wetland resource. The author concludes the paper by arguing thatthe architecture of the current project decision support system, whencoupled with recent advances in environmental data acquisition, dataprocessing and information dissemination technology, holds significantpromise

  7. Geodetic estimates of fault slip rates in the San Francisco Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.; Svarc, J.L.; Prescott, W.H.

    1999-01-01

    Bourne et al. [1998] have suggested that the interseismic velocity profile at the surface across a transform plate boundary is a replica of the secular velocity profile at depth in the plastosphere. On the other hand, in the viscoelastic coupling model the shape of the interseismic surface velocity profile is a consequence of plastosphere relaxation following the previous rupture of the faults that make up the plate boundary and is not directly related to the secular flow in the plastosphere. The two models appear to be incompatible. If the plate boundary is composed of several subparallel faults and the interseismic surface velocity profile across the boundary known, each model predicts the secular slip rates on the faults which make up the boundary. As suggested by Bourne et al., the models can then be tested by comparing the predicted secular slip rates to those estimated from long-term offsets inferred from geology. Here we apply that test to the secular slip rates predicted for the principal faults (San Andreas, San Gregorio, Hayward, Calaveras, Rodgers Creek, Green Valley and Greenville faults) in the San Andreas fault system in the San Francisco Bay area. The estimates from the two models generally agree with one another and to a lesser extent with the geologic estimate. Because the viscoelastic coupling model has been equally successful in estimating secular slip rates on the various fault strands at a diffuse plate boundary, the success of the model of Bourne et al. [1998] in doing the same thing should not be taken as proof that the interseismic velocity profile across the plate boundary at the surface is a replica of the velocity profile at depth in the plastosphere.

  8. Effects of Climate Change on Range Forage Production in the San Francisco Bay Area

    PubMed Central

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; George, Melvin R.

    2013-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay Area in California, USA is a highly heterogeneous region in climate, topography, and habitats, as well as in its political and economic interests. Successful conservation strategies must consider various current and future competing demands for the land, and should pay special attention to livestock grazing, the dominant non-urban land-use. The main objective of this study was to predict changes in rangeland forage production in response to changes in temperature and precipitation projected by downscaled output from global climate models. Daily temperature and precipitation data generated by four climate models were used as input variables for an existing rangeland forage production model (linear regression) for California’s annual rangelands and projected on 244 12 km x 12 km grid cells for eight Bay Area counties. Climate model projections suggest that forage production in Bay Area rangelands may be enhanced by future conditions in most years, at least in terms of peak standing crop. However, the timing of production is as important as its peak, and altered precipitation patterns could mean delayed germination, resulting in shorter growing seasons and longer periods of inadequate forage quality. An increase in the frequency of extremely dry years also increases the uncertainty of forage availability. These shifts in forage production will affect the economic viability and conservation strategies for rangelands in the San Francisco Bay Area. PMID:23472102

  9. Maps Showing Ground-Water Conditions in the San Francisco Peaks Area, Coconino County, Arizona - 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Appel, Cynthia L.; Bills, Donald J.

    1981-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The San Francisco Peaks area includes about 2,300 mi2, of which about 500 mi2 is in the Navajo Indian Reservation, in north-central Arizona. Ground-water development has been slight except for the public-supply wells for Flagstaff and domestic wells in Fort Valley, Pitman Valley, and the area west of Elden Mountain. The public water supply for Flagstaff is primarily from Upper Lake Mary but is supplemented by ground water from wells near Woody Mountain and Lower Lake Mary and from wells and springs in the Inner Basin. In 1978 about 2,000 acre-ft of ground water was withdrawn for public, industrial, domestic, and stock supplies in the San Francisco Peaks area. The hydrologic data on which these maps are based are available, for the most part, in computer-printout form and may be consulted at the Arizona Department of Water Resources, 99 East Virginia, Phoenix, and at U.S. Geological Survey offices in: Federal Building, 301 West Congress Street, Tucson; Valley Center, Suite 1880, Phoenix; and 2255 North Gemini Drive, Building 3, Flagstaff. Material from which copies can be made at private expense is available at the Tucson, Phoenix, and Flagstaff offices of the U.S. Geological Survey. Only the springs for which discharge data are available are shown on the maps, and only selected wells are shown in areas of high well density.

  10. Three-dimensional seismic velocity structure of the San Francisco Bay area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hole, J. A.; Brocher, T. M.; Klemperer, S. L.; Parsons, T.; Benz, H. M.; Furlong, K. P.

    2000-06-01

    Seismic travel times from the northern California earthquake catalogue and from the 1991 Bay Area Seismic Imaging Experiment (BASIX) refraction survey were used to obtain a three-dimensional model of the seismic velocity structure of the San Francisco Bay area. Nonlinear tomography was used to simultaneously invert for both velocity and hypocenters. The new hypocenter inversion algorithm uses finite difference travel times and is an extension of an existing velocity tomography algorithm. Numerous inversions were performed with different parameters to test the reliability of the resulting velocity model. Most hypocenters were relocated <2 km from their catalogue locations. Large lateral velocity variations at shallow (<4 km) depth correlate with known surface geology, including low-velocity Cenozoic sedimentary basins, high-velocity Cenozoic volcanic rocks, and outcrop patterns of the major Mesozoic geologic terranes. Salinian arc rocks have higher velocities than the Franciscan melange, which in turn are faster than Great Valley Sequence forearc rocks. The thickess of low-velocity sediment is defined, including >12 km under the Sacramento River Delta, 6 km beneath Livermore Valley, 5 km beneath the Santa Clara Valley, and 4 km beneath eastern San Pablo Bay. The Great Valley Sequence east of San Francisco Bay is 4-6 km thick. A relatively high velocity body exists in the upper 10 km beneath the Sonoma volcanic field, but no evidence for a large intrusion or magma chamber exists in the crust under The Geysers or the Clear Lake volcanic center. Lateral velocity contrasts indicate that the major strike-slip faults extend sub vertically beneath their surface locations through most of the crust. Strong lateral velocity contrasts of 0.3-0.6 km/s are observed across the San Andreas Fault in the middle crust and across the Hayward, Rogers Creek, Calaveras, and Greenville Faults at shallow depth. Weaker velocity contrasts (0.1-0.3 km/s) exist across the San Andreas, Hayward

  11. Three-dimensional seismic velocity structure of the San Francisco Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hole, J.A.; Brocher, T.M.; Klemperer, S.L.; Parsons, T.; Benz, H.M.; Furlong, K.P.

    2000-01-01

    Seismic travel times from the northern California earthquake catalogue and from the 1991 Bay Area Seismic Imaging Experiment (BASIX) refraction survey were used to obtain a three-dimensional model of the seismic velocity structure of the San Francisco Bay area. Nonlinear tomography was used to simultaneously invert for both velocity and hypocenters. The new hypocenter inversion algorithm uses finite difference travel times and is an extension of an existing velocity tomography algorithm. Numerous inversions were performed with different parameters to test the reliability of the resulting velocity model. Most hypocenters were relocated 12 km under the Sacramento River Delta, 6 km beneath Livermore Valley, 5 km beneath the Santa Clara Valley, and 4 km beneath eastern San Pablo Bay. The Great Valley Sequence east of San Francisco Bay is 4-6 km thick. A relatively high velocity body exists in the upper 10 km beneath the Sonoma volcanic field, but no evidence for a large intrusion or magma chamber exists in the crust under The Geysers or the Clear Lake volcanic center. Lateral velocity contrasts indicate that the major strike-slip faults extend subvertically beneath their surface locations through most of the crust. Strong lateral velocity contrasts of 0.3-0.6 km/s are observed across the San Andreas Fault in the middle crust and across the Hayward, Rogers Creek, Calaveras, and Greenville Faults at shallow depth. Weaker velocity contrasts (0.1-0.3 km/s) exist across the San Andreas, Hayward, and Rogers Creek Faults at all other depths. Low spatial resolution evidence in the lower crust suggests that the top of high-velocity mafic rocks gets deeper from west to east and may be offset under the major faults. The data suggest that the major strike-slip faults extend subvertically through the middle and perhaps the lower crust and juxtapose differing lithology due to accumulated strike-slip motion. The extent and physical properties of the major geologic units as

  12. Monitoring the subsurface hydrologic response to shallow landsliding in the San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, B. D.; Stock, J. D.; Foster, K. A.; Knepprath, N.; Reid, M. E.; Schmidt, K. M.; Whitman, M. W.

    2011-12-01

    Intense or prolonged rainfall triggers shallow landslides in steeplands of the San Francisco Bay Area each year. These landslides cause damage to built infrastructure and housing, and in some cases, lead to fatalities. Although our ability to forecast and map the distribution of rainfall has improved (e.g., NEXRAD, SMART-R), our ability to estimate landslide susceptibility is limited by a lack of information about the subsurface response to rainfall. In particular, the role of antecedent soil moisture content in setting the timing of shallow landslide failures remains unconstrained. Advances in instrumentation and telemetry have substantially reduced the cost of such monitoring, making it feasible to set up and maintain networks of such instruments in areas with a documented history of shallow landslides. In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a pilot project to establish a series of shallow landslide monitoring stations in the San Francisco Bay area. The goal of this project is to obtain a long-term (multi-year) record of subsurface hydrologic conditions that occur from winter storms. Three monitoring sites are now installed in key landslide prone regions of the Bay Area (East Bay Hills, Marin County, and San Francisco Peninsula Hills) each consisting of a rain gage and multiple nests of soil-moisture sensors, matric-potential sensors, and piezometers. The sites were selected with similar characteristics in mind consisting of: (1) convergent bedrock hollow topographic settings located near ridge tops, (2) underlying sandstone bedrock substrates, (3) similar topographic gradients (~30°), (4) vegetative assemblages of grasses with minor chaparral, and (5) a documented history of landsliding in the vicinity of each site. These characteristics are representative of shallow-landslide-prone regions of the San Francisco Bay Area and also provide some constraint on the ability to compare and contrast subsurface response across different regions. Data streams from

  13. 50 CFR 665.422 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management area. 665.422 Section 665.422 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The Mariana coral reef management area consists of the U.S. EEZ around Guam and the...

  14. 50 CFR 665.598 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management area. 665.598 Section 665.598 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... § 665.598 Management area. The PRIA fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of Palmyra Atoll,...

  15. 50 CFR 665.398 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management area. 665.398 Section 665.398 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The Mariana fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of Guam and CNMI with the...

  16. 50 CFR 665.98 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management area. 665.98 Section 665.98 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The American Samoa fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of the Territory of...

  17. 50 CFR 665.422 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management area. 665.422 Section 665.422 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The Mariana coral reef management area consists of the U.S. EEZ around Guam and the...

  18. 50 CFR 660.703 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management area. 660.703 Section 660.703 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The fishery management area for the regulation of fishing for HMS has the...

  19. 50 CFR 665.422 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management area. 665.422 Section 665.422 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The Mariana coral reef management area consists of the U.S. EEZ around Guam and the...

  20. 50 CFR 665.422 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management area. 665.422 Section 665.422 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The Mariana coral reef management area consists of the U.S. EEZ around Guam and the...

  1. 50 CFR 665.598 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management area. 665.598 Section 665.598 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... § 665.598 Management area. The PRIA fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of Palmyra Atoll,...

  2. 50 CFR 665.98 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management area. 665.98 Section 665.98 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The American Samoa fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of the Territory of...

  3. 50 CFR 665.598 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management area. 665.598 Section 665.598 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... § 665.598 Management area. The PRIA fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of Palmyra Atoll,...

  4. 50 CFR 660.703 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management area. 660.703 Section 660.703 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The fishery management area for the regulation of fishing for HMS has the...

  5. 50 CFR 665.398 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management area. 665.398 Section 665.398 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The Mariana fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of Guam and CNMI with the...

  6. 50 CFR 665.98 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management area. 665.98 Section 665.98 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The American Samoa fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of the Territory of...

  7. 50 CFR 660.703 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management area. 660.703 Section 660.703 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The fishery management area for the regulation of fishing for HMS has the...

  8. 50 CFR 665.598 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management area. 665.598 Section 665.598 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... § 665.598 Management area. The PRIA fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of Palmyra Atoll,...

  9. 50 CFR 665.422 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management area. 665.422 Section 665.422 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The Mariana coral reef management area consists of the U.S. EEZ around Guam and the...

  10. 50 CFR 665.398 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management area. 665.398 Section 665.398 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The Mariana fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of Guam and CNMI with the...

  11. 50 CFR 665.398 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management area. 665.398 Section 665.398 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The Mariana fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of Guam and CNMI with the...

  12. 50 CFR 665.598 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management area. 665.598 Section 665.598 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... § 665.598 Management area. The PRIA fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of Palmyra Atoll,...

  13. 50 CFR 660.703 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management area. 660.703 Section 660.703 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The fishery management area for the regulation of fishing for HMS has the...

  14. 50 CFR 665.398 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management area. 665.398 Section 665.398 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The Mariana fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of Guam and CNMI with the...

  15. 50 CFR 665.98 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management area. 665.98 Section 665.98 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The American Samoa fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of the Territory of...

  16. 50 CFR 665.98 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management area. 665.98 Section 665.98 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The American Samoa fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of the Territory of...

  17. 50 CFR 660.703 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management area. 660.703 Section 660.703 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The fishery management area for the regulation of fishing for HMS has the...

  18. When it happens again: impact of future San Francisco Bay area earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoback, M.; Boatwright, J.; Kornfield, L.; Scawthorn, C.; Rojahn, C.

    2005-12-01

    San Francisco Bay area earthquakes, like major floods and hurricanes, have the potential for massive damage to dense urban population centers concentrated in vulnerable zones-along active faults, in coastal regions, and along major river arteries. The recent destruction of Hurricane Katrina does have precedent in the destruction following the 1906 "San Francisco" earthquake and fire in which more than 3000 people were killed and 225,000 were left homeless in San Francisco alone, a city of 400,000 at the time. Analysis of a comprehensive set of damage reports from the magnitude (M) 7.9 1906 earthquake indicates a region of ~ 18,000 km2 was subjected to shaking of Modified Mercalli Intensity of VIII or more - motions capable of damaging even modern, well-built structures; more than 60,000 km2 was subjected to shaking of Intensity VII or greater - the threshold for damage to masonry and poorly designed structures. By comparison, Katrina's hurricane force winds and intense rainfall impacted an area of ~100,000 km2 on the Gulf Coast. Thus, the anticipated effects of a future major Bay Area quake to lives, property, and infrastructure are comparable in scale to Katrina. Secondary hazards (levee failure and flooding in the case of Katrina and fire following the 1906 earthquake) greatly compounded the devastation in both disasters. A recent USGS-led study concluded there is a 62% chance of one or more damaging (M6.7 or greater) earthquakes striking the greater San Francisco Bay area over the next 30 years. The USGS prepared HAZUS loss estimates for the 10 most likely forecast earthquakes which range in size from a M6.7 event on a blind thrust to the largest anticipated event, a M7.9 repeat of the 1906 earthquake. The largest economic loss is expected for a repeat of the 1906 quake. Losses in the Bay region for this event are nearly double those predicted for a M6.9 rupture of the entire Hayward Fault in the East Bay. However, because of high density of population along the

  19. Mineral resources of the Behind the Rocks Wilderness Study Area, Grand and San Juan counties, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, C.G.; Toth, M.I.; Case, J.E.; Green, G.N.; Barton, H.N.; Thompson, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The Behind the Rocks Wilderness Study Area consists of 12,635 acres in Grand and San Juan counties, Utah. This study area is on the west flank of a northwest-trending collapsed salt anticline near Moab, Utah, and is underlain by gently west dipping, highly fractured sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. Inferred subeconomic resources of potash and halite in the subsurface, and sandstone at the surface occurs in the Behind the Rocks Wilderness Study Area. This study area has a high potential for undiscovered resources of oil and gas, a low potential for undiscovered resources of uranium, vanadium, copper, gold, silver, other metals, and geothermal energy, and an unknown potential for the rare-earth mineral, braitschite. There is no resource potential for coal.

  20. Nitrogen and Sediment Inputs to the San Pedro River Riparian Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conklin, M.; Huth, A. K.; Hamblen, J.; Villinski, J.; Grimm, N.; Lewis, D.; Schade, J.

    2002-05-01

    The San Pedro River in southern Arizona is the last undammed major river in the Western U.S. The riparian habitat along the upper San Pedro is under pressure due to competing water use by nearby agriculture and municipal demands. Numerous nongovernmental organizations and government agencies are cooperating to investigate the functioning of the riparian area, including water and nutrient cycling. The multi-institutional NSF Science and Technology Center for Sustainability of semi-Arid Hydrology and Riparian Areas (SAHRA) is using two 500-m study sites along the upper San Pedro River (one gaining and one losing-intermittent) to investigate nutrient and sediment fluxes. Sampling of over 80 shallow piezometers installed in the stream, in gravel bars and in riparian terraces (among cottonwoods and willows) showed nitrate levels were highest in the riparian terrace and gravel bars throughout the year. Nitrate levels in shallow stream piezometers were lower and more variable. Seasonal algal blooms were correlated with decreases in nitrate and organic nitrogen in the stream channel. Intensive sampling during a 300 cfs flood (July 17-18, 2001) in the intermittant-losing reach showed significant increases in nitrate levels during the storm, apparently from the gravel bars and riparian terrace. Hydrograph separation indicated a substantial fraction of the water in the river had been in contact with the river banks. During storm events, substantial sediment transport occurs, as well as scour and fill. As much of the nitrogen cycling in microbially controlled, sediment scour and fill is being monitored concomitantly with respiration measurements in a meander point bar in the losing-intermittant reach. By focusing on key processes in the shallow stream sediments, gravel bars and riparian terraces, we are establishing linkages between the different zones of the riparian area in order to characterize nitrogen uptake capacity of the riparian system.

  1. San Bernardino Valley College Strategic Enrollment Management Plan: Recruitment and Retention, 2000-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, David T., Ed.

    The San Bernardino Valley College (California) Strategic Enrollment Management (SEM) Plan was developed to specifically increase student enrollment and to improve retention over 2000-2002, and thereafter. Presents the SEM plan in two parts: recruitment and retention. The date, description, action, person responsible, date needed, date completed,…

  2. SAN JUAN BAY ESTUARY PROGRAM COMPREHENSIVE CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT PLAN IMPLEMENTATION TRACKING REPORT, 2004

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four years after the approval of its Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan (CCMP), the San Juan Bay Estuary Program (SJBEP) is working towards the implementation stage of its 49 actions. During the last three years the program has focused its efforts in developing a coll...

  3. Study of aircraft in intraurban transportation systems, San Francisco Bay area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The nine-county San Francisco Bay area is examined in two time periods (1975-1980 and 1985-1990) as a scenario for analyzing the characteristics of an intraurban, commuter-oriented aircraft transportation system. Aircraft have dominated the long-haul passenger market for some time, but efforts to penetrate the very-short-haul intraurban market have met with only token success. Yet, the characteristics of an aircraft transportation system-speed and flexibility-are very much needed to solve the transportation ills of our major urban areas. This study attempts to determine if the aircraft can contribute toward solving the transportation problems of major metropolitan areas and be economically viable in such an environment.

  4. Epidemiology and Genetic Diversity of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the San Francisco Bay Area, California.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Nathan C; Salkeld, Daniel J

    2016-07-01

    In California, the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), Anaplasma phagocytophilum, is transmitted by western black-legged ticks (Ixodes pacificus). Cases of HGA are infrequent in California but do occur annually. We investigated nymphal and adult western black-legged tick populations in 20 recreational areas in California's San Francisco Bay Area (Marin, Napa, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, and Sonoma counties). Overall, prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in adult ticks was 0.8% (11/1,465), and in nymphal ticks was 4.2% (24/568), though presence was patchy and prevalence varied locally. We detected significant sequence variation in our quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-positive samples. This included four sequences that grouped within a clade that contains clinical human and veterinary isolates as well as four others that grouped with sequences from PCR-positive lizards from northern California. Tick populations in our study sites harbor genetically diverse strains of A. phagocytophilum, which may influence potential risk in the region. PMID:27139447

  5. A self-modifying cellular automaton model of historical urbanization in the San Francisco Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, K.C.; Hoppen, S.; Gaydos, L.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we describe a cellular automaton (CA) simulation model developed to predict urban growth as part of a project for estimating the regional and broader impact of urbanization on the San Francisco Bay area's climate. The rules of the model are more complex than those of a typical CA and involve the use of multiple data sources, including topography, road networks, and existing settlement distributions, and their modification over time. In addition, the control parameters of the model are allowed to self-modify: that is, the CA adapts itself to the circumstances it generates, in particular, during periods of rapid growth or stagnation. In addition, the model was written to allow the accumulation of probabilistic estimates based on Monte Carlo methods. Calibration of the model has been accomplished by the use of historical maps to compare model predictions of urbanization, based solely upon the distribution in year 1900, with observed data for years 1940, 1954, 1962, 1974, and 1990. The complexity of this model has made calibration a particularly demanding step. Lessons learned about the methods, measures, and strategies developed to calibrate the model may be of use in other environmental modeling contexts. With the calibration complete, the model is being used to generate a set of future scenarios for the San Francisco Bay area along with their probabilities based on the Monte Carlo version of the model. Animated dynamic mapping of the simulations will be used to allow visualization of the impact of future urban growth.

  6. Adaptive Management Methods to Protect the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Water Resource

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David

    2016-01-01

    The California Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is the hub for California's water supply, conveying water from Northern to Southern California agriculture and communities while supporting important ecosystem services, agriculture, and communities in the Delta. Changes in climate, long-term drought, water quality changes, and expansion of invasive aquatic plants threatens ecosystems, impedes ecosystem restoration, and is economically, environmentally, and sociologically detrimental to the San Francisco Bay/California Delta complex. NASA Ames Research Center and the USDA-ARS partnered with the State of California and local governments to develop science-based, adaptive-management strategies for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. The project combines science, operations, and economics related to integrated management scenarios for aquatic weeds to help land and waterway managers make science-informed decisions regarding management and outcomes. The team provides a comprehensive understanding of agricultural and urban land use in the Delta and the major water sheds (San Joaquin/Sacramento) supplying the Delta and interaction with drought and climate impacts on the environment, water quality, and weed growth. The team recommends conservation and modified land-use practices and aids local Delta stakeholders in developing management strategies. New remote sensing tools have been developed to enhance ability to assess conditions, inform decision support tools, and monitor management practices. Science gaps in understanding how native and invasive plants respond to altered environmental conditions are being filled and provide critical biological response parameters for Delta-SWAT simulation modeling. Operational agencies such as the California Department of Boating and Waterways provide testing and act as initial adopter of decision support tools. Methods developed by the project can become routine land and water management tools in complex river delta systems.

  7. Vulnerable assessment by sea level rise in San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, C. J.; Suzuki, T.; Itoigawa, E.; Park, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    The San Francisco South Bay Area in California is home to approximately seven million people that consist of nine counties and the prosperous core area of IT technology industry in the West Coast of America, well known as Silicon Valley. Sea level rising due to Global Warming is becoming the main issue in this area. Furthermore, the extreme weather events including flash flooding are observing more frequently. Urban infrastructures are faced vulnerable at risk of long-term flooding. Sea level rise by global warming in this area is estimated that it could rise by up to 16 inches (40 cm) by mid of this century and 55 inches (140 cm) by the end of this century. By the impact of 55 inches of sea level rise, there could be 62 billion dollars loss and 270,000 people could be faced at risk of flooding. Nevertheless, urban areas are expecting to extend approximately 5,063.71 km2 by 2020 and 6,098.20 km2 by year 2050. Thus, the land use legislation need to be discussed following that the 213,000 acres that could be vulnerable to flooding by the end of this century. Adaptation strategies should be considered from various aspects including policy, empirical observations and academic approaches. In this paper, for promoting further discussions, vulnerable areas and its characteristics by flooding is assessed and the finding potential urban growth areas for urban rezoning is implemented using Geographic Information System.

  8. Ground-water storage in the Johnson Valley area, San Bernardino, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, James J.

    1978-01-01

    The Mojave Water Agency includes several desert basins where ground water in storage is many times as great as the average annual recharge. The Johnson Valley area in San Bernardino County, Calif., was evaluated for (1) the quantity of ground water in storage, (2) the chemical quality of the ground water, and (3) the potential for storage of recharge water in the unsaturated zone. Johnson Valley contains about 250,000 acre-feet of water in storage, of which about half can be considered recoverable. About 250,000 acre-feet of void space in the unsaturated alluvium is available for storage of imported water, but not all of the recharged water could be recovered. The quality of the water in storage is satisfactory for public consumption, although water from some areas has high floride concentrations and should be mixed with water of low fluoride concentration. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. Mineral resource potential map of the lower San Francisco Wilderness study area and contiguous roadless area, Greenlee County, Arizona and Catron and Grant Counties, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratte, James C.; Hassemer, Jerry R.; Martin, Ronny A.; Lane, Michael

    1982-01-01

    The Lower San Francisco Wilderness Study Area consists of a narrow strip 1-2 mi (2-3 km) wide between the rims of the San Francisco River canyon. The wilderness study area has a moderately high potential for geothermal resources, a low to moderate potential for base metal or precious metal resources in middle to upper Tertiary volcanic rocks, essentially no oil, gas, or coal potential, and a largely unassessable potential for metal deposits related to Laramide igneous intrusions in pre-Tertiary or lower Tertiary rocks that underlie the area. The contiguous roadless area, which borders the New Mexico half of the wilderness study area, mainly on the north side of the San Francisco River, has a low to moderate potential for molybdenum or copper deposits related to intrusive igneous rocks in the core of a volcano of dacitic composition at Goat Basin.

  10. Yuma District Resource Management Plan, Yuma, La Paz, and Mohave Counties, Arizona and San Bernardino, Riverside and Imperial Counties, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    Implementation of a resource management plan is proposed for 1.2 million acres within the 2.7-million-acre Yuma District, located in Yuma, La Paz, and Mohave counties, Arizona and San Bernardino, Riverside, and Imperial counties, California. Under the preferred alternative, wildlife habitat would be a priority consideration on approximately 247,740 acre, and nine special management areas would be designated. A portion of the Cactus Plain and the Chemehuevi/Needles wilderness study areas would be recommended for wilderness designation. Two areas totaling 31,360 acres would be designated as special management areas, and another six areas totaling 155,705 acres would be managed to protect their natural values. Livestock grazing would be authorized at 3998 animal unit months on four allotments. Approximately 55,490 acres of federal lands would be available for disposal and 31,220 acres would be acquired. Nine utility corridors and nine communication sites would be designated. Existing recreational facilities would be maintained, with additional facilities provided when warranted. Along Parker Strip, only floodproofed day-use facilities would be allowed within the 100-year flood plain. Off-road vehicle (ORV) use designations would be made on 640 acres and ORV use in the remainder of the district would be limited to existing roads and trails. Continuous occupancy of mobile home sites would be restricted to one five-month period in a single year. Permanent residential use would be phased out.

  11. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending...

  12. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending...

  13. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending...

  14. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending...

  15. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending...

  16. Urban land use mapping by machine processing of ERTS-1 multispectral data: A San Francisco Bay area example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellefsen, R.; Swain, P. H.; Wray, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The study is reported to develop computer produced urban land use maps using multispectral scanner data from a satellite is reported. Data processing is discussed along with the results of the San Francisco Bay area, which was chosen as the test area.

  17. Ground-water outflow, San Timoteo-Smiley Heights area, upper Santa Ana Valley, Southern California, 1927 through 1968

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dutcher, L.C.; Fenzel, F.W.

    1972-01-01

    The San Timoteo-Smiley Heights area is in the upper Santa Ana Valley, San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, Calif., where the Yucaipa and San Timoteo-Beaumont ground-water basins border Bunker .Hill basin on the south between the San Jacinto and San Andreas faults. The area is broken by numerous faults, the topography is rough, and in a large part of the area few wells had been drilled prior to 196S. The alluvial deposits, which constitute the aquifers in the area, range in thickness from 0 where they lap onto exposed bedrock hills to about 1,000 feet. Beneath the southern part of the area near the San Jacinto fault the total thickness of alluvial and lacustrine deposits may be as much as 6,000 feet. The purpose of this study was to estimate ground-water outflow by an indirect method not involving balancing of the hydrologic budget. For this purpose it was necessary to estimate the permeability of the aquifer materials, the average annual hydraulic gradient, and the cross-sectional area through which the flow occurs; these values were estimated for five segments along a line of section between the San Jacinto fault and Crafton Hills. To provide data for the outflow estimates, several miles of reflection and refraction seismic traverses were made along and across the outflow section. Nineteen deep and shallow test holes were drilled; one of the deep test holes and several existing wells were pumped to obtain data on aquifer permeability. The estimated average permeabilities of the aquifer materials range from 5 gallons per day per square foot for the lower part of the San Timoteo beds of Frick (1921) and 40 gallons per day per square foot for the older alluvium to 220 gallons per day per square foot for the upper part of the San Timoteo beds. The estimated outflow in 1927 was 8,150 acre-feet. By 1967 the estimated total outflow was 5,350 acre-feet, a reduction of approximately 34 percent. During the 12-year period 1956 through 1967, however, the annual outflow

  18. Search for ^90Sr from the Fukushima Reactor Accident in San Francisco Bay Area Rainwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, B. T.; Chodash, P. A.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.

    2012-10-01

    Shortly after the Fukushima reactor accident, we collected rainwater samples in the San Francisco Bay area. Subsequent gamma-ray counting revealed the presence of volatile short-lived fission fragments such as ^131, 132I, ^132Te, and ^134,137 Cs [1]. Recently, we have searched for the presence of the long-lived fission fragment ^90Sr in these same rainwater samples. To chemically separate Sr, a small amount of stable Sr carrier was dissolved in each rainwater sample. Potassium carbonate was then added to precipitate SrCO3. The precipitate was filtered, dried, and then beta counted using a planar Ge detector. Results from these measurements will be presented and compared to the levels of other fission fragments previously observed in the rainwater. [4pt] [1] E. B. Norman, C. T. Angell, P. A. Chodash, PLoSONE 6(9): e24330. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024330.

  19. Applied geointegration to hydrocarbon exploration in the San Pedro-Machango Area, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Fonseca, A.; Navarro, A.; Osorio, R.; Corvo, F.; Arismendi, J.

    1996-08-01

    Hydrocarbon exploration has nowadays a diversity of technological resources to capture, merge and interpret information from diverse sources. To accomplish this, the integration of geodata for modeling was done through the use of new technologies like Remote Sensing and Geographical Systems of Information and applied to the San Pedro-Machango area, located in the Serrania de Trujillo, west of Costa Bolivar (onshore), eastern Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela. The main purpose of this work was to optimize the design of an exploration program in harmony with environmental conservation procedures. Starting with satellital and radar images that incorporated geophysical, geological and environmental information, they then were analyzed and merged to improve the lithological, structural and tectonic interpretation, generating an integrated model that allowed better project design. The use of a system that combines information of geographical, geodetical, geophysical and geological origins with satellital and radar images produced up to date cartography and refined results of image interpretation.

  20. Structural vulnerability and problem drinking among Latino migrant day laborers in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    PubMed

    Worby, Paula A; Organista, Kurt C; Kral, Alex H; Quesada, James; Arreola, Sonya; Khoury, Sahar

    2014-08-01

    Latino migrant day laborers (LMDLs) live under challenging conditions in the San Francisco Bay Area. This study explored day laborer alcohol use guided by a structural vulnerability framework, specifically problem vs. non-problem drinking as perceived by LMDLs and how they cope with or try to avoid problem drinking given their broader environment. The study utilized ethnographic methods including in-depth semi-structured qualitative interviews with 51 LMDLs. Findings revealed the considerable challenge of avoiding problem drinking given socio-environmental factors that influence drinking: impoverished living and working conditions, prolonged separation from home and family, lack of work authorization, consequent distress and negative mood states, and peer pressure to drink. While participants shared strategies to avoid problem drinking, the success of individual-level efforts is limited given the harsh structural environmental factors that define day laborers' daily lives. Discussed are implications for prevention and intervention strategies at the individual, community, national and international levels. PMID:25130240

  1. Contraceptive risk taking and abortion: results and implications of a San Francisco Bay Area study.

    PubMed

    Luker, K

    1977-08-01

    A study of 500 abortion-seeking women in the San Francisco Bay area, in California, revealed that, although a majority of them had used contraceptives previously, only a minority had consistently used effective contraceptives. This paper presents a theory of contraceptive risk taking and analyzes the decision making process described by 50 of the women during in-depth interviews. The decision not to contracept is shown to be the result of a rational process of "cost accounting." To decrease the need for abortion, it is argued, programs that change attitudes toward sexual behavior and that give women increasing economic opportunities are needed in addition to programs that make contraceptives more available. PMID:888160

  2. Conjunctive management of groundwater and surface water resources in the San Joaquin Valley of California

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    1992-01-01

    The San Joaquin-Tulare Conjunctive Use Model (SANTUCM) was developed to evaluate possible long-term scenarios for long term management of drainage and drainage related problems in the western San Joaquin Valley of California. The unique aspect of the conjunctive use model is its coupling of a surface water delivery operations model with a regional groundwater model. A salinity model has been added to utilize surface water model output and allow assessment of compliance with State Water Resources Control Board water quality objectives for the San Joaquin River. The results of scenario runs, performed to data, using the SANTUCM model show table lowering and consequent drainage reduction can be achieved through a combination of source control, land retirement and regional groundwater pumping. The model also shows that water transfers within the existing distribution system are technically feasible and might allow additional releases to be made from Friant Dam for water quality maintenance in the San Joaquin River. However, upstream of Mendota Pool, considerable stream losses to the aquifer are anticipated, amounting to as much as 70% of in-stream flow.

  3. Impacts of vehicles on natural terrain at seven sites in the San Francisco Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilshire, H.G.; Nakata, J.K.; Shipley, S.; Prestegaard, K.

    1978-01-01

    The impacts of off-road vehicles on vegetation and soil were investigated at seven representative sites in the San Francisco Bay area. Plant cover of grass and chaparral (with shrubs to 4 m tall) have been stripped by the two- and four-wheel vehicles in use. Impacts on loamy soils include increased surface strength (as much as 275 bars), increased bulk density (averaging 18%) to depths of 90 cm or more, reduction of soil moisture by an average 43% to 30 cm depths, greatly reduced infiltration, extension of the diurnal temperature range by as much as 12??C, and reduction of organic carbon by an average 33% in exposed soils. Very sandy soils respond similarly to vehicular use except that moisture is increased and surface strength of beach sand is decreased. These physical and chemical impacts reduce the land's capability of restoring its vegetative cover, which in turn adversely affects animal populations. Both the loss of plant cover and the physical changes caused by vehicles promote erosion. Measured soil and substrate losses from vehicular use zones range from 7 to 1180 kg/m2. The estimated erosion rate of the Chabot Park site exceeds the rate of erosion considered a serious problem by a factor 30, it exceeds United States Soil Conservation Service tolerance values by a factor of 46, and it exceeds average San Francisco Bay area erosion rates by a factor of 17. The resulting soil losses are effectively permanent. Neither the increased sediment yield nor the increased runoff is accomodated on the sites of use, and both are causing adverse effects to neighboring properties. ?? 1978 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  4. 43 CFR 4710.3 - Management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management areas. 4710.3 Section 4710.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD...

  5. 43 CFR 4710.3 - Management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management areas. 4710.3 Section 4710.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD...

  6. 43 CFR 4710.3 - Management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management areas. 4710.3 Section 4710.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD...

  7. 43 CFR 4710.3 - Management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management areas. 4710.3 Section 4710.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD...

  8. Understanding Urban Watersheds through Digital Interactive Maps, San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowers, J. M.; Ticci, M. G.; Mulvey, P.

    2014-12-01

    Dense urbanization has resulted in the "disappearance" of many local creeks in urbanized areas surrounding the San Francisco Bay. Long reaches of creeks now flow in underground pipes. Municipalities and water agencies trying to reduce non-point-source pollution are faced with a public that cannot see and therefore does not understand the interconnected nature of the drainage system or its ultimate discharge to the bay. Since 1993, we have collaborated with the Oakland Museum, the San Francisco Estuary Institute, public agencies, and municipalities to create creek and watershed maps to address the need for public understanding of watershed concepts. Fifteen paper maps are now published (www.museumca.org/creeks), which have become a standard reference for educators and anyone working on local creek-related issues. We now present digital interactive creek and watershed maps in Google Earth. Four maps are completed covering urbanized areas of Santa Clara and Alameda Counties. The maps provide a 3D visualization of the watersheds, with cartography draped over the landscape in transparent colors. Each mapped area includes both Present and Past (circa 1800s) layers which can be clicked on or off by the user. The Present layers include the modern drainage network, watershed boundaries, and reservoirs. The Past layers include the 1800s-era creek systems, tidal marshes, lagoons, and other habitats. All data are developed in ArcGIS software and converted to Google Earth format. To ensure the maps are interesting and engaging, clickable icons pop-up provide information on places to visit, restoration projects, history, plants, and animals. Maps of Santa Clara Valley are available at http://www.valleywater.org/WOW.aspx. Maps of western Alameda County will soon be available at http://acfloodcontrol.org/. Digital interactive maps provide several advantages over paper maps. They are seamless within each map area, and the user can zoom in or out, and tilt, and fly over to explore

  9. Slip and Dilation Tendency Analysis of the San Emidio Geothermal Area

    DOE Data Explorer

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-12-31

    Critically stressed fault segments have a relatively high likelihood of acting as fluid flow conduits (Sibson, 1994). As such, the tendency of a fault segment to slip (slip tendency; Ts; Morris et al., 1996) or to dilate (dilation tendency; Td; Ferrill et al., 1999) provides an indication of which faults or fault segments within a geothermal system are critically stressed and therefore likely to transmit geothermal fluids. The slip tendency of a surface is defined by the ratio of shear stress to normal stress on that surface: Ts = τ / σn (Morris et al., 1996). Dilation tendency is defined by the stress acting normal to a given surface: Td = (σ1-σn) / (σ1-σ3) (Ferrill et al., 1999). Slip and dilation were calculated using 3DStress (Southwest Research Institute). Slip and dilation tendency are both unitless ratios of the resolved stresses applied to the fault plane by ambient stress conditions. Values range from a maximum of 1, a fault plane ideally oriented to slip or dilate under ambient stress conditions to zero, a fault plane with no potential to slip or dilate. Slip and dilation tendency values were calculated for each fault in the focus study areas at, McGinness Hills, Neal Hot Springs, Patua, Salt Wells, San Emidio, and Tuscarora on fault traces. As dip is not well constrained or unknown for many faults mapped in within these we made these calculations using the dip for each fault that would yield the maximum slip tendency or dilation tendency. As such, these results should be viewed as maximum tendency of each fault to slip or dilate. The resulting along-fault and fault-to-fault variation in slip or dilation potential is a proxy for along fault and fault-to-fault variation in fluid flow conduit potential. Stress Magnitudes and directions Stress field variation within each focus area was approximated based on regional published data and the world stress database (Hickman et al., 2000; Hickman et al., 1998 Robertson-Tait et al., 2004; Hickman and Davatzes

  10. Air Quality Benefits of Ship Fuel Regulations in the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, L.; Harley, R. A.; Fairley, D.; Martien, P. T.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean-going vessels burning high-sulfur heavy fuel oil are an important emission source of air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and particulate matter. Beginning July 1, 2009, an emission control area was put into effect at ports and along the California coastline, requiring use of low-sulfur marine fuels in place of heavy fuel oil in main engines of ships. To assess impacts of the fuel changes on air quality at the Port of Oakland and in the surrounding San Francisco Bay area, we analyzed speciated fine particle composition data from 4 urban sites and 2 more remote sites (Point Reyes and Pinnacles) from the IMPROVE network. Measured changes in concentrations of vanadium, a useful and specific tracer for heavy fuel oil combustion, are related to overall changes in primary aerosol emissions from ships. The results indicate a substantial reduction in vanadium concentrations after the fuel change, and a 13 to 38% decrease in SO2 concentration, with the SO2 decrease varying depending on proximity to shipping lanes. We inferred from emission factors documented in the literature that marine vessel contributions to primary fine particulate matter mass in the Bay Area, prior to the fuel change, were on the order of 1 to 5%.

  11. Economic feasibility of utilizing urban wood: case study of the San Francisco Bay area

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, M.; Wagar, J.A.; Dost, W.A.

    1982-09-01

    Rising costs of wood, energy and solid waste disposal have created growing interest in utilizing urban wood. As a model for wider application, we estimated the economic feasibility of a facility located in Oakland, California which would integrate the utilization and disposal of urban wood. A related study used questionnaires and interviews with producers of wood-waste as well as field visits, published information, and contacts with professional and trade organizations to estimate the supply of woodwaste in the San Francisco Bay area. The supply available to an Oakland utilization facility was estimated by multiplying the total Bay area supply by the percentage of the area's population projected to be closer to the facility than to a sanitary landfill by 1982. Potential users of hogged chips and hardwood blocks and slabs were contacted to determine how much material they would be willing to buy, at what prices, and under what conditions. Fees that produce would be willing to pay to dispose of wastewood were also estimated, as were costs of producing hogged chips for fuel or composting and high-quality hardwood material for crafts use. Potential revenues were estimated by subtracting processing and transportation costs from sales prices and dump fees. An Oakland hogging facility producing chips for fuel or sewage composting was judged as likely to be profitable with the chance of profit increased by adding a chainsaw mill to convert quality hardwoods into material for use by woodworkers. The procedures used for Oakland should be applicable to other communities and regions.

  12. Flood-prone areas and land-use planning; selected examples from the San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waananen, Arvi O.; Limerinos, J.T.; Kockelman, W.J.; Spangle, W.E.; Blair, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    The common goal of flood-plain regulation and use is protecting life, minimizing public expenditures, and reducing flood loss. A comprehensive program combining structural and nonstructural measures can yield substantial benefits and may present a practical approach for managing a flood plain. A review of flood-plain planning, management, and regulation in the San Francisco Bay region, Calif., as shown by a study of Napa County , demonstrates complex multijurisdictional involvements. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. 76 FR 33778 - Notice of Intent To Collect Fees on Public Land in the San Joaquin River Gorge Special Recreation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... Bureau of Land Management, Notice of Intent To Collect Fees on Public Land in the San Joaquin River Gorge... proposes to begin collecting fees in fiscal year 2011 at the San Joaquin River Gorge (SJRG) Special... INFORMATION: The San Joaquin River Gorge Management Area is a popular recreation area offering...

  14. Comparison of sediment supply to San Francisco Bay from watersheds draining the Bay Area and the Central Valley of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, L.J.; Lewicki, M.; Schoellhamer, D.H.; Ganju, N.K.

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying suspended sediment loads is important for managing the world's estuaries in the context of navigation, pollutant transport, wetland restoration, and coastal erosion. To address these needs, a comprehensive analysis was completed on sediment supply to San Francisco Bay from fluvial sources. Suspended sediment, optical backscatter, velocity data near the head of the estuary, and discharge data obtained from the output of a water balance model were used to generate continuous suspended sediment concentration records and compute loads to the Bay from the large Central Valley watershed. Sediment loads from small tributary watersheds around the Bay were determined using 235 station-years of suspended sediment data from 38 watershed locations, regression analysis, and simple modeling. Over 16 years, net annual suspended sediment load to the head of the estuary from its 154,000 km2 Central Valley watershed varied from 0.13 to 2.58 (mean = 0.89) million metric t of suspended sediment, or an average yield of 11 metric t/km2/yr. Small tributaries, totaling 8145 km2, in the nine-county Bay Area discharged between 0.081 and 4.27 (mean = 1.39) million metric t with a mean yield of 212 metric t/km2/yr. The results indicate that the hundreds of urbanized and tectonically active tributaries adjacent to the Bay, which together account for just 5% of the total watershed area draining to the Bay and provide just 7% of the annual average fluvial flow, supply 61% of the suspended sediment. The small tributary loads are more variable (53-fold between years compared to 21-fold for the inland Central Valley rivers) and dominated fluvial sediment supply to the Bay during 10 out of 16 yr. If San Francisco Bay is typical of other estuaries in active tectonic or climatically variable coastal regimes, managers responsible for water quality, dredging and reusing sediment accumulating in shipping channels, or restoring wetlands in the world's estuaries may need to more carefully

  15. Aspirations and Frustrations of the Chinese Youth in the San Francisco Bay Area: Aspersions upon the Societal Scheme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, James I.

    In this study, the aspirations and frustrations of Chinese youth in the San Francisco Bay area are surveyed and evaluated. The social and political history of Chinese immigrants in the United States is discussed. The interface between Chinese cultural background and American society is explored. Factors in and problems of assimilation are…

  16. Differences and Commonalities: Farmer Stratifications in the San Luis Valley Research/Extension Project Area. ARE Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Jerry B.

    A research project in the San Luis Valley of Colorado sought to isolate a few unique farm types that could become target groups for the design and implementation of agricultural research and extension programs. Questionnaires were completed by 44 of 65 farmers in one watershed area of Conejos County. Analysis revealed a complex pattern of…

  17. 76 FR 81929 - San Fernando Valley Area 2; Notice of Proposed Administrative Order on Consent Re: 4057 and 4059...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY San Fernando Valley Area 2; Notice of Proposed Administrative Order on Consent Re: 4057 and 4059 Goodwin Avenue, Los Angeles, CA AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice; request...

  18. Source Apportionment of Elemental Carbon Across the San Francisco Bay Area Using Combined Radiocarbon and Chemical Mass Balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, S.; Fairley, D.; Sheesley, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    The San Francisco Bay Area is impacted by ambient particulate matter (PM) from a variety of sources including motor vehicles, biomass burning, off-road vehicles, industry, and meat cooking. Ambient PM, especially fine PM (diameter less than 2.5μm, PM2.5), is known to negatively impact health. Elemental Carbon (EC) is one of the major constituents of PM2.5. It not only negatively affects health but is also a powerful short-lived climate forcer. The State of California and Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD) have made efforts in regulating contribution of EC from diesel trucks and wood burning, respectively. These and other efforts have assisted in significantly reducing the annual average PM2.5 concentrations approximately 30% since 2005 and 70% since 1990. Despite these improvements, to better determine the relative contribution of contemporary vs. fossil carbon, radiocarbon source apportionment of EC was conducted on PM2.5 collected in the Bay Area. Measurements of the abundance of 14C in the EC fractions are used to quantify the relative contributions of fossil carbon (fossil fuel combustion, including motor vehicle exhaust) and contemporary carbon (biomass combustion and meat cooking). This comprehensive study included seven sites in the Bay Area and 12 months of sampling starting November 2011 through October 2012. The samples were composited to represent winter (November-February) and non-winter (March-October). In addition to radiocarbon analysis, Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) analysis using bulk PM2.5 composition and selected trace gases was used to understand the split among gasoline, natural gas, and diesel exhaust. Preliminary apportionment of the seven sites shows roughly equal contributions of fossil fuel and biomass burning/cooking for both winter and non-winter samples. There is evidence that the diesel contribution to EC, in particular, has decreased substantially over the last decade.

  19. Seasonal variations of seismic velocities in the San Jacinto fault area observed with ambient seismic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillers, G.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Campillo, M.; Zigone, D.

    2015-08-01

    We observe seasonal seismic wave speed changes (dv/v) in the San Jacinto fault area and investigate several likely source mechanisms. Velocity variations are obtained from analysis of 6 yr data of vertical component seismic noise recorded by 10 surface and six borehole stations. We study the interrelation between dv/v records, frequency-dependent seismic noise properties, and nearby environmental data of wind speed, rain, ground water level, barometric pressure and atmospheric temperature. The results indicate peak-to-peak seasonal velocity variations of ˜0.2 per cent in the 0.5-2 Hz frequency range, likely associated with genuine changes of rock properties rather than changes in the noise field. Phase measurements between dv/v and the various environmental data imply that the dominant source mechanism in the arid study area is thermoelastic strain induced by atmospheric temperature variations. The other considered environmental effects produce secondary variations that are superimposed on the thermal-based changes. More detailed work with longer data on the response of rocks to various known external loadings can help tracking the evolving stress and effective rheology at depth.

  20. Geology, hydrology, and water quality of the Tracy-Dos Palos area, San Joaquin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hotchkiss, W.R.; Balding, G.O.

    1971-01-01

    The Tracy-Dos Palos area includes about 1,800 square miles on the northwest side of the San Joaquin Valley. The Tulare Formation of Pliocene and Pleistocene age, terrace deposits of Pleistocene age, and alluvium and flood-basin deposits of Pleistocene and Holocene age constitute the fresh ground-water reservoir Pre-Tertiary and Tertiary sedimentary and crystalline rocks, undifferentiated, underlie the valley and yield saline water. Hydrologically most important, the Tulare Formation is divided into a lower water-bearing zone confined by the Corcoran Clay Member and an upper zone that is confined, semiconfined, and unconfined in different parts of the area. Alluvium and flood-basin deposits are included in the upper zone. Surficial alluvium and flood-basin deposits contain a shallow water-bearing zone. Lower zone wells were flowing in 1908, but subsequent irrigation development caused head declines and land subsidence. Overdraft in both zones ended in 1951 with import of surface water. Bicarbonate water flows into the area from the Sierra Nevada and Diablo Range. Diablo Range water is higher in sulfate, chloride, and dissolved solids. Upper zone water averages between 400 and 1,200 mg/l (milligrams per liter) dissolved solids and water hardness generally exceeds 180 mg/l as calcium carbonate. Nitrate, fluoride, iron, and boron occur in excessive concentrations in water from some wells. Dissolved constituents in lower zone water generally are sodium chloride and sodium sulfate with higher dissolved solids concentration than water from the upper zone. The foothills of the Diablo Range provide favorable conditions for artificial recharge, but shallow water problems plague about 50 percent of the area and artificial recharge is undesirable at this time.

  1. Concept Paper for Real-Time Temperature and Water QualityManagement for San Joaquin River Riparian Habitat Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.

    2004-12-20

    The San Joaquin River Riparian Habitat Restoration Program (SJRRP) has recognized the potential importance of real-time monitoring and management to the success of the San Joaquin River (SJR) restoration endeavor. The first step to realizing making real-time management a reality on the middle San Joaquin River between Friant Dam and the Merced River will be the installation and operation of a network of permanent telemetered gauging stations that will allow optimization of reservoir releases made specifically for fish water temperature management. Given the limited reservoir storage volume available to the SJJRP, this functionality will allow the development of an adaptive management program, similar in concept to the VAMP though with different objectives. The virtue of this approach is that as management of the middle SJR becomes more routine, additional sensors can be added to the sensor network, initially deployed, to continue to improve conditions for anadromous fish.

  2. San Juan National Forest Land Management Planning Support System (LMPSS) requirements definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werth, L. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The role of remote sensing data as it relates to a three-component land management planning system (geographic information, data base management, and planning model) can be understood only when user requirements are known. Personnel at the San Juan National Forest in southwestern Colorado were interviewed to determine data needs for managing and monitoring timber, rangelands, wildlife, fisheries, soils, water, geology and recreation facilities. While all the information required for land management planning cannot be obtained using remote sensing techniques, valuable information can be provided for the geographic information system. A wide range of sensors such as small and large format cameras, synthetic aperture radar, and LANDSAT data should be utilized. Because of the detail and accuracy required, high altitude color infrared photography should serve as the baseline data base and be supplemented and updated with data from the other sensors.

  3. Bedrock aquifers in the northern San Rafael Swell area, Utah, with special emphasis on the Navajo Sandstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hood, J.W.; Patterson, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The northern San Rafael Swell area in southeastern Utah includes about 2,880 square miles (7,460 square kilometers) and ranges in altitude from about 3,290 to 7,921 feet (1,195 to 2,414 meters). Precipitation, the main source of water in the area, ranges from slightly less than 6 inches (152 millimeters) to slightly more than 12 inches (305 millimeters).

  4. Operational Management of Area Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, George W.

    Three phases leading to the automation of the mechanical building systems on the Harvard campus are described. The systems allow a single operator to monitor and control all the mechanical systems, plus fire, flood, and security alarms, for all buildings in a large area of the campus. (JT)

  5. Sexual behavior of foreign backpackers in the Khao San Road area, Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Kaehler, Nils; Piyaphanee, Watcharapong; Kittitrakul, Chatporn; Kyi, Ye Paing; Adhikari, Bipin; Sibunruang, Suda; Jearraksuwan, Suwimol; Tangpukdee, Noppadon; Silachamroon, Udomsak; Tantawichien, Terapong

    2013-07-01

    Travelers play a role in the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV because of having unprotected sex. We studied the incidence of casual sex among foreign backpack tourists in the Khao San Road area of Bangkok, Thailand. We also evaluated their attitudes about sexual health and their actual practices. A cross sectional study was conducted using a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire. The target population was backpackers aged > or =18 years, from Europe, North America and Australia. In total, 415 questionnaires were filled out and analyzed. Sixty-four percent of participants were male, the overall median age was 27 years and the mean duration of stay was 14.6 days. One hundred seven respondents (25%) had casual sex while staying in Thailand; of these, 55% always used condoms. The selection of sex partner influenced the use of condoms. The highest rate of condom use was among backpackers who had sex with sex workers (63%), while those who had sex with their travel partners had the lowest rate of condom use (35.6%). One-fourth of backpackers in our study had casual sex during their trip. Their attitudes towards safe sex practices were not ideal. Methods to change attitudes and behavior about unprotected sex need to be explored in this population. PMID:24050104

  6. Spatial correlation of shear-wave velocity in the San Francisco Bay Area sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, E.M.; Baise, L.G.; Kayen, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    Ground motions recorded within sedimentary basins are variable over short distances. One important cause of the variability is that local soil properties are variable at all scales. Regional hazard maps developed for predicting site effects are generally derived from maps of surficial geology; however, recent studies have shown that mapped geologic units do not correlate well with the average shear-wave velocity of the upper 30 m, Vs(30). We model the horizontal variability of near-surface soil shear-wave velocity in the San Francisco Bay Area to estimate values in unsampled locations in order to account for site effects in a continuous manner. Previous geostatistical studies of soil properties have shown horizontal correlations at the scale of meters to tens of meters while the vertical correlations are on the order of centimeters. In this paper we analyze shear-wave velocity data over regional distances and find that surface shear-wave velocity is correlated at horizontal distances up to 4 km based on data from seismic cone penetration tests and the spectral analysis of surface waves. We propose a method to map site effects by using geostatistical methods based on the shear-wave velocity correlation structure within a sedimentary basin. If used in conjunction with densely spaced shear-wave velocity profiles in regions of high seismic risk, geostatistical methods can produce reliable continuous maps of site effects. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Acquired Color Vision Defects and Hexane Exposure: A Study of San Francisco Bay Area Automotive Mechanics.

    PubMed

    Beckman, Stella; Eisen, Ellen A; Bates, Michael N; Liu, Sa; Haegerstrom-Portnoy, Gunilla; Hammond, S Katharine

    2016-06-01

    Occupational exposure to solvents, including n-hexane, has been associated with acquired color vision defects. Blue-yellow defects are most common and may be due to neurotoxicity or retinal damage. Acetone may potentiate the neurotoxicity of n-hexane. We present results on nonhexane solvent and hexane exposure and color vision from a cross-sectional study of 835 automotive repair workers in the San Francisco Bay Area, California (2007-2013). Cumulative exposure was estimated from self-reported work history, and color vision was assessed using the Lanthony desaturated D-15 panel test. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios for color vision defects. Acquired color vision defects were present in 29% of participants, of which 70% were blue-yellow. Elevated prevalence ratios were found for nonhexane solvent exposure, with a maximum of 1.31 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86, 2.00) for blue-yellow. Among participants aged ≤50 years, the prevalence ratio for blue-yellow defects was 2.17 (95% CI: 1.03, 4.56) in the highest quartile of nonhexane solvent exposure and 1.62 (95% CI: 0.97, 2.72) in the highest category of exposure to hexane with acetone coexposure. Cumulative exposures to hexane and nonhexane solvents in the highest exposure categories were associated with elevated prevalence ratios for color vision defects in younger participants. PMID:27188942

  8. Measurements of gamma radiation levels and spectra in the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, B. T.; Brozek, K. P.; Angell, C. T.; Norman, E. B.

    2011-10-01

    Much of the radiation received by an average person is emitted by naturally-occurring radioactive isotopes from the thorium, actinium, and uranium decay series, or potassium. In this study, we have measured gamma radiation levels at various locations in the San Francisco Bay Area and the UC Berkeley campus from spectra taken using an ORTEC NOMAD portable data acquisition system and a large-volume coaxial HPGe detector. We have identified a large number of gamma rays originating from natural sources. The most noticeable isotopes are 214Bi, 40K, and 208Tl. We have observed variations in counting rates by factors of two to five between different locations due to differences in local conditions - such as building, concrete, grass, and soil compositions. In addition, in a number of outdoor locations, we have observed 604-, 662-, and 795-keV gamma rays from 134,137Cs, which we attribute to fallout from the recent Fukushima reactor accident. The implications of these results will be discussed. This work was supported in part by a grant from the U. S. Dept. of Homeland Security.

  9. Distribution of nitrate in the unsaturated zone, Highland-East Highlands area, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, John M.; Bradford, Wesley L.

    1980-01-01

    Nitrogen in the unsaturated soil zone in the Highland-East Highlands area of San Bernardino County, Calif., has been suspected as the source of nitrate in water from wells. Plans to recharge the local aquifers with imported surface water would raise the water table and intercept that nitrogen. This study was made to describe the distribution of inorganic nitrogen and other chemical constituents and nitrogen-using bacteria in the unsaturated zone, to relate nitrogen occurrences, in a general way, to present and historical land use, and to attempt to predict nitrogen concentrations in ground water after recharge. Some generalized correlations between nitrogen occurrence and land use were observed. In 11 of 13 test holes, the maximum nitrate-nitrogen (NO3--N) concentrations occurred within 10 feet of the surface, suggesting that the major source of nitrogen is from the surface at these sites. Test holes were ranked according to maximum NO3--N in the top 10 feet, total NO3--N in the top 10 feet, and total NO3--N in the top 40 feet. In all three rankings, the top seven test holes were the same--five in or near present or historical agricultural areas (primarily citrus groves), one in a feedlot, and one adjacent to an abandoned sewage-treatment plant. Two test holes in historically uninhabited areas ranked lowest. The control test hole in an uninhabited area ranked high in geometric mean of ammonium-nitrogen concentration (NH4+-N), suggesting that present in freshly weathered granite. The geometric means of NH4+-N concentrations in six of eight citrus-related test holes were significantly lower than in the control hole, suggesting that irrigation in citrus groves may have created conditions favoring nitrification of the primary NH4+-N. Rank correlation analyses between various measurements in test holes showed that high NO3--N concentrations tend to occur with high specific conductance and chloride concentrations in soil extracts. If recharge is carried out as planned

  10. Surface Geometry and Geomorphology of the Rodgers Creek Fault, San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecker, S.

    2007-12-01

    The Rodgers Creek fault, part of the right-lateral San Andreas fault system in the San Francisco Bay area, is geometrically segmented by bends on multiple scales. North of Sonoma Mountain, along the northern half of the fault, sections of the fault trace trend approximately parallel to the direction of relative plate motion (~N34°W) and display a right-stepping pattern across releasing double bends. Within the releasing bends, the fault trends >5° oblique to plate motion and shows geomorphic evidence of extension. The largest right bend, ~1 km at Santa Rosa, corresponds to the lowest elevations along the fault. To the south, the fault makes a broad restraining double bend around the southwest flank of Sonoma Mountain and trends up to ~13° compressively oblique to plate motion. Long-term uplift (Sonoma Mountain) east of the bend suggests a reduction in slip on the fault to the south. The restraining bend corresponds to the north end of a pronounced aseismic region along the fault that may represent a spatial change in the mode of strain accommodation. Aerial photo analysis (1:6 k) of well-preserved geomorphology at the south end of the Rodgers Creek fault, where the fault makes another left bend with respect to plate motion, reveals a section that is undergoing progressive inversion from localized transtension (at a right bend) to transpression. This inversion is manifest as a northwest- lengthening zone of uplift within the fault zone. The youngest push-ups appear to be overprinting a relict pull-apart and sag pond. This and possibly older sag deposits along the margin of the uplift may mark former positions of a releasing geometry in the fault trace, presently located directly north of the uplift front. Geometric and overprinting relations suggest that the main trace of the fault rotates and translates through the passing bends. This mode of fault-bend migration contrasts with a previously proposed model in which new transverse structures develop progressively

  11. Concentrations of organic contaminants detected during managed flow conditions, San Joaquin River and Old River, California, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orlando, James L.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of organic contaminants were determined in water samples collected at six surface-water sites located along the San Joaquin and Old Rivers during April through June 2001. Water samples were collected, coincident with salmon smolt caging studies conducted by researchers from the Bodega Marine Laboratory at the University of California at Davis to characterize exposure of the salmon smolt to organic contaminants. Sampling occurred prior to, during, and following the implementation of managed streamflow conditions on the San Joaquin and Old Rivers as part of the Vernalis Adaptive Management Plan. Thirteen pesticides were detected in water samples collected during this study, and at least five pesticides were detected in each sample. The total number of pesticide detections varied little between river systems and between sites, but the maximum concentrations of most pesticides occurred in San Joaquin River samples. The total number of pesticides detected varied little over the three time periods. However, during the period of managed streamflow, the fewest number of pesticides were detected at their absolute maximum concentration. Nine wastewater compounds were detected during this study. Suspended-sediment concentrations were similar for the San Joaquin and Old Rivers except during the period of managed streamflow conditions, when suspended-sediment concentration was higher at sites on the San Joaquin River than at sites on the Old River. Values for water parameters (pH, specific conductance, and hardness) were lowest during the period of managed flows.

  12. 33 CFR 334.1010 - San Francisco Bay in vicinity of Hunters Point; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... northerly shore of the Shipyard bearing 292°40′, 950 yards, from Hunters Point Light; thence 35°27′, 730 yards to the U.S. Pierhead Line; thence 142°55′, 1,300 yards, along the Pierhead Line; thence 180°, 2,450 yards, to the San Francisco-San Mateo County Line; thence 270°, 430 yards, along the County...

  13. 33 CFR 334.1010 - San Francisco Bay in vicinity of Hunters Point; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... northerly shore of the Shipyard bearing 292°40′, 950 yards, from Hunters Point Light; thence 35°27′, 730 yards to the U.S. Pierhead Line; thence 142°55′, 1,300 yards, along the Pierhead Line; thence 180°, 2,450 yards, to the San Francisco-San Mateo County Line; thence 270°, 430 yards, along the County...

  14. Tectonic framework of the Parkfield-Cholame area, central San Andreas fault zone, California

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, J.D.; Ross, D.C.; Irwin, W.P.

    1985-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping of the NW-trending San Andreas fault zone (SAFZ) in the southern Diablo Range reveals details of this structurally complex region. Movement on the fault juxtaposes dissimilar tectonic terranes. The region on the NE side is characterized by complexly folded and faulted rocks of the Franciscan assemblage, the Coast Range ophiolite, and sedimentary rocks of the Great Valley sequence and younger formations. The region on the SW side is characterized by crystalline basement rocks of the Salinia terrane overlain by slightly deformed Pliocene and Pleistocene gravel and Miocene and Pliocene sedimentary rocks. The active trace of the SAFZ is along the SW side of a belt of melange that separates the Salinia terrane from the terranes to the NE. The active main trace is notable for a right step over of about 1 km in the southern part of the area and a 5/sup 0/ left bend in the northern part of the area. The melange consists of highly sheared and deformed rocks of late Cenozoic units, and exotic blocks of granite, gabbro, and marble. Deformation of Late Cretaceous and younger rocks east of the SAFZ varies with their age as follows: 1) Late Cretaceous rocks are strongly deformed and overlain by late Cenozoic rocks with angular unconformity, 2) early(.) and middle Miocene rocks are the most complexly folded, 3) late Miocene and early Pliocene strata are less complexly deformed, and 4) Pliocene and Pleistocene rocks the least deformed. Folding resulted from north-south compression across the SAFZ since early (.) Miocene time.

  15. Carnotite resources of the Spud Patch area, San Miguel County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, Henry, III

    1953-01-01

    The Spud Patch area comprises about 8 square in T. 43 M., R. 18 and 19 W., San Miguel County, Colo., and is about 4 miles northeast of Egnar, Colo. Claims of the United States Vanadium Co. and the Vanadium Corp. of America cover about half the area. Claims of other owners, public land, and patented agricultural land, comprise the remainder of the area. The area is about 38 miles from the Government mill at Montecello, Utah, and 55 miles from the Vanadium Corp. of America mill at Naturita, Colo. Between 1940 and 1951, the Spud Patch area yielded about 24,000 short tons of carnotite ore that probably averaged 0.21 percent U3O8 and 2.2 percent V2O5. The deposits are in a broad sandstone lens near the top of the Salt Wash member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Although the deposits mined have been mainly impregnations of sandstone by carnotite and gray vanadium-bearing clay minerals, some of the richer deposits found by Geological Survey drilling have a finely disseminated black uranium mineral but no carnotite. The deposits commonly are thin irregular tabular layers, which locally thicken to form elongate masses called "rolls". These rolls have a dominant northeasterly trend. Geologic features found to be most useful as guides to ore are listed. From November 1949 to May 1952, the U.S. Geological Survey drilled 415 diamond-drill holes totaling 67,215 feet in the Spud Patch area. The purpose of this drilling was to find deposits that would make new mines and to appraise the reserves in the unexplored area. As a result of Geological Survey drilling, indicated and inferred reserves computed at the cutoff of 1 foot or more thick and 0.10 percent U3O8 or 1.0 percent V2O5 total 20,500 short tons, averaging 0.28 percent U3O8 and 2.1 percent V2O5. These reserves and those computed at a lower grade cutoff of 0.05 percent U3O8 or 0.50 percent V2O5 and the pounds of contained metal are summarized in table 1. Potential reserves, whose existence is based on geologic evidence

  16. Real-time management of water quality in the San Joaquin River Basin, California.

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, N.W.T.; Karkoski, J.

    1997-09-01

    In the San Joaquin River Basin, California, a realtime water quality forecasting model was developed to help improve the management of saline agricultural and wetland drainage to meet water quality objectives. Predicted salt loads from the water quality forecasting model, SJRIODAY, were consistently within +- 11 percent of actual, within +- 14 percent for seven-day forecasts, and with in +- 26 percent for 14-day forecasts for the 16-month trial period. When the 48 days dominated by rainfall/runoff events were eliminated from the data set, the error bar decreased to +- 9 percent for the model and +- 11 percent and +- 17 percent for the seven-day and 14-day forecasts, respectively. Constraints on the use of the model for salinity management on the San Joaquin River include the number of entities that control or influence water quality and the lack of a centralized authority to direct their activities. The lack of real-time monitoring sensors for other primary constituents of concern, such as selenium and boron, limits the application of the model to salinity at the present time. A case study describes wetland drainage releases scheduled to coincide with high river flows and significant river assimilative capacity for salt loads.

  17. 50 CFR 665.222 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management area. 665.222 Section 665.222 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.222...

  18. 50 CFR 665.222 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management area. 665.222 Section 665.222 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.222...

  19. 50 CFR 665.198 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management area. 665.198 Section 665.198 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.198...

  20. 50 CFR 665.198 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management area. 665.198 Section 665.198 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.198...

  1. 50 CFR 665.222 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management area. 665.222 Section 665.222 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.222...

  2. 50 CFR 665.222 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management area. 665.222 Section 665.222 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.222...

  3. 50 CFR 665.222 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management area. 665.222 Section 665.222 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.222...

  4. 50 CFR 665.198 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management area. 665.198 Section 665.198 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.198...

  5. 50 CFR 665.198 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management area. 665.198 Section 665.198 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.198...

  6. 50 CFR 665.198 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management area. 665.198 Section 665.198 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.198...

  7. Evaluation of stream sediments in areas of known mineralization, San Jose and Talamanca Quadrangles, Costa Rica: An orientation survey

    SciTech Connect

    Arauz, A.J.

    1986-12-01

    Costa Rica's compressional island arc-type tectonic setting and considerable geologic diversity hold great promise for future discovery of economic metallic deposits. The study constitutes an orientation investigation of stream sediment sampling techniques to establish optimum survey specifications for the regional geochemical survey coverage of the country. The study was conducted in two separate areas of known mineralization which represent distinctive tropical environments and different metallogenic provinces within Costa Rica: (1) the Esparza Area, which contains the Santa Clara Gold Mine, the largest in the country, and (2) the San Isidro Area, which contains a major copper prospect.

  8. Monitoring and behavior of unsaturated volcanic pyroclastic in the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador, El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Chávez, José Alexander; Landaverde, José; Landaverde, Reynaldo López; Tejnecký, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Field monitoring and laboratory results are presented for an unsaturated volcanic pyroclastic. The pyroclastic belongs to the latest plinian eruption of the Ilopango Caldera in the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador, and is constantly affected by intense erosion, collapse, slab failure, sand/silt/debris flowslide and debris avalanche during the rainy season or earthquakes. Being the flowslides more common but with smaller volume. During the research, preliminary results of rain threshold were obtained of flowslides, this was recorded with the TMS3 (a moisture sensor device using time domain transmission) installed in some slopes. TMS3 has been used before in biology, ecology and soil sciences, and for the first time was used for engineering geology in this research. This device uses electromagnetic waves to obtain moisture content of the soil and a calibration curve is necessary. With the behavior observed during this project is possible to conclude that not only climatic factors as rain quantity, temperature and evaporation are important into landslide susceptibility but also information of suction-moisture content, seepage, topography, weathering, ground deformation, vibrations, cracks, vegetation/roots and the presence of crust covering the surface are necessary to research in each site. Results of the field monitoring indicates that the presence of biological soil crusts a complex mosaic of soil, green algae, lichens, mosses, micro-fungi, cyanobacteria and other bacteria covering the slopes surface can protect somehow the steep slopes reducing the runoff process and mass wasting processes. The results obtained during the assessment will help explaining the mass wasting problems occurring in some pyroclastic soils and its possible use in mitigation works and early warning system. PMID:27186500

  9. Application of SAXS and SANS in evaluation of porosity, pore size distribution and surface area of coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radlinski, A.P.; Mastalerz, Maria; Hinde, A.L.; Hainbuchner, M.; Rauch, H.; Baron, M.; Lin, J.S.; Fan, L.; Thiyagarajan, P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the applicability of small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) techniques for determining the porosity, pore size distribution and internal specific surface area in coals. The method is noninvasive, fast, inexpensive and does not require complex sample preparation. It uses coal grains of about 0.8 mm size mounted in standard pellets as used for petrographic studies. Assuming spherical pore geometry, the scattering data are converted into the pore size distribution in the size range 1 nm (10 A??) to 20 ??m (200,000 A??) in diameter, accounting for both open and closed pores. FTIR as well as SAXS and SANS data for seven samples of oriented whole coals and corresponding pellets with vitrinite reflectance (Ro) values in the range 0.55% to 5.15% are presented and analyzed. Our results demonstrate that pellets adequately represent the average microstructure of coal samples. The scattering data have been used to calculate the maximum surface area available for methane adsorption. Total porosity as percentage of sample volume is calculated and compared with worldwide trends. By demonstrating the applicability of SAXS and SANS techniques to determine the porosity, pore size distribution and surface area in coals, we provide a new and efficient tool, which can be used for any type of coal sample, from a thin slice to a representative sample of a thick seam. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Managing ecotourism visitation in protected areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, J.L.; Farrell, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    Ecotourism management seeks to integrate and balance several potentially conflicting objectives: protection of natural and cultural resources, provision of recreation opportunities and generation of economic benefits. In the absence of effective planning and management, ecotourism can lead to significant negative impacts on vegetation, soil, water, wildlife, historic resources, cultures, and visitor experiences. This chapter reviews visitor-related natural resource and experience impacts associated with ecotourism within protected areas. The influence of factors that control the nature and extent of impacts are also reviewed, including type and amount of use, the variable resistance and resilience of environmental attributes such as vegetation and soil types, and the role of management in shaping visitation, resources and facilities to support visitation while minimizing associated impacts. Implications for managing the effects of protected area visitation are highlighted, including carrying capacity decision frameworks and selecting management strategies and tactics.

  11. Damage asymmetry from hydro-geomorphic signals along the trifurcation area of the San- Jacinto Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wechsler, N.; Rockwell, T. K.; Ben-Zion, Y.

    2007-12-01

    An important earthquake research topic is the question of whether there are geological controls on rupture propagation direction. A persistent preferred propagation direction should produce asymmetric damage structure that is recorded in the volume of rock surrounding a fault, and there may be geomorphic manifestations on active faults that can be recognized and analyzed in a quantitative fashion. The San-Jacinto Fault (SJF) is one of the most active faults in southern California, with well expressed geomorphology, a fast geologic slip rate, and a strong GPS strain signal. We use standard morphometric analysis to detect the damage asymmetry across a part of the SJF in the trifurcation area where the Clark, Coyote-Creek and Buck-Ridge segments meet. The analysis is done at two scales: 1. Small scale DEM with 30m per pixel resolution derived from SRTM data. 2. Large scale DEM with 1m per pixel resolution derived from LIDAR data, covering the fault at ~1 km width. The geomorphic analysis is done using the GIS software ArcMap and the TauDEM tool box. We compare several morphometric parameters (drainage density, stream frequency, texture ratio, bifurcation ratio, ruggedness number, hypsometric integral) for drainages on both sides of the fault. North of the trifurcation point, the north-east side of the fault is more damaged, in agreement with Dor el at (2006) and Lewis et al (2005), but south of the trifurcation the situation is reversed. A number of factors can affect the results of the morphometric analysis, including the proximity of several fault strands, a restraining bend on the main strand, and different lithologies on the two sides of the fault. The current results are not conclusive since the morphometric analysis depends on various additional factors, such as different slopes, rates of erosion, vegetation, etc., that were only partially accounted for. Nevertheless, these preliminary results on reversed damage asymmetry suggest that large earthquakes on the

  12. Preliminary Results from Real-Time GPS Monitoring in the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langbein, J. O.; Guillemot, C.

    2013-12-01

    A web-based monitoring system has been implemented to display displacement estimates in real-time for various combinations of USGS, Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and Bay Area Regional Deformation (BARD) network stations in the San Francisco Bay area. Tools and utilities developed in-house are used to visually analyze the quality of estimated positions and gain a better understanding of the challenges involved in integrating displacement data into earthquake early warning (EEW) algorithms. Comparisons of results between differential and precise position estimates obtained from a variety of software packages have led to a closer examination of the epoch-per-epoch latencies, or delays with which those estimates are generated. For example, although position estimates from precise point positioning, with ambiguity resolution, (PPP-AR) computed in real-time are reasonably stable over short-time scales, latencies of 50 seconds or more currently preclude their useful incorporation into EEW algorithms. On the other hand, the latencies for differential position range between less than a second to 10 seconds. The large latencies for PPP-AR are partly due to the fact that displacement estimates obtained from GPS cannot yet be generated at the source but must rely on centralized processing that incorporates instantaneous clock corrections which, in turn must be obtained from external agencies. The latencies, however, are not as critical for the study of post-seismic deformation that occurs minutes to hours following an earthquake. Computation of the power spectra of time series provides a quantitative means to compare the precision of estimated positions that are obtained from various software that process the data in real-time. To first order, the current set of processing algorithms, including those using differential position and PPP-AR, provides nearly equal performance in terms of temporal correlations which is represented by their power spectra. At the shortest periods

  13. 78 FR 1760 - Determination of Attainment for the San Francisco Bay Area Nonattainment Area for the 2006 Fine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... the 2006 Fine Particle Standard; California; Determination Regarding Applicability of Clean Air Act... 2006 24-hour fine particle (PM 2.5 ) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). This determination... Action On October 29, 2012 (77 FR 65521), EPA proposed to determine that the San Francisco Bay...

  14. Managing Documents in the Wider Area: Intelligent Document Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bittleston, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Discusses techniques for managing documents in wide area networks, reviews technique limitations, and offers recommendations to database designers. Presented techniques include: increasing bandwidth, reducing data traffic, synchronizing documentation, partial synchronization, audit trials, navigation, and distribution control and security. Two…

  15. Integrated groundwater quality management in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartjes, F. A.; Otte, P. F.

    2012-04-01

    Traditionally, groundwater assessments and remediations are approached at the scale of individual groundwater plumes. In urban areas, however, this management of individual groundwater plumes is often problematic for technical, practical or financial reasons, since the groundwater quality is often affected by a combination of sources, including (former) industrial activities, spills and leachate from uncontrolled landfills and building materials. As a result, often a whole series of intermingling contamination plumes is found in large volumes of groundwater. In several countries in the world, this led to stagnation of groundwater remediation in urban areas. Therefore, in the Netherlands there is a tendency managing groundwater in urban areas from an integrated perspective and on a larger scale. This so-called integrated groundwater quality management is often more efficient and hence, cheaper, since the organisation of the management of a cluster of groundwater plumes is much easier than it would be if all individual groundwater plumes were managed at different points in time. Integrated groundwater quality management should follow a tailor-made approach. However, to facilitate practical guidance was developed. This guidance relates to the delineation of the domain, the management of sources for groundwater contamination, procedures for monitoring, and (risk-based) assessment of the groundwater quality. Function-specific risk-based groundwater quality criteria were derived to support the assessment of the groundwater quality.

  16. 77 FR 34988 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Diego State University, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: San Diego State University, San Diego, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: San Diego State University Archeology Collections... associated funerary objects may contact San Diego State University Archeology Collections Management...

  17. Effect of channelization of Rio Puerto Nuevo on ground-water levels in the San Juan metropolitan area, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Padilla, Ingrid

    1991-01-01

    Channelization and concrete lining of the Rio Puerto Nuevo and its tributaries in the San Juan Metropolitan area has been proposed to control flooding in low lying areas adjacent to the stream. Concern about the effect of these channel modifications on the ground-water system prompted the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to conduct an investigation of surface-water and ground-water interactions in the Rio Puerto Nuevo basin in 1988. A principal objective of this investigation was to determine the potential effect of channelization of the Rio Puerto Nuevo on ground-water levels.

  18. REFERENCE AREA DATABASE FOR THE SAN FRANCISCO DEEP OCEAN DISPOSAL SITE (SF-DODS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order for a dredging project to be authorized to dispose of dredged material at the San Francisco Deep Ocean Disposal Site (SF-DODS), sediment evaluations (including, as appropriate, physical, chemical, and biological testing) must first be conducted. EPA determines the suita...

  19. Evaluating Ambient Concentrations and Local Emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) in the San Francisco Bay Area of California Using a Comprehensive Fixed-site and Mobile Monitoring Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, A.; Bower, J. P.; Martien, P. T.; Randall, S.; Young, A.; Hilken, H.; Stevenson, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Bay Area Air Quality Management District (hence the Air District) is the greater San Francisco Bay metropolitan region's chief air quality regulatory agency. Aligning itself with Executive Order S-3-05, the Air District has set a goal to reduce the region's GHG emissions by 80% below 1990 levels by the year 2050. The Air District's 10-point Climate Action Work Program lays out the agency's priorities, actions and coordination with regional stakeholders. The Program has three core objectives: (1) to develop a technical and monitoring program to document the region's GHG sources and related emissions, (2) to implement a policy and rule-based approach to control and regulate GHG emissions, and finally, (3) to utilize local governance, incentives and partnerships to encourage GHG emissions reductions.As part of the technical program, the Air District has set up a long term, ambient GHG monitoring network at four sites. The first site is located north and upwind of the urban core at Bodega Bay by the Pacific Coast. It mostly receives clean marine inflow and serves as the regional background site. The other three sites are strategically located at regional exit points for Bay Area plumes that presumably contain GHG enhancements from local sources. These stations are at San Martin, located south of the San Jose metropolitan area; at Patterson Pass at the cross section with California's Central Valley; and at Bethel Island at the mouth of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. At all sites, carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are being measured continuously, along with combustion tracer CO and other air pollutants. The GHG measurements are performed with high precision and fast laser instruments (Picarro Inc). In the longer term, the network will allow the Air District to monitor ambient concentrations of GHGs and thus evaluate the effectiveness of its policy, regulation and enforcement efforts. We present data from the sites in their first few months of operation and

  20. Slicing up the San Francisco Bay Area: Block kinematics and fault slip rates from GPS-derived surface velocities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    d'Alessio, M. A.; Johanson, I.A.; Burgmann, R.; Schmidt, D.A.; Murray, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    Observations of surface deformation allow us to determine the kinematics of faults in the San Francisco Bay Area. We present the Bay Area velocity unification (BA??VU??, "bay view"), a compilation of over 200 horizontal surface velocities computed from campaign-style and continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) observations from 1993 to 2003. We interpret this interseismic velocity field using a three-dimensional block model to determine the relative contributions of block motion, elastic strain accumulation, and shallow aseismic creep. The total relative motion between the Pacific plate and the rigid Sierra Nevada/Great Valley (SNGV) microplate is 37.9 ?? 0.6 mm yr-1 directed toward N30.4??W ?? 0.8?? at San Francisco (??2??). Fault slip rates from our preferred model are typically within the error bounds of geologic estimates but provide a better fit to geodetic data (notable right-lateral slip rates in mm yr-1: San Gregorio fault, 2.4 ?? 1.0; West Napa fault, 4.0 ?? 3.0; zone of faulting along the eastern margin of the Coast Range, 5.4 ?? 1.0; and Mount Diablo thrust, 3.9 ?? 1.0 of reverse slip and 4.0 ?? 0.2 of right-lateral strike slip). Slip on the northern Calaveras is partitioned between both the West Napa and Concord/ Green Valley fault systems. The total convergence across the Bay Area is negligible. Poles of rotation for Bay Area blocks progress systematically from the North America-Pacific to North America-SNGV poles. The resulting present-day relative motion cannot explain the strike of most Bay Area faults, but fault strike does loosely correlate with inferred plate motions at the time each fault initiated. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Multi-Scale Structure and Earthquake Properties in the San Jacinto Fault Zone Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Zion, Y.

    2014-12-01

    I review multi-scale multi-signal seismological results on structure and earthquake properties within and around the San Jacinto Fault Zone (SJFZ) in southern California. The results are based on data of the southern California and ANZA networks covering scales from a few km to over 100 km, additional near-fault seismometers and linear arrays with instrument spacing 25-50 m that cross the SJFZ at several locations, and a dense rectangular array with >1100 vertical-component nodes separated by 10-30 m centered on the fault. The structural studies utilize earthquake data to image the seismogenic sections and ambient noise to image the shallower structures. The earthquake studies use waveform inversions and additional time domain and spectral methods. We observe pronounced damage regions with low seismic velocities and anomalous Vp/Vs ratios around the fault, and clear velocity contrasts across various sections. The damage zones and velocity contrasts produce fault zone trapped and head waves at various locations, along with time delays, anisotropy and other signals. The damage zones follow a flower-shape with depth; in places with velocity contrast they are offset to the stiffer side at depth as expected for bimaterial ruptures with persistent propagation direction. Analysis of PGV and PGA indicates clear persistent directivity at given fault sections and overall motion amplification within several km around the fault. Clear temporal changes of velocities, probably involving primarily the shallow material, are observed in response to seasonal, earthquake and other loadings. Full source tensor properties of M>4 earthquakes in the complex trifurcation area include statistically-robust small isotropic component, likely reflecting dynamic generation of rock damage in the source volumes. The dense fault zone instruments record seismic "noise" at frequencies >200 Hz that can be used for imaging and monitoring the shallow material with high space and time details, and

  2. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): San Fernando Valley (Area 1), CA. (Second Remedial Action), June 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-30

    The San Fernando Valley Basin (SFVB) Area 1 site is one of four Superfund sites (including SFVB Areas 2, 3, and 4) being remediated as one large site. The SFVB lies within the approximately 32B,500-acre Upper Los Angeles River area. The remedial action is for the Burbank Well Field operable unit of the SFVB Area 1 site, located within the city of Burbank, California, and addresses a portion of the overall ground-water problem in the SFVB Areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 sites. The primary contaminants of concern are VOCs including TCE and PCE. The selected remedial action for the site includes pumping and treatment of ground water contaminated with TCE exceeding 100 microg/l or PCE exceeding 5 microg/l using air or stream stripping, with vapor phase GAC adsorption units if air stripping is used, and discharge to the municipal-water-supply distribution system; and ground water monitoring.

  3. Risk Behaviors among Asian Women Who Work at Massage Parlors in San Francisco: Perspectives from Masseuses and Owners/Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Oh, Hyun Joo; Wong, Serena; Nguyen, Hongmai

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates cognitive, cultural, and contextual factors that influence HIV-related risk behaviors among Asian women who engage in sex work at massage parlors in San Francisco. Focus groups and qualitative interviews were conducted for Vietnamese and Thai masseuses and massage parlor owners/managers. Economic pressure as well as…

  4. Space shuttle entry terminal area energy management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    A historical account of the development for Shuttle's Terminal Area Energy Management (TAEM) is presented. A derivation and explanation of logic and equations are provided as a supplement to the well documented guidance computation requirements contained within the official Functional Subsystem Software Requirements (FSSR) published by Rockwell for NASA. The FSSR contains the full set of equations and logic, whereas this document addresses just certain areas for amplification.

  5. Documentation of a groundwater flow model (SJRRPGW) for the San Joaquin River Restoration Program study area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Traum, Jonathan A.; Phillips, Steven P.; Bennett, George Luther; Zamora, Celia; Metzger, Loren F.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the potential effects of restoration flows on existing drainage problems, anticipated as a result of the San Joaquin River Restoration Program (SJRRP), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), developed a groundwater flow model (SJRRPGW) of the SJRRP study area that is within 5 miles of the San Joaquin River and adjacent bypass system from Friant Dam to the Merced River. The primary goal of the SJRRP is to reestablish the natural ecology of the river to a degree that restores salmon and other fish populations. Increased flows in the river, particularly during the spring salmon run, are a key component of the restoration effort. A potential consequence of these increased river flows is the exacerbation of existing irrigation drainage problems along a section of the river between Mendota and the confluence with the Merced River. Historically, this reach typically was underlain by a water table within 10 feet of the land surface, thus requiring careful irrigation management and (or) artificial drainage to maintain crop health. The SJRRPGW is designed to meet the short-term needs of the SJRRP; future versions of the model may incorporate potential enhancements, several of which are identified in this report. The SJRRPGW was constructed using the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW and was built on the framework of the USGS Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM) within which the SJRRPGW model domain is embedded. The Farm Process (FMP2) was used to simulate the supply and demand components of irrigated agriculture. The Streamflow-Routing Package (SFR2) was used to simulate the streams and bypasses and their interaction with the aquifer system. The 1,300-square mile study area was subdivided into 0.25-mile by 0.25-mile cells. The sediment texture of the aquifer system, which was used to distribute hydraulic properties by model cell, was refined from that used in the CVHM to better represent

  6. Local Area Network Management: An Unresolved Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howden, Norman

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of management issues involved with local area networks (LAN) among information organizations focuses on a project at the University of North Texas that was designed to investigate problems associated with LAN. Topics discussed include purchasing decisions for hardware and software, and integration among various groups of users. (Eight…

  7. Solid Waste Management in Recreational Forest Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spooner, Charles S.

    The Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, requested the Bureau of Solid Waste Management to conduct a study of National Forest recreation areas to establish waste generation rates for major recreation activities and to determine the cost of solid waste handling for selected Forest Service Districts. This report describes the 1968 solid…

  8. Habitat changes: Mount Haggin Wildlife Management Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frisina, M.R.; Keigley, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    In 1984, a rest-rotation grazing system was established on the Mount Haggin Wildlife Management Area (MHWMA) in southwest Montana. The area is a mixture of wet and dry meadow types, grass/shrublands, and forest. Prior to implementing the grazing system, photo-monitoring points were established on the MHWMA at locations were cattle concentrate were grazing. The area consists of a three pasture rest-rotation system incorporating 20,000 acres. Photo essays revealed changes in riparian, lowland, and upland sites within the grazing system. In addition, gross changes in the amount of willow present were documented.

  9. Hazardous substance management system (HSMS): Full ``cradle to grave`` implementation at Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego

    SciTech Connect

    Krake, J.N.; Taylor, M.J.; Boss, R.D.; Senhen, L.A.

    1998-08-01

    The Hazardous Substance Management System (HSMS) is an automated system for `cradle to grave` tracking and managing of hazardous material (HM) and hazardous waste (HW). This paper describes the procedure for disposition of hazardous material as waste, the pilot transfer of hazardous waste, and how the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego (SSC SD) has successfully implemented HSMS to track HM and HW from cradle to grave.

  10. Geophysical Anomalies and Seismicity Suggest a Connection Between the Hayward and Calaveras Faults, Eastern San Francisco Bay Area, Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce, D. A.; Phelps, G. A.; Graymer, R. W.; Jachens, R. C.; Simpson, R. W.; Wentworth, C. M.

    2003-12-01

    Gravity, magnetic, and seismicity data of the eastern San Francisco Bay Area are used to reveal the three-dimensional subsurface geologic structure of the eastern San Francisco Bay Area and its relationship to ongoing seismicity. Combined, these data suggest a connection between the Hayward and Calaveras Faults. Gravity and magnetic modeling of a tabular gabbro body near San Leandro and relocated, double-difference seismicity data along the Hayward Fault (Ellsworth et al., 2000) suggest that the Hayward Fault dips to the northeast. Further southeast, double-difference seismicity data indicate that the fault dip becomes shallower, possibly connecting the creeping surface trace of the Hayward Fault with the diverging Mission seismicity trend at depth as suggested by Manaker and Michael (2003). In the stepover region, the southern extension of the Hayward Fault is parallel to the active central Calaveras Fault for about 25 km and the 4-km wide area in between is characterized by en echelon reverse (oblique?) faults. At depths below about 5 km, seismicity appears to be continuous, connecting the Hayward fault to the left-stepping central Calaveras Fault along the Mission seismicity trend. Geophysical interpretation of offset magnetic rock units also suggests that the northern Calaveras Fault has at most a few tens of kilometers of total offset and that most slip may be transferred from the southern Calaveras Fault, with a total offset of about 175 km, along the central Calaveras, Silver Creek, Hayward, and other faults west of the northern Calaveras Fault, consistent with present seismicity. Cross-sectional and 3D visualizations of these data are used to illustrate the proposed geometry of the connection between the Hayward and Calaveras Faults.

  11. Integrated geomorphic and geodynamic modeling of a potential blind thrust in the San Francisco Bay area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Courtney B.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Kirby, Eric

    2009-06-01

    Geometries and slip budgets of the faults in the San Francisco Bay area imply previously unrecognized fault linkages, including examples of blind thrust structures that appear to connect segments of strike-slip faults and accommodate along-strike variations in slip rate along these structures. Displacement along linking faults may be associated with the development of topography and also may serve as earthquake sources. In Marin County, California, systematic spatial patterns in landscape topography and geomorphic indices suggest that the region north of Mt. Tamalpais is experiencing differential rock uplift. We suggest that a blind thrust underlies the elevated area, creating the observed topography and possibly resolving a slip discrepancy between the Hayward and San Andreas Fault in this region. We have developed and implemented an integrative approach that combines observations from tectonic deformation and geomorphic properties to identify a potential blind thrust beneath Marin County. Elastic displacement modeling has been tested for compatibility with the blind thrust hypothesis and to assess the sensitivity of observables to fault geometry and orientation; from this, a set of plausible blind thrust structures are defined. We use a range of empirical relationships between channel steepness index and erosion rate to estimate spatial variations in erosion rate along Bolinas Ridge. By coupling these erosion estimates with elastic displacement fault modeling, we can use the resulting topographic envelopes to constrain the rate and duration of deformation. These constraints, along with spatial bounds on the possible fault models, are used to calculate potential seismic moment and moment magnitude. With an assumed recurrence interval of ~ 100 years, such blind thrusts can produce a Mw ~ 6.3 earthquake, while a longer recurrence time (~ 1000 years) results in a maximum Mw ~ 7.0 earthquake. Although such events are not likely to be catastrophic, they are large

  12. Sedimentologic evidence for structural and topographic evolution following the onset of strike slip, E San Francisco Bay area, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Buising, A.V. )

    1992-01-01

    Mid- to Upper Miocene continental (Orinda and Mulholland Fms.) and shallow marine (Neroly Fm.) strata in the Upper San Leandro Reservoir watershed (SLR) area east of San Francisco Bay preserve important information on structural and landscape evolution during the early phases of strike slip along the Pacific-North American plate boundary. The SLR area lies between the Hayward and Calaveras Faults, major strands of the San Andreas Fault system, and is bisected by the NW-striking Cull Creek Fault (CCF). Geologic mapping delineates five completely intercalated lithofacies in the Mulholland Fm. at SLR. The conglomerate-dominated, sandstone-dominated, and interbedded conglomerate, sandstone, and siltstone facies represent fluvial channel and floodplain deposits; the sandstone + mudstone facies represent lacustrine-deltaic and shallow lacustrine deposits; the shale facies records open lacustrine deposition. Sparse unidirectional paleocurrent indicators show southerly and easterly transport west of the CCF and both westerly and easterly transport east of the CCF. Conglomerate-rich and sand-rich facies tracts are juxtaposed along the CCF. Clast assemblages in Mulholland conglomerates include abundant chart, graywacke, blueschist, and vein quartz, suggesting derivation from a Franciscan-dominated source terrane. Clast assemblages in the gradationally underlying and interfingering Neroly Fm. suggest that it shared the same source terrane; this is atypical for the primarily andesitic (Sierra-derived) Neroly. Fluvial deposits are volumetrically dominant in the Mulholland Fm. at SLR; open-lacustrine shales occur in stratigraphically isolated lenses ranging from > 1 km to < 100 m along strike. This suggests numerous small lakes on a broad drainage plain rather than the single large lake envisioned by previous workers.

  13. Depths of channels in the area of the San Juan Basin Regional Uranium Study, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Maurice E.

    1979-01-01

    During December 1977 and January 1978 about 280 measurements were made of the depths of channels (arroyos) more than 6 feet deep in the San Juan Basin area. More than half of the measurements were made at sites where channel depths had been previously measured Between 1964 and 1969. Some channels in the western part of the basin had Been re-measured in 1969 and in 1971. The principal areas Being dissected by arroyos are near highlands along the margins of the Basin and in uplands in the northeastern part of the Basin. The most severe dissection by arroyos and the deepest arroyos--commonly Between 40 and 60 feet deep--are in the southeastern part of the Basin. Dissection By arroyos is least in the central part of the Basin near the Chaco River where most arroyos are less than 10 feet deep. Elsewhere, moderate dissection predominates with most arroyos Between 12 and 40 feet deep. Comparison of measurements made from 1964-71 with those made in 1977-78 shows that more channels in the western San Juan Basin were filling than were downcutting. Downcutting or filling was generally less than 2 feet. About two-fifths of the sites measured showed less than half a foot of downcutting or filling. Maximum downcutting was 4 feet along the Rio San Jose in the southeastern part of the basin. Maximum filling of 7 feet was along the Chaco River at the Chaco Canyon National Monument. Along ii other streams elsewhere in the western part of the basin, channels were filled 3 to 4.5 feet. The few measurements made in the southeastern San Juan Basin indicate that since 1964 downcutting has predominated over filling. Large floods during the summer of 1977 caused some change in channel depths in the southwestern part of the San Juan Basin. Some of the channels appeared to have been filled during the years prior to the cutting that occurred from the 1977 floods. At other places, flood flows aggraded (filled) channels. The rate of erosion and arroyo formation in the entire San Juan Basin is

  14. Estimation of a water budget for 1972-2000 for the Grasslands Area, central part of the Western San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brush, Charles F.; Belitz, Kenneth; Phillips, Steven P.

    2004-01-01

    Equitable implementation of regulations restricting discharges from agricultural drains into the San Joaquin River requires a greater understanding of the influence of extreme precipitation events on the ground-water flow system. As part of a larger investigation, this study estimated ground-water recharge and ground-water pumpage, two important components of the water budget in the Grasslands drainage area in the central part of the western San Joaquin Valley, California, for the water years 1972 through 2000. These estimates will be used as inputs to a numerical simulation model of the regional ground-water flow system in the continuing investigation. Crop-acreage and surface-water delivery data were compiled for 14 water districts and 6 other areas comprising approximately 97 percent of the 600-square-mile study area. Little ground-water pumpage data exists for the study area. A climate-based approach was employed to estimate annual water-table recharge flux and ground-water pumpage for 11 water-budget areas. Ground-water pumpage was estimated from the residual irrigation demand after crop consumption of surface water. Estimated recharge flux to the water table for the entire study area averaged 0.8 ft/yr, and estimated ground-water pumpage per unit area for the entire study area averaged 0.5 ft/yr. Increased discharges from agricultural drains in the late 1990s may have been due partly to 4 years of high recharge from precipitation over the 6-year period from 1993 to 1998. Knowledge of the ratio of annual crop water demand to annual potential evapotranspiration, expressed as an aggregate crop coefficient, Kd, will facilitate estimation of annual water-budget components in future studies. Annual aggregate crop coefficients, calculated each year for the entire study area, were nearly constant at 0.59 from 1983 to 2000, and reasonably constant at 0.53 prior to 1983. The overall trend suggests continuous reductions in recharge from irrigation over time. This

  15. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lobster management areas. 697.18 Section... Measures § 697.18 Lobster management areas. The following lobster management areas are established for... American lobster EEZ management areas is available upon request to the Office of the Regional...

  16. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lobster management areas. 697.18 Section... Measures § 697.18 Lobster management areas. The following lobster management areas are established for... American lobster EEZ management areas is available upon request to the Office of the Regional...

  17. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lobster management areas. 697.18 Section... Measures § 697.18 Lobster management areas. The following lobster management areas are established for... American lobster EEZ management areas is available upon request to the Office of the Regional...

  18. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lobster management areas. 697.18 Section... Measures § 697.18 Lobster management areas. The following lobster management areas are established for... American lobster EEZ management areas is available upon request to the Office of the Regional...

  19. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lobster management areas. 697.18 Section... Measures § 697.18 Lobster management areas. The following lobster management areas are established for... American lobster EEZ management areas is available upon request to the Office of the Regional...

  20. Regulated and Unregulated Fibrous Amphiboles of the Franciscan Formation Found in the Greater San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, R.

    2012-12-01

    The San Francisco Bay Area is underlain in numerous locales by rocks of the Franciscan Formation, a significant number of which contain amphibole minerals which may occur in a fibrous or asbestiform habit. Such rocks include altered mafic volcanic rocks, serpentine complexes and high pressure metamorphic rocks (e.g. green schist, blue schist, amphibolite, eclogite, etc.). Although it is commonly known that actinolite/tremolite may occur within these rock bodies, it is also true that all of the other "regulated" amphiboles (riebeckite (crocidolite), amosite (grunerite) and anthophyllite, have been identified as well. In addition, a considerable number of other "non-regulated" amphiboles with a fibrous or asbestiform habit have been identified including: glaucophane, winchite, richterite, "Libby amphibole", hornblende, barroisite, cummingtonite and others. Extensive solid solution exists between many of these amphiboles which can make definitive identification difficult. Also, the possibility of complex pressure-temperature paths for these rocks means a single amphibole fiber/crystal can exhibit zonation of, and/or intergrowths between, multiple amphibole phases. It is important that regulators and laboratories are aware of the potential presence of these amphibole minerals, and possibly others, in rock and soil found in the San Francisco Bay Area and that they are not automatically discarded from asbestos fiber counts when they are observed. Criteria for identifying the amphiboles discussed above will be presented.

  1. Association of earthquakes and faults in the San Francisco Bay area using Bayesian inference

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesson, R.L.; Bakun, W.H.; Perkins, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    Bayesian inference provides a method to use seismic intensity data or instrumental locations, together with geologic and seismologic data, to make quantitative estimates of the probabilities that specific past earthquakes are associated with specific faults. Probability density functions are constructed for the location of each earthquake, and these are combined with prior probabilities through Bayes' theorem to estimate the probability that an earthquake is associated with a specific fault. Results using this method are presented here for large, preinstrumental, historical earthquakes and for recent earthquakes with instrumental locations in the San Francisco Bay region. The probabilities for individual earthquakes can be summed to construct a probabilistic frequency-magnitude relationship for a fault segment. Other applications of the technique include the estimation of the probability of background earthquakes, that is, earthquakes not associated with known or considered faults, and the estimation of the fraction of the total seismic moment associated with earthquakes less than the characteristic magnitude. Results for the San Francisco Bay region suggest that potentially damaging earthquakes with magnitudes less than the characteristic magnitudes should be expected. Comparisons of earthquake locations and the surface traces of active faults as determined from geologic data show significant disparities, indicating that a complete understanding of the relationship between earthquakes and faults remains elusive.

  2. 43 CFR 4710.3-1 - Herd management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Management Considerations § 4710.3-1 Herd management areas. Herd management areas shall be established for the maintenance of wild horse and burro herds. In delineating...

  3. 43 CFR 4710.3-1 - Herd management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Management Considerations § 4710.3-1 Herd management areas. Herd... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Herd management areas. 4710.3-1...

  4. SITE MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING PLAN IMPLEMENTATION MANUAL - SAN FRANCISCO DEEP OCEAN DISPOSAL SITE (SF-DODS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA published in 1994 a Final Rule formally designating the San Francisco Deep Ocean Disposal Site (SF-DODS) for the disposal of suitable dredged material removed from the San Francisco Bay region and other nearby harbors or dredging sites. This Final Rule contained an extensive ...

  5. Receptor model and emissions inventory source appontionments of nonmethane organic gases in California's San Joaquin valley and San Francisco bay area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Eric M.; Watson, John G.; Chow, Judith C.; Magliano, Karen L.

    The chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model was applied to the nonmethane organic gas (NMOG) database acquired during the San Joaquin Valley Air Quality Study (SJVAQS)/Atmospheric Utility Signatures—Predictions and Experiment (AUSPEX) Regional Model Adaptation Project (SARMAP). During SARMAP, the major contributors to NMOG were vehicle exhaust, liquid gasoline, gasoline vapor, oil production, acetone and unidentified organic compounds. Oil production was the major contributor to NMOG in the southern SJV during the morning hours, ranging from about one-third to one-half of the total NMOG. Contributions of oil production were lower during the afternoon due to increased ventilation, and larger contributions from secondary organic compounds. In the afternoon, the combined fraction of acetone and unidentified or unexplained (difference between calculated and measured mass) NMOG, which is mostly of secondary origin, accounted for about half of the total NMOG at receptor sites. Only the Yosemite and Giant Forest sites showed significant contributions from biogenic emissions. The fact that CMB did not detect significant contributions from biogenic sources in samples collected from sites in the SJV where estimated biogenic emission rates exceed those of either Yosemite or Giant Forest, suggests that biogenic emissions are overestimated in the SARMAP inventory. Source contribution estimates for total motor vehicle emissions averaged 75 and 70% of the total measured NMOG in urban areas during the 0800-1000 and 1200-1400 sampling periods, respectively, compared to the average daily emission inventory contribution of 44%. These results support recent studies which indicate that motor vehicle emissions have been seriously underestimated.

  6. Mineral resources of the Sheep Mountain Wilderness study area and the Cucamonga Wilderness and additions, Los Angeles and San Bernardino counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, James G.; Pankraatz, Leroy; Ridenour, James; Schmauch, Steven W.; Zilka, Nicholas T.

    1977-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Sheep Mountain Wilderness study area and Cucamonga Wilderness area and additions by the U.S. Geological Survey and Bureau of Mines in 1975 covered about 66,500 acres (26,500 ha) of the San Bernardino and Angeles National Forests in southern California. The two study areas are separated by San Antonio Canyon. The mineral resource potential was evaluated through geological, geochemical, and geophysical studies by the Geological Survey and through evaluation of mines and prospects by the Bureau of Mines.

  7. Hydrologic data for the San Juan and Animas River valleys in the Farmington, Aztec, Bloomfield, and Cedar Hill areas, San Juan County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAda, D.P.; Shelton, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    In July 1985, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a three-year study in San Juan County, New Mexico, to determine the concentrations of chemical constituents in the groundwater in the San Juan and Animas River valleys and to determine the direction and rate of groundwater flow and its relation to river stage. The study was conducted in cooperation with the San Juan County Commission and the New Mexico Oil Conservation Division. The data that was collected during the first 1-1/2 yr of the study is completed. The report includes well records for 51 wells and water levels from 23 wells, hydrographs from four observation wells and one river stage site, and available chemical analyses from 50 wells and 14 surface water sites. Water samples from six wells and one surface-water site were analyzed for purgeable organic chemicals; none were detected. (Lantz-PTT)

  8. Walking, bicycling, and urban landscapes: evidence from the San Francisco Bay Area.

    PubMed

    Cervero, Robert; Duncan, Michael

    2003-09-01

    Some claim that car-dependent cities contribute to obesity by discouraging walking and bicycling. In this article, we use household activity data from the San Francisco region to study the links between urban environments and nonmotorized travel. We used factor analysis to represent the urban design and land-use diversity dimensions of built environments. Combining factor scores with control variables, like steep terrain, that gauge impediments to walking and bicycling, we estimated discrete-choice models. Built-environment factors exerted far weaker, although not inconsequential, influences on walking and bicycling than control variables. Stronger evidence on the importance of urban landscapes in shaping foot and bicycle travel is needed if the urban planning and public health professions are to forge an effective alliance against car-dependent sprawl. PMID:12948966

  9. Mineral resources of the Indian Creek, Bridger Jack Mesa, and Butler Wash Wilderness Study Areas, San Juan County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, C.G.; Toth, M.I.; Case, J.E.; Barton, H.N.; Green, G.N.; Schreiner, R.A.; Thompson, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Indian Creek, Bridger Jack Mesa, and Butler Wash Wilderness Study Areas are located in San Juan County, southeastern Utah. These areas consist of nearly flat-lying sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age that are in places extensively faulted, forming horsts and grabens, or they are gently domed by flowage of the bedded salts of the Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation. Inferred subeconomic resources of potash and halite are present in the Paradox beneath the Indian Creek Wilderness Study Area, but their likelihood for development is low. Inferred subeconomic resources of sandstone and small amounts of sand and gravel exist within these wilderness study areas, but because of their abundance throughout the region, their distance to current markets, and their lack of unique properties, these materials have no current likelihood for development. No uranium resources were identified at the surface in these wilderness study areas. However, the potential for undiscovered resources of uranium and by-products vanadium and copper is high for the north quarter of the Bridger Jack Mesa Wilderness Study Area; the mineral resource potential for these elements is low for the Butler Wash, Indian Creek and the remainder of the Bridger Jack Mesa Wilderness Study Areas. The potential for oil and gas resources is moderate in all three wilderness study areas. The mineral resource potential for potash and halite beneath the Bridger Jack Mesa and Butler Wash Wilderness Study Areas is low. The resource potential for gold and silver is low in all three wilderness study areas and the mineral resource potential for the rare-earth element braitschite is unknown in all three wilderness study areas.

  10. Disease Risk & Landscape Attributes of Tick-Borne Borrelia Pathogens in the San Francisco Bay Area, California

    PubMed Central

    Carbajales-Dale, Patricia; Carbajales-Dale, Michael; Cinkovich, Stephanie S.; Lambin, Eric F.

    2015-01-01

    Habitat heterogeneity influences pathogen ecology by affecting vector abundance and the reservoir host communities. We investigated spatial patterns of disease risk for two human pathogens in the Borrelia genus–B. burgdorferi and B. miyamotoi–that are transmitted by the western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus. We collected ticks (349 nymphs, 273 adults) at 20 sites in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, USA. Tick abundance, pathogen prevalence and density of infected nymphs varied widely across sites and habitat type, though nymphal western black-legged ticks were more frequently found, and were more abundant in coast live oak forest and desert/semi-desert scrub (dominated by California sagebrush) habitats. We observed Borrelia infections in ticks at all sites where we able to collect >10 ticks. The recently recognized human pathogen, B. miyamotoi, was observed at a higher prevalence (13/349 nymphs = 3.7%, 95% CI = 2.0–6.3; 5/273 adults = 1.8%, 95% CI = 0.6–4.2) than recent studies from nearby locations (Alameda County, east of the San Francisco Bay), demonstrating that tick-borne disease risk and ecology can vary substantially at small geographic scales, with consequences for public health and disease diagnosis. PMID:26288371

  11. Disease Risk & Landscape Attributes of Tick-Borne Borrelia Pathogens in the San Francisco Bay Area, California.

    PubMed

    Salkeld, Daniel J; Nieto, Nathan C; Carbajales-Dale, Patricia; Carbajales-Dale, Michael; Cinkovich, Stephanie S; Lambin, Eric F

    2015-01-01

    Habitat heterogeneity influences pathogen ecology by affecting vector abundance and the reservoir host communities. We investigated spatial patterns of disease risk for two human pathogens in the Borrelia genus-B. burgdorferi and B. miyamotoi-that are transmitted by the western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus. We collected ticks (349 nymphs, 273 adults) at 20 sites in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, USA. Tick abundance, pathogen prevalence and density of infected nymphs varied widely across sites and habitat type, though nymphal western black-legged ticks were more frequently found, and were more abundant in coast live oak forest and desert/semi-desert scrub (dominated by California sagebrush) habitats. We observed Borrelia infections in ticks at all sites where we able to collect >10 ticks. The recently recognized human pathogen, B. miyamotoi, was observed at a higher prevalence (13/349 nymphs = 3.7%, 95% CI = 2.0-6.3; 5/273 adults = 1.8%, 95% CI = 0.6-4.2) than recent studies from nearby locations (Alameda County, east of the San Francisco Bay), demonstrating that tick-borne disease risk and ecology can vary substantially at small geographic scales, with consequences for public health and disease diagnosis. PMID:26288371

  12. The San Niccolo' experimental area for studying the hydrology of coastal Mediterranean peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Barbagli, Alessio; Sabbatini, Tiziana; Silvestri, Nicola; Bonari, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    Starting from 1930, a large part of the Massaciuccoli Lake coastal area (Tuscany, Italy) has been drained for agricultural purposes by a complex network of artificial drains and pumping stations. In the drained areas, peat soils, with values of organic matter up to 50% in some cases, are largely present (Pistocchi et al., 2012). As a consequence of the human impact, environmental problems arose in the last 50 years: i. the eutrophication status of the Massaciuccoli lake caused by nutrient enrichment (N, P) in surface- and ground-water (Rossetto et al., 2010a); ii. the subsidence (2-3 m in 70 years) of the lake bordering areas due to soil compaction and mineralization (Rossetto et al., 2010b). As a potential solution to improve water quality and to decrease soil organic matter mineralization, a rewetted pilot experimental area of 15 ha with phyto-treatment functionalities has been set up. This pilot, adequately instrumented, now constitutes an open field lab to conduct research on the hydrology of coastal Mediterranean peatlands. Site investigation was performed and data on stratigraphy (from top on average: 1/2 m thick peat layer, 1/3 m organic matter-rich silt, 1/3 m stiff blue-gray clay, up to 30 m thick sand layer) and water (ground- and surface-water) quantity and quality were gathered and related to both local and regional groundwater flows. The inferred hydrological conceptual model revealed the pilot is set in a regional discharge area and the ground-water dependent nature of the agro-ecosystem, with mixing of waters with different origins. The site has been divided in three different phyto-treatment systems: a constructed wetland system, internally and externally banked in order to force water flow to a convoluted pattern where Phragmites australis L. and Thypha angustifolia L. constitute the sparse natural vegetation; a vegetation filter system based on the plantation of seven different no-food crops managed according to a periodic cutting and biomass

  13. Civilizing the Conversation? Using Surveys to Inform Water Management and Science in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanak, E.; Phillips Chappelle, C.

    2013-12-01

    Improving ecosystem outcomes in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is a complex, high-stakes water resource management challenge. The Delta is a major hub for water supply conveyance and a valued ecological resource. Yet long-term declines in native fish populations have resulted in severe legal constraints on water exports and fueled growing public debates about the roles and responsibilities of flow modification and other sources of ecosystem stress. Meanwhile, scientific uncertainty, and the inability of the scientific community to effectively communicate what *is* known, has frustrated policymakers and encouraged 'combat science' - the commissioning and use of competing scientific opinions in the courtroom. This paper summarizes results from a study designed to inform the policy process through the use of confidential surveys of scientific researchers (those publishing in peer-reviewed journals, n=122) and engaged stakeholders and policymakers (n=240). The surveys, conducted in mid-2012, sought respondents' views on the sources of ecosystem stress and priority ecosystem management actions. The scientist survey is an example of the growing use of expert elicitation to address gaps in the scientific literature, particularly where there is uncertainty about priorities for decisionmaking (e.g., Cvitanovic et al. 2013, J. of Env. Mgmt; McDaniels et al. 2012, Risk Analysis). The stakeholder survey is a useful complement, enabling the identification of areas of consensus and divergence among stakeholder groups and between these groups and scientific experts. The results suggest such surveys are a promising tool for addressing complex water management problems. We found surprisingly high agreement among scientists on the relative roles of stressors and the most promising management actions; they emphasized restoring more natural processes through habitat and flow actions within the watershed, consistent with 'reconciliation ecology' approaches (Rosenzweig 2003

  14. Mixed Waste Focus Area program management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Beitel, G.A.

    1996-10-01

    This plan describes the program management principles and functions to be implemented in the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). The mission of the MWFA is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments and regulators. The MWFA will develop, demonstrate and deliver implementable technologies for treatment of mixed waste within the DOE Complex. Treatment refers to all post waste-generation activities including sampling and analysis, characterization, storage, processing, packaging, transportation and disposal.

  15. The San Niccolo' experimental area for studying the hydrology of coastal Mediterranean peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Barbagli, Alessio; Sabbatini, Tiziana; Silvestri, Nicola; Bonari, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    Starting from 1930, a large part of the Massaciuccoli Lake coastal area (Tuscany, Italy) has been drained for agricultural purposes by a complex network of artificial drains and pumping stations. In the drained areas, peat soils, with values of organic matter up to 50% in some cases, are largely present (Pistocchi et al., 2012). As a consequence of the human impact, environmental problems arose in the last 50 years: i. the eutrophication status of the Massaciuccoli lake caused by nutrient enrichment (N, P) in surface- and ground-water (Rossetto et al., 2010a); ii. the subsidence (2-3 m in 70 years) of the lake bordering areas due to soil compaction and mineralization (Rossetto et al., 2010b). As a potential solution to improve water quality and to decrease soil organic matter mineralization, a rewetted pilot experimental area of 15 ha with phyto-treatment functionalities has been set up. This pilot, adequately instrumented, now constitutes an open field lab to conduct research on the hydrology of coastal Mediterranean peatlands. Site investigation was performed and data on stratigraphy (from top on average: 1/2 m thick peat layer, 1/3 m organic matter-rich silt, 1/3 m stiff blue-gray clay, up to 30 m thick sand layer) and water (ground- and surface-water) quantity and quality were gathered and related to both local and regional groundwater flows. The inferred hydrological conceptual model revealed the pilot is set in a regional discharge area and the ground-water dependent nature of the agro-ecosystem, with mixing of waters with different origins. The site has been divided in three different phyto-treatment systems: a constructed wetland system, internally and externally banked in order to force water flow to a convoluted pattern where Phragmites australis L. and Thypha angustifolia L. constitute the sparse natural vegetation; a vegetation filter system based on the plantation of seven different no-food crops managed according to a periodic cutting and biomass

  16. Physical, chemical, and biological data for detailed study of irrigation drainage in the San Juan River area, New Mexico, 1993-94, with supplemental data, 1991-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, C.L.; Lusk, J.D.; Bristol, R.S.; Wilson, R.M.; Shineman, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    In response to increasing concern about the quality of irrigation drainage and its potential effects on fish, wildlife, and human health, the U.S. Department of the Interior formed an interbureau task group to prepare a plan for investigating water- quality problems on irrigation projects sponsored by the Department of the Interior. The San Juan River area in northwestern New Mexico was one of the areas designated for study. Investigators collected water, bottom-sediment, soil, and biological samples at more than 50 sites in the San Juan River area during 1993-94. Sample sites included (1) sites located within Department of the Interior irrigation project service areas, or areas that receive drainage from irrigation projects; (2) reference sites for comparison with irrigation project sites; and (3) sites located within the reach of the San Juan River from Navajo Dam to 10 miles downstream from the dam. The types of habitat sampled included the main stem of the San Juan River, backwater areas adjacent to the San Juan River, tributaries to the San Juan River, ponds, seeps, irrigation-delivery canals, irrigation-drainage canals, a stock tank, and shallow ground water. The types of media sampled included water, bottom sediment, soil, aquatic plants, aquatic invertebrates, amphibians, and fish. Semipermeable-membrane devices were used as a surrogate medium to sample both air and water in some instances. Sample measurements included concentrations of major ions, trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon compounds, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. This report presents tables of physical, chemical, and biological data collected for the U.S. Department of the Interior National Irrigation Water-Quality Program. Additionally, supplemental physical, chemical, and biological data collected in association with the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project are presented.

  17. Interpretation of Schlumberger DC resistivity data from Gibson Dome-Lockhart Basin study area, San Juan County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    A Schlumberger dc resistivity survey of the Gibson Dome-Lockhart Basin area, San Juan County, Utah, has revealed the following electrical characteristics of the area: (1) the area between the northern part of Davis Canyon and Gibson Dome is electrically quite uniform and resistive at the depth of the Pennsylvanian evaporite deposits, (2) there is a deep conductive anomaly at Horsehead Rock, and (3) there are several shallow and deep electrical anomalies in the vicinity of the Lockhart fault system. No adverse indicators were found for nuclear waste repository siting south of Indian Creek, but additional soundings should be made to increase data density and to extend the survey area southward. The Lockhart fault system appears to have triggered salt dissolution or flow outside the limits of Lockhart Basin; further geophysical work and drilling will be required to understand the origin of the Lockhart Basin structure and its present state of activity. This problem is important because geologic processes that lead to enlargement of the Lockhart Basin structure or to development of similar structures would threaten the integrity of a repository in the Gibson Dome area.

  18. Examining and Comparing Earthquake Readiness in East San Francisco Bay Area Communities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, N.; Bul, V.; Chavez, A.; Chin, W.; Cuff, K. E.; Girton, C.; Haynes, D.; Kelly, G.; Leon, G.; Ramirez, J.; Ramirez, R.; Rodriquez, F.; Ruiz, D.; Torres, J.

    2009-12-01

    Based on past experiences, the potential for casualties and mass destruction that can result from a high magnitude earthquake are well known. Nevertheless, given the East San Francisco Bay Area’s proximity to the Hayward and San Andreas faults, learning about earthquakes and disaster preparedness is of particular importance. While basic educational programs and materials are available both through emergency relief agencies and schools, little research has been done on their effectiveness. Because of the wide socioeconomic spread between communities in the East Bay, we decided to investigate understandings of issues related to disaster and earthquake preparedness among local populations based upon average household income. To accomplish this, we created a survey that was later uploaded to and implemented using Palm Treo Smart Phones. Survey locations were selected in such a way that they reflected the understandings of residents in a diverse set of socio-economic settings. Thus, these locations included a grocery store and nearby plaza in the Fruitvale district of Oakland, CA (zip=94601; median household income= 33,152), as well as the nearby town of Alameda, CA (zip=94502, median household income= 87,855). Preliminary results suggest that in terms of the objective questions on the survey, people from Alameda who participated in our study performed significantly better (difference in percentage correct greater than 10%) than the people from Fruitvale on two of the advanced earthquake knowledge questions. Interestingly enough, people in Fruitvale significantly outperformed people in Alameda on two of the basic earthquake knowledge questions. The final important finding was that while houses in Alameda tended to be newer and more often retrofitted than houses in Fruitvale, the people of the latter location tended to have a higher percentage of respondents claim confidence in the ability of their house to withstand a major earthquake. Based on preliminary results we

  19. Hydrogeology and geochemistry of aquifers underlying the San Lorenzo and San Leandro areas of the East Bay Plain, Alameda County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.; Borchers, James W.; Leighton, David A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Fields, Latoya; Galloway, Devin L.; Michel, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    The East Bay Plain, on the densely populated eastern shore of San Francisco Bay, contains an upper aquifer system to depths of 250 feet below land surface and an underlying lower aquifer system to depths of more than 650 feet. Injection and recovery of imported water has been proposed for deep aquifers at two sites within the lower aquifer system. Successful operation requires that the injected water be isolated from surface sources of poor-quality water during storage and recovery. Hydraulic, geochemical, and isotopic data were used to evaluate the isolation of deeper aquifers. Ground-water responses to tidal changes in the Bay suggest that thick clay layers present within these deposits effectively isolate the deeper aquifers in the northern part of the study area from overlying surficial deposits. These data also suggest that the areal extent of the shallow and deep aquifers beneath the Bay may be limited in the northern part of the study area. Despite its apparent hydraulic isolation, the lower aquifer system may be connected to the overlying upper aquifer system through the corroded and failed casings of abandoned wells. Water-level measurements in observation wells and downward flow measured in selected wells during nonpumped conditions suggest that water may flow through wells from the upper aquifer system into the lower aquifer system during nonpumped conditions. The chemistry of water from wells in the East Bay Plain ranges from fresh to saline; salinity is greater than seawater in shallow estuarine deposits near the Bay. Water from wells completed in the lower aquifer system has higher pH, higher sodium, chloride, and manganese concentrations, and lower calcium concentrations and alkalinity than does water from wells completed in the overlying upper aquifer system. Ground-water recharge temperatures derived from noble-gas data indicate that highly focused recharge processes from infiltration of winter streamflow and more diffuse recharge processes from

  20. Spatial patterns of fishing effort off San Diego: implications for zonal management and ecosystem function.

    PubMed

    Parnell, P Ed; Dayton, Paul K; Fisher, Rachelle A; Loarie, Cina C; Darrow, Ryan D

    2010-12-01

    The essence of ecosystem-based management is managing human practices to conserve the ecosystem. Ecologists focus on understanding the ecosystem, but there are fundamental information gaps including patterns of human exploitation. In particular, the spatial distribution of fishing effort must be known at the scales needed for ecologically relevant management. Fishing is a primary impact on coastal ecosystems, yet catch distribution at scales relevant to habitats and processes are not well known for many fisheries. Here we utilized photographic time series, logbook records, and angler surveys to estimate the intensity and spatial pattern of commercial and recreational fishing. Effort was clearly aggregated for most types of fishing, the motivating factors for effort distribution varied among areas, and effort was coupled or uncoupled to habitat depending on the area and type of fishing. We estimated that approximately 60% and approximately 74% of private recreational and recreational charter vessel fishing effort, respectively, were concentrated into two small areas that also included approximately 78% of commercial sea urchin effort. Exploitation and effort were considerably greater in one kelp forest, which has important implications for patterns of kelp persistence, productivity, and ecosystem function. Areas subject to the greatest recreational fishing pressure appeared to have lower diversity. Our results indicate that fine-scale patterns of fishing effort and exploitation have profound consequences for ecosystem functioning and biodiversity. 'Ecosystem-based management of nearshore ecosystems depends on an understanding of the fine-scale patterns of exploitation. PMID:21265452

  1. Operation of a real-time warning system for debris flows in the San Francisco bay area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Raymond C.; Mark, Robert K.; Barbato, Gary

    1993-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Weather Service (NWS) have developed an operational warning system for debris flows during severe rainstorms in the San Francisco Bay region. The NWS makes quantitative forecasts of precipitation from storm systems approaching the Bay area and coordinates a regional network of radio-telemetered rain gages. The USGS has formulated thresholds for the intensity and duration of rainfall required to initiate debris flows. The first successful public warnings were issued during a severe storm sequence in February 1986. Continued operation of the warning system since 1986 has provided valuable working experience in rainfall forecasting and monitoring, refined rainfall thresholds, and streamlined procedures for issuing public warnings. Advisory statements issued since 1986 are summarized.

  2. Distribution of leached radioactive material in the Legin Group Area, San Miguel County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, Allen S.

    1950-01-01

    Radioactivity anomalies, which are small in magnitude, and probably are not caused by extensions of known uranium-vanadium ore bodies, were detected during the gamma-ray logging of diamond-drill holes in the Legin group of claims, southwest San Miguel County, Colo. The positions of these anomalies are at the top surfaces of mudstone strata within, and at the base of, the ore-bearing sandstone of the Salt Wash member of the Morrison formation. The distribution of these anomalies suggests that ground water has leached radioactive material from the ore bodies and has carried it down dip and laterally along the top surfaces of underlying impermeable mudstone strata for distance as great as 300 feet. The anomalies are probably caused by radon and its daughter elements. Preliminary tests indicate that radon in quantities up to 10-7 curies per liter may be present in ground water flowing along sandstone-mudstone contacts under carnotite ore bodies. In comparison, the radium content of the same water is less than 10-10 curies per liter. Further substantiation of the relationship between ore bodies, the movement of water, and the radon-caused anomalies may greatly increase the scope of gamma-ray logs of drill holes as an aid to prospecting.

  3. 78 FR 40396 - Safety Zone; America's Cup Safety Zone and No Loitering Area, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... 51 W; 37 49 17 N, 122 23 51 W; thence back to the point of origin (NAD 83) and the no loitering area... no loitering area is open to all traffic for transitory purposes only. D. Regulatory Analyses We...; 37 49'17'' N, 122 23'51'' W; thence back to the point of origin (NAD 83). The no loitering area...

  4. Potential for larger earthquakes in the East San Francisco Bay Area due to the direct connection between the Hayward and Calaveras Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaussard, E.; Bürgmann, R.; Fattahi, H.; Nadeau, R. M.; Taira, T.; Johnson, C. W.; Johanson, I.

    2015-04-01

    The Hayward and Calaveras Faults, two strike-slip faults of the San Andreas System located in the East San Francisco Bay Area, are commonly considered independent structures for seismic hazard assessment. We use Interferometric Synthetic Aperture RADAR to show that surface creep on the Hayward Fault continues 15 km farther south than previously known, revealing new potential for rupture and damage south of Fremont. The extended trace of the Hayward Fault, also illuminated by shallow repeating micro-earthquakes, documents a surface connection with the Calaveras Fault. At depths greater than 3-5 km, repeating micro-earthquakes located 10 km north of the surface connection highlight the 3-D wedge geometry of the junction. Our new model of the Hayward and Calaveras Faults argues that they should be treated as a single system with potential for earthquake ruptures generating events with magnitudes greater than 7, posing a higher seismic hazard to the East San Francisco Bay Area than previously considered.

  5. FIELD CROP PRODUCTION IN AREAS WITH SALINE SOILS AND SHALLOW SALINE GROUND WATER IN THE SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY OF CALIFORNIA.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salinity in soil and water is irrevocably associated with irrigated agriculture throughout the world and as a result requires that salt management becomes an integral part of the production system. With careful water management it is possible to sustain irrigated agriculture in areas with saline so...

  6. Particulate Matter 2.5 and Black Carbon concentrations in underground San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, A.; Williams, N.; Quartey, R.; Quintana, M.; Bell, B.; Biswas, N.; Hunter, S.; Marks-Block, T.; Yu, X.

    2013-12-01

    A previous Particulate Matter (PM) 2.5 study within Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) train stations found that concentrations of PM 2.5 at San Francisco's (SF) Embarcadero station were significantly high relative to within the rail system. To follow up on that study, PM 2.5 data was collected within other underground BART stations and the streets surrounding them using the DustTrak Aerosol monitor that measures concentrations every second. In addition, black carbon (BC) data was collected using a microAeth aerosol monitor that also measures concentrations every minute. During each day that measurements were made along three different train routes originating from West Oakland BART station: 1) toward the San Francisco Civic Center station: en route to the Lake Merritt station in Oakland; and toward the Downtown Berkeley station. All of these stations are located underground, and at each one the DustTrak instrument was taken from the train to the ticket level, and on each route data was collected outside of the stations. Black carbon (BC) concentrations were recorded only on the San Francisco route. The highest PM 2.5 concentrations were recorded at SF underground stations, particularly at Embarcadero where concentrations exceeded 100 μg/m3 at train level. These values were much greater than those obtained outside the station, which ranged between 10-20 μg/m3. Other stations along the route to Civic Center had values ranging from 30-64 μg/m3, higher than stations along the route to the Downtown Berkeley station (17-42 μg/m3 ) and the Lake Merritt station (10-38 μg/m3). PM concentrations outside of stations were lower, ranging from 14-33 μg/m3 and 8-27 μg/m3 outside 12th Street Oakland City Center and Lake Merritt stations respectively. Additionally, PM concentration was directly related to depth at all stations. For example, one day at Embarcadero the highest concentrations from train to middle to top level were 119, 84, and 59 μg/m3 respectively. We believe the

  7. Geology, geochronology, and paleogeography of the southern Sonoma volcanic field and adjacent areas, northern San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, D.L.; Saucedo, G.J.; Clahan, K.B.; Fleck, R.J.; Langenheim, V.E.; McLaughlin, R.J.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Allen, J.R.; Deino, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping in the northern San Francisco Bay region (California, USA) supported by radiometric dating and tephrochronologic correlations, provides insights into the framework geology, stratigraphy, tectonic evolution, and geologic history of this part of the San Andreas transform plate boundary. There are 25 new and existing radiometric dates that define three temporally distinct volcanic packages along the north margin of San Pablo Bay, i.e., the Burdell Mountain Volcanics (11.1 Ma), the Tolay Volcanics (ca. 10-8 Ma), and the Sonoma Volcanics (ca. 8-2.5 Ma). The Burdell Mountain and the Tolay Volcanics are allochthonous, having been displaced from the Quien Sabe Volcanics and the Berkeley Hills Volcanics, respectively. Two samples from a core of the Tolay Volcanics taken from the Murphy #1 well in the Petaluma oilfield yielded ages of 8.99 ?? 0.06 and 9.13 ?? 0.06 Ma, demonstrating that volcanic rocks exposed along Tolay Creek near Sears Point previously thought to be a separate unit, the Donnell Ranch volcanics, are part of the Tolay Volcanics. Other new dates reported herein show that volcanic rocks in the Meacham Hill area and extending southwest to the Burdell Mountain fault are also part of the Tolay Volcanics. In the Sonoma volcanic field, strongly bimodal volcanic sequences are intercalated with sediments. In the Mayacmas Mountains a belt of eruptive centers youngs to the north. The youngest of these volcanic centers at Sugarloaf Ridge, which lithologically, chemically, and temporally matches the Napa Valley eruptive center, was apparently displaced 30 km to the northwest by movement along the Carneros and West Napa faults. The older parts of the Sonoma Volcanics have been displaced at least 28 km along the RodgersCreek fault since ca. 7 Ma. The Petaluma Formation also youngs to the north along the Rodgers Creek-Hayward fault and the Bennett Valley fault. The Petaluma basin formed as part of the Contra Costa basin in the Late Miocene and was

  8. 33 CFR 165.1181 - San Francisco Bay Region, California-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the Golden Gate precautionary area and the COLREGS Demarcation Line (33 CFR 80.1142), between the... Line (33 CFR 80.1142) and the Golden Gate precautionary area, between the separation zone and a line... the point of beginning. Datum: NAD 83 (5) Benicia-Martinez Railroad Drawbridge Regulated...

  9. 33 CFR 165.1181 - San Francisco Bay Region, California-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the Golden Gate precautionary area and the COLREGS Demarcation Line (33 CFR 80.1142), between the... Line (33 CFR 80.1142) and the Golden Gate precautionary area, between the separation zone and a line... the point of beginning. Datum: NAD 83 (5) Benicia-Martinez Railroad Drawbridge Regulated...

  10. 33 CFR 165.1181 - San Francisco Bay Region, California-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the Golden Gate precautionary area and the COLREGS Demarcation Line (33 CFR 80.1142), between the... Line (33 CFR 80.1142) and the Golden Gate precautionary area, between the separation zone and a line... the point of beginning. Datum: NAD 83 (5) Benicia-Martinez Railroad Drawbridge Regulated...

  11. 33 CFR 165.1181 - San Francisco Bay Region, California-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Golden Gate precautionary area and the COLREGS Demarcation Line (33 CFR 80.1142), between the... Line (33 CFR 80.1142) and the Golden Gate precautionary area, between the separation zone and a line... the point of beginning. Datum: NAD 83 (5) Benicia-Martinez Railroad Drawbridge Regulated...

  12. 33 CFR 165.1181 - San Francisco Bay Region, California-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Golden Gate precautionary area and the COLREGS Demarcation Line (33 CFR 80.1142), between the... Line (33 CFR 80.1142) and the Golden Gate precautionary area, between the separation zone and a line... the point of beginning. Datum: NAD 83 (5) Benicia-Martinez Railroad Drawbridge Regulated...

  13. Carnotite resources of the upper group area, San Miguel County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Withington, Charles Francis

    1951-01-01

    No additional diamond drilling by the Geological Survey is planned in the Upper group area.  Several specific localities, principally in the central part of the area, are recommended for further exploration by jackhammer and wagon drilling by lessees and operators.

  14. Landscape scale vegetation-type conversion and fire hazard in the San Francisco bay area open spaces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, W.H.; McBride, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Successional pressures resulting from fire suppression and reduced grazing have resulted in vegetation-type conversion in the open spaces surrounding the urbanized areas of the San Francisco bay area. Coverage of various vegetation types were sampled on seven sites using a chronosequence of remote images in order to measure change over time. Results suggest a significant conversion of grassland to shrubland dominated by Baccharis pilularison five of the seven sites sampled. An increase in Pseudotsuga menziesii coverage was also measured on the sites where it was present. Increases fuel and fire hazard were determined through field sampling and use of the FARSITE fire area simulator. A significant increase in biomass resulting from succession of grass-dominated to shrub-dominated communities was evident. In addition, results from the FARSITE simulations indicated significantly higher fire-line intensity, and flame length associated with shrublands over all other vegetation types sampled. These results indicate that the replacement of grass dominated with shrub-dominated landscapes has increased the probability of high intensity fires. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Real-time earthquake alert system for the greater San Francisco Bay Area: a prototype design to address operational issues

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.E.; Jarpe, S.; Hunter, S.

    1996-12-10

    The purpose of the earthquake alert system (EAS) is to outrun the seismic energy released in a large earthquake using a geographically distributed network of strong motion sensors that telemeter data to a rapid CPU-processing station, which then issues an area-wide warning to a region before strong motion will occur. The warning times involved are short, from 0 to 30 seconds or so; consequently, most responses must be automated. The San Francisco Bay Area is particularly well suited for an EAS because (1) large earthquakes have relatively shallow hypocenters (10- to 20-kilometer depth), giving favorable ray-path geometries for larger warning times than deeper from earthquakes, and (2) the active faults are few in number and well characterized, which means far fewer geographically distributed strong motion sensors are (about 50 in this region). An EAS prototype is being implemented in the San Francisco Bay Area. The system consists of four distinct subsystems: (1) a distributed strong motion seismic network, (2) a central processing station, (3) a warning communications system and (4) user receiver and response systems. We have designed a simple, reliable, and inexpensive strong motion monitoring station that consists of a three-component Analog Devices ADXLO5 accelerometer sensing unit, a vertical component weak motion sensor for system testing, a 16-bit digitizer with multiplexing, and communication output ports for RS232 modem or radio telemetry. The unit is battery-powered and will be sited in fire stations. The prototype central computer analysis system consists of a PC dam-acquisition platform that pipes the incoming strong motion data via Ethernet to Unix-based workstations for dam processing. Simple real-time algorithms, particularly for magnitude estimation, are implemented to give estimates of the time since the earthquake`s onset its hypocenter location, its magnitude, and the reliability of the estimate. These parameters are calculated and transmitted

  16. Geologic Investigations Spurred by Analog Testing at the 7504 Cone-SP Mountain Area of the San Francisco Volcanic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Dean B.

    2015-01-01

    The SP Mountain area of the San Francisco Volcanic Field, AZ, has been used as an analog mission development site for NASA since 1998. This area consists of basaltic cinder cones, lava flows and maar craters that have been active since mid-Miocene, with the youngest events occurring within the last 10,000 years. The area has been used because its geologic and topographic resemblance to lunar and Martian terrains provides an ideal venue for testing hardware and science operations practices that might be employed on planetary surfaces, as well as training astronauts in field geology. Analog operations have often led to insights that spurred new scientific investigations. Most recently, an investigation of the 7504 cone was initiated due to perceptions that Apollo-style traverse plans executed during the Desert RATS 2010 mission had characterized the area incorrectly, leading to concerns that the Apollo traverse planning process was scientifically flawed. This investigation revealed a complex history of fissure eruptions of lava and cinders, cinder cone development, a cone-fill-and-spill episode, extensive rheomorphic lava flow initiation and emplacement, and cone sector collapse that led to a final lava flow. This history was not discernible on pre-RATS mission photogeology, although independent analysis of RATS 2010 data and samples develped a "75% complete solution" that validated the pre-RATS mission planning and Apollo traverse planning and execution. The study also pointed out that the development of scientific knowledge with time in a given field area is not linear, but may follow a functional form that rises steeply in the early period of an investigation but flattens out in the later period, asymptotically approaching a theoretical "complete knowledge" point that probably cannot be achieved. This implies that future human missions must be prepared to shift geographic areas of investigation regularly if significant science returns are to be forthcoming.

  17. Geologic Investigations Spurred by Analog Testing at the 7504 Cone-Sp Mountain Area of the San Francisco Volcanic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleacher, J. E.; Eppler, D. B.; Needham, D. H.; Evans, C. A.; Skinner, J. A.; Feng, W.

    2015-12-01

    The SP Mountain area of the San Francisco Volcanic Field, AZ, has been used as an analog mission development site for NASA since 1998. This area consists of basaltic cinder cones, lava flows and maar craters that have been active since mid-Miocene, with the youngest events occurring within the last 10,000 years. The area has been used because its geologic and topographic resemblance to lunar and Martian terrains provides an ideal venue for testing hardware and science operations practices that might be employed on planetary surfaces, as well as training astronauts in field geology. Analog operations have often led to insights that spurred new scientific investigations. Most recently, an investigation of the 7504 cone was initiated due to perceptions that Apollo-style traverse plans executed during the Desert RATS 2010 mission had characterized the area incorrectly, leading to concerns that the Apollo traverse planning process was scientifically flawed. This investigation revealed a complex history of fissure eruptions of lava and cinders, cinder cone development, a cone-fill-and-spill episode, extensive rheomorphic lava flow initiation and emplacement, and cone sector collapse that led to a final lava flow. This history was not discernible on pre-RATS mission photogeology, although independent analysis of RATS 2010 data and samples develped a "75% complete solution" that validated the pre-RATS mission planning and Apollo traverse planning and execution. The study also pointed out that the development of scientific knowledge with time in a given field area is not linear, but may follow a functional form that rises steeply in the early period of an investigation but flattens out in the later period, asymptotically approaching a theoretical "complete knowledge" point that probably cannot be achieved. This implies that future human missions must be prepared to shift geographic areas of investigation regularly if significant science returns are to be forthcoming.

  18. The Impacts of California's San Francisco Bay Area Gap on Precipitation Observed in the Sierra Nevada during Hmt and Calwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, A. B.; Neiman, P. J.; Creamean, J.; Coleman, T.; Ralph, F. M.; Prather, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)'s Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT; hmt.noaa.gov) conducts research on the meteorological and microphysical processes contributing to orographically enhanced precipitation. Some of HMT's precipitation research has been focused on a shallow rainfall process driven by collision-coalescence that often is undetected by the National Weather Service's operational scanning radar network, especially in the Western U.S., but that can produce rain rates that are capable of creating floods. Originally it was believed that this shallow rainfall process would occur more prevalently over the coastal mountain ranges than over the Sierra Nevada, since the higher mountains of the Sierra would force deeper atmospheric ascent and produce deeper precipitating cloud systems that extend well above the melting level. This notion was disproved when it was recently discovered that a site in the northern Sierra had nearly as large of a contribution to seasonal rainfall from this shallow rainfall process, on average, as did a habitually wet site in the coast range of Sonoma County north of San Francisco. This work examines this apparent paradox using observations collected during HMT and CalWater field campaigns. In particular, a case study from CalWater is used to highlight the interaction between a landfalling atmospheric river (AR) and the Sierra Barrier Jet (SBJ). The gap in coastal terrain associated with the San Francisco Bay area is shown to allow unprocessed, moisture-enhanced flow in the AR to reach the northern Sierra site, where the SBJ provides a lifting mechanism to create enhanced orographic precipitation as compared to a site in the southern Sierra, where AR-associated dynamics are weaker and AR flow is modified by upstream coastal terrain.

  19. Anal Cancer Incidence and Survival: Comparing the Greater San-Francisco Bay Area to Other SEER Cancer Registries

    PubMed Central

    Amirian, E. Susan; Fickey, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus, anal canal, and anorectum (SCCA) has increased over time. However, there are still no national guidelines on screening for SCCA among high-risk populations. Providers at University of California, San Francisco have been at the forefront of providing anal dysplasia screening. To determine whether such a screening program allows for earlier detection of abnormalities and consequently, improves patient survival, we conducted an ecological study using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program to compare the San Francisco-Oakland catchment area (SF-O) to other SEER sites where routine screening has not been as accessible. Cox regression models were utilized to assess the impact of residing in the SF-O region, versus other SEER sites, on cause-specific mortality hazard. Logistic regression was used to determine if site was associated with the probability of having an in situ versus invasive tumor among SCCA cases. All analyses were stratified on calendar time (1985–1995 and 1996–2008) to compare differences pre- and post- highly active anti-retroviral therapy. Among SCCA cases, being reported by the SF-O registry was associated with a four fold higher probability of having an in situ tumor (rather than an invasive tumor) [95% CI: 3.48–4.61], compared to sites outside of California, between 1996 and 2008. Cases reported from the SF-O region between 1996 and 2008 had a 39% lower mortality risk than those reported from registries outside California (95% CI: 0.51–0.72). However, there was no decrease in the rate of invasive SCCA over this period. This is the first ecological study to evaluate whether access to anal cancer screening programs may help improve patient survival by allowing for earlier detection of lesions. Our results imply that routine screening programs may help detect SCCA at an earlier stage and thus, potentially impact patient survival. PMID:23484057

  20. Outdoor Air Pollution (PM2.5) and Ill-Health Attributable to Residential Wood Combustion in the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chafe, Z.; Fairley, D.; Smith, K. R.

    2015-12-01

    Residential wood combustion is recognized as a major source of fine particulate (PM2.5) air pollution in the San Francisco Bay Area, especially during the winter heating season. Both indoor and outdoor exposure to air pollution from residential wood combustion negatively impact human health, causing premature deaths and ill-health. Previous research has described the regional impact of wood smoke on air quality. Here, we estimate by county the proportion of ambient (outdoor) PM2.5 air pollution attributable to residential wood combustion in the San Francisco Bay Area. We also explore the implications of residential wood burning emissions for human health in the San Francisco Bay Area, reporting the burden of disease associated with this emission source by county. We also describe differences between counties in wood burning behavior, air pollution levels, and human health effects. The results of this research have relevance for air quality regulation and source abatement prioritization in the San Francisco Bay Area and beyond.

  1. Foreign Language Folio. A Guide to Cultural Resources and Field Trip Opportunities in the San Francisco Bay Area for Teachers and Students of Foreign Languages, 1983-85.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Tony, Ed.; O'Connor, Roger, Ed.

    A listing of San Francisco area cultural resources and opportunities of use to foreign language teachers is presented. Included are the following: museums and galleries, schools, art sources, churches, clubs, cultural centers and organizations, publications and publishing companies, restaurants, food stores and markets, travel and tourism,…

  2. Natural and management influences on freshwater inflows and salinity in the San Francisco Estuary at monthly to interannual scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knowles, Noah

    2002-01-01

    Understanding the processes controlling the physics, chemistry, and biology of the San Francisco Estuary and their relation to climate variability is complicated by the combined influence on freshwater inflows of natural variability and upstream management. To distinguish these influences, alterations of estuarine inflow due to major reservoirs and freshwater pumping in the watershed were inferred from available data. Effects on salinity were estimated by using reconstructed estuarine inflows corresponding to differing levels of impairment to drive a numerical salinity model. Both natural and management inflow and salinity signals show strong interannual variability. Management effects raise salinities during the wet season, with maximum influence in spring. While year-to-year variations in all signals are very large, natural interannual variability can greatly exceed the range of management effects on salinity in the estuary.

  3. Serum Biomarkers of Polyfluoroalkyl Compound Exposure in Young Girls in Greater Cincinnati and the San Francisco Bay Area, USA

    PubMed Central

    Pinney, Susan M.; Biro, Frank M.; Windham, Gayle; Herrick, Robert L.; Yaghjyan, Lusine; Calafat, Antonia M.; Succop, Paul; Sucharew, Heidi; Ball, Kathleen M.; Kato, Kayoko; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Bornschein, Robert

    2013-01-01

    PFC serum concentrations were measured in 6–8 year-old girls in Greater Cincinnati (GC) (N=353) and the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) (N=351). PFOA median concentration was lower in the SFBA than GC (5.8 vs. 7.3 ng/mL). In GC, 48/51 girls living in one area had PFOA concentrations above the NHANES 95th percentile for children 12–19 years (8.4 ng/mL), median 22.0 ng/mL. The duration of being breast fed was associated with higher serum PFOA at both sites and with higher PFOS, PFHxS and Me-PFOSA-AcOH concentrations in GC. Correlations of the PFC analytes with each other suggest that a source upriver from GC may have contributed to exposures through drinking water, and water treatment with granular activated carbon filtration resulted in less exposure for SWO girls compared to those in NKY. PFOA has been characterized as a drinking water contaminant, and water treatment systems effective in removing PFCs will reduce body burdens. PMID:24095703

  4. Serum biomarkers of polyfluoroalkyl compound exposure in young girls in Greater Cincinnati and the San Francisco Bay Area, USA.

    PubMed

    Pinney, Susan M; Biro, Frank M; Windham, Gayle C; Herrick, Robert L; Yaghjyan, Lusine; Calafat, Antonia M; Succop, Paul; Sucharew, Heidi; Ball, Kathleen M; Kato, Kayoko; Kushi, Lawrence H; Bornschein, Robert

    2014-01-01

    PFC serum concentrations were measured in 6-8 year-old girls in Greater Cincinnati (GC) (N = 353) and the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) (N = 351). PFOA median concentration was lower in the SFBA than GC (5.8 vs. 7.3 ng/mL). In GC, 48/51 girls living in one area had PFOA concentrations above the NHANES 95th percentile for children 12-19 years (8.4 ng/mL), median 22.0 ng/mL. The duration of being breast fed was associated with higher serum PFOA at both sites and with higher PFOS, PFHxS and Me-PFOSA-AcOH concentrations in GC. Correlations of the PFC analytes with each other suggest that a source upriver from GC may have contributed to exposures through drinking water, and water treatment with granular activated carbon filtration resulted in less exposure for SWO girls compared to those in NKY. PFOA has been characterized as a drinking water contaminant, and water treatment systems effective in removing PFCs will reduce body burdens. PMID:24095703

  5. Measuring the effectiveness of the episodic control program Spare the Air in the San Francisco Bay Area

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T.G.; Hinman, T.T.

    1997-12-31

    Episodic control programs that ask the public to voluntarily reduce activities that pollute on days when ozone excesses are predicted are now operating in many parts of the country. The activities include driving, using consumer products that contain reactive organic compounds and lawn and garden equipment with small gasoline engines like lawn mowers and leaf blowers. The effectiveness of these programs as public education tools, their impact in changing behavior and their potential as control tools needs to be assessed. In the nine-county San Francisco Bay Area the Spare the Air program has been operating for five years. The program has a strong employer component as well as a program directed at the general public. During the 1996 ozone season, the Bay Area AQMD, in cooperation with the business community, used several methods to assess awareness and behavior change on Spare the Air days. This included telephone public opinion surveys, a pilot program that offered free transit for employees at 8 companies with measurement feedback from the companies, a telecommuting web page that measured participation, a special carpool matching program and a broad based Capture the Credit initiative by business. This paper describes these initiatives, their results and the next steps anticipated for the 1997 program.

  6. Malignant melanoma slide review project: Patients from non-Kaiser hospitals in the San Francisco Bay Area. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, P.

    1993-01-05

    This project was initiated, in response to concerns that the observed excess of malignant melanoma among employees of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) might reflect the incidence of disease diagnostically different than that observed in the general population. LLNL sponsored a slide review project, inviting leading dermatopathology experts to independently evaluate pathology slides from LLNL employees diagnosed with melanoma and those from a matched sample of Bay Area melanoma patients who did not work at the LLNL. The study objectives were to: Identify all 1969--1984 newly diagnosed cases of malignant melanoma among LLNL employees resident in the San Francisco-Oakland Metropolitan Statistical Area, and diagnosed at facilities other than Kaiser Permanente; identify a comparison series of melanoma cases also diagnosed between 1969--1984 in non-Kaiser facilities, and matched as closely as possible to the LLNL case series by gender, race, age at diagnosis, year of diagnosis, and hospital of diagnosis; obtain pathology slides for the identified (LLNL) case and (non-LLNL) comparison patients for review by the LLNL-invited panel of dermatopathology experts; and to compare the pathologic characteristics of the case and comparison melanoma patients, as recorded by the dermatopathology panel.

  7. Direct, immunological and molecular techniques for a fasciolosis survey in a rural area of San Luis, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Carnevale, Silvana; Cabrera, Marta Graciela; Cucher, Marcela Alejandra; di Risio, Cecilia Alicia; Malandrini, Jorge Bruno; Kamenetzky, Laura; Alazraqui, Marcio; Etchart, Cristina Beatriz; Pantano, María Laura; Velásquez, Jorge Néstor

    2013-10-01

    Fasciolosis is a zoonosis caused by the trematode Fasciola hepatica, prevalent in cattle, that is actually emerging as a cause of disease in humans. The goal of this work was to describe the characteristics of fasciolosis in arroyo El Juncal region, La Toma, San Luis province, Argentina. In order to get this objective, a transversal, quantitative study was carried out by a fieldwork that allowed the collection of data, human, animal, and environmental samples. The materials were processed by direct, immunological and/or molecular diagnostic techniques. According to the geographical characteristics and in presence of all the definitive and intermediate hosts, reservoirs, and sources of infection, it was possible to describe the persistence of fasciolosis in the area. The prevalence was 11.90 % in humans (by serology), 5.26 % in cattle (by coprological analysis) and 61.76 % in snails (by PCR). The situation that was found for this area indicates that any measure of intervention for the control of this zoonosis should be adopted by multidisciplinary teams. PMID:24431579

  8. What influences Latino grocery shopping behavior? Perspectives on the small food store environment from managers and employees in San Diego, California

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Flack, Jennifer C.; Baquero, Barbara; Linnan, Laura A.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Pickrel, Julie L.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.

    2016-01-01

    To inform the design of a multilevel in-store intervention, this qualitative study utilized in-depth semistructured interviews with 28 managers and 10 employees of small-to-medium-sized Latino food stores (tiendas) in San Diego, California, to identify factors within the tienda that may influence Latino customers’ grocery-shopping experiences and behaviors. Qualitative data analysis, guided by grounded theory, was performed using open coding. Results suggest that future interventions should focus on the physical (i.e., built structures) and social (i.e., economic and socio-cultural) dimensions of store environments, including areas where the two dimensions interact, to promote the purchase of healthy food among customers. PMID:26800243

  9. What influences Latino grocery shopping behavior? Perspectives on the small food store environment from managers and employees in San Diego, California.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Flack, Jennifer C; Baquero, Barbara; Linnan, Laura A; Gittelsohn, Joel; Pickrel, Julie L; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2016-01-01

    To inform the design of a multilevel in-store intervention, this qualitative study utilized in-depth semistructured interviews with 28 managers and 10 employees of small-to-medium-sized Latino food stores (tiendas) in San Diego, California, to identify factors within the tienda that may influence Latino customers' grocery-shopping experiences and behaviors. Qualitative data analysis, guided by grounded theory, was performed using open coding. Results suggest that future interventions should focus on the physical (i.e., built structures) and social (i.e., economic and sociocultural) dimensions of store environments, including areas where the two dimensions interact, to promote the purchase of healthy food among customers. PMID:26800243

  10. Sustaining Irrigated Agriculture in Arid Areas: Lessons Learned in the San Joaquin Valley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The conventional wisdom is that drainage is required to sustain irrigation in arid and semiarid areas. However, disposal of saline drainage water is a problem throughout the world that is challenging the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. The presence of elements besides salt in the drainage w...

  11. APPLYING THE ECOSYSTEM SERVICES CONCEPT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN THE UPPER SAN PEDRO BASIN, ARIZONA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Upper San Pedro River flows intermittently north from Sonora, Mexico into southeastern Arizona and is one of the last few large unimpounded rivers in the American Southwest. The remaining perennial reaches support a desert riparian ecosystem that is a rare remnant of what ...

  12. Seasonal Water Resources Management and Probabilistic Operations Forecast in the San Juan Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugherty, L.; Zagona, E. A.; Rajagopalan, B.; Grantz, K.; Miller, W. P.; Werner, K.

    2013-12-01

    within the NWS Community Hydrologic Prediction System (CHPS) to produce an ensemble streamflow forecast. The ensemble traces are used to drive the MTOM with the initial conditions of the water resources system and the operating rules, to provide ensembles of water resources management and operation metrics. We applied this integrated approach to forecasting in the San Juan River Basin (SJRB) using a portion of the Colorado River MTOM. The management objectives in the basin include water supply for irrigation, tribal water rights, environmental flows, and flood control. The spring streamflow ensembles were issued at four different lead times on the first of each month from January - April, and are incorporated into the MTOM for the period 2002-2010. Ensembles of operational performance metrics for the SJRB such as Navajo Reservoir releases, end of water year storage, environmental flows and water supply for irrigation were computed and their skills evaluated against variables obtained in a baseline simulation using historical streamflow. Preliminary results indicate that thus obtained probabilistic forecasts may produce increased skill especially at long lead time (e.g., on Jan and Feb 1st). The probabilistic information for water management variables provide risks of system vulnerabilities and thus enables risk-based efficient planning and operations.

  13. Vertical distribution of ozone and nitrogenous pollutants in an air quality class I area, the San Gorgonio wilderness, southern California.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Rocío; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Arbaugh, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Information about spatial and temporal distribution of air pollutants is essential for better understanding of environmental stresses affecting forests and estimation of potential risks associated with air pollutants. Ozone and nitrogenous air pollutants were monitored along an elevation gradient in the Class I San Gorgonio Wilderness area (San Bernardino Mountains, California, U.S.) during the summer of 2000 (mid-June to mid-October). Passive samplers were exposed for 2-week periods at six sampling sites located at 300 m intervals ranging from 1200 to 2700 m elevation. Elevated concentrations of ozone were found in this area with summer 24-h hourly means ranging from 53 to 59 ppb. The highest ozone concentrations were detected in the period July 25-August 8, reaching values of 64 to 72 ppb expressed as 2-week mean. Passive-sampler ozone data did not show a clear relationship with elevation, although during the periods with higher ozone levels, ozone concentrations were higher at those sites below 2000 m than at sites located above that elevation. All nitrogenous pollutants studied showed a consistent decrease of concentrations with elevation. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels were low, decreasing with increasing elevation from 6.4 to 1.5 ppb summer means. Nitric oxide (NO) concentrations were around 1 to 2 ppb, which is within the range of the detection levels of the devices used. Nitric acid (HNO3) vapor concentrations were lower at higher elevations (summer means 1.9-2.5 microg m(-3) than at lower elevations (summer means 4.3-5.1 microg m(-3). Summer concentrations of ammonia (NH3) were slightly higher than nitric acid ranging from 6 microg m(-3) at the lowest site to 2.5 microg m(-3) registered at the highest elevation. Since complex interactions between ozone and nitrogenous air pollutants have already been described for forests, simultaneous information about the distribution of these pollutants is needed. This is particularly important in mountain terrain where

  14. Artificial recharge in the Waterman Canyon-East Twin Creek area, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, J.W.; Moreland, J.A.

    1973-01-01

    This is a study of the feasibility of recharging, in the Waterman Canyon-East Twin Creek area, imported water from northern California by way of the State Water Project beginning in 1972. The feasibility of recharging 30,000 acre-feet of water a year in the Waterman Canyon-East Twin Creek area will depend on the effectiveness of fault K as a barrier to ground-water movement near the land surface. The results of test drilling and an infiltration test indicate that the subsurface material at the spreading grounds is permeable enough to allow recharged water to percolate to the water table. The data indicate that fault K extends into the Waterman Canyon-East Twin Creek area and may impede the lateral movement of recharged water. Fault K has no known surface expression and therefore probably does not affect the highly permeable younger alluvium. If that is so, fault K will be less effective as a barrier to ground-water movement as the recharge mound rises. Monitoring of the observation wells near the spreading grounds as the planned recharge operation proceeds should provide data about the hydrologic effects of fault K near the land surface.

  15. Risk behaviors among Asian women who work at massage parlors in San Francisco: perspectives from masseuses and owners/managers.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Oh, Hyun Joo; Wong, Serena; Nguyen, Hongmai

    2005-10-01

    This study investigates cognitive, cultural, and contextual factors that influence HIV-related risk behaviors among Asian women who engage in sex work at massage parlors in San Francisco. Focus groups and qualitative interviews were conducted for Vietnamese and Thai masseuses and massage parlor owners/managers. Economic pressure as well as subjective evaluation of customers for the risk of HIV/STD infection increase unprotected sexual behaviors among Asian masseuses. Massage parlor owners/managers do not establish a clear policy for condom use at their parlors. Consequently, male customers often manipulate their intention not to use a condom while negotiating with masseuses. HIV/STD prevention intervention programs should address specific risks and needs for Asian masseuses, owners/managers, and male customers in order to promote health and well being among Asian masseuses who have been neglected by public health and social services. PMID:16255640

  16. Level 1 Water-Quality Inventory of Baseline Levels of Pesticides in Urban Creeks - Golden Gate National Recreation Area and the Presidio of San Francisco, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hladik, Michelle L.; Orlando, James L.

    2008-01-01

    To characterize baseline water-quality levels of pesticides in Golden Gate National Recreation Area and the Presidio of San Francisco, the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed surface-water and bed-sediment samples at 10 creeks during February, April, and July 2006. Pesticide data were obtained using previously developed methods. Samples from sites in the Presidio were analyzed only for pyrethroid insecticides, whereas the remaining samples were analyzed for pyrethroids and additional current and historical-use pesticides. Pesticide concentrations were low in both the water (below 30 ng/L) and sediment (below 3 ng/g). The pyrethroid bifenthrin was detected in water samples from two sites at concentrations below 2 ng/L. Other compounds detected in water included the herbicides dacthal (DCPA) and prometryn, the insecticide fipronil, the insecticide degradates p,p'-DDE and fipronil sulfone, and the fungicides cyproconazole, myclobutanil and tetraconazole. The only pesticides detected in the sediment samples were p,p'-DDT and its degradates (p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE). Pesticide information from the samples collected can provide a reference point for future sampling and can help National Park Service managers assess the water quality of the urban creeks.

  17. Resource investigation of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal areas in San Bernardino, California. Part of the third year report, 1980-81, of the US Department of Energy-California State-Coupled Program for Reservoir Assessment and Confirmation

    SciTech Connect

    Youngs, L.G.; Bezore, S.P.; Chapman, R.H.; Chase, G.W.

    1981-08-01

    Ninety-seven geothermal wells and springs were identified and plotted on a compiled geologic map of the 40-square-mile study area. These wells and springs were concentrated in three distinguishable resource areas: Arrowhead Hot Springs; South San Bernardino; and Harlem Hot Springs - in each of which detailed geophysical, geochemical, and geological surveys were conducted. The Arrowhead Hot Springs geothermal area lies just north of the City of San Bernardino in the San Bernardino Mountains astride a shear zone (offshoot of the San Andreas fault) in pre-Cambrian gneiss and schist. The Harlem Hot Springs geothermal area, on the east side of the City, and the south San Bernardino geothermal area, on the south side, have geothermal reservoirs in Quaternary alluvial material which overlies a moderately deep sedimentary basin bound on the southwest by the San Jacinto fault (a ground water barrier). Geothermometry calculations suggest that the Arrowhead Hot Springs geothermal area, with a maximum reservoir temperature of 142/sup 0/C, may have the highest maximum reservoir temperature of the three geothermal areas. The maximum temperature recorded by CDMG in the south San Bernardino geothermal area was 56/sup 0/C from an artesian well, while the maximum temperature recorded in the Harlem Hot Springs geothermal area was 49.5/sup 0/C at 174 meters (570 feet) in an abandoned water well. The geophysical and geological surveys delineated fault traces in association with all three of the designated geothermal areas.

  18. Nevada Test 1999 Waste Management Monitoring Report, Area 3 and Area 5 radioactive waste management sites

    SciTech Connect

    Yvonne Townsend

    2000-05-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels, whereas radon concentrations are not above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the alluvial aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorology data indicate that 1999 was a dry year: rainfall totaled 3.9 inches at the Area 3 RWMS (61 percent of average) and 3.8 inches at the Area 5 RWMS (75 percent of average). Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 1999 rainfall infiltrated less than one foot before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium data indicate very slow migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were insignificant. All 1999 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing as expected at isolating buried waste.

  19. Indicators of Job Satisfaction of Home Healthcare Nurses in the San Francisco Bay Area of California.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Canham, Daryl; Wahl, Sharon

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that provide job satisfaction for home healthcare nurses and to determine if the nurses' educational level makes a difference in job satisfaction. Data were collected using Ellenbecker's (2004) 21-item Home Healthcare Nurses Job Satisfaction Scale. The study results indicated the majority of this population of home healthcare nurses was satisfied on all items, except in having the power to change agency policy. Educational level made no significant difference in job satisfaction. Recommendations include encouraging agencies to include clinicians in policy decision-making and management of patient care. Nursing education programs should ensure nurses graduate with the skills necessary for policy development and to make decisions that positively impact patient care. PMID:27243430

  20. California: San Joaquin Valley

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Fog and Haze in California's San Joaquin Valley   ... is noted for its hazy overcasts and a low, thick ground fog known as the Tule. Owing to the effects of the atmosphere on reflected ... as the angle of view changes. An area of thick, white fog in the San Joaquin Valley is visible in all three of the images. However, ...

  1. Reinterpretation of Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic events, Mountain Pass area, northeastern San Bernardino County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Nance, M.A. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-04-01

    Detailed mapping, stratigraphic structural analysis in the Mountain Pass area has resulted in a reinterpretation of Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic events in the area. Mesozoic events are characterized by north vergent folds and thrust faults followed by east vergent thrusting. Folding created two synclines and an anticline which were than cut at different stratigraphic levels by subsequent thrust faults. Thrusting created composite tectono-stratigraphic sections containing autochthonous, para-autothonous, and allochthonous sections. Normal faults cutting these composite sections including North, Kokoweef, White Line, and Piute fault must be post-thrusting, not pre-thrusting as in previous interpretations. Detailed study of these faults results in differentiation of at least three orders of faults and suggest they represent Cenozoic extension correlated with regional extensional events between 11 and 19 my. Mesozoic stratigraphy reflects regional orogenic uplift, magmatic activity, and thrusting. Inclusion of Kaibab clasts in the Chinle, Kaibab and Chinle clasts in the Aztec, and Chinle, Aztec, and previously deposited Delfonte Volcanics clasts in the younger members of the Delfonte Volcanics suggest regional uplift prior to the thrusting of Cambrian Bonanza King over Delfonte Volcanics by the Mescal Thrust fault. The absence of clasts younger than Kaibab argues against pre-thrusting activity for the Kokoweef fault.

  2. Geoelectric structure of the Gila-San Francisco Wilderness Area, Graham and Greenlee counties, Arizona from audio-magnetotelluric data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, D.P.; Baer, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Electromagnetic induction data using distant field sources, mostly of natural origin, in the frequency range of 4.5-27,000 Hz are analyzed to depict the geoelectric structure in an area of volcanic-rock cover located in southeastern Arizona between the Morenci and Safford porphyry copper deposits. The data for each station consist of scalar electromagnetic measurements at descrete frequencies for two-orthogonal magnetic and electric field pairs. Observations spaced about 5-km apart indicate resistivities in the range of 100-700 ohm-m for the unweathered Tertiary volcanic rocks to a depth of 200 to 500 m. Beneath this zone the data indicate resistivities in the range of 10-100 ohm-m that suggest the existence of an older volcanic rock unit. The less resistive unit appears to be displaced upward beneath Turtle Mountain, an area bounded to the northeast and southwest by mapped Basin and Range faults, and bounded to the southeast by an unmapped fault of older origin that trends northeast. Lateral changes in the resistivity of the two main geoelectric layers result in lowered resistivity in an area of known hot-springs near the confluence of the Gila and San Francisco Rivers, as well as along a north-south trending zone located on the east flank of Turtle Mountain, about 5-km (3-mi) west-northwest of the hot springs. This second anomaly is at a probable depth of 400-500 m and is interpreted to indicate a buried fault or fracture zone.

  3. Geothermal Geodatabase for Rico Hot Springs Area and Lemon Hot Springs, Dolores and San Miguel Counties, Colorado

    DOE Data Explorer

    Zehner, Richard

    2012-11-01

    Geothermal Geodatabase for Rico Hot Springs Area and Lemon Hot Springs, Dolores and San Miguel Counties, Colorado By Richard “Rick” Zehner Geothermal Development Associates Reno Nevada USA For Flint Geothermal LLC, Denver Colorado Part of DOE Grant EE0002828 2013 This is an ESRI geodatabase version 10, together with an ESRI MXD file version 10.2 Data is in UTM Zone 13 NAD27 projection North boundary: approximately 4,215,000 South boundary: approximately 4,160,000 West boundary: approximately 216,000 East boundary: approximately 245,000 This geodatabase was built to cover several geothermal targets developed by Flint Geothermal in 2012 during a search for high-temperature systems that could be exploited for electric power development. Several of the thermal springs have geochemistry and geothermometry values indicative of high-temperature systems. In addition, the explorationists discovered a very young Climax-style molybdenum porphyry system northeast of Rico, and drilling intersected thermal waters at depth. The datasets in the geodatabase are a mixture of public domain data as well as data collected by Flint Geothermal, now being made public. It is assumed that the user has internet access, for the mxd file accesses ESRI’s GIS servers. Datasets include: 1. Structural data collected by Flint Geothermal 2. Point information 3. Mines and prospects from the USGS MRDS dataset 4. Results of reconnaissance shallow (2 meter) temperature surveys 5. Air photo lineaments 6. Areas covered by travertine 7. Groundwater geochemistry 8. Land ownership in the Rico area 9. Georeferenced geologic map of the Rico Quadrangle, by Pratt et al. 10. Various 1:24,000 scale topographic maps

  4. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes within an established Area of Critical Environmental Concern, of the Amargosa River Canyon and Willow Creek, Inyo and San Bernardino Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scoppettone, G. Gary; Hereford, Mark E.; Rissler, Peter H.; Johnson, Danielle M.; Salgado, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The Amargosa River Canyon of San Bernardino and Inyo County, California, has been designated by the Bureau of Land Management as an Area of Critical Environmental Concern, due in part to its unique flora and fauna. As a task of the Area of Critical Environmental Concern implementation plan, a survey of native fishes was conducted from June 21 to August 12, 2010. Geographic Information System tools were used to map sampling locations, which were spaced at 50-meter intervals. Global Positioning Systems were used to locate sampling stations, and stations with adequate water for successful trapping were sampled with baited minnow traps. Amargosa River pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis amargosae) and speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus spp.) were widespread throughout Armargosa River Canyon. Throughout the study area 8,558 pupfish were captured at 194 stations; 3,472 speckled dace were captured at 210 stations; 238 red-swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkia) were captured at 83 stations; and 1,095 western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinus) were captured at 110 stations. Pupfish were most abundant in open water habitat with native riparian vegetation, and they were significantly less abundant where the stream was completely covered by cattails or where saltcedar (Tamarix sp.) dominated the riparian corridor. There was no relationship between stream cover and speckled dace distribution. Non-native western mosquitofish and red-swamp crayfish densities were significantly higher in stream reaches dominated by saltcedar. The continued spread of saltcedar threatens to negatively affect pupfish and potentially reduce speckled dace abundance throughout the Amargosa River Canyon. This study can serve as baseline information for observing native fish populations in the future, as related to potential changes to the Amargosa River Canyon ecosystem.

  5. The epidemiology and surveillance response to pandemic influenza A (H1N1) among local health departments in the San Francisco Bay Area

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Public health surveillance and epidemiologic investigations are critical public health functions for identifying threats to the health of a community. Very little is known about how these functions are conducted at the local level. The purpose of the Epidemiology Networks in Action (EpiNet) Study was to describe the epidemiology and surveillance response to the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) by city and county health departments in the San Francisco Bay Area in California. The study also documented lessons learned from the response in order to strengthen future public health preparedness and response planning efforts in the region. Methods In order to characterize the epidemiology and surveillance response, we conducted key informant interviews with public health professionals from twelve local health departments in the San Francisco Bay Area. In order to contextualize aspects of organizational response and performance, we recruited two types of key informants: public health professionals who were involved with the epidemiology and surveillance response for each jurisdiction, as well as the health officer or his/her designee responsible for H1N1 response activities. Information about the organization, data sources for situation awareness, decision-making, and issues related to surge capacity, continuity of operations, and sustainability were collected during the key informant interviews. Content and interpretive analyses were conducted using ATLAS.ti software. Results The study found that disease investigations were important in the first months of the pandemic, often requiring additional staff support and sometimes forcing other public health activities to be put on hold. We also found that while the Incident Command System (ICS) was used by all participating agencies to manage the response, the manner in which it was implemented and utilized varied. Each local health department (LHD) in the study collected epidemiologic data from a variety of sources

  6. Nitrogen deposition and sensitive ecosystems: a case study from the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, S. B.

    2001-12-01

    Nitrogen deposition from urban smog can greatly affect local ecosystems. This paper examines a complex situation in the Santa Clara Valley, CA where N-deposition from existing, new, and proposed developments threatens an ecosystem supporting numerous rare, threatened, and endangered species. Grasslands on nutrient-poor serpentinitic soils are being invaded by nutrient-demanding introduced annual grasses, driven by dry N-deposition of about 10 kg ha-1 yr-1. These grass invasions threaten the native biodiversity of the serpentinitic grasslands, including the federally-protected Bay checkerspot butterfly. Additional NOx and NH3 sources planned for the region include a 600 MW natural gas fired power plant, industrial parks that may eventually draw 20,000 to 50,000 additional cars per day, 25,000 housing units, and associated highway improvements. Ongoing mitigation proposals include purchase and long-term management of hundreds of hectares of habitat. The situation is a model for understanding N-deposition from a scientific and policy viewpoint. Fundamental biogeochemical questions include: 1) What are the relative contributions of NOx and NH3 to increased N-deposition? NH3 slip from power plant NOx scrubbers can release more reactive nitrogen than is removed as NOx, and modern automobiles release NH3 in addition to NOx. 2) How are N-emissions transported, chemically modified, and deposited on the local ecosystems, and are these processes adequately captured in regulatory models? How do point sources differ from line sources such as a heavily traveled freeway? 3) What are the effects of chronic N-deposition on the ecosystem, and is there a critical load or a steady cumulative effect? 4) What are the effects of management such as fire, grazing, mowing on N-cycling and plant composition? Policy issues include: 1) What are the incremental impacts of individual projects relative to high background deposition, 2) What margin of safety should be built into modeling and

  7. Health Cobenefits and Transportation-Related Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the San Francisco Bay Area

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, James; Co, Sean; Ostro, Bart; Fanai, Amir; Fairley, David

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We quantified health benefits of transportation strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE). Methods. Statistics on travel patterns and injuries, physical activity, fine particulate matter, and GHGE in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, were input to a model that calculated the health impacts of walking and bicycling short distances usually traveled by car or driving low-emission automobiles. We measured the change in disease burden in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) based on dose–response relationships and the distributions of physical activity, particulate matter, and traffic injuries. Results: Increasing median daily walking and bicycling from 4 to 22 minutes reduced the burden of cardiovascular disease and diabetes by 14% (32 466 DALYs), increased the traffic injury burden by 39% (5907 DALYS), and decreased GHGE by 14%. Low-carbon driving reduced GHGE by 33.5% and cardiorespiratory disease burden by less than 1%. Conclusions: Increased physical activity associated with active transport could generate a large net improvement in population health. Measures would be needed to minimize pedestrian and bicyclist injuries. Together, active transport and low-carbon driving could achieve GHGE reductions sufficient for California to meet legislative mandates. PMID:23409903

  8. Analysis of sediment, water, and biological samples from the Bay Farm Borrow Area, San Francisco Bay, California

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, R.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F. )

    1991-08-01

    The Bay Farm Borrow Area (BFBA) of San Francisco Bay, California, is under consideration as a dredged-material disposal site by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). As part of the analysis of the site, information is required on the quality of benthic biota, sediment, and water in the BFBA. The objective of this report was to provide data on infauna communities, sediment, and water chemistry from samples collected from the BFBA. The samples were collected, and the data will be analyzed by Science Applications International (SAIC). A total of four samples for sediment chemistry, four samples for water chemistry, and 7 samples for infauna communities were analyzed by the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL). Water analyses included tests for dissolved organic carbon, total suspended solids, four metals, butyltins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated pesticides, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), four phenols, and total phenol. Sediment samples were analyzed for percent solids, total organic carbon, total oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, grain size, 10 metals, butyltins, PCBs, chlorinated pesticides, PAHs, four phenols, and total phenol. The data along with controls and spike recovery analyses, are presented in tables, and the results are discussed in the text. The quality assurance/quality control criteria were met for the analyses as were the detection limits specified by the sponsor.

  9. [Bacteriological evaluation of goat milk and cheese distributed in the Metropolitan Area of San José, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Araya, Viviana; Gallo, Leslie; Quesada, Carlos; Chaves, Carolina; Arias, María Laura

    2008-06-01

    In the last years, there has been an increase in the production, industrialization and consumption of goat's milk and derivate products, including cheese, worldwide. Nevertheless, in Costa Rica there is no study of these products, reason why the objective of this work was to determine the microbiological characteristics of goat's milk and fresh cheese distributed in the Metropolitan Area of San José, Costa Rica, in order to evaluate its impact in the economical field and as a potential risk for Public Health. A total of 25 raw goat's milk samples, obtained by manual milking from 5 different producers tested in five different dates and 15 cheese samples, elaborated with pasteurized milk, commercially available and coming from three different producers were analyzed. The study included the analysis of spoilage bacteria (total aeobic count and lactic bacteria count), indicators of hygiene (total coliforms), fecal contamination (fecal coliforms), manipulation (Staphylococcus aureus) and pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp). High results were obtained for the total aerobic count and lactic bacteria count of the milk and cheese samples, showing a reduced shelf life. Total coliforms, in limits beyond the established ones by the Costa Rican legislation for human consumption raw milk, were found in 100% of milk samples, as well as for fecal coliforms in 76% of them. All cheese samples, except one, were negative for these indicators, suggesting good manufacturing practices. S. aureus counts were low and both Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes were not isolated from samples analyzed. PMID:18833996

  10. Evaluation of the transfer of soil arsenic to maize crops in suburban areas of San Luis Potosi, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Castor, J M; Guzmán-Mar, J L; Alfaro-Barbosa, J M; Hernández-Ramírez, A; Pérez-Maldonado, I N; Caballero-Quintero, A; Hinojosa-Reyes, L

    2014-11-01

    The presence of arsenic (As) in agricultural food products is a matter of concern because it can cause adverse health effects at low concentrations. Agricultural-product intake constitutes a principal source for As exposure in humans. In this study, the contribution of the chemical-soil parameters in As accumulation and translocation in the maize crop from a mining area of San Luis Potosi was evaluated. The total arsenic concentration and arsenic speciation were determined by HG-AFS and IC-HG-AFS, respectively. The data analysis was conducted by cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA). The soil pH presented a negative correlation with the accumulated As in each maize plant part, and parameters such as iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) presented a higher correlation with the As translocation in maize. Thus, the metabolic stress in maize may induce organic acid exudation leading a higher As bioavailability. A high As inorganic/organic ratio in edible maize plant tissues suggests a substantial risk of poisoning by this metalloid. Careful attention to the chemical changes in the rhizosphere of the agricultural zones that can affect As transfer through the food chain could reduce the As-intoxication risk of maize consumers. PMID:25128885

  11. Compilation of hydrologic data for the Edwards Aquifer, San Antonio area, Texas, 1981, with 1934-81 summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, R.D.; Maclay, R.W.; Ozuna, G.B.

    1984-01-01

    The average annual ground-water recharge to the Edwards aquifer in the San Antonio area, Texas, from 1934 through 1981, was 612,400 acre-feet. The recharge in 1981 was 1,448,400 acre-feet, which is the third highest annual recharge since 1934. A maximum annual recharge of 1,711,200 acre-feet occurred in 1958, and a minimum annual recharge of 43,700 acre-feet occurred in 1956. The calculated annual discharge by wells and springs in 1981 was 794,400 acre-feet. Annual discharge by wells and springs ranged from a maximum of 960,900 acre-feet in 1977 to a minimum of 388,800 acre-feet in 1955. The annual discharge by wells was 387,100 acre-feet in 1981. Although water levels in many of the wells in the Edwards aquifer fluctuated near the midpoint between record high and low levels during the first 5 months of 1981, the volume of ground water in storage in the aquifer was above average for most of the year. Analyses of water samples from 56 wells and 3 springs show that the water is of a significantly better quality than the level established for public water systems.

  12. Magnetic map of the Irish Hills and surrounding areas, San Luis Obispo County, central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, V.E.; Watt, J.T.; Denton, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    A magnetic map of the Irish Hills and surrounding areas was created as part of a cooperative research and development agreement with the Pacific Gas and Electric Company and is intended to promote further understanding of the areal geology and structure by serving as a basis for geophysical interpretations and by supporting geological mapping, mineral and water resource investigations, and other topical studies. Local spatial variations in the Earth's magnetic field (evident as anomalies on magnetic maps) reflect the distribution of magnetic minerals, primarily magnetite, in the underlying rocks. In many cases the volume content of magnetic minerals can be related to rock type, and abrupt spatial changes in the amount of magnetic minerals can be related to either lithologic or structural boundaries. Magnetic susceptibility measurements from the area indicate that bodies of serpentinite and other mafic and ultramafic rocks tend to produce the most intense magnetic anomalies, but such generalizations must be applied with caution because some sedimentary units also can produce measurable magnetic anomalies. Remanent magnetization does not appear to be a significant source for magnetic anomalies because it is an order of magnitude less than the induced magnetization. The map is a mosaic of three separate surveys collected by (1) fixed-wing aircraft at a nominal height of 305 m, (2) by boat with the sensor at sea level, and (3) by helicopter. The helicopter survey was flown by New-Sense Geophysics in October 2009 along flight lines spaced 150-m apart and at a nominal terrain clearance of 50 to 100 m. Tie lines were flown 1,500-m apart. Data were adjusted for lag error and diurnal field variations. Further processing included microleveling using the tie lines and subtraction of the reference field defined by International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) 2005 extrapolated to August 1, 2008.

  13. Mineral resource potential map of the Raywood Flat Roadless Areas, Riverside and San Bernardino counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Cox, Brett F.; Iverson, Stephen R.

    1983-01-01

    The area having moderate potential for base-metal resources forms a small zone in the eastern part of the recommended wilderness (A5-187). Within this zone, evidence provided by stream-sediment geochemistry suggests that crystalline bedrocks in several drainages contain concentrations of metallic elements. Because the terrain is inaccessible and covered with dense brush, most of the bedrock in the specific drainages containing the geochemical anomalies could not be examined. Thus, although we infer that mineral occurrences exist in the drainage basins, we have little data on which to base an estimate of their extent and quality. Locally, the crystalline rocks probably contain hydrothermal veins or disseminated occurrences where lead, copper, molybdenum, tin, cobalt, bismuth, and arsenic have been concentrated. However, the geochemical anomalies for these metals are small, and the stream drainages also are relatively small. Therefore, the inferred occurrences of metallic minerals probably are small scale, scattered, and low grade. There is only low probability that the inferred mineral occurrences are large scale.

  14. Fault-related carbonate breccia dykes in the La Chilca area, Eastern Precordillera, San Juan, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro de Machuca, Brígida; Perucca, Laura P.

    2015-03-01

    Carbonate fault breccia dykes in the Cerro La Chilca area, Eastern Precordillera, west-central Argentina, provide clues on the probable mechanism of both fault movement and dyke injection. Breccia dykes intrude Upper Carboniferous sedimentary rocks and Triassic La Flecha Trachyte Formation. The timing of breccia dyke emplacement is constrained by cross cutting relationships with the uppermost Triassic unit and conformable contacts with the Early Miocene sedimentary rocks. This study supports a tectonic-hydrothermal origin for these breccia dykes; fragmentation and subsequent hydraulic injection of fluidized breccia are the more important processes in the breccia dyke development. Brecciation can be triggered by seismic activity which acts as a catalyst. The escape of fluidized material can be attributed to hydrostatic pressure and the direction of movement of the material establishes the direction of least pressure. Previous studies have shown that cross-strike structures have had an important role in the evolution of this Andean segment since at least Triassic times. These structures represent pre-existing crustal fabrics that could have controlled the emplacement of the dykes. The dykes, which are composed mostly of carbonate fault breccia, were injected upward along WNW fractures.

  15. Biostratigraphy of the San Joaquin Formation in borrow-source area B-17, Kettleman Hills landfill, North Dome, Kettleman Hills, Kings County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Charles L.; Fisk, Lanny H.; Maloney, David F.; Haasl, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The stratigraphic occurrences and interpreted biostratigraphy of invertebrate fossil taxa in the upper San Joaquin Formation and lower-most Tulare Formation encountered at the Chemical Waste Management Kettleman Hills waste disposal facility on the North Dome of the Kettleman Hills, Kings County, California are documented. Significant new findings include (1) a detailed biostratigraphy of the upper San Joaquin Formation; (2) the first fossil occurrence of Modiolus neglectus; (3) distinguishing Ostrea sequens from Myrakeena veatchii (Ostrea vespertina of authors) in the Central Valley of California; (4) differentiating two taxa previously attributed to Pteropurpura festivus; (5) finding a stratigraphic succession between Caesia coalingensis (lower in the section) and Catilon iniquus (higher in the section); and (6) recognizing Pliocene-age fossils from around Santa Barbara. In addition, the presence of the bivalves Anodonta and Gonidea in the San Joaquin Formation, both restricted to fresh water and common in the Tulare Formation, confirm periods of fresh water or very close fresh-water environments during deposition of the San Joaquin Formation.

  16. Climate change impacts on vegetation in the San Francisco Bay Area: a novel approach to vulnerability analysis (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerly, D.; Cornwell, W. K.; Weiss, S. B.; Branciforte, R.; Flint, L. E.; Flint, A. L.

    2010-12-01

    Climate change is expected to profoundly impact terrestrial vegetation. Understanding spatial variability of these impacts is critical to development of conservation strategies and projections of ecosystem services under future climates. We present a model of the projected impacts of climate change on the distribution of vegetation types in the San Francisco Bay Area using a novel application of multinomial logistic regression. The output of this method is a vector of the relative probability of occupancy by each of a set of vegetation types, for each pixel in the landscape. This approach models all vegetation types, in contrast to methods that model the distribution of each type or species individually. The overall vulnerability of vegetation to climate change can then be quantified as the change in modeled probabilities between the vectors modeled under present versus future climates. These changes capture the likelihood of long-term climate-driven vegetation change for each pixel, without relying on specific predictions of present and future vegetation types. This measure of vulnerability can be further decomposed as the product of two components, one reflecting the intrinsic sensitivity of the vegetation to climate and the second measuring the exposure to (i.e., magnitude of) climate change. Based on a new set of high-resolution downscaled climate projections for Coastal California, including an estimate of the annual climatic water deficit, we demonstrate that the vulnerability of vegetation distributions is almost entirely due to variation in sensitivity, and not to differences in the magnitude of climate change. Furthermore, there are weak but significant trends towards greater sensitivity on cool, north-facing slopes and in valley bottoms, as well as a bimodal distribution with greater sensitivity under the coolest and warmest summer temperature regimes in the Bay Area. These results do not support a commonly held conviction that cool environments will act

  17. Probabilistic seismic hazard in the San Francisco Bay area based on a simplified viscoelastic cycle model of fault interactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, F.F.; Schwartz, D.P.

    2008-01-01

    We construct a viscoelastic cycle model of plate boundary deformation that includes the effect of time-dependent interseismic strain accumulation, coseismic strain release, and viscoelastic relaxation of the substrate beneath the seismogenic crust. For a given fault system, time-averaged stress changes at any point (not on a fault) are constrained to zero; that is, kinematic consistency is enforced for the fault system. The dates of last rupture, mean recurrence times, and the slip distributions of the (assumed) repeating ruptures are key inputs into the viscoelastic cycle model. This simple formulation allows construction of stress evolution at all points in the plate boundary zone for purposes of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). Stress evolution is combined with a Coulomb failure stress threshold at representative points on the fault segments to estimate the times of their respective future ruptures. In our PSHA we consider uncertainties in a four-dimensional parameter space: the rupture peridocities, slip distributions, time of last earthquake (for prehistoric ruptures) and Coulomb failure stress thresholds. We apply this methodology to the San Francisco Bay region using a recently determined fault chronology of area faults. Assuming single-segment rupture scenarios, we find that fature rupture probabilities of area faults in the coming decades are the highest for the southern Hayward, Rodgers Creek, and northern Calaveras faults. This conclusion is qualitatively similar to that of Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, but the probabilities derived here are significantly higher. Given that fault rupture probabilities are highly model-dependent, no single model should be used to assess to time-dependent rupture probabilities. We suggest that several models, including the present one, be used in a comprehensive PSHA methodology, as was done by Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities.

  18. Decision analysis framing study; in-valley drainage management strategies for the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presser, Theresa S.; Jenni, Karen E.; Nieman, Timothy; Coleman, James

    2010-01-01

    Constraints on drainage management in the western San Joaquin Valley and implications of proposed approaches to management were recently evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The USGS found that a significant amount of data for relevant technical issues was available and that a structured, analytical decision support tool could help optimize combinations of specific in-valley drainage management strategies, address uncertainties, and document underlying data analysis for future use. To follow-up on USGS's technical analysis and to help define a scientific basis for decisionmaking in implementing in-valley drainage management strategies, this report describes the first step (that is, a framing study) in a Decision Analysis process. In general, a Decision Analysis process includes four steps: (1) problem framing to establish the scope of the decision problem(s) and a set of fundamental objectives to evaluate potential solutions, (2) generation of strategies to address identified decision problem(s), (3) identification of uncertainties and their relationships, and (4) construction of a decision support model. Participation in such a systematic approach can help to promote consensus and to build a record of qualified supporting data for planning and implementation. In December 2008, a Decision Analysis framing study was initiated with a series of meetings designed to obtain preliminary input from key stakeholder groups on the scope of decisions relevant to drainage management that were of interest to them, and on the fundamental objectives each group considered relevant to those decisions. Two key findings of this framing study are: (1) participating stakeholders have many drainage management objectives in common; and (2) understanding the links between drainage management and water management is necessary both for sound science-based decisionmaking and for resolving stakeholder differences about the value of proposed drainage management solutions. Citing

  19. Sighting characteristics and photo-identification of Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) near San Clemente Island, California: a key area for beaked whales and the military?

    PubMed

    Falcone, Erin A; Schorr, Gregory S; Douglas, Annie B; Calambokidis, John; Henderson, Elizabeth; McKenna, Megan F; Hildebrand, John; Moretti, David

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between beaked whales and certain anthropogenic sounds remains poorly understood and of great interest. Although Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) are widely distributed, little is known of their behavior and population structure throughout much of their range. We conducted a series of five combined visual-acoustic marine mammal surveys from 2006 to 2008 in the southern San Nicolas Basin, a site of frequent naval activity off the southern California coast, west of San Clemente Island. The study area was defined by a 1,800 km(2) array of 88 bottom-mounted hydrophones at depths up to 1,850 m. The array was used to vector visual observers toward vocalizing marine mammal species. Thirty-seven groups of Cuvier's beaked whales were encountered during the study period. The overall encounter rate was one group for every 21.0 h of survey effort, and was as high as one group per 10.2 h of effort during the October 2007 survey. Whales were encountered in the deepest portion of the study area, at a mean bottom depth of 1,580 m (SD 138). The average group size was 3.8 individuals (SD 2.4), which was higher than has been reported from other studies of this species. Twenty-four groups were observed over multiple surfacings (median = 4 surfacings, range 2-15). The mean encounter duration of extended sightings was 104 min (SD 98, range 12-466 min) and the mean distance moved over the course of sightings was 1.66 km (SD 1.56, range 0.08-6.65 km). Temporal surfacing patterns during extended encounters were similar to dive behavior described from Cuvier's beaked whales carrying time-depth recording tags. Seventy-eight photographic identifications were made of 58 unique individuals, for an overall resighting rate of 0.26. Whales were sighted on up to 4 days, with duration from first to last sighting spanning 2-79 days. For those whales sighted on subsequent days, the mean distance between subsequent sightings was 8.6 km (SD 7.9). Individuals

  20. 2002 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Y. E. Townsend

    2003-06-01

    Environmental, subsidence, and meteorological monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS)(refer to Figure 1). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater,meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada (BN) reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorological data indicate that 2002 was a dry year: rainfall totaled 26 mm (1.0 in) at the Area 3 RWMS and 38 mm (1.5 in) at the Area 5 RWMS. Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 2002 rainfall infiltrated less than 30 cm (1 ft) before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium monitoring data indicate slow subsurface migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were lower than in previous years. Special investigations conducted in 2002 included: a comparison between waste cover water contents measured by neutron probe and coring; and a comparison of four methods for measuring radon concentrations in air. All 2002 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing within expectations of the model and parameter assumptions for the facility Performance Assessments (PAs).

  1. Nucleotide excision repair genes and risk of lung cancer among San Francisco Bay Area Latinos and African Americans.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jeffrey S; Wrensch, Margaret R; Hansen, Helen M; Sison, Jennette D; Aldrich, Melinda C; Quesenberry, Charles P; Seldin, Michael F; Kelsey, Karl T; Kittles, Rick A; Silva, Gabriel; Wiencke, John K

    2008-11-01

    Few studies on the association between nucleotide excision repair (NER) variants and lung cancer risk have included Latinos and African Americans. We examine variants in 6 NER genes (ERCC2, ERCC4, ERCC5, LIG1, RAD23B and XPC) in association with primary lung cancer risk among 113 Latino and 255 African American subjects newly diagnosed with primary lung cancer from 1998 to 2003 in the San Francisco Bay Area and 579 healthy controls (299 Latinos and 280 African Americans). Individual single nucleotide polymorphism and haplotype analyses, multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) and principal components analysis (PCA) were performed to assess the association between 6 genes in the NER pathway and lung cancer risk. Among Latinos, ERCC2 haplotype CGA (rs238406, rs11878644, rs6966) was associated with reduced lung cancer risk [odds ratio (OR) of 0.65 and 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.44-0.97], especially among nonsmokers (OR = 0.29; 95% CI: 0.12-0.67). From MDR analysis, in Latinos, smoking and 3 SNPs (ERCC2 rs171140, ERCC5 rs17655 and LIG1 rs20581) together had a prediction accuracy of 67.4% (p = 0.001) for lung cancer. Among African Americans, His/His genotype of ERCC5 His1104Asp (rs17655) was associated with increased lung cancer risk (OR = 1.78; 95% CI: 1.09-2.91), and LIG1 haplotype GGGAA (rs20581, rs156641, rs3730931, rs20579 and rs439132) was associated with reduced lung cancer risk (OR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.42-0.88). Our study suggests different elements of the NER pathway may be important in the different ethnic groups resulting either from different linkage relationship, genetic backgrounds and/or exposure histories. PMID:18709642

  2. A Trial of the Efficacy and Cost of Water Delivery Systems in San Francisco Bay Area Middle Schools, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Grummon, Anna H.; Hampton, Karla E.; Oliva, Ariana; McCulloch, Charles E.; Brindis, Claire D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction US legislation requires that schools offer free drinking water where meals are served. However, little information is available about what types of water delivery systems schools should install to meet such requirements. The study objective was to examine the efficacy and cost of 2 water delivery systems (water dispensers and bottleless water coolers) in increasing students’ lunchtime intake of water in low-income middle schools. Methods In 2013, twelve middle schools in the San Francisco Bay Area participated in a cluster randomized controlled trial in which they received 6 weeks of promotional activities, received provision of cups, and were assigned to 1 of 2 cafeteria water delivery systems: water dispensers or bottleless water coolers (or schools served as a control). Student surveys (n = 595) and observations examined the interventions’ effect on students’ beverage intake and staff surveys and public data assessed intervention cost. Results Analysis occurred from 2013 through 2015. Mixed-effects logistic regression, accounting for clustering and adjustment for student sociodemographic characteristics, demonstrated a significant increase in the odds of students drinking water in schools with promotion plus water dispensers and cups (adjusted odds ratio = 3.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.4–6.7; P = .004) compared with schools with traditional drinking fountains and no cups or promotion. The cost of dispenser and bottleless water cooler programs was similar ($0.04 per student per day). Conclusion Instead of relying on traditional drinking fountains, schools should consider installing water sources, such as plastic dispensers with cups, as a low-cost, effective means for increasing students’ water intake. PMID:27390074

  3. 23 CFR 450.320 - Congestion management process in transportation management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Congestion management process in transportation management areas. 450.320 Section 450.320 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Programming § 450.320 Congestion management process in transportation management areas. (a) The...

  4. 23 CFR 450.320 - Congestion management process in transportation management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Congestion management process in transportation management areas. 450.320 Section 450.320 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Programming § 450.320 Congestion management process in transportation management areas. (a) The...

  5. 23 CFR 450.320 - Congestion management process in transportation management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Congestion management process in transportation management areas. 450.320 Section 450.320 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Programming § 450.320 Congestion management process in transportation management areas. (a) The...

  6. 23 CFR 450.320 - Congestion management process in transportation management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Congestion management process in transportation management areas. 450.320 Section 450.320 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Programming § 450.320 Congestion management process in transportation management areas. (a) The...

  7. 23 CFR 450.320 - Congestion management process in transportation management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Congestion management process in transportation management areas. 450.320 Section 450.320 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Programming § 450.320 Congestion management process in transportation management areas. (a) The...

  8. 50 CFR 92.11 - Regional management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Regional management areas. 92.11 Section 92.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA Program Structure § 92.11 Regional management areas. (a)...

  9. Methylmercury production and export from a restored tidal marsh: Crissy Field, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, San Francisco, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windham-Myers, L.; Ward, K.; Marvin-Dipasquale, M. C.; Agee, J.; Kieu, L.; Kakouros, E.

    2009-12-01

    Well-mixed surface water in the restored salt marsh at Crissy Field, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, was found to have high aqueous methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations (>1 ng MeHg / L), despite its sandy substrate and low sediment total mercury (THg) concentrations. We sought to determine a) the extent to which the marsh was a source or a sink of MeHg to San Francisco Bay, b) where and when MeHg is produced within the marsh, and c) the extent to which MeHg concentrations in sediment and water varied with extended multi-week flooding events, impoundments caused by periodic sediment accumulation in the narrow inlet. Because Crissy Marsh is small in size, has a single inlet slough channel, and has a tidally-dominated water budget, we had a unique opportunity to construct a THg and MeHg flux budget for this single well-constrained wetland. A 24-hour sampling event was conducted over a full diurnal tidal cycle during August 2008. Particulate and filter-passing (0.45μm) THg and MeHg concentrations were assessed, in addition to concentrations of chlorophyll-a and total suspended solids. These measurements were coupled to water flux calculations from a USGS-derived hydrodynamic model based on tidal prism relationships at this site. The resulting Hg load calculations demonstrated that for this 24-hour period, the marsh was a net source of dissolved MeHg to the bay and a net sink of particulate THg from the bay. To determine where and when Hg was being methylated within the marsh environment, sediment percent (%) MeHg (a surrogate measure of MeHg production efficiency) was examined for 2 years along 8 transects, seasonally and across three marsh elevations (subtidal, low-intertidal, and high-intertidal). The low-intertidal zone (cordgrass-dominated) had higher sediment %MeHg than the other two elevations. Sediment %MeHg was also higher during summer than during winter, highest at the sediment surface (0-2cm), correlated with sediment organic content, and elevated

  10. Extreme Precipitation in the San Francisco Bay Area: Comparing Downscaling Methodologies' Skill in Representing Extreme Precipitation in Hindcasts and Differences in Their Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, F.; Milesi, C.; Costa-Cabral, M. C.; Rath, J.; Wang, W.; Podolske, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Despite the growing availability of high-resolution datasets of spatially downscaled CMIP5 projections, few studies have explored the differences in extreme precipitation events that stem from the choice of downscaling method, or from the specific climatological datasets that are used for the bias correction and spatial disaggregation. Here we take three different statistically downscaled methods applied to CMIP5 global climate models and analyze their extreme precipitation events, hindcasted and projected, for the location of NASA Ames Research Center, in South San Francisco Bay. The downscaling methods analyzed are: i) Bias Correction Spatial Disaggregation (BCSD), ii) Bias Correction Constructed Analogs (BCCA), and iii) Extreme-value model based on synoptic climate predictors. We fit a generalized extreme value distribution (GEV) to datasets i and ii and use statistical tests to determine the significance of differences in the fitted GEV parameters. We explore the implications of the GEV parameter differences by comparing the daily precipitation values corresponding to 100-year, 500-year and 1,000-year return periods in the three datasets. The implications of how extreme daily values are assumed to change with spatial scale, from the gage location (a point location), to a small grid cell (1 km) or a larger grid cell (12 km), are explored. From our preliminary results, BCCA and BCSD projections predict that extreme precipitation events will be on the rise, and may have the potential to cause flooding at NASA Ames, and in the surrounding Bay Area. These downscaling methods can be studied in further detail in different regions of the contiguous US, and be used by local water resource management agencies in planning infrastructural adaptations.

  11. Policy Challenges in the Fight against Childhood Obesity: Low Adherence in San Diego Area Schools to the California Education Code Regulating Physical Education

    PubMed Central

    Consiglieri, G.; Leon-Chi, L.; Newfield, R. S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Assess the adherence to the Physical Education (PE) requirements per California Education Code in San Diego area schools. Methods. Surveys were administered anonymously to children and adolescents capable of physical activity, visiting a specialty clinic at Rady Children's Hospital San Diego. The main questions asked were their gender, grade, PE classes per week, and time spent doing PE. Results. 324 surveys were filled, with 36 charter-school students not having to abide by state code excluded. We report on 288 students (59% females), mostly Hispanic (43%) or Caucasian (34%). In grades 1–6, 66.7% reported under the 200 min per 10 school days required by the PE code. Only 20.7% had daily PE. Average PE days/week was 2.6. In grades 7–12, 42.2% had reported under the 400 min per 10 school days required. Daily PE was noted in 47.8%. Average PE days/week was 3.4. Almost 17% had no PE, more so in the final two grades of high school (45.7%). Conclusions. There is low adherence to the California Physical Education mandate in the San Diego area, contributing to poor fitness and obesity. Lack of adequate PE is most evident in grades 1–6 and grades 11-12. Better resources, awareness, and enforcement are crucial. PMID:23762537

  12. A Climate, water management, and policy in the San Pedro Basin: Results of a survey of Mexican stakeholders near the U.S.–Mexico border 1936

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews regional climate knowledge and vulnerability in the northern Mexico San Pedro River Basin, with a focus on water quality, quantity, and management issues on the Mexican side of the border. A discussion based on the available literature is supplemented by a survey assessing concern...

  13. Identification of Focal Mechanisms of Seisms Occurring in the San Salvador Volcano-Ilopango Lake Area Between 1994 and March 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Maria Mendez Martinez, Luz de; Portillo, Mercy

    2009-04-19

    We studied the geographic area located in the central part of El Salvador, between the San Salvador Volcano (Quezaltepec) and Ilopango Lake. Its latitude is between 13 deg. 36' and 13 deg. 54', and longitude is between -89 deg. 18' and -88 deg. 57'. This area is directly affected by the WNW axis, the most prominent weak tectonic system in the region. Our research aimed to determine the focal mechanisms of seisms occurring in the studied area between 1994 and March 2005. Our analysis provided information about displacement types of the geological faults, using the wave impulse P method and computer applications ARCGIS and SEISAN, with the subroutine FOCMEC. Information of the studied seisms was obtained from the National Service of Territorial Studies (SNET) database. Geographic models used in the preparation of maps are from the geographic information system of the School of Physics at the University of El Salvador. The 37 focal mechanisms on the map of faults were identified in digital seismographs to determinate the arrival polarity of the wave P for each seism station. Data from the focal mechanisms were analyzed and correlated with their replications. The analysis allowed us to identify evidences to consider the fault continuity not reported by the last geological mission in El Salvador conducted in the 1970s. The fault continuity is located northwest of the studied geographical area, between San Salvador City and the San Salvador Volcano. The compression and strain axes for this area are two main horizontal force axes. The average orientation for the strain axis is NNE-SSW, and WNW-SEE for the compression axis. There is also important seismic activity in the Ilopango Lake and surrounding area. However, data did not allow us to make any inference. The tensors distribution resulted in a high dispersion corresponding to typical fauces models.

  14. Modernizing Training Options for Natural Areas Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedl, Sarah E.; Ober, Holly K.; Stein, Taylor V.; Andreu, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    A recent shift in desires among working professionals from traditional learning environments to distance education has emerged due to reductions in travel and training budgets. To accommodate this, the Natural Areas Training Academy replaced traditionally formatted workshops with a hybrid approach. Surveys of participants before and after this…

  15. Analytical results and sample locality map of stream-sediment, heavy-mineral-concentrate, and rock samples from Owlshead Mountains Wilderness Study Area (CDCA-156), San Bernardino County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Adrian, B.M.; Frisken, J.G.; Detra, D.E.; Hopkins, R.T.; Roemer, T.A.; Jones, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    A U.S. Geological Survey report is presented on the analytical results and sample locality map of stream-sediment, heavy-mineral-concentrate, and rock samples from Owlshead Mountains Wilderness Study Area (CDCA-156), San Bernardino County, California.

  16. Volcanic hazard management in dispersed volcanism areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, Jose Manuel; Garcia, Alicia; Ortiz, Ramon

    2014-05-01

    Traditional volcanic hazard methodologies were developed mainly to deal with the big stratovolcanoes. In such type of volcanoes, the hazard map is an important tool for decision-makers not only during a volcanic crisis but also for territorial planning. According to the past and recent eruptions of a volcano, all possible volcanic hazards are modelled and included in the hazard map. Combining the hazard map with the Event Tree the impact area can be zoned and defining the likely eruptive scenarios that will be used during a real volcanic crisis. But in areas of disperse volcanism is very complex to apply the same volcanic hazard methodologies. The event tree do not take into account unknown vents, because the spatial concepts included in it are only related with the distance reached by volcanic hazards. The volcanic hazard simulation is also difficult because the vent scatter modifies the results. The volcanic susceptibility try to solve this problem, calculating the most likely areas to have an eruption, but the differences between low and large values obtained are often very small. In these conditions the traditional hazard map effectiveness could be questioned, making necessary a change in the concept of hazard map. Instead to delimit the potential impact areas, the hazard map should show the expected behaviour of the volcanic activity and how the differences in the landscape and internal geo-structures could condition such behaviour. This approach has been carried out in La Palma (Canary Islands), combining the concept of long-term hazard map with the short-term volcanic scenario to show the expected volcanic activity behaviour. The objective is the decision-makers understand how a volcanic crisis could be and what kind of mitigation measurement and strategy could be used.

  17. 76 FR 50494 - Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National Preserve, San...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... National Park Service Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National... Scoping Period for Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement for Mojave National... National Park Service is preparing a Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement...

  18. Evaluation of LiDAR Imagery as a Tool for Mapping the Northern San Andreas Fault in Heavily Forested Areas of Mendocino and Sonoma Counties, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentice, C. S.; Koehler, R. D.; Baldwin, J. N.; Harding, D. J.

    2004-12-01

    We are mapping in detail active traces of the San Andreas Fault in Mendocino and Sonoma Counties in northern California, using recently acquired airborne LiDAR (also known as ALSM) data. The LiDAR data set provides a powerful new tool for mapping geomorphic features related to the San Andreas Fault because it can be used to produce high-resolution images of the ground surfaces beneath the forest canopy along the 70-km-long section of the fault zone encompassed by the data. Our effort represents the first use of LiDAR data to map active fault traces in a densely vegetated region along the San Andreas Fault. We are using shaded relief images generated from bare-earth DEMs to conduct detailed mapping of fault-related geomorphic features (e.g. scarps, offset streams, linear valleys, shutter ridges, and sag ponds) between Fort Ross and Point Arena. Initially, we map fault traces digitally, on-screen, based only on the geomorphology interpreted from LiDAR images. We then conduct field reconnaissance using the initial computer-based maps in order to verify and further refine our mapping. We found that field reconnaissance is of utmost importance in producing an accurate and detailed map of fault traces. Many lineaments identified as faults from the on-screen images were determined in the field to be old logging roads or other features unrelated to faulting. Also, in areas where the resolution of LiDAR data is poor, field reconnaissance, coupled with topographic maps and aerial photographs, permits a more accurate location of fault-related geomorphic features. LiDAR images are extremely valuable as a base for field mapping in this heavily forested area, and the use of LiDAR is far superior to traditional mapping techniques relying only on aerial photography and 7.5 minute USGS quadrangle topographic maps. Comparison with earlier mapping of the northern San Andreas fault (Brown and Wolfe, 1972) shows that in some areas the LiDAR data allow a correction of the fault trace

  19. A River Running in the Desert: Lessons for Integrated Water Resources Management from the San Pedro HELP Basin on the U.S.-Mexico Border 1978

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowing from Mexico into the United States, the San Pedro Basin is the region’s only remaining perennial stream and one of the western hemisphere’s most ecologically diverse areas. Large mining, military, and municipal entities are major users of the same groundwater resources that maintain perennia...

  20. Rainwater Wildlife Area Management Plan : Executive Summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen B.; Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation in Oregon.

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of the project is to protect, enhance, and mitigate fish and wildlife resources impacted by Columbia River Basin hydroelectric development. The effort is one of several wildlife mitigation projects in the region developed to compensate for terrestrial habitat losses resulting from the construction of McNary and John Day Hydroelectric facilities located on the mainstem Columbia River. While this project is driven primarily by the purpose and need to mitigate for wildlife habitat losses, it is also recognized that management strategies will also benefit many other non-target fish and wildlife species and associated natural resources. The Northwest Power Act directs the NPPC to develop a program to ''protect, mitigate, and enhance'' fish and wildlife of the Columbia River and its tributaries. The overarching goals include: A Columbia River ecosystem that sustains an abundant, productive, and diverse community of fish and wildlife; Mitigation across the basin for the adverse effects to fish and wildlife caused by the development and operation of the hydrosystem; Sufficient populations of fish and wildlife for abundant opportunities for tribal trust and treaty right harvest and for non-tribal harvest; and Recovery of the fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of the hydrosystem that are listed under the Endangered Species Act.

  1. Underground Test Area Subproject Project Management Plan, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-03

    This Project Management Plan (PMP) describes the manner in which the US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) will manage the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Subproject at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It provides the basic guidance for implementation and the organizational structure for meeting the UGTA objectives.

  2. 50 CFR Figure 24 to Part 679 - Arctic Management Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Arctic Management Area 24 Figure 24 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt....

  3. 50 CFR Figure 24 to Part 679 - Arctic Management Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Arctic Management Area 24 Figure 24 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt....

  4. Lodging Management Career Questionnaire of Greater Philadelphia Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Robert C., Jr.; Wetzel, Susan J.

    A survey was undertaken by Delaware County Community College's (Pennsylvania) Hotel/Restaurant Management program: (1) to provide students with local up-to-date information regarding the lodging industry in the Greater Philadelphia area; and (2) to provide information regarding necessary skills as perceived by the managers for the purpose of…

  5. 50 CFR 665.403 - Bottomfish fishery area management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bottomfish fishery area management. 665.403 Section 665.403 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC...

  6. 50 CFR 665.403 - Bottomfish fishery area management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bottomfish fishery area management. 665.403 Section 665.403 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC...

  7. 50 CFR 665.403 - Bottomfish fishery area management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bottomfish fishery area management. 665.403 Section 665.403 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC...

  8. 50 CFR 665.403 - Bottomfish fishery area management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bottomfish fishery area management. 665.403 Section 665.403 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC...

  9. 50 CFR 665.403 - Bottomfish fishery area management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bottomfish fishery area management. 665.403 Section 665.403 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC...

  10. 10. Office of the Post Engineer, Presidio of San Francisco. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Office of the Post Engineer, Presidio of San Francisco. Location of Water Lines, Presidio of San Francisco. Sheet 30. November 1943. SHOWING EASTERN PORTION OF CRISSY FIELD AND AREA A. - Presidio of San Francisco, Storehouse & Administration, Crissy Field North cantonment, Allen Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. 77 FR 15260 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; San Francisco Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA AGENCY... safety zone for the San Francisco Giants Fireworks Display in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco area... and property of the maritime public from the hazards associated with the fireworks display. During...

  12. Managing extreme natural disasters in coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Kesavan, P C; Swaminathan, M S

    2006-08-15

    Extreme natural hazards, particularly the hydro-meteorological disasters, are emerging as a cause of major concern in the coastal regions of India and a few other developing countries. These have become more frequent in the recent past, and are taking a heavy toll of life and livelihoods. Low level of technology development in the rural areas together with social, economic and gender inequities enhance the vulnerability of the largely illiterate, unskilled, and resource-poor fishing, farming and landless labour communities. Their resilience to bounce back to pre-disaster level of normality is highly limited. For the planet Earth at crossroads, the imminent threat, however, is from a vicious spiral among environmental degradation, poverty and climate change-related natural disasters interacting in a mutually reinforcing manner. These, in turn, retard sustainable development, and also wipe out any small gains made thereof. To counter this unacceptable trend, the M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation has developed a biovillage paradigm and rural knowledge centres for ecotechnological and knowledge empowerment of the coastal communities at risk. Frontier science and technologies blended with traditional knowledge and ecological prudence result in ecotechnologies with pro-nature, pro-poor and pro-women orientation. The rural communities are given training and helped to develop capacity to adopt ecotechnologies for market-driven eco-enterprises. The modern information and communication-based rural knowledge centres largely operated by trained semi-literate young women provide time- and locale-specific information on weather, crop and animal husbandry, market trends and prices for local communities, healthcare, transport, education, etc. to the local communities. The ecotechnologies and time- and locale-specific information content development are need-based and chosen in a 'bottom-up' manner. The use of recombinant DNA technology for genetic shielding of agricultural

  13. Managing extreme natural disasters in coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesavan, P. C.; Swaminathan, M. S.

    2006-08-01

    Extreme natural hazards, particularly the hydro-meteorological disasters, are emerging as a cause of major concern in the coastal regions of India and a few other developing countries. These have become more frequent in the recent past, and are taking a heavy toll of life and livelihoods. Low level of technology development in the rural areas together with social, economic and gender inequities enhance the vulnerability of the largely illiterate, unskilled, and resource-poor fishing, farming and landless labour communities. Their resilience to bounce back to pre-disaster level of normality is highly limited. For the planet Earth at crossroads, the imminent threat, however, is from a vicious spiral among environmental degradation, poverty and climate change-related natural disasters interacting in a mutually reinforcing manner. These, in turn, retard sustainable development, and also wipe out any small gains made thereof. To counter this unacceptable trend, the M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation has developed a biovillage paradigm and rural knowledge centres for ecotechnological and knowledge empowerment of the coastal communities at risk. Frontier science and technologies blended with traditional knowledge and ecological prudence result in ecotechnologies with pro-nature, pro-poor and pro-women orientation. The rural communities are given training and helped to develop capacity to adopt ecotechnologies for market-driven eco-enterprises. The modern information and communication-based rural knowledge centres largely operated by trained semi-literate young women provide time- and locale-specific information on weather, crop and animal husbandry, market trends and prices for local communities, healthcare, transport, education, etc. to the local communities. The ecotechnologies and time- and locale-specific information content development are need-based and chosen in a ‘bottom-up’ manner. The use of recombinant DNA technology for genetic shielding of agricultural

  14. 50 CFR 665.806 - Prohibited area management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries § 665.806 Prohibited area management. (a) Longline fishing prohibited areas... States may not be used to fish for western Pacific pelagic MUS in the American Samoa large...

  15. 50 CFR 665.806 - Prohibited area management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries § 665.806 Prohibited area management. (a) Longline fishing prohibited areas... the United States may not be used to fish for western Pacific pelagic MUS in the American Samoa...

  16. Defence force activities in marine protected areas: environmental management of Shoalwater Bay Training Area, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wen; Wang, Xiaohua; Paull, David; Kesby, Julie

    2010-05-01

    Environmental management of military activities is of growing global concern by defence forces. As one of the largest landholders in Australia, the Australian Defence Force (ADF) is increasingly concerned with sustainable environmental management. This paper focuses on how the ADF is maintaining effective environmental management, especially in environmentally sensitive marine protected areas. It uses Shoalwater Bay Training Area (SWBTA) as a research example to examine environmental management strategies conducted by the ADF. SWBTA is one of the most significant Defence training areas in Australia, with a large number of single, joint and combined military exercises conducted in the area. With its maritime component contained in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA), and abutting Queensland’s State Marine Parks, it has high protection values. It is therefore vital for the ADF to adopt environmentally responsible management while they are conducting military activities. As to various tools employed to manage environmental performance, the ISO 14001 Environmental Management System (EMS) is widely used by the ADF. This paper examines military activities and marine environmental management within SWBTA, using the Talisman Saber (TS) exercise series as an example. These are extensive joint exercises conducted by the ADF and the United States defence forces. The paper outlines relevant legislative framework and environmental policies, analyses how the EMS operates in environmental management of military activities, and how military activities comply with these regulations. It discusses the implementation of the ADF EMS, including risk reduction measures, environmental awareness training, consultation and communication with stakeholders. A number of environmental management actions used in the TS exercises are presented to demonstrate the EMS application. Our investigations to this point indicate that the ADF is

  17. Managing protected areas under climate change: challenges and priorities.

    PubMed

    Rannow, Sven; Macgregor, Nicholas A; Albrecht, Juliane; Crick, Humphrey Q P; Förster, Michael; Heiland, Stefan; Janauer, Georg; Morecroft, Mike D; Neubert, Marco; Sarbu, Anca; Sienkiewicz, Jadwiga

    2014-10-01

    The implementation of adaptation actions in local conservation management is a new and complex task with multiple facets, influenced by factors differing from site to site. A transdisciplinary perspective is therefore required to identify and implement effective solutions. To address this, the International Conference on Managing Protected Areas under Climate Change brought together international scientists, conservation managers, and decision-makers to discuss current experiences with local adaptation of conservation management. This paper summarizes the main issues for implementing adaptation that emerged from the conference. These include a series of conclusions and recommendations on monitoring, sensitivity assessment, current and future management practices, and legal and policy aspects. A range of spatial and temporal scales must be considered in the implementation of climate-adapted management. The adaptation process must be area-specific and consider the ecosystem and the social and economic conditions within and beyond protected area boundaries. However, a strategic overview is also needed: management at each site should be informed by conservation priorities and likely impacts of climate change at regional or even wider scales. Acting across these levels will be a long and continuous process, requiring coordination with actors outside the "traditional" conservation sector. To achieve this, a range of research, communication, and policy/legal actions is required. We identify a series of important actions that need to be taken at different scales to enable managers of protected sites to adapt successfully to a changing climate. PMID:24722848

  18. Managing Protected Areas Under Climate Change: Challenges and Priorities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rannow, Sven; Macgregor, Nicholas A.; Albrecht, Juliane; Crick, Humphrey Q. P.; Förster, Michael; Heiland, Stefan; Janauer, Georg; Morecroft, Mike D.; Neubert, Marco; Sarbu, Anca; Sienkiewicz, Jadwiga

    2014-10-01

    The implementation of adaptation actions in local conservation management is a new and complex task with multiple facets, influenced by factors differing from site to site. A transdisciplinary perspective is therefore required to identify and implement effective solutions. To address this, the International Conference on Managing Protected Areas under Climate Change brought together international scientists, conservation managers, and decision-makers to discuss current experiences with local adaptation of conservation management. This paper summarizes the main issues for implementing adaptation that emerged from the conference. These include a series of conclusions and recommendations on monitoring, sensitivity assessment, current and future management practices, and legal and policy aspects. A range of spatial and temporal scales must be considered in the implementation of climate-adapted management. The adaptation process must be area-specific and consider the ecosystem and the social and economic conditions within and beyond protected area boundaries. However, a strategic overview is also needed: management at each site should be informed by conservation priorities and likely impacts of climate change at regional or even wider scales. Acting across these levels will be a long and continuous process, requiring coordination with actors outside the "traditional" conservation sector. To achieve this, a range of research, communication, and policy/legal actions is required. We identify a series of important actions that need to be taken at different scales to enable managers of protected sites to adapt successfully to a changing climate.

  19. Nevada Test Site 2008 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2009-06-23

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2008 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities.

  20. Remote Sensing and Ecosystem Modeling for Protected Area Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melton, F.; Michaelis, A.; Votava, P.; Milesi, C.; Hashimoto, H.; Hiatt, S.; Nemani, R.

    2007-12-01

    Managers of U.S. national parks and international protected areas are under increasing pressure to monitor changes in park ecosystems resulting from climate and land use change within and adjacent to park boundaries. Despite great interest in these areas and the fact that some U.S. parks receive as many as 3.5 million visitors per year, U.S. and international protected areas are often sparsely instrumented, making it difficult for resource managers to quickly identify trends and changes in landscape conditions. Remote sensing and ecosystem modeling offer protected area managers important tools for monitoring of ecosystem conditions and scientifically based decision-making. These tools, however, can generate large data volumes and can require labor-intensive data processing making them difficult for protected area managers to use. To overcome these obstacles, the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) is currently being applied to automate the production, analysis, and delivery of a suite of data products from NASA satellites and ecosystem models to assist managers of U.S. national parks. TOPS uses ecosystem models to combine satellite data with ground-based observations to produce nowcasts and forecasts of ecosystem conditions. We are utilizing TOPS to deliver data products via a browser-based interface to NPS resource managers in near real- time for use in landscape monitoring and operational decision-making. Current products include measures of vegetation condition, ecosystem productivity, soil moisture, snow cover, climate, and fire occurrence. The use of TOPS component models and technologies streamlines the data processing chain and automates the process of ingesting and synthesizing heterogeneous data inputs. In addition, we describe the use of TOPS to automate the identification of trends and anomalies in ecosystem conditions, enabling protected area managers to track park-wide conditions daily, identify significant changes, focus monitoring

  1. Geohydrology, water quality, and water budgets of Golden Gate Park and the Lake Merced area in the western part of San Francisco, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, E.B.; Hamlin, S.N.; McCann, L.H.

    1990-01-01

    The groundwater resources in the western part of the San Francisco, groundwater budgets for Golden Gate Park and the Lake Merced area, and a surface-water budget for Lake Merced are described. A continuous groundwater basin underlies a 39-sq-mi coastal strip in the San Francisco Peninsula south of the city. Basin fill consists largely of sand and silt. An extensive subsurface clay layer is present near Lake Merced. Recharge is principally from rainfall and irrigation-return flow, with lesser amounts from leaking water and sewer pipes, which were identified in part by stable-isotope and major ion analyses. In Golden Gate Park, about 1, 070 acre-ft/yr of groundwater flows to the ocean. Water levels are not declining, and pumpage could be safely increased. However, nitrate concentrations in excess of Federal drinking-water standards in water from many wells may limit potential uses of groundwater. Groundwater in the Lake Merced area is in a state of overdraft, as indicated by long- term declines in the level of Lake Merced and by groundwater levels persistently below sea level in deep wells. Seawater intrusion has not been detected, however. A surface-water budget for Lake Merced indicates that the largest inflow is from shallow groundwater and the largest outflow is loss by evaporation. (USGS)

  2. Geomorphotectonic studies of the Wilshire blind thrust fault and the San Andreas fault, Los Angeles area, California

    SciTech Connect

    Thiessen, R.L.

    1996-08-01

    WSUs Nodes program finds geomorphologic features formed by active faults and folds using a DEM. Two active faults in the Los Angeles basin, California were studied. The Wilshire fault was recently designated a fault based on the presence of the Wilshire Arch cored by a blind thrust. A new Nodes detector was designed to look for the observed parabolic ridge over it. The detector was 2.5 km in diameter with ridges 1 to 6 m high. The axis of the Wilshire arch, freeways, other oil fields probably controlled by arches, and interfluve dissection drainage ridges in older alluvium were all detected. Complex strike slip and thrust faults exist near Cajon Pass. The major strike slip faults (San Andreas, San Jacinto) have a {open_quotes}rift{close_quotes} valley 1 km wide that was found with a 41 pixel (1200 m) diameter Nodes detector, as were east-west oriented thrusts. The SAF and SJF were also found with a slope break detector.

  3. Managing flow, sediment, and hydropower regimes in the Sre Pok, Se San, and Se Kong Rivers of the Mekong basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Thomas B.; Loucks, Daniel P.

    2014-06-01

    The Lancang/Mekong River Basin is presently undergoing a period of rapid hydropower development. In its natural undeveloped state, the river transports about 160 million metric tons of sediment per year, maintaining the geomorphologic features of the basin, sustaining habitats, and transporting the nutrients that support ecosystem productivity. Despite the importance of sediment in the river, currently little attention is being paid to reservoir sediment trapping. This study is devoted to assessing the potential for managing sediment and its impact on energy production in the Se San, Sre Pok, and Se Kong tributaries of the Mekong River. These tributaries drain a set of adjacent watersheds that are important with respect to biodiversity and ecological productivity, and serve as a significant source of flow and sediment to the mainstream Mekong River. A daily sediment transport model is used to assess tradeoffs among energy production and sediment and flow regime alteration in multiple reservoir systems. This study finds that eventually about 40%-80% of the annual suspended sediment load may be trapped in reservoirs. Clearly, these reservoirs will affect the rivers' sediment regimes. However, even after 100 years of simulated sedimentation, reservoir storage capacities and hydropower production at most reservoir sites are not significantly reduced. This suggests that the strongest motivation for implementing measures to reduce trapped sediment is their impact not on hydropower production but on fish migration and survival and on sediment-dependent ecosystems such as the Vietnam Delta and Cambodia's Tonle Sap Lake.

  4. A multiple metrics approach to prioritizing strategies for measuring and managing reactive nitrogen in the San Joaquin Valley of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Ariel I.; Moomaw, William R.; Liptzin, Daniel; Gramig, Benjamin M.; Reeling, Carson; Meyer, Johanna; Hurley, Kathleen

    2016-06-01

    Human alteration of the nitrogen cycle exceeds the safe planetary boundary for the use of reactive nitrogen (Nr). We complement global analysis by analyzing regional mass flows and the relative consequences of multiple chemical forms of Nr as they ‘cascade’ through multiple environmental media. The goals of this paper are (1) to identify the amounts of Nr that flow through a specific nitrogen rich region, (2) develop multiple metrics to characterize and compare multiple forms of Nr and the different damages that they cause, and (3) to use these metrics to assess the most societally acceptable and cost effective means for addressing the many dimensions of Nr damage. This paper uses a multiple metrics approach that in addition to mass flows considers economic damage, health and mitigation costs and qualitative damages to evaluate options for mitigating Nr flows in California’s San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Most analysis focuses attention on agricultural Nr because it is the largest flow in terms of mass. In contrast, the multiple metrics approach identifies mobile source Nr emissions as creating the most economic and health damage in the SJV. Emissions of Nr from mobile sources are smaller than those from crop agriculture and dairy in the SJV, but the benefits of abatement are greater because of reduced health impacts from air pollution, and abatement costs are lower. Our findings illustrate the benefit of a comprehensive multiple metrics approach to Nr management.

  5. General principles for integrating geoheritage conservation in protected area management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, John E.; Crofts, Roger

    2015-04-01

    Development of more integrated approaches to the management of protected areas requires not only the protection of geosites, but also the effective application of geoconservation principles that apply more widely to the sustainable management of natural systems. Key guiding principles include: working with natural processes; managing natural systems and processes in a spatially integrated manner; accepting the inevitability of natural change; considering the responses of geomorphological processes to the effects of global climate change; recognising the sensitivity of natural systems and managing them within the limits of their capacity to absorb change; basing conservation management of active systems on a sound understanding of the underlying physical processes; making provision for managing visitors at sensitive sites; and acknowledging the interdependency of geodiversity and biodiversity management. As well as recognising the value of geoheritage in its own right, a more integrated approach to conservation across the full range of IUCN Protected Area Management Categories would benefit both biodiversity and geodiversity, through application of the concept of 'conserving nature's stage' and adopting an ecosystem approach.

  6. 33 CFR 161.50 - Vessel Traffic Service San Francisco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vessel Traffic Service San Francisco. 161.50 Section 161.50 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY VESSEL TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT Vessel Traffic Service and Vessel Movement Reporting System Areas and...

  7. Linking an agency strategic review to increase knowledge management: San Francisco County Human Service Agency.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    Led by the agency director, the agency engaged in a Strategic Review, based on a comprehensive assessment of agency performance that identified strategies to improve organizational effectiveness through increased data-informed practice and knowledge management. The Strategic Review gathered information on staff perceptions, perceptions of external stakeholders, changing citywide and neighborhood demographics, policy mandates, and budget and workload issues. The need for the review was based upon multiple, substantial changes not addressed in the 2000 Strategic Plan, including the 2004 merger of the Department of Human Services and the Department of Aging and Adult Services, changes among the executive management team, transitions among key political entities, new policy mandates and changing budget allocations. This case study describes the Strategic Review process and content, summarizing key challenges and lessons related to addressing workload demands, fostering positive staff attitudes, balancing internal and external information needs, and integrating data use and planning processes across the agency. PMID:22409611

  8. Hydrologic research at the Princeton, Minnesota management systems evaluation area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delin, G.N.; Landon, M.K.; Anderson, J.L.; Dowdy, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) program is part of a multi-scale, inter-agency initiative to evaluate the effects of agricultural management systems on water quality. The program resulted from the integration of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Research Plan for Water Quality and the U.S Geological Survey (USGS) Mid-Continent Herbicide Initiative and is part of the President's Water Quality Initiative. The mid-continental corn belt was selected for study because it is an area where about 60% of the Nation's pesticides and nitrogen fertilizers are used.

  9. Comparison Of Solar Surface Features Identified By The Autoclass Pattern Recognition Software From Mount Wilson Observatory Data To Solar Surface Feature Areas Measured By The San Fernando Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Daryl; Preminger, D.; Ulrich, R.; Bertello, L.; Cookson, A.; Chapman, G.

    2009-05-01

    In previous work, the AutoClass software, a Bayesian pattern recognition program based on a finite mixture model, developed by Cheeseman and Stutz (1996), has been used on Mount Wilson Solar Observatory (MWO) intensity and magnetogram images to identify spatially resolved areas on the solar surface associated with Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) and to classify the identified areas in terms of traditional categories-spot, plage, quiet, etc. Those results, were in turn used to (1) model TSI variations as measured by satellite and composite TSI observations, with a correlation of better than 0.96, for the period 1996-2008-most of Cycle 23, and (2) create solar images as they would be seen by a hypothetical TSI instrument able to capture resolved images. Here, we compare the same regions identified by AutoClass which were found to be associated with TSI, and the indices derived from them, with the following areas measured by the San Fernando Observatory (SFO): (1) sunspot area in red continuum; (2) facular area in red continuum; (3) sunspot area in wide Ca K-line (WK-line); (4) plage area in WK-line; and (5) plage plus network area in WK-line. The correlations of the AutoClass-MWO indices with the different SFO area measurements varies from better than 0.91 to over 0.98, depending on the type of feature. The comparison of the spatially resolved surface areas identified by AutoClass in the MWO images to the areas of the different feature observed at SFO, and the creation of spatially resolved images depicting those areas, should enable better identification of the types of surface features associated with TSI measurements and their evolution over a solar cycle. The comparison should also assist in validating the automated categorization of solar features found using the AutoClass automated pattern recognition software.

  10. Evaluation of municipal solid waste management in egyptian rural areas.

    PubMed

    El-Messery, Mamdouh A; Ismail, Gaber A; Arafa, Anwaar K

    2009-01-01

    A two years study was conducted to evaluate the solid waste management system in 143 villages representing the Egyptian rural areas. The study covers the legal responsibilities, service availability, environmental impacts, service providers, financial resources, private sector participation and the quality of collection services. According to UN reports more than 55% of Egyptian population lives in rural areas. A drastic change in the consumption pattern altered the quantity and quality of the generated solid wastes from these areas. Poor solid waste management systems are stigmata in most of the Egyptian rural areas. This causes several environmental and health problems. It has been found that solid waste collection services cover only 27% of the surveyed villages, while, the statistics show that 75% of the surveyed villages are formally covered. The service providers are local villager units, private contractors and civil community associations with a percentage share 71%, 24% and 5% respectively. The operated services among these sectors were 25%, 71% and 100% respectively. The share of private sector in solid waste management in rural areas is still very limited as a result of the poverty of these communities and the lack of recyclable materials in their solid waste. It has been found that direct throwing of solid waste on the banks of drains and canals as well as open dumping and uncontrolled burning of solid waste are the common practice in most of the Egyptian rural areas. The available land for landfill is not enough, pitiable designed, defectively constructed and unreliably operated. Although solid waste generated in rural areas has high organic contents, no composting plant was installed. Shortage in financial resources allocated for valorization of solid waste management in the Egyptian rural areas and lower collection fees are the main points of weakness which resulted in poor solid waste management systems. On the other hand, the farmer's participation

  11. Seismic velocity structure in the Hot Springs and Trifurcation areas of the San Jacinto fault zone, California, from double-difference tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allam, A. A.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Kurzon, I.; Vernon, F.

    2014-08-01

    We present tomographic images of crustal velocity structures in the complex Hot Springs and Trifurcation areas of the San Jacinto Fault Zone (SJFZ) based on double-difference inversions of earthquake arrival times. We invert for VP, VS and hypocentre location within 50 × 50 × 20 km3 volumes, using 266 969 P and 148 249 S arrival times. We obtain high-fidelity images of seismic velocities with resolution on the order of a few kilometres from 2 to 12 km depth and validate the results using checkerboard tests. Due to the relatively large proportion of S-wave arrival times, we also obtain stable maps of VP/VS ratios in both regions. The velocity of the Trifurcation Area as a whole is lower than adjacent unfaulted material. We interpret a 4-km-wide low velocity zone with high VP/VS ratio in the trifurcation itself as related to fault zone damage. We also observe clear velocity contrasts across the Buck Ridge, Clark and Coyote Creek segments of the SJFZ. The Anza segment of the SJFZ, to the NW of the trifurcation area, displays a strong (up to 27 per cent) contrast of VS from 2 to 9 km depth. In the Hot Springs area, a low velocity zone between the Claremont and Casa Loma Strands narrows with depth, with clear velocity contrasts observed across both segments. A roughly 10-km-wide zone of low velocity and low VP/VS ratio at the NW tip of the Hot Springs fault is indicative of either unconsolidated sediments associated with the San Jacinto basin, or fluid-filled cracks within a broad deformation zone. High VP/VS ratios along the Anza segment could indicate a preferred nucleation location for future large earthquakes, while the across-fault velocity contrast suggests a preferred northwest rupture propagation direction for such events.

  12. Fecal indicator bacteria and Salmonella in ponds managed as bird habitat, San Francisco Bay, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Shellenbarger, Gregory G; Athearn, Nicole D; Takekawa, John Y; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2008-06-01

    Throughout the world, coastal resource managers are encouraging the restoration of previously modified coastal habitats back into wetlands and managed ponds for their ecosystem value. Because many coastal wetlands are adjacent to urban centers and waters used for human recreation, it is important to understand how wildlife can affect water quality. We measured fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations, presence/absence of Salmonella, bird abundance, and physico-chemical parameters in two coastal, managed ponds and adjacent sloughs for 4 weeks during the summer and winter in 2006. We characterized the microbial water quality in these waters relative to state water-quality standards and examined the relationship between FIB, bird abundance, and physico-chemical parameters. A box model approach was utilized to determine the net source or sink of FIB in the ponds during the study periods. FIB concentrations often exceeded state standards, particularly in the summer, and microbial water quality in the sloughs was generally lower than in ponds during both seasons. Specifically, the inflow of water from the sloughs to the ponds during the summer, more so than waterfowl use, appeared to increase the FIB concentrations in the ponds. The box model results suggested that the ponds served as net wetland sources and sinks for FIB, and high bird abundances in the winter likely contributed to net winter source terms for two of the three FIB in both ponds. Eight serovars of the human pathogen Salmonella were isolated from slough and pond waters, although the source of the pathogen to these wetlands was not identified. Thus, it appeared that factors other than bird abundance were most important in modulating FIB concentrations in these ponds. PMID:18457857

  13. Fecal indicator bacteria and Salmonella in ponds managed as bird habitat, San Francisco Bay, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shellenbarger, G.G.; Athearn, N.D.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Boehm, A.B.

    2008-01-01

    Throughout the world, coastal resource managers are encouraging the restoration of previously modified coastal habitats back into wetlands and managed ponds for their ecosystem value. Because many coastal wetlands are adjacent to urban centers and waters used for human recreation, it is important to understand how wildlife can affect water quality. We measured fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations, presence/absence of Salmonella, bird abundance, and physico-chemical parameters in two coastal, managed ponds and adjacent sloughs for 4 weeks during the summer and winter in 2006. We characterized the microbial water quality in these waters relative to state water-quality standards and examined the relationship between FIB, bird abundance, and physico-chemical parameters. A box model approach was utilized to determine the net source or sink of FIB in the ponds during the study periods. FIB concentrations often exceeded state standards, particularly in the summer, and microbial water quality in the sloughs was generally lower than in ponds during both seasons. Specifically, the inflow of water from the sloughs to the ponds during the summer, more so than waterfowl use, appeared to increase the FIB concentrations in the ponds. The box model results suggested that the ponds served as net wetland sources and sinks for FIB, and high bird abundances in the winter likely contributed to net winter source terms for two of the three FIB in both ponds. Eight serovars of the human pathogen Salmonella were isolated from slough and pond waters, although the source of the pathogen to these wetlands was not identified. Thus, it appeared that factors other than bird abundance were most important in modulating FIB concentrations in these ponds.

  14. Structural Factors Influencing Patterns of Drug Selling and Use and HIV Risk in the San Salvador Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This article explores differences in the social context in which crack sales and use and HIV risk take place in seven low-income communities in San Salvador, and structural factors that may influence these differences. The organization of drug selling varied among the communities on a number of dimensions including: whether drug sales were open or closed systems; the type of drug-selling site; and the participation of drug users in drug-distribution roles. Drug-use sites also varied according to whether crack was used in private, semiprivate, or public spaces, and whether individuals used drugs alone or with other drug users. Three patterns of drug use and selling were identified based on the dimensions outlined above. Structural factors that influenced these patterns included the geographic location of the communities, their physical layout, gang involvement in drug sales, and police surveillance. Implications for HIV risk and prevention are explored for each pattern. PMID:20550091

  15. Remote sensing research for agricultural applications. [San Joaquin County, California and Snake River Plain and Twin Falls area, Idaho

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N. (Principal Investigator); Wall, S. L.; Beck, L. H.; Degloria, S. D.; Ritter, P. R.; Thomas, R. W.; Travlos, A. J.; Fakhoury, E.

    1984-01-01

    Materials and methods used to characterize selected soil properties and agricultural crops in San Joaquin County, California are described. Results show that: (1) the location and widths of TM bands are suitable for detecting differences in selected soil properties; (2) the number of TM spectral bands allows the quantification of soil spectral curve form and magnitude; and (3) the spatial and geometric quality of TM data allows for the discrimination and quantification of within field variability of soil properties. The design of the LANDSAT based multiple crop acreage estimation experiment for the Idaho Department of Water Resources is described including the use of U.C. Berkeley's Survey Modeling Planning Model. Progress made on Peditor software development on MIDAS, and cooperative computing using local and remote systems is reported as well as development of MIDAS microcomputer systems.

  16. A Study of Equality of Educational Opportunity for Mexican Americans in Nine School Districts of the San Antonio Area. United States Commission on Civil Rights, Staff Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    The report is the result of a study that investigated the extent to which Mexican American students in 9 independent school districts in metropolitan San Antonio, Texas, were afforded equal educational opportunities. The districts were Alamo Heights, East Central, Edgewood, Harlandale, North East, Northside, San Antonio, South San Antonio, and…

  17. SAN DIEGO ZOO EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego County Dept. of Education, CA.

    A BROCHURE GEARED TO HELP TEACHERS AND STUDENTS IN THE SAN DIEGO AREA TAKE FULL ADVANTAGE OF THE EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES OF THE SAN DIEGO ZOO IS PRESENTED. THE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF THE ZOO EMPLOYS TWO FULL-TIME TEACHERS AND A DRIVER-GUIDE. THE PROGRAM OFFERED IS BRIEFLY DESCRIBED--(1) IN "PRESCHOOL AND FIRST GRADE," INTRODUCTIONS ARE MADE TO…

  18. SAN PEDRO GEODATA BROWSER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The San Pedro Data Browser was developed by the Landscape Ecology Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Las Vegas, NV). The goal of the Landscape Sciences Program is to improve decision-making relative to natural and human resource management through the development...

  19. PREFERRED WATERFLOOD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR THE SPRABERRY TREND AREA

    SciTech Connect

    David S. Schechter

    2004-08-31

    The naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area is one of the largest reservoirs in the domestic U.S. and is the largest reservoir in area extent in the world. Production from Spraberry sands is found over a 2,500 sq. mile area and Spraberry reservoirs can be found in an eight county area in west Texas. Over 150 operators produce 65,000 barrels of oil per day (bopd) from the Spraberry Trend Area from more than 9,000 production wells. Recovery is poor, on the order of 7-10% due to the profoundly complicated nature of the reservoir, yet billions of barrels of hydrocarbons remain. We estimate over 15% of remaining reserves in domestic Class III reservoirs are in Spraberry Trend Area reservoirs. This tremendous domestic asset is a prime example of an endangered hydrocarbon resource in need of immediate technological advancements before thousands of wells are permanently abandoned. This report describes the final work of the project, ''Preferred Waterflood Management Practices for the Spraberry Trend Area.'' The objective of this project is to significantly increase field-wide production in the Spraberry Trend in a short time frame through the application of preferred practices for managing and optimizing water injection. Our goal is to dispel negative attitudes and lack of confidence in water injection and to document the methodology and results for public dissemination to motivate waterflood expansion in the Spraberry Trend. This objective has been accomplished through research in three areas: (1) detail historical review and extensive reservoir characterization, (2) production data management, and (3) field demonstration. This provides results of the final year of the three-year project for each of the three areas.

  20. Measuring impact of protected area management interventions: current and future use of the Global Database of Protected Area Management Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Coad, Lauren; Leverington, Fiona; Knights, Kathryn; Geldmann, Jonas; Eassom, April; Kapos, Valerie; Kingston, Naomi; de Lima, Marcelo; Zamora, Camilo; Cuardros, Ivon; Nolte, Christoph; Burgess, Neil D; Hockings, Marc

    2015-11-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are at the forefront of conservation efforts, and yet despite considerable progress towards the global target of having 17% of the world's land area within protected areas by 2020, biodiversity continues to decline. The discrepancy between increasing PA coverage and negative biodiversity trends has resulted in renewed efforts to enhance PA effectiveness. The global conservation community has conducted thousands of assessments of protected area management effectiveness (PAME), and interest in the use of these data to help measure the conservation impact of PA management interventions is high. Here, we summarize the status of PAME assessment, review the published evidence for a link between PAME assessment results and the conservation impacts of PAs, and discuss the limitations and future use of PAME data in measuring the impact of PA management interventions on conservation outcomes. We conclude that PAME data, while designed as a tool for local adaptive management, may also help to provide insights into the impact of PA management interventions from the local-to-global scale. However, the subjective and ordinal characteristics of the data present significant limitations for their application in rigorous scientific impact evaluations, a problem that should be recognized and mitigated where possible. PMID:26460133

  1. Measuring impact of protected area management interventions: current and future use of the Global Database of Protected Area Management Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Coad, Lauren; Leverington, Fiona; Knights, Kathryn; Geldmann, Jonas; Eassom, April; Kapos, Valerie; Kingston, Naomi; de Lima, Marcelo; Zamora, Camilo; Cuardros, Ivon; Nolte, Christoph; Burgess, Neil D.; Hockings, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are at the forefront of conservation efforts, and yet despite considerable progress towards the global target of having 17% of the world's land area within protected areas by 2020, biodiversity continues to decline. The discrepancy between increasing PA coverage and negative biodiversity trends has resulted in renewed efforts to enhance PA effectiveness. The global conservation community has conducted thousands of assessments of protected area management effectiveness (PAME), and interest in the use of these data to help measure the conservation impact of PA management interventions is high. Here, we summarize the status of PAME assessment, review the published evidence for a link between PAME assessment results and the conservation impacts of PAs, and discuss the limitations and future use of PAME data in measuring the impact of PA management interventions on conservation outcomes. We conclude that PAME data, while designed as a tool for local adaptive management, may also help to provide insights into the impact of PA management interventions from the local-to-global scale. However, the subjective and ordinal characteristics of the data present significant limitations for their application in rigorous scientific impact evaluations, a problem that should be recognized and mitigated where possible. PMID:26460133

  2. 33 CFR 165.1122 - San Diego Bay, Mission Bay and their Approaches-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Demarcation Line means the line described at 33 CFR 80.1104 or 80.1106. Public vessel means a vessel that is... identification system (AIS) as denoted in 33 CFR 164.46 are exempted from making requests as required in this... area. (a) Regulated navigation area. The following area is a regulated navigation area (RNA):...

  3. 33 CFR 165.1122 - San Diego Bay, Mission Bay and their Approaches-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Demarcation Line means the line described at 33 CFR 80.1104 or 80.1106. Public vessel means a vessel that is... identification system (AIS) as denoted in 33 CFR 164.46 are exempted from making requests as required in this... area. (a) Regulated navigation area. The following area is a regulated navigation area (RNA):...

  4. 33 CFR 165.1122 - San Diego Bay, Mission Bay and their Approaches-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Demarcation Line means the line described at 33 CFR 80.1104 or 80.1106. Public vessel means a vessel that is... identification system (AIS) as denoted in 33 CFR 164.46 are exempted from making requests as required in this... area. (a) Regulated navigation area. The following area is a regulated navigation area (RNA):...

  5. 33 CFR 165.1122 - San Diego Bay, Mission Bay and their Approaches-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Demarcation Line means the line described at 33 CFR 80.1104 or 80.1106. Public vessel means a vessel that is... identification system (AIS) as denoted in 33 CFR 164.46 are exempted from making requests as required in this... area. (a) Regulated navigation area. The following area is a regulated navigation area (RNA):...

  6. 33 CFR 165.1122 - San Diego Bay, Mission Bay and their Approaches-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Demarcation Line means the line described at 33 CFR 80.1104 or 80.1106. Public vessel means a vessel that is... identification system (AIS) as denoted in 33 CFR 164.46 are exempted from making requests as required in this... area. (a) Regulated navigation area. The following area is a regulated navigation area (RNA):...

  7. Water Management and Sediment Control for Urbanizing Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Columbus, OH.

    This handbook, developed for use by the Soil Conservation Service and property owners, land developers, local government agencies, and consulting firms, is designed to provide information on water management and minimizing erosion on land undergoing development in urban areas. The standards and specifications listed in this handbook are to provide…

  8. Bridging Disciplines with the Riparian Area Management Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockerill, Kristan M.; Titus, Jonathan H.

    2004-01-01

    Faculty at Columbia University's Earth Semester created the interdisciplinary Riparian Area Management Project to help students integrate information and skills from life sciences, geosciences, social sciences, and humanities focused coursework. Structured as a "consulting" contract, students were required to make a policy recommendation utilizing…

  9. Development of a shared vision for groundwater management to protect and sustain baseflows of the Upper San Pedro River, Arizona, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richter, Holly E.; Gungle, Bruce; Lacher, Laurel J.; Turner, Dale S.; Bushman, Brooke M.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater pumping along portions of the binational San Pedro River has depleted aquifer storage that supports baseflow in the San Pedro River. A consortium of 23 agencies, business interests, and non-governmental organizations pooled their collective resources to develop the scientific understanding and technical tools required to optimize the management of this complex, interconnected groundwater-surface water system. A paradigm shift occurred as stakeholders first collaboratively developed, and then later applied, several key hydrologic simulation and monitoring tools. Water resources planning and management transitioned from a traditional water budget-based approach to a more strategic and spatially-explicit optimization process. After groundwater modeling results suggested that strategic near-stream recharge could reasonably sustain baseflows at or above 2003 levels until the year 2100, even in the presence of continued groundwater development, a group of collaborators worked for four years to acquire 2250 hectares of land in key locations along 34 kilometers of the river specifically for this purpose. These actions reflect an evolved common vision that considers the multiple water demands of both humans and the riparian ecosystem associated with the San Pedro River.

  10. Salt Ponds, South San Francisco Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    higher resolution 1000 pixel-wide image The red and green colors of the salt ponds in South San Francisco Bay are brilliant visual markers for astronauts. The STS-111 crew photographed the bay south of the San Mateo bridge in June, 2002. This photograph is timely because a large number of the salt ponds (more than 16,500 acres) that are owned by Cargill, Inc. will be sold in September for wetlands restoration-a restoration project second in size only to the Florida Everglades project. Rough boundaries of the areas to be restored are outlined on the image. Over the past century, more than 80% of San Francisco Bay's wetlands have been filled and developed or diked off for salt mining. San Francisco Bay has supported salt mining since 1854. Cargill has operated most of the bay's commercial salt ponds since 1978, and had already sold thousands of acres to the State of California and the Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge. This new transaction will increase San Francisco Bay's existing tidal wetlands by 50%. The new wetlands, to be managed by the California Department of Fish and Game and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, will join the Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge, and provide valuable habitat for birds, fish and other wildlife. The wetlands will contribute to better water quality and flood control in the bay, and open up more coastline for public enjoyment. Additional information: Cargill Salt Ponds (PDF) Turning Salt Into Environmental Gold Salt Ponds on Way to Becoming Wetlands Historic Agreement Reached to Purchase San Francisco Bay Salt Ponds Astronaut photograph STS111-376-3 was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth

  11. Building Capacity for Protected Area Management in Lao PDR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Madhu; Johnson, Arlyne; Spence, Kelly; Sypasong, Ahnsany; Bynum, Nora; Sterling, Eleanor; Phimminith, Thavy; Praxaysombath, Bounthob

    2014-04-01

    Declining biodiversity in protected areas in Laos is attributed to unsustainable exploitation of natural resources. At a basic level, an important need is to develop capacity in academic and professional training institutions to provide relevant training to conservation professionals. The paper (a) describes the capacity building approach undertaken to achieve this goal, (b) evaluates the effectiveness of the approach in building capacity for implementing conservation and (c) reviews implementation outcomes. Strong linkages between organizations implementing field conservation, professional training institutions, and relevant Government agencies are central to enhancing effectiveness of capacity building initiatives aimed at improving the practice of conservation. Protected area management technical capacity needs will need to directly influence curriculum design to insure both relevance and effectiveness of training in improving protected area management. Sustainability of capacity building initiatives is largely dependent on the level of interest and commitment by host-country institutions within a supportive Government policy framework in addition to engagement of organizations implementing conservation.

  12. Water management controls net carbon exchange in drained and flooded agricultural peatlands in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatala, J.; Detto, M.; Sonnentag, O.; Verfaillie, J. G.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2011-12-01

    Draining peatlands for agricultural cultivation creates an ecosystem shift with some of the fastest rates and largest magnitudes of carbon loss attributable to land-use change, yet peatland drainage is practiced around the world due to the high economic benefit of fertile soil. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California was drained at the end of the 19th century for agriculture and human settlement, and as a result, has lost 5-8m of peat soil due to oxidation. To reverse subsidence and capture carbon, there is increasing interest in converting drained agricultural land-uses back to flooded conditions to inhibit further peat oxidation. However, this method remains relatively untested at the landscape-scale. This study analyzed the short-term effects of drained to flooded land-use conversion on the balance of carbon, water, and energy over two years at two landscapes in the Delta. We used the eddy covariance method to compare CO2, CH4, H2O, and energy fluxes under the same meteorological conditions in two different land-use types: a drained pasture grazed by cattle, and a flooded newly-converted rice paddy. By analyzing differences in the fluxes from these two land-use types we determined that water management and differences in the plant canopy both play a fundamental role in governing the seasonal pattern and the annual budgets of CO2 and CH4 fluxes at these two sites. While the pasture was a source of carbon to the atmosphere in both years, the rice paddy captured carbon through NEE, even after considering losses from CH4. Especially during the fallow winter months, flooding the soil at the rice paddy inhibited loss of CO2 through ecosystem respiration when compared with the carbon exchange from the drained pasture.

  13. Lessons learned in implementing a demand side management contract at the Presidio of San Francisco

    SciTech Connect

    Sartor, D.; Munn, M.

    1998-06-01

    The National Park Service (NSP) recently completed the implementation phase of its Power Saving Partners (PSP) Demand Side Management (DSM) contract with the local utility, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E). Through the DSM contract, NPS will receive approximately $4.1 million over eight years in payment for saving 61 kW of electrical demand, 179,000 km of electricity per year, and 1.1 million therms of natural gas per year. These payments are for two projects: the installation of high-efficiency lighting systems at the Thoreau Center for Sustainability and the replacement of an old central boiler plant with new, distributed boilers. Although these savings and payments are substantial, the electrical savings and contract payments fall well short of the projected 1,700 kW of electrical demand, 8 million kwh of annual electricity savings, and $11 million in payments, anticipated at the project's onset. Natural gas savings exceeded the initial forecast of 800,000 therms per year. The DSM contract payments did not meet expectations for a variety of reasons which fall into two broad categories: first, many anticipated projects were not constructed, and second, some of the projects that were constructed were not included in the program because the cost of implementing the DSM program's measurement and verification (M&V) requirements outweighed anticipated payments. This paper discusses the projects implemented, and examines the decisions made to withdraw some of them from the DSM contract. It also presents the savings that were realized and documented through M&V efforts. Finally, it makes suggestions relative to M&V protocols to encourage all efficiency measures, not just those that are easy to measure.

  14. Water Management Decisions using Multiple Hydrologic Models Within the San Juan River Basin Under Changing Climate Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piechota, T. C.; Miller, W. P.; Butler, R. A.; Prairie, J. R.; Derosa, G. M.

    2011-12-01

    A modified version of the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) long-term planning model, Colorado River Simulation System (CRSS), is used to evaluate whether hydrologic model choice has an impact on critical decision variables within the San Juan River Basin when evaluating potential impacts of climate change through 2099. The distributed Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model and the lumped National Weather Service (NWS) River Forecast System (RFS) were each used to project future streamflow; these projections of streamflow were then used to force Reclamation's CRSS model over the San Juan River Basin. Both hydrologic models were compared to evaluate whether or not uncertainty in climatic input generated from General Circulation Models outweighed differences between the hydrologic models. Differences in methodologies employed by each hydrologic model had a significant impact on projected streamflow within the basin. Both models project decreased water availability under changing climate conditions within the San Juan River Basin, but disagree on the magnitude of the decrease. On average, total naturalized inflow within the San Juan River Basin into the Navajo Reservoir is approximately 15% higher using inflows derived using the VIC model than those inflows developed using the RFS model; average projected tributary inflow from the San Juan River Basin to the Colorado River is approximately 25% higher using inflows derived using the VIC model than those inflows developed using the RFS. Overall, there is a higher risk and magnitude of shortage within the San Juan River Basin using streamflow developed using the RFS model as compared to inflow scenarios developed using the VIC model. Model choice was found to have a significant impact on the evaluation of climate change impacts over the San Juan River Basin.

  15. Stratigraphic framework and coal correlation of the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation, Bisti-Ah-Shi-Sle-Pah area, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, Romeo M.; Erpenbeck, Michael F.

    1982-01-01

    This report illustrates and describes the detailed stratigraphic framework and coal correlation of the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation exposed in isolated badlands and along washes within a 20-mile outcrop belt in the Bisti-Ah-Shi-Sle-Pah area, southwestern San Juan Basin, Nex Mexico (see index). The stratigraphic framework showing the vertical and lateral distributions of rock types and the lateral continuity of coal beds is illustrated in cross sections. The cross sections were constructed from 112 stratigraphic sections measured at an average distance of 0.4 mi apart. Each section contained key marker beds (sandstone, coal, and tonstein) that were physically traced to adjacent sections. Each measured section was "hung" on multiple marker beds arranged in a geometric best-fit method that accounts for the differential compaction and facies associations of the deposits. 

  16. [Enterobius vermicularis in preschool children from a suburban area in San Félix, Bolívar State, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Requena, Ixora; Jiménez, Yolimar; Rodríguez, Natacha; Sandoval, Maria; Alcala, Frannegy; Blanco, Ytalia; Devera, Rodolfo

    2007-09-01

    To determine the enterobiosis prevalence in preschool children, a study was carried out from may-july 2003, in the SEU "Teresa de la Parra" in San Félix, Bolívar State, Venezuela. Three samples from the perianal region were obtained from every child, by applying the Graham method, and one sample was obtained of the subungucal deposit by scraping and cutting off their finger nails. These samples were preserved in 10% formol and processed by the formol-ether method. Also, a stool sample was collected and analyzed by direct examination and the formol-ether method. The prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis was 45.8% (27/59). No differences in relation to age (chi2 = 1.23 d. f. = 2) and sex (p > 0.05) were observed between the infected children. The eggs E. vermicularis were not observed in the 59 samples of subungueal deposits. In conclusion, although the enterobiosis prevalence was high, as determined by the Graham method, a relationship could not be found between E. vermicularis in the scotch tape and the finger nail samples of the children evaluated. PMID:17853787

  17. GRA prospectus: optimizing design and management of protected areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernknopf, Richard; Halsing, David

    2001-01-01

    Protected areas comprise one major type of global conservation effort that has been in the form of parks, easements, or conservation concessions. Though protected areas are increasing in number and size throughout tropical ecosystems, there is no systematic method for optimally targeting specific local areas for protection, designing the protected area, and monitoring it, or for guiding follow-up actions to manage it or its surroundings over the long run. Without such a system, conservation projects often cost more than necessary and/or risk protecting ecosystems and biodiversity less efficiently than desired. Correcting these failures requires tools and strategies for improving the placement, design, and long-term management of protected areas. The objective of this project is to develop a set of spatially based analytical tools to improve the selection, design, and management of protected areas. In this project, several conservation concessions will be compared using an economic optimization technique. The forest land use portfolio model is an integrated assessment that measures investment in different land uses in a forest. The case studies of individual tropical ecosystems are developed as forest (land) use and preservation portfolios in a geographic information system (GIS). Conservation concessions involve a private organization purchasing development and resource access rights in a certain area and retiring them. Forests are put into conservation, and those people who would otherwise have benefited from extracting resources or selling the right to do so are compensated. Concessions are legal agreements wherein the exact amount and nature of the compensation result from a negotiated agreement between an agent of the conservation community and the local community. Funds are placed in a trust fund, and annual payments are made to local communities and regional/national governments. The payments are made pending third-party verification that the forest expanse

  18. Characterization of the San Jacinto Fault Zone Northwest of the Trifurcation Area from Earthquake Data Recorded by a Dense Linear Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Share, P. E.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Ross, Z.; Qiu, H.; Vernon, F.

    2015-12-01

    Data generated by earthquakes and recorded by a linear seismic array at Blackburn saddle NW of the trifurcation area, crossing the Clark branch of the San Jacinto Fault Zone, are used to study the internal fault zone structure in the area. The linear array (BB) is 180 m long and comprises 7 broadband three-component 1-Hz seismometers. Automatic algorithms are used to detect P and S body waves and fault zone head and trapped waves. Statistical analyses of P body wave travel times of 765 events, occurring during 2012-2014 within a 110 by 20 km window centered along the length of the Clark fault, show a 0.6-0.8 % gradual increase in slowness from the SW most (BB01) to the NE most (BB07) station. The results suggest the NE most stations overlie a zone of greater damage. Sharp velocity contrasts across the fault are imaged using fault zone head waves. In total, 72 events (within the same 110 by 20 km window) are found to produce phases with clear head wave characteristics. Further analysis of the candidate events leads to the characterization of two separate groups. The first, consisting of 51 events within approximately 11 km epicentral distance from the array, shows a clear increase of head to P body wave differential times with increasing along fault distance. Based on this moveout, an average velocity contrast across of the fault of 4 % (SW block is slower) is calculated for the portion of the Clark Fault beneath the array. Differential times for the second group show no moveout with along fault distance, suggesting a local secondary bimaterial interface with limited along-strike and/or depth extent. Events located in a broad region that also includes the San Andreas and Elsinore Faults produce candidate trapped waves that are most clear at stations BB05, BB06 and BB07 (the three NE most stations). Waveform modeling results will be presented in the meeting.

  19. Regional Sampling of Mantle Peridotites in Serpentinite Blocks Collected from Serpentinite Bodies in the San Francisco Bay Area, California: Petrological Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, M.; Kirby, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    We have collected and investigated 278 ultramafic and related rock samples from 18 polygonal-block -and- sheared-matrix-type serpentinite bodies in the Coast Ranges in the San Francisco Bay Area. These sites include Ring Mountain in the north to Silver Creek near San Jose in the south, spanning nearly 100 km of Coast Range geology. These bodies show extensive variation in volume ratios of serpentinite blocks (some including peridotite minerals) to sheared matrix, in peridotite mineral modes, in the degrees of weathering, in the proportions of peridotite minerals versus alteration minerals, and in the degree of late-stage brittle deformation. However, we found remarkable coherence in the serpentinite alteration mineralogy and our samples bear a strong resemblance to those in the Redwood City serpentinite body studied recently by Uno and Kirby (GRL submitted). In particular, we see mineralogical and geochemical evidence for multiple stages of alteration of the original peridotite minerals that reflect partial peridotite alteration, likely in the mantle, and then a later reaction to lizardite + magnetite in the crust. These reactions are followed by localized late-stage partial alteration of serpentinite to silica minerals and magnesite by carbonated water. Our findings suggest that the mantle sources of this type of partially-serpentinized peridotite in this section of the Coast Ranges are remarkably similar and that the processes leading to later-stage alteration reactions have operated repeatedly over the area that we sampled. Internal deformation in these bodies during later stages of alteration probably occurred during ascent through the crust, as reflected by sheared lizardite skins on the serpentinite blocks that we collected. We put forward several working hypotheses that provide insights into the origins and geologic histories of these rocks.

  20. Geologic Map and Map Database of the Oakland Metropolitan Area, Alameda, Contra Costa, and San Francisco Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graymer, R.W.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction This report contains a new geologic map at 1:50,000 scale, derived from a set of geologic map databases containing information at a resolution associated with 1:24,000 scale, and a new description of geologic map units and structural relationships in the mapped area. The map database represents the integration of previously published reports and new geologic mapping and field checking by the author (see Sources of Data index map on the map sheet or the Arc-Info coverage pi-so and the textfile pi-so.txt). The descriptive text (below) contains new ideas about the Hayward fault and other faults in the East Bay fault system, as well as new ideas about the geologic units and their relations. These new data are released in digital form in conjunction with the Federal Emergency Management Agency Project Impact in Oakland. The goal of Project Impact is to use geologic information in land-use and emergency services planning to reduce the losses occurring during earthquakes, landslides, and other hazardous geologic events. The USGS, California Division of Mines and Geology, FEMA, California Office of Emergency Services, and City of Oakland participated in the cooperative project. The geologic data in this report were provided in pre-release form to other Project Impact scientists, and served as one of the basic data layers for the analysis of hazard related to earthquake shaking, liquifaction, earthquake induced landsliding, and rainfall induced landsliding. The publication of these data provides an opportunity for regional planners, local, state, and federal agencies, teachers, consultants, and others outside Project Impact who are interested in geologic data to have the new data long before a traditional paper map could be published. Because the database contains information about both the bedrock and surficial deposits, it has practical applications in the study of groundwater and engineering of hillside materials, as well as the study of geologic hazards and

  1. Impacts of Hydrologic Model Decision to Water Management Within the San Juan River Basin Under Changing Climate Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piechota, T. C.; Miller, W. P.

    2010-12-01

    A modified version of the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) Colorado River Simulation System (CRSS) is used to evaluate potential impacts of climate change to the San Juan River Basin through 2099. Using temporally disaggregated, bias-corrected spatially downscaled projections of temperature and precipitation, 112 projections of future streamflow for each model were developed using the distributed Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model and the lumped National Weather Service (NWS) River Forecast System (RFS) provided by the Colorado Basin River Forecasting Center. These projections from the VIC model and NWS RFS were then used to force Reclamation’s CRSS model over the San Juan River Basin. On average, inflow into the Navajo Reservoir is approximately 5% higher using inflows derived using the NWS RFS than those inflows developed using the VIC model; however, average inflow over the entire San Juan River Basin is approximately 9% higher using inflows derived using the VIC model than those inflows developed using the NWS RFS. Regulated streamflow to Lake Powell is projected to decrease by up to 39% under changing climate conditions. Overall, there is a higher risk of shortage within the San Juan River Basin using streamflow developed using the NWS RFS model as compared to inflow scenarios developed using the VIC model. Both models project decreased water availability under changing climate conditions within the San Juan River Basin, which may adversely impact water users throughout the Colorado River Basin.

  2. Small Water System Management Program: 100 K Area

    SciTech Connect

    Hunacek, G.S. Jr.

    1995-06-29

    Purposes of this document are: to provide an overview of the service and potable water system presently in service at the Hanford Site`s 100 K Area; to provide future system forecasts based on anticipated DOE activities and programs; to delineate performance, design, and operations criteria; and to describe planned improvements. The objective of the small water system management program is to assure the water system is properly and reliably managed and operated, and continues to exist as a functional and viable entity in accordance with WAC 246-290-410.

  3. 76 FR 37059 - Siuslaw National Forest; Oregon; Oregon Dunes NRA Management Area 10 (C) Route and Area Designation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... Forest Service Siuslaw National Forest; Oregon; Oregon Dunes NRA Management Area 10 (C) Route and Area... Dunes Plan) in order to: (1) Designate Off Highway Vehicle (OHV), also called Off Road Vehicle (ORV) routes within Management Area (MA) 10 (C) of the Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area (ODNRA) beyond...

  4. Determining management strategies for the Sarikum Nature Protection Area.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Sevgi

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, many environmental problems have become important factors in promoting the economic need to develop tourist activity: climate change such as energy wars, increasing hunger and aridity, population increases in urban areas, excessive and unthinking use of natural resources, difficult international relations, economic competition, and increasing environmental stress. Trends in global tourism have changed with changes in culture and our attitude to nature. Changes in both the profile and consumption patterns of tourists have called for the need to balance the use of natural and cultural assets with the need to adequately protect them. In this study, the Sarikum Nature Protection Area (SNPA) was selected as a case study because of its significance as a Turkish wetland area and the variety of different ecosystems coexisting within it. The study focussed on management strategies, but also provides a broader strategy for an area that currently has no management plan. Strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analyses of the area were gathered and analyzed using R'WOT analysis (ranking + SWOT), a multi-criteria assessment method, in order to determine strategies, obtain the participation of interest groups, and assess their opinions and attitudes. The analysis showed the following: the rich biological diversity and the existence of endemic species were the reserve's most significant strength; the presence of natural areas in surrounding regions was the most significant opportunity; the shortage of infrastructure and lack of legal regulation of ecotourism was the most significant weakness; and the lack of a management plan was the most immediate threat. PMID:25678353

  5. Fluid management plan for the Project Shoal Area Offsites Subproject

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) has initiated the Offsites Subproject to characterize the hazards posed to human health and the environment as a result of underground nuclear testing activities at facilities other than the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A primary Subproject objective is to gather adequate data to characterize the various Subproject sites through the collection of surface and subsurface soil samples and by drilling several wells for the collection of groundwater data. The Project Shoal Area (PSA) is one of the Subproject`s Nevada sites and is subject to the requirements set forth in the Federal Facility Compliance Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (DOE, 1996a). In accordance with the FFACO, a Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed for work at the PSA (designated as Corrective Action Unit Number 416). This Fluid Management Plan (FMP) provides guidance for the management of fluids generated from wells constructed at the PSA. Long-term monitoring and future activities at the site, if required, will be set forth in additional documents as required by the FFACO. The ultimate method for disposition of fluids generated by site operations depends upon sample analysis and process knowledge in relation to fluid management criteria. Section 2 describes well site operations; Section 3 discusses fluid management criteria; Section 4 includes the fluid monitoring program; Section 5 presents the fluid management strategy; Section 6 provides for fluid management during routine well monitoring; and Section 7 contains reporting criteria.

  6. Implementation of a local area network for nursing management.

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, R. H.; Reiley, P.; McKinney, J.; Toomey, B.; Powers, E.; McCausland, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the planning and implementation of a Local Area Network (LAN) for the nursing service of a 504-bed urban teaching hospital. The major goals of the network were: support for nurse executives, nurse managers, and the departmental assistants assigned to administrative offices; increased efficiency and effectiveness of the nursing administrative areas; and improved communication systems. Collaboration between the nursing service and the Computer Information Center (CIC) resulted in a network of over 70 workstations, spanning 11 buildings. The network provides access to multiple programs that support clinical, managerial, and research activities. Gateways provide access to the hospital's two mainframes. PMID:1807569

  7. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Waste Management Area U: First Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, Floyd N.; Chou, Charissa J.

    2000-08-04

    As a result of the most recent recalculation one of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in downgradient well 299-W19-41, triggering a change from detection monitoring to groundwater quality assessment program. The major contributors to the higher specific conductance are nonhazardous constituents (i.e., sodium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate). Nitrate, chromium, and technetium-99 are present and are increasing; however, they are significantly below their drinking waster standards. Interpretation of groundwater monitoring data indicates that both the nonhazardous constituents causing elevated specific conductance in groundwater and the tank waste constituents present in groundwater at the waste management area are a result of surface water infiltration in the southern portion of the facility. There is evidence for both upgradient and waste management area sources for observed nitrate concentrations. There is no indication of an upgradient source for the observed chromium and technetium-99.

  8. Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Safety Assessment Document

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, K.K.; Kendall, E.W.; Brown, J.J.

    1980-02-01

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Safety Assessment Document evaluates site characteristics, facilities and operating practices which contribute to the safe handling and storage/disposal of radioactive wastes at the Nevada Test Site. Physical geography, cultural factors, climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology (with emphasis on radionuclide migration), ecology, natural phenomena, and natural resources are discussed and determined to be suitable for effective containment of radionuclides. Also considered, as a separate section, are facilities and operating practices such as monitoring; storage/disposal criteria; site maintenance, equipment, and support; transportation and waste handling; and others which are adequate for the safe handling and storage/disposal of radioactive wastes. In conclusion, the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site is suitable for radioactive waste handling and storage/disposal for a maximum of twenty more years at the present rate of utilization.

  9. Environmental Policy Beliefs of Stakeholders in Protected Area Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Kostas

    2007-04-01

    Although the importance of understanding stakeholder beliefs regarding environmental policy has been noted by many authors, research focusing on the heterogeneity of stakeholder views is still very scarce and concentrated on a product-oriented definition of stakeholders. The aim of the present study is to address this gap by examining environmental policy beliefs of stakeholder groups engaged in protected area management. Questionnaires containing 73 five-point Likert scale items were administered to eight different stakeholder groups involved in the management of Greek protected areas. Items referred to core beliefs on environmental policy, namely, the value framework and sustainable development, and secondary beliefs, that is, beliefs on social consensus and ecotourism development. Our study used as a starting point respondent recruitment on the basis of a traditional product-centered approach. We investigated whether environmental policy beliefs can be used to effectively segregate stakeholders in well-defined segments, which override the product-oriented definition of stakeholders. Indeed, K-means clustering revealed an innovation-introduction and an implementation-charged sample segment. The instrument utilized in this research proved quite reliable and valid in measuring stakeholder environmental policy beliefs. Furthermore, the methodology implied that stakeholder groups differ in a significant number of belief-system elements. On the other hand, stakeholder groups were effectively distinguished on a small set of both core and secondary beliefs. Therefore, the instrument used can be an effective tool for determining and monitoring environmental policy beliefs of stakeholders in protected area management. This is of considerable importance in the Greek case, given the recent establishment of 27 administrative bodies of protected areas, all of which are required to incorporate public consultation into management practices.

  10. Environmental policy beliefs of stakeholders in protected area management.

    PubMed

    Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Kostas

    2007-04-01

    Although the importance of understanding stakeholder beliefs regarding environmental policy has been noted by many authors, research focusing on the heterogeneity of stakeholder views is still very scarce and concentrated on a product-oriented definition of stakeholders. The aim of the present study is to address this gap by examining environmental policy beliefs of stakeholder groups engaged in protected area management. Questionnaires containing 73 five-point Likert scale items were administered to eight different stakeholder groups involved in the management of Greek protected areas. Items referred to core beliefs on environmental policy, namely, the value framework and sustainable development, and secondary beliefs, that is, beliefs on social consensus and ecotourism development. Our study used as a starting point respondent recruitment on the basis of a traditional product-centered approach. We investigated whether environmental policy beliefs can be used to effectively segregate stakeholders in well-defined segments, which override the product-oriented definition of stakeholders. Indeed, K-means clustering revealed an innovation-introduction and an implementation-charged sample segment. The instrument utilized in this research proved quite reliable and valid in measuring stakeholder environmental policy beliefs. Furthermore, the methodology implied that stakeholder groups differ in a significant number of belief-system elements. On the other hand, stakeholder groups were effectively distinguished on a small set of both core and secondary beliefs. Therefore, the instrument used can be an effective tool for determining and monitoring environmental policy beliefs of stakeholders in protected area management. This is of considerable importance in the Greek case, given the recent establishment of 27 administrative bodies of protected areas, all of which are required to incorporate public consultation into management practices. PMID:17265109

  11. The San Joaquin Valley Westside Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Linneman, J. Christopher; Tanji, Kenneth K.

    2006-03-27

    Salt management has been a challenge to westside farmerssince the rapid expansion of irrigated agriculture in the 1900 s. Thesoils in this area are naturally salt-affected having formed from marinesedimentary rocks rich in sea salts rendering the shallow groundwater,and drainage return flows discharging into the lower reaches of the SanJoaquin River, saline. Salinity problems are affected by the importedwater supply from Delta where the Sacramento and San Joaquin Riverscombine. Water quality objectives on salinity and boron have been inplace for decades to protect beneficial uses of the river. However it wasthe selenium-induced avian toxicity that occurred in the evaporationponds of Kesterson Reservoir (the terminal reservoir of a planned but notcompleted San Joaquin Basin Master Drain) that changed public attitudesabout agricultural drainage and initiated a steady stream ofenvironmental legislation directed at reducing non-point source pollutionof the River. Annual and monthly selenium load restrictions and salinityand boron Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) are the most recent of thesepolicy initiatives. Failure by both State and Federal water agencies toconstruct a Master Drain facility serving mostly west-side irrigatedagriculture has constrained these agencies to consider only In-Valleysolutions to ongoing drainage problems. For the Westlands subarea, whichhas no surface irrigation drainage outlet to the San Joaquin River,innovative drainage reuse systems such as the Integrated Farm DrainageManagement (IFDM) offer short- to medium-term solutions while morepermanent remedies to salt disposal are being investigated. Real-timesalinity management, which requires improved coordination of east-sidereservoir releases and west-side drainage, offers some relief toGrasslands Basin farmers and wetland managers - allowing greater salinityloading to the River than under a strict TMDL. However, currentregulation drives a policy that results in a moratorium on all

  12. An Integrated Risk Management Model for Source Water Protection Areas

    PubMed Central

    Chiueh, Pei-Te; Shang, Wei-Ting; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2012-01-01

    Watersheds are recognized as the most effective management unit for the protection of water resources. For surface water supplies that use water from upstream watersheds, evaluating threats to water quality and implementing a watershed management plan are crucial for the maintenance of drinking water safe for humans. The aim of this article is to establish a risk assessment model that provides basic information for identifying critical pollutants and areas at high risk for degraded water quality. In this study, a quantitative risk model that uses hazard quotients for each water quality parameter was combined with a qualitative risk model that uses the relative risk level of potential pollution events in order to characterize the current condition and potential risk of watersheds providing drinking water. In a case study of Taipei Source Water Area in northern Taiwan, total coliforms and total phosphorus were the top two pollutants of concern. Intensive tea-growing and recreational activities around the riparian zone may contribute the greatest pollution to the watershed. Our risk assessment tool may be enhanced by developing, recording, and updating information on pollution sources in the water supply watersheds. Moreover, management authorities could use the resultant information to create watershed risk management plans. PMID:23202770

  13. Visualizing Diurnal Population Change in Urban Areas for Emergency Management

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Medina, Richard M; Cova, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing need for a quick, simple method to represent diurnal population change in metropolitan areas for effective emergency management and risk analysis. Many geographic studies rely on decennial U.S. Census data that assume that urban populations are static in space and time. This has obvious limitations in the context of dynamic geographic problems. The U.S. Department of Transportation publishes population data at the transportation analysis zone level in fifteen-minute increments. This level of spatial and temporal detail allows for improved dynamic population modeling. This article presents a methodology for visualizing and analyzing diurnal population change for metropolitan areas based on this readily available data. Areal interpolation within a geographic information system is used to create twenty-four (one per hour) population surfaces for the larger metropolitan area of Salt Lake County, Utah. The resulting surfaces represent diurnal population change for an average workday and are easily combined to produce an animation that illustrates population dynamics throughout the day. A case study of using the method to visualize population distributions in an emergency management context is provided using two scenarios: a chemical release and a dirty bomb in Salt Lake County. This methodology can be used to address a wide variety of problems in emergency management.

  14. Visualizing diurnal population change in urban areas for emergency management.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Medina, Richard M; Cova, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing need for a quick, simple method to represent diurnal population change in metropolitan areas for effective emergency management and risk analysis. Many geographic studies rely on decennial U.S. Census data that assume that urban populations are static in space and time. This has obvious limitations in the context of dynamic geographic problems. The U.S. Department of Transportation publishes population data at the transportation analysis zone level in fifteen-minute increments. This level of spatial and temporal detail allows for improved dynamic population modeling. This article presents a methodology for visualizing and analyzing diurnal population change for metropolitan areas based on this readily available data. Areal interpolation within a geographic information system is used to create twenty-four (one per hour) population surfaces for the larger metropolitan area of Salt Lake County, Utah. The resulting surfaces represent diurnal population change for an average workday and are easily combined to produce an animation that illustrates population dynamics throughout the day. A case study of using the method to visualize population distributions in an emergency management context is provided using two scenarios: a chemical release and a dirty bomb in Salt Lake County. This methodology can be used to address a wide variety of problems in emergency management. PMID:21491706

  15. Unraveling multiple provenance areas using sandstone petrofacies and geochemistry: An example in the southern flank of the Golfo San Jorge Basin (Patagonia, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limarino, Carlos Oscar; Giordano, Sergio Roberto

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the provenance of Late Cretaceous sandstones deposited along the south flank of the Golfo San Jorge Basin. For this purpose, detrital modes of three hundred thirty-seven sandstone samples collected in the Mina del Carmen, Bajo Barreal, and Cañadón Seco Formations were studied in ten oil fields. According to the modal composition of the sandstones, six petrofacies were defined allowing the identification of not only principal, but also secondary provenance areas. The QVM and VQM petrofacies are more than 20% metamorphic, sedimentary, and polycrystalline quartz clasts (Lm + Ls + Qpg > 20%), evidencing a secondary signal of basement supply masked by a predominant volcanic provenance. The petrofacies VP and VF are characterized by Lm + Ls + Qpg <20% and more than 20% total feldspar (Pm + Om >20%.), which indicate a supply of sediment from volcanic terrains and scarce derivation of materials from basement rocks. Based on the plagioclase/k-feldspar ratio, the VF petrofacies is interpreted to be dominated by the supply of sand grains from the Andean volcanic-arc, while VP is supposed have originated through the erosion of intermediate volcanic rock outcroppings in the Macizo del Deseado. Finally, both the VQ and QV petrofacies show Lm + Ls + Qpg <20% and Pm + Om<20%, indicating a provenance of volcanic areas coupled with minor contributions from basement rocks. During the Late Cretaceous, the Golfo San Jorge Basin underwent a sag phase that was characterized by very scarce volcanism and tectonic activity. Although these conditions did not favor defined patterns in the vertical stacking of petrofacies, the sandstones exhibit remarkable changes in their regional distribution, which were determined by the paleogeography of the basin and differences in basement composition within the source areas. Finally, a paleogeographic model for sediment circulation in the basin is proposed. This model recognizes the main fluvial dispersal trends that

  16. Food insecurity, chronic illness, and gentrification in the San Francisco Bay Area: An example of structural violence in United States public policy.

    PubMed

    Whittle, Henry J; Palar, Kartika; Hufstedler, Lee Lemus; Seligman, Hilary K; Frongillo, Edward A; Weiser, Sheri D

    2015-10-01

    Food insecurity continues to be a major challenge in the United States, affecting 49 million individuals. Quantitative studies show that food insecurity has serious negative health impacts among individuals suffering from chronic illnesses, including people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Formulating effective interventions and policies to combat these health effects requires an in-depth understanding of the lived experience and structural drivers of food insecurity. Few studies, however, have elucidated these phenomena among people living with chronic illnesses in resource-rich settings, including in the United States. Here we sought to explore the experiences and structural determinants of food insecurity among a group of low-income PLHIV in the San Francisco Bay Area. Thirty-four semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with low-income PLHIV receiving food assistance from a local non-profit in San Francisco and Alameda County, California, between April and June 2014. Interview transcripts were coded and analysed according to content analysis methods following an inductive-deductive approach. The lived experience of food insecurity among participants included periods of insufficient quantity of food and resultant hunger, as well as long-term struggles with quality of food that led to concerns about the poor health effects of a cheap diet. Participants also reported procuring food using personally and socially unacceptable strategies, including long-term dependence on friends, family, and charity; stealing food; exchanging sex for food; and selling controlled substances. Food insecurity often arose from the need to pay high rents exacerbated by gentrification while receiving limited disability income--​a situation resulting in large part from the convergence of long-standing urban policies amenable to gentrification and an outdated disability policy that constrains financial viability. The experiences of food insecurity described by participants in this

  17. Executive summary: Benefit-cost evaluation of an intra-regional air service in the Bay Area and a technology assessment of transportation system investments. [regional planning for the San Francisco Bay area of California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haefner, L. E.

    1978-01-01

    The benefits and costs that would result from an intra-regional air service operation in the San Francisco Bay area were determined by utilizing an iterative statistical decision model to evaluate combinations of commuter airport sites and surface transportation facilities in conjunction with service by a given commuter aircraft type in light of area regional growth alternatives and peak and off-peak regional travel patterns. The model evaluates such transportation option with respect to criteria of airline profitability, public acceptance, and public and private non-user costs. In so doing, it incorporates information on modal split, peak and off-peak use of the air commuter fleet, terminal and airport costs, development costs and uses of land in proximity to the airport sites, regional population shifts, and induced zonal shifts in travel demand. The model is multimodal in its analytic capability, and performs exhaustive sensitivity analysis.

  18. GIS supported solid waste management in coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Sarptas, H; Alpaslan, N; Dolgen, D

    2005-01-01

    Planning of solid waste management (SWM) facilities in terrestrial as well as coastal areas addresses several situations, and requires considering numerous factors. This leads to large amounts of data and information that must be organized and analyzed. However, in many SWM systems, all of the relevant information cannot be managed properly due to insufficiencies in methods/tools and/or resources. To assist the solid waste decision making process, GIS-based decision support systems can be applied to deal with the multi-attribute and spatial nature of SWM systems. In this study, the application potential of GIS based decision support systems to functional elements of the SWM system are reviewed first. Then particular emphasis is given to landfill site selection. In this context, landfill siting process and key siting criteria were developed to incorporate the environmental, socio-political, engineering, and economic factors for an appropriate solution. To aid decision makers to determine landfill area requirements, an area estimation model, containing population projection and waste quantity forecasting modules, was developed in Visual Basic. Following the development of a graphical user interface, suitable areas for proposed landfill were determined in an IDRISI environment. PMID:16114635

  19. Forrest Conservation Area : Management & Implementation FY 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Brent

    2008-12-01

    The Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribes) acquired the Forrest Conservation Area during July of 2002. The property is located in the Upper John Day subbasin within the Columbia basin. The property consists of two parcels comprising 4,232 acres. The Mainstem parcel consists of 3,445 acres and is located 1/2 mile to the east of Prairie City, Oregon on the mainstem John Day River. The Middle Fork parcel consists of 786 acres and is located one mile to the west of the town of Austin, OR on the Middle Fork John Day River. The Forrest Conservation Area is under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to provide an annual written report generally describing the real property interests of the project and management activities undertaken or in progress. Acquisition of the Forrest Conservation Area was funded by BPA as part of their program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife habitat affected by hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The intent of the Conservation Area is to partially mitigate fish and wildlife impacts for the John Day Dam on the Columbia River as outlined in the Northwest Power Planning Council's Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994, {section}11.1, {section}7.6). While the Tribes hold fee-title to the property, the BPA has assured a level of management funding for the protection and restoration of fish and wildlife habitat through a memorandum of agreement.

  20. Intelligent Resource Management for Local Area Networks: Approach and Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meike, Roger

    1988-01-01

    The Data Management System network is a complex and important part of manned space platforms. Its efficient operation is vital to crew, subsystems and experiments. AI is being considered to aid in the initial design of the network and to augment the management of its operation. The Intelligent Resource Management for Local Area Networks (IRMA-LAN) project is concerned with the application of AI techniques to network configuration and management. A network simulation was constructed employing real time process scheduling for realistic loads, and utilizing the IEEE 802.4 token passing scheme. This simulation is an integral part of the construction of the IRMA-LAN system. From it, a causal model is being constructed for use in prediction and deep reasoning about the system configuration. An AI network design advisor is being added to help in the design of an efficient network. The AI portion of the system is planned to evolve into a dynamic network management aid. The approach, the integrated simulation, project evolution, and some initial results are described.

  1. A Global Talent Magnet: How a San Francisco/Bay Area Global Higher Education Hub Could Advance California's Comparative Advantage in Attracting International Talent and Further Build US Economic Competitiveness. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.9.11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, John; Edelstein, Richard; Hoareau, Cecile

    2011-01-01

    During the 2009-10 academic year international students generated more than $18.8 billion in net income into the US economy. California alone had nearly 100,000 international students with an economic impact of nearly $3.0 billion. In this paper, we outline a strategy for the San Francisco/Bay Area to double the number of international students…

  2. Digital model of the unconsolidated aquifer system in the Modesto area, Stanislaus and San Joaquin Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Londquist, Clark J.

    1981-01-01

    A digital mathematical model of the unconsolidated alluvial aquifer system in the Modesto area, Calif., has been developed which can be used to determine the effects of increased pumping and water use of future water levels in the aquifer system. The model is divided into two units. The lower unit is confined in the western part of the study area by a confining clay bed; elsewhere in this unit the aquifer is unconfined. The upper unit represents an unconfined aquifer and lies above the clay bed or its extension. Where the clay bed is absent the upper and lower units are considered as a single aquifer. The model, as calibrated, can evaluate with reasonable accuracy the effects on water levels of changing stresses and stress patterns only within the area of primary interest for the upper unit. In other areas of the upper unit and for the lower unit, predicted changes should be looked upon as, at best, representing only general trends. (USGS)

  3. Management of the water balance and quality in mining areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasanen, Antti; Krogerus, Kirsti; Mroueh, Ulla-Maija; Turunen, Kaisa; Backnäs, Soile; Vento, Tiia; Veijalainen, Noora; Hentinen, Kimmo; Korkealaakso, Juhani

    2015-04-01

    Although mining companies have long been conscious of water related risks they still face environmental management problems. These problems mainly emerge because mine sites' water balances have not been adequately assessed in the stage of the planning of mines. More consistent approach is required to help mining companies identify risks and opportunities related to the management of water resources in all stages of mining. This approach requires that the water cycle of a mine site is interconnected with the general hydrologic water cycle. In addition to knowledge on hydrological conditions, the control of the water balance in the mining processes require knowledge of mining processes, the ability to adjust process parameters to variable hydrological conditions, adaptation of suitable water management tools and systems, systematic monitoring of amounts and quality of water, adequate capacity in water management infrastructure to handle the variable water flows, best practices to assess the dispersion, mixing and dilution of mine water and pollutant loading to receiving water bodies, and dewatering and separation of water from tailing and precipitates. WaterSmart project aims to improve the awareness of actual quantities of water, and water balances in mine areas to improve the forecasting and the management of the water volumes. The study is executed through hydrogeological and hydrological surveys and online monitoring procedures. One of the aims is to exploit on-line water quantity and quality monitoring for the better management of the water balances. The target is to develop a practical and end-user-specific on-line input and output procedures. The second objective is to develop mathematical models to calculate combined water balances including the surface, ground and process waters. WSFS, the Hydrological Modeling and Forecasting System of SYKE is being modified for mining areas. New modelling tools are developed on spreadsheet and system dynamics platforms to

  4. Critical research needs for managing coral reef marine protected areas: perspectives of academics and managers.

    PubMed

    Cvitanovic, C; Wilson, S K; Fulton, C J; Almany, G R; Anderson, P; Babcock, R C; Ban, N C; Beeden, R J; Beger, M; Cinner, J; Dobbs, K; Evans, L S; Farnham, A; Friedman, K J; Gale, K; Gladstone, W; Grafton, Q; Graham, N A J; Gudge, S; Harrison, P L; Holmes, T H; Johnstone, N; Jones, G P; Jordan, A; Kendrick, A J; Klein, C J; Little, L R; Malcolm, H A; Morris, D; Possingham, H P; Prescott, J; Pressey, R L; Skilleter, G A; Simpson, C; Waples, K; Wilson, D; Williamson, D H

    2013-01-15

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a primary policy instrument for managing and protecting coral reefs. Successful MPAs ultimately depend on knowledge-based decision making, where scientific research is integrated into management actions. Fourteen coral reef MPA managers and sixteen academics from eleven research, state and federal government institutions each outlined at least five pertinent research needs for improving the management of MPAs situated in Australian coral reefs. From this list of 173 key questions, we asked members of each group to rank questions in order of urgency, redundancy and importance, which allowed us to explore the extent of perceptional mismatch and overlap among the two groups. Our results suggest the mismatch among MPA managers and academics is small, with no significant difference among the groups in terms of their respective research interests, or the type of questions they pose. However, managers prioritised spatial management and monitoring as research themes, whilst academics identified climate change, resilience, spatial management, fishing and connectivity as the most important topics. Ranking of the posed questions by the two groups was also similar, although managers were less confident about the achievability of the posed research questions and whether questions represented a knowledge gap. We conclude that improved collaboration and knowledge transfer among management and academic groups can be used to achieve similar objectives and enhance the knowledge-based management of MPAs. PMID:23220604

  5. Nevada Test Site, 2006 Waste Management Monitoring Report, Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Hudson

    2007-06-30

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2006 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (U.S. Department of Energy, 2006; Warren and Grossman, 2007; National Security Technologies, LLC, 2007). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure levels around the RWMSs are at or below background levels. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. There is no detectable man-made radioactivity by gamma spectroscopy, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits at the Area 3 RWMS. Measurements at the Area 5 RWMS show that radon flux from waste covers is no higher than natural radon flux from undisturbed soil in Area 5. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. Precipitation during 2006 totaled 98.6 millimeters (mm) (3.9 inches [in.]) at the Area 3 RWMS and 80.7 mm (3.2 in.) at the Area 5 RWMS. Soil-gas tritium monitoring continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Moisture from precipitation at Area 5 remains at the bottom of the bare-soil weighing lysimeter, but this same moisture has been removed from the vegetated weighing lysimeter by evapotranspiration. Vadose zone data from the operational waste pit covers show that evaporation continues to slowly remove soil moisture that came from the heavy precipitation in the fall of 2004 and the spring of

  6. Seismic velocity structure in the Hemet Stepover and Trifurcation Areas of the San Jacinto Fault Zone from double-difference earthquake tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allam, A. A.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Vernon, F.; Kurzon, I.

    2013-12-01

    We present tomographic images of crustal velocity structures in the Hemet Stepover and Trifurcation areas of the San Jacinto Fault Zone (SJFZ) based on double-difference inversions of earthquake arrival times. We discretize both regions with a horizontal 250m grid spacing and a vertical 500m spacing within 50km by 50km by 20km volumes. We invert for VP, VS, and hypocenter location using data from 16064 earthquakes recorded at 136 stations. In total, we use 266,969 P and 148,249 S arrivals to constrain the seismic velocity structures in the two regions. With large numbers of both arrivals, we are able to obtain images of VP and VS at similar resolutions, enabling us to make spatial maps of and interpret the VP/VS ratios. Though ray coverage is limited at shallow depths, we obtain high-fidelity images of seismic velocities from 2 to 12 km, and validate the results using checkerboard tests. The tomographic images indicate that the velocity of the trifurcation area as a whole is lower than adjacent unfaulted material. We interpret a 4km-wide low velocity zone in the trifurcation itself as fault zone damage related due to high VP/VS ratio. We also observe clear velocity contrasts across the Buck Ridge, Clark, and Coyote Creek segments of the SJFZ. The Anza segment of the SJFZ, to the NW of the trifurcation area, displays a strong (up to 27%) contrast of VS from 2km to 9km. In the Hemet Stepover, a low velocity zone between the Claremont and Casa Loma Strands narrows with depth, with clear velocity contrasts observed across both segments. A roughly 10km-wide zone of low velocity and low VP/VS ratio at the NW tip of the Hot Springs fault is indicative of either unconsolidated sediments associated with the San Jacinto basin, or fluid-filled cracks within a broad deformation zone. Relocated seismicity tends to align with the surface traces of the various fault strands, though it is offset to the northeast of the Casa Loma-Clark strand and to the southwest of the Hot Springs

  7. Active Crustal Deformation in the Area of San Carlos, Baja California Sur, Mexico as Shown by Data of Local Earthquake Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munguía, Luis; González-Escobar, Mario; Navarro, Miguel; Valdez, Tito; Mayer, Sergio; Aguirre, Alfredo; Wong, Victor; Luna, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    We analyzed earthquakes of sequences that occurred at different times near San Carlos, a town of approximately 5000 inhabitants. The seismic sequences happened during March-April 1989, October 2000-June 2001, and 5-15 February 2004 at about 200 km west of the Pacific-North America plate boundary. The strong shaking from initial earthquakes of the first two sequences prompted the installation of temporary seismic stations in the area. With data recorded by these stations, we found an earthquake distribution that is consistent with the northwest segment of the Santa Margarita fault. Both the focal depth, that seemed to increase in E-NE direction, and a composite fault-plane solution, obtained from polarity data of the small earthquakes, were also consistent with the main characteristics of that fault. We also found that our normal-faulting mechanism (east side down) was quite similar to centroid moment tensor solutions for earthquakes with M w 5.4 and 5.3 that occurred in the area in February 2004. It is likely, then, that these larger earthquakes also occurred along the Santa Margarita Fault. To get some insight into the regional stress pattern, we compared the above mechanisms with mechanisms reported for other earthquakes of the Pacific margin of Baja California Sur and the Gulf of California regions. We observed that focal mechanisms of the two regions have T axes of stress that plunge sub horizontally in E-NE average direction. The corresponding P axes have N-NW average trend, but for the Pacific earthquakes these axes plunge at angles that are ~35° larger than those for the Gulf earthquakes. These more vertically inclined P axes of compressive stress mean substantial oblique fault motions. The mixture of oblique and strike-slip components of fault motions, as the focal mechanisms show, confirms a transtensional stress regime for the region. Before this research, we knew little about the seismicity and styles of faulting in the area. Now we know that

  8. San Marino.

    PubMed

    1985-02-01

    San Marino, an independent republic located in north central Italy, in 1983 had a population of 22,206 growing at an annual rate of .9%. The literacy rate is 97% and the infant mortality rate is 9.6/1000. The terrain is mountainous and the climate is moderate. According to local tradition, San Marino was founded by a Christian stonecutter in the 4th century A.D. as a refuge against religious persecution. Its recorded history began in the 9th century, and it has survived assaults on its independence by the papacy, the Malatesta lords of Rimini, Cesare Borgia, Napoleon, and Mussolini. An 1862 treaty with the newly formed Kingdom of Italy has been periodically renewed and amended. The present government is an alliance between the socialists and communists. San Marino has had its own statutes and governmental institutions since the 11th century. Legislative authority at present is vested in a 60-member unicameral parliament. Executive authority is exercised by the 11-member Congress of State, the members of which head the various administrative departments of the goverment. The posts are divided among the parties which form the coalition government. Judicial authority is partly exercised by Italian magistrates in civil and criminal cases. San Marino's policies are tied to Italy's and political organizations and labor unions active in Italy are also active in San Marino. Since World War II, there has been intense rivalry between 2 political coalitions, the Popular Alliance composed of the Christian Democratic Party and the Independent Social Democratic Party, and the Liberty Committee, coalition of the Communist Party and the Socialist Party. San Marino's gross domestic product was $137 million and its per capita income was $6290 in 1980. The principal economic activities are farming and livestock raising, along with some light manufacturing. Foreign transactions are dominated by tourism. The government derives most of its revenue from the sale of postage stamps to

  9. Summary of hydrologic data for the San Gabriel River basin and Edwards Aquifer, Georgetown area, Texas, water year 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Land, Larry F.; Dorsey, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    The Geological Survey 's water resource monitoring program in the Georgetown area, Texas for water year 1988 consisted of a network of about 65 observation wells measured in the winter and summer, and a network of 10 streamflow-monitoring sites where flow was measured either continually or in the winter and summer. Data measurements included flow or water levels, specific conductance, temperature, and pH. These data show that the streamflow was substantially less in water year 1988 than in the previous 2 years. Regional changes in groundwater levels between the winters of 1987 and 1988 show slight declines (2 to 6 ft) in the northeast part of the study area while moderate declines (6 to 10 ft) were common in the southeast part. The most severe declines (greater than 10 ft) occurred in the corridor between Round Rock and Georgetown. A pattern of greater declines (moderate to severe) than in the surrounding area occurred north of Georgetown. (USGS)

  10. Geochronologic and geochemical data from Mesozoic rocks in the Black Mountain area northeast of Victorville, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Paul; Barth, Andrew P.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Fohey-Breting, Nicole K.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Priest, Susan S.

    2013-01-01

    We present geochronologic and geochemical data for Mesozoic rocks in the Black Mountain area northeast of Victorville, California, to supplement previous geologic mapping. These data, together with previously published results, limit the depositional age of the sedimentary Fairview Valley Formation to Early Jurassic, refine the ages and chemical compositions of selected units in the overlying Jurassic Sidewinder Volcanics and of related intrusive units, and limit the age of some post-Sidewinder faulting in the Black Mountain area to a brief interval in the Late Jurassic. The new information contributes to a more complete understanding of the Mesozoic magmatic and tectonic evolution of the western Mojave Desert and surrounding regions.

  11. Institutional Control Policies and Implementation for the Area 5 and Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Vefa Yucel, Greg Shott, Denise Wieland, et al.

    2007-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) has implemented varying institutional control policies in performance assessment/composite analysis (PA/CA) calculations for the Area 5 and Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) (Shott et al., 1998; 2000; Bechtel Nevada [BN] and Neptune and Company Inc. [Neptune], 2006). The facilities are within the actively maintained boundaries of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that are enforced by NNSA/NSO. Under current policies, access required for exposure of the member of public (MOP) or the inadvertent human intruder (IHI) is prohibited. Uncertainties affecting institutional control policies are the duration and effectiveness of the controls during the post-closure period. Implementing a uniform set of institutional control policies for the RWMSs that encompasses waste management and environmental restoration programs and is consistent with the end-state vision for the environmental management programs for the NTS (DOE, 2006) is a primary goal of the maintenance program. The NNSA/NSO Performance Management Plan (DOE, 2002) complies with DOE Policy P455.1, 'Use of Risk-Based End States' (DOE, 2003a). Expected future land uses are a driver in selecting acceptable end state conditions and clean-up goals for the NTS. NNSA/NSO Environmental Management's (EM's) land management assumptions and framework for Environmental Management activities are as follows: The NTS will remain under federal control in perpetuity as an NNSA test site, and the large buffer zone surrounding the NTS (the Nevada Test and Training Range) is assumed to remain under the control of the U.S. Air Force. There are no plans for transfer of any NTS lands to other agencies or public entities. Access will continue to be restricted to the NTS and the surrounding areas. For management purposes, NNSA/NV EM activities have been established based on the source of contamination and type of waste

  12. Comparison between lead levels in dandelions grown in an ultra-clean lab environment (baseline) and those collected from the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojero, J.; Odigie, K. O.; Hibdon, S.; Flegal, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    This study is aimed at establishing the baseline (natural) levels of lead in dandelions (Taraxacum officinale) grown in an ultra-clean environment. Dandelions have been used extensively as biomonitors of environmental lead levels since their distribution is global and they can be easily collected. However, industrial lead contamination is so pervasive that even dandelions from the most remote areas in the world may be contaminated with industrial lead. Therefore, this work will test the hypothesis that "natural" lead levels in dandelions are lower than any previously published values - by growing them in a HEPA filtered air (Class 100) trace metal clean room with high purity (18 MΩ cm) water. Concentrations and isotopic compositions of lead in the clean-room grown dandelions will be compared to values in literature and to those of lead in dandelions collected from San Francisco Bay Area. Lead is a dense, ductile, and highly malleable metal that is found naturally in our environment. Due to its properties it is currently highly used in building construction, in ceramic glazes, lead chromate and in PVC plastic used to coat electrical cords. The uses of lead have included paint, leather tanning, and being used as an additive to gasoline prior to the mid 1970's, as well as others. Due to its many uses, humans are susceptible to lead regularly through various means of exposure from air, water and soil, often leading to lead toxicity.

  13. Climate change impacts on vegetation of the San Francisco Area: evaluating sensitivity of change across an ensemble of future climates (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerly, D.; Cornwell, W.; Weiss, S. B.; Branciforte, B.; Sandel, B.; Flint, L. E.; Flint, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is expected to profoundly impact terrestrial vegetation. We present a model of the projected impacts of climate change on the distribution of vegetation types in the San Francisco Bay Area using a novel application of multinomial logistic regression. Model projections are evaluated over a wide range of possible future climates, drawn from CMIP3 and CMIP5 ensembles. Evaluation of results across the entire ensemble of future climates provides the sensitivity of vegetation to changing climate, without having to choose specific future climate scenarios. Sensitivity is highly variable across the Bay Area. The single best predictor appears to be the location, in climate space, of each vegetation patch relative to the warm or dry edge of the corresponding climate envelope. It is critical to consider the equilibrium assumption underlying this, and related, modeling of vegetation impacts. The model projections are best interpreted as the long-term expected response to a particular degree of climate change, but they do not provide insight into how fast this equilibrium will be achieved or the transient states that may occur in response to rapid climate change. We combine model results with a literature survey of ecological mechanisms of vegetation change to better understand the challenges raised by disequilibrium dynamics.

  14. Applying geophysical techniques to investigate a segment of a creeping fault in the urban area of San Gregorio di Catania, southern flank of Mt. Etna (Sicily - Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imposa, S.; De Guidi, G.; Grassi, S.; Scudero, S.; Barreca, G.; Patti, G.; Boso, D.

    2015-12-01

    In an especially built-up area, such as the lower slopes of Etna volcano, the effects of surface faulting, caused by coseismic ruptures and aseismic creep, contribute significantly to increase the risk to towns and villages and their related infrastructure. This study aims to couple the geophysical and structural characteristics of an active fault zone, joining surficial and deep information, in the area of San Gregorio di Catania (Sicily - Italy). The occurrence of this structure and its associated fracture field were related to variations in the physical and mechanical properties of the hosting rocks. Surface structural survey detected a fracture zone with maximum width of 40 m, characterized with fractures oriented consistently with the kinematics of the fault. The geophysical surveys (ground penetrating radar, seismic tomography, and refraction microtremor), enabled to detect highly fractured rock volumes at variable depth whose occurrence has been linked to the presence of the fault at surface. The integration of various techniques, with different spatial resolution and depth range, allowed to fully reconstruct the 3D geological structure of the site down to about 15 m.

  15. Private mineral rights complicate the management of eastern wilderness areas

    SciTech Connect

    Bowsher, C.A.

    1984-07-26

    Since 1975, the Congress has expanded the National Wilderness Preservation System to areas of eastern national forest lands. Many of these eastern lands contain significant amounts of private mineral rights; as a result, the Department of Agriculture's Forest Service experienced management and legal problems in trying to preserve these lands and control private mineral development. In addition, recent attempts by the federal government to acquire private mineral rights in eastern wilderness areas have caused considerable controversy and Congressional debate because of the high costs associated with these purchases. These problems could increase because many other areas under consideration for wilderness designation in the east contain private mineral rights. GAO believes that consideration of private mineral rights is important in deciding whether other eastern lands should be designated as wilderness. However, the Forest Service did not provide information regarding private mineral rights and their potential acquisition costs when it submitted wilderness recommendations to the Congress in 1979. Therefore, GAO recommends that the Secretary of Agriculture direct the Forest Service to analyze the potential conflicts and costs associated with private mineral rights in potential wilderness areas and provide this data to the Congress. In addition, GAO believes that the Congress should consider providing further guidance to the Forest Service by specifying what action should be taken regarding private mineral rights in eastern wilderness areas.

  16. Air Pollution in the San Francisco Bay Area. Final Report of the Stanford Workshop on Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groth, Ned; And Others

    Presented in this compendium is the final report of the Stanford Workshop on Air Pollution, one segment of the SWOPSI Program (Stanford Workshops on Political and Social Issues). The workshop's goals were to apply the techniques of a scientific research team to Bay Area air pollution problems; to study all aspects of air pollution in detail; to…

  17. The Protected Areas Visitor Impact Management (PAVIM) framework: A simplified process for making management decisions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrell, T.A.; Marion, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Ecotourism and protected area visitation in Central and South America have resulted in ecological impacts, which some protected areas managers have addressed by employing visitor impact management frameworks. In this paper, we propose the Protected Area Visitor Impact Management (PAVIM) framework as an alternative to carrying capacity and other frameworks such as Limits of Acceptable Change. We use a set of evaluation criteria to compare the relative positive and negative attributes of carrying capacity, other decision-making frameworks and the new framework, within the context of their actual and potential use in Central and South America. Positive attributes of PAVIM include simplicity, flexibility, cost effectiveness, timeliness, and incorporating input from stakeholders and local residents. Negative attributes include diminished objectivity and cultural sensitivity issues. Further research and application of PAVIM are recommended.

  18. Mine waste management legislation. Gold mining areas in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maftei, Raluca-Mihaela; Filipciuc, Constantina; Tudor, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Problems in the post-mining regions of Eastern Europe range from degraded land and landscapes, huge insecure dumps, surface cracks, soil pollution, lowering groundwater table, deforestation, and damaged cultural potentials to socio economic problems like unemployment or population decline. There is no common prescription for tackling the development of post-mining regions after mine closure nor is there a common definition of good practices or policy in this field. Key words : waste management, legislation, EU Directive, post mining Rosia Montana is a common oh 16 villages; one of them is also called Rosia Montana, a traditional mining Community, located in the Apuseni Mountains in the North-Western Romania. Beneath part of the village area lays one of the largest gold and silver deposits in Europe. In the Rosia Montana area mining had begun ever since the height of the Roman Empire. While the modern approach to mining demands careful remediation of environmental impacts, historically disused mines in this region have been abandoned, leaving widespread environmental damage. General legislative framework Strict regulations and procedures govern modern mining activity, including mitigation of all environmental impacts. Precious metals exploitation is put under GO no. 190/2000 re-published in 2004. The institutional framework was established and organized based on specific regulations, being represented by the following bodies: • The Ministry of Economy and Commerce (MEC), a public institution which develops the Government policy in the mining area, also provides the management of the public property in the mineral resources area; • The National Agency for the development and implementation of the mining Regions Reconstruction Programs (NAD), responsible with promotion of social mitigation measures and actions; • The Office for Industry Privatization, within the Education Ministry, responsible with privatization of companies under the CEM; • The National

  19. Proposed 10-year plan for continuation of hydrologic studies of the Edwards Aquifer, San Antonio area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Land, Larry F.

    1984-01-01

    Some of the topics identified for special study include: (1) The potential of saline water entering the freshwater zone from the downdip boundary; (2) the possibility of water leaking into the aquifer from an overlying aquifer; (3) the effects of urbanization on ground-water quality in local areas; (4) the movement and dissipation of a recharge water plume; (5) the influx of water from the Glen Rose Formation; (6) the effects of the fault barriers, regional dense bed, and irregular geologic framework on ground-water flow patterns; (7) natural recharge-discharge relationships; (8) the aquifer stage-storage relationship; (9) natural water-quality evolution; and (10) a refinement of the hydrogeologic framework in a local area

  20. 75 FR 22836 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Resource Management Plan for the Eastern Washington and San Juan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ..., Riparian and Wetlands, Invasive and Noxious Weeds, Rangeland Management, Forest Management, Fire and Fuels..., Recreation, Visual Resource Management, Wilderness, Wild and Scenic Rivers, sociology, and economics....

  1. Nevada Test Site 2005 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Hudson, Cathy A. Wills

    2006-08-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2005 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (U.S. Department of Energy, 2005; Grossman, 2005; Bechtel Nevada, 2006). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure levels around the RWMSs are at or below background levels. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. There is no detectable man-made radioactivity by gamma spectroscopy, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits at the Area 3 RWMS. Measurements at the Area 5 RWMS show that radon flux from waste covers is no higher than natural radon flux from undisturbed soil in Area 5. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. Precipitation during 2005 totaled 219.1 millimeters (mm) (8.63 inches [in.]) at the Area 3 RWMS and 201.4 mm (7.93 in.) at the Area 5 RWMS. Soil-gas tritium monitoring continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Moisture from precipitation at Area 5 has percolated to the bottom of the bare-soil weighing lysimeter, but this same moisture has been removed from the vegetated weighing lysimeter by evapotranspiration. Vadose zone data from the operational waste pit covers show that precipitation from the fall of 2004 and the spring of 2005 infiltrated past the deepest sensors at 188 centimeters (6.2 feet) and remains in the pit cover

  2. 24 CFR 200.225 - Approvals by Area Managers for limited partners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approvals by Area Managers for limited partners. 200.225 Section 200.225 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... by Area Managers for limited partners. The Area Manager of the HUD Area Office where the...

  3. 11. Office of the Post Engineer, Presidio of San Francisco. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Office of the Post Engineer, Presidio of San Francisco. Location of Water Lines, Presidio of San Francisco. Sheet 31. November 1943. SHOWING EASTERN PORTION OF AREA A; BUILDINGS 274, 275, AND 277; AND POST ENGINEER'S SHOP AND YARDS INCLUDING BUILDINGS 280, 282-285, AND 288. - Presidio of San Francisco, Storehouse & Administration, Crissy Field North cantonment, Allen Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. Adaptive management of invasive pests in natural protected areas: the case of Matsucoccus feytaudi in Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Sciarretta, A; Marziali, L; Squarcini, M; Marianelli, L; Benassai, D; Logli, F; Roversi, P F

    2016-02-01

    Invasive species are a significant threat to affected ecosystems, having serious environmental, economic and social impacts. The maritime pine bast scale, Matsucoccus feytaudi Ducasse (Hemiptera: Matsucoccidae), causes serious damage to Pinus pinaster forests in SE France, Corsica and Italy where it has been introduced. This study illustrates the adaptive management plan implemented in the Migliarino, San Rossore, Massaciuccoli Regional Natural Park in Tuscany, Italy, where M. feytaudi arrived in 2004, leading to the decay of local P. pinaster stands. The management programme, aimed at slowing the establishment and growth of M. feytaudi, was carried out in the main sector of the park, Tenuta di San Rossore, to retard the destruction of the P. pinaster coastal strip protecting the more internal woodland from sea salt and to allow replacement of P. pinaster trees with a more stable broad-leaved wood. The combined use of mass trapping and silvicultural interventions, applied in a targeted manner according to distribution maps of pest captures and damage, helped to delay forest destruction compared with a nearby unmanaged area of the park Tenuta di Tombolo. Although M. feytaudi continued to spread during the management period, the populations remained at low levels for 6 years, showing a marked increase in 2012. During this period, the P. pinaster stands were reduced from 320 to 249 ha. The final result of this ongoing gradual conversion process will be transformation of the P. pinaster forest into Holm oak woods and Mediterranean shrub land, while P. pinaster will survive as clusters or blocks of trees. PMID:26521882

  5. Nevada Test Site 2000 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Yvonne Townsend

    2001-06-01

    Environmental monitoring data, subsidence monitoring data, and meteorology monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (refer to Figure 1). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels, whereas radon concentrations are not above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorology data indicate that 2000 was an average rainfall year: rainfall totaled 167 mm (6.6 in) at the Area 3 RWMS (annual average is 156 mm [6.5 in]) and 123 mm (4.8 in) at the Area 5 RWMS (annual average is 127 mm [5.0 in]). Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 2000 rainfall infiltrated less than one meter (3 ft) before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium monitoring data indicate slow subsurface migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were lower than in previous years. All 2000 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing well at isolating buried waste.

  6. Nevada Test Site 2001 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Y. E. Townsend

    2002-06-01

    Environmental monitoring data, subsidence monitoring data, and meteorology monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (refer to Figure 1). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada (BN) reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorology data indicate that 2001 was an average rainfall year: rainfall totaled 150 mm (5.9 in) at the Area 3 RWMS and 120 mm (4.7 in) at the Area 5 RWMS. Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 2001 rainfall infiltrated less than one meter (3 ft) before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium monitoring data indicate slow subsurface migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were lower than in previous years. All 2001 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing within expectations of the model and parameter assumptions for the facility performance assessments.

  7. Understanding the Effects of Climate and Water Management on Carbon and Energy Fluxes for Restored Wetlands in the Sacramento - San Joaquin Delta, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, F.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Von Dessonneck, T.; Keating, K.; Verfaillie, J. G.; Hatala, J.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Byrd, K. B.; Windham-Myers, L.; Detto, M.; Fujii, R.

    2011-12-01

    Our research efforts focus on the differences in carbon and energy fluxes due to the effects of water management on two 3.5-hectare restored wetlands on Twitchell Island in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Delta). These flux measurements are part of an ongoing, long-term study investigating management techniques to mitigate subsidence through atmospheric carbon sequestration and soil carbon storage. Wetlands were established in 1997, with the western wetland managed at a water depth of 25cm and the eastern wetland managed at a depth of 55cm. Over the past 14 years, the western pond has developed into a dense canopy of emergent marsh species with some floating vegetation. The eastern wetland is a combination of the same emergent marsh species and floating vegetation as the western wetland, but it also includes areas of open water, submerged vegetation, and algae. Carbon and energy flux measurements are collected using the eddy covariance method, comprised of a CSAT3 sonic anemometer, an open-path CO2/H2O infrared gas analyzer, and a closed-path tunable diode laser fast methane sensor. The Delta is a unique place as the temperate climate and clear summer skies are conducive for maximum daily CO2 uptake rates to be on the order of 30 μmol m-2 s-1 or higher. These elevated rates of CO2 uptake were measured in the eastern wetland during 2002 through 2004. However, in 2010, maximum CO2 uptake rates were only about 10 μmol m-2 s-1. We hypothesize that large mats of accumulating senescent material have slowed or stopped the growth of the emergent marsh species, which were not present during the measurements taken in 2002 through 2004. Additionally, we added CH4 flux measurements in 2010, and the anaerobic conditions created by permanent flooding resulted in rates of 250 nmol m-2 s-1 or higher. CH4 values are some of the highest observed compared to other Delta flux studies (rice, pasture, and natural wetlands), which yield measurements ranging from 10 - 100 nmol m-2 s-1

  8. Experiences and Perceptions of Medical Discrimination Among a Multiethnic Sample of Breast Cancer Patients in the Greater San Francisco Bay Area, California

    PubMed Central

    Nuru-Jeter, Amani; Morris, Pagan; Allen, Laura; Shema, Sarah J.; Winters, June K.; Gomez, Scarlett Lin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We conducted qualitative interviews with breast cancer survivors to identify themes related to institutional, personally mediated, and internalized discrimination in the medical setting. Methods. We conducted 7 focus groups and 23 one-on-one interviews with a multiethnic sample of breast cancer survivors randomly selected from a population-based registry covering the Greater San Francisco Bay Area, California. Results. Participants reported experiencing different forms of medical discrimination related to class, race, and language. Among African Americans, participants reported experiencing internalized discrimination and personal or group discrimination discrepancy—perceiving discrimination against them as a racial/ethnic group, yet not perceiving or discussing personal experiences of discrimination. Among Asian immigrants, participants reported experiencing institutional and personally mediated overt types of discrimination, including lack of access to quality and readily available translation services. Our results also indicated well-established coping mechanisms in response to discrimination experiences in both groups. Conclusions. Participants reported experiencing medical discrimination at all 3 levels, which may have deleterious health effects through the biopsychosocial stress pathway and through active coping mechanisms that could lead to delayed- or underutilization of the health care system to avoid discrimination. PMID:22420791

  9. Natural and Anthropogenic Factors Affecting Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities in Streams Across an Urban Gradient in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cover, M. R.; Taberski, K. M.; Moore, S. M.; Resh, V. H.

    2005-05-01

    The development of biological criteria for streams requires an understanding of how both natural environmental factors and human disturbance affect biological communities. We used biological metrics, species traits, and multivariate ordinations to assess the relative importance of natural and anthropogenic factors on stream benthic macroinvertebrate communities in the San Francisco Bay Area, California. Upstream watershed land use was the dominant factor affecting macroinvertebrate assemblages. Urban sites exhibited uniformly low richness and functional diversity, and were dominated by four taxa: Chironomidae, Baetis sp., Simulium sp., and Oligochaeta. In contrast, the majority of sites draining rural residential land uses were compositionally similar to minimally disturbed conditions, while sites draining agricultural lands reflected an intermediate level of disturbance. Flow intermittency was the most important natural factor affecting the composition of benthic assemblages. Taxa richness was significantly lower in minimally disturbed intermittent streams (32) than perennial streams (46), as a result of the near absence of taxa with aquatic adult life stages and long life cycles, other than the hellgrammite Neohermes filicornis that survives for months in the moist streambed. Although flow intermittency is a critical factor influencing stream communities in mediterranean climates, urban land use has a much greater effect on benthic assemblages.

  10. [Bacteriological quality and toxigenic Bacillus cereus detection in cooked white rice sold at the metropolitan area of San José, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Coto, Rodrigo; Chaves, Carolina; Gamboa, María del Mar; Arias, Maria Laura

    2012-09-01

    The wide use of rice is one of the factors that favors its implication in food borne diseases, and one of the most important pathogens associated to it is Bacillus cereus. The aim of this work was to evaluate the microbiological quality of 50 samples of white cooked rice sold in restaurants at the Metropolitan Area of San José, Costa Rica, including the determination of the total aerobic plate count, the Most Probable Number of total and fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli. MPN of Bacillus cereus and the detection of nheA, nheB and nHeC genes, associated to its toxicity, was also performed. Procedures described in the Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods were followed for the bacteriological analysis, multiplex PCR was used for the detection of genes following the methodology described by Hansen et al, 2001. 46% of the samples analysed were positive for total coliforms, 34% for fecal coliforms, 16% for E. coli and 10% for B. cereus, being 8% toxigenic. These facts suggest that white cooked rice may represent a risk for Pubic Health and that improvements shall be performed in order to offer a safe and high quality product to consumers. PMID:24617031

  11. Nevada Test Site 2009 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Radioactive Waste

    2010-06-23

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2009 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NTS. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. All gamma spectroscopy results for air particulates collected at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS were below the minimum detectable concentrations, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. Radon flux from waste covers is well below regulatory limits. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. The 87.6 millimeters (mm) (3.45 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2009 is 43 percent below the average of 152.4 mm (6.00 in.), and the 62.7 mm (2.47 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2009 is 49 percent below the average of 122.5 mm (4.82 in.). Soil-gas tritium monitoring at borehole GCD-05 continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward percolation of precipitation more effectively than evaporation

  12. Mine waste management legislation. Gold mining areas in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maftei, Raluca-Mihaela; Filipciuc, Constantina; Tudor, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Problems in the post-mining regions of Eastern Europe range from degraded land and landscapes, huge insecure dumps, surface cracks, soil pollution, lowering groundwater table, deforestation, and damaged cultural potentials to socio economic problems like unemployment or population decline. There is no common prescription for tackling the development of post-mining regions after mine closure nor is there a common definition of good practices or policy in this field. Key words : waste management, legislation, EU Directive, post mining Rosia Montana is a common oh 16 villages; one of them is also called Rosia Montana, a traditional mining Community, located in the Apuseni Mountains in the North-Western Romania. Beneath part of the village area lays one of the largest gold and silver deposits in Europe. In the Rosia Montana area mining had begun ever since the height of the Roman Empire. While the modern approach to mining demands careful remediation of environmental impacts, historically disused mines in this region have been abandoned, leaving widespread environmental damage. General legislative framework Strict regulations and procedures govern modern mining activity, including mitigation of all environmental impacts. Precious metals exploitation is put under GO no. 190/2000 re-published in 2004. The institutional framework was established and organized based on specific regulations, being represented by the following bodies: • The Ministry of Economy and Commerce (MEC), a public institution which develops the Government policy in the mining area, also provides the management of the public property in the mineral resources area; • The National Agency for the development and implementation of the mining Regions Reconstruction Programs (NAD), responsible with promotion of social mitigation measures and actions; • The Office for Industry Privatization, within the Education Ministry, responsible with privatization of companies under the CEM; • The National

  13. Evaluation of geohydrologic framework, recharge estimates and ground-water flow of the Joshua Tree area, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nishikawa, Tracy; Izbicki, John A.; Hevesi, Joseph A.; Stamos, Christina L.; Martin, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Ground water historically has been the sole source of water supply for the community of Joshua Tree in the Joshua Tree ground-water subbasin of the Morongo ground-water basin in the southern Mojave Desert. The Joshua Basin Water District (JBWD) supplies water to the community from the underlying Joshua Tree ground-water subbasin. The JBWD is concerned with the long-term sustainability of the underlying aquifer. To help meet future demands, the JBWD plans to construct production wells in the adjacent Copper Mountain ground-water subbasin. As growth continues in the desert, there may be a need to import water to supplement the available ground-water resources. In order to manage the ground-water resources and to identify future mitigating measures, a thorough understanding of the ground-water system is needed. The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) improve the understanding of the geohydrologic framework of the Joshua Tree and Copper Mountain ground-water subbasins, (2) determine the distribution and quantity of recharge using field and numerical techniques, and (3) develop a ground-water flow model that can be used to help manage the water resources of the region. The geohydrologic framework was refined by collecting and interpreting water-level and water-quality data, geologic and electric logs, and gravity data. The water-bearing deposits in the Joshua Tree and Copper Mountain ground-water subbasins are Quarternary alluvial deposits and Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic deposits. The Quarternary alluvial deposits were divided into two aquifers (referred to as the 'upper' and the 'middle' alluvial aquifers), which are about 600 feet (ft) thick, and the Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic deposits were assigned to a single aquifer (referred to as the 'lower' aquifer), which is as thick as 1,500 ft. The ground-water quality of the Joshua Tree and Copper Mountain ground-water subbasins was defined by collecting 53 ground-water samples from 15 wells (10 in the

  14. Nevada Test Site 2007 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-06-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2007 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2007a; 2008; Warren and Grossman, 2008). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are at background levels. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. A single gamma spectroscopy measurement for cesium was slightly above the minimum detectable concentration, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits at the Area 3 RWMS. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. Radon flux from waste covers is well below regulatory limits. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. The 136.8 millimeters (mm) (5.39 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2007 is 13 percent below the average of 158.1 mm (6.22 in.), and the 123.8 mm (4.87 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2007 is 6 percent below the average of 130.7 mm (5.15 in.). Soil-gas tritium monitoring at borehole GCD-05U continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward movement percolation of precipitation more effectively

  15. PREFERRED WATERFLOOD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR THE SPRABERRY TREND AREA

    SciTech Connect

    C. M. Sizemore; David S. Schechter

    2003-08-13

    This report describes the work performed during the second year of the project, ''Preferred Waterflood Management Practices for the Spraberry Trend Area''. The objective of this project is to significantly increase field-wide production in the Spraberry Trend in a short time frame through the application of preferred practices for managing and optimizing water injection. Our goal is to dispel negative attitudes and lack of confidence in water injection and to document the methodology and results for public dissemination to motivate waterflood expansion in the Spraberry Trend. To achieve this objective, in this period we concentrated our effort on characterization of Germania Unit using an analog field ET ODaniel unit and old cased hole neutron. Petrophysical Characterization of the Germania Spraberry units requires a unique approach for a number of reasons--limited core data, lack of modern log data and absence of directed studies within the unit. The need for characterization of the Germania unit has emerged as a first step in the review, understanding and enhancement of the production practices applicable within the unit and the trend area in general. In the absence or lack of the afore mentioned resources, an approach that will rely heavily on previous petrophysical work carried out in the neighboring ET O'Daniel unit (6.2 miles away), and normalization of the old log data prior to conventional interpretation techniques will be used. A log-based rock model has been able to guide successfully the prediction of pay and non-pay intervals within the ET O'Daniel unit, and will be useful if found applicable within the Germania unit. A novel multiple regression technique utilizing non-parametric transformations to achieve better correlations in predicting a dependent variable (permeability) from multiple independent variables (rock type, shale volume and porosity) will also be investigated in this study. A log data base includes digitized formats of Gamma Ray, Cased

  16. Has the San Gabriel fault been offset

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, J.R.

    1988-03-01

    The San Gabriel fault (SGF) in southern California is a right-lateral, strike-slip fault extending for 85 mi in an arcuate, southwestward-bowing curve from near the San Andreas fault at Frazier Mountain to its intersection with the left-lateral San Antonio Canyon fault (SACF) in the eastern San Gabriel Mountains. Termination of the SGF at the presently active SACF is abrupt and prompts the question Has the San Gabriel Fault been offset. Tectonic and geometric relationships in the area suggest that the SGF has been offset approximately 6 mi in a left-lateral sense and that the offset continuation of the SGF, across the SACF, is the right-lateral, strike-slip San Jacinto fault (SJF), which also terminates at the SACF. Reversing the left-lateral movement on the SACF to rejoin the offset ends of the SGF and SJF reveals a fault trace that is remarkably similar in geometry and movement (and perhaps in tectonic history), to the trace of the San Andreas fault through the southern part of the San Bernardino Mountains. The relationship of the Sierra Madre-Cucamonga fault system to the restored SGF-SJF fault is strikingly similar to the relationship of the Banning fault to the Mission Creek-Mill Creek portion of the San Andreas fault. Structural relations suggest that the San Gabriel-San Jacinto system predates the San Andreas fault in the eastern San Gabriel Mountains and that continuing movement on the SACF is currently affecting the trace of the San Andreas fault in the Cajon Pass area.

  17. Hydrologic Conditions and Quality of Rainfall and Storm Runoff in Agricultural and Rangeland Areas in San Patricio County, Texas, 2000-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2002-01-01

    During 2000?2001, rainfall and runoff were monitored in one mixed agricultural watershed and two rangeland watersheds in San Patricio County, located in the Coastal Bend area of South Texas. During this period, five rainfall samples were collected and analyzed for selected nutrients. Ten runoff samples from nine runoff events were collected at the three watershed monitoring stations. Runoff samples were analyzed for selected nutrients, major ions, trace elements, pesticides, and bacteria. Study area rainfall during 2000 and 2001 was 33.27 and 28.20 inches, respectively, less than the long-term average annual of 36.31 inches. Total runoff from the study area watersheds during 2000?2001 was 2.46 inches; the regional average is about 2 inches per year. Rainfall and runoff during the study period was typical of historical patterns, with periods of below average rainfall interspersed with extreme events. Three individual storm events accounted for about 29 percent of the total rainfall and 86 percent of the total runoff during 2000?2001. Runoff concentrations of nutrients, major ions, and trace elements generally were larger in the mixed agricultural watershed than runoff concentrations in the rangeland watersheds. Pesticides were detected in two of eight runoff samples. Three pesticides (atrazine, deethylatrazine, and trifluralin) were detected in very small concentrations; only deethylatrazine was detected in a concentration greater than the laboratory minimum reporting level. Bacteria in agricultural and rangeland runoff is a potential water-quality concern as all fecal coliform and E. coli densities in the runoff samples exceeded Texas Surface Water Quality Standards for receiving waters. However, runoff and relatively large bacteria densities represent very brief and infrequent conditions, and the effect on downstream water is not known. Rainfall deposition is a major source of nitrogen delivered to the study area. Rainfall nitrogen (mostly ammonia and nitrate

  18. Nevada National Security Site 2013 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, D. B.

    2014-08-19

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) within the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2013 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2013; 2014a; 2014b). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are close to detection limits and background levels. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below Derived Concentration Standards for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. Leachate samples collected from the leachate collection system at the mixed low-level waste cell were below established contaminant regulatory limits. The 105.8 millimeters (mm) (4.17 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2013 is 30% below the average of 150.3 mm (5.92 in.), and the 117.5 mm (4.63 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2013 is 5% below the average of 123.6 mm (4.86 in.). Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents

  19. Nevada National Security Site 2012 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, David B.

    2013-09-10

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2012 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2012; 2013a; 2013b). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are only slightly above detection limits and background levels. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below Derived Concentration Standards for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. Leachate samples collected from the leachate collection system at the mixed low-level waste cell were below established contaminant regulatory limits. The 133.9 millimeters (mm) (5.27 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2012 is 12% below the average of 153.0 mm (6.02 in.), and the 137.6 mm (5.42 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2012 is 11% below the average of 122.4 mm (4.82 in.). Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents

  20. Nevada National Security Site 2011 Waste Management Monitoring Report, Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2012-07-31

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2011 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are only slightly above detection limits and background levels. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. During the last 2 weeks of March 2011, gamma spectroscopy results for air particles showed measurable activities of iodine-131 (131I), cesium-134 (134Cs), and cesium-137 (137Cs). These results are attributed to the release of fission products from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi power plant in Japan. The remaining gamma spectroscopy results for air particulates collected at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS were below minimum detectable concentrations. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. The 86.3 millimeters (mm) (3.40 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2011 is 44% below the average of 154.1 mm (6.07 in.), and the 64.8 mm