Science.gov

Sample records for management insights study

  1. Essential activities and knowledge domains of case management: new insights from the CCMC role and functions study.

    PubMed

    Tahan, Hussein

    2006-01-01

    The Commission for Case Manager Certification (CCMC) defines case management (CM) as "a collaborative process that assesses, plans, implements, coordinates, monitors, and evaluates the options and services required to meet an individual's health needs. [Case management] uses communication and available resources to promote quality, cost-effective outcomes." The practice of CM spans the entire health-care spectrum, including pre-acute, acute, and post-acute settings, and the involvement of varied care providers, such as nurses, social workers, rehabilitation counselors, physicians, and other allied health professionals. So what does it mean to practice as a case manager? What roles and job functions are performed and what knowledge is required of a professional in the field for effective practice? These highly relevant questions reflect the thinking of the CCMC commissioners when the latest Case Manager Role and Functions study was undertaken. The primary purpose of this research, which is conducted every 5 years by the CCMC, is to capture the current state of CM practice. This type of in-depth research is required to support an evidence-based certification examination such as the one offered by CCMC-the certified case manager (CCM) credential. Moreover, as the first and largest nationally accredited organization to certify US case managers, the CCMC recognizes its responsibility to undertake and promote scientifically conducted research in the field of CM. PMID:16720258

  2. Managing Organizational Commitment: Insights from Longitudinal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Paula C.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes what is known about the "active" management of affective organizational commitment (AOC) through a review of 58 studies employing longitudinal research designs. The review yields six broad categories of antecedents that have empirically demonstrated effects on AOC: socialization practices, organizational changes, human…

  3. Insight: An ontology-based integrated database and analysis platform for epilepsy self-management research.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Satya S; Ramesh, Priya; Welter, Elisabeth; Bukach, Ashley; Valdez, Joshua; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Bamps, Yvan; Stoll, Shelley; Jobst, Barbara C; Sajatovic, Martha

    2016-10-01

    We present Insight as an integrated database and analysis platform for epilepsy self-management research as part of the national Managing Epilepsy Well Network. Insight is the only available informatics platform for accessing and analyzing integrated data from multiple epilepsy self-management research studies with several new data management features and user-friendly functionalities. The features of Insight include, (1) use of Common Data Elements defined by members of the research community and an epilepsy domain ontology for data integration and querying, (2) visualization tools to support real time exploration of data distribution across research studies, and (3) an interactive visual query interface for provenance-enabled research cohort identification. The Insight platform contains data from five completed epilepsy self-management research studies covering various categories of data, including depression, quality of life, seizure frequency, and socioeconomic information. The data represents over 400 participants with 7552 data points. The Insight data exploration and cohort identification query interface has been developed using Ruby on Rails Web technology and open source Web Ontology Language Application Programming Interface to support ontology-based reasoning. We have developed an efficient ontology management module that automatically updates the ontology mappings each time a new version of the Epilepsy and Seizure Ontology is released. The Insight platform features a Role-based Access Control module to authenticate and effectively manage user access to different research studies. User access to Insight is managed by the Managing Epilepsy Well Network database steering committee consisting of representatives of all current collaborating centers of the Managing Epilepsy Well Network. New research studies are being continuously added to the Insight database and the size as well as the unique coverage of the dataset allows investigators to conduct

  4. Scientific Insights for Managing Droughts in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, J. R.; Medellin-Azuara, J.; Howitt, R. E.; MacEwan, D.; Sumner, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Droughts stress water systems and provide important opportunities to learn about vulnerabilities and motivate improvements in water systems. Current and past droughts in California show that this highly-engineered system is highly robust and resilient to droughts, as agriculture and urban water needs are mostly fulfilled and recover quickly following drought. However, environmental systems remain highly vulnerable and have shown less resilience to drought, with each drought bringing additional native species closer to extinction, often with little recovery following the drought. This paper reviews the impacts of California's ongoing 4-year drought and its importance for better understanding its ecological and water supply systems, as well as motivating improvements in water management and scientific work.

  5. Humanistic Insights into Managing Diversity: The Humanities/Management Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahr, Michael A.

    Global managers of the l990s and beyond must have definitive impacts on their work environments. Among the skills they need to possess are the abilities to adapt to new and fast-changing situations and to interact with people who view the business world from varied perspectives. A humanities/management partnership offers a viable and effective…

  6. Perioperative leadership: managing change with insights, priorities, and tools.

    PubMed

    Taylor, David L

    2014-07-01

    The personal leadership of the perioperative director is a critical factor in the success of any change management initiative. This article presents an approach to perioperative nursing leadership that addresses obstacles that prevent surgical departments from achieving high performance in clinical and financial outcomes. This leadership approach consists of specific insights, priorities, and tools: key insights include self-understanding of personal barriers to leadership and accuracy at understanding economic and strategic considerations related to the OR environment; key priorities include creating a customer-centered organization, focusing on process improvement, and concentrating on culture change; and key tools include using techniques (e.g., direct engagement, collaborative leadership) to align surgical organizations with leadership priorities and mitigate specific perioperative management risks. Included in this article is a leadership development plan for perioperative directors. PMID:24973182

  7. Insights into Population Health Management Through Disease Diagnoses Networks

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Keith; Stiglic, Gregor; Dasgupta, Dipanwita; Kricheff, Mark; Obradovic, Zoran; Chawla, Nitesh V.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing availability of electronic health care records has provided remarkable progress in the field of population health. In particular the identification of disease risk factors has flourished under the surge of available data. Researchers can now access patient data across a broad range of demographics and geographic locations. Utilizing this Big healthcare data researchers have been able to empirically identify specific high-risk conditions found within differing populations. However to date the majority of studies approached the issue from the top down, focusing on the prevalence of specific diseases within a population. Through our work we demonstrate the power of addressing this issue bottom-up by identifying specifically which diseases are higher-risk for a specific population. In this work we demonstrate that network-based analysis can present a foundation to identify pairs of diagnoses that differentiate across population segments. We provide a case study highlighting differences between high and low income individuals in the United States. This work is particularly valuable when addressing population health management within resource-constrained environments such as community health programs where it can be used to provide insight and resource planning into targeted care for the population served. PMID:27461860

  8. Insights into Population Health Management Through Disease Diagnoses Networks.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Keith; Stiglic, Gregor; Dasgupta, Dipanwita; Kricheff, Mark; Obradovic, Zoran; Chawla, Nitesh V

    2016-01-01

    The increasing availability of electronic health care records has provided remarkable progress in the field of population health. In particular the identification of disease risk factors has flourished under the surge of available data. Researchers can now access patient data across a broad range of demographics and geographic locations. Utilizing this Big healthcare data researchers have been able to empirically identify specific high-risk conditions found within differing populations. However to date the majority of studies approached the issue from the top down, focusing on the prevalence of specific diseases within a population. Through our work we demonstrate the power of addressing this issue bottom-up by identifying specifically which diseases are higher-risk for a specific population. In this work we demonstrate that network-based analysis can present a foundation to identify pairs of diagnoses that differentiate across population segments. We provide a case study highlighting differences between high and low income individuals in the United States. This work is particularly valuable when addressing population health management within resource-constrained environments such as community health programs where it can be used to provide insight and resource planning into targeted care for the population served. PMID:27461860

  9. Managing Water Resources for Drought: Insights from California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medellin-Azuara, Josue; Lund, Jay

    2016-04-01

    Droughts bring great opportunities to better understand and improve water systems. California's economic powerhouse relies on highly engineered water systems to fulfill large and growing urban and agricultural water demands. Current and past droughts show these systems are highly robust and resilient to droughts, as they recover promptly. However, environmental systems remain highly vulnerable and have shown less resilience to drought, with each drought bringing additional native species closer to extinction, often with little recovery following the drought. This paper provides an overview of the economic and ecosystem impacts of the recent multi-year drought in California in the context of a global economy. We explore the potential of water markets, groundwater management and use of remote sensing technology to improve understanding of adaptation to drought. Insights for future management of water resources and scientific work are discussed.

  10. Insights into enzymatic halogenation from computational studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senn, Hans

    2014-11-01

    The halogenases are a group of enzymes that have only come to the fore over the last ten years thanks to the discovery and characterization of several of novel representatives. They have re-vealed the fascinating variety of distinct chemical mechanisms that nature utilizes to activate and introduce halogens into organic substrates. Computational studies using a range of approaches have already elucidated many details of the mechanisms of these enzymes, often in synergistic combination with experiment. This Review summarizes the main insights gained from these stud-ies. It also seeks to identify open questions that are amenable to computational investigations. The studies discussed herein also serve to illustrate some of the limitations of the current computa-tional approaches and the challenges encountered in computational mechanistic enzymology.

  11. Insights into enzymatic halogenation from computational studies

    PubMed Central

    Senn, Hans M.

    2014-01-01

    The halogenases are a group of enzymes that have only come to the fore over the last 10 years thanks to the discovery and characterization of several novel representatives. They have revealed the fascinating variety of distinct chemical mechanisms that nature utilizes to activate halogens and introduce them into organic substrates. Computational studies using a range of approaches have already elucidated many details of the mechanisms of these enzymes, often in synergistic combination with experiment. This Review summarizes the main insights gained from these studies. It also seeks to identify open questions that are amenable to computational investigations. The studies discussed herein serve to illustrate some of the limitations of the current computational approaches and the challenges encountered in computational mechanistic enzymology. PMID:25426489

  12. How to maximally support local and regional biodiversity in applied conservation? Insights from pond management.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, Pieter; Mergeay, Joachim; De Bie, Tom; Van Wichelen, Jeroen; De Meester, Luc; Declerck, Steven A J

    2013-01-01

    Biodiversity and nature values in anthropogenic landscapes often depend on land use practices and management. Evaluations of the association between management and biodiversity remain, however, comparatively scarce, especially in aquatic systems. Furthermore, studies also tend to focus on a limited set of organism groups at the local scale, whereas a multi-group approach at the landscape scale is to be preferred. This study aims to investigate the effect of pond management on the diversity of multiple aquatic organism groups (e.g. phytoplankton, zooplankton, several groups of macro-invertebrates, submerged and emergent macrophytes) at local and regional spatial scales. For this purpose, we performed a field study of 39 shallow man-made ponds representing five different management types. Our results indicate that fish stock management and periodic pond drainage are crucial drivers of pond biodiversity. Furthermore, this study provides insight in how the management of eutrophied ponds can contribute to aquatic biodiversity. A combination of regular draining of ponds with efforts to keep ponds free of fish seems to be highly beneficial for the biodiversity of many groups of aquatic organisms at local and regional scales. Regular draining combined with a stocking of fish at low biomass is also preferable to infrequent draining and lack of fish stock control. These insights are essential for the development of conservation programs that aim long-term maintenance of regional biodiversity in pond areas across Europe. PMID:23951328

  13. How to Maximally Support Local and Regional Biodiversity in Applied Conservation? Insights from Pond Management

    PubMed Central

    Lemmens, Pieter; Mergeay, Joachim; De Bie, Tom; Van Wichelen, Jeroen; De Meester, Luc; Declerck, Steven A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Biodiversity and nature values in anthropogenic landscapes often depend on land use practices and management. Evaluations of the association between management and biodiversity remain, however, comparatively scarce, especially in aquatic systems. Furthermore, studies also tend to focus on a limited set of organism groups at the local scale, whereas a multi-group approach at the landscape scale is to be preferred. This study aims to investigate the effect of pond management on the diversity of multiple aquatic organism groups (e.g. phytoplankton, zooplankton, several groups of macro-invertebrates, submerged and emergent macrophytes) at local and regional spatial scales. For this purpose, we performed a field study of 39 shallow man-made ponds representing five different management types. Our results indicate that fish stock management and periodic pond drainage are crucial drivers of pond biodiversity. Furthermore, this study provides insight in how the management of eutrophied ponds can contribute to aquatic biodiversity. A combination of regular draining of ponds with efforts to keep ponds free of fish seems to be highly beneficial for the biodiversity of many groups of aquatic organisms at local and regional scales. Regular draining combined with a stocking of fish at low biomass is also preferable to infrequent draining and lack of fish stock control. These insights are essential for the development of conservation programs that aim long-term maintenance of regional biodiversity in pond areas across Europe. PMID:23951328

  14. Towards risk-based management of critical infrastructures : enabling insights and analysis methodologies from a focused study of the bulk power grid.

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Bryan T.; LaViolette, Randall A.; Cook, Benjamin Koger

    2008-02-01

    This report summarizes research on a holistic analysis framework to assess and manage risks in complex infrastructures, with a specific focus on the bulk electric power grid (grid). A comprehensive model of the grid is described that can approximate the coupled dynamics of its physical, control, and market components. New realism is achieved in a power simulator extended to include relevant control features such as relays. The simulator was applied to understand failure mechanisms in the grid. Results suggest that the implementation of simple controls might significantly alter the distribution of cascade failures in power systems. The absence of cascade failures in our results raises questions about the underlying failure mechanisms responsible for widespread outages, and specifically whether these outages are due to a system effect or large-scale component degradation. Finally, a new agent-based market model for bilateral trades in the short-term bulk power market is presented and compared against industry observations.

  15. Supply Chain Development: Insights from Strategic Niche Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caniels, Marjolein C. J.; Romijn, Henny A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the study of supply chain design from the perspective of complex dynamic systems. Unlike extant studies that use formal simulation modelling and associated methodologies rooted in the physical sciences, it adopts a framework rooted in the social sciences, strategic niche management, which…

  16. Insights into the clinical management of the syndrome of supine hypertension – orthostatic hypotension (SH-OH): The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Our previously proposed morphological classification of orthostatic hypotension (MOH) is an approach to the definition of three typical orthostatic hemodynamic patterns using non-invasive beat-to-beat monitoring. In particular, the MOH pattern of large drop/non-recovery (MOH-3) resembles the syndrome of supine hypertension–orthostatic hypotension (SH-OH), which is a treatment challenge for clinicians. The aim of this study was to characterise MOH-3 in the first wave of The Irish Longitudinal Study of Ageing (TILDA), with particular attention to concurrent symptoms of orthostatic intolerance (OI), prescribed medications and association with history of faints and blackouts. Methods The study included all TILDA wave 1 participants who had a Finometer® active stand. Automatic data signal checks were carried out to ensure that active stand data were of sufficient quality. Characterisation variables included demographics, cardiovascular and neurological medications (WHO-ATC), and self-reported information on comorbidities and disability. Multivariable statistics consisted of logistic regression models. Results Of the 4,467 cases, 1,456 (33%) were assigned to MOH-1 (small drop, overshoot), 2,230 (50%) to MOH-2 (medium drop, slower but full recovery), and 781 (18%) to MOH-3 (large drop, non-recovery). In the logistic regression model to predict MOH-3, statistically significant factors included being on antidepressants (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.50 – 2.64, P < 0.001) and beta blockers (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.26 – 2.04, P < 0.001). MOH-3 was an independent predictor of OI after full adjustment (OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.25 – 1.73, P < 0.001), together with being on hypnotics or sedatives (OR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.31 – 2.54, P < 0.001). In addition, OI was an independent predictor of history of falls/blackouts after full adjustment (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.09 – 1.48, P = 0.003). Conclusions Antidepressants and beta blockers were independently associated with MOH-3, and

  17. Insights to integrated river management from a geomorphological viewpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Liu, Da

    2016-04-01

    In the context of increasing magnitude and frequency of extreme hydrologic events, eco-hydraulic engineers have a dual role of providing novel designs that both help stabilise river systems, as well as help effectively route floodwater safely downstream, though the catchment. One of such soft and green measures commonly used in engineering to protect channel banks and floodplains, is riverbank vegetation. Riverbank vegetation can be of high importance both in preserving the form (morphology) and function (ecology) of our natural as well as engineered river systems. Here the results of an experimental flume study, investigating riverbank hydrodynamics are presented. The effect of different riverbank vegetation densities on flow hydrodynamics across the channel are reported and discussed. Flow diagnostics including mean and turbulent intensity flow profiles along the streamwise and lateral directions, are being assessed via acoustic Doppler velocimetry (ADV) both at the main channel and within the riverbank. The configuration of vegetation elements follows a linear or staggered arrangement as vegetation density is progressively increased. Implications for sediment transport are discussed by considering the change in near-bed shear stresses at the main channel (increasing) and riverbank (decreasing) as the riverbank density increases. As such processes have the potential to affect both the form and function of the river system, the insights from this study are of significant importance to geomorphologists and hydraulic engineers, as well as ecologists.

  18. Outage management: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, S.B.; Barriere, M.T. ); Roberts, K.H. . Walter A. Haas School of Business)

    1992-01-01

    Outage management issues identified from a field study conducted at a two-unit commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), when one unit was in a refueling outage and the other unit was at full power operation, are the focus of this paper. The study was conduced as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) organizational factors research program, and therefore the issues to be addressed are from an organizational perspective. Topics discussed refer to areas identified by the NRC as critical for safety during shutdown operations, including outage planning and control, personnel stress, and improvements in training and procedures. Specifically, issues in communication, management attention, involvement and oversight, administrative processes, organizational culture, and human resources relevant to each of the areas are highlighted by example from field data collection. Insights regarding future guidance in these areas are presented based upon additional data collection subsequent to the original study.

  19. Outage management: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, S.B.; Barriere, M.T.; Roberts, K.H.

    1992-09-01

    Outage management issues identified from a field study conducted at a two-unit commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), when one unit was in a refueling outage and the other unit was at full power operation, are the focus of this paper. The study was conduced as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) organizational factors research program, and therefore the issues to be addressed are from an organizational perspective. Topics discussed refer to areas identified by the NRC as critical for safety during shutdown operations, including outage planning and control, personnel stress, and improvements in training and procedures. Specifically, issues in communication, management attention, involvement and oversight, administrative processes, organizational culture, and human resources relevant to each of the areas are highlighted by example from field data collection. Insights regarding future guidance in these areas are presented based upon additional data collection subsequent to the original study.

  20. The Singapore Field Epidemiology Service: Insights Into Outbreak Management

    PubMed Central

    Seetoh, Theresa; Cutter, Jeffery

    2012-01-01

    Field epidemiology involves the implementation of quick and targeted public health interventions with the aid of epidemiological methods. In this article, we share our practical experiences in outbreak management and in safeguarding the population against novel diseases. Given that cities represent the financial nexuses of the global economy, global health security necessitates the safeguard of cities against epidemic diseases. Singapore's public health landscape has undergone a systemic and irreversible shift with global connectivity, rapid urbanization, ecological change, increased affluence, as well as shifting demographic patterns over the past two decades. Concomitantly, the threat of epidemics, ranging from severe acute respiratory syndrome and influenza A (H1N1) to the resurgence of vector-borne diseases as well as the rise of modern lifestyle-related outbreaks, have worsened difficulties in safeguarding public health amidst much elusiveness and unpredictability. One critical factor that has helped the country overcome these innate and man-made public health vulnerabilities is the development of a resilient field epidemiology service, which includes our enhancement of surveillance and response capacities for outbreak management, and investment in public health leadership. We offer herein the Singapore story as a case study in meeting the challenges of disease control in our modern built environment. PMID:23091652

  1. Insights into managed care--operational, legal and actuarial.

    PubMed

    Melek, S P; Johnson, B A; Schryver, D

    1997-01-01

    Understanding the operational, legal and actuarial dimensions of managed care is essential to developing managed care contracts between managed care organizations and individual health care providers or groups such as provider-sponsored organizations or independent practice associations. Operationally, it is important to understand managed care and its trends, emphasizing business issues, knowing your practice and defining acceptable levels of reimbursement and risk. Legally, there are a number of common themes or issues relevant to all managed care contracts, including primary care vs. specialist contracts, services offered, program policies and procedures, utilization review, physician reimbursement and compensation, payment schedule, terms and conditions, term and termination, continuation of care requirements, indemnification, amendment of contract and program policies, and stop-loss insurance. Actuarial issues include membership, geography, age-gender distribution, degree of health care management, local managed care utilization levels, historical utilization levels, health plan benefit design, among others. PMID:10165777

  2. Culturally Relevant Management Education: Insights from Experience in Nunavut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wihak, Christine

    2005-01-01

    The author's experience with a Nunavut business management education program illustrates how to develop culturally relevant organizational behavior curriculum. The process initially involved interviews with Inuit Elders about culturally appropriate responses to scenarios of cultural conflicts in the workplace identified by Inuit managers. The…

  3. Intestinal Lymphangiectasia: Insights on Management and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Alshikho, Mohamad J.; Talas, Joud M.; Noureldine, Salem I.; Zazou, Saf; Addas, Aladdin; Kurabi, Haitham; Nasser, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    investigations showed that the patient had IL. Suitable diet modification plans were applied as a long-term management plan. Conclusions: IL is a rare disease of challenging nature due to its systematic effects and lack of comprehensive studies that can evaluate the effectiveness of specific treatments in a large cohort of patients. Medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oils and diet modification strategies are effective in reducing the loss of body proteins and in maintaining near-normal blood levels of immunoglobulins. However, octreotide and MCT oils had no proven role in reducing lymphedema in our patient. PMID:27440277

  4. Intestinal Lymphangiectasia: Insights on Management and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Alshikho, Mohamad J; Talas, Joud M; Noureldine, Salem I; Zazou, Saf; Addas, Aladdin; Kurabi, Haitham; Nasser, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL) is a rare disease characterized by a dilatation of the intestinal lymphatics and loss of lymph fluid into the gastrointestinal tract leading to hypoproteinemia, edema, lymphocytopenia, hypogammaglobinemia, and immunological abnormalities. Iron, calcium, and other serum components (e.g., lipids, fat soluble vitamins) may also be depleted. A literature search revealed more than 200 reported cases of IL. Herein, we report our observations of a patient diagnosed with IL; we also present our conclusion for our review of the published literature. CASE REPORT A 24-year-old male was admitted to Aleppo University Hospital with the complaints of abdominal pain, headache, arthralgia, fever, and rigors. His past medical history was remarkable for frequent episodes of diarrhea, recurrent infections, and swelling in the lower limbs. In addition, he had been hospitalized several times in non-academic hospitals due to edema in his legs, cellulitis, and recurrent infections. In the emergency department, a physical examination revealed a patient in distress. He was weak, dehydrated, pale, and had a high-grade fever. His lower extremities were edematous, swollen, and extremely tender to touch. The overlying skin was erythematous and warm. Moreover, the patient was tachycardic, tacypneic, and moderately hypotensive. The patient was resuscitated with IV fluids, and Tylenol was administered to bring the temperature down. Blood tests showed anemia and high levels of inflammatory markers. The patient's white blood cell count was elevated with an obvious left shift. However, subsequent investigations showed that the patient had IL. Suitable diet modification plans were applied as a long-term management plan. CONCLUSIONS IL is a rare disease of challenging nature due to its systematic effects and lack of comprehensive studies that can evaluate the effectiveness of specific treatments in a large cohort of patients. MCT (medium-chain triglyceride

  5. Acquiring synaesthesia: insights from training studies

    PubMed Central

    Rothen, Nicolas; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Synaesthesia denotes a condition of remarkable individual differences in experience characterized by specific additional experiences in response to normal sensory input. Synaesthesia seems to (i) run in families which suggests a genetic component, (ii) is associated with marked structural and functional neural differences, and (iii) is usually reported to exist from early childhood. Hence, synaesthesia is generally regarded as a congenital phenomenon. However, most synaesthetic experiences are triggered by cultural artifacts (e.g., letters, musical sounds). Evidence exists to suggest that synaesthetic experiences are triggered by the conceptual representation of their inducer stimuli. Cases were identified for which the specific synaesthetic associations are related to prior experiences and large scale studies show that grapheme-color associations in synaesthesia are not completely random. Hence, a learning component is inherently involved in the development of specific synaesthetic associations. Researchers have hypothesized that associative learning is the critical mechanism. Recently, it has become of scientific and public interest if synaesthetic experiences may be acquired by means of associative training procedures and whether the gains of these trainings are associated with similar cognitive benefits as genuine synaesthetic experiences. In order to shed light on these issues and inform synaesthesia researchers and the general interested public alike, we provide a comprehensive literature review on developmental aspects of synaesthesia and specific training procedures in non-synaesthetes. Under the light of a clear working definition of synaesthesia, we come to the conclusion that synaesthesia can potentially be learned by the appropriate training. PMID:24624072

  6. Age to age: insight into managing a multigenerational staff.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Kay B

    2007-01-01

    Diversity in age and culture-medical practices and healthcare entities mirror the business world in the diversity of culture and age groups among their employees and patients. Differences create challenges, but with understanding and skillful communication, distinctions become opportunities for growth and excellence. The concept we are exploring is that as a generation we are who we are because of what was going on in our world during our formative years. We find that just naming ourselves aspart ofa group is a good starting point. The objective of this article is to identify characteristics of various age groups and to present ways to promote harmony and to maximize performance through practical management techniques. The goal is to better understand ourselves and each other so that our work is more productive and rewarding. PMID:17494481

  7. Strongyloidiasis—An Insight into Its Global Prevalence and Management

    PubMed Central

    Puthiyakunnon, Santhosh; Boddu, Swapna; Li, Yiji; Zhou, Xiaohong; Wang, Chunmei; Li, Juan; Chen, Xiaoguang

    2014-01-01

    Background Strongyloides stercoralis, an intestinal parasitic nematode, infects more than 100 million people worldwide. Strongyloides are unique in their ability to exist as a free-living and autoinfective cycle. Strongyloidiasis can occur without any symptoms or as a potentially fatal hyperinfection or disseminated infection. The most common risk factors for these complications are immunosuppression caused by corticosteroids and infection with human T-lymphotropic virus or human immunodeficiency virus. Even though the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis is improved by advanced instrumentation techniques in isolated and complicated cases of hyperinfection or dissemination, efficient guidelines for screening the population in epidemiological surveys are lacking. Methodology and Results In this review, we have discussed various conventional methods for the diagnosis and management of this disease, with an emphasis on recently developed molecular and serological methods that could be implemented to establish guidelines for precise diagnosis of infection in patients and screening in epidemiological surveys. A comprehensive analysis of various cases reported worldwide from different endemic and nonendemic foci of the disease for the last 40 years was evaluated in an effort to delineate the global prevalence of this disease. We also updated the current knowledge of the various clinical spectrum of this parasitic disease, with an emphasis on newer molecular diagnostic methods, treatment, and management of cases in immunosuppressed patients. Conclusion Strongyloidiasis is considered a neglected tropical disease and is probably an underdiagnosed parasitic disease due to its low parasitic load and uncertain clinical symptoms. Increased infectivity rates in many developed countries and nonendemic regions nearing those in the most prevalent endemic regions of this parasite and the increasing transmission potential to immigrants, travelers, and immunosuppressed populations are

  8. Domain Visualization Using VxInsight[R] for Science and Technology Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyack, Kevin W.; Wylie, Brian N.; Davidson, George S.

    2002-01-01

    Presents the application of a knowledge visualization tool, VxInsight[R], to enable domain analysis for science and technology management. Uses data mining from sources of bibliographic information to define subsets of relevant information and discusses citation mapping, text mapping, and journal mapping. (Author/LRW)

  9. Managing Dog Waste: Campaign Insights from the Health Belief Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Typhina, Eli; Yan, Changmin

    2014-01-01

    Aiming to help municipalities develop effective education and outreach campaigns to reduce stormwater pollutants, such as pet waste, this study applied the Health Belief Model (HBM) to identify perceptions of dog waste and corresponding collection behaviors from dog owners living in a small U.S. city. Results of 455 online survey responses…

  10. Abnormal Bleeding During Menopause Hormone Therapy: Insights for Clinical Management

    PubMed Central

    de Medeiros, Sebastião Freitas; Yamamoto, Márcia Marly Winck; Barbosa, Jacklyne Silva

    2013-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to review the involved mechanisms and propose actions for controlling/treating abnormal uterine bleeding during climacteric hormone therapy. Methods A systemic search of the databases SciELO, MEDLINE, and Pubmed was performed for identifying relevant publications on normal endometrial bleeding, abnormal uterine bleeding, and hormone therapy bleeding. Results Before starting hormone therapy, it is essential to exclude any abnormal organic condition, identify women at higher risk for bleeding, and adapt the regimen to suit eachwoman’s characteristics. Abnormal bleeding with progesterone/progestogen only, combined sequential, or combined continuous regimens may be corrected by changing the progestogen, adjusting the progestogen or estrogen/progestogen doses, or even switching the initial regimen to other formulation. Conclusion To diminish the occurrence of abnormal bleeding during hormone therapy (HT), it is important to tailor the regimen to the needs of individual women and identify those with higher risk of bleeding. The use of new agents as adjuvant therapies for decreasing abnormal bleeding in women on HT awaits future studies. PMID:24665210

  11. Novel insights on nutrient management of sarcopenia in elderly.

    PubMed

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Faliva, Milena; Monteferrario, Francesca; Peroni, Gabriella; Repaci, Erica; Allieri, Francesca; Perna, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia is defined as a syndrome characterized by progressive and generalized loss of muscle mass and strength. The more rationale approach to delay the progression of sarcopenia is based on the combination of proper nutrition, possibly associated with the use of dietary supplements and a regular exercise program. We performed a narrative literature review to evaluate the till-now evidence regarding (1) the metabolic and nutritional correlates of sarcopenia; (2) the optimum diet therapy for the treatment of these abnormalities. This review included 67 eligible studies. In addition to the well recognized link between adequate intake of proteins/amino acids and sarcopenia, the recent literature underlines that in sarcopenic elderly subjects there is an unbalance in vitamin D synthesis and in omega-6/omega-3 PUFA ratio. Given the detrimental effect of these metabolic abnormalities, a change in the lifestyle must be the cornerstone in the treatment of sarcopenia. The optimum diet therapy for the sarcopenia treatment must aim at achieving specific metabolic goals, which must be reached through accession of the elderly to specific personalized dietary program aimed at achieving and/or maintaining muscle mass; increasing their intake of fish (4 times/week) or taking omega-3 PUFA supplements; taking vitamin D supplementation, if there are low serum levels. PMID:25705670

  12. Management of carbon across sectors and scales: Insights from land use decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilling, L.; Failey, E. L.

    2008-12-01

    Carbon management is increasingly becoming a topic of interest among policy circles and business entrepreneurs alike. In the United States, while no binding regulatory framework exists, carbon management is nonetheless being pursued both by voluntary actions at a variety of levels, from the individual to the national level, and through mandatory policies at state and local levels. Controlling the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere for climate purposes will ultimately require a form of governance that will ensure that the actions taken and being rewarded financially are indeed effective with respect to the global atmosphere on long time scales. Moreover, this new system of governance will need to interface with existing governance structures and decision criteria that have been established to arbitrate among various societal values and priorities. These existing institutions and expressed values will need to be examined against those proposed for effective carbon governance, such as the permanence of carbon storage, the additionality of credited activities, and the prevention of leakage, or displacement of prohibited activities to another region outside the governance boundary. The latter issue suggests that interactions among scales of decision making and governance will be extremely important in determining the ultimate success of any future system of carbon governance. The goal of our study is to understand the current context of land use decision making in different sectors and examine the potential for future carbon policy to be effective given this context. This study examined land use decision making in the U.S. state of Colorado from a variety of ownership perspectives, including US Federal land managers, individual private owners, and policy makers involved in land use at a number of different scales. This paper will report on the results of interviews with land managers and provide insight into the policy context for carbon management through land

  13. Pathophysiological insights from studies of retrieved coronary atherectomy tissue.

    PubMed

    Glover, C; O'Brien, E R

    2000-12-01

    Coronary atherectomy offers the intuitive advantage of removing tissue mass in order to improve blood flow. A second major benefit of atherectomy is the opportunity to study lesion tissue and make pathophysiological insights. The value of the latter cannot be over emphasized, as current animal models for the study of atherosclerosis and restenosis are fraught with limitations. In this review, we outline some of the key descriptive findings that have emerged from the study of atherectomy specimens. Specifically, we will focus on the role of smooth muscle cell proliferation, thrombus organization and matrix formation in primary atherosclerotic lesions, as well as restenotic lesions after balloon angioplasty and stenting. PMID:11176010

  14. Managing aging in nuclear power plants: Insights from NRC's Maintenance Team Inspection reports

    SciTech Connect

    Fresco, A.; Subudhi, M.

    1992-01-01

    A plant's maintenance program is the principal vehicle through which age-related degradation is managed. From 1988 to 1991, the NRC evaluated the maintenance program of every nuclear power plant in the United States. Forty-four out of a total of sixty-seven of the reports issued on these in-depth team inspections have been reviewed for insights into the strengths and weaknesses of the programs as related to the need to understand and manage the effects of aging on nuclear plant structures, systems, and components (SSCs). Relevant information has been extracted from these inspection reports sorted into several categories; including Specific Aging Insights, Preventive Maintenance, Predictive Maintenance and Condition Monitoring, Post Maintenance Testing, Failure Trending, Root Cause Analysis and Usage of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in the Maintenance Process. Specific examples of inspection and monitoring techniques successfully used by utilities to detect degradation due to aging have been identified.

  15. Managing aging in nuclear power plants: Insights from NRC`s Maintenance Team Inspection reports

    SciTech Connect

    Fresco, A.; Subudhi, M.

    1992-12-31

    A plant`s maintenance program is the principal vehicle through which age-related degradation is managed. From 1988 to 1991, the NRC evaluated the maintenance program of every nuclear power plant in the United States. Forty-four out of a total of sixty-seven of the reports issued on these in-depth team inspections have been reviewed for insights into the strengths and weaknesses of the programs as related to the need to understand and manage the effects of aging on nuclear plant structures, systems, and components (SSCs). Relevant information has been extracted from these inspection reports sorted into several categories; including Specific Aging Insights, Preventive Maintenance, Predictive Maintenance and Condition Monitoring, Post Maintenance Testing, Failure Trending, Root Cause Analysis and Usage of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in the Maintenance Process. Specific examples of inspection and monitoring techniques successfully used by utilities to detect degradation due to aging have been identified.

  16. Brain edema in acute liver failure. Insight from experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Andres, T; Blei, M D; Judy, R; Cho, M D

    1990-07-01

    Brain edema is a leading cause of death in fulminant hepatic failure (FHP). Animal studies are needed to gain further insight into its pathogenesis. The authors describe and analyze the results of brain studies in two animal models of FHF, the rabbit with galactosamine induced hepatitis and the anhepatic model of liver desvascularization. A gravimetric technique is used to determine water content in brain samples as small as 10 mg in weight. Results showed that water content is increased and correlates with the severity of encephalopathy in both experimental models of encephalopathy. The possible pathogenic role of ammonia and octanoic acid are discussed. PMID:19256151

  17. Development and consideration of global policies for managing the future risks of poliovirus outbreaks: insights and lessons learned through modeling.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J; Pallansch, Mark A; Kew, Olen M; Sutter, Roland W; Aylward, R Bruce; Watkins, Margaret; Gary, Howard; Alexander, James P; Venczel, Linda; Johnson, Denise; Cáceres, Victor M; Sangrujee, Nalinee; Jafari, Hamid; Cochi, Stephen L

    2006-12-01

    The success of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative promises to bring large benefits, including sustained improvements in quality of life (i.e., cases of paralytic disease and deaths avoided) and costs saved from cessation of vaccination. Obtaining and maintaining these benefits requires that policymakers manage the transition from the current massive use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) to a world without OPV and free of the risks of potential future reintroductions of live polioviruses. This article describes the analytical journey that began in 2001 with a retrospective case study on polio risk management and led to development of dynamic integrated risk, economic, and decision analysis tools to inform global policies for managing the risks of polio. This analytical journey has provided several key insights and lessons learned that will be useful to future analysts involved in similar complex decision-making processes. PMID:17184398

  18. Seizure Prognosis in Brain Tumors: New Insights and Evidence-Based Management

    PubMed Central

    Kerkhof, Melissa; Duran-Pena, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Brain tumor-related epilepsy (BTE) is common in low- and high-grade gliomas. The risk of seizures varies between 60% and 100% among low-grade gliomas and between 40% and 60% in glioblastomas. The presence of seizures in patients with brain tumors implies favorable and unfavorable factors. New-onset seizures represent an early warning sign for the presence of a brain tumor and count as a good prognostic factor for survival. Recurrence or worsening of seizures during the course of disease may signal tumor progression. Each of the modalities for tumor control (i.e., surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy) contributes to seizure control. Nevertheless, one third of BTE shows pharmacoresistance to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and may severely impair the burden of living with a brain tumor. For symptomatic therapy of BTE, seizure type and individual patient factors determine the appropriate AED. Randomized controlled trials in partial epilepsy in adults to which type BTE belongs and additional studies in gliomas indicate that levetiracetam is the agent of choice, followed by valproic acid (VPA). In the case of recurring seizures, combining these two drugs (polytherapy) seems effective and possibly synergistic. If either one is not effective or not well tolerated, lacosamide, lamotrigine, or zonisamide are additional options. A new and exciting insight is the potential contribution of VPA to prolonged survival, particularly in glioblastomas. A practice guideline on symptomatic medical management including dose schedules of AEDs is supplied. PMID:24899645

  19. A Time Management Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gothberg, Helen M.; And Others

    In order to evaluate time management practices among managers of large academic libraries, questionnaires were mailed to 189 library directors. A total of 158 surveys were returned for a response rate of 82%. Items used to collect data in the questionnaire were based on time management literature and were grouped into five categories: (1) a…

  20. Managing aging in nuclear power plants: Insights from NRC maintenance team inspection reports

    SciTech Connect

    Fresco, A.; Subudhi, M.; Gunther, W.; Grove, E.; Taylor, J.

    1993-12-01

    A plant`s maintenance program is the principal vehicle through which age-related degradation is managed. From 1988 to 1991, the NRC evaluated the maintenance program of every nuclear power plant in the United States. Forty-four out of a total of 67 of the reports issued on these in-depth team inspections were reviewed for insights into the strengths and weaknesses of the programs as related to the need to understand and manage the effects of aging on nuclear plant systems, structures, and components. Relevant information was extracted from these inspection reports and sorted into several categories, including Specific Aging Insights, Preventive Maintenance, Predictive Maintenance and Condition Monitoring, Post Maintenance Testing, Failure Trending, Root Cause Analysis and Usage of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in the Maintenance Process. Specific examples of inspection and monitoring techniques successfully used by utilities to detect degradation due to aging have been identified. The information also was sorted according to systems and components, including: Auxiliary Feedwater, Main Feedwater, High Pressure Injection for both BWRs and PWRs, Service Water, Instrument Air, and Emergency Diesel Generator Air Start Systems, and Emergency Diesel Generators Air Start Systems, emergency diesel generators, electrical components such as switchgear, breakers, relays, and motor control centers, motor operated valves and check valves. This information was compared to insights gained from the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. Attributes of plant maintenance programs where the NRC inspectors felt that improvement was needed to properly address the aging issue also are discussed.

  1. The Science Manager's Guide to Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Branch, Kristi M.; Peffers, Melissa S.; Ruegg, Rosalie T.; Vallario, Robert W.

    2001-09-24

    This guide takes the science manager through the steps of planning, implementing, validating, communicating, and using case studies. It outlines the major methods of analysis, describing their relative merits and applicability while providing relevant examples and sources of additional information. Well-designed case studies can provide a combination of rich qualitative and quantitative information, offering valuable insights into the nature, outputs, and longer-term impacts of the research. An objective, systematic, and credible approach to the evaluation of U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science programs adds value to the research process and is the subject of this guide.

  2. Battling Carpal Tunnel Syndrome through Ergonomics: A Case Study of Texas A&M's Library Provides Insights and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Joyce K.

    1995-01-01

    Current library automation practices and new technologies have forced library managers to seek some means of reducing carpal tunnel syndrome, and a case study of Texas A&M's library provides insights. Highlights include identifying and assessing the injuries, adjusting work surfaces, testing and selecting new keyboards, and developing adjustable…

  3. Orbital debris hazard insights from spacecraft anomalies studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKnight, Darren S.

    2016-09-01

    Since the dawning of the space age space operators have been tallying spacecraft anomalies and failures then using these insights to improve the space systems and operations. As space systems improved and their lifetimes increased, the anomaly and failure modes have multiplied. Primary triggers for space anomalies and failures include design issues, space environmental effects, and satellite operations. Attempts to correlate anomalies to the orbital debris environment have started as early as the mid-1990's. Early attempts showed tens of anomalies correlated well to altitudes where the cataloged debris population was the highest. However, due to the complexity of tracing debris impacts to mission anomalies, these analyses were found to be insufficient to prove causation. After the fragmentation of the Chinese Feng-Yun satellite in 2007, it was hypothesized that the nontrackable fragments causing anomalies in LEO would have increased significantly from this event. As a result, debris-induced anomalies should have gone up measurably in the vicinity of this breakup. Again, the analysis provided some subtle evidence of debris-induced anomalies but it was not convincing. The continued difficulty in linking debris flux to satellite anomalies and failures prompted the creation of a series of spacecraft anomalies and failure workshops to investigate the identified shortfalls. These gatherings have produced insights into why this process is not straightforward. Summaries of these studies and workshops are presented and observations made about how to create solutions for anomaly attribution, especially as it relates to debris-induced spacecraft anomalies and failures.

  4. Recent advances in behavioral neuroendocrinology: Insights from studies on birds

    PubMed Central

    Goodson, James L.; Saldanha, Colin J.; Hahn, Thomas P.; Soma, Kiran K.

    2008-01-01

    Ever since investigations in the field of behavioral endocrinology were hatched with experiments on roosters, birds have provided original insights into issues of fundamental importance for all vertebrate groups. Here we focus on more recent advances that continue this tradition, including 1) environmental regulation of neuroendocrine and behavioral systems, 2) steroidogenic enzyme functions that are related to intracrine processes and de novo production of neurosteroids, and 3) hormonal regulation of neuroplasticity. We also review recent findings on the anatomical and functional organization of steroid-sensitive circuits in the basal forebrain and midbrain. A burgeoning body of data now demonstrates that these circuits comprise an evolutionarily conserved network, thus numerous novel insights obtained from birds can be used (in a relatively straightforward manner) to generate predictions for other taxa as well. We close by using birdsong as an example that links these areas together, thereby highlighting the exceptional opportunities that birds offer for integrative studies of behavioral neuroendocrinology, and behavioral biology in general. PMID:15896792

  5. Right Hemispheric Dominance of Creative Insight: An Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Wangbing; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Xiaojiang; Zhao, Xiaojun; Zhang, Jing; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Yalin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hemispheric effect of creative insight. This study used high-density ERPs to record participants' brain activity while they performed an insight task. Results showed that both insight solutions and incomprehension solutions elicited a more negative ERP deflection (N320~550) than noninsight solutions…

  6. Doctoral Women: Managing Emotions, Managing Doctoral Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aitchison, Claire; Mowbray, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the experiences of women doctoral students and the role of emotion during doctoral candidature. The paper draws on the concept of emotional labour to examine the two sites of emotional investment students experienced and managed during their studies: writing and family relationships. Emotion is perceived by many dominant…

  7. Data base management study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Data base management techniques and applicable equipment are described. Recommendations which will assist potential NASA data users in selecting and using appropriate data base management tools and techniques are presented. Classes of currently available data processing equipment ranging from basic terminals to large minicomputer systems were surveyed as they apply to the needs of potential SEASAT data users. Cost and capabilities projections for this equipment through 1985 were presented. A test of a typical data base management system was described, as well as the results of this test and recommendations to assist potential users in determining when such a system is appropriate for their needs. The representative system tested was UNIVAC's DMS 1100.

  8. Insights into kidney diseases from genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Wuttke, Matthias; Köttgen, Anna

    2016-09-01

    Over the past decade, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have considerably improved our understanding of the genetic basis of kidney function and disease. Population-based studies, used to investigate traits that define chronic kidney disease (CKD), have identified >50 genomic regions in which common genetic variants associate with estimated glomerular filtration rate or urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Case-control studies, used to study specific CKD aetiologies, have yielded risk loci for specific kidney diseases such as IgA nephropathy and membranous nephropathy. In this Review, we summarize important findings from GWAS and clinical and experimental follow-up studies. We also compare risk allele frequency, effect sizes, and specificity in GWAS of CKD-defining traits and GWAS of specific CKD aetiologies and the implications for study design. Genomic regions identified in GWAS of CKD-defining traits can contain causal genes for monogenic kidney diseases. Population-based research on kidney function traits can therefore generate insights into more severe forms of kidney diseases. Experimental follow-up studies have begun to identify causal genes and variants, which are potential therapeutic targets, and suggest mechanisms underlying the high allele frequency of causal variants. GWAS are thus a useful approach to advance knowledge in nephrology. PMID:27477491

  9. Insights on selenium and tellurium diaryldichalcogenides: A benchmark DFT study.

    PubMed

    Zaccaria, Francesco; Wolters, Lando P; Fonseca Guerra, Célia; Orian, Laura

    2016-07-01

    Selenium based diaryl dichalcogenides are compounds that are receiving attention in organic synthesis as eco-friendly oxidation agents as well as in pharmaceutical chemistry, where, together with tellurium-based derivatives, are appealing drugs mainly for their antioxidant properties. A benchmark study to establish optimal density functional theory (DFT) methods for the description of their molecular and electronic structure as well as for their energetics is presented here. Structural features, such as the orientation of the phenyl rings, as well as energetic aspects, i.e., the chalcogen-chalcogen bond strength, are discussed, with the aim of applying the novel insights to quantum mechanics-based investigations of their reactivity and to facilitate drug design. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27093091

  10. Insight and Action Analytics: Three Case Studies to Consider

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Mark David; Malcolm, Laura; Kil, David

    2014-01-01

    Civitas Learning was conceived as a community of practice, bringing together forward-thinking leaders from diverse higher education institutions to leverage insight and action analytics in their ongoing efforts to help students learn well and finish strong. We define insight and action analytics as drawing, federating, and analyzing data from…

  11. Obesity and cancer: mechanistic insights from transdisciplinary studies.

    PubMed

    Allott, Emma H; Hursting, Stephen D

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is associated with a range of health outcomes that are of clinical and public health significance, including cancer. Herein, we summarize epidemiologic and preclinical evidence for an association between obesity and increased risk of breast and prostate cancer incidence and mortality. Moreover, we describe data from observational studies of weight change in humans and from calorie-restriction studies in mouse models that support a potential role for weight loss in counteracting tumor-promoting properties of obesity in breast and prostate cancers. Given that weight loss is challenging to achieve and maintain, we also consider evidence linking treatments for obesity-associated co-morbidities, including metformin, statins and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, with reduced breast and prostate cancer incidence and mortality. Finally, we highlight several challenges that should be considered when conducting epidemiologic and preclinical research in the area of obesity and cancer, including the measurement of obesity in population-based studies, the timing of obesity and weight change in relation to tumor latency and cancer diagnosis, and the heterogeneous nature of obesity and its associated co-morbidities. Given that obesity is a complex trait, comprised of behavioral, epidemiologic and molecular/metabolic factors, we argue that a transdisciplinary approach is the key to understanding the mechanisms linking obesity and cancer. As such, this review highlights the critical need to integrate evidence from both epidemiologic and preclinical studies to gain insight into both biologic and non-biologic mechanisms contributing to the obesity-cancer link. PMID:26373570

  12. A study of poor insight in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Vigne, Paula; de Menezes, Gabriela B; Harrison, Ben J; Fontenelle, Leonardo F

    2014-11-30

    We investigated levels of insight among patients with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) as compared to patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and evaluated whether levels of insight in SAD were related to specific sociodemographic and/or clinical features. Thirty-seven SAD patients and 51 OCD patients attending a tertiary obsessive-compulsive and anxiety disorders clinic were assessed with a sociodemographic and clinical questionnaire, a structured diagnostic interview, the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale (BABS), the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), and the Treatment Adherence Survey-patient version (TAS-P). According to the BABS, SAD patients exhibited insight levels that were as low as those exhibited by OCD patients, with up to 29.7% of them being described as "poor insight" SAD. Although poor insight SAD patients were more frequently married, less depressed and displayed a statistical trend towards greater rates of early drop-out from cognitive-behavioral therapy, their insight levels were not associated with other variables of interest, including sex, age, employment, age at onset, duration of illness, associated psychiatric disorders, SPIN and SDS scores. Patients with poor insight SAD might perceive their symptoms as being less distressful and thus report fewer depressive symptoms and high rates of treatment non-adherence. PMID:24972547

  13. Comprehensive stormwater management study

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, T. ); Alter, M. ); Wassum, R.H. )

    1994-02-01

    This article examines Tucson, Arizona's approach to stormwater management. The topics of the article include the quantity and quality of stormwater, developing the stormwater master plan, meeting environmental and regulatory constraints. Tucson's comprehensive, watershed by watershed approach to public works planning and stormwater program development is described.

  14. Molecular Characterization of the Endoplasmic Reticulum: insights from proteomic studies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuequn; Karnovsky, Alla; Sans, Maria Dolors; Andrews, Philip C.; Williams, John A.

    2012-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a multifunctional intracellular organelle responsible for the synthesis, processing and trafficking of a wide variety of proteins essential for cell growth and survival. Thesefore, comprehensive characterization of the ER proteome is of great importance to the understanding of its functions and has been actively pursued in the past decade by scientists in the proteomics field. This review summarizes major proteomic studies published in the past decade that focused on the ER proteome. We evaluate the data sets obtained from two different organs, liver and pancreas each of which contains a primary cell type (hepatocyte and acinar cell) with specialized functions. We also discuss how the nature of the proteins uncovered is related to the methods of organelle purification, organelle purity and the techniques used for protein separation prior to mass spectrometry. In addition, this review also puts emphasis on the biological insights gained from these studies regarding to the molecular functions of the endoplasmic reticulum including protein synthesis and translocation, protein folding and quality control, ER-associated degradation and ER stress, ER export and membrane trafficking, calcium homeostasis, and detoxification and drug metabolism. PMID:21080494

  15. Management systems research study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruno, A. V.

    1975-01-01

    The development of a Monte Carlo simulation of procurement activities at the NASA Ames Research Center is described. Data cover: simulation of the procurement cycle, construction of a performance evaluation model, examination of employee development, procedures and review of evaluation criteria for divisional and individual performance evaluation. Determination of the influences and apparent impact of contract type and structure and development of a management control system for planning and controlling manpower requirements.

  16. Hydraulic fracturing: insights from field, lab, and numerical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, S. D.; Johnson, S.; Fu, P.; Settgast, R. R.

    2011-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has become an increasingly important technique in stimulating reservoirs for gas, oil, and geothermal energy production. In use commercially since the 1950's, the technique has been widely lauded, when combined with other techniques, for enabling the development of shale gas resources in the United States, providing a valuable and extensive source of domestic energy. However, the technique has also drawn a degree of notoriety from high-profile incidents involving contamination of drinking water associated with gas extraction operations in the Marcellus shale region. This work highlights some of the insights on the behavior of subsurface hydraulic fracturing operations that have been derived from field and laboratory observations as well as from numerical simulations. The sensitivity of fracture extent and orientation to parameters such as matrix material heterogeneity, presence and distribution of discontinuities, and stress orientation is of particular interest, and we discuss this in the context of knowledge derived from both observation and simulation. The limitations of these studies will also be addressed in terms of resolution, uncertainty, and assumptions as well as the balance of fidelity to cost, both in computation time (for numerical studies) and equipment / operation cost (for observational studies). We also identify a number of current knowledge gaps and propose alternatives for addressing those gaps. We especially focus on the role of numerical studies for elucidating key concepts and system sensitivities. The problem is inherently multi-scale in both space and time as well as highly coupled hydromechanically, and, in several applications, thermally as well. We will summarize the developments to date in analyzing these systems and present an approach for advancing the capabilities of our models in the short- to long-term and how these advances can help provide solutions to reduce risk and improve efficiency of hydraulic fracturing

  17. Studies provide new insights into Japan's March 2011 tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-12-01

    New data, field studies, modeling efforts, and surveys are revealing a wealth of information about the devastating tsunami that followed the 11 March 2011 Tohoku earthquake. The earthquake and resulting tsunami caused massive destruction and the loss of about 20,000 lives. At the AGU Fall Meeting last week in San Francisco, Calif., scientists reported a variety of new insights about the tsunami and its effects and about tsunami defense mechanisms, ways to forecast tsunami inundation, and public perception of risk. For example, part of the reason the tsunami generated by the Tohoku quake was so large and destructive was that it was a "merging tsunami." Merging tsunamis, which have been hypothesized but not previously observed with certainty, grow in size dramatically when seafloor topography alters the direction in which the waves are traveling and causes two waves to merge into a larger wave. The alteration of wave paths by complex ocean-floor topography makes it difficult to predict where the largest waves will strike land. "Tsunamis often destroy some coastal areas while leaving others with little damage," explained Tony Song of the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, at a 5 December press conference.

  18. Management of Federally Sponsored Libraries: Case Studies and Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missar, Charles D., Ed.

    This book provides insight into how managers of federally sponsored libraries view their roles and carry out their duties. Seven federally supported libraries were selected to serve as case studies. These libraries represent a cross-section of various types, and the nine chapters are written by librarians from these facilities. The discussion…

  19. Recent insights in the therapeutic management of patients with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    de Mestier, Louis; Lardière-Deguelte, Sophie; Volet, Julien; Kianmanesh, Reza; Bouché, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Gastric cancer remains frequent and one of the most lethal malignancies worldwide. In this article, we aimed to comprehensively review recent insights in the therapeutic management of gastric cancer, with focus on the surgical and perioperative management of resectable forms, and the latest advances regarding advanced diseases. Surgical improvements comprise the use of laparoscopic surgery including staging laparoscopy, a better definition of nodal dissection, and the development of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. The best individualized perioperative management should be assessed before curative-intent surgery for all patients and can consists in perioperative chemotherapy, adjuvant chemo-radiation therapy or adjuvant chemotherapy alone. The optimal timing and sequence of chemotherapy and radiation therapy with respect to surgery should be further explored. Patients with advanced gastric cancer have a poor prognosis. Nevertheless, they can benefit from doublet or triplet chemotherapy combination, including trastuzumab in HER2-positive patients. Upon progression, second-line therapy can be considered in patients with good performance status. Although anti-HER2 (trastuzumab) and anti-VEGFR (ramucirumab) may yield survival benefit, anti-EGFR and anti-HGFR therapies have failed to improve outcomes. Nevertheless, combination regimens containing cytotoxic drugs and targeted therapies should be further evaluated; keeping in mind that gastric cancer biology is different between Asia and the Western countries. PMID:27156069

  20. An Insight into Communication Barriers between Bank Managers and their Customers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golen, Steven

    1987-01-01

    The study attempted to identify specific industry-related communication problems of bank managers. A questionnaire was completed by 193 managers identifying perceived communication barriers and relative importance of each. Resistance to change and tendency not to listen were considered serious barriers. (CH)

  1. Sustainable management for rangelands in a variable climate: evidence and insights from northern Australia.

    PubMed

    O'Reagain, P J; Scanlan, J C

    2013-03-01

    Inter-annual rainfall variability is a major challenge to sustainable and productive grazing management on rangelands. In Australia, rainfall variability is particularly pronounced and failure to manage appropriately leads to major economic loss and environmental degradation. Recommended strategies to manage sustainably include stocking at long-term carrying capacity (LTCC) or varying stock numbers with forage availability. These strategies are conceptually simple but difficult to implement, given the scale and spatial heterogeneity of grazing properties and the uncertainty of the climate. This paper presents learnings and insights from northern Australia gained from research and modelling on managing for rainfall variability. A method to objectively estimate LTCC in large, heterogeneous paddocks is discussed, and guidelines and tools to tactically adjust stocking rates are presented. The possible use of seasonal climate forecasts (SCF) in management is also considered. Results from a 13-year grazing trial in Queensland show that constant stocking at LTCC was far more profitable and largely maintained land condition compared with heavy stocking (HSR). Variable stocking (VAR) with or without the use of SCF was marginally more profitable, but income variability was greater and land condition poorer than constant stocking at LTCC. Two commercial scale trials in the Northern Territory with breeder cows highlighted the practical difficulties of variable stocking and provided evidence that heavier pasture utilisation rates depress reproductive performance. Simulation modelling across a range of regions in northern Australia also showed a decline in resource condition and profitability under heavy stocking rates. Modelling further suggested that the relative value of variable v. constant stocking depends on stocking rate and land condition. Importantly, variable stocking may possibly allow slightly higher stocking rates without pasture degradation. Enterprise

  2. Records management modernization study

    SciTech Connect

    Kadec, S.; Hill, L.G.; Riemer, C.A.

    1989-12-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has a single purpose or mission: to provide benefits to the veterans of the nation. Most of these benefits are provided through its medical and health facilities located around the country: the hospitals, nursing homes, and clinics that give medical examinations and provide long-term care or hospitalization. A second sizeable program managed by the Veterans Benefit Administration (VBA) gives pensions, benefits for disability and education, insurance, and home loans to those veterans eligible under law and specific service conditions. In support of the benefits programs, VA staff in the regional offices (ROs) receive and create a large amount of documentation. This documentation supports the award or disallowance of benefits by providing the information necessary to determine eligibility and the amount of the award. This paperwork, which is necessary to document actions and support the appeals process, creates a huge record-keeping problem for the ROs. 6 tabs.

  3. Caffeine Awareness in Children: Insights from a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Thakre, Tushar P.; Deoras, Ketan; Griffin, Catherine; Vemana, Aarthi; Podmore, Petra; Krishna, Jyoti

    2015-01-01

    consistently able to identify caffeine content or lack thereof in some common beverages. The results of this pilot study show that caffeine literacy in adolescents warrants further investigation and educational intervention. Citation: Thakre TP, Deoras K, Griffin C, Vemana A, Podmore P, Krishna J. Caffeine awareness in children: insights from a pilot study. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(7):741–746. PMID:25845895

  4. Integration of near-surface remote sensing and eddy covariance measurements: new insights on managed ecosystem structure and functioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatala, J.; Sonnentag, O.; Detto, M.; Runkle, B.; Vargas, R.; Kelly, M.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2009-12-01

    Ground-based, visible light imagery has been used for different purposes in agricultural and ecological research. A series of recent studies explored the utilization of networked digital cameras to continuously monitor vegetation by taking oblique canopy images at fixed view angles and time intervals. In our contribution we combine high temporal resolution digital camera imagery, eddy-covariance, and meteorological measurements with weekly field-based hyperspectral and LAI measurements to gain new insights on temporal changes in canopy structure and functioning of two managed ecosystems in California’s Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta: a pasture infested by the invasive perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium) and a rice plantation (Oryza sativa). Specific questions we address are: a) how does year-round grazing affect pepperweed canopy development, b) is it possible to identify phenological key events of managed ecosystems (pepperweed: flowering; rice: heading) from the limited spectral information of digital camera imagery, c) is a simple greenness index derived from digital camera imagery sufficient to track leaf area index and canopy development of managed ecosystems, and d) what are the scales of temporal correlation between digital camera signals and carbon and water fluxes of managed ecosystems? Preliminary results for the pasture-pepperweed ecosystem show that year-round grazing inhibits the accumulation of dead stalks causing earlier green-up and that digital camera imagery is well suited to capture the onset of flowering and the associated decrease in photosynthetic CO2 uptake. Results from our analyses are of great relevance from both a global environmental change and land management perspective.

  5. Insight and Figurative Language in Psychotherapy: Two Fragments of a Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Jack M.; And Others

    This study discusses the role figurative language can play in promoting insight in a patient undergoing psychotherapy. The first part of the study reviews some of the research into the nature of creative insight; the next section discusses some of the research relating to the value of metaphor in the treatment of schizophrenic patients. The major…

  6. Soil erosion-runoff relationships: insights from laboratory studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamedov, Amrakh; Warrington, David; Levy, Guy

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the processes and mechanisms affecting runoff generation and subsequent soil erosion in semi-arid regions is essential for the development of improved soil and water conservation management practices. Using a drip type laboratory rain simulator, we studied runoff and soil erosion, and the relationships between them, in 60 semi-arid region soils varying in their intrinsic properties (e.g., texture, organic matter) under differing extrinsic conditions (e.g., rain properties, and conditions prevailing in the field soil). Both runoff and soil erosion were significantly affected by the intrinsic soil and rain properties, and soil conditions within agricultural fields or watersheds. The relationship between soil erosion and runoff was stronger when the rain kinetic energy was higher rather than lower, and could be expressed either as a linear or exponential function. Linear functions applied to certain limited cases associated with conditions that enhanced soil structure stability, (e.g., slow wetting, amending with soil stabilizers, minimum tillage in clay soils, and short duration exposure to rain). Exponential functions applied to most of the cases under conditions that tended to harm soil stability (e.g., fast wetting of soils, a wide range of antecedent soil water contents and rain kinetic energies, conventional tillage, following biosolid applications, irrigation with water of poor quality, consecutive rain simulations). The established relationships between runoff and soil erosion contributed to a better understanding of the mechanisms governing overland flow and soil loss, and could assist in (i) further development of soil erosion models and research techniques, and (ii) the design of more suitable management practices for soil and water conservation.

  7. Gliding Motility in Bacteria: Insights from Studies of Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Spormann, Alfred M.

    1999-01-01

    motor in M. xanthus controls cell movement in groups (S-motility system). It is dependent on functional type IV pili and is operative only when cells are in close proximity to each other. Type IV pili are known to be involved in another mode of bacterial surface translocation, called twitching motility. S-motility may well represent a variation of twitching motility in M. xanthus. However, twitching differs from gliding since it involves cell movements that are jerky and abrupt and that lack the organization and smoothness observed in gliding. Components of this motor are encoded by genes of the S-system, which appear to be homologs of genes involved in the biosynthesis, assembly, and function of type IV pili in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. How type IV pili generate force in S-motility is currently unknown, but it is to be expected that ongoing physiological, genetic, and biochemical studies in M. xanthus, in conjunction with studies on twitching in P. aeruginosa and N. gonorrhoeae, will provide important insights into this microbial motor. The two motility systems of M. xanthus are affected to different degrees by the MglA protein, which shows similarity to a small GTPase. Bacterial chemotaxis-like sensory transduction systems control gliding motility in M. xanthus. The frz genes appear to regulate gliding movement of individual cells and movement by the S-motility system, suggesting that the two motors found in this bacterium can be regulated to result in coordinated multicellular movements. In contrast, the dif genes affect only S-system-dependent swarming. PMID:10477310

  8. Behavior Management in Preschool Classrooms: Insights Revealed through Systematic Observation and Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritz, Mariah; Noltemeyer, Amity; Davis, Darrel; Green, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined behavior management strategies used by preschool teachers to address student noncompliance in the classroom. Specifically, the study aimed to (1) examine the methods that preschool teachers are currently using to respond to noncompliant behavior in their classrooms, (2) measure the frequency with which each…

  9. Insights Into Nephrolithiasis From the Nurses’ Health Studies

    PubMed Central

    Prochaska, Megan L.; Taylor, Eric N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contributions of the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) I and NHS II to understanding the role of dietary factors, beverages, body size, and urinary factors in the development of kidney stones. Methods. We conducted a review of kidney stone–related publications of NHS I and NHS II between 1976 and 2016. Results. Studies using NHS I and NHS II data have demonstrated the importance of many factors in kidney stone formation and were the first to report that higher dietary calcium was associated with a lower risk of incident kidney stones in women. Data from these cohorts were instrumental in emphasizing that nephrolithiasis is a systemic disease and suggesting that a kidney stone or shared risk factors may lead to hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Conclusions. Findings from the NHSs have changed the scientific understanding and the clinical practice of stone prevention and have been incorporated into widely consulted textbooks and the American Urological Association Medical Management of Kidney Stones guidelines. PMID:27459448

  10. How does vineyard management intensity affect ecosystem services and disservices - insights from a meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Silvia; Zaller, Johann G.; Kratschmer, Sophie; Pachinger, Bärbel; Strauss, Peter; Bauer, Thomas; Paredes, Daniel; Gómez, José A.; Guzmán, Gema; Landa, Blanca; Nicolai, Annegret; Burel, Francoise; Cluzeau, Daniel; Popescu, Daniela; Bunea, Claudiu-Ioan; Potthoff, Martin; Guernion, Muriel; Batáry, Péter

    2016-04-01

    Viticultural agro-ecosystems provide a range of different ecosystem services which are affected by management decisions of winegrowers. At the global scale, vineyards are often high intensity agricultural systems with bare soil or inter-row vegetation consisting of only a few plant species. These systems primarily aim at optimizing wine production by reducing competition for water and nutrients between grapevines and weeds and by preventing the outbreak of pests and diseases. At the same time, this kind of management is often associated with ecosystem disservices such as high rates of soil erosion, degradation of soil structure and fertility, contamination of groundwater and decline of biodiversity. Recently, several initiatives across the world tried to overcome detrimental effects of that management style by creating biodiversity friendly vineyards. The consequences of establishing divers cover crop mixes or tolerating spontaneous vegetation in vineyards for ecosystem services (including yield) overstretching local case studies has not been investigated yet. This meta-analysis will provide an overview of all published studies comparing the effects of different vineyard management practices on a range of different ecosystem services like biodiversity, pest control, pollination, soil conservation and carbon sequestration. The aggregated effect size will point out which management measures can provide the best overall net sum of ecosystem services. This meta-analysis is part of the transdisciplinary BiodivERsA project VineDivers and will ultimately lead into management and policy recommendations for various stakeholder groups engaged in viticulture.

  11. Management of radicular pain in rheumatic disease: insight for the physician

    PubMed Central

    Fabule, John

    2012-01-01

    Rheumatologists are still relatively unaware of the causes, presentation, diagnosis and management of radicular pain. This is against a background of increasing evidence of the presence and importance of radicular problems in patients with rheumatological disorders. When they coexist in patients, differentiating between nociceptive and neuropathic pain is clinically important because these components require different pain management strategies. Consequently, it is essential that rheumatologists become skilled in identifying as well as managing both forms of pain. This review will serve to further increase awareness among rheumatologists of this important issue as well as discuss the practical aspects of managing these conditions. The evaluation of patients requires very careful history taking and full thorough neurological examination. Diagnostic testing is suggested mainly to confirm the diagnosis and aetiology in patients with persistent symptoms despite conservative treatment. Neuroimaging is recommended for patients with acute radicular pain with progressive neurological deficits or those with high suspicion of neoplasm or epidural abscess. If neuroimaging does not confirm diagnosis, electrophysiology studies may be helpful. The management of this condition is multifaceted and involves physicians and allied healthcare professionals as well as the patients who should be encouraged to participate in self-management programmes. Nociceptive and neuropathic pain often coexists in patients with rheumatic disease. There are challenges to making the diagnosis of radicular pain in these patients. The diagnosis is primarily clinical but pathophysiological issues, diversity in symptoms, the multiple mechanisms of action and difficulties in communication between patients and their doctors as well as variable response to therapy pose challenges to the effective management of these patients. Despite these difficulties and challenges, it is essential that rheumatologists

  12. An integrated approach is needed for ecosystem based fisheries management: insights from ecosystem-level management strategy evaluation.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Elizabeth A; Smith, Anthony D M; Smith, David C; Johnson, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    An ecosystem approach is widely seen as a desirable goal for fisheries management but there is little consensus on what strategies or measures are needed to achieve it. Management strategy evaluation (MSE) is a tool that has been widely used to develop and test single species fisheries management strategies and is now being extended to support ecosystem based fisheries management (EBFM). We describe the application of MSE to investigate alternative strategies for achieving EBFM goals for a complex multispecies fishery in southeastern Australia. The study was undertaken as part of a stakeholder driven process to review and improve the ecological, economic and social performance of the fishery. An integrated management strategy, involving combinations of measures including quotas, gear controls and spatial management, performed best against a wide range of objectives and this strategy was subsequently adopted in the fishery, leading to marked improvements in performance. Although particular to one fishery, the conclusion that an integrated package of measures outperforms single focus measures we argue is likely to apply widely in fisheries that aim to achieve EBFM goals. PMID:24454722

  13. An Integrated Approach Is Needed for Ecosystem Based Fisheries Management: Insights from Ecosystem-Level Management Strategy Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Anthony D. M.; Smith, David C.; Johnson, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    An ecosystem approach is widely seen as a desirable goal for fisheries management but there is little consensus on what strategies or measures are needed to achieve it. Management strategy evaluation (MSE) is a tool that has been widely used to develop and test single species fisheries management strategies and is now being extended to support ecosystem based fisheries management (EBFM). We describe the application of MSE to investigate alternative strategies for achieving EBFM goals for a complex multispecies fishery in southeastern Australia. The study was undertaken as part of a stakeholder driven process to review and improve the ecological, economic and social performance of the fishery. An integrated management strategy, involving combinations of measures including quotas, gear controls and spatial management, performed best against a wide range of objectives and this strategy was subsequently adopted in the fishery, leading to marked improvements in performance. Although particular to one fishery, the conclusion that an integrated package of measures outperforms single focus measures we argue is likely to apply widely in fisheries that aim to achieve EBFM goals. PMID:24454722

  14. On the "Demystification" of Insight: A Critique of Neuroimaging Studies of Insight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisberg, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Psychologists studying problem solving have, for over 100 years, been interested in the question of whether there are two different modes of solving problems. One mode--problem solving based on analysis--depends on application of past experience to the problem at hand and proceeds incrementally toward solution. The second mode--problem solving…

  15. Insight Into Quality of Prescription Writing - An Instituitional Study

    PubMed Central

    Dyasanoor, Sujatha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Prescription writing is an important task performed by a doctor during patient management. Prescription refers to written instructions given to a patient regarding medications. Lack of attention during prescription writing can lead to prescription errors which in turn can adversely affect patients’ well-being. Thus, prescriptions are an important target area for improvement. Aim The purpose of the present study was to analyze the quality of prescriptions dispensed by the students of The Oxford Dental College and Hospital, Bangalore and to compare the prescription writing patterns amongst undergraduates, interns and postgraduates of this institution. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 randomly selected prescriptions dispensed by the students of The Oxford Dental College and Hospital, Bangalore, India. All the prescriptions were analyzed for the presence of (a) Patient’s information: Out-Patient file number, name, age, gender, address and contact number (b) Doctors information: Full name, department name, qualification, contact details, date of prescription, superscription, and signature (c) Drug information: Name, strength, dosage form, dosage instructions, duration and total quantity. Each prescription was further categorized into groups A, B, C or D, depending on the scores obtained. Prescription quality was then compared between the undergraduates, interns and postgraduates. Results Analysis of prescriptions performed using Chi-square test showed that groups A, B, C and D had 12 (2%), 155 (31%), 333 (67%) and 0 (0%) students respectively. Association between the groups and qualifications showed statistically significant results (p<0.05). Undergraduate prescriptions were better written in comparison to interns and postgraduates. Conclusion Findings of the current study demonstrate the need for further improvement in the quality of prescription writing by students of The Oxford Dental College and Hospital, Bangalore

  16. Designing for Insight: A Case Study from Tennis Player Analysis.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Kim; Yucesoy, Burcu

    2016-01-01

    Visualization is an important tool, necessary for making sense of vast amounts of data. Many data science projects make use of visualization techniques to illustrate and explain their results. But complex interactive visualizations can also be excellent exploration tools to help guide the analysis, detect early signs of problems and irregularities, suggest new discoveries, and test the effectiveness and efficiency of scientific models. This article describes a combinatory design process that uses a method of incremental addition to create increasingly complex arrangements and thus create new ways to see data and discover new insights. PMID:27514032

  17. Management studies in medical education.

    PubMed

    Noor Ghani, S; Saimy, I

    2005-08-01

    In 1977, the World Health Assembly (WHA) set the social target--the "Health For All" goal and in 1995, urged member states to "re-orientate medical education and medical practice for "Health For All" (resolution WHA 48.8). This led to World Health Organisation to enunciate the "5-star doctor" needing skills in healthcare management, quality assurance and health economics. The Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya introduced the New Integrated Curriculum (NIC) in 1995. The objective was aimed at producing a competent doctor with a holistic approach to the practice of medicine. This was to be achieved by having 3 strands of studies i.e. The Scientific Basis of Medicine (SBM), the Doctor, Patient, Health and Society (DPHS), and Personal and Professional Development (PPD) over the 5-year programme, split into 3 phases. Elements of the "5-star doctor" were introduced in strand 2--DPHS and strand 3--PPD. Management studies were introduced in the Personal and Professional Development (PPD) strand. This led to an instructional module--"Principles of Management in Health Care Services (PMGT)" comprising of the Management of Self, Resources and People and incorporating a three week field programme. Evaluation is undertaken at the end of the phase IIIA of the studies. This NIC approach will be able to produce a "5-star doctor", a team player, leader, communicator and an effective manager. PMID:16315627

  18. Unanticipated Insights into Biomedicine from the Study of Acupuncture

    PubMed Central

    Hammerschlag, Richard; Coeytaux, Remy R.; Davis, Robert T.; Harris, Richard E.; Kong, Jiang-Ti; Langevin, Helene M.; Lao, Lixing; Milley, Ryan J.; Napadow, Vitaly; Schnyer, Rosa N.; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Witt, Claudia M.; Wayne, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Research into acupuncture has had ripple effects beyond the field of acupuncture. This paper identifies five exemplars to illustrate that there is tangible evidence of the way insights gleaned from acupuncture research have informed biomedical research, practice, or policy. The first exemplar documents how early research into acupuncture analgesia has expanded into neuroimaging research, broadening physiologic understanding and treatment of chronic pain. The second describes how the acupuncture needle has become a tool to enhance biomedical knowledge of connective tissue. The third exemplar, which illustrates use of a modified acupuncture needle as a sham device, focuses on emergent understanding of placebo effects and, in turn, on insights into therapeutic encounters in treatments unrelated to acupuncture. The fourth exemplar documents that two medical devices now in widespread use were inspired by acupuncture: transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulators for pain control and antinausea wrist bands. The final exemplar describes how pragmatic clinical trial designs applied in acupuncture research have informed current general interest in comparative effectiveness research. In conclusion, these exemplars of unanticipated outcomes of acupuncture research comprise an additional rationale for continued support of basic and clinical research evaluating acupuncture and other under-researched therapies. PMID:26745452

  19. Unanticipated Insights into Biomedicine from the Study of Acupuncture.

    PubMed

    MacPherson, Hugh; Hammerschlag, Richard; Coeytaux, Remy R; Davis, Robert T; Harris, Richard E; Kong, Jiang-Ti; Langevin, Helene M; Lao, Lixing; Milley, Ryan J; Napadow, Vitaly; Schnyer, Rosa N; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Witt, Claudia M; Wayne, Peter M

    2016-02-01

    Research into acupuncture has had ripple effects beyond the field of acupuncture. This paper identifies five exemplars to illustrate that there is tangible evidence of the way insights gleaned from acupuncture research have informed biomedical research, practice, or policy. The first exemplar documents how early research into acupuncture analgesia has expanded into neuroimaging research, broadening physiologic understanding and treatment of chronic pain. The second describes how the acupuncture needle has become a tool to enhance biomedical knowledge of connective tissue. The third exemplar, which illustrates use of a modified acupuncture needle as a sham device, focuses on emergent understanding of placebo effects and, in turn, on insights into therapeutic encounters in treatments unrelated to acupuncture. The fourth exemplar documents that two medical devices now in widespread use were inspired by acupuncture: transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulators for pain control and antinausea wrist bands. The final exemplar describes how pragmatic clinical trial designs applied in acupuncture research have informed current general interest in comparative effectiveness research. In conclusion, these exemplars of unanticipated outcomes of acupuncture research comprise an additional rationale for continued support of basic and clinical research evaluating acupuncture and other under-researched therapies. PMID:26745452

  20. The Field of Educational Management: Some Intellectual Insights from the 2007 BELMAS National Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar

    2008-01-01

    Historical accounts of the field of educational management (EM) have seen the last quarter of the nineteenth century as the beginning of EM as a profession and later on as a field of study in American universities. The search for efficiency in education in those days encouraged many American educators to participate in administrator preparation…

  1. Adolescent Girls' Assessment and Management of Sexual Risks: Insights from Focus Group Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.; Livingston, Jennifer A.; Fava, Nicole M.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted focus groups with girls ages 14 to 17 (N = 43) to study how the dominant discourse of sexual risk shapes young women's understanding of the sexual domain and their management of these presumably pervasive threats. Through inductive analysis, we developed a coding scheme focused on three themes: (a) "types of sexual risk," (b) "factors…

  2. Case Studies in Broadcast Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Howard W.

    This collection of case studies, based on factual situations which have challenged broadcast managers in recent years, is designed to stimulate thinking about and solving of "real world" problems in commercial radio and television operations. Topics of a serious, long-run nature include enlarging the radio audience; station revenue and economy;…

  3. A cross-sectional study of insight and family accommodation in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Factors predicting treatment outcome in pediatric patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) include disease severity, functional impairment, comorbid disorders, insight, and family accommodation (FA). Treatment of pediatric OCD is often only partly successful as some of these predictors are not targeted with conventional therapy. Among these, insight and FA were identified to be modifiable predictors of special relevance to pediatric OCD. Despite their clinical relevance, insight and FA remain understudied in youth with OCD. This study examined the clinical correlates of insight and FA and determined whether FA mediates the relationship between symptom severity and functional impairment in pediatric OCD. Methods This was a cross-sectional, outpatient study. Thirty-five treatment-naive children and adolescentswith DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD (mean age: 13.11 ± 3.16; 54.3% males) were included. Standard questionnaires were administered for assessing the study variables. Insight and comorbidities were assessed based on clinician’s interview. Subjects were categorized as belonging to a high insight or a low insight group, and the differences between these two groups were analyzed using ANOVA. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were calculated for the remaining variables of interest. Mediation analysis was carried out using structural equation modeling. Results Relative to those in the high insight group, subjects in the low insight group were younger, had more severe disease and symptoms, and were accommodated to a greater extent by their families. In addition, comorbid depression was more frequent in subjects belonging to the low insight group. Family accommodation was positively related to disease severity, symptom severity, and functional impairment. Family accommodation totally mediated the relationship between symptom severity and functional impairment. Conclusions Results support the differences in the diagnostic criteria between adult and

  4. Study Provides Insights into Diagnosis, Treatment of Rare Immune Disease: Autoimmmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome ...

    MedlinePlus

    ... Related Links​ ALPS Unit, Laboratory of Immunology Autoimmune Diseases Immune System Primary Immune Deficiency Diseases National Library of ... Study Provides Insights Into Diagnosis, Treatment of Rare Immune Disease NIH Scientists Report Findings From 20 Years of ...

  5. A Case Study of Classroom Management Practices and the Influence on Classroom Disruptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusk, Robert Brian

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored how the classroom management practices of sampled teachers in a private school in central Oregon influenced classroom disruptions. Through the study, the researcher was able to provide insight on the differences in specific classroom management processes between teachers who had a high number of Positive…

  6. Osteitis pubis after standard bipolar TURP surgery: insight into aetiology, diagnosis, management and prevention of this rarity.

    PubMed

    Davis, Niall F; Torregiani, William; Thornhill, John

    2016-01-01

    Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) surgery is standard treatment for symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia when medical therapy has failed. We describe a rare case of osteitis pubis secondary to a prostato-symphocoele sinus after standard bipolar TURP surgery. We also discuss diagnostic techniques and management strategies, and provide an insight into the aetiology of this rare phenomenon. Conservative management with intravenous antibiotics and an indwelling catheter was successful in our case. Treatment in more severe cases may include laparotomy with peritoneal or omental interposition or open retropubic radical prostatectomy to remove the entire sinus tract. PMID:26729825

  7. Insight, psychopathology, explanatory models and outcome of schizophrenia in India: a prospective 5-year cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The sole focus of models of insight on bio-medical perspectives to the complete exclusion of local, non-medical and cultural constructs mandates review. This study attempted to investigate the impact of insight, psychopathology, explanatory models of illness on outcome of first episode schizophrenia. Method Patients diagnosed to have DSM IV schizophrenia (n = 131) were assessed prospectively for insight, psychopathology, explanatory models of illness at baseline, 6, 12 and 60 months using standard instruments. Multiple linear and logistic regression and generalized estimating equations (GEE) were employed to assess predictors of outcome. Results We could follow up 95 (72.5%) patients. Sixty-five of these patients (68.4%) achieved remission. There was a negative relationship between psychosis rating and insight scores. Urban residence, fluctuating course of the initial illness, and improvement in global functioning at 6 months and lower psychosis rating at 12 months were significantly related to remission at 5 years. Insight scores, number of non-medical explanatory models and individual explanatory models held during the later course of the illness were significantly associated with outcome. Analysis of longitudinal data using GEE showed that women, rural residence, insight scores and number of non-medical explanatory models of illness held were significantly associated with BPRS scores during the study period. Conclusions Insight, the disease model and the number of non-medical model positively correlated with improvement in psychosis arguing for a complex interaction between the culture, context and illness variables. These finding argue that insight and explanatory models are secondary to psychopathology, course and outcome of the illness. The awareness of mental illness is a narrative act in which people make personal sense of the many challenges they face. The course and outcome of the illness, cultural context, acceptable cultural explanations

  8. Heat Management Strategy Trade Study

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg; Steve Priebe; Dirk Gombert; Ted Bauer

    2009-09-01

    This Heat Management Trade Study was performed in 2008-2009 to expand on prior studies in continued efforts to analyze and evaluate options for cost-effectively managing SNF reprocessing wastes. The primary objective was to develop a simplified cost/benefit evaluation for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing that combines the characteristics of the waste generated through reprocessing with the impacts of the waste on heating the repository. Under consideration were age of the SNF prior to reprocessing, plutonium and minor actinide (MA) separation from the spent fuel for recycle, fuel value of the recycled Pu and MA, age of the remaining spent fuel waste prior to emplacement in the repository, length of time that active ventilation is employed in the repository, and elemental concentration and heat limits for acceptable glass waste form durability. A secondary objective was to identify and qualitatively analyze remaining issues such as (a) impacts of aging SNF prior to reprocessing on the fuel value of the recovered fissile materials, and (b) impact of reprocessing on the dose risk as developed in the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). Results of this study can be used to evaluate different options for managing decay heat in waste streams from spent nuclear fuel.

  9. A Global Synthesis of Jatropha Cultivation: Insights into Land Use Change and Management Practices.

    PubMed

    Walmsley, David C; Bailis, Rob; Klein, Alexandra-Maria

    2016-09-01

    Despite setbacks, interest in Jatropha cultivation remains high. This study addressed the question to what extent Jatropha cultivation has replaced specific vegetation and land use types and how the existing areas are managed. Major forms of land use change and management practices were identified based on cluster analysis of data from 106 interviewee's responses to a comprehensive global survey. Of the 1.04 × 10(6) ha cultivated with Jatropha in 2011 40% were established on land that was cleared of vegetation as a result of logging activities unrelated to Jatropha cultivation, 34% was defined as unused, and the remainder was attributable to areas previously used for crops or animal husbandry. With the exception of croplands, these areas were dominated (90-98%) by a few internationally active companies whose cultivation models were almost exclusively based on outgrower schemes. Management practices were largely extensive in nature (low mechanical input and infrequent use of fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides), and also dominated by large projects. Broad surveys, such as this, are useful in identifying general trends in this emerging global industry, but detailed case studies, particularly of large projects, are needed in order to draw more informed conclusions about the site-specific impacts of Jatropha cultivation. PMID:27508463

  10. Adolescent Girls’ Assessment and Management of Sexual Risks: Insights from Focus Group Research

    PubMed Central

    Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.; Livingston, Jennifer A.; Fava, Nicole M.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted focus groups with girls ages 14 to 17 (N = 43) in order to study how the dominant discourse of sexual risk shapes young women’s understanding of the sexual domain and their management of these presumably pervasive threats. Through inductive analysis, we developed a coding scheme focused on three themes: (a) types of sexual risk; (b) factors that moderate sexual risk; and (c) strategies for managing sexual risk. Collectively, participants identified many risks but distanced themselves from these by claiming that girls’ susceptibility is largely a function of personal factors and therefore avoidable given the right traits, values, and skills. We consider this reliance on other-blaming and self-exemption, as well as instances in which individual participants diverged from this group discourse, in the context of neoliberalism. PMID:21860537

  11. The Journey through Grief: Insights from a Qualitative Study of Electronic Health Record Implementation

    PubMed Central

    McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Hefner, Jennifer L; Sieck, Cynthia J; Huerta, Timothy R

    2015-01-01

    Objective To improve understanding of facilitators of EHR system implementation, paying particular attention to opportunities to maximize physician adoption and effective deployment. Data Sources/Study Setting Primary data collected from 47 physician and 35 administrative key informants from six U.S. health care organizations identified because of purported success with EHR implementation. Study Design We conducted interviews and focus groups in an extensive qualitative study. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Verbatim transcripts were analyzed both deductively and inductively using the constant comparative method. Principal Findings Conceptualizing EHR adoption as loss through the lens of Kübler-Ross's five stages of grief model may help individuals and organizations more effectively orient to the challenge of change. Coupled with Kotter's eight-step change management framework, we offer a structure to facilitate organizations' movement through the EHR implementation journey. Combining insights from these frameworks, we identify 10 EHR strategies that can help address EHR implementation barriers. Conclusions Loss is one part of change often overlooked. Addressing it directly and compassionately can potentially facilitate the EHR implementation journey. We offer a summarized list of deployment strategies that are sensitive to these issues to support physician transition to new technologies that will bring value to clinical practice. PMID:25219627

  12. Managing U.S. climate risk through mitigation: Insights from the American Climate Prospectus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, R. E., III; Hsiang, S. M.; Houser, T.; Larsen, K.; Rasmussen, D. M., Jr.; Jina, A.; Rising, J.; Delgado, M.; Mohan, S.; Muir-Wood, R.; Wilson, P. S.

    2014-12-01

    The American Climate Prospectus (ACP), the technical analysis underlying the Risky Business project, quantitatively assessed the economic risks posed to the United States by six categories of climate change impacts: crop yield, energy demand, coastal storm damage, criminal activity, labor productivity, and mortality [1]. At a national level, measured by impact on gross domestic product, increased mortality and decreased labor productivity pose the large risks, followed by increased energy demand and coastal damages. Changes in crop yield and crime have smaller impacts. The ACP was not intended to conduct a benefit-cost analysis of climate change mitigation. It assessed the economic consequences of future impacts on an economy with a structure equivalent to that of the current economy, not accounting for socio-economic development and adaptation, and did not assess the cost of mitigation. One of its primary goals was to inform adaptation decisions that are conventionally considered 'endogenous' in economic analyses of climate change. Nonetheless, its results provide insight into the potential of mitigation to manage climate risk. Differences between RCP 8.5 (moderately-high business-as-usual emissions), RCP 4.5 (moderate mitigation) and RCP 2.6 (extremely strong mitigation) are not apparent until mid-century and become significant only late in the century. For all impacts except coastal damages, mitigation significantly reduces uncertainty in late-century impact estimates. Nationally, mitigation significantly and monotonically reduces median projected labor productivity losses and violent crime. Switching from RCP 8.5 to RCP 4.5 also significantly reduces median projections of mortality and energy demand, but the domestic value to the U.S. of further mitigation to RCP 2.6 is less clear. The marginal benefits decline in part because some regions of the country (especially the Northwest) may experience increased crop yields, reduced mortality, and reduced energy

  13. Insights into fisheries management practices: using the theory of planned behavior to explain fish stocking among a sample of Swiss anglers.

    PubMed

    von Lindern, Eike; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Using inadequate management tools often threatens the natural environment. This study focuses on the example of Swiss recreational fishermen (hereafter called "anglers") as recreational fisheries management stakeholders. In recreational fisheries, fish stocking conducted by anglers has been identified as one important factor associated with declining fish catches. We therefore aimed to a) gain insights into why anglers want to maintain fish stocking and b) identify entry points for interventions to promote more pro-ecological management practices. Results (N = 349) showed that the majority of anglers think very uncritically about stocking and that they frequently engage in it. We conclude that outcome expectancies and beliefs about risks, in combination with a lack of stocking success controls are the main reasons that anglers retain stocking measures. We suggest that providing anglers with direct experience and feedback about stocking success is suitable to change their intentions regarding stocking and their actual stocking behavior, and thus, to promote more pro-ecological management methods. From a more general perspective, the results of this study are likely to help improve pro-ecological ecosystem management in other domains where problems similar to those in recreational fisheries management might exist. PMID:25514798

  14. Insights into Fisheries Management Practices: Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Explain Fish Stocking among a Sample of Swiss Anglers

    PubMed Central

    von Lindern, Eike; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Using inadequate management tools often threatens the natural environment. This study focuses on the example of Swiss recreational fishermen (hereafter called “anglers”) as recreational fisheries management stakeholders. In recreational fisheries, fish stocking conducted by anglers has been identified as one important factor associated with declining fish catches. We therefore aimed to a) gain insights into why anglers want to maintain fish stocking and b) identify entry points for interventions to promote more pro-ecological management practices. Results (N = 349) showed that the majority of anglers think very uncritically about stocking and that they frequently engage in it. We conclude that outcome expectancies and beliefs about risks, in combination with a lack of stocking success controls are the main reasons that anglers retain stocking measures. We suggest that providing anglers with direct experience and feedback about stocking success is suitable to change their intentions regarding stocking and their actual stocking behavior, and thus, to promote more pro-ecological management methods. From a more general perspective, the results of this study are likely to help improve pro-ecological ecosystem management in other domains where problems similar to those in recreational fisheries management might exist. PMID:25514798

  15. A Review of Solution Chemistry Studies: Insights into Students' Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calyk, Muammer; Ayas, Alipa; Ebenezer, Jazlin V.

    2005-01-01

    This study has reviewed the last two decades of student conception research in solution chemistry pertaining to aims, methods of exploring students' conception, general knowledge claims, students' conceptions and difficulties, and conceptual change studies. The aims of solution chemistry studies have been to assess students' understanding level of…

  16. Insights for Analyzing Earnings Growth Rates: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannah, Richard L.

    1994-01-01

    A study at one public university investigated the annualized rate of salary/wage increase of employees from the time of hiring until July 1992. It examined promotion patterns, equity adjustments, employee degree acquisition, and certification of clerical workers. The study underscored the wide variation in earnings growth rates due in large part…

  17. Insights into Coupled Folding and Binding Mechanisms from Kinetic Studies.

    PubMed

    Shammas, Sarah L; Crabtree, Michael D; Dahal, Liza; Wicky, Basile I M; Clarke, Jane

    2016-03-25

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are characterized by a lack of persistent structure. Since their identification more than a decade ago, many questions regarding their functional relevance and interaction mechanisms remain unanswered. Although most experiments have taken equilibrium and structural perspectives, fewer studies have investigated the kinetics of their interactions. Here we review and highlight the type of information that can be gained from kinetic studies. In particular, we show how kinetic studies of coupled folding and binding reactions, an important class of signaling event, are needed to determine mechanisms. PMID:26851275

  18. The Ft. Wayne Flood: Insights into Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincheloe, Joe L.

    1985-01-01

    Describes how students in Fort Wayne, Indiana, became involved in that community's efforts to recover from a flood. Explains how the tragedy provided great teaching moments for the schools, specifically the social studies classes. (FL)

  19. A Review of Solution Chemistry Studies: Insights into Students? Conceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çalýk, Muammer; Ayas, Alipaşa; Ebenezer, Jazlin V.

    2005-03-01

    This study has reviewed the last two decades of student conception research in solution chemistry pertaining to aims, methods of exploring students' conception, general knowledge claims, students' conceptions and difficulties, and conceptual change studies. The aims of solution chemistry studies have been to assess students' understanding level of solution chemistry and in some studies compare understanding based on age and year at school or college. The methods of exploring students' conceptions consisted of interviews, paper and pencil surveys (open-ended questions and multiple-choice questions), free writing and drawings and the validity of these methods have been highlighted. The general knowledge claims synthesized in this study are students' (a) attending to mechanical events, (b) preference for everyday language usage over chemical language, (c) confusing solution chemistry with non-related concepts, (d) lack of sub-microscopic explanation for macroscopic observation, (e) difficulty with visualizing and representing sub-microscopic ideas, (f) difficulty with symbolic representations, (g) inconsistent explanations, (h) development of student understanding with age, and (i) development of conservation reasoning with age. To incorporate students' conceptions, conceptual change studies have used strategies such as worksheet, analogy, collaboratively working with a teacher, hypermedia, and group exploration. The results of conceptual change studies generally have had a positive impact enabling students to consider their ideas and develop plausible models of solution chemistry. For improvement of student learning in chemistry, this review of solution chemistry studies sheds light on teacher thinking and capacity building with respect to explicitly incorporating students' conceptions into chemistry curriculum; practicing research-based strategies; forging links among types of chemical knowledge; collaborating for experimental teaching; and conducting further

  20. Regional solid waste management study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    In 1990, the Lower Savannah Council of Governments (LSCOG) began dialogue with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) regarding possibilities for cooperation and coordination of solid waste management practices among the local governments and the Savannah River Site. The Department of Energy eventually awarded a grant to the Lower Savannah Council of Governments for the development of a study, which was initiated on March 5, 1992. After careful analysis of the region`s solid waste needs, this study indicates a network approach to solid waste management to be the most viable. The network involves the following major components: (1) Rural Collection Centers, designed to provide convenience to rural citizens, while allowing some degree of participation in recycling; (2) Rural Drop-Off Centers, designed to give a greater level of education and recycling activity; (3) Inert landfills and composting centers, designed to reduce volumes going into municipal (Subtitle D) landfills and produce useable products from yard waste; (4) Transfer Stations, ultimate landfill disposal; (5) Materials Recovery Facilities, designed to separate recyclables into useable and sellable units, and (6) Subtitle D landfill for burial of all solid waste not treated through previous means.

  1. Students Using Chemistry Courseware - Insights from a Qualitative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlinic, Slavica; Wright, Anthony H.; Buckley, Paul D.

    2000-02-01

    A qualitative research study employing stimulated recall interviewing explored student understanding in computer-aided instruction in first-year university chemistry. The study involving 36 students and 32 interviews covered four types of computer-based task: a simulated experiment, a supplementary experiment to a practical laboratory, a problem-solving tutorial, and an exercise using solid-state animations. Analysis of the data showed that although all students completed the tasks, they frequently failed to understand the material presented. Prior knowledge assumed in the task and lack of appropriate feedback often contributed to the task's not matching the learning needs of students. The study revealed the inadequacy of the linear instructional design of the tasks investigated.

  2. Usual Populations, Unusual Individuals: Insights into the Behavior and Management of Asian Elephants in Fragmented Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasaiah, Nishant M.; Vaidyanathan, Srinivas; Sinha, Anindya

    2012-01-01

    Background A dearth in understanding the behavior of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) at the scale of populations and individuals has left important management issues, particularly related to human-elephant conflict (HEC), unresolved. Evaluation of differences in behavior and decision-making among individual elephants across groups in response to changing local ecological settings is essential to fill this gap in knowledge and to improve our approaches towards the management and conservation of elephants. Methodology/Principal Findings We hypothesized certain behavioral decisions that would be made by Asian elephants as reflected in their residence time and movement rates, time-activity budgets, social interactions and group dynamics in response to resource availability and human disturbance in their habitat. This study is based on 200 h of behavioral observations on 60 individually identified elephants and a 184-km2 grid-based survey of their natural and anthropogenic habitats within and outside the Bannerghatta National Park, southern India during the dry season. At a general population level, the behavioral decisions appeared to be guided by the gender, age and group-type of the elephants. At the individual level, the observed variation could be explained only by the idiosyncratic behaviors of individuals and that of their associating conspecific individuals. Recursive partitioning classification trees for residence time of individual elephants indicated that the primary decisions were taken by individuals, independently of their above-mentioned biological and ecological attributes. Conclusions/Significance Decision-making by Asian elephants thus appears to be determined at two levels, that of the population and, more importantly, the individual. Models based on decision-making by individual elephants have the potential to predict conflict in fragmented landscapes that, in turn, could aid in mitigating HEC. Thus, we must target individuals, in addition to

  3. Better Insight Into Water Resources Management With Integrated Hydrodynamic And Water Quality Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debele, B.; Srinivasan, R.; Parlange, J.

    2004-12-01

    Models have long been used in water resources management to guide decision making and improve understanding of the system. Numerous models of different scales -spatial and temporal - are available. Yet, very few models manage to bridge simulations of hydrological and water quality parameters from both upland watershed and riverine system. Most water quality models, such as QUAL2E and EPD-RIV1 concentrate on the riverine system while CE-QUAL-W2 and WASP models focus on larger waterbodies, such as lakes and reservoirs. On the other hand, the original SWAT model, HSPF and other upland watershed hydrological models simulate agricultural (diffuse) pollution sources with limited number of processes incorporated to handle point source pollutions that emanate from industrial sectors. Such limitations, which are common in most hydrodynamic and water quality models undermine better understanding that otherwise could be uncovered by employing integrated hydrological and water quality models for both upland watershed and riverine system. The SWAT model is a well documented and verified hydrological and water quality model that has been developed to simulate the effects of various management scenarios on the health of the environment in terms of water quantity and quality. Recently, the SWAT model has been extended to include the simulation of hydrodynamic and water quality parameters in the river system. The extended SWAT model (ESWAT) has been further extended to run using diurnally varying (hourly) weather data and produce outputs at hourly timescales. This and other improvements in the ESWAT model have been documented in the current work. Besides, the results from two case studies in Texas will be reported.

  4. Balancing opioid-induced gastrointestinal side effects with pain management: Insights from the online community.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Cynthia B; Reid, Mark W; Arnold, Corey; Patel, Haridarshan; Ursos, Lyann; Sa'adon, Roee; Pourmorady, Jonathan; Spiegel, Brennan M R

    2015-01-01

    Opioids cause gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, pain, and (in 40 percent) constipation that diminish patients' quality of life. Outside traditional surveys, little is known about the opioid-induced constipation (OIC) patient experience and its impact on pain management. The purpose of this study was to use data from social media platforms to qualitatively examine patient beliefs about OIC and other prominent GI side effects, their impact on effective pain management and doctor-patient interaction. The authors collected Tweets from March 25 to July 31, 2014, and e-forum posts from health-related social networking sites regardless of timestamp. The authors identified specific keywords related to opioids and GI side effects to locate relevant content in the dataset, which was then manually coded using ATLAS.ti software. The authors examined 2,519,868 Tweets and more than 1.8 billion e-forum posts, of which, 88,586 Tweets and 9,767 posts satisfied the search criteria. Three thousand three individuals experienced opioidinduced GI side effects, mostly related to phenanthrenes (n = 1,589), and 1,274 (42.4 percent) individuals described constipation. Over-the-counter medications and nonevidence-based natural approaches were most commonly used to alleviate constipation. Many individuals questioned, rotated, reduced, or stopped their opioid treatments as a result of their GI side effects. Investigation of social media reveals a struggle to balance pain management with opioid-induced GI side effects, especially constipation. Individuals are often unprepared to treat OIC, to modify opioid regiments without medical advice, and to resort to using natural remedies and treatments lacking scientific evidence of effectiveness. These results identify opportunities to improve physician-patient communication and explore effective treatment alternatives. PMID:26535966

  5. Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia: Insights from Neuroimaging Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogtay, Nitin; Rapoport, Judith L.

    2008-01-01

    The use of longitudinal neuroimaging to study the developmental perspectives of brain pathology in children with childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) is described. Structural neuroimaging is capable of providing evidence of neurobiological specificity of COS to distinguish it from other brain abnormalities seen in neuropsychiatric illnesses like…

  6. Insights into Departure Intention: A Qualitative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natoli, Riccardo; Jackling, Beverley; Siddique, Salina

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to address attrition rates at universities have been driven by Tinto's (1975) model of student engagement with its focus on student: (a) pre entry attributes; (b) academic engagement; and (c) social engagement. Using an ethnographic approach, the study involves interviews with business students to explore the links between these aspects…

  7. New Insights into the Management of Patients with Autoimmune Diseases or Inflammatory Disorders During Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tavakolpour, Soheil; Rahimzadeh, Ghazal

    2016-09-01

    The treatment of autoimmune diseases remains a serious problem. Current therapies can lead to adverse effects in patients. One of the most vulnerable patient groups is pregnant women. It has been reported that different autoimmune diseases have a certain trend during pregnancy and after delivery which could be explained by maternal immune responses. Better management of pregnant women with autoimmune diseases or inflammatory disorders could be achieved by linking such alterations in immune responses and governed immune responses in different autoimmune disorders while considering various reports of autoimmune conditions during pregnancy. This study considers changing the T helper cells (Th1) and Th2 balance and suggests some new approaches for the better management of autoimmune diseases in pregnant women based on immune responses. Additionally, the possible role of Th17, alterations in some selected autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis (MS), psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), atopic dermatitis (AD), asthma and pemphigus during pregnancy, and possible associated mechanisms are discussed. PMID:27300757

  8. Insights on TRP Channels from In Vivo Studies in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Minke, Baruch; Parnas, Moshe

    2007-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels mediate responses in a large variety of signaling mechanisms. Most studies on mammalian TRP channels rely on heterologous expression, but their relevance to in vivo tissues is not entirely clear. In contrast, Drosophila TRP and TRP-like (TRPL) channels allow direct analyses of in vivo function. In Drosophila photoreceptors, activation of TRP and TRPL is mediated via the phosphoinositide cascade, with both Ca2+ and diacylglycerol (DAG) essential for generating the light response. In tissue culture cells, TRPL channels are constitutively active, and lipid second messengers greatly facilitate this activity. Inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) completely blocks lipid activation of TRPL, suggesting that lipid activation is mediated via PLC. In vivo studies in mutant Drosophila also reveal an acute requirement for lipid-producing enzyme, which may regulate PLC activity. Thus, PLC and its downstream second messengers, Ca2+ and DAG, constitute critical mediators of TRP/TRPL gating in vivo. PMID:16460287

  9. Insights into Arbovirus Evolution and Adaptation from Experimental Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ciota, Alexander T.; Kramer, Laura D.

    2010-01-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are maintained in nature by cycling between vertebrate hosts and haematophagous invertebrate vectors. These viruses are responsible for causing a significant public health burden throughout the world, with over 100 species having the capacity to cause human disease. Arbovirus outbreaks in previously naïve environments demonstrate the potential of these pathogens for expansion and emergence, possibly exacerbated more recently by changing climates. These recent outbreaks, together with the continued devastation caused by endemic viruses, such as Dengue virus which persists in many areas, demonstrate the need to better understand the selective pressures that shape arbovirus evolution. Specifically, a comprehensive understanding of host-virus interactions and how they shape both host-specific and virus-specific evolutionary pressures is needed to fully evaluate the factors that govern the potential for host shifts and geographic expansions. One approach to advance our understanding of the factors influencing arbovirus evolution in nature is the use of experimental studies in the laboratory. Here, we review the contributions that laboratory passage and experimental infection studies have made to the field of arbovirus adaptation and evolution, and how these studies contribute to the overall field of arbovirus evolution. In particular, this review focuses on the areas of evolutionary constraints and mutant swarm dynamics; how experimental results compare to theoretical predictions; the importance of arbovirus ecology in shaping viral swarms; and how current knowledge should guide future questions relevant to understanding arbovirus evolution. PMID:21994633

  10. Knowledge Management Analysis: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mecha, Ezi I.; Desai, Mayur S.; Richards, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    It is imperative for businesses to manage knowledge and stay competitive in the marketplace. Knowledge management is critical and is a key to prevent organizations from duplicating their efforts with a subsequent improvement in their efficiency. This study focuses on overview of knowledge management, analyzes the current knowledge management in…

  11. [New insight of genome-wide association study (GWAS)].

    PubMed

    Hotta, Kikuko

    2013-02-01

    The number of obese patients is increasing in Japan, due to the westernization of lifestyle. Obesity, especially visceral fat obesity, is important for the development of metabolic syndrome. Genetic factors are important for the development of obesity as well as environmental factors. Importance of genetic factors of fat distribution is also reported. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revealed the obesity and fat distribution-related polymorphisms. GWAS will highlight a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms in the regulation of obesity and distribution of body fat. PMID:23631198

  12. Olfactory function in psychotic disorders: Insights from neuroimaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Good, Kimberley P; Sullivan, Randii Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory deficits on measures of identification, familiarity, and memory are consistently noted in patients with psychotic disorders relative to age-matched controls. Olfactory intensity ratings, however, appear to remain intact while the data on hedonics and detection threshold are inconsistent. Despite the behavioral abnormalities noted, no specific regional brain hypoactivity has been identified in psychosis patients, for any of the olfactory domains. However, an intriguing finding emerged from this review in that the amygdala and pirifom cortices were not noted to be abnormal in hedonic processing (nor was the amygdala identified abnormal in any study) in psychotic disorders. This finding is in contrast to the literature in healthy individuals, in that this brain region is strongly implicated in olfactory processing (particularly for unpleasant odorants). Secondary olfactory cortex (orbitofrontal cortices, thalamus, and insula) was abnormally activated in the studies examined, particularly for hedonic processing. Further research, using consistent methodology, is required for better understanding the neurobiology of olfactory deficits. The authors suggest taking age and sex differences into consideration and further contrasting olfactory subgroups (impaired vs intact) to better our understanding of the heterogeneity of psychotic disorders. PMID:26110122

  13. The bovine milk microbiota: insights and perspectives from -omics studies.

    PubMed

    Addis, M F; Tanca, A; Uzzau, S; Oikonomou, G; Bicalho, R C; Moroni, P

    2016-07-19

    Recent significant progress in culture-independent techniques, together with the parallel development of -omics technologies and data analysis capabilities, have led to a new perception of the milk microbiota as a complex microbial community with great diversity and multifaceted biological roles, living in an environment that was until recently believed to be sterile. In this review, we summarize and discuss the latest findings on the milk microbiota in dairy cows, with a focus on the role it plays in bovine physiology and health. Following an introduction on microbial communities and the importance of their study, we present an overview of the -omics methods currently available for their characterization, and outline the potential offered by a systems biology approach encompassing metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics, and metametabolomics. Then, we review the recent discoveries on the dairy cow milk microbiome enabled by the application of -omics approaches. Learning from studies in humans and in the mouse model, and after a description of the endogenous route hypothesis, we discuss the role of the milk microbiota in the physiology and health of both the mother and the offspring, and report how it can be changed by farming practices and during infection. In conclusion, we shortly outline the impact of the milk microbiota on the quality of milk and of dairy products. PMID:27216801

  14. Reproductive costs in terrestrial male vertebrates: insights from bird studies.

    PubMed

    Bleu, Josefa; Gamelon, Marlène; Sæther, Bernt-Erik

    2016-01-27

    Reproduction requires resources that cannot be allocated to other functions resulting in direct reproductive costs (i.e. trade-offs between current reproduction and subsequent survival/reproduction). In wild vertebrates, direct reproductive costs have been widely described in females, but their occurrence in males remains to be explored. To fill this gap, we gathered 53 studies on 48 species testing direct reproductive costs in male vertebrates. We found a trade-off between current reproduction and subsequent performances in 29% of the species and in every clade. As 73% of the studied species are birds, we focused on that clade to investigate whether such trade-offs are associated with (i) levels of paternal care, (ii) polygyny or (iii) pace of life. More precisely for this third question, it is expected that fast species (i.e. short lifespan, early maturity, high fecundity) pay a cost in terms of survival, whereas slow species (with opposite characteristics) do so in terms of fecundity. Our findings tend to support this hypothesis. Finally, we pointed out the potential confounding effects that should be accounted for when investigating reproductive costs in males and strongly encourage the investigation of such costs in more clades to understand to what extent our results are relevant for other vertebrates. PMID:26791619

  15. Reproductive costs in terrestrial male vertebrates: insights from bird studies

    PubMed Central

    Gamelon, Marlène; Sæther, Bernt-Erik

    2016-01-01

    Reproduction requires resources that cannot be allocated to other functions resulting in direct reproductive costs (i.e. trade-offs between current reproduction and subsequent survival/reproduction). In wild vertebrates, direct reproductive costs have been widely described in females, but their occurrence in males remains to be explored. To fill this gap, we gathered 53 studies on 48 species testing direct reproductive costs in male vertebrates. We found a trade-off between current reproduction and subsequent performances in 29% of the species and in every clade. As 73% of the studied species are birds, we focused on that clade to investigate whether such trade-offs are associated with (i) levels of paternal care, (ii) polygyny or (iii) pace of life. More precisely for this third question, it is expected that fast species (i.e. short lifespan, early maturity, high fecundity) pay a cost in terms of survival, whereas slow species (with opposite characteristics) do so in terms of fecundity. Our findings tend to support this hypothesis. Finally, we pointed out the potential confounding effects that should be accounted for when investigating reproductive costs in males and strongly encourage the investigation of such costs in more clades to understand to what extent our results are relevant for other vertebrates. PMID:26791619

  16. Haloadaptation: insights from comparative modeling studies of halophilic archaeal DHFRs.

    PubMed

    Kastritis, Panagiotis L; Papandreou, Nikos C; Hamodrakas, Stavros J

    2007-10-01

    Proteins of halophilic archaea function in high-salt concentrations that inactivate or precipitate homologous proteins from non-halophilic species. Haloadaptation and the mechanism behind the phenomenon are not yet fully understood. In order to obtain useful information, homology modeling studies of dihydrofolate reductases (DHFRs) from halophilic archaea were performed that led to the construction of structural models. These models were subjected to energy minimization, structural evaluation and analysis. Complementary approaches concerning calculations of the amino acid composition and visual inspection of the surfaces and cores of the models, as well as calculations of electrostatic surface potentials, in comparison to non-halophilic DHFRs were also performed. The results provide evidence that sheds some light on the phenomenon of haloadaptation: DHFRs from halophilic archaea may maintain their fold, in high-salt concentrations, by sharing highly negatively charged surfaces and weak hydrophobic cores. PMID:17675150

  17. Insight On Colorectal Carcinoma Infiltration by Studying Perilesional Extracellular Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Nebuloni, Manuela; Albarello, Luca; Andolfo, Annapaola; Magagnotti, Cinzia; Genovese, Luca; Locatelli, Irene; Tonon, Giovanni; Longhi, Erika; Zerbi, Pietro; Allevi, Raffaele; Podestà, Alessandro; Puricelli, Luca; Milani, Paolo; Soldarini, Armando; Salonia, Andrea; Alfano, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) from perilesional and colorectal carcinoma (CRC), but not healthy colon, sustains proliferation and invasion of tumor cells. We investigated the biochemical and physical diversity of ECM in pair-wised comparisons of healthy, perilesional and CRC specimens. Progressive linearization and degree of organization of fibrils was observed from healthy to perilesional and CRC ECM, and was associated with a steady increase of stiffness and collagen crosslinking. In the perilesional ECM these modifications coincided with increased vascularization, whereas in the neoplastic ECM they were associated with altered modulation of matrisome proteins, increased content of hydroxylated lysine and lysyl oxidase. This study identifies the increased stiffness and crosslinking of the perilesional ECM predisposing an environment suitable for CRC invasion as a phenomenon associated with vascularization. The increased stiffness of colon areas may represent a new predictive marker of desmoplastic region predisposing to invasion, thus offering new potential application for monitoring adenoma with invasive potential. PMID:26940881

  18. New Insights into Handling Missing Values in Environmental Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Roda, Célina; Nicolis, Ioannis; Momas, Isabelle; Guihenneuc, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Missing data are unavoidable in environmental epidemiologic surveys. The aim of this study was to compare methods for handling large amounts of missing values: omission of missing values, single and multiple imputations (through linear regression or partial least squares regression), and a fully Bayesian approach. These methods were applied to the PARIS birth cohort, where indoor domestic pollutant measurements were performed in a random sample of babies' dwellings. A simulation study was conducted to assess performances of different approaches with a high proportion of missing values (from 50% to 95%). Different simulation scenarios were carried out, controlling the true value of the association (odds ratio of 1.0, 1.2, and 1.4), and varying the health outcome prevalence. When a large amount of data is missing, omitting these missing data reduced statistical power and inflated standard errors, which affected the significance of the association. Single imputation underestimated the variability, and considerably increased risk of type I error. All approaches were conservative, except the Bayesian joint model. In the case of a common health outcome, the fully Bayesian approach is the most efficient approach (low root mean square error, reasonable type I error, and high statistical power). Nevertheless for a less prevalent event, the type I error is increased and the statistical power is reduced. The estimated posterior distribution of the OR is useful to refine the conclusion. Among the methods handling missing values, no approach is absolutely the best but when usual approaches (e.g. single imputation) are not sufficient, joint modelling approach of missing process and health association is more efficient when large amounts of data are missing. PMID:25226278

  19. New insights into handling missing values in environmental epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Roda, Célina; Nicolis, Ioannis; Momas, Isabelle; Guihenneuc, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Missing data are unavoidable in environmental epidemiologic surveys. The aim of this study was to compare methods for handling large amounts of missing values: omission of missing values, single and multiple imputations (through linear regression or partial least squares regression), and a fully Bayesian approach. These methods were applied to the PARIS birth cohort, where indoor domestic pollutant measurements were performed in a random sample of babies' dwellings. A simulation study was conducted to assess performances of different approaches with a high proportion of missing values (from 50% to 95%). Different simulation scenarios were carried out, controlling the true value of the association (odds ratio of 1.0, 1.2, and 1.4), and varying the health outcome prevalence. When a large amount of data is missing, omitting these missing data reduced statistical power and inflated standard errors, which affected the significance of the association. Single imputation underestimated the variability, and considerably increased risk of type I error. All approaches were conservative, except the Bayesian joint model. In the case of a common health outcome, the fully Bayesian approach is the most efficient approach (low root mean square error, reasonable type I error, and high statistical power). Nevertheless for a less prevalent event, the type I error is increased and the statistical power is reduced. The estimated posterior distribution of the OR is useful to refine the conclusion. Among the methods handling missing values, no approach is absolutely the best but when usual approaches (e.g. single imputation) are not sufficient, joint modelling approach of missing process and health association is more efficient when large amounts of data are missing. PMID:25226278

  20. Encouraging Women's Creative Confidence: A Case Study of Women's Insights into Their Own Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esslinger, Deborah S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to investigate the insights of a small group of women to determine factors important in encouraging creative confidence and specific activities that would contribute to creative growth. There were three research questions that guided the study, using an open-ended questionnaire and a focus group…

  1. Pathogenesis of immunoglobulin A nephropathy: recent insight from genetic studies.

    PubMed

    Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Novak, Jan; Gharavi, Ali G

    2013-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple susceptibility loci for immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN), the most common form of glomerulonephritis, implicating independent defects in adaptive immunity (three loci on chromosome 6p21 in the MHC region), innate immunity (8p23 DEFA locus, 17p23 TNFSF13 locus, 22q12 HORMAD2 locus), and the alternative complement pathway (1q32 CFH/CFHR locus). In geospatial analysis of 85 populations, a genetic risk score based on the replicated GWAS loci is highest in Asians, intermediate in Europeans, and lowest in Africans, capturing the known difference in prevalence among world populations. The genetic risk score also uncovered a previously unsuspected increased prevalence of IgAN-attributable kidney failure in Northern Europe. The IgAN risk alleles have opposing effects on many immune-mediated diseases, suggesting that selection has contributed to variation in risk allele frequencies among different populations. Incorporating genetic, immunologic, and biochemical data, we present a multistep pathogenesis model that provides testable hypotheses for dissecting the mechanisms of disease. PMID:23072577

  2. Insights from the study of high-temperature interface superconductivity.

    PubMed

    Pereiro, J; Bollinger, A T; Logvenov, G; Gozar, A; Panagopoulos, C; Bozović, I

    2012-10-28

    A brief overview is given of the studies of high-temperature interface superconductivity based on atomic-layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE). A number of difficult materials science and physics questions have been tackled, frequently at the expense of some technical tour de force, and sometimes even by introducing new techniques. ALL-MBE is especially suitable to address questions related to surface and interface physics. Using this technique, it has been demonstrated that high-temperature superconductivity can occur in a single copper oxide layer-the thinnest superconductor known. It has been shown that interface superconductivity in cuprates is a genuine electronic effect-it arises from charge transfer (electron depletion and accumulation) across the interface driven by the difference in chemical potentials rather than from cation diffusion and mixing. We have also understood the nature of the superconductor-insulator phase transition as a function of doping. However, a few important questions, such as the mechanism of interfacial enhancement of the critical temperature, are still outstanding. PMID:22987034

  3. Benefits of the Mediterranean Diet: Insights From the PREDIMED Study.

    PubMed

    Martínez-González, Miguel A; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Estruch, Ramón; Corella, Dolores; Fitó, Montse; Ros, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) multicenter, randomized, primary prevention trial assessed the long-term effects of the Mediterranean diet (MeDiet) on clinical events of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We randomized 7447 men and women at high CVD risk into three diets: MeDiet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), MeDiet supplemented with nuts, and control diet (advice on a low-fat diet). No energy restriction and no special intervention on physical activity were applied. We observed 288 CVD events (a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke or CVD death) during a median time of 4.8years; hazard ratios were 0.70 (95% CI, 0.53-0.91) for the MeDiet+EVOO and 0.70 (CI, 0.53-0.94) for the MeDiet+nuts compared to the control group. Respective hazard ratios for incident diabetes (273 cases) among 3541 non-diabetic participants were 0.60 (0.43-0.85) and 0.82 (0.61-1.10) for MeDiet+EVOO and MeDiet+nuts, respectively versus control. Significant improvements in classical and emerging CVD risk factors also supported a favorable effect of both MeDiets on blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, lipid profiles, lipoprotein particles, inflammation, oxidative stress, and carotid atherosclerosis. In nutrigenomic studies beneficial effects of the intervention with MedDiets showed interactions with several genetic variants (TCF7L2, APOA2, MLXIPL, LPL, FTO, M4CR, COX-2, GCKR and SERPINE1) with respect to intermediate and final phenotypes. Thus, the PREDIMED trial provided strong evidence that a vegetable-based MeDiet rich in unsaturated fat and polyphenols can be a sustainable and ideal model for CVD prevention. PMID:25940230

  4. An Interpersonal Approach to Classroom Management: Strategies for Improving Student Engagement. Classroom Insights from Educational Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Heather A.; Summers, Jessica J.; Miller, Lauren M.

    2012-01-01

    Like having a hidden camera in other teachers' classrooms, An Interpersonal Approach to Classroom Management engages you from the start by contrasting how two teachers respond differently to common situations. The authors expertly bridge the gap between educational psychology and peer and student-teacher management from the perspectives of student…

  5. Phosphorus dynamics in lake sediments: Insights from field study and reactive-transport modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, Maria; Markovic, Stefan; Cadena, Sandra; Doan, Phuong T. K.; Watson, Sue; Mugalingam, Shan

    2016-04-01

    Phosphorus is an indispensable nutrient for organisms in aquatic systems and its availability often controls primary productivity. At the sediment-water interface, intensive microbiological, geochemical and physical processes determine the fraction of organic matter, nutrients and pollutants released into the overlying water. Therefore, detailed understanding of the processes occurring in the top centimeters of the sediment is essential for the assessment of water quality and the management of surface waters. In cases where measurements are impossible or expensive, diagenetic modelling is required to investigate the interplay among the processes, verify concepts and predict potential system behavior. The main aims of this study are to identify and predict the dynamics of phosphorus (P) in sediments and gain insight into the mechanism of P release from sediments under varying environmental conditions. We measured redox, O2 and pH profiles with micro-sensors at the sediment-water interface; analyzed phosphate and metals (Fe, Mn, Al, Ca) content in pore waters collected using in situ samplers, so called "peepers"; determined P binding forms using sequential extraction and analyzed metals associated with each fraction. Following the sediment analysis, P binding forms were divided in five groups: inert, carbonate-bound, organic, redox-sensitive, and labile P. Using the flux of organic and inorganic matter as dynamic boundary conditions, the diagenetic model simulates P internal loading and predicts P retention. This presentation will discuss the results of two years studies on P dynamics at the sediment-water interface in three different lakes ranging from heavy-polluted Hamilton Harbor and Bay of Quinte to pristine Georgian Bay in Ontario, Canada.

  6. Software for Managing Parametric Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarrow, Maurice; McCann, Karen M.; DeVivo, Adrian

    2003-01-01

    The Information Power Grid Virtual Laboratory (ILab) is a Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (PERL) graphical-user-interface computer program that generates shell scripts to facilitate parametric studies performed on the Grid. (The Grid denotes a worldwide network of supercomputers used for scientific and engineering computations involving data sets too large to fit on desktop computers.) Heretofore, parametric studies on the Grid have been impeded by the need to create control language scripts and edit input data files painstaking tasks that are necessary for managing multiple jobs on multiple computers. ILab reflects an object-oriented approach to automation of these tasks: All data and operations are organized into packages in order to accelerate development and debugging. A container or document object in ILab, called an experiment, contains all the information (data and file paths) necessary to define a complex series of repeated, sequenced, and/or branching processes. For convenience and to enable reuse, this object is serialized to and from disk storage. At run time, the current ILab experiment is used to generate required input files and shell scripts, create directories, copy data files, and then both initiate and monitor the execution of all computational processes.

  7. A geochemical study of the River Lagan, Northern Ireland: Insights into the hydrochemical catchment response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Alexander; Hindshaw, Ruth

    2015-04-01

    The management of water resources is rapidly becoming one of the most important issues affecting many societies worldwide. The chemical components of a river are often not directly related to discharge, instead the water chemistry and transit time of a catchment are a function of several parameters including the flow pathways, water sources and the storage of water within a catchment. There is a need to constrain the parameters controlling hydrochemistry if water resources are to be managed efficiently and be protected from anthropogenic influences. This study will present experimental analysis of a small catchment, focusing on the relationship between discharge and hydrochemistry; tracing water sources through the investigation of the hydrochemistry, δ18O and 87Sr/86Sr composition of rain water, groundwater, and stream water. This study focuses on the River Lagan catchment in Northern Ireland. The lower catchment of the river surrounds the city of Belfast, where it drains into the sea. However, the upper catchment (84.6 km2) is noted to be a natural regime, unaffected by damming and, as such, should provide an ideal opportunity to gain insight into the natural hydrochemistry and hydrologic pathways of the catchment. The bedrock of the area is dominated by the Southern Uplands-Down-Longford Terrane, consisting of greywacke sandstone and mudstone successions. Geochemical data obtained from the Geological Survey of Northern Ireland (GSNI), focusing on stream sediment and soils, suggests there is minimal geochemical variation throughout the upper catchment. The response of the catchment to rainfall was investigated through a time series, recorded during July and August 2014. This time series included a more intensive hourly series, taken over a period of 24 hours, during a forecast rain event. Potential end-members were also sampled: shallow groundwater samples were taken from a well and regular rain samples were collected. Spatial variability within the catchment

  8. A Cross-sectional, Comparative Study of Insight in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Patients in Remission

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Arul Saravanan; Ramanathan, Rajkumar; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Kanradi, Haridas; Sharma, Podila Satya Venkata Narasimha

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To study insight correlates in schizophrenia and bipolar mood disorder in remission among out-patients attending the Psychiatry Department of a Tertiary Care Hospital. Settings and Design: In a cross-sectional, naturalistic study, adult patients with schizophrenia and bipolar mood disorder in remission (n = 80; schizophrenia-40, mania-20, bipolar depression-20) were compared on insight measures and clinical correlates. Materials and Methods: Scale to Assess the Unawareness of Mental Disorders (SUMD) was used as the main tool to assess current and past measures of insight. Hogan's Drug Attitude Inventory was used to assess the drug attitude and compliance. Positive and Negative Symptom Scale for Schizophrenia, Young's Mania Rating Scale, and HAMD were used to rate psychopathology. Clinical Global Improvement was used as a screening tool for remission. Statistical Analysis: For comparison of the three clinical groups, analysis of variance and Chi-square test were used. In the post-hoc analysis, the Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch test was used to find the group difference. Results: About 40% in the schizophrenia group were unaware of their mental illness as against none in the bipolar group. The awareness of mental disorder for the current period, the awareness of the achieved effects of medications, and the awareness of social consequence was better in the bipolar group. The drug attitude (compliant positive attitude) increased as the SUMD item scale decreased or in other words, as the insight improved. Conclusions: Insight, both current and retrospect, showed significant differences between the schizophrenia and bipolar patients. Insight is significantly correlated with the observed compliance and drug attitude of the patient groups. PMID:27335515

  9. Creativity Development in Adolescence: Insight from Behavior, Brain, and Training Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleibeuker, Sietske W.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Crone, Eveline A.

    2016-01-01

    Creativity is a multifaceted construct that recruits different cognitive processes. Here, we summarize studies that show that creativity develops considerably during adolescence with different developmental trajectories for insight, verbal divergent thinking, and visuospatial divergent thinking. Next, these developmental time courses are mapped to…

  10. The Importance of Emotional Insight in Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Anorexia Nervosa: An Adolescent Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupa, Megha; Girimaji, Satish; Muthuswamy, Selvi; Jacob, Preeti; Ravi, Malavika

    2013-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a rare but sever psychiatric disorder in adolescence, with chronicity and death being the most feared consequence. Emotional Insight into one's problem is considered a key determinant of success in therapy. The following case study of a 14-year-old client, describes the process of therapy as it unfolded across 45 sessions. An…

  11. INSIGHTS GAINED AS A RESULT OF A HIGH SCHOOL SOCIAL STUDIES COURSE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LALOR, IDA B.

    A STUDY ATTEMPTED TO DETERMINE WHETHER HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS WHO HAVE GAINED KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING OF CONCEPTS IN ANTHROPOLOGY WOULD--(1) ACHIEVE GREATER SELF-INSIGHT, (2) BECOME LESS ETHNOCENTRIC IN THEIR ATTITUDES TOWARD OTHERS, AND (3) INCREASE THEIR ABILITY TO THINK CRITICALLY ABOUT SOCIAL PROBLEMS. A 1-YEAR EXPERIMENTAL COURSE ON WORLD…

  12. The Neural Basis of Insight Problem Solving: An Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiu, Jiang; Li, Hong; Yang, Dong; Luo, Yuejia; Li, Ying; Wu, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Qinglin

    2008-01-01

    The electrophysiological correlates of successful insight problem solving (Chinese logogriphs) were studied in 18 healthy subjects using high-density event-related potentials (ERPs). A new experimental paradigm (learning-testing model) was adopted in order to make subjects find a solution on their own initiative rather than receive an answer…

  13. Clinical insights into the diagnosis and management of renovascular disease. An evidence-based review.

    PubMed

    Bloch, M J; Basile, J

    2004-10-01

    Renovascular disease is a common, but complex disorder, the most common causes of which are fibromuscular dysplasia and atherosclerosis. It usually presents in 1 of 3 forms: asymptomatic renal artery stenosis, renovascular hypertension, or ischemic nephropathy. The clinical index of suspicion remains paramount in developing an appropriate diagnostic strategy. Although subject to certain limitations, conventional contrast angiography is usually considered the gold standard in confirming the diagnosis. In addition, there are a number of available non-invasive tests that can aid in decision-making. These tests can be divided into those that detect the anatomic presence of a stenosis and those that identify the functional consequences of the renal artery obstruction. No one study is appropriate for every patient. Treatment options include medical, surgical or percutaneous approaches. Generally, in patients with fibromuscular disease the results of surgery and percutaneous approaches appear superior. In patients with atherosclerotic disease, the data are less consistent, and there does appear to be a group of patients who will respond well to medical management. Potential diagnostic algorithms for diagnosis and treatment are presented in this review. PMID:15467512

  14. Insightful monitoring of natural flood risk management features using a low-cost and participatory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starkey, Eleanor; Barnes, Mhari; Quinn, Paul; Large, Andy

    2016-04-01

    Pressures associated with flooding and climate change have significantly increased over recent years. Natural Flood Risk Management (NFRM) is now seen as being a more appropriate and favourable approach in some locations. At the same time, catchment managers are also encouraged to adopt a more integrated, evidence-based and bottom-up approach. This includes engaging with local communities. Although NFRM features are being more readily installed, there is still limited evidence associated with their ability to reduce flood risk and offer multiple benefits. In particular, local communities and land owners are still uncertain about what the features entail and how they will perform, which is a huge barrier affecting widespread uptake. Traditional hydrometric monitoring techniques are well established but they still struggle to successfully monitor and capture NFRM performance spatially and temporally in a visual and more meaningful way for those directly affected on the ground. Two UK-based case studies are presented here where unique NFRM features have been carefully designed and installed in rural headwater catchments. This includes a 1km2 sub-catchment of the Haltwhistle Burn (northern England) and a 2km2 sub-catchment of Eddleston Water (southern Scotland). Both of these pilot sites are subject to prolonged flooding in winter and flash flooding in summer. This exacerbates sediment, debris and water quality issues downstream. Examples of NFRM features include ponds, woody debris and a log feature inspired by the children's game 'Kerplunk'. They have been tested and monitored over the 2015-2016 winter storms using low-cost techniques by both researchers and members of the community ('citizen scientists'). Results show that monitoring techniques such as regular consumer specification time-lapse cameras, photographs, videos and 'kite-cams' are suitable for long-term and low-cost monitoring of a variety of NFRM features. These techniques have been compared against

  15. Translational Science Project Team Managers: Qualitative Insights and Implications from Current and Previous Postdoctoral Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Wooten, Kevin C.; Dann, Sara M.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Kotarba, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    The development of leadership and project management skills is increasingly important to the evolution of translational science and team-based endeavors. Team science is dependent upon individuals at various stages in their careers, inclusive of postdocs. Data from case histories, as well as from interviews with current and former postdocs, and those supervising postdocs, indicate six essential tasks required of project managers in multidisciplinary translational teams, along with eight skill-related themes critical to their success. To optimize the opportunities available and to ensure sequential development of team project management skills, a life cycle model for the development of translational team skills is proposed, ranging from graduate trainees, postdocs, assistant professors, and finally to mature scientists. Specific goals, challenges and project management roles and tasks are recommended for each stage for the life cycle. PMID:25621288

  16. Advances in plant virus evolution: Translating evolutionary insights into better disease management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Revolutionary theoretical concepts derived from experimental evolution have reached the realm of plant viruses, and their empirical demonstration is opening new avenues for disease management. From a populational standpoint, plant viruses and viroids constitute dynamic spectra of variants. The frequ...

  17. Prefrontal subregions and dimensions of insight in first-episode schizophrenia--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Shad, Mujeeb U; Muddasani, Sri; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2006-01-30

    Deficits in insight are multidimensional, and include symptom unawareness and misattribution. We and others have observed that these deficits may be related to a prefrontal dysfunction. However, few studies have examined the relationship between specific prefrontal sub-regions and the awareness and attributional dimensions of insight in schizophrenia. This study examined the correlation between insight dimensions of awareness and attribution of symptoms and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) volume in 14 subjects with first-episode, antipsychotic-naïve (FEAN) schizophrenia. In addition, 21 healthy subjects provided control data for volumetric assessments. Insight was assessed with Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorders. Morphometric assessments were adjusted for intra-cranial volume and were conducted by trained raters blind to clinical information using BRAINS-2. Average scores on current awareness of symptoms (1=aware; 5=unaware) were negatively correlated with right DLPFC volume and average scores on current attribution of symptoms (1=attribute; 5=misattribute) with right medial OFC volume. Unawareness and misattribution of symptoms in FEAN schizophrenia may have distinct neuroanatomical bases. DLPFC deficits may have resulted in illness unawareness by interfering with self-monitoring, while OFC abnormalities may have mediated symptom misattribution by conferring aberrant salience to perceived symptomatology. PMID:16361089

  18. Management of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in clinical practice: the INSIGHTS-IPF registry.

    PubMed

    Behr, Jürgen; Kreuter, Michael; Hoeper, Marius M; Wirtz, Hubert; Klotsche, Jens; Koschel, Dirk; Andreas, Stefan; Claussen, Martin; Grohé, Christian; Wilkens, Henrike; Randerath, Winfried; Skowasch, Dirk; Meyer, F Joachim; Kirschner, Joachim; Gläser, Sven; Herth, Felix J F; Welte, Tobias; Huber, Rudolf Maria; Neurohr, Claus; Schwaiblmair, Martin; Kohlhäufl, Martin; Höffken, Gert; Held, Matthias; Koch, Andrea; Bahmer, Thomas; Pittrow, David

    2015-07-01

    After introduction of the new international guidelines on idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) in 2011, we investigated clinical management practices for patients with IPF according to physicians' diagnoses. A prospective, multicenter, noninterventional study with comprehensive quality measures including on-site source data verification was performed in Germany. 502 consecutive patients (171 newly diagnosed, 331 prevalent; mean±SD age 68.7±9.4 years, 77.9% males) with a mean disease duration of 2.3±3.5 years were enrolled. IPF diagnosis was based on clinical assessments and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in 90.2%, and on surgical lung biopsy combined with histology in 34.1% (lavage in 61.8%). The median 6-min walk distance was 320 m (mean 268±200 m). The mean forced vital capacity was 72±20% pred and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide was 35±15% pred. No drugs were administered in 17.9%, oral steroids in 23.7%, N-acetylcysteine in 33.7%, pirfenidone in 44.2% and other drugs in 4.6% of patients. Only 2.8% of the cohort was listed for lung transplantation. IPF patients were diagnosed in line with the new guidelines. They had more severe disease than those enrolled in recent randomised controlled trials. In addition to HRCT, the frequency of lung biopsies was surprisingly high. Treatment patterns varied substantially. PMID:25837040

  19. Breaking through the crisis in marine conservation and management: insights from the philosophies of Ed Ricketts.

    PubMed

    Sagarin, Raphael D; Crowder, Larry B

    2009-02-01

    Over the last decade, 2 major U.S. commissions on ocean policy and a wide range of independent sources have argued that ocean ecosystems are in a period of crisis and that current policies are inadequate to prevent further ecological damage. These sources have advocated ecosystem-based management as an approach to address conservation issues in the oceans, but managers remain uncertain as to how to implement ecosystem-based approaches in the real world. We argue that the philosophies of Edward F. Ricketts, a mid-20th-century marine ecologist, offer a framework and clear guidance for taking an ecosystem approach to marine conservation. Ricketts' philosophies, which were grounded in basic observations of natural history, espoused building a holistic picture of the natural world, including the influence of humans, through repeated observation. This approach, when applied to conservation, grounds management in what is observable in nature, encourages early action in the face of uncertainty, and supports an adaptive approach to management as new information becomes available. Ricketts' philosophy of "breaking through," which focuses on getting beyond crisis and conflict through honest debate of different parties' needs (rather than forcing compromise of differing positions), emphasizes the social dimension of natural resource management. New observational technologies, long-term ecological data sets, and especially advances in the social sciences made available since Ricketts' time greatly enhance the utility of Ricketts' philosophy of marine conservation. PMID:18950469

  20. Risk management and precaution: insights on the cautious use of evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Hrudey, Steve E; Leiss, William

    2003-01-01

    Risk management, done well, should be inherently precautionary. Adopting an appropriate degree of precaution with respect to feared health and environmental hazards is fundamental to risk management. The real problem is in deciding how precautionary to be in the face of inevitable uncertainties, demanding that we understand the equally inevitable false positives and false negatives from screening evidence. We consider a framework for detection and judgment of evidence of well-characterized hazards, using the concepts of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value that are well established for medical diagnosis. Our confidence in predicting the likelihood of a true danger inevitably will be poor for rare hazards because of the predominance of false positives; failing to detect a true danger is less likely because false negatives must be rarer than the danger itself. Because most controversial environmental hazards arise infrequently, this truth poses a dilemma for risk management. PMID:14527835

  1. Inspiring change: humanities and social science insights into the experience and management of breathlessness

    PubMed Central

    Oxley, Rebecca; Macnaughton, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Breathlessness can be debilitating for those with chronic conditions, requiring continual management. Yet, the meaning of breathlessness for those who live with it is poorly understood in respect of its subjective, cultural, and experiential significance. This article discusses a number of current issues in understanding the experience of breathlessness. Recent findings Effective communication concerning the experience of breathlessness is crucial for diagnosis, to identify appropriate treatment, and to provide patients with the capacity to self-manage their condition. However, there is an evident disconnect between the way breathlessness is understood between clinical and lay perspectives, in terms of awareness of breathlessness, the way symptoms are expressed, and acknowledgement of how it affects the daily lives of patients. Summary The review highlights the need for integrated multidisciplinary work on breathlessness, and suggests that effective understanding and management of breathlessness considers its wider subjective and social significance. PMID:27490147

  2. Insight into psoriasis management: commercial perspectives for the U.S. psoriasis market.

    PubMed

    Tran, Bryant; Feldman, Steven R

    2011-02-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic skin condition that has a significant impact on quality of life, self-esteem and comorbidities. Management of this condition is complicated and heavily influenced by psychosocial and economic realities. Addressing psychosocial and treatment education issues can be facilitated by use of the National Psoriasis Foundation. Localized disease is generally treated with topical treatment for which good generic medications are available. Somewhat higher priced branded vehicles are helpful for enhancing patients' treatment adherence, and may help avoid the need for far more toxic and expensive systemic treatment. Patients with extensive disease are best managed with phototherapy as a first-line option, and there is room for improvement in how insurers promote the use of this approach. Biologic treatments continue to offer new, safer options for patients with severe disease, albeit at higher cost. This review addresses practical issues in psoriasis management that would be of interest to organizations that are involved in the delivery of care for patients with psoriasis, such as managed care pharmacists and pharmaceutical companies that develop products for psoriasis. PMID:20528668

  3. Category III chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: insights from the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Collaborative Research Network studies.

    PubMed

    Nickel, J Curtis; Alexander, Richard B; Anderson, Rodney; Berger, Richard; Comiter, Craig V; Datta, Nand S; Fowler, Jackson E; Krieger, John N; Landis, J Richard; Litwin, Mark S; McNaughton-Collins, Mary; O'Leary, Michael P; Pontari, Michel A; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Shoskes, Daniel A; White, Paige; Kusek, John; Nyberg, Leroy

    2008-07-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome remains an enigmatic medical condition. Creation of the National Institutes of Health-funded Chronic Prostatitis Collaborative Research Network (CPCRN) has stimulated a renewed interest in research on and clinical aspects of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Landmark publications of the CPCRN document a decade of progress. Insights from these CPCRN studies have improved our management of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and offer hope for continued progress. PMID:18765132

  4. Elderly self-management: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Ravanipour, Maryam; Salehi, Shayesteh; Taleghani, Fariba; Abedi, Heidar Ali

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The population of elderly in Iran and in the world is increasing. It is predicted that the population of elderly reaches to 10 millions in Iran by the year 2019. Elders more than other age groups are at risk of chronic diseases and health problems; and elderly affects their self-management and makes them feel disabled. Since the knowledge of self-management for Iranian elderly is not well developed, this paper aimed to determine the concept of self-management for Iranian elders. METHODS: This was a qualitative study with grounded theory approach on Iranian elderly self-management. Data were collected through deep interviews with 26 participants in a period of one year and were analyzed using a Strauss Corbin analysis method. RESULTS: Self-management in the context of power means using different managing methods in dealing with daily life needs, especially in interactions with others in a way that accelerates affairs with efficiency and satisfaction. The main categories emerged from this qualitative study included: managing plans, managing life goals and policies, persuading the desired goals, managing self-care, directing others, coordinating and consulting with others. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study provided a deep understanding of elderly perceptions of self-management in their lives. These findings can be a baseline for future researches on developing effective health interventions such as developing a nursing model for increasing the elderly self-management abilities in Iran. Such a model can provide a strong basis for nursing care. PMID:21589781

  5. Manpower Management Studies: Selected Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryerson, William R., Comp.

    This bibliography contains 58 selected abstracts of research reports dating back to 1964 on the general subject of manpower management. It was prepared from a search of the National Technical Information Service data base of more than 300,000 documents submitted by agencies of the Federal Government and also by private organizations or individuals…

  6. Challenges and opportunities in healthcare volunteer management: insights from volunteer administrators.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Sean E; Rogers, Carmen M; Boyd, Karen D

    2013-01-01

    Volunteer administrators from 105 hospitals in five states in the northeast and southern United States provided open-ended survey responses about what they perceived to be the most pressing challenges and opportunities facing healthcare volunteer management. Taken together, these 105 hospitals used a total of 39,008 volunteers and 5.3 million volunteer hours during a 12-month period between 2010 and 2011. A qualitative content analysis of administrator responses suggests that primary challenges include volunteer recruitment and retention, administrative issues, and operational difficulties brought about by the current economic crisis. Key opportunities include more explicitly linking the volunteer function to hospital outcomes and community impact, expanding volunteer recruitment pools and roles and jobs, and developing organizational support for volunteers and making the volunteer management function more efficient and effective. PMID:23822549

  7. Work domain analysis for enhancing collaborations: a study of the management of microsystems design.

    PubMed

    Durugbo, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Collaboration is an important process that enables organisations to achieve goals or solve problems and, in design processes, is an important factor for accomplishing interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary tasks. An understanding of the functional configuration of organisations could therefore offer a useful insight into collaborations of designers. This study makes use of work domain analysis (WDA) to analyse the management of design by organisations within the microsystems technology (MST) domain. The WDA considers the functional configuration of MST companies in terms of management constraints and boundaries. This study also makes use of the WDA to suggest ways of establishing collaborative design and enhancing collaboration between organisations. Practitioner Summary: The results of this methodical analysis offer useful insights for managing design functions. This study also presents recommendations for enhancing collaboration in organisations. The ability to manage and collaborate in design functions is valuable for improving the productivity, cost-effectiveness and time-to-market systems. PMID:22506645

  8. The institutionalization of River Basin Management as politics of scale - Insights from Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houdret, Annabelle; Dombrowsky, Ines; Horlemann, Lena

    2014-11-01

    River Basin Management (RBM) as an approach to sustainable water use has become the dominant model of water governance. Its introduction, however, entails a fundamental realignment and rescaling of water-sector institutions along hydrological boundaries. Creating such a new governance scale is inherently political, and is being described as politics of scale. This paper analyzes how the politics of scale play out in the institutionalization of RBM in Mongolia. It furthermore scrutinizes the role of the broader political decentralization process in the introduction of RBM, an issue that has so far received little attention. Finally, it assesses whether the river basin is an adequate water management scale in Mongolia. This article finds that institutionalizing RBM in Mongolia is indeed a highly political negotiation process that does not only concern the choice of the governance scale, but also its detailed institutional design. It furthermore reveals that Mongolia's incomplete political decentralization process has for a long time negatively impacted the decentralization of water-related tasks and the implementation of RBM. However, the 2011 Budget Law and the 2012 Water Law provide for a fiscal strengthening of local governments and clearer sharing of responsibilities among the various different institutions involved in water management. Nevertheless, only if the 2012 Water Law is complemented by adequate by-laws - and if the newly created river basin institutions are adequately equipped - can RBM be effectively put into practice. This article confirms the usefulness of a politics-of-scale approach to understand scalar practices and changes in water management. However, the article also argues for a broadening of the analytical perspective to take the interdependencies between changes in water governance and other political processes, such as decentralization, into account.

  9. Insights and perspectives in the clinical and operational management of cancer-related anemia.

    PubMed

    Hinkel, Jennifer M; Li, Edward C; Sherman, Stephen L

    2010-09-01

    Management of anemia in patients with cancer presents challenges from clinical, operational, and economic perspectives. Clinically, anemia in these patients may result from treatment (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgical interventions) or from the malignancy itself. Anemia not only contributes to cancer-related fatigue and other quality of life issues, but also affects prognosis. From the operational perspective, a patient with cancer who is also anemic may consume more laboratory, pharmacy, and clinical resources than other patients with cancer. PMID:20947722

  10. Atrial Fibrillation Management Strategies in Routine Clinical Practice: Insights from the International RealiseAF Survey

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Chern-En; Naditch-Brûlé, Lisa; Brette, Sandrine; Silva-Cardoso, José; Gamra, Habib; Murin, Jan; Zharinov, Oleg J.; Steg, Philippe Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) can be managed with rhythm- or rate-control strategies. There are few data from routine clinical practice on the frequency with which each strategy is used and their correlates in terms of patients’ clinical characteristics, AF control, and symptom burden. Methods RealiseAF was an international, cross-sectional, observational survey of 11,198 patients with AF. The aim of this analysis was to describe patient profiles and symptoms according to the AF management strategy used. A multivariate logistic regression identified factors associated with AF management strategy at the end of the visit. Results Among 10,497 eligible patients, 53.7% used a rate-control strategy, compared with 34.5% who used a rhythm-control strategy. In 11.8% of patients, no clear strategy was stated. The proportion of patients with AF-related symptoms (EHRA Class > = II) was 78.1% (n = 4396/5630) for those using a rate-control strategy vs. 67.8% for those using a rhythm-control strategy (p<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age <75 years or the paroxysmal or persistent form of AF favored the choice of a rhythm-control strategy. A change in strategy was infrequent, even in patients with European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) Class > = II. Conclusions In the RealiseAF routine clinical practice survey, rate control was more commonly used than rhythm control, and a change in strategy was uncommon, even in symptomatic patients. In almost 12% of patients, no clear strategy was stated. Physician awareness regarding optimal management strategies for AF may be improved. PMID:26800084

  11. THERAPY OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Perspectives on the management of adrenal insufficiency: clinical insights from across Europe

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, Ashley; Johannsson, Gudmundur; Quinkler, Marcus; Zelissen, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Background Conventional glucocorticoid (GC) replacement for patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI) is inadequate. Patients with AI continue to have increased mortality and morbidity and compromised quality of life despite treatment and monitoring. Objectives i) To review current management of AI and the unmet medical need based on literature and treatment experience and ii) to offer practical advice for managing AI in specific clinical situations. Methods The review considers the most urgent questions endocrinologists face in managing AI and presents generalised patient cases with suggested strategies for treatment. Results Optimisation and individualisation of GC replacement remain a challenge because available therapies do not mimic physiological cortisol patterns. While increased mortality and morbidity appear related to inadequate GC replacement, there are no objective measures to guide dose selection and optimisation. Physicians must rely on experience to recognise the clinical signs, which are not unique to AI, of inadequate treatment. The increased demand for corticosteroids during periods of stress can result in a life-threatening adrenal crisis (AC) in a patient with AI. Education is paramount for patients and their caregivers to anticipate, recognise and provide proper early treatment to prevent or reduce the occurrence of ACs. Conclusions This review highlights and offers suggestions to address the challenges endocrinologists encounter in treating patients with AI. New preparations are being developed to better mimic normal physiological cortisol levels with convenient, once-daily dosing which may improve treatment outcomes. PMID:24031090

  12. Insights for aging management of light water reactor components: Metal containments. Volume 5

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, V.N.; Sinha, U.P.; Smith, S.K.

    1994-03-01

    This report evaluates the available technical information and field experience related to management of aging damage to light water reactor metal containments. A generic aging management approach is suggested for the effective and comprehensive aging management of metal containments to ensure their safe operation. The major concern is corrosion of the embedded portion of the containment vessel and detection of this damage. The electromagnetic acoustic transducer and half-cell potential measurement are potential techniques to detect corrosion damage in the embedded portion of the containment vessel. Other corrosion-related concerns include inspection of corrosion damage on the inaccessible side of BWR Mark I and Mark II containment vessels and corrosion of the BWR Mark I torus and emergency core cooling system piping that penetrates the torus, and transgranular stress corrosion cracking of the penetration bellows. Fatigue-related concerns include reduction in the fatigue life (a) of a vessel caused by roughness of the corroded vessel surface and (b) of bellows because of any physical damage. Maintenance of surface coatings and sealant at the metal-concrete interface is the best protection against corrosion of the vessel.

  13. Pain management in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: insights for the clinician

    PubMed Central

    Srinath, Arvind Iyengar; Walter, Chelsea; Newara, Melissa C.

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal pain is a common symptom in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and has a profound negative impact on patients’ lives. There are growing data suggesting that pain is variably related to the degree of active inflammation. Given the multifactorial etiologies underlying the pain, the treatment of abdominal pain in the IBD population is best accomplished by individualized plans. This review covers four clinically relevant categories of abdominal pain in patients with IBD, namely, inflammation, surgical complications, bacterial overgrowth, and neurobiological processes and how pain management can be addressed in each of these cases. The role of genetic factors, psychological factors, and psychosocial stress in pain perception and treatment will also be addressed. Lastly, psychosocial, pharmacological, and procedural pain management techniques will be discussed. An extensive review of the existing literature reveals a paucity of data regarding pain management specific to IBD. In addition, there is growing consensus suggesting a spectrum between IBD and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. Thus, this review for adult and pediatric clinicians also incorporates the literature for the treatment of functional abdominal pain and the clinical consensus from IBD and IBS experts on pharmacological, behavioral, and procedural methods to treat abdominal pain in this population. PMID:22973418

  14. Insights into the Carbon Sequestration Potential of Rangelands Through Measurement and Modeling of Differently Managed Pastures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, J. J.; Hartman, M.; Parton, W. J.; Silver, W. L.

    2014-12-01

    Poor management of rangelands has led to significant soil organic matter losses globally, and contributed to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Restoring and increasing soil carbon (C) content in rangelands offers an opportunity to mitigate climate change while improving soil conditions and increasing forage production. Organic matter amendments are used to improve soil properties, but predicting the resulting changes in soil C is challenging due to the interactions between amendment characteristics, climate, and soil characteristics. We used data from 10 pasture-based dairies in California and the DayCent model to test the impact of long-term (>30 year) manure additions on soil C pools and fluxes. Soils were sampled from 26 fields which had solid, liquid, solid and liquid, or no manure additions. These field data and management information provided by the ranchers were used to model the effects of manure amends on soil C storage and loss. Soil C was significantly greater in manured fields than non-manured fields when corrected for clay content and slope. Fields with higher clay had more soil C, as did those with lower slopes, and these effects were large enough to confound the manuring effect. DayCent was able to accurately estimate total soil C when parameterized with field-specific management practices, averaging only a 10±1% difference between measurement and modeled values. Using generalized management histories for manured and non-manured fields, as would be used for regional-scale estimates, produced less accurate results with a 24±3% average difference between measurement and modeled values. Modeling alternate scenarios for each field suggested that manure amendment increased soil C and forage production by 0.6 Mg ha-1 y-1 and 0.3 Mg ha-1 y-1, respectively. Forecasting to 2100 showed that in manure-amended fields, soil C increased until 2080 before stabilization, mostly through gains in the pool with slow turnover. The "passive soil C" pool

  15. New insights into phosphorus management in agriculture--A crop rotation approach.

    PubMed

    Łukowiak, Remigiusz; Grzebisz, Witold; Sassenrath, Gretchen F

    2016-01-15

    This manuscript presents research results examining phosphorus (P) management in a soil–plant system for three variables: i) internal resources of soil available phosphorus, ii) cropping sequence, and iii) external input of phosphorus (manure, fertilizers). The research was conducted in long-term cropping sequences with oilseed rape (10 rotations) and maize (six rotations) over three consecutive growing seasons (2004/2005, 2005/2006, and 2006/2007) in a production farm on soils originated from Albic Luvisols in Poland. The soil available phosphorus pool, measured as calcium chloride extractable P (CCE-P), constituted 28% to 67% of the total phosphorus input (PTI) to the soil–plant system in the spring. Oilseed rape and maize dominant cropping sequences showed a significant potential to utilize the CCE-P pool within the soil profile. Cropping sequences containing oilseed rape significantly affected the CCE-P pool, and in turn contributed to the P(TI). The P(TI) uptake use efficiency was 50% on average. Therefore, the CCE-P pool should be taken into account as an important component of a sound and reliable phosphorus balance. The instability of the yield prediction, based on the P(TI), was mainly due to an imbalanced management of both farmyard manure and phosphorus fertilizer. Oilseed rape plants provide a significant positive impact on the CCE-P pool after harvest, improving the productive stability of the entire cropping sequence. This phenomenon was documented by the P(TI) increase during wheat cultivation following oilseed rape. The Unit Phosphorus Uptake index also showed a higher stability in oilseed rape cropping systems compared to rotations based on maize. Cropping sequences are a primary factor impacting phosphorus management. Judicious implementation of crop rotations can improve soil P resources, efficiency of crop P use, and crop yield and yield stability. Use of cropping sequences can reduce the need for external P sources such as farmyard manure

  16. Indigenous Studies Speaks to Environmental Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Laurie; Middleton, Beth Rose; Gilmer, Robert; Grossman, Zoltán; Janis, Terry; Lucero, Stephanie; Morgan, Tukoroirangi; Watson, Annette

    2013-11-01

    This article describes the increasing connections between the fields of Indigenous studies and environmental management and examines some of the ways that an Indigenous studies perspective can guide thinking about environmental management. Indigenous groups have been involved in the management of environmental and natural resources on their lands since time immemorial. Indigenous groups have also become increasingly involved in Western practices of environmental management with the advent of co-management institutions, subsistence boards, traditional ecological knowledge forums, and environmental issues affecting Indigenous resources. Thus, it is an important time for scholarship that explores how Indigenous groups are both shaping and being affected by processes of environmental management. This article summarizes key findings and themes from eight papers situated at the intersection of these two fields of study and identify means by which environmental managers can better accommodate Indigenous rights and perspectives. It is the authors’ hope that increased dialog between Indigenous studies and environmental management can contribute to the building of sustainable and socially just environmental management practices.

  17. Large-scale genetic survey provides insights into the captive management and reintroduction of giant pandas.

    PubMed

    Shan, Lei; Hu, Yibo; Zhu, Lifeng; Yan, Li; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Desheng; Jin, Xuelin; Zhang, Chenglin; Wei, Fuwen

    2014-10-01

    The captive genetic management of threatened species strives to preserve genetic diversity and avoid inbreeding to ensure populations remain available, healthy, and viable for future reintroduction. Determining and responding to the genetic status of captive populations is therefore paramount to these programs. Here, we genotyped 19 microsatellite loci for 240 captive giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) (∼64% of the captive population) from four breeding centers, Wolong (WL), Chengdu (CD), Louguantai (LGT), and Beijing (BJ), and analyzed 655 bp of mitochondrial DNA control region sequence for 220 of these animals. High levels of genetic diversity and low levels of inbreeding were estimated in the breeding centers, indicating that the captive population is genetically healthy and deliberate further genetic input from wild animals is unnecessary. However, the LGT population faces a higher risk of inbreeding, and significant genetic structure was detected among breeding centers, with LGT-CD and WL-BJ clustering separately. Based on these findings, we highlight that: 1) the LGT population should be managed as an independent captive population to resemble the genetic distinctness of their Qinling Mountain origins; 2) exchange between CD and WL should be encouraged because of similar wild founder sources; 3) the selection of captive individuals for reintroduction should consider their geographic origin, genetic background, and genetic contribution to wild populations; and 4) combining our molecular genetic data with existing pedigree data will better guide giant panda breeding and further reduce inbreeding into the future. PMID:25015646

  18. Novel insights in the management of sickle cell disease in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Iughetti, Lorenzo; Bigi, Elena; Venturelli, Donatella

    2016-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a life-threatening genetic disorder characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, vascular injury and multiorgan dysfunctions. Over the last few decades, there have been significant improvements in SCD management in Western countries, especially in pediatric population. An early onset of prophylaxis with Penicillin and a proper treatment of the infections have increased the overall survival in childhood. Nevertheless, management of painful episodes and prevention of organ damage are still challenging and more efforts are needed to better understand the mechanisms behind the development of chronic organ damages. Hydroxyurea (Hydroxycarbamide, HU), the only medication approved as a disease-modifying agent by the United States Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency, is usually under-used, especially in developing countries. Currently, hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation is considered the only curative option, although its use is limited by lack of donors and transplant-related toxicity. SCD symptoms are similar in children and adults, but complications and systemic organ damages increase with age, leading to early mortality worldwide. Experts in comprehensive care of young patients with SCD, especially those approaching the transition age to adulthood, are missing, leading people to rely on urgent care, increasing health care utilization costs and inappropriate treatments. It would be important to establish programs of comprehensive healthcare for patients with SCD from birth to adulthood, to improve their quality and expectancy of life. PMID:26862499

  19. Novel insights in the management of sickle cell disease in childhood.

    PubMed

    Iughetti, Lorenzo; Bigi, Elena; Venturelli, Donatella

    2016-02-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a life-threatening genetic disorder characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, vascular injury and multiorgan dysfunctions. Over the last few decades, there have been significant improvements in SCD management in Western countries, especially in pediatric population. An early onset of prophylaxis with Penicillin and a proper treatment of the infections have increased the overall survival in childhood. Nevertheless, management of painful episodes and prevention of organ damage are still challenging and more efforts are needed to better understand the mechanisms behind the development of chronic organ damages. Hydroxyurea (Hydroxycarbamide, HU), the only medication approved as a disease-modifying agent by the United States Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency, is usually under-used, especially in developing countries. Currently, hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation is considered the only curative option, although its use is limited by lack of donors and transplant-related toxicity. SCD symptoms are similar in children and adults, but complications and systemic organ damages increase with age, leading to early mortality worldwide. Experts in comprehensive care of young patients with SCD, especially those approaching the transition age to adulthood, are missing, leading people to rely on urgent care, increasing health care utilization costs and inappropriate treatments. It would be important to establish programs of comprehensive healthcare for patients with SCD from birth to adulthood, to improve their quality and expectancy of life. PMID:26862499

  20. Competition between Public Supervision and Professional Management: An Ethnographic Study of School Governance Reforms in Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hangartner, Judith; Svaton, Carla Jana

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses insights from an ethnographic study of local governance practices in the Canton of Bern, Switzerland, under changing policy conditions. Recent reforms introduced and strengthened the position of head teachers, enhanced the responsibility of the municipalities and introduced new quality management procedures in local…

  1. A Study of Personal Information Management Strategies for Online Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Lorna R.; Frey, Barbara A.; Tomer, Christinger; Alman, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The literature suggests that personal information management is a serious challenge for many computer users. Online faculty are especially challenged because of the large number of electronic files necessitated by teaching online. Those who have experience in this environment may offer valuable insights regarding information management challenges…

  2. Legacy phosphorus accumulation and management in the global context: insights from long-term analysis of major river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, S. M.; Burt, T. P.; Chan, N. I.; Elser, J. J.; Haygarth, P. M.; Howden, N. J. K.; Jarvie, H. P.; Peterson, H. M.; Shen, J.; Worrall, F.; Sharpley, A. N.

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) is closely linked to major societal concerns including food security and water quality, and human activities strongly control the modern global P cycle. Current knowledge of the P cycle includes many insights about relatively short-term processes, but a long-term and landscape-level view may be needed to understand P status and optimize P management towards P sustainability. We reconstructed long-term (>40 years) P mass balances and rates of P accumulation in three major river basins where excess P pollution is demanding improvements in P management at local, national, and international levels. We focus on: Maumee River Basin, a major source of agricultural P to Lake Erie, the southernmost and shallowest of the Laurentian Great Lakes; Thames River Basin, where fluxes of effluent P from the London, England metropolitan area have declined following improvements in wastewater treatment; Yangtze (Changjiang) River Basin, the largest in China, which is undergoing rapid economic development. The Maumee and Thames are intensively monitored, and show long-term declines in basin P inputs that represent a step towards P sustainability. However, river P outputs have been slower to decline, consistent with the hypothesis that legacy P is mobilizing from soils or from within the river network. Published data on the Yangtze indicate the P flux from land to water has clearly increased with industrialization and population growth. Historical trajectories of P accumulation and depletion in major river basins are providing new understanding about the long-term impacts of P management, including watershed P legacies and response times, that may inform future policy towards local, national, and global P sustainability.

  3. Case Studies for Management Development in Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Gary N.

    Eight case studies appropriate for use in a course in management development were prepared and are provided in this document. The typical case describes a real business situation in which a real manager had to reach a decision. The case gives quantitative and qualitative information that is, or may be, relevant to that decision. Questions for…

  4. Study on Case Teaching of Financial Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Che, Zhenghong; Che, Zhengmei

    2011-01-01

    Case teaching is an efficient teaching method of management. It plays an important role to enhance the students' ability to practice the theory. However, case teaching of financial management has not achieved the expected results. The paper aims to study the importance, characteristics and corresponding methods of case teaching method of financial…

  5. Case Studies in Managing Psychological Depth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringer, Martin; Gillis, H. L.

    This paper outlines a model for assessing and managing psychological depth in outdoor and experiential group work, and presents two case studies of the complexity of such management in real life. The model contains eight levels of emotional risk and presents four criteria for assessing the level to which a particular event or discussion may lead…

  6. Self-Managed Studying in College Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, K. Anthony

    In an introductory psychology course, students were taught some principles of "adjustment" using self-management techniques and were required to conduct a self-management project. The four student projects reported herein were specifically designed to improve study skills through use of Premack's principle and stimulus control. Course materials…

  7. Natural Resources Management: Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingvalson, Brian

    The document presents a course outline for the study of natural resources management by junior and senior year high school students. Basic information and practical experiences are offered to the student in the classroom and through several field trips in order to acquire more knowledge in various areas of natural resources and their management.…

  8. From quantifying historical LULCC impacts to optimizing land management for climate mitigation: Insights from climate modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davin, E.; Lejeune, Q.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2015-12-01

    Human activities have profoundly transformed the land surface through land use/land cover change (LULCC). The consequence of this transformation is twofold: First, the conversion from natural to anthropogenic systems exert a direct forcing on climate (through both biogeochemical and biogeophysical processes); Second the transformed ecosystems may modify land-atmosphere feedback mechanisms thus modulating the response to climate change or to specific weather events. The first point will be illustrated by reviewing recent modelling results, including LUCID and CMIP5 model intercomparisons, to shed some light on the relative importance of LULCC versus other climate forcings. Given the importance of LULCC impacts at the regional scale, some recent efforts to improve the representation of land processes in regional climate models [1] as well as a regional assessment of the impact of amazonian deforestation [2] will be presented. The second point will be discussed through two examples. First, the fact that LULCC may modulate certain modes of variability will be illustrated based on model experiments highlighting the regional interplay between ENSO variability and amazonian deforestation. Second, we will show that peak temperatures during heat waves can be strongly influenced locally by the type of land cover or land management practices. In particular no-till farming, by increasing surface albedo, can lead to a substantial attenuation of hot temperatures during heat waves, in part due to a more efficient radiative cooling effect during cloud-free conditions [3]. References:[1] Davin, E.L. and S.I. Seneviratne (2012), Role of land surface processes and diffuse/direct radiation partitioning in simulating the European climate, Biogeosciences, 9, 1695-1707, doi:10.5194/bg-9-1695-2012.[2] Lejeune, Q., E.L. Davin, B. Guillod and S.I. Seneviratne (2015), Influence of Amazonian deforestation on the future evolution of regional surface fluxes, circulation, surface temperature and

  9. Berberine: New Insights from Pharmacological Aspects to Clinical Evidences in the Management of Metabolic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Caliceti, Cristiana; Franco, Placido; Spinozzi, Silvia; Roda, Aldo; Cicero, Arrigo F G

    2016-01-01

    Berberine is a quaternary ammonium salt from the protoberberine group of isoquinoline alkaloids found in such plants as gender Berberis. Berberine is recognised to improve glucose and lipid metabolism disorders and preliminary clinical evidences suggest the ability of berberine to reduce endothelial inflammation improving vascular health, even in patients already affected by cardiovascular diseases, suggesting a possible interesting role of berberine and its metabolites in clinical practice. However, its physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetic, and metabolism are not fully elucidated and contradictory data have been reported. This review provides a summary regarding the pharmacological and biological features of berberine, with a focus on berberine as well as their pharmacologically active metabolites and the different mechanisms underlying their activities in order to clarify the correct use of berberine supplementation, alone or in association with other nutraceuticals, for the management of metabolic disorders associated to increased cardiovascular disease risk. A particular attention has also been given to the available clinical trials assessing its short- and middle- term use tolerability, safety and efficacy in various conditions, such as dyslipidaemia, impaired fasting glucose, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. PMID:27063256

  10. A comprehensive insight of novel antioxidant therapies for atrial fibrillation management.

    PubMed

    Orenes-Piñero, Esteban; Valdés, Mariano; Lip, Gregory Y H; Marín, Francisco

    2015-08-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in clinical practice and is associated with decreased quality of life, and increased mortality and morbidity from stroke and thromboembolism. The underlying mechanisms involved in the development of AF have yet to be fully elucidated. However, once initiated, AF tends to self-perpetuate, due to structural and electrical remodeling in the atria. Currently, therapies for AF, such as, antiarrhythmic drugs and catheter ablation, have significant limitations. Antiarrhythmic drugs target one or a few cardiomyocyte ion channels and have considerable pro-arrhythmic and non-cardiac adverse effects. On the other hand, catheter ablation is an expensive treatment associated with measurable complications and its long-term success in management of AF is controversial. Current consensus guidelines recommend β-blockers, amiodarone, digitalis glycosides and non-dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists or a combination of them for AF treatment, but bradycardia and heart block may occur as an unwanted effect. On the other hand, antioxidant agents have recently attracted much interest in AF treatment because they have been associated with a reduction in lone AF and post-operative AF, and in some cases, with a decrease in long-term hospitalization time. Moreover, antioxidants can be considered a cheap treatment with reduced side effects. In this review, we will comprehensively review the effects and the mechanisms of action of several antioxidant agents, such as vitamin E, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, statins, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and N-acetylcysteine. PMID:27412960

  11. Insights into the Management of Emerging Infections: Regulating Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Transfusion Risk in the UK and the US

    PubMed Central

    Ponte, Maya L

    2006-01-01

    of blood products for possible vCJD contamination in the UK, contributed to a greater sense of urgency and a speedier implementation of regulations in that country. Third, while the results of scientific studies played a prominent role in the construction of regulations in both nations, this role was shaped by existing social and professional networks. In the UK, early focus on a European study implicating B-lymphocytes as the carrier of prion infectivity in blood led to the introduction of a policy that requires universal leukoreduction of blood components. In the US, early focus on an American study highlighting the ability of plasma to serve as a reservoir of prion infectivity led the FDA and its advisory panel to eschew similar measures. Conclusions The results of this study yield three important theoretical insights that pertain to the global management of emerging infectious diseases. First, because the perception and management of disease may be shaped by previous experience with disease, especially catastrophic experience, there is always the possibility for over-management of some possible routes of transmission and relative neglect of others. Second, local specificities within a given nation may influence the temporality of decision making, which in turn may influence the choice of disease management policies. Third, a preference for science-based risk management among nations will not necessarily lead to homogeneous policies. This is because the exposure to and interpretation of scientific results depends on the existing social and professional networks within a given nation. Together, these theoretical insights provide a framework for analyzing and anticipating potential conflicts in the international management of emerging infectious diseases. In addition, this study illustrates the utility of qualitative methods in investigating research questions that are difficult to assess through quantitative means. PMID:17076547

  12. Power module Data Management System (DMS) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Computer trades and analyses of selected Power Module Data Management Subsystem issues to support concurrent inhouse MSFC Power Study are provided. The charts which summarize and describe the results are presented. Software requirements and definitions are included.

  13. Interval Management Display Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Beyer, Timothy M.; Cooke, Stuart D.; Grant, Karlus A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) estimated that U.S. commercial air carriers moved 736.7 million passengers over 822.3 billion revenue-passenger miles. The FAA also forecasts, in that same report, an average annual increase in passenger traffic of 2.2 percent per year for the next 20 years, which approximates to one-and-a-half times the number of today's aircraft operations and passengers by the year 2033. If airspace capacity and throughput remain unchanged, then flight delays will increase, particularly at those airports already operating near or at capacity. Therefore it is critical to create new and improved technologies, communications, and procedures to be used by air traffic controllers and pilots. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the FAA, and the aviation industry are working together to improve the efficiency of the National Airspace System and the cost to operate in it in several ways, one of which is through the creation of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). NextGen is intended to provide airspace users with more precise information about traffic, routing, and weather, as well as improve the control mechanisms within the air traffic system. NASA's Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1) Project is designed to contribute to the goals of NextGen, and accomplishes this by integrating three NASA technologies to enable fuel-efficient arrival operations into high-density airports. The three NASA technologies and procedures combined in the ATD-1 concept are advanced arrival scheduling, controller decision support tools, and aircraft avionics to enable multiple time deconflicted and fuel efficient arrival streams in high-density terminal airspace.

  14. New insight on the water management in Ica Valley-Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttman, Joseph; Berger, Diego

    2014-05-01

    The Andes divide Peru into three natural drainage basins: Pacific basin, Atlantic basin and Lake Titicaca basin. According to the National Water Authority (ANA), the Pacific basin is the driest basin. The bulk of water that feed the local aquifers in the coastal Pacific region is coming from rivers that flow west from the Andes. One of them is the Ica River- source of the Ica Aquifer and the Pampas de Villacuri Aquifer. The Ica River flows in a graben that was created by a series of faults. The graben is filled with sand and gravel with interbeded and lenses of clay. The aquifer thickness varies between 25 meters to more than 200 meters. The Ica Valley has an extension of 7700 km2 and belongs to the Province of Ica, the second larger economic center in Peru. The Valley is located in the hyperarid region of the Southern Coastal area of Peru with a few millimeters of precipitation per year. The direct recharge is almost zero. The recharge into the Ica Valley aquifer is comes indirectly by infiltration of storm water through the riverbed generates in the Andes, through irrigation canals and by irrigation return flow. In this hyperarid region, local aquifers like the Ica Valley are extremely valuable resources to local populations and are the key sources of groundwater for agriculture and population needs. Therefore, these aquifers play a crucial role in providing people with water and intense attention should be given to manage the water sector properly and to keep the aquifer sustainable for future generations. The total pumping (from rough estimations) is much greater than the direct and indirect recharge. The deficit in the water balance is reflected in large water level decline, out of operation of shallow wells and the ascending of saline water from deeper layers. The change from flood irrigation that contributes about 35-40% of the water to the aquifer, to drip irrigation dramatically reduces the amount of water that infiltrates into the sub-surface from the

  15. The rationale and design of Insight into Nephrotic Syndrome: Investigating Genes, Health and Therapeutics (INSIGHT): a prospective cohort study of childhood nephrotic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nephrotic syndrome is one of the most commonly diagnosed kidney diseases in childhood and its progressive forms can lead to chronic kidney disease (CKD) and/or end-stage renal disease (ESRD). There have been few longitudinal studies among a multi-ethnic cohort to determine potential risk factors influencing disease susceptibility, treatment response, and progression of nephrotic syndrome. Temporal relationships cannot be studied through cross-sectional study design. Understanding the interaction between various factors is critical to developing new strategies for treating children with kidney disease. We present the rationale and the study design of a longitudinal cohort study of children with nephrotic syndrome, the Insight into Nephrotic Syndrome: Investigating Genes, Health and Therapeutics (INSIGHT) study. The specific aims are to determine: 1) socio-demographic, environmental, and genetic factors that influence disease susceptibility; 2) rates of steroid treatment resistance and steroid treatment dependence, and identify factors that may modify treatment response; 3) clinical and genetic factors that influence disease susceptibility and progression to CKD and ESRD; and 4) the interaction between the course of illness and socio-demographic, environmental, and clinical risk factors. Methods/design INSIGHT is a disease-based observational longitudinal cohort study of children with nephrotic syndrome. At baseline, participants complete questionnaires and provide biological specimen samples (blood, urine, and toenail clippings). Follow-up questionnaires and repeat biological specimen collections are performed annually for up to five years. Discussion The proposed cohort will provide the structure to test various risk factors predicting or influencing disease susceptibility, treatment response, and progression to CKD among children with nephrotic syndrome. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01605266. PMID:23351121

  16. The Intervention Nurses Start Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories (INSIGHT) study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Because early life growth has long-lasting metabolic and behavioral consequences, intervention during this period of developmental plasticity may alter long-term obesity risk. While modifiable factors during infancy have been identified, until recently, preventive interventions had not been tested. The Intervention Nurses Starting Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories (INSIGHT). Study is a longitudinal, randomized, controlled trial evaluating a responsive parenting intervention designed for the primary prevention of obesity. This “parenting” intervention is being compared with a home safety control among first-born infants and their parents. INSIGHT’s central hypothesis is that responsive parenting and specifically responsive feeding promotes self-regulation and shared parent–child responsibility for feeding, reducing subsequent risk for overeating and overweight. Methods/Design 316 first-time mothers and their full-term newborns were enrolled from one maternity ward. Two weeks following delivery, dyads were randomly assigned to the “parenting” or “safety” groups. Subsequently, research nurses conduct study visits for both groups consisting of home visits at infant age 3–4, 16, 28, and 40 weeks, followed by annual clinic-based visits at 1, 2, and 3 years. Both groups receive intervention components framed around four behavior states: Sleeping, Fussy, Alert and Calm, and Drowsy. The main study outcome is BMI z-score at age 3 years; additional outcomes include those related to patterns of infant weight gain, infant sleep hygiene and duration, maternal responsiveness and soothing strategies for infant/toddler distress and fussiness, maternal feeding style and infant dietary content and physical activity. Maternal outcomes related to weight status, diet, mental health, and parenting sense of competence are being collected. Infant temperament will be explored as a moderator of parenting effects, and blood is collected to obtain genetic

  17. Creativity Development in Adolescence: Insight from Behavior, Brain, and Training Studies.

    PubMed

    Kleibeuker, Sietske W; De Dreu, Carsten K W; Crone, Eveline A

    2016-01-01

    Creativity is a multifaceted construct that recruits different cognitive processes. Here, we summarize studies that show that creativity develops considerably during adolescence with different developmental trajectories for insight, verbal divergent thinking, and visuospatial divergent thinking. Next, these developmental time courses are mapped to changes in brain activity when individuals perform divergent thinking tasks. The findings point to an important role of the prefrontal cortex for generating novelty and complexity. Finally, the potentials and limitations of training creativity in adolescence are described. The findings are interpreted vis-à-vis the dynamic changes that occur during adolescence in brain development and behavioral control processes. PMID:26994726

  18. Towards systematic software reuse of GIS: Insights from a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buccella, Agustina; Cechich, Alejandra; Arias, Maximiliano; Pol'la, Matias; Doldan, Maria del Socorro; Morsan, Enrique

    2013-04-01

    With the development and adoption of geographic information systems, there is an increasingly amount of software resources being stored or recorded as products to be reused. At the same time, complexity of geographic services is addressed through standardization, which allows developers reaching higher quality levels. In this paper, we introduce our domain-oriented approach to developing geographic software product lines focusing on the experiences collected from a case study. It was developed in the Marine Ecology Domain (Patagonia, Argentina) and illustrates insights of the process.

  19. Revising the high-density lipoprotein targeting strategies - insights from human and preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    Nesan, Dinushan; Ng, Dominic S

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) hypothesis has been challenged. Several completed randomized clinical trials continue to fall short in demonstrating HDL, or at least HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, as being a consistent target in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. However, population studies and findings in lipid modifying trials continue to strongly support HDL-C as a superb risk predictor. It is increasingly evident that the complexity of HDL metabolism confounds the use of HDL-C concentration as a unified target. However, important insights continue to emerge from the post hoc analyses of recently completed (i) fibrate-based FIELD and ACCORD trials, including the unexpected beneficial effect of fibrates in microvascular diseases, (ii) the niacin-based AIM-HIGH and HPS2-THRIVE studies, (iii) recombinant HDL-based as well as (iv) the completed CETP inhibitor-based trials. These together with on-going mechanistic studies on novel pathways, which include the unique roles of microRNAs, post-translational remodeling of HDL and novel pathways related to HDL modulators will provide valuable insights to guide how best to refocus and redesign the conceptual framework for selecting HDL-based targets. PMID:25115413

  20. Using insights from behavioral economics and social psychology to help patients manage chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Mogler, Braden K; Shu, Suzanne B; Fox, Craig R; Goldstein, Noah J; Victor, Ronald G; Escarce, José J; Shapiro, Martin F

    2013-05-01

    Despite a revolution in therapeutics, the ability to control chronic diseases remains elusive. We present here a conceptual model of the potential role of behavioral tools in chronic disease control. Clinicians implicitly accept the assumption that patients will act rationally to maximize their self-interest. However, patients may not always be the rational actors that we imagine. Major behavioral barriers to optimal health behavior include patients' fear of threats to health, unwillingness to think about problems when risks are known or data are ambiguous, the discounting of risks that are far in the future, failure to act due to lack of motivation, insufficient confidence in the ability to overcome a health problem, and inattention due to pressures of everyday life. Financial incentives can stimulate initiation of health-promoting behaviors by reducing or eliminating financial barriers, but may not produce long-term behavior change without additional interventions. Strategies have been developed by behavioral economists and social psychologists to address each of these barriers to better decision-making. These include: labeling positive behaviors in ways consistent with patient life goals and priorities; greater focus on more immediate risks of chronic diseases; intermediate subgoals as steps to a large health goal; and implementation of specific plans as to when, where, and how an action will be taken. Such strategies hold promise for improving health behaviors and disease control, but most have not been studied in medical settings. The effectiveness of these approaches should be evaluated for their potential as tools for the clinician. PMID:23229906

  1. Old treatments for new insights and strategies: proposed management in adults and children with alkaptonuria.

    PubMed

    Arnoux, Jean-Baptiste; Le Quan Sang, Kim-Hanh; Brassier, Anais; Grisel, Coraline; Servais, Aude; Wippf, Julien; Dubois, Sandrine; Sireau, Nicolas; Job-Deslandre, Chantal; Ranganath, Lakshminarayan; de Lonlay, Pascale

    2015-09-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is caused by deficiency of the enzyme homogentisate 1,2 dioxygenase. It results in an accumulation of homogentisate which oxidizes spontaneously to benzoquinone acetate, a highly oxidant compound, which polymerises to a melanin-like structure, in a process called ochronosis. Asymptomatic during childhood, this accumulation will lead from the second decade of life to a progressive and severe spondylo-arthopathy, associated with multisystem involvement: osteoporosis/fractures, stones (renal, prostatic, gall bladder, salivary glands), ruptures of tendons/muscle/ligaments, renal failure and aortic valve disease. The pathophysiological mechanisms of AKU remain poorly understood, but recent advances lead us to reconsider the treatment strategy in AKU patients. Besides the supporting therapies (pain killers, anti-inflammatory drugs, physiotherapy, joints replacements and others), specific therapies have been considered (anti-oxidant, low protein diet, nitisinone), but clinical studies have failed to prove efficiency on the rheumatological lesions of the disease. Here we propose a treatment strategy for children and adults with AKU, based on a review of the latest findings on AKU and lessons from other aminoacipathies, especially tyrosinemias. PMID:25860819

  2. Nurse and manager perceptions of nurse initiated and managed antiretroviral therapy (NIMART) implementation in South Africa: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Natasha Elaine Claire Garai; Homfray, Mike; Venables, Emilie Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore nurse and facility and programme manager perceptions of nurse initiated and managed antiretroviral therapy (NIMART) implementation in Gauteng, South Africa. Design In this qualitative study, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted to gain insight into participants’ experiences of NIMART implementation. Setting Participants came from urban, peri-urban and rural primary healthcare clinics in two Gauteng Province municipalities. Participants 25 nurses and 18 managers who were actively involved in NIMART implementation were purposively sampled. Results The findings from this study reveal that, despite encountering numerous challenges including human resources, training and clinical mentoring and health systems issues, NIMART nurses and managers remained optimistic about their work. Study participants felt empowered by their expanded roles. Increased responsibilities associated with NIMART implementation encouraged better use of creative problem-solving and teamwork to facilitate integration of NIMART into existing clinic services. NIMART nurses perceived antiretroviral therapy (ART) patients to be more insightful about their illness, engaged in their HIV treatment and aware of the importance of adherence which enhanced nurse–patient relationships and increased their sense of job satisfaction. Conclusions Although the implementation of NIMART is complex, when NIMART is implemented well, ART access is increased and patient outcomes are improved. Supportive interventions which address the specific challenges faced by nurses providing NIMART now need to be implemented. Attempts should be made to replicate the positive aspects of NIMART implementation identified by participants as this may improve healthcare providers’ experiences of task-shifting. PMID:24240142

  3. Gene regulation in amphioxus: An insight from transgenic studies in amphioxus and vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Kozmikova, Iryna; Kozmik, Zbynek

    2015-12-01

    Cephalochordates, commonly known as amphioxus or lancelets, are the most basal subphylum of chordates. Cephalochordates are thus key to understanding the origin of vertebrates and molecular mechanisms underlying vertebrate evolution. The evolution of developmental control mechanisms during invertebrate-to-vertebrate transition involved not only gene duplication events, but also specific changes in spatial and temporal expression of many genes. To get insight into the spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression during invertebrate-to-vertebrate transition, functional studies of amphioxus gene regulatory elements are highly warranted. Here, we review transgenic studies performed in amphioxus and vertebrates using promoters and enhancers derived from the genome of Branchiostoma floridae. We describe the current methods of transgenesis in amphioxus, provide evidence of Tol2 transposon-generated transgenic embryos of Branchiostoma lanceolatum and discuss possible future directions. We envision that comparative transgenic analysis of gene regulatory sequences in the context of amphioxus and vertebrate embryos will likely provide an important mechanistic insight into the evolution of vertebrate body plan. PMID:26094865

  4. The human sebocyte culture model provides new insights into development and management of seborrhoea and acne.

    PubMed

    Zouboulis, C C; Xia, L; Akamatsu, H; Seltmann, H; Fritsch, M; Hornemann, S; Rühl, R; Chen, W; Nau, H; Orfanos, C E

    1998-01-01

    Seborrhoea and acne are exclusively human diseases and sebaceous gland differentiation is species specific. Therefore, fundamental research on human sebaceous cell function and control requires human in vitro models. The human sebocyte culture model, introduced in 1989, has been used in several studies to elucidate sebaceous gland activity and its regulation at the cellular level. Cultured human sebocytes have been shown to preserve important sebocytic characteristics, although they undergo an incomplete terminal differentiation in vitro. In vitro synthesis of free fatty acids without bacterial involvement and marked interleukin 1 alpha expression at the mRNA and protein levels with no further induction by lipopolysaccharides lead to the assumption that human sebocytes may initiate acne lesions by an intrinsic mechanism. Androgens affected sebocyte activity in vitro in a manner dependent on the localization of the sebaceous glands. In vitro stimulation of sebocyte proliferation by androgens could be completely abolished by spironolactone. Cultured sebocytes strongly expressed type 1 5 alpha-reductase and metabolized testosterone to androstenedione, 5 alpha-androstanedione, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androsterone and 5 alpha-androstanediol, whereas the levels of 5 alpha-reductase activity were probably not feedback regulated. 4,7 beta-Dimethyl-4-aza-5 alpha-cholestan-3-one, a type 1 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, induced an early, marked down-regulation of 5 alpha-reductase activity in human sebocytes in vitro, while hydrofinasteride, a type 2 inhibitor, required 10(3)-fold higher concentrations to induce similar effects. Stimulation of sebocyte proliferation by insulin, thyroid-stimulating hormone and hydrocortisone indicates that the hormonal control of the sebaceous gland could be a complex mechanism. Retinoids inhibited sebocyte proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and down-regulated lipid synthesis and sebocyte differentiation in vitro. Isotretinoin was the

  5. Effects of Human Activities on the Composition of Organic Carbon in Estuaries: Insights Gained Through Lipid Biomarker Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canuel, E. A.

    2002-12-01

    studies provide insights more useful to the restoration and rehabilitation of estuaries than bulk measurements alone. I will also present examples of how biomarker applications can also be used to provide insights regarding changes in organic carbon inputs over historical and geological timescales. In the future, resource managers and policy makers should consider both the amount of carbon produced within each system as well as its composition and source. These parameters influence OM availability to heterotrophic organisms and determine whether a system is likely able to support production at higher trophic levels.

  6. Structure, dynamics, and function of the monooxygenase P450 BM-3: insights from computer simulations studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roccatano, Danilo

    2015-07-01

    The monooxygenase P450 BM-3 is a NADPH-dependent fatty acid hydroxylase enzyme isolated from soil bacterium Bacillus megaterium. As a pivotal member of cytochrome P450 superfamily, it has been intensely studied for the comprehension of structure-dynamics-function relationships in this class of enzymes. In addition, due to its peculiar properties, it is also a promising enzyme for biochemical and biomedical applications. However, despite the efforts, the full understanding of the enzyme structure and dynamics is not yet achieved. Computational studies, particularly molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, have importantly contributed to this endeavor by providing new insights at an atomic level regarding the correlations between structure, dynamics, and function of the protein. This topical review summarizes computational studies based on MD simulations of the cytochrome P450 BM-3 and gives an outlook on future directions.

  7. Genome-wide association studies: applications and insights gained in Ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, A; Mitry, D; Wright, A; Campbell, H; Charteris, D G

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) use high-throughput genotyping technologies to genotype thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and relate them to the development of clinical and quantitative traits. Their use has been highly successful in the field of ophthalmology, and since the advent of GWAS in 2005, many genes not previously suspected of having a role in disease have been identified and the findings replicated. We conducted an extensive literature review and describe the concept, design, advantages, and limitations of GWAS and provide a detailed description of the applications and discoveries of GWAS in the field of eye disease to date. There have been many novel findings revealing previously unknown biological insights in a diverse range of common ocular conditions. GWAS have been a highly successful modality for investigating the pathogenesis of a wide variety of ophthalmic conditions. The insights gained into the pathogenesis of disease provide not only a better understanding of underlying disease mechanism but also offer a rationale for targeted treatment and preventative strategies. Expansive international collaboration and standardised phenotyping will permit the continued success of this investigative technique. PMID:24971990

  8. Senescence in the wild: Insights from a long-term study on Seychelles warblers.

    PubMed

    Hammers, Martijn; Kingma, Sjouke A; Bebbington, Kat; van de Crommenacker, Janske; Spurgin, Lewis G; Richardson, David S; Burke, Terry; Dugdale, Hannah L; Komdeur, Jan

    2015-11-01

    Senescence--the progressive age-dependent decline in performance--occurs in most organisms. There is considerable variation in the onset and rate of senescence between and within species. Yet the causes of this variation are still poorly understood, despite being central to understanding the evolution of senescence. Long-term longitudinal studies on wild animals are extremely well-suited to studying the impact of environmental and individual characteristics (and the interaction between the two) on senescence, and can help us to understand the mechanisms that shape the evolution of senescence. In this review, we summarize and discuss the insights gained from our comprehensive long-term individual-based study of the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis). This species provides an excellent model system in which to investigate the evolution of senescence in the wild. We found that Seychelles warblers show senescent declines in survival and reproduction, and discuss how individual characteristics (body condition, body size) and environmental effects (low- versus high-quality environments) may affect the onset and rate of senescence. Further, we highlight the evidence for trade-offs between early-life investment and senescence. We describe how key cellular and physiological processes (oxidative stress and telomere shortening) underpinning senescence are affected by individual and environmental characteristics in the Seychelles warbler (e.g. food availability, reproductive investment, disease) and we discuss how such physiological variation may mediate the relationship between environmental characteristics and senescence. Based on our work using Seychelles warblers as a model system, we show how insights from long-term studies of wild animals may help unravel the causes of the remarkable variation in senescence observed in natural systems, and highlight areas for promising future research. PMID:26344178

  9. Pain management in trauma: A review study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Alireza; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Heidari Zadie, Zahra; Euasobhon, Pramote; Ketumarn, Penkae; Karbasfrushan, Ali; Amini-Saman, Javad; Mohammadi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Pain in trauma has a role similar to the double-edged sword. On the one hand, pain is a good indicator to determine the severity and type of injury. On the other hand, pain can induce sever complications and it may lead to further deterioration of the patient. Therefore, knowing how to manage pain in trauma patients is an important part of systemic approach in trauma. The aim of this manuscript is to provide information about pain management in trauma in the Emergency Room settings. Methods: In this review we searched among electronic and manual documents covering a 15-yr period between 2000 and 2016. Our electronic search included Pub Med, Google scholar, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases. We looked for articles in English and in peer-reviewed journals using the following keywords: acute pain management, trauma, emergency room and injury. Results: More than 3200 documents were identified. After screening based on the study inclusion criteria, 560 studies that had direct linkage to the study aim were considered for evaluation based World Health Organization (WHO) pain ladder chart. Conclusions: To provide adequate pain management in trauma patients require: adequate assessment of age-specific pharmacologic pain management; identification of adequate analgesic to relieve moderate to severe pain; cognizance of serious adverse effects of pain medications and weighting medications against their benefits, and regularly reassessing patients and reevaluating their pain management regimen. Patient-centered trauma care will also require having knowledge of barriers to pain management and discussing them with the patient and his/her family to identify solutions. PMID:27414816

  10. Management of Biomedical Waste: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Abhishek, K N; Suryavanshi, Harshal N; Sam, George; Chaithanya, K H; Punde, Prashant; Singh, S Swetha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental operatories pose a threat due to the high chances of infection transmission both to the clinician and the patients. Hence, management of dental waste becomes utmost importance not only for the health benefit of the dentist himself, but also people who can come into contact with these wastes directly or indirectly. The present study was conducted to find out the management of biomedical waste in private dental practice among 3 districts of Karnataka. Materials and Methods: The study population included 186 private practitioners in 3 districts of Karnataka (Coorg, Mysore, Hassan), South India. A pre-tested self-administered questionnaire was distributed to assess the knowledge and practices regarding dental waste management. Descriptive statistics was used to summarize the results. Results: Out of 186 study subjects, 71 (38%) were females and 115 (62%) were males. The maximum number of participants belonged to the age group of 28-33 years (29%). Undergraduate qualification was more (70%). 90 (48%) participants had an experience of 0-5 years. Chi-square analysis showed a highly significant association between participant who attended continuing dental education (CDE) program and their practice of dental waste management. Conclusion: Education with regards to waste management will help in enhancing practices regarding the same. In order to fill this vacuum CDE programs have to be conducted in pursuance to maintain health of the community. PMID:26435621

  11. Evolutionary insights from studies of geographic variation: Contemporary variation and looking to the future.

    PubMed

    Etterson, Julie R; Schneider, Heather E; Gorden, Nicole L Soper; Weber, Jennifer J

    2016-01-01

    In an age of rapid global change, it is imperative that we continue to improve our understanding of factors that govern genetic differentiation in plants to inform biologically reasonable predictions for the future and enlighten conservation and restoration practices. In this special issue, we have assembled a set of original research and reviews that employ diverse approaches, both classic and contemporary, to illuminate patterns of phenotypic and genetic variation, probe the underlying evolutionary processes that have contributed to these patterns, build predictive models, and test evolutionary hypotheses. Our goal was to underscore the unique insights that can be obtained through the complementary and distinct studies of plant populations across species' geographic ranges. PMID:26772310

  12. Providers' Perspectives on Case Management of a Healthy Start Program: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Moise, Imelda K.; Mulhall, Peter F.

    2016-01-01

    Although Healthy Start case managers recognized the benefits of case management for facilitating optimal service delivery to women and their families, structural factors impact effective implementation. This study investigated case managers' views of 1) the structural challenges faced in implementing case management for program participants, and 2) possible strategies to enhance case management in medical home settings. Two focus groups were conducted separately with case managers from the four program service sites to gain insight into these issues noted above. Each group was co-facilitated by two evaluators using a previously developed semi-structured interview guide. The group discussions were audio recorded and the case managers' comments were transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis, a deductive approach. Data were collected in 2013 and analyzed in 2015. Case managers are challenged by externalities (demographic shifts in target populations, poverty); contractual requirements (predefined catchment neighborhoods, caseload); limited support (client incentives, tailored training, and a high staff turnover rate); and logistic difficulties (organizational issues). Their approach to case management tends to be focused on linking Although Healthy Start case managers recognized the benefits of case management for facilitating optimal service delivery to women and their families, structural factors impact effective implementation. This study investigated case managers' views of 1) the structural challenges faced in implementing case management for program participants, and 2) possible strategies to enhance case management in medical home settings. Two focus groups were conducted separately with case managers from the four program service sites to gain insight into these issues noted above. Each group was co-facilitated by two evaluators using a previously developed semi-structured interview guide. The group discussions were audio recorded

  13. Providers' Perspectives on Case Management of a Healthy Start Program: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Moise, Imelda K; Mulhall, Peter F

    2016-01-01

    Although Healthy Start case managers recognized the benefits of case management for facilitating optimal service delivery to women and their families, structural factors impact effective implementation. This study investigated case managers' views of 1) the structural challenges faced in implementing case management for program participants, and 2) possible strategies to enhance case management in medical home settings. Two focus groups were conducted separately with case managers from the four program service sites to gain insight into these issues noted above. Each group was co-facilitated by two evaluators using a previously developed semi-structured interview guide. The group discussions were audio recorded and the case managers' comments were transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis, a deductive approach. Data were collected in 2013 and analyzed in 2015. Case managers are challenged by externalities (demographic shifts in target populations, poverty); contractual requirements (predefined catchment neighborhoods, caseload); limited support (client incentives, tailored training, and a high staff turnover rate); and logistic difficulties (organizational issues). Their approach to case management tends to be focused on linking Although Healthy Start case managers recognized the benefits of case management for facilitating optimal service delivery to women and their families, structural factors impact effective implementation. This study investigated case managers' views of 1) the structural challenges faced in implementing case management for program participants, and 2) possible strategies to enhance case management in medical home settings. Two focus groups were conducted separately with case managers from the four program service sites to gain insight into these issues noted above. Each group was co-facilitated by two evaluators using a previously developed semi-structured interview guide. The group discussions were audio recorded

  14. Management System for EMR Work Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia County Board of Public Instruction, Lake City, FL. Exceptional Child Education Dept.

    A computerized information management system involving the specification of objectives, the coding of teacher evaluations of students, and a variety of possible outputs has been used in a work study program for educable mentally retarded adolescents. Instructional objectives are specified and coded by number and category. Evaluation is by means of…

  15. Insights into Facebook Pages: an early adolescent health research study page targeted at parents.

    PubMed

    Amon, Krestina L; Paxton, Karen; Klineberg, Emily; Riley, Lisa; Hawke, Catherine; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2016-02-01

    Facebook has been used in health research, but there is a lack of literature regarding how Facebook may be used to recruit younger adolescents. A Facebook Page was created for an adolescent cohort study on the effects of puberty hormones on well-being and behaviour in early adolescence. Used as a communication tool with existing participants, it also aimed to alert potential participants to the study. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed description of the development of the study Facebook Page and present the fan response to the types of posts made on the Page using the Facebook-generated Insights data. Two types of posts were made on the study Facebook Page. The first type was study-related update posts and events. The second was relevant adolescent and family research and current news posts. Observations on the use of and response to the Page were made over 1 year across three phases (phase 1, very low Facebook use; phase 2, high Facebook use; phase 3, low Facebook use). Most Page fans were female (88.6%), with the largest group of fans aged between 35 and 44 years. Study-related update posts with photographs were the most popular. This paper provides a model on which other researchers could base Facebook communication and potential recruitment in the absence of established guidelines. PMID:25781667

  16. Spacelab data management subsystem phase B study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The Spacelab data management system is described. The data management subsystem (DMS) integrates the avionics equipment into an operational system by providing the computations, logic, signal flow, and interfaces needed to effectively command, control, monitor, and check out the experiment and subsystem hardware. Also, the DMS collects/retrieves experiment data and other information by recording and by command of the data relay link to ground. The major elements of the DMS are the computer subsystem, data acquisition and distribution subsystem, controls and display subsystem, onboard checkout subsystem, and software. The results of the DMS portion of the Spacelab Phase B Concept Definition Study are analyzed.

  17. Kohler's Insight Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windholtz, George

    1985-01-01

    Psychology textbooks frequently present Wolfgang Kohler's two-stick experiment with chimpanzees as having demonstrated insight in learning. Studies that replicated Kohler's work support his findings but not his interpretation in terms of insightful solution. The uncritical inclusion of Kohler's insight interpretation in texts is not warranted in…

  18. Market Orientation within University Schools of Business: Can a Dynamical Systems Viewpoint Applied to a Non-Temporal Data Set Yield Valuable Insights for University Managers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, John C.; Webster, Robert L.; Hammond, Kevin L.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the use of using complexity theory--the study of nonlinear dynamical systems of which chaos and catastrophe theory are subsets--in the analysis of a non temporal data set to derive valuable insights into the functioning of university schools of business. The approach is unusual in that studies of nonlinearity in complex…

  19. Chromobacterium violaceum: important insights for virulence and biotechnological potential by exoproteomic studies.

    PubMed

    Ciprandi, Alessandra; da Silva, Wanderson Marques; Santos, Agenor Valadares; de Castro Pimenta, Adriano Monteiro; Carepo, Marta Sofia Peixe; Schneider, Maria Paula Cruz; Azevedo, Vasco; Silva, Artur

    2013-07-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum is a beta-proteobacterium with high biotechnological potential, found in tropical environments. This bacterium causes opportunistic infections in both humans and animals, that can spread throughout several tissues, quickly leading to the death of the host. Genomic studies identified potential mechanisms of pathogenicity but no further studies were done to confirm the expression of these systems. In this study 36 unique protein entries were identified in databank from a two-dimensional profile of C. violaceum secreted proteins. Chromobacterium violaceum exoproteomic preliminary studies confirmed the production of proteins identified as virulence factors (such as a collagenase, flagellum proteins, metallopeptidases, and toxins), allowing us to better understand its pathogenicity mechanisms. Biotechnologically interesting proteins (such as chitinase and chitosanase) were also identified among the secreted proteins, as well as proteins involved in the transport and capture of amino acids, carbohydrates, and oxidative stress protection. Overall, the secreted proteins identified provide us important insights on pathogenicity mechanisms, biotechnological potential, and environment adaptation of C. violaceum. PMID:23455494

  20. Insights into Tropospheric Ozone from the INTEX Ozonesonde Network Study (IONS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, J. C.; Kucsera, T. L.; Merrill, J. T.; Morris, G.; Newchurch, M. J.; Oltmans, S. J.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Tarasick, D. J.

    2004-01-01

    Ozone profile data from soundings integrate models, aircraft and other ground-based measurements for better interpretation of atmospheric chemistry and dynamics. A well-designed network of ozonesonde stations, with consistent sampling, can answer questions not possible with short campaigns or current satellite technology. The SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) project, for example, has led to these findings about tropical ozone: definition of the zonal tropospheric wave-one pattern in equatorial ozone, characterization of the "Atlantic ozone paradox" and establishment of a link between tropical Atlantic and Indian Ocean pollution. Building on the SHADOZ concept, a short-term ozone network was formed in July-August 2004 to coordinate ozonesonde launches during the ICARTT/INTEX/NEAQS (International Consortium on Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation)/Intercontinental Transport Experiment/New England Air Quality Study. In IONS (INTEX Ozonesonde Network Study), more than 250 soundings, with daily frequency at half the sites, were launched from eleven North American stations and an oceanographic ship in the Gulf of Maine. Although the goal was to examine pollution influences under stable high-pressure systems and transport associated with "warm conveyor belt" flows, the INTEX study region was dominated by a series of weak frontal system that mixed aged pollution with stratospheric ozone in the middle troposphere. Deconvoluting ozone sources provides new insights into ozone in the transition between mid-latitude and polar air.

  1. Cognitive processes in children’s dietary recalls: Insight from methodological studies

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel

    2009-01-01

    Objective This article summarises 12 dietary-reporting methodological studies with children (six validation studies, one non-validation study, five secondary analyses studies of data from one or more of the six validation studies), identifies research gaps, and provides recommendations for (a) improving children’s recall accuracy and (b) details to specify in publications of studies that utilise children’s dietary recalls. Subjects/Methods Randomly selected children (ages nine to ten) were observed eating school breakfast and school lunch, and interviewed to obtain dietary recalls. Results Children’s recall accuracy improved slightly between the first and third recalls, but individual children’s accuracy was inconsistent from one interview to the next. Although accuracy was poor overall, it was better for boys with reverse-order (evening-to-morning) prompts, but for girls with forward-order (morning-to-evening) prompts. Children recalled breakfast intake less accurately than lunch intake. Children’s accuracy did not depend on whether recalls were obtained in-person or by telephone, but was better for recalls obtained with open than meal format. Retention interval was crucial as children’s accuracy was better for prior-24-hour recalls (about the 24 hours immediately preceding the interview) than previous-day recalls (about midnight to midnight of the day before the interview). Observations of school meals did not affect children's recalls. Children’s recall accuracy was related to their age/sex body mass index percentile. Conventional report rates (which disregard accuracy for items and amounts) overestimated accuracy for energy and macronutrients, and masked complexities of recall error. Conclusions Research concerning errors in Children’s dietary recalls provides insight for improving children’s recall accuracy. PMID:19190640

  2. Mineral carbonation: energy costs of pretreatment options and insights gained from flow loop reaction studies

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, Larry R.; O'Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Rush, Gilbert E.

    2004-01-01

    Sequestration of carbon as a stable mineral carbonate has been proposed to mitigate environmental concerns that carbon dioxide may with time escape from its sequestered matrix using alternative sequestration technologies. A method has been developed to prepare stable carbonate products by reacting CO2 with magnesium silicate minerals in aqueous bicarbonate/chloride media at high temperature and pressure. Because this approach is inherently expensive due to slow reaction rates and high capital costs, studies were conducted to improve the reaction rates through mineral pretreatment steps and to cut expenses through improved reactor technology. An overview is given for the estimated cost of the process including sensitivity to grinding and heating as pretreatment options for several mineral feedstocks. The energy costs are evaluated for each pretreatment in terms of net carbon avoided. New studies with a high-temperature, high-pressure flow-loop reactor have yielded information on overcoming kinetic barriers experienced with processing in stirred autoclave reactors. Repeated tests with the flow-loop reactor have yielded insights on wear and failure of system components, on challenges to maintain and measure flow, and for better understanding of the reaction mechanism.

  3. Insight in modulation of inflammation in response to diclofenac intervention: a human intervention study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chronic systemic low-grade inflammation in obese subjects is associated with health complications including cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance and diabetes. Reducing inflammatory responses may reduce these risks. However, available markers of inflammatory status inadequately describe the complexity of metabolic responses to mild anti-inflammatory therapy. Methods To address this limitation, we used an integrative omics approach to characterize modulation of inflammation in overweight men during an intervention with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac. Measured parameters included 80 plasma proteins, >300 plasma metabolites (lipids, free fatty acids, oxylipids and polar compounds) and an array of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) gene expression products. These measures were submitted to multivariate and correlation analysis and were used for construction of biological response networks. Results A panel of genes, proteins and metabolites, including PGE2 and TNF-alpha, were identified that describe a diclofenac-response network (68 genes in PBMC, 1 plasma protein and 4 plasma metabolites). Novel candidate markers of inflammatory modulation included PBMC expression of annexin A1 and caspase 8, and the arachidonic acid metabolite 5,6-DHET. Conclusion In this study the integrated analysis of a wide range of parameters allowed the development of a network of markers responding to inflammatory modulation, thereby providing insight into the complex process of inflammation and ways to assess changes in inflammatory status associated with obesity. Trial registration The study is registered as NCT00221052 in clinicaltrials.gov database. PMID:20178593

  4. Insights from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW).

    PubMed

    Watts, Nelson B

    2014-07-01

    GLOW is an observational, longitudinal, practice-based cohort study of osteoporosis in 60,393 women aged ≥55 years in 10 countries on three continents. In this Review, we present insights from the first 3 years of the study. Despite cost analyses being frequently based on spine and hip fractures, we found that nonvertebral, nonhip fractures were around five times more common and doubled the use of health-care resources compared with hip and spine fractures combined. Fractures not at the four so-called major sites in FRAX(®) (upper arm, forearm, hip and clinical vertebral fractures) account for >40% of all fractures. The risk of fracture is increased by various comorbidities, such as Parkinson disease, multiple sclerosis and lung and heart disease. Obesity, although thought to be protective against all fractures, substantially increased the risk of fractures in the ankle or lower leg. Simple assessment by age plus fracture history has good predictive value for all fractures, but risk profiles differ for first and subsequent fractures. Fractures diminish quality of life as much or more than diabetes mellitus, arthritis and lung disease, yet women substantially underestimate their own fracture risk. Treatment rates in patients at high risk of fracture are below those recommended but might be too frequent in women at low risk. Comorbidities and the limits of current therapeutic regimens jeopardize the efficacy of drugs; new regimens should be explored for severe cases. PMID:24751880

  5. The Brain on Stress: Insight from Studies Using the Visible Burrow System

    PubMed Central

    McEwen, Bruce S.; McKittrick, Christina R.; Tamashiro, Kellie L. K.; Sakai, Randall R.

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of adrenal steroid receptors outside of the hypothalamus in the hippocampus and other forebrain regions catalyzed research on the effects of stress upon cognitive function, emotions and self-regulatory behaviors as well as the molecular, cellular and neuroanatomical mechanisms underlying acute and chronic stress effects on the brain. Indeed, this work has shown that the brain is a plastic and vulnerable organ in the face of acute and chronic stress. The insight that Bob and Caroline Blanchard had in developing and interpreting findings using the Visible Burrow System model made an enormous contribution to the current view that the human brain is very sensitive to the social environment and to agonistic interactions between individuals. Their collaboration with Sakai and McEwen at The Rockefeller University extended application of the Visible Burrow System model to demonstrate that it also was a unique and highly relevant neuroethological model with which to study stress and adaptation to stressors. Those studies focused on the brain and systemic organ responses to stress and, in turn, described that the brain is also very responsive to changes in systemic physiology. PMID:26066722

  6. Computational models of the pulmonary circulation: Insights and the move towards clinically directed studies

    PubMed Central

    Tawhai, Merryn H.; Clark, Alys R.; Burrowes, Kelly S.

    2011-01-01

    Biophysically-based computational models provide a tool for integrating and explaining experimental data, observations, and hypotheses. Computational models of the pulmonary circulation have evolved from minimal and efficient constructs that have been used to study individual mechanisms that contribute to lung perfusion, to sophisticated multi-scale and -physics structure-based models that predict integrated structure-function relationships within a heterogeneous organ. This review considers the utility of computational models in providing new insights into the function of the pulmonary circulation, and their application in clinically motivated studies. We review mathematical and computational models of the pulmonary circulation based on their application; we begin with models that seek to answer questions in basic science and physiology and progress to models that aim to have clinical application. In looking forward, we discuss the relative merits and clinical relevance of computational models: what important features are still lacking; and how these models may ultimately be applied to further increasing our understanding of the mechanisms occurring in disease of the pulmonary circulation. PMID:22034608

  7. Communication and the primate brain: Insights from neuroimaging studies in humans, chimpanzees and macaques

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Benjamin; Petkov, Christopher I.

    2012-01-01

    Considerable knowledge is available on the neural substrates for speech and language from brain imaging studies in humans, but until recently there was a lack of data for comparison from other animal species on the evolutionarily conserved brain regions that process species-specific communication signals. To obtain new insights into the relationship of the substrates for communication in primates, we compared the results from several neuroimaging studies in humans with those that have recently been obtained from macaque monkeys and chimpanzees. The recent work in humans challenges the longstanding notion of highly localized speech areas. As a result, the brain regions that have been identified in humans for speech and non-linguistic voice processing show a striking general correspondence to how the brains of other primates analyze species-specific vocalizations or information in the voice, such as voice identity. The comparative neuroimaging work has begun to clarify evolutionary relationships in brain function, supporting the notion that the brain regions that process communication signals in the human brain arose from a precursor network of regions that is present in nonhuman primates and used for processing species-specific vocalizations. We conclude by considering how the stage now seems to be set for comparative neurobiology to characterize the ancestral state of the network that evolved in humans to support language. PMID:21615285

  8. Second Language Acquisition: Possible Insights from Studies on How Birds Acquire Song.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neapolitan, Denise M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reviews research that demonstrates parallels between general linguistic and cognitive processes in human language acquisition and avian acquisition of song and discusses how such research may provide new insights into the processes of second-language acquisition. (Author/CB)

  9. The Honeywell Studies: How Managers Learn to Manage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemke, Ron

    1985-01-01

    Describes how a group of Honeywell Corporation human resources specialists determined how the organization's management development process could be improved to support the needs of the business. Discusses corporate management development strategy, curriculum, conference center, on-the-job experiences, and how experience, relationships, and…

  10. Managerial activities and skills of nurse managers: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Min; Wu, Jen-Her; White, Louis P

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors used the activity competency model (Wu, Chen, and Lin 2004) to investigate the perceived importance of managerial activities and skills required of three levels of nurse managers. They identify the portfolio of the management activities and the needed skills at each management level. The results of this study provide guidelines for management development programs, training, and career planning for nurse managers, and can also serve as guidelines for recruiting and selecting effective nurse managers. PMID:16190515

  11. Further Insights in Trichothiodistrophy: A Clinical, Microscopic, and Ultrastructural Study of 20 Cases and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Ferrando, Juan; Mir-Bonafé, José M.; Cepeda-Valdés, Rodrigo; Domínguez, Anna; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; García-Veigas, Javier; Gómez-Flores, Minerva; Salas-Alanis, Julio C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Trichothiodistrophy (TTD) is a rare autosomal recessive condition that is characterized by a specific congenital hair shaft dysplasia caused by deficiency of sulfur associated with a wide spectrum of multisystem abnormalities. In this article, we study clinical, microscopic, and ultrastructural findings of 20 patients with TTD with the aim to add further insights regarding to this rare condition. Additionally, analyses of our results are compared with those extracted from the literature in order to enhance its comprehensibility. Materials and Methods: Twenty cases of TTD were included: 7 from Mexico and 14 from Spain. Clinical, microscopic, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies and X-ray microanalysis (XrMa) were carried out in all of them. Genetic studies were performed in all seven Mexican cases. Patients with xeroderma pigmentosum and xeroderma pigmentosum/TTD-complex were excluded. Results: Cuticular changes and longitudinal crests of the hair shaft were demonstrated. These crests were irregular, disorganized, following the hair longest axis. Hair shaft sulfur deficiency was disposed discontinuously and intermittently rather than uniformly. This severe decrease of sulfur contents was located close to the trichoschisis areas. Only five patients did not show related disturbances. Micro-dolichocephaly was observed in five cases and represented the most frequent facial dysmorphism found. It is also remarkable that all patients with urologic malformations also combined diverse neurologic disorders. Moreover, three Mexican sisters demonstrated the coexistence of scarce pubic vellus hair, developmental delay, onychodystrophy, and maxillar/mandibullar hypoplasia. Conclusions: TTD phenotype has greatly varied from very subtle forms to severe alterations such as neurologic abnormalities, blindness, lamellar ichthyosis and gonadal malformations. Herein, a multisystem study should be performed mandatorily in patients diagnosed with TTD. PMID:23180925

  12. Unveiling the molecular mechanism of brassinosteroids: Insights from structure-based molecular modeling studies.

    PubMed

    Lei, Beilei; Liu, Jiyuan; Yao, Xiaojun

    2015-12-01

    Brassinosteroid (BR) phytohormones play indispensable roles in plant growth and development. Brassinolide (BL) and 24-epibrassinolide (24-epiBL) are the most active ones among the BRs reported thus far. Unfortunately, the extremely low natural content and intricate synthesis process limit their popularization in agricultural production. Earlier reports to discover alternative compounds have resulted in molecules with nearly same scaffold structure and without diversity in chemical space. In the present study, receptors structure based BRs regulation mechanism was analyzed. First, we examined the detailed binding interactions and their dynamic stability between BL and its receptor BRI1 and co-receptor BAK1. Then, the binding modes and binding free energies for 24-epiBL and a series of representative BRs binding with BRI1 and BRI1-BAK1 were carried out by molecular docking, energy minimization and MM-PBSA free energy calculation. The obtained binding structures and energetic results provided vital insights into the structural factors affecting the activity from both receptors and BRs aspects. Subsequently, the obtained knowledge will serve as valuable guidance to build pharmacophore models for rational screening of new scaffold alternative BRs. PMID:26362600

  13. How Do Antihypertensive Drugs Work? Insights from Studies of the Renal Regulation of Arterial Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Digne-Malcolm, Holly; Frise, Matthew C; Dorrington, Keith L

    2016-01-01

    Though antihypertensive drugs have been in use for many decades, the mechanisms by which they act chronically to reduce blood pressure remain unclear. Over long periods, mean arterial blood pressure must match the perfusion pressure necessary for the kidney to achieve its role in eliminating the daily intake of salt and water. It follows that the kidney is the most likely target for the action of most effective antihypertensive agents used chronically in clinical practice today. Here we review the long-term renal actions of antihypertensive agents in human studies and find three different mechanisms of action for the drugs investigated. (i) Selective vasodilatation of the renal afferent arteriole (prazosin, indoramin, clonidine, moxonidine, α-methyldopa, some Ca(++)-channel blockers, angiotensin-receptor blockers, atenolol, metoprolol, bisoprolol, labetolol, hydrochlorothiazide, and furosemide). (ii) Inhibition of tubular solute reabsorption (propranolol, nadolol, oxprenolol, and indapamide). (iii) A combination of these first two mechanisms (amlodipine, nifedipine and ACE-inhibitors). These findings provide insights into the actions of antihypertensive drugs, and challenge misconceptions about the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic efficacy of many of the agents. PMID:27524972

  14. New Insights Gained From the Study of the PDF of Small Scale IMF Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, R.; Carbone, V.; Bavassano, B.; Sorriso-Valvo, L.

    2003-12-01

    Interplanetary MHD fluctuations are strongly affected by the solar wind radial expansion. In a previous investigation we studied the radial evolution of the probability distribution function (PDF) of magnetic field and velocity fluctuations within the inner heliosphere and found that the behaviour of these fluctuations tended to resemble a Levy-flight statistics, especially with increasing heliocentric distance from the sun. We concluded that the observed behaviour is mainly due to a competing action between stochastic, propagating fluctuations and convected structures, both contributing to solar wind turbulent fluctuations. These two ingredients, which experience a different radial evolution, are represented by propagating Alfvénic fluctuations and convected flux tubes, respectively. In the present analysis we looked in more detail at the PDF of high resolution magnetic field fluctuations within the inner heliosphere gaining new interesting insights about the nature of these fluctuations and the topology of interplanetary magnetic field at small scale. We finally discuss initial results from a simple model which tries to resemble observations within fast and slow wind with some success.

  15. An Insight into the Pharmacophores of Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibitors from Synthetic and Crystal Structural Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Chen,G.; Wang, H.; Robinson, H.; Cai, J.; Wan, Y.; Ke, H.

    2008-01-01

    Selective inhibitors of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) have been used as drugs for treatment of male erectile dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. An insight into the pharmacophores of PDE5 inhibitors is essential for development of second generation of PDE5 inhibitors, but has not been completely illustrated. Here we report the synthesis of a new class of the sildenafil derivatives and a crystal structure of the PDE5 catalytic domain in complex with 5-(2-ethoxy-5-(sulfamoyl)-3-thienyl)-1-methyl-3-propyl-1, 6-dihydro-7H-pyrazolo[4, 3-d]pyrimidin-7-one (12). Inhibitor 12 induces conformational change of the H-loop (residues 660-683), which is different from any of the known PDE5 structures. The pyrazolopyrimidinone groups of 12 and sildenafil are well superimposed, but their sulfonamide groups show a positional difference of as much as 1.5 Angstroms . The structure-activity analysis suggests that a small hydrophobic pocket and the H-loop of PDE5 are important for the inhibitor affinity, in addition to two common elements for binding of almost all the PDE inhibitors: the stack against the phenylalanine and the hydrogen bond with the invariant glutamine. However, the PDE5-12 structure does not provide a full explanation to affinity changes of the inhibitors. Thus alternatives such as conformational change of the M-loop are open and further structural study is required.

  16. Insights on Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Inhibitors Obtained Through QSAR Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Jayalakshmi; Liu, Jiawang; Foroozesh, Maryam; Stevens, Cheryl L. Klein

    2013-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily of heme enzymes play an important role in the metabolism of a large number of endogenous and exogenous compounds, including most of the drugs currently on the market. Inhibitors of CYP enzymes have important roles in the treatment of several disease conditions such as numerous cancers and fungal infections in addition to their critical role in drug-drug interactions. Structure activity relationships (SAR), and three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationships (3D-QSAR) represent important tools in understanding the interactions of the inhibitors with the active sites of the CYP enzymes. A comprehensive account of the QSAR studies on the major human CYPs 1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 3A4 and a few other CYPs are detailed in this review which will provide us with an insight into the individual/common characteristics of the active sites of these enzymes and the enzyme-inhibitor interactions. PMID:22864238

  17. How Do Antihypertensive Drugs Work? Insights from Studies of the Renal Regulation of Arterial Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Digne-Malcolm, Holly; Frise, Matthew C.; Dorrington, Keith L.

    2016-01-01

    Though antihypertensive drugs have been in use for many decades, the mechanisms by which they act chronically to reduce blood pressure remain unclear. Over long periods, mean arterial blood pressure must match the perfusion pressure necessary for the kidney to achieve its role in eliminating the daily intake of salt and water. It follows that the kidney is the most likely target for the action of most effective antihypertensive agents used chronically in clinical practice today. Here we review the long-term renal actions of antihypertensive agents in human studies and find three different mechanisms of action for the drugs investigated. (i) Selective vasodilatation of the renal afferent arteriole (prazosin, indoramin, clonidine, moxonidine, α-methyldopa, some Ca++-channel blockers, angiotensin-receptor blockers, atenolol, metoprolol, bisoprolol, labetolol, hydrochlorothiazide, and furosemide). (ii) Inhibition of tubular solute reabsorption (propranolol, nadolol, oxprenolol, and indapamide). (iii) A combination of these first two mechanisms (amlodipine, nifedipine and ACE-inhibitors). These findings provide insights into the actions of antihypertensive drugs, and challenge misconceptions about the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic efficacy of many of the agents. PMID:27524972

  18. Carbon allocation in plants and ecosystems - insights from stable isotope studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessler, Arthur

    2014-05-01

    Trees are large global stores of carbon (C) that will be impacted by increased carbon dioxide levels and climate change. However, at present we cannot properly predict the carbon balance of forests in future as we lack knowledge on how plant physiological processes, the transfer of carbon within the plant, carbon storage, and remobilization in the plant tissues as well as the release of carbon from the roots to the soil interact with environmental drivers and ecosystem-scale processes. This paper will summarise how stable isotope techniques can give new insights in the fate of newly assimilated C in plants and ecosystems on time scales from hours to seasons and it will include studies either characterizing temporal and spatial variation in the natural abundance of carbon and oxygen isotopes or applying isotopically enriched tracers. It comprises the assessment of the mechanisms of C partitioning among specific metabolic pathways, between plant organs and into various ecosystem C pools with different residence times. Moreover stable isotopes are highly suitable tools to characterise the role of the phloem, which is the central long-distance conveyer distributing C from source to sinks and thus plays a central role in linking sites and structures of storage, growth and other metabolic activities. A deeper understanding of these processes and their interaction with environmental drivers is critical for predicting how trees and ecosystems will respond to coming global environmental changes, including increased temperature, altered precipitation, and elevated carbon dioxide concentrations.

  19. The expanding phenotypic spectra of kidney diseases: insights from genetic studies.

    PubMed

    Stokman, Marijn F; Renkema, Kirsten Y; Giles, Rachel H; Schaefer, Franz; Knoers, Nine V A M; van Eerde, Albertien M

    2016-08-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has led to the identification of previously unrecognized phenotypes associated with classic kidney disease genes. In addition to improving diagnostics for genetically heterogeneous diseases and enabling a faster rate of gene discovery, NGS has enabled an expansion and redefinition of nephrogenetic disease categories. Findings from these studies raise the question of whether disease diagnoses should be made on clinical grounds, on genetic evidence or a combination thereof. Here, we discuss the major kidney disease-associated genes and gene categories for which NGS has expanded the phenotypic spectrum. For example, COL4A3-5 genes, which are classically associated with Alport syndrome, are now understood to also be involved in the aetiology of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. DGKE, which is associated with nephrotic syndrome, is also mutated in patients with atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome. We examine how a shared genetic background between diverse clinical phenotypes can provide insight into the function of genes and novel links with essential pathophysiological mechanisms. In addition, we consider genetic and epigenetic factors that contribute to the observed phenotypic heterogeneity of kidney diseases and discuss the challenges in the interpretation of genetic data. Finally, we discuss the implications of the expanding phenotypic spectra associated with kidney disease genes for clinical practice, genetic counselling and personalized care, and present our recommendations for the use of NGS-based tests in routine nephrology practice. PMID:27374918

  20. Field methods in the study of toxic cyanobacterial blooms: results and insights from Lake Erie research.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Steven W

    2008-01-01

    Sound field methodologies are an essential prerequisite in the development of a basic understanding of toxic cyanobacteria blooms. Sample collection, on-site processing, storage and transportation, and subsequent analysis and documentation are all critically dependent on a sound field program that allows the researcher to construct, with minimal uncertainty, linkages between bloom events and cyanotoxin production with the ecology of the studied system. Since 1999, we have collected samples in Lake Erie as part of the MELEE (Microbial Ecology of the Lake Erie Ecosystem) and MERHAB-LGL (Monitoring Event Responses for Harmful Algal Blooms in the Lower Great Lakes) research programs to develop appropriate tools and refine methods necessary to characterize the ecology of the reoccurring cyanobacterial blooms in the systems. Satellite imagery, large ship expeditions, classical and novel molecular tools have been combined to provide insight into both the cyanobacteria responsible for these events as well as into some of the environmental cues that may facilitate the formation of toxic blooms. This information, as well new directions in cyano-specific monitoring will be presented to highlight needs for field program monitoring and/or researching toxic freshwater cyanobacteria. PMID:18461781

  1. Automation impact study of Army Training Management

    SciTech Connect

    Sanquist, T.F.; Schuller, C.R.; McCallum, M.C.; Underwood, J.A.; Bettin, P.J.; King, J.L.; Melber, B.D.; Hostick, C.J.; Seaver, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    The main objectives of this impact study were to identify the potential cost savings associated with automated Army Training Management (TM), and to perform a cost-benefit analysis for an Army-wide automated TM system. A subsidiary goal was to establish baseline data for an independent evaluation of a prototype Integrated Training Management System (ITMS), to be tested in the fall of 1988. A structured analysis of TM doctrine was performed for comparison with empirical data gathered in a job analysis survey of selected units of the 9ID (MTZ) at Ft. Lewis, Washington. These observations will be extended to other units in subsequent surveys. The survey data concerning staffing levels and amount of labor expended on eight distinct TM tasks were analyzed in a cost effectiveness model. The main results of the surveys and cost effectiveness modelling are summarized. 18 figs., 47 tabs.

  2. Type-specific HPV and Pap test results among low-income, underserved women: providing insights into management strategies

    PubMed Central

    Saraiya, Mona; Benard, Vicki B.; Greek, April A.; Steinau, Martin; Patel, Sonya; Massad, L. Stewart; Sawaya, George F.; Unger, Elizabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The primary cervical cancer screening strategy for women over age 30 is high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing combined with Papanicolaou (Pap) testing (cotesting) every 5 years. This combination strategy is a preventive service that is required by the Affordable Care Act to be covered with no cost-sharing by most health insurance plans. The cotesting recommendation was made based entirely on prospective data from an insured population that may have a lower proportion of women with HPV positive and Pap negative results (ie, discordant results). The discordant group represents a very difficult group to manage. If the frequency of discordant results among underserved women is higher, health care providers may perceive the cotesting strategy to be a less favorable screening strategy than traditional Pap testing every 3 years. STUDY DESIGN The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Cervical Cancer Study was conducted at 15 clinics in 6 federally qualified health centers across Illinois. Providers at these clinics were given the option of cotesting for routine cervical cancer screening. Type-specific HPV detection was performed on residual extracts using linear array. RESULTS Pap test results were abnormal in 6.0% and HPV was positive in 7.2% of the underserved women screened in this study (mean age, 45.1 years). HPV prevalence decreased with age, from 10.3% among 30- to 39-year-olds to 4.5% among 50- to 60-year-olds. About 5% of the women had a combination of a positive HPV test and normal Pap test results; HPV 16/18 was identified in 14% of discordant women. CONCLUSION The rate of discordant results among underserved women was similar to those reported throughout the US in a variety of populations. Typing for HPV 16/18 appears to assist in the management in a small proportion of women with discordant results. PMID:24813971

  3. DHEA effects on brain and behavior: insights from comparative studies of aggression.

    PubMed

    Soma, Kiran K; Rendon, Nikki M; Boonstra, Rudy; Albers, H Elliott; Demas, Gregory E

    2015-01-01

    Historically, research on the neuroendocrinology of aggression has been dominated by the paradigm that the brain receives sex steroid hormones, such as testosterone (T), from the gonads, and then these gonadal hormones modulate behaviorally relevant neural circuits. While this paradigm has been extremely useful for advancing the field, recent studies reveal important alternatives. For example, most vertebrate species are seasonal breeders, and many species show aggression outside of the breeding season, when the gonads are regressed and circulating levels of gonadal steroids are relatively low. Studies in diverse avian and mammalian species suggest that adrenal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), an androgen precursor and prohormone, is important for the expression of aggression when gonadal T synthesis is low. Circulating DHEA can be converted into active sex steroids within the brain. In addition, the brain can synthesize sex steroids de novo from cholesterol, thereby uncoupling brain steroid levels from circulating steroid levels. These alternative mechanisms to provide sex steroids to specific neural circuits may have evolved to avoid the costs of high circulating T levels during the non-breeding season. Physiological indicators of season (e.g., melatonin) may allow animals to switch from one neuroendocrine mechanism to another across the year. DHEA and neurosteroids are likely to be important for the control of multiple behaviors in many species, including humans. These studies yield fundamental insights into the regulation of DHEA secretion, the mechanisms by which DHEA affects behavior, and the brain regions and neural processes that are modulated by DHEA. It is clear that the brain is an important site of DHEA synthesis and action. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Essential role of DHEA'. PMID:24928552

  4. Genetic assignment methods for gaining insight into the management of infectious disease by understanding pathogen, vector, and host movement.

    PubMed

    Remais, Justin V; Xiao, Ning; Akullian, Adam; Qiu, Dongchuan; Blair, David

    2011-04-01

    For many pathogens with environmental stages, or those carried by vectors or intermediate hosts, disease transmission is strongly influenced by pathogen, host, and vector movements across complex landscapes, and thus quantitative measures of movement rate and direction can reveal new opportunities for disease management and intervention. Genetic assignment methods are a set of powerful statistical approaches useful for establishing population membership of individuals. Recent theoretical improvements allow these techniques to be used to cost-effectively estimate the magnitude and direction of key movements in infectious disease systems, revealing important ecological and environmental features that facilitate or limit transmission. Here, we review the theory, statistical framework, and molecular markers that underlie assignment methods, and we critically examine recent applications of assignment tests in infectious disease epidemiology. Research directions that capitalize on use of the techniques are discussed, focusing on key parameters needing study for improved understanding of patterns of disease. PMID:21552326

  5. Translational insight into statin-induced muscle toxicity: from cell culture to clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Taha, Dhiaa A; De Moor, Cornelia H; Barrett, David A; Gershkovich, Pavel

    2014-08-01

    Statins are lipid-lowering drugs used widely to prevent and treat cardiovascular and coronary heart diseases. These drugs are among the most commonly prescribed medicines intended for long-term use. In general, statins are well tolerated. However, muscular adverse effects appear to be the most common obstacle that limits their use, resulting in poor patient compliance or even drug discontinuation. In addition, rare but potentially fatal cases of rhabdomyolysis have been reported with the use of these drugs, especially in the presence of certain risk factors. Previous reports have investigated statin-induced myotoxicity in vivo and in vitro using a number of cell lines, muscle tissues, and laboratory animals, in addition to randomized clinical trials, observational studies, and case reports. None of them have compared directly results from laboratory investigations with clinical observations of statin-related muscular adverse effects. To the best of our knowledge this is the first review article that combines laboratory investigation with clinical aspects of statin-induced myotoxicity. By reviewing published literature of in vivo, in vitro, and clinically relevant studies of statin myotoxicity, we aim to translate this important drug-related problem to establish a clear picture of proposed mechanisms that explain the risk factors and describe the diagnostic approaches currently used for evaluating the degree of muscle damage induced by these agents. This review provides baseline novel translational insight that can be used to enhance the safety profile, to minimize the chance of progression of these adverse effects to more severe and potentially fatal rhabdomyolysis, and to improve the overall patient compliance and adherence to long-term statin therapy. PMID:24530275

  6. First Principles Studies of Tapered Silicon Nanowires: Fundamental Insights and Practical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhigang

    2008-03-01

    Nanowires (NWs) are often observed experimentally to be tapered rather than straight-edged, with diameters (d) shrinking by as much as 1 nm per 10 nm of vertical growth. Previous theoretical studies have examined the electronic properties of straight-edged nanowires (SNWs), although the effects of tapering on quantum confinement may be of both fundamental and practical importance. We have employed ab initio calculations to study the structural and electronic properties of tapered Si NWs. As one may expect, tapered nanowires (TNWs) possess axially-dependent electronic properties; their local energy gaps vary along the wire axis, with the largest gap occurring at the narrowest point of the wire. In contrast to SNWs, where confinement tends to shift valence bands more than conduction bands away from the bulk gap, the unoccupied states in TNWs are much more sensitive to d than the occupied states. In addition, tapering causes the band-edge states to be spatially separated along the wire axis, a consequence of the interplay between a strong variation in quantum confinement strength with diameter and the tapering-induced charge transfer. This property may be exploited in electronic and optical applications, for example, in photovoltaic devices where the separation of the valence and conduction band states could be used to transport excited charges during the thermalization process. In order to gain insight into TNW photovoltaic properties, we have also carried out calculations of the dipole matrix elements near the band edges as well as the role of metal contacts on TNW electronic properties. Finally, a combination of ab initio total energy calculations and classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are employed to suggest a new technique for bringing nanoscale objects together to form ordered, ultra high-aspect ratio nanowires. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  7. Insights into the quaternary association of proteins through structure graphs: a case study of lectins

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The unique three-dimensional structure of both monomeric and oligomeric proteins is encoded in their sequence. The biological functions of proteins are dependent on their tertiary and quaternary structures, and hence it is important to understand the determinants of quaternary association in proteins. Although a large number of investigations have been carried out in this direction, the underlying principles of protein oligomerization are yet to be completely understood. Recently, new insights into this problem have been gained from the analysis of structure graphs of proteins belonging to the legume lectin family. The legume lectins are an interesting family of proteins with very similar tertiary structures but varied quaternary structures. Hence they have become a very good model with which to analyse the role of primary structures in determining the modes of quaternary association. The present review summarizes the results of a legume lectin study as well as those obtained from a similar analysis carried out here on the animal lectins, namely galectins, pentraxins, calnexin, calreticulin and rhesus rotavirus Vp4 sialic-acid-binding domain. The lectin structure graphs have been used to obtain clusters of non-covalently interacting amino acid residues at the intersubunit interfaces. The present study, performed along with traditional sequence alignment methods, has provided the signature sequence motifs for different kinds of quaternary association seen in lectins. Furthermore, the network representation of the lectin oligomers has enabled us to detect the residues which make extensive interactions (‘hubs’) across the oligomeric interfaces that can be targetted for interface-destabilizing mutations. The present review also provides an overview of the methodology involved in representing oligomeric protein structures as connected networks of amino acid residues. Further, it illustrates the potential of such a representation in elucidating the structural

  8. Exploring readiness for the adoption of new molecular water quality tests: Insights from interviews with policy makers, laboratory managers and watershed managers.

    PubMed

    Henrich, Natalie; Holmes, Bev; Isaac-Renton, Judith; Prystajecky, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Adoption of molecular-based water quality tests has been limited despite their advantage over traditional culture-based tests. A better understanding of the factors affecting adoption of these tests is needed for effective implementation. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) was used to analyze interviews with policy makers, watershed managers and laboratory managers in British Columbia (BC), Canada about their perceptions of molecular water tests currently under development in order to assess readiness for adoption and identify factors that may impact implementation. Many of the CFIR constructs were addressed by study participants, thus confirming their validity in the water-testing context. Other constructs were not mentioned, which suggests that awareness about these constructs need to be increased to ensure that they are incorporated into implementation strategies. In general, there was much enthusiasm for the new tests, which were seen to provide valuable information that could enable improved management of watersheds and treatment of source water. However, prior to adopting the tests, stakeholders would require evidence supporting the tests' validity and reliability, would need to assess the complexity of introducing the tests into laboratories and water sampling processes, and would require support interpreting the test results. Even if all the aforementioned issues are satisfactorily addressed, the tests may not be adopted unless regulations and policies were changed to allow the use of these test results to inform decision making. The results support that implementation of new technologies, such as these water quality tests, need to address potential barriers that could hinder uptake despite the advantages of the new product. PMID:26826358

  9. Surgery and Adjuvant Chemotherapy Use Among Veterans With Colon Cancer: Insights From a California Study

    PubMed Central

    Hynes, Denise M.; Tarlov, Elizabeth; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Perrin, Ruth; Zhang, Qiuying; Weichle, Thomas; Ferreira, M. Rosario; Lee, Todd; Benson, Al B.; Bhoopalam, Nirmala; Bennett, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose US veterans have been shown to be a vulnerable population with high cancer rates, and cancer care quality in Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals is the focus of a congressionally mandated review. We examined rates of surgery and chemotherapy use among veterans with colon cancer at VA and non-VA facilities in California to gain insight into factors associated with quality of cancer care. Methods A retrospective cohort of incident colon cancer patients from the California Cancer Registry, who were ≥ 66 years old and eligible to use VA and Medicare between 1999 and 2001, were observed for 6 months after diagnosis. Results Among 601 veterans with colon cancer, 72% were initially diagnosed and treated in non-VA facilities. Among veterans with stage I to III cancer, those diagnosed and initially treated in VA facilities experienced similar colectomy rates as those at non-VA facilities. Stage III patients diagnosed and initially treated in VA versus non-VA facilities had similar odds of receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. In both settings, older patients had lower odds of receiving chemotherapy than their younger counterparts even when race and comorbidity were considered (age 76 to 85 years: odds ratio [OR] = 0.18; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.46; age ≥ 86 years: OR = 0.17; 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.73). Conclusion In California, older veterans with colon cancer used both VA and non-VA facilities for cancer treatment, and odds of receiving cancer-directed surgery and chemotherapy were similar in both systems. Among stage III patients, older age lowered odds of receiving adjuvant chemotherapy in both systems. Further studies should continue to explore potential health system effects on quality of colon cancer care across the United States. PMID:20406940

  10. Insights into Explosive Eruption Processes: Density Studies of Subaerial and Submarine Pyroclastic Deposits, Kermadec Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, S. J.; Rotella, M. D.; Wilson, C. J.; Wright, I. C.

    2008-12-01

    Explosive volcanism involving crystal-poor dacite to rhyolite magmas is common in the young records of many volcanoes along the intraoceanic Kermadec arc. Such volcanism occurs at both submarine and subaerial volcanoes, and is often of a size that caldera collapse occurs. Three volcanoes present unique circumstances that can provide insights into the processes involved in explosive volcanism. Healy, Macauley and Raoul volcanoes have erupted similar silicic magmas within the last 10 kyr in deep marine, shallow marine and subaerial settings, respectively. To investigate eruption processes from these three volcanoes we have characterized the density spectrum for juvenile pumice clasts in the 16-32 mm size fraction using water immersion techniques [Houghton & Wilson, Bull Volc. 51, 1989]. At Raoul, we have data from five eruption deposits of widely contrasting dispersal (strombolian to plinian). Four of these eruptions show no evidence for involvement of external water: all samples show narrowly-defined peaks of density despite wide differences in eruption size. Only one subaerial eruption shows evidence for interaction with external water, consistent with the large density range observed. Subaerial deposits from Macauley Island show a narrow peak in density, but display a slightly wider range caused by a subtle tail-off to denser clasts. Co-eruptive submarine deposits show large variations in density, with multiple peaks identified. Although from the same eruption (as shown by continuity on seismic profiles), these submarine deposits display a significant contrast in density spectra, which reflects the syn-eruptive redistribution of clasts with diverse densities. Material dredged from 1320 to 2110 m water depth at Healy also shows a large density range, but displays a unimodal low-density peak and lacks syn-eruptive selective redistribution of clast populations. Density spectra will be used to constrain the choice of clasts for imaging of vesicle textures and

  11. Insight Into the Relationship Between Impulsivity and Substance Abuse From Studies Using Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Winstanley, Catharine A.; Olausson, Peter; Taylor, Jane R.; Jentsch, J. David

    2010-01-01

    Drug use disorders are often accompanied by deficits in the capacity to efficiently process reward-related information and to monitor, suppress, or override reward-controlled behavior when goals are in conflict with aversive or immediate outcomes. This emerging deficit in behavioral flexibility and impulse control may be a central component of the progression to addiction, as behavior becomes increasingly driven by drugs and drug-associated cues at the expense of more advantageous activities. Understanding how neural mechanisms implicated in impulse control are affected by addictive drugs may therefore prove a useful strategy in the search for new treatment options. Animal models of impulsivity and addiction could make a significant contribution to this endeavor. Here, some of the more common behavioral paradigms used to measure different aspects of impulsivity across species are outlined, and the importance of the response to reward-paired cues in such paradigms is discussed. Naturally occurring differences in forms of impulsivity have been found to be predictive of future drug self-administration, but drug exposure can also increase impulsive responding. Such data are in keeping with the suggestion that impulsivity may contribute to multiple stages within the spiral of addiction. From a neurobiological perspective, converging evidence from rat, monkey, and human studies suggest that compromised functioning within the orbitofrontal cortex may critically contribute to the cognitive sequelae of drug abuse. Changes in gene transcription and protein expression within this region may provide insight into the mechanism underlying drug-induced cortical hypofunction, reflecting new molecular targets for the treatment of uncontrolled drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior. PMID:20491734

  12. Master of Business Administration (MBA) Student Outcomes in Vietnam: Graduate Student Insights from a Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ly, Chau Thi Minh; Vickers, Margaret H.; Fernandez, Santha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Exploratory insights into the graduate student experiences of offshore MBA programmes in Vietnam are presented. Students are considered key stakeholders in the higher education (HE) debate, and their views were sought in light of recent shifts in HE worldwide, associated business education changes, nagging questions around the quality of…

  13. A Multidimensional Reappraisal of Language in Autism: Insights from a Discourse Analytic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterponi, Laura; de Kirby, Kenton

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we leverage theoretical insights and methodological guidelines of discourse analytic scholarship to re-examine language phenomena typically associated with autism. Through empirical analysis of the verbal behavior of three children with autism, we engage the question of how prototypical features of autistic language--notably…

  14. Enhancing insight in scientific problem solving by highlighting the functional features of prototypes: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xin; Cui, Shuai; Li, Wenfu; Yang, Wenjing; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Qinglin

    2013-10-01

    Insight can be the first step toward creating a groundbreaking product. As evident in anecdotes and major inventions in history, heuristic events (heuristic prototypes) prompted inventors to acquire insight when solving problems. Bionic imitation in scientific innovation is an example of this kind of problem solving. In particular, heuristic prototypes (e.g., the lotus effect; the very high water repellence exhibited by lotus leaves) help solve insight problems (e.g., non-stick surfaces). We speculated that the biological functional feature of prototypes is a critical factor in inducing insightful scientific problem solving. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we selected scientific innovation problems and utilized "learning prototypes-solving problems" two-phase paradigm to test the supposition. We also explored its neural mechanisms. Functional MRI data showed that the activation of the middle temporal gyrus (MTG, BA 37) and the middle occipital gyrus (MOG, BA 19) were associated with the highlighted functional feature condition. fMRI data also indicated that the MTG (BA 37) could be responsible for the semantic processing of functional features and for the formation of novel associations based on related functions. In addition, the MOG (BA 19) could be involved in the visual imagery of formation and application of function association between the heuristic prototype and problem. Our findings suggest that both semantic processing and visual imagery could be crucial components underlying scientific problem solving. PMID:23994216

  15. Measuring illness insight in patients with alcohol-related cognitive dysfunction using the Q8 questionnaire: a validation study

    PubMed Central

    Walvoort, Serge JW; van der Heijden, Paul T; Kessels, Roy PC; Egger, Jos IM

    2016-01-01

    Aim Impaired illness insight may hamper treatment outcome in patients with alcohol-related cognitive deficits. In this study, a short questionnaire for the assessment of illness insight (eg, the Q8) was investigated in patients with Korsakoff’s syndrome (KS) and in alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients with mild neurocognitive deficits. Methods First, reliability coefficients were computed and internal structure was investigated. Then, comparisons were made between patients with KS and patients with AUD. Furthermore, correlations with the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX) were investigated. Finally, Q8 total scores were correlated with neuropsychological tests for processing speed, memory, and executive function. Results Internal consistency of the Q8 was acceptable (ie, Cronbach’s α =0.73). The Q8 items represent one factor, and scores differ significantly between AUD and KS patients. The Q8 total score, related to the DEX discrepancy score and scores on neuropsychological tests as was hypothesized, indicates that a higher degree of illness insight is associated with a higher level of cognitive functioning. Conclusion The Q8 is a short, valid, and easy-to-administer questionnaire to reliably assess illness insight in patients with moderate-to-severe alcohol-related cognitive dysfunction. PMID:27445476

  16. Insight into implementation of facility-based integrated management of childhood illness strategy in a rural district of Sindh, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Akber Pradhan, Nousheen; Rizvi, Narjis; Sami, Neelofar; Gul, Xaher

    2013-01-01

    Background Integrated management of childhood illnesses (IMCI) strategy has been proven to improve health outcomes in children under 5 years of age. Pakistan, despite being in the late implementation phase of the strategy, continues to report high under-five mortality due to pneumonia, diarrhea, measles, and malnutrition – the main targets of the strategy. Objective The study determines the factors influencing IMCI implementation at public-sector primary health care (PHC) facilities in Matiari district, Sindh, Pakistan. Design An exploratory qualitative study with an embedded quantitative strand was conducted. The qualitative part included 16 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with stakeholders which included planners and policy makers at a provincial level (n=5), implementers and managers at a district level (n=3), and IMCI-trained physicians posted at PHC facilities (n=8). Quantitative part included PHC facility survey (n=16) utilizing WHO health facility assessment tool to assess availability of IMCI essential drugs, supplies, and equipments. Qualitative content analysis was used to interpret the textual information, whereas descriptive frequencies were calculated for health facility survey data. Results The major factors reported to enhance IMCI implementation were knowledge and perception about the strategy and need for separate clinic for children aged under 5 years as potential support factors. The latter can facilitate in strategy implementation through allocated workforce and required equipments and supplies. Constraint factors mainly included lack of clear understanding of the strategy, poor planning for IMCI implementation, ambiguity in defined roles and responsibilities among stakeholders, and insufficient essential supplies and drugs at PHC centers. The latter was further substantiated through health facilities’ survey findings, which indicated that none of the facilities had 100% stock of essential supplies and drugs. Only one out of all 16 surveyed

  17. Using Learning Teams for Reflective Adaptation (ULTRA): Insights From a Team-Based Change Management Strategy in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Bijal A.; Chase, Sabrina M.; Nutting, Paul A.; Cohen, Deborah J.; Strickland, Pamela A. Ohman; Crosson, Jesse C.; Miller, William L.; Crabtree, Benjamin F.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The Using Learning Teams for Reflective Adaptation (ULTRA) study used facilitated reflective adaptive process (RAP) teams to enhance communication and decision making in hopes of improving adherence to multiple clinical guidelines; however, the study failed to show significant clinical improvements. The purpose of this study was to examine qualitative data from 25 intervention practices to understand how they engaged in a team-based collaborative change management strategy and the types of issues they addressed. METHODS We analyzed field notes and interviews from a multimethod practice assessment, as well as field notes and audio-taped recordings from RAP meetings, using an iterative group process and an immersion-crystallization approach. RESULTS Despite a history of not meeting regularly, 18 of 25 practices successfully convened improvement teams. There was evidence of improved practice-wide communication in 12 of these practices. At follow-up, 8 practices continued RAP meetings and found the process valuable in problem solving and decision making. Seven practices failed to engage in RAP primarily because of key leaders dominating the meeting agenda or staff members hesitating to speak up in meetings. Although the number of improvement targets varied considerably, most RAP teams targeted patient care-related issues or practice-level organizational improvement issues. Not a single practice focused on adherence to clinical care guidelines. CONCLUSION Primary care practices can successfully engage in facilitated team meetings; however, leaders must be engaged in the process. Additional strategies are needed to engage practice leaders, particularly physicians, and to target issues related to guideline adherence. PMID:20843884

  18. Trait and State Attributes of Insight in First Episodes of Early-Onset Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Parellada, Mara; Boada, Leticia; Fraguas, David; Reig, Santiago; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Moreno, Dolores; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Otero, Soraya; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Graell, Montserrat; Baeza, Inmaculada; Arango, Celso

    2011-01-01

    Background: Increasing evidence supports the important role of illness state and individual characteristics in insight. Methods: Insight, as measured with the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder, over the first 2 years of early-onset first-episode psychosis and its correlations with clinical, socio-demographic, cognitive, and structural brain variables are studied. Results: (1) insight at 2 years is poorer in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) than in subjects with other psychoses; (2) the more severe the psychosis, the worse the insight. In SSD, depressive symptoms, poorer baseline executive functioning, lower IQ, longer duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), and poorer premorbid infancy adjustment are associated with poorer insight; frontal and parietal gray matter (GM) reductions at baseline correlate with worse insight into having psychotic symptoms at 2 years; (3) insight into having a mental disorder (Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder [SUMD]1) at 1 year, DUP, and baseline IQ are the most consistent variables explaining different aspects of insight at 2 years in SSD patients. IQ and SUMD1 at 1 year, together with left frontal and parietal GM volumes, explain 80% of the variance of insight into having specific psychotic symptoms in SSD patients (adjusted R2 = 0.795, F = 15.576, P < .001). Conclusion: Insight is a complex phenomenon that depends both on severity of psychopathology and also on disease and subject characteristics, such as past adjustment, IQ, DUP, cognitive functioning, frontal and parietal GM volumes, and age, gender, and ethnicity. PMID:20884756

  19. Nitric oxide and cardiovascular effects: new insights in the role of nitric oxide for the management of osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Isla S; Rutherford, Daniel; MacDonald, Thomas M

    2008-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important mediator in both health and disease. In addition to its effects on vascular tone and platelet function, it plays roles in inflammation and pain perception that may be of relevance in osteoarthritis. Many patients with osteoarthritis take nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) long term for pain control. Over recent years concern has been raised about the possible cardiovascular side effects of NSAIDs. The reasons for this possible increased cardiovascular risk with NSAIDs are not yet entirely clear, although changes in blood pressure, renal salt handling and platelet function may contribute. Recently, drugs that chemically link a NSAID with a NO donating moiety (cyclo-oxygenase-inhibiting NO-donating drugs [CINODs]) were developed. NO is an important mediator of endothelial function, acting as a vasodilator and an inhibitor of platelet aggregation, and having anti-inflammatory properties. The potential benefits of CINODs include the combination of effective analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions with NO release, which might counterbalance any adverse cardiovascular effects of NSAIDs. Effects of CINODs in animal studies include inhibition of vasopressor responses, blood pressure reduction in hypertensive rats and inhibition of platelet aggregation. CINODs may also reduce ischemic damage to compromised myocardial tissue. In addition, endothelial dysfunction is a recognized feature of inflammatory arthritides, and therefore a drug that might provide slow release of NO to the vasculature while treating pain is an attractive prospect in these conditions. Further studies of the effects of CINODs in humans are required, but these agents represent a potential exciting advance in the management of osteoarthritis. PMID:19007428

  20. Groundwater-dependent ecosystems: recent insights from satellite and field-based studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eamus, D.; Zolfaghar, S.; Villalobos-Vega, R.; Cleverly, J.; Huete, A.

    2015-10-01

    Groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs) are at risk globally due to unsustainable levels of groundwater extraction, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. In this review, we examine recent developments in the ecohydrology of GDEs with a focus on three knowledge gaps: (1) how do we locate GDEs, (2) how much water is transpired from shallow aquifers by GDEs and (3) what are the responses of GDEs to excessive groundwater extraction? The answers to these questions will determine water allocations that are required to sustain functioning of GDEs and to guide regulations on groundwater extraction to avoid negative impacts on GDEs. We discuss three methods for identifying GDEs: (1) techniques relying on remotely sensed information; (2) fluctuations in depth-to-groundwater that are associated with diurnal variations in transpiration; and (3) stable isotope analysis of water sources in the transpiration stream. We then discuss several methods for estimating rates of GW use, including direct measurement using sapflux or eddy covariance technologies, estimation of a climate wetness index within a Budyko framework, spatial distribution of evapotranspiration (ET) using remote sensing, groundwater modelling and stable isotopes. Remote sensing methods often rely on direct measurements to calibrate the relationship between vegetation indices and ET. ET from GDEs is also determined using hydrologic models of varying complexity, from the White method to fully coupled, variable saturation models. Combinations of methods are typically employed to obtain clearer insight into the components of groundwater discharge in GDEs, such as the proportional importance of transpiration versus evaporation (e.g. using stable isotopes) or from groundwater versus rainwater sources. Groundwater extraction can have severe consequences for the structure and function of GDEs. In the most extreme cases, phreatophytes experience crown dieback and death following groundwater drawdown. We provide a brief

  1. Collisional Histories of Comets and Trojan Asteroids: Insights from Forsterite and Enstatite Impact Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lederer. S. M.; Jensen, E. A.; Wooden, D. H.; Lindsay, S. S.; Smith, D. C.; Cintala, M. J.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Keller, L. P.

    2012-01-01

    Impacts into forsterite and orthoenstatite at speeds typically encountered by comets demonstrate that shock imparted by collisions is detectable in the infrared signatures of their dust. The spectral signatures can be traced to physical alterations in their crystalline structures, as observed in TEM imaging and modeled using a dipole approximation. These results yield tantalizing insights into the collisional history of our solar system, as well as the history of individual comets and Trojan asteroids.

  2. Social networks of health care providers and patients in cardiovascular risk management: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, preventive and clinical interventions for cardiovascular risk management have been implemented widely in primary care in the Netherlands. Although this has enhanced quality and outcomes of cardiovascular risk management, further improvement remains possible. In the planned observational study, we aim to examine the role of social networks of healthcare providers and patients in quality and outcomes of cardiovascular risk management. Methods/Design In a longitudinal observational study, data on social networks of approximately 300 primary care providers from 30 general practices and 900 cardiovascular patients will be collected twice, with a six month interval, using a mix of measures. Social networks are documented with specifically designed questionnaires for patients, relatives, and healthcare professionals. For each included patient, we will extract from medical records to gather data on clinical processes and cardiovascular risk predictors. Data on self-management and psychosocial outcomes of patients will be collected using questionnaires for patients. The analysis focuses on identifying network characteristics, which are associated with (changes in) cardiovascular risk management or self-management. Discussion This research will provide insight into the role of social networks of patients and providers in cardiovascular risk management in primary practice. Trial registration Nederlands Trial Register NTR4069. PMID:24942555

  3. Living with pulmonary hypertension: unique insights from an international ethnographic study

    PubMed Central

    Kingman, Martha; Hinzmann, Barbara; Sweet, Oliver; Vachiéry, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To better understand the patient's perspective of pulmonary hypertension (PH), including the impact of living with PH, disease management and treatment. Design This qualitative ethnographic study collected observational video footage, supplemented by field notes and patient diaries to assess the impact of PH on the patient's life. Setting Patients were observed and filmed in their home for up to 6 h, capturing the environment, interactions and activities of everyday life. Participants Patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) or chronic thromboembolic PH who were receiving PAH-specific medication were recruited through healthcare professionals (HCPs) and patient associations in seven countries across four continents. Sampling was purposive and subgroup analysis was not intended. Results Overall, 39 patients with PH were enrolled. Many patients had a poor understanding of PH and found their ‘invisible’ disease difficult to explain to others. An important finding was the secrecy surrounding PH. Feelings of insecurity and isolation were regularly reported, and many patients admitted to hiding their symptoms. The marked improvement in symptoms after therapy initiation made assessment of disease progression more difficult as patients compared their quality of life (QoL) against pretreatment levels. Extensive planning and adherence to daily routines were required in patients’ everyday life. Conclusions Ethnography was used for the first time, in several countries, to evaluate the patient's perception of living with PH. This approach revealed key findings that would not typically be uncovered using other qualitative techniques, including the secrecy surrounding PH, the difficulties in describing the disease and the challenges in assessing disease progression. A more tailored dissemination of information from HCPs and development of a simple and understandable PH definition may be beneficial in alleviating the secrecy reported by patients. A

  4. Diabetes mellitus: novel insights, analysis and interpretation of pathophysiology and complications management with imidazole-containing peptidomimetic antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Lankin, Vadim Z; Savel'Yeva, Ekaterina L; Deyev, Anatoliy I; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2013-12-01

    peroxidase type of activity and protection of antioxidant enzymes from inactivation (such as in a case of superoxide dismutase). Carnosine biological mimetics react with methylglyoxal and they are described in this study as a glyoxalase mimetics. The imidazole-containing carnosine biological mimetics can react with a number of deleterious aldehydic products of lipid peroxidation and thereby suppress their toxicity. Carnosine and carcinine can also react with glycated proteins and inhibit advanced glycation end product formation. These studies indicate a therapeutic role for imidazole-containing antioxidants (non-hydrolized carnosine, carcinine, D-carnosine, ophthalmic prodrug N-acetylcarnosine, leucyl-histidylhidrazide and patented formulations thereof) in therapeutic management strategies for Type 2 Diabetes. PMID:24236935

  5. Assessing the effects of management on forest growth across France: insights from a new functional–structural model

    PubMed Central

    Guillemot, Joannès; Delpierre, Nicolas; Vallet, Patrick; François, Christophe; Martin-StPaul, Nicolas K.; Soudani, Kamel; Nicolas, Manuel; Badeau, Vincent; Dufrêne, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The structure of a forest stand, i.e. the distribution of tree size features, has strong effects on its functioning. The management of the structure is therefore an important tool in mitigating the impact of predicted changes in climate on forests, especially with respect to drought. Here, a new functional–structural model is presented and is used to assess the effects of management on forest functioning at a national scale. Methods The stand process-based model (PBM) Castanea was coupled to a stand structure module (SSM) based on empirical tree-to-tree competition rules. The calibration of the SSM was based on a thorough analysis of intersite and interannual variability of competition asymmetry. The coupled Castanea–SSM model was evaluated across France using forest inventory data, and used to compare the effect of contrasted silvicultural practices on simulated stand carbon fluxes and growth. Key Results The asymmetry of competition varied consistently with stand productivity at both spatial and temporal scales. The modelling of the competition rules enabled efficient prediction of changes in stand structure within the Castanea PBM. The coupled model predicted an increase in net primary productivity (NPP) with management intensity, resulting in higher growth. This positive effect of management was found to vary at a national scale across France: the highest increases in NPP were attained in forests facing moderate to high water stress; however, the absolute effect of management on simulated stand growth remained moderate to low because stand thinning involved changes in carbon allocation at the tree scale. Conclusions This modelling approach helps to identify the areas where management efforts should be concentrated in order to mitigate near-future drought impact on national forest productivity. Around a quarter of the French temperate oak and beech forests are currently in zones of high vulnerability, where management could thus mitigate

  6. Molecular insights into the historic demography of bowhead whales: understanding the evolutionary basis of contemporary management practices

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, C D; Hoffman, J I; George, J C; Suydam, R S; Huebinger, R M; Patton, J C; Bickham, J W

    2013-01-01

    Patterns of genetic variation observed within species reflect evolutionary histories that include signatures of past demography. Understanding the demographic component of species' history is fundamental to informed management because changes in effective population size affect response to environmental change and evolvability, the strength of genetic drift, and maintenance of genetic variability. Species experiencing anthropogenic population reductions provide valuable case studies for understanding the genetic response to demographic change because historic changes in the census size are often well documented. A classic example is the bowhead whale, Balaena mysticetus, which experienced dramatic population depletion due to commercial whaling in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Consequently, we analyzed a large multi-marker dataset of bowhead whales using a variety of analytical methods, including extended Bayesian skyline analysis and approximate Bayesian computation, to characterize genetic signatures of both ancient and contemporary demographic histories. No genetic signature of recent population depletion was recovered through any analysis incorporating realistic mutation assumptions, probably due to the combined influences of long generation time, short bottleneck duration, and the magnitude of population depletion. In contrast, a robust signal of population expansion was detected around 70,000 years ago, followed by a population decline around 15,000 years ago. The timing of these events coincides to a historic glacial period and the onset of warming at the end of the last glacial maximum, respectively. By implication, climate driven long-term variation in Arctic Ocean productivity, rather than recent anthropogenic disturbance, appears to have been the primary driver of historic bowhead whale demography. PMID:23403722

  7. Managing Intentionally Created Communities of Practice for Knowledge Sourcing across Organisational Boundaries: Insights on the Role of the CoP Manager

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garavan, Thomas N.; Carbery, Ronan; Murphy, Eamonn

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to explore strategies used by communities of practice (CoPs) managers when managing intentionally created CoPs. Design/methodology/approach: Four intentionally created CoPs in Ireland are explored, using a qualitative research design with data from observation, interviews and analysis of documents. Findings:…

  8. Metagenomics: Tools and Insights for Analyzing Next-Generation Sequencing Data Derived from Biodiversity Studies

    PubMed Central

    Oulas, Anastasis; Pavloudi, Christina; Polymenakou, Paraskevi; Pavlopoulos, Georgios A; Papanikolaou, Nikolas; Kotoulas, Georgios; Arvanitidis, Christos; Iliopoulos, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) have allowed significant breakthroughs in microbial ecology studies. This has led to the rapid expansion of research in the field and the establishment of “metagenomics”, often defined as the analysis of DNA from microbial communities in environmental samples without prior need for culturing. Many metagenomics statistical/computational tools and databases have been developed in order to allow the exploitation of the huge influx of data. In this review article, we provide an overview of the sequencing technologies and how they are uniquely suited to various types of metagenomic studies. We focus on the currently available bioinformatics techniques, tools, and methodologies for performing each individual step of a typical metagenomic dataset analysis. We also provide future trends in the field with respect to tools and technologies currently under development. Moreover, we discuss data management, distribution, and integration tools that are capable of performing comparative metagenomic analyses of multiple datasets using well-established databases, as well as commonly used annotation standards. PMID:25983555

  9. Ecological speciation in the tropics: insights from comparative genetic studies in Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Beheregaray, Luciano B; Cooke, Georgina M; Chao, Ning L; Landguth, Erin L

    2014-01-01

    Evolution creates and sustains biodiversity via adaptive changes in ecologically relevant traits. Ecologically mediated selection contributes to genetic divergence both in the presence or absence of geographic isolation between populations, and is considered an important driver of speciation. Indeed, the genetics of ecological speciation is becoming increasingly studied across a variety of taxa and environments. In this paper we review the literature of ecological speciation in the tropics. We report on low research productivity in tropical ecosystems and discuss reasons accounting for the rarity of studies. We argue for research programs that simultaneously address biogeographical and taxonomic questions in the tropics, while effectively assessing relationships between reproductive isolation and ecological divergence. To contribute toward this goal, we propose a new framework for ecological speciation that integrates information from phylogenetics, phylogeography, population genomics, and simulations in evolutionary landscape genetics (ELG). We introduce components of the framework, describe ELG simulations (a largely unexplored approach in ecological speciation), and discuss design and experimental feasibility within the context of tropical research. We then use published genetic datasets from populations of five codistributed Amazonian fish species to assess the performance of the framework in studies of tropical speciation. We suggest that these approaches can assist in distinguishing the relative contribution of natural selection from biogeographic history in the origin of biodiversity, even in complex ecosystems such as Amazonia. We also discuss on how to assess ecological speciation using ELG simulations that include selection. These integrative frameworks have considerable potential to enhance conservation management in biodiversity rich ecosystems and to complement historical biogeographic and evolutionary studies of tropical biotas. PMID:25653668

  10. Ecological speciation in the tropics: insights from comparative genetic studies in Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    Beheregaray, Luciano B.; Cooke, Georgina M.; Chao, Ning L.; Landguth, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    Evolution creates and sustains biodiversity via adaptive changes in ecologically relevant traits. Ecologically mediated selection contributes to genetic divergence both in the presence or absence of geographic isolation between populations, and is considered an important driver of speciation. Indeed, the genetics of ecological speciation is becoming increasingly studied across a variety of taxa and environments. In this paper we review the literature of ecological speciation in the tropics. We report on low research productivity in tropical ecosystems and discuss reasons accounting for the rarity of studies. We argue for research programs that simultaneously address biogeographical and taxonomic questions in the tropics, while effectively assessing relationships between reproductive isolation and ecological divergence. To contribute toward this goal, we propose a new framework for ecological speciation that integrates information from phylogenetics, phylogeography, population genomics, and simulations in evolutionary landscape genetics (ELG). We introduce components of the framework, describe ELG simulations (a largely unexplored approach in ecological speciation), and discuss design and experimental feasibility within the context of tropical research. We then use published genetic datasets from populations of five codistributed Amazonian fish species to assess the performance of the framework in studies of tropical speciation. We suggest that these approaches can assist in distinguishing the relative contribution of natural selection from biogeographic history in the origin of biodiversity, even in complex ecosystems such as Amazonia. We also discuss on how to assess ecological speciation using ELG simulations that include selection. These integrative frameworks have considerable potential to enhance conservation management in biodiversity rich ecosystems and to complement historical biogeographic and evolutionary studies of tropical biotas. PMID:25653668

  11. A simulation-based intervention teaching seizure management to caregivers: A randomized controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Sigalet, Elaine; Cheng, Adam; Donnon, Tyrone; Koot, Deanna; Chatfield, Jennifer; Robinson, Traci; Catena, Helen; Grant, Vincent J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of simulation-based seizure management teaching on improving caregiver competence and reported confidence with managing seizures. The authors hypothesized that simulation-based education would lead to a higher level of demonstrated competence and reported confidence in family members and caregivers. Simulation has not been previously studied in this context. METHODS: A two-group pre- and post-test experimental research design involving a total of 61 caregivers was used. The intervention was a simulation-based seizure curriculum delivered as a supplement to traditional seizure discharge teaching. Caregiver performance was analyzed using a seizure management checklist. Caregivers’ perception of self-efficacy was captured using a self-efficacy questionnaire. RESULTS: Caregivers in the experimental group achieved significantly higher postintervention performance scores than caregivers in the control group in both premedication and postmedication seizure management (P<0.01). Additionally, they achieved significantly higher scores on the self-efficacy questionnaire including items reflecting confidence managing the seizure at home (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Caregivers receiving the supplemental simulation-based curriculum achieved significantly higher levels of competence and reported confidence, supporting a positive relationship between simulation-based seizure discharge education, and caregiver competence and confidence in managing seizures. Simulation sessions provided insight into caregiver knowledge but, more importantly, insight into the caregiver’s ability to apply knowledge under stressful conditions, allowing tailoring of curriculum to meet individual needs. These findings may have applications and relevance for management of other acute or chronic medical conditions. PMID:25332677

  12. Guidelines for Managing and Writing a Self Study for Accreditation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, S. J.; Vice, Janna

    2000-01-01

    Proposes guidelines for managing and writing self-study documents prepared by school district business officials seeking accreditation by the International Association for Management Education. Includes description of the writing team and an organized data-collection method. (PKP)

  13. VIP and PACAP. Recent insights into their functions/roles in physiology and disease from molecular and genetic studies

    PubMed Central

    Moody, Terry W.; Ito, Tetsuhide; Osefo, Nuramy; Jensen, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review VIP and PACAP as well as the three classes of G-protein-coupled receptors mediating their effects, are widely distributed in the CNS and peripheral tissues. These peptides are reported to have many effects in different tissues, which are physiological or pharmacological, and which receptor mediates which effect, has been difficult to determine, primarily due to lack of potent, stable, selective agonists/antagonists. Recently the use of animals with targeted knockout (KO) of the peptide or a specific receptor has provided important insights into the role of their role in normal physiology and disease states. Recent findings During the review period, considerable progress and insights has occurred in the understanding of the role of VIP/PACAP as well as their receptors in a number of different disorders/areas. Particularly, insights into their roles in energy metabolism, glucose regulation, various gastrointestinal processes including GI inflammatory conditions and motility and their role in the CNS as well as CNS diseases has greatly expanded. Summary PACAP/VIP as well as there three classes of receptors are important in many physiological/pathophysiological processes, some of which are identified in these studies using knockout animals. These studies may lead to new novel treatment approaches. Particularly important are their roles in glucose metabolism and on islets leading to possible novel approaches in diabetes; their novel anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective effects, their CNS neuroprotective effects, and their possible roles in diseases such as schizophrenia and chronic depression. PMID:21157320

  14. Cavity wounds management: a multicentre pilot study.

    PubMed

    Meaume, Sylvie; Facy, Olivier; Munoz-Bongrand, Nicolas; Ribemont, Annie-Claude; Sigal, Michele-Lea; Couffinhal, Jean-Claude; Trial, Chloe; Tacca, Olivier; Bohbot, Serge

    The objective of this study was to assess acceptability (based on pain at removal), efficacy and tolerance of an absorbent and cohesive rope(UrgoClean Rope, Laboratoires Urgo) in the local management of deep cavity wounds. This study was a prospective, multicentre (13), non comparative clinical study. Patients presenting with an acute or chronic non-infected cavity wound were followed up for four weeks and assessed weekly with a physical examination, in addition to volumetric,planimetric and photographic evaluations. Pain at removal was the primary criterion, assessed on a Visual Analogic Scale. The percentage of the wound surface area reduction and volumetric reduction were considered as secondary efficacy criteria. Forty three patients were included in this study. After one week of treatment dressing removal was painless and continued to be so throughout the period of the trial(four weeks). Median surface area at baseline was 7.74 cm2 and was reduced by 54.5% at week 4 (relative area reduction). Median wound volumetric value was noted 12 ml at baseline and was reduced by 72.7% by the end of treatment. The cohesiveness of the new rope was considered very good by health professionals. No residue was observed on the wound bed during the dressing change with the new rope. There were no adverse events related to the tested rope, during this trial.Pain-free removal associated with good efficacy and tolerance were observed with this new cohesive rope in the healing process of deep cavity wounds and could represent a therapeutic alternative to the usual ropes used in such indications. PMID:24180023

  15. Managers' and Teachers' Perspectives of Dyslexic Teachers in the English and Finnish Further Education Workforce: New Insights from Organisational Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorpe, Anthony; Burns, Eila

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the topic of diversity in the teaching workforce though the enactment of policy concentrating on teachers with dyslexia within the Further/Vocational Education and Training sectors of England and Finland. Two research projects from Finland and England focusing, respectively, on individual teachers' perspectives and managers'…

  16. Public Management of Science Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Univ., Washington, DC. Coll. of Public Affairs.

    Presented are six papers pertaining to the management of science, research, and development by federal agencies. The papers were prepared by students in a management of science course offered at the American University, Washington, D.C. Federal agencies reviewed include: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); Department of…

  17. Interdependency Management in Universities: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Dietmar; Benninghoff, Martin; Ramuz, Raphaël; Gorga, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    There remains uncertainty in scientific discussions regarding the governance of universities in new public management regimes in terms of who actually "rules" in the university. Apparently, a strengthened management leadership is confronted with continuing elements of academic self-regulation and professional autonomy in knowledge…

  18. Top management and management science: An exploratory study in 15 Federal civilian agencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, M. J.

    1971-01-01

    A study of the relation between top managers in Federal agencies and the operations research and management science (OR/MS) group is reported. Sixteen managers were questioned about the following characteristics: closeness of top managers to OR/MS groups; top managers' attitudes toward the OR/MS activities; relation between closeness and these attitudes; and top managers' use of OR/MS groups. It is concluded that OR/MS is relevant to many top managers and that OR/MS has begun to play a role in decisions. Top management attitudes and actions are not related in obvious ways. The consequences to top management's use of and closeness to an OR/MS group need not be the success of the group as a professional, innovative, research-oriented unit.

  19. What Is the Arrhythmic Substrate in Viral Myocarditis? Insights from Clinical and Animal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Gary; Yeo, Jie M.; Chan, Yin Wah; Lai, Eric T. H. Lai; Yan, Bryan P.

    2016-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) remains an unsolved problem in the twenty-first century. It is often due to rapid onset, ventricular arrhythmias caused by a number of different clinical conditions. A proportion of SCD patients have identifiable diseases such as cardiomyopathies, but for others, the causes are unknown. Viral myocarditis is becoming increasingly recognized as a contributor to unexplained mortality, and is thought to be a major cause of SCD in the first two decades of life. Myocardial inflammation, ion channel dysfunction, electrophysiological, and structural remodeling may play important roles in generating life-threatening arrhythmias. The aim of this review article is to examine the electrophysiology of action potential conduction and repolarization and the mechanisms by which their derangements lead to triggered and reentrant arrhythmogenesis. By synthesizing experimental evidence from pre-clinical and clinical studies, a framework of how host (inflammation), and viral (altered cellular signaling) factors can induce ion electrophysiological and structural remodeling is illustrated. Current pharmacological options are mainly supportive, which may be accompanied by mechanical circulatory support. Heart transplantation is the only curative option in the worst case scenario. Future strategies for the management of viral myocarditis are discussed. PMID:27493633

  20. Electrophysiological Mechanisms of Bayés Syndrome: Insights from Clinical and Mouse Studies.

    PubMed

    Tse, Gary; Lai, Eric Tsz Him; Yeo, Jie Ming; Yan, Bryan P

    2016-01-01

    Bayés syndrome is an under-recognized clinical condition characterized by inter-atrial block (IAB). This is defined electrocardiographically as P-wave duration > 120 ms and can be categorized into first, second and third degree IAB. It can be caused by inflammatory conditions such as systemic sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis, abnormal protein deposition in cardiac amyloidosis, or neoplastic processes invading the inter-atrial conduction system, such as primary cardiac lymphoma. It may arise transiently during volume overload, autonomic dysfunction or electrolyte disturbances from vomiting. In other patients without an obvious cause, the predisposing factors are diabetes mellitus, hypertensive heart disease, and hypercholesterolemia. IAB has a strong association with atrial arrhythmogenesis, left atrial enlargement (LAE), and electro-mechanical discordance, increasing the risk of cerebrovascular accidents as well as myocardial and mesenteric ischemia. The aim of this review article is to synthesize experimental evidence on the pathogenesis of IAB and its underlying molecular mechanisms. Current medical therapies include anti-fibrotic, anti-arrhythmic and anti-coagulation agents, whereas interventional options include atrial resynchronization therapy by single or multisite pacing. Future studies will be needed to elucidate the significance of the link between IAB and atrial tachyarrhythmias in patients with different underlying etiologies and optimize the management options in these populations. PMID:27303306

  1. What Is the Arrhythmic Substrate in Viral Myocarditis? Insights from Clinical and Animal Studies.

    PubMed

    Tse, Gary; Yeo, Jie M; Chan, Yin Wah; Lai, Eric T H Lai; Yan, Bryan P

    2016-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) remains an unsolved problem in the twenty-first century. It is often due to rapid onset, ventricular arrhythmias caused by a number of different clinical conditions. A proportion of SCD patients have identifiable diseases such as cardiomyopathies, but for others, the causes are unknown. Viral myocarditis is becoming increasingly recognized as a contributor to unexplained mortality, and is thought to be a major cause of SCD in the first two decades of life. Myocardial inflammation, ion channel dysfunction, electrophysiological, and structural remodeling may play important roles in generating life-threatening arrhythmias. The aim of this review article is to examine the electrophysiology of action potential conduction and repolarization and the mechanisms by which their derangements lead to triggered and reentrant arrhythmogenesis. By synthesizing experimental evidence from pre-clinical and clinical studies, a framework of how host (inflammation), and viral (altered cellular signaling) factors can induce ion electrophysiological and structural remodeling is illustrated. Current pharmacological options are mainly supportive, which may be accompanied by mechanical circulatory support. Heart transplantation is the only curative option in the worst case scenario. Future strategies for the management of viral myocarditis are discussed. PMID:27493633

  2. Electrophysiological Mechanisms of Bayés Syndrome: Insights from Clinical and Mouse Studies

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Gary; Lai, Eric Tsz Him; Yeo, Jie Ming; Yan, Bryan P.

    2016-01-01

    Bayés syndrome is an under-recognized clinical condition characterized by inter-atrial block (IAB). This is defined electrocardiographically as P-wave duration > 120 ms and can be categorized into first, second and third degree IAB. It can be caused by inflammatory conditions such as systemic sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis, abnormal protein deposition in cardiac amyloidosis, or neoplastic processes invading the inter-atrial conduction system, such as primary cardiac lymphoma. It may arise transiently during volume overload, autonomic dysfunction or electrolyte disturbances from vomiting. In other patients without an obvious cause, the predisposing factors are diabetes mellitus, hypertensive heart disease, and hypercholesterolemia. IAB has a strong association with atrial arrhythmogenesis, left atrial enlargement (LAE), and electro-mechanical discordance, increasing the risk of cerebrovascular accidents as well as myocardial and mesenteric ischemia. The aim of this review article is to synthesize experimental evidence on the pathogenesis of IAB and its underlying molecular mechanisms. Current medical therapies include anti-fibrotic, anti-arrhythmic and anti-coagulation agents, whereas interventional options include atrial resynchronization therapy by single or multisite pacing. Future studies will be needed to elucidate the significance of the link between IAB and atrial tachyarrhythmias in patients with different underlying etiologies and optimize the management options in these populations. PMID:27303306

  3. Understanding similarities in the local implementation of a healthy environment programme: insights from policy studies.

    PubMed

    Clavier, Carole; Gendron, Sylvie; Lamontagne, Lise; Potvin, Louise

    2012-07-01

    This paper reports findings from an evaluation of the local implementation of a procedural public health programme whose objective is to create healthy environments (HE) for vulnerable families in the province of Quebec (Canada) through the funding of local projects. Considering the potential issue of programme-context interaction, our research question was the following: Does the procedural nature of this HE programme result in variation between local cases in terms of the types of projects and collaborations it subsidizes? Given that the creation of healthy environments requires intersectoral health action to address social determinants of health, the data were analysed with respect to intersectorality and cooperation. Results of this qualitative multiple case study (n = 8), for the period 2004-2009, show that the majority of subsidized projects were in the health and social services sector and focused on parenting, parent-child attachment, nutrition and the social networks of families. Only a few initiatives reached beyond the health and social services sector to address social health determinants such as education, housing and transportation. Membership and mandates of the local groups responsible for programme implementation also showed little intersectorality. The limited variation between these eight cases can be attributed to the configuration of the local networks, as well as to specific issues in urban and rural areas. To explain the overall similarity of results across cases, we turned to the literature on policy instruments which suggests that particular characteristics of a programme may produce effects that are independent of its intended objective. In our study, several programme mechanisms, such as those framing the definition of «healthy environment» and budget management rules, could have encouraged the local development of initiatives that focus on individual skills related to parenting and attachment rather than the development of

  4. Cryogenic Propellant Management Device: Conceptual Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollen, Mark; Merino, Fred; Schuster, John; Newton, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Concepts of Propellant Management Devices (PMDs) were designed for lunar descent stage reaction control system (RCS) and lunar ascent stage (main and RCS propulsion) missions using liquid oxygen (LO2) and liquid methane (LCH4). Study ground rules set a maximum of 19 days from launch to lunar touchdown, and an additional 210 days on the lunar surface before liftoff. Two PMDs were conceptually designed for each of the descent stage RCS propellant tanks, and two designs for each of the ascent stage main propellant tanks. One of the two PMD types is a traditional partial four-screen channel device. The other type is a novel, expanding volume device which uses a stretched, flexing screen. It was found that several unique design features simplified the PMD designs. These features are (1) high propellant tank operating pressures, (2) aluminum tanks for propellant storage, and (3) stringent insulation requirements. Consequently, it was possible to treat LO2 and LCH4 as if they were equivalent to Earth-storable propellants because they would remain substantially subcooled during the lunar mission. In fact, prelaunch procedures are simplified with cryogens, because any trapped vapor will condense once the propellant tanks are pressurized in space.

  5. Toward a Systematic Approach to Generating Demand for Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: Insights and Results From Field Studies.

    PubMed

    Sgaier, Sema K; Baer, James; Rutz, Daniel C; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Seifert-Ahanda, Kim; Basinga, Paulin; Parkyn, Rosie; Laube, Catharine

    2015-01-01

    By the end of 2014, an estimated 8.5 million men had undergone voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for HIV prevention in 14 priority countries in eastern and southern Africa, representing more than 40% of the global target. However, demand, especially among men most at risk for HIV infection, remains a barrier to realizing the program's full scale and potential impact. We analyzed current demand generation interventions for VMMC by reviewing the available literature and reporting on field visits to programs in 7 priority countries. We present our findings and recommendations using a framework with 4 components: insight development; intervention design; implementation and coordination to achieve scale; and measurement, learning, and evaluation. Most program strategies lacked comprehensive insight development; formative research usually comprised general acceptability studies. Demand generation interventions varied across the countries, from advocacy with community leaders and community mobilization to use of interpersonal communication, mid- and mass media, and new technologies. Some shortcomings in intervention design included using general instead of tailored messaging, focusing solely on the HIV preventive benefits of VMMC, and rolling out individual interventions to address specific barriers rather than a holistic package. Interventions have often been scaled-up without first being evaluated for effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. We recommend national programs create coordinated demand generation interventions, based on insights from multiple disciplines, tailored to the needs and aspirations of defined subsets of the target population, rather than focused exclusively on HIV prevention goals. Programs should implement a comprehensive intervention package with multiple messages and channels, strengthened through continuous monitoring. These insights may be broadly applicable to other programs where voluntary behavior change is essential to achieving

  6. Toward a Systematic Approach to Generating Demand for Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: Insights and Results From Field Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sgaier, Sema K; Baer, James; Rutz, Daniel C; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Seifert-Ahanda, Kim; Basinga, Paulin; Parkyn, Rosie; Laube, Catharine

    2015-01-01

    By the end of 2014, an estimated 8.5 million men had undergone voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for HIV prevention in 14 priority countries in eastern and southern Africa, representing more than 40% of the global target. However, demand, especially among men most at risk for HIV infection, remains a barrier to realizing the program's full scale and potential impact. We analyzed current demand generation interventions for VMMC by reviewing the available literature and reporting on field visits to programs in 7 priority countries. We present our findings and recommendations using a framework with 4 components: insight development; intervention design; implementation and coordination to achieve scale; and measurement, learning, and evaluation. Most program strategies lacked comprehensive insight development; formative research usually comprised general acceptability studies. Demand generation interventions varied across the countries, from advocacy with community leaders and community mobilization to use of interpersonal communication, mid- and mass media, and new technologies. Some shortcomings in intervention design included using general instead of tailored messaging, focusing solely on the HIV preventive benefits of VMMC, and rolling out individual interventions to address specific barriers rather than a holistic package. Interventions have often been scaled-up without first being evaluated for effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. We recommend national programs create coordinated demand generation interventions, based on insights from multiple disciplines, tailored to the needs and aspirations of defined subsets of the target population, rather than focused exclusively on HIV prevention goals. Programs should implement a comprehensive intervention package with multiple messages and channels, strengthened through continuous monitoring. These insights may be broadly applicable to other programs where voluntary behavior change is essential to achieving

  7. Youth Studies and Timescapes: Insights from an Ethnographic Study of "Young Night Drifters" in Hong Kong's Public Housing Estates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Julian M.; Ho, Wai-Yip; Siu, Kaxton

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on insights from the sociology of time to examine how scheduling influences social interaction and identity among young people and those who work with them. Drawing on an ethnographic analysis of "Young Night Drifters" and youth outreach social workers in Hong Kong's public housing estates, we create a framework to understand…

  8. Energy management study for lunar oxygen production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fazzolare, R. A.; Wong-Swanson, B. G.

    1989-01-01

    Energy management opportunities in the process of hydrogen reduction of ilmenite for lunar oxygen production are being investigated. An optimal energy system to supply the power requirements for the process will be determined.

  9. Insights from Earth Sciences into Human Evolution studies: The example of prehistoric landscape use in Africa and the Levant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devès, Maud H.; Reynolds, Sally; King, Geoffrey C. P.; Kuebler, Simon; Sturdy, Derek; Godet, Nan

    2015-07-01

    Fossil remains are embedded in a continually evolving landscape. Earth scientists have the methods and approaches to study the processes that shape the landscape at various temporal and spatial scales. Some of these methods can generate insights that are of potential use for researchers in other fields, such as archaeology and palaeoanthropology. Here we present two case studies to illustrate how a broader landscape perspective can provide new insights into the land use by Pliocene hominins in southern Africa, and more recently, by Palaeolithic hominins in the southern Levant. Key landscape attributes can help explain why humans, hominins and the wider animal community exploit certain types of landscapes in predictable ways. Our first case study examines how active tectonics or volcanism appears to be important in creating fertile regions with reliable water sources and complex topography. While relatively easy for agile primates such as hominins to negotiate, zones of complex topography are harder for certain predators and prey animals to traverse. In the second case study, we consider that differences in soil edaphics can exert a major control on animals by supplying or failing to supply necessary trace elements, such as selenium, copper, phosphate and potassium (Henkin et al., 1995). We show that the pattern of trace element distribution can accurately map animal movements between areas of suitable grazing. This predictability could have enabled Levantine humans to ambush megafauna during these seasonal migrations. By studying the landscape attributes around fossil site locations, Earth scientists can offer new insights and perspectives into the past, particularly on the ways in which the inhabitants would have used their landscapes.

  10. Verification of a Quality Management Theory: Using a Delphi Study

    PubMed Central

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background: A model of quality management called Strategic Collaborative Quality Management (SCQM) model was developed based on the quality management literature review, the findings of a survey on quality management assessment in healthcare organisations, semi-structured interviews with healthcare stakeholders, and a Delphi study on healthcare quality management experts. The purpose of this study was to verify the SCQM model. Methods: The proposed model was further developed using feedback from thirty quality management experts using a Delphi method. Further, a guidebook for its implementation was prepared including a road map and performance measurement. Results: The research led to the development of a context-specific model of quality management for healthcare organisations and a series of guidelines for its implementation. Conclusion: A proper model of quality management should be developed and implemented properly in healthcare organisations to achieve business excellence. PMID:24596883

  11. Fundamental Studies of Novel Zwitterionic Hybrid Membranes: Kinetic Model and Mechanism Insights into Strontium Removal

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wen; Li, Meng

    2014-01-01

    A series of zwitterionic hybrid membranes were prepared via the ring opening of 1,3-propanesultone with the amine groups in the chains of TMSPEDA and a subsequent sol-gel process. Their kinetic models for strontium removal were investigated using three two-parameter kinetic equations (i.e., Lagergren pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, and Elovich models). Adsorption mechanism was evaluated using intraparticle diffusion model, diffusion-chemisorption model, and Boyd equation. It was found that the adsorption of strontium ions on these zwitterionic hybrid membranes fitted well with the Lagergren pseudo-second order model. Mechanism insights suggested that diffusion-chemisorption was one of the main adsorption mechanisms. Boyd equation exhibited that film-diffusion mechanism might be the control process during the starting period. These findings are very useful in strontium removal from the stimulated radioactive wastewater. PMID:25405224

  12. New insights into defibrillation of the heart from realistic simulation studies

    PubMed Central

    Trayanova, Natalia A.; Rantner, Lukas J.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac defibrillation, as accomplished nowadays by automatic, implantable devices, constitutes the most important means of combating sudden cardiac death. Advancing our understanding towards a full appreciation of the mechanisms by which a shock interacts with the heart, particularly under diseased conditions, is a promising approach to achieve an optimal therapy. The aim of this article is to assess the current state-of-the-art in whole-heart defibrillation modelling, focusing on major insights that have been obtained using defibrillation models, primarily those of realistic heart geometry and disease remodelling. The article showcases the contributions that modelling and simulation have made to our understanding of the defibrillation process. The review thus provides an example of biophysically based computational modelling of the heart (i.e. cardiac defibrillation) that has advanced the understanding of cardiac electrophysiological interaction at the organ level, and has the potential to contribute to the betterment of the clinical practice of defibrillation. PMID:24798960

  13. Animal models for the study of liver fibrosis: new insights from knockout mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Hiromitsu

    2011-01-01

    Fibrosis arises as part of a would-healing response that maintains organ structure and integrity following tissue damage but also contributes to a variety of human pathologies such as liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis is an abnormal response of the liver to persistent injury with the excessive accumulation of collagenous extracellular matrices. Currently there is no effective treatment, and many patients end up with a progressive form of the disease, eventually requiring a liver transplant. The clarification of mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of liver fibrosis and the development of effective therapy are of clinical importance. Experimental animal models, in particular targeted gene knockouts (loss of function) in mice, have become a powerful resource to address the molecular mechanisms or significance of the targeted gene in hepatic functions and diseases. This review will focus on the recent advances in knowledge obtained from genetically engineered mice that provide novel insights into the pathophysiology of liver fibrosis. PMID:21350186

  14. A Multidimensional Reappraisal of Language in Autism: Insights from a Discourse Analytic Study.

    PubMed

    Sterponi, Laura; de Kirby, Kenton

    2016-02-01

    In this article, we leverage theoretical insights and methodological guidelines of discourse analytic scholarship to re-examine language phenomena typically associated with autism. Through empirical analysis of the verbal behavior of three children with autism, we engage the question of how prototypical features of autistic language-notably pronoun atypicality, pragmatic deficit, and echolalia-might conceal competencies and interactional processes that are largely invisible in mainstream research. Our findings offer a complex picture of children with autism in their use of language to communicate, interact and experience others. Such a picture also deepens our understanding of the interactional underpinnings of autistic children's speech. Finally, we describe how our findings offer fruitful suggestions for clinical intervention. PMID:26701673

  15. Insights into the epidemiology and management of lupus nephritis from the US rheumatologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Paul J; Costenbader, Karen H

    2016-09-01

    Lupus nephritis is a common and severe manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus that disproportionately affects nonwhites and those in lower socioeconomic groups. This review discusses recent data on the incidence, prevalence, and outcomes of patients with lupus nephritis with a focus on low-income US Medicaid patients. We also review recent guidelines on diagnosis, treatment, and screening for new onset and relapses of lupus nephritis. Finally, we discuss the management of lupus nephritis from a rheumatologist's perspective, including vigilance for the common adverse events related to disease and treatment, and we review prevention and new treatment strategies. PMID:27344205

  16. Managing Change: A Case Study in Evolving Strategic Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thor, Linda; Scarafiotti, Carol; Helminski, Laura

    1998-01-01

    Presents Rio Salado College as a case study of an institution that aligns itself with the needs of learners by altering its organizational values and practices. Emphasizes the need for institutions to embrace change and innovation to accommodate the needs of its learners. Contains 11 references. (YKH)

  17. Personal Insights and Anecdotes about the Weatherization Assistance Program Process Field Study

    SciTech Connect

    Treitler, Inga

    2014-09-01

    The present report is based on the research conducted for the Process Field Study between March and September 2011. The Process Field Study documents how Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) services were delivered to clients, and the quality with which those services were delivered. The assessments were conducted by visiting 19 agencies in 19 states around the country interviewing agency managers, staff, and contractors; observing program intake along, with 43 audits, 45 measure installation and 37 final inspections; and conducting debriefing interviews with clients and weatherization staff following the observation of service delivery. In this report, we turn to detailed observations of a few field interactions. The client stories from our observations illustrate some of the ways clients and crew interact to build the success of the program, but shows there will always be unanticipated obstacles to building trust and getting the program to the public. Stories of staff and crew career paths indicate that weatherization technology and techniques are being learned and used by technicians out of the new home construction industry and that their new knowledge provides them with technical tools and methods that many hope to take back into the construction industry if and when they return. This report is organized according to the four stages of weatherization: intake, audit, installation, and inspection. It contributes to our understanding of the area where policy, environment, culture, and individual decisions influence social innovation. The anecdotes reveal the realities of implementing programs for the benefit of the greater good at minimal cost and sacrifice in times of ever restricting budgets. As the authors revisited their field notes and compiled memorable narratives to communicate the essence of the weatherization experience, they identified three key takeaways that summarize the major issues. First, in WAP as in all services there will always be

  18. New Insights into Fluvial Carbon Responses to Future Forest Management and Climate Change Obtained from Multi-Scale Modelling of Biogeochemical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oni, S. K.; Tiwari, T.; Futter, M. N.; Agren, A.; Teutschbein, C.; Ledesma, J.; Schelker, J.; Laudon, H.

    2014-12-01

    The boreal ecozone covers 2x107 km2 of the northern circumpolar region and includes 29% of the world's forests. The boreal consists of mosaic of forest/wetland landscape elements and stores about 500 Gt3 carbon (C) with a delicate sink-source C balance. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is the main form of C exported from boreal landscapes and is fundamental to global C cycling. This northern ecosystem is vulnerable to global climate change, and increasing demands for forest products threaten its surface water resources. So far, there have been no attempts to assess the combined impacts of climate change and forest management on the future DOC fluxes from boreal surface waters. While differences in model assumptions may have negligible effects on present day simulations, these differences could be amplified when projecting the future climate and land use change conditions. Here we use an ensemble of regional climate models and multi-scale models of biogeochemical processes to gain insights into uncertainties associated with climate change and forest management on C and runoff dynamics in boreal landscape. While there are significant uncertainties associated with model projections, our results show that climate change will be the main driver of long term DOC dynamics in meso- to large boreal catchments in the future. However, forestry intensifies hydrological processes and can lead to large DOC fluxes at the headwater scales.

  19. Management case study: Tampa Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, Gerold; Greening, Holly; Yates, Kimberly K.

    2011-01-01

    Tampa Bay, Florida, USA, is a shallow, subtropical estuary that experienced severe cultural eutrophication between the 1940s and 1980s, a period when the human population of its watershed quadrupled. In response, citizen action led to the formation of a public- and private-sector partnership (the Tampa Bay Estuary Program), which adopted a number of management objectives to support the restoration and protection of the bay’s living resources. These included numeric chlorophyll a and water-clarity targets, as well as long-term goals addressing the spatial extent of seagrasses and other selected habitat types, to support estuarine-dependent faunal guilds. Over the past three decades, nitrogen controls involving sources such as wastewater treatment plants, stormwater conveyance systems, fertilizer manufacturing and shipping operations, and power plants have been undertaken to meet these and other management objectives. Cumulatively, these controls have resulted in a 60% reduction in annual total nitrogen (TN) loads relative to earlier worse-case (latter 1970s) conditions. As a result, annual water-clarity and chlorophyll a targets are currently met in most years, and seagrass cover measured in 2008 was the highest recorded since 1950. Factors that have contributed to the observed improvements in Tampa Bay over the past several decades include the following: (1) Development of numeric, science-based water-quality targets to meet a long-term goal of restoring seagrass acreage to 1950s levels. Empirical and mechanistic models found that annual average chlorophyll a concentrations were a primary manageable factor affecting light attenuation. The models also quantified relationships between TN loads, chlorophyll a concentrations, light attenuation, and fluctuations in seagrass cover. The availability of long-term monitoring data, and a systematic process for using the data to evaluate the effectiveness of management actions, has allowed managers to track progress and

  20. Insights into the O-Acetylation Reaction of Hydroxylated Heterocyclic Amines by Human Arylamine N-Acetyltransferases: A Computational Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, E Y; Felton, J S; Lightstone, F C

    2006-06-06

    A computational study was performed to better understand the differences between human arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) 1 and 2. Homology models were constructed from available crystal structures and comparisons of the active site residues 125, 127, and 129 for these two enzymes provide insight into observed substrate differences. The NAT2 model provided a basis for understanding how some of the common mutations may affect the structure of the protein. Molecular dynamics simulations of the human NAT models and the template structure (NAT from Mycobacterium smegmatis) were performed and showed the models to be stable and reasonable. Docking studies of hydroxylated heterocyclic amines in the models of NAT1 and NAT2 probed the differences exhibited by these two proteins with mutagenic agents. The hydroxylated heterocyclic amines were only able to fit into the NAT2 active site, and an alternative binding site by the P-loop was found using our models and will be discussed. Additionally, quantum mechanical calculations were performed to study the O-acetylation reaction of the hydroxylated heterocyclic amines N-OH MeIQx and N-OH PhIP. This study has given us insight into why there are substrate differences among isoenzymes and explains some of the polymorphic activity differences.

  1. Designing a Versatile Dedicated Computing Lab to Support Computer Network Courses: Insights from a Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gercek, Gokhan; Saleem, Naveed

    2006-01-01

    Providing adequate computing lab support for Management Information Systems (MIS) and Computer Science (CS) programs is a perennial challenge for most academic institutions in the US and abroad. Factors, such as lack of physical space, budgetary constraints, conflicting needs of different courses, and rapid obsolescence of computing technology,…

  2. Space station human productivity study. Volume 5: Management plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The 67 Management Plans represent recommended study approaches for resolving 108 of the 305 Issues which were identified. Each study Management Plan is prepared in three formats: Management Plan Overview (lists the subsumed Issues, study background, and related overview information); Study Plan (details the study approach by tasks, lists special needs, and describes expected study products); Schedule-Task Flow (provides a time-lined schedule for the study tasks and resource requirements). The Management Relationships Matrix, included in this volume, shows the data input-output relationships among all recommended studies. A listing is also included which cross-references the unresolved requirements to Issues to management plans. A glossary of all abbreviations utilized is provided.

  3. Concepts of health and well-being in managers: An organizational study

    PubMed Central

    Boness, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Global changes and new managerial challenges require new concepts of health and well-being in organizational contexts. In the South African context, health and well-being of managers have gained relevance in organizations and in management sciences. International organizations, in particular, attempt to address the increasing demand for health care and the delivery of health services to their managers. Careful and appropriate health management requires research to evaluate context-specific health concepts and strategies. The purpose and aim of this article is to assess managerial concepts on health and well-being that could be used by the organization to contribute to managerial well-being by implementing health promotion according to managerial needs. At the same time, this article contributes to salutogenetic health research that is very rare with regard to the South African organizational management research. This study is a multi-method research study conducted in a selected international organization in South Africa. However, in this article, selected qualitative findings will only be presented. This organizational study presents selected research findings on health concepts and strategies employed by managers. Findings demonstrate that the managerial concepts of health and strategies mainly refer to not only physical but also to mental and spiritual aspects, with a priority on physical health and well-being. The findings presented are based on qualitative research methods and their research criteria. This assessment serves as a foundation for new approaches to health management within the international work context in South Africa. It also contributes to a paradigm shift from pathogenetic to salutogenetic concepts of health and well-being within the South African organizational work context. The article produces new insights into the qualitative health concepts of South African managers and expatriates and contributes to promoting salutogenesis in

  4. Concepts of health and well-being in managers: An organizational study.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Claude-Hélène; Boness, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Global changes and new managerial challenges require new concepts of health and well-being in organizational contexts. In the South African context, health and well-being of managers have gained relevance in organizations and in management sciences. International organizations, in particular, attempt to address the increasing demand for health care and the delivery of health services to their managers. Careful and appropriate health management requires research to evaluate context-specific health concepts and strategies. The purpose and aim of this article is to assess managerial concepts on health and well-being that could be used by the organization to contribute to managerial well-being by implementing health promotion according to managerial needs. At the same time, this article contributes to salutogenetic health research that is very rare with regard to the South African organizational management research.This study is a multi-method research study conducted in a selected international organization in South Africa. However, in this article, selected qualitative findings will only be presented.This organizational study presents selected research findings on health concepts and strategies employed by managers. Findings demonstrate that the managerial concepts of health and strategies mainly refer to not only physical but also to mental and spiritual aspects, with a priority on physical health and well-being.The findings presented are based on qualitative research methods and their research criteria.This assessment serves as a foundation for new approaches to health management within the international work context in South Africa. It also contributes to a paradigm shift from pathogenetic to salutogenetic concepts of health and well-being within the South African organizational work context.The article produces new insights into the qualitative health concepts of South African managers and expatriates and contributes to promoting salutogenesis in organization

  5. Groundwater-surface water relations in the Fox River watershed: insights from exploratory studies in Illinois and Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mills, Patrick C.

    2014-01-01

    Exploratory studies were conducted at sites bordering the Fox River in Waukesha, Wisconsin, during 2010 and McHenry, Illinois, during 2011–13. The objectives of the studies were to assess strategies for the study of and insights into the potential for directly connected groundwater and surface-water systems with natural groundwater discharge to streams diverted and (or) streamflow induced (captured) by nearby production-well withdrawals. Several collection efforts of about 2 weeks or less provided information and data on site geology, groundwater and surface-water levels, hydraulic gradients, water-temperature and stream-seepage patterns, and water chemistry including stables isotopes. Overview information is presented for the Waukesha study, and selected data and preliminary findings are presented for the McHenry study.

  6. The Effect of a Self-Reflection and Insight Program on the Nursing Competence of Nursing Students: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Pai, Hsiang-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Nurses have to solve complex problems for their patients and their families, and as such, nursing care capability has become a focus of attention. The aim of this longitudinal study was to develop a self-reflection practice exercise program for nursing students to be used during clinical practice and to evaluate the effects of this program empirically and longitudinally on change in students' clinical competence, self-reflection, stress, and perceived teaching quality. An additional aim was to determine the predictors important to nursing competence. We sampled 260 nursing students from a total of 377 practicum students to participate in this study. A total of 245 students nurse completed 4 questionnaires, Holistic Nursing Competence Scale, Self-Reflection and Insight Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, and Clinical Teaching Quality Scale, at 2, 4, and 6 months after clinical practice experience. Generalized estimating equation models were used to examine the change in scores on each of the questionnaires. The findings showed that, at 6 months after clinical practice, nursing competence was significantly higher than at 2 and 4 months, was positively related to self-reflection and insight, and was negatively related to practice stress. Nursing students' competence at each time period was positively related to clinical teachers' instructional quality at 4 and 6 months. These results indicate that a clinical practice program with self-reflection learning exercise improves nursing students' clinical competence and that nursing students' self-reflection and perceived practice stress affect their nursing competence. Nursing core competencies are enhanced with a self-reflection program, which helps nursing students to improve self-awareness and decrease stress that may interfere with learning. Further, clinical practice experience, self-reflection and insight, and practice stress are predictors of nursing students' clinical competence. PMID:26428348

  7. Molecular-Level Insights into Photocatalysis from Scanning Probe Microscopy Studies on TiO2(110)

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Michael A.; Lyubinetsky, Igor

    2013-06-12

    The field of heterogeneous photocatalysis has grown considerably in the decades since Fujishima and Honda's ground-breaking publications of photoelectrochemistry on TiO2. Numerous review articles continue to point to both progress made in the use of heterogeneous materials (such as TiO2) to perform photoconversion processes, and the many opportunities and challenges in heterogeneous photocatalysis research such as solar energy conversion and environmental remediation. The past decade has also seen an increase in the use of molecular-level approaches applied to model single crystal surfaces in an effort to obtain new insights into photocatalytic phenomena. In particular, scanning probe techniques (SPM) have enabled researchers to take a ‘nanoscale’ approach to photocatalysis that includes interrogation of the reactivities of specific sites and adsorbates on a model photocatalyst surface. The rutile TiO2(110) surface has become the prototypical oxide single crystal surface for fundamental studies of many interfacial phenomena. In particular, TiO2(110) has become an excellent model surface for probing photochemical and photocatalytic reactions at the molecular level. A variety of experimental approaches have emerged as being ideally suited for studying photochemical reactions on TiO2(110), including desorption-oriented approaches and electronic spectroscopies, but perhaps the most promising techniques for evaluating site-specific properties are those of SPM. In this review, we highlight the growing use of SPM techniques in providing molecular-level insights into surface photochemistry on the model photocatalyst surface of rutile TiO2(110). Our objective is to both illustrate the unique knowledge that scanning probe techniques have already provided the field of photocatalysis, and also to motivate a new generation of effort into the use of such approaches to obtain new insights into the molecular level details of photochemical events occurring at interfaces

  8. Nutrient management studies in biofuel cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research was conducted to determine the effect of nutrient management practices on biofuel crop production, and to evaluate long term effects of biofuel crop production on selected chemical, physical and microbiological properties. Experimental plots for research on biofuel crop production were esta...

  9. A General Procedure to Assess the Internal Structure of a Noncognitive Measure--The Student360 Insight Program (S360) Time Management Scale. Research Report. ETS RR-11-42

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, Guangming; Rijmen, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The factorial structure of the Time Management (TM) scale of the Student 360: Insight Program (S360) was evaluated based on a national sample. A general procedure with a variety of methods was introduced and implemented, including the computation of descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).…

  10. New insights into the chemistry of Coenzyme Q-0: A voltammetric and spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Gulaboski, Rubin; Bogeski, Ivan; Kokoskarova, Pavlinka; Haeri, Haleh H; Mitrev, Sasa; Stefova, Marina; Stanoeva, Jasmina Petreska; Markovski, Velo; Mirčeski, Valentin; Hoth, Markus; Kappl, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    Coenzyme Q-0 (CoQ-0) is the only Coenzyme Q lacking an isoprenoid group on the quinoid ring, a feature important for its physico-chemical properties. Here, the redox behavior of CoQ-0 in buffered and non-buffered aqueous media was examined. In buffered aqueous media CoQ-0 redox chemistry can be described by a 2-electron-2-proton redox scheme, characteristic for all benzoquinones. In non-buffered media the number of electrons involved in the electrode reaction of CoQ-0 is still 2; however, the number of protons involved varies between 0 and 2. This results in two additional voltammetric signals, attributed to 2-electrons-1H(+) and 2-electrons-0H(+) redox processes, in which mono- and di-anionic compounds of CoQ-0 are formed. In addition, CoQ-0 exhibits a complex chemistry in strong alkaline environment. The reaction of CoQ-0 and OH(-) anions generates several hydroxyl derivatives as products. Their structures were identified with HPLC/MS. The prevailing radical reaction mechanism was analyzed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The hydroxyl derivatives of CoQ-0 have a strong antioxidative potential and form stable complexes with Ca(2+) ions. In summary, our results allow mechanistic insights into the redox properties of CoQ-0 and its hydroxylated derivatives and provide hints on possible applications. PMID:27268099

  11. Novosphingobium and Its Potential Role in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases: Insights from Microbiome Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rutebemberwa, Alleluiah; Stevens, Mark J.; Perez, Mario J.; Smith, Lynelle P.; Sanders, Linda; Cosgrove, Gregory; Robertson, Charles E.; Tuder, Rubin M.; Harris, J. Kirk

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial infection of lung airways underlies some of the main complications of COPD, significantly impacting disease progression and outcome. Colonization by bacteria may further synergize, amplify, or trigger pathways of tissue damage started by cigarette smoke, contributing to the characteristic airway inflammation and alveolar destruction of COPD. We sought to elucidate the presence and types of lung bacterial populations in different stages of COPD, aimed at revealing important insights into the pathobiology of the disease. Sequencing of the bacterial small subunit ribosomal RNA gene in 55 well-characterized clinical lung samples, revealed the presence of Novosphingobium spp. (>2% abundance) in lungs of patients with GOLD 3-GOLD 4 COPD, cystic fibrosis and a subset of control individuals. Novosphingobium-specific quantitative PCR was concordant with the sequence data and high levels of Novosphingobium spp. were quantifiable in advanced COPD, but not from other disease stages. Using a mouse model of subacute lung injury due to inhalation of cigarette smoke, bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophil and macrophage counts were significantly higher in mice challenged intratracheally with N. panipatense compared to control mice (p<0.01). Frequencies of neutrophils and macrophages in lung tissue were increased in mice challenged with N. panipatense at room air compared to controls. However, we did not observe an interaction between N. panipatense and subacute cigarette smoke exposure in the mouse. In conclusion, Novosphingobium spp. are present in more severe COPD disease, and increase inflammation in a mouse model of smoke exposure. PMID:25340840

  12. Structural studies of Pseudomonas and Chromobacterium ω-aminotransferases provide insights into their differing substrate specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Sayer, Christopher; Isupov, Michail N.; Westlake, Aaron; Littlechild, Jennifer A.

    2013-04-01

    The X-ray structures of two ω-aminotransferases from P. aeruginosa and C. violaceum in complex with an inhibitor offer the first detailed insight into the structural basis of the substrate specificity of these industrially important enzymes. The crystal structures and inhibitor complexes of two industrially important ω-aminotransferase enzymes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Chromobacterium violaceum have been determined in order to understand the differences in their substrate specificity. The two enzymes share 30% sequence identity and use the same amino acceptor, pyruvate; however, the Pseudomonas enzyme shows activity towards the amino donor β-alanine, whilst the Chromobacterium enzyme does not. Both enzymes show activity towards S-α-methylbenzylamine (MBA), with the Chromobacterium enzyme having a broader substrate range. The crystal structure of the P. aeruginosa enzyme has been solved in the holo form and with the inhibitor gabaculine bound. The C. violaceum enzyme has been solved in the apo and holo forms and with gabaculine bound. The structures of the holo forms of both enzymes are quite similar. There is little conformational difference observed between the inhibitor complex and the holoenzyme for the P. aeruginosa aminotransferase. In comparison, the crystal structure of the C. violaceum gabaculine complex shows significant structural rearrangements from the structures of both the apo and holo forms of the enzyme. It appears that the different rigidity of the protein scaffold contributes to the substrate specificity observed for the two ω-aminotransferases.

  13. Clinicians’ experiences of becoming a clinical manager: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There has been an increased interest in recruiting health professionals with a clinical background to management positions in health care. We know little about the factors that influence individuals’ decisions to engage in management. The aim of this study is to explore clinicians’ journeys towards management positions in hospitals, in order to identify potential drivers and barriers to management recruitment and development. Methods We did a qualitative study which included in-depth interviews with 30 clinicians in middle and first-line management positions in Norwegian hospitals. In addition, participant observation was conducted with 20 of the participants. The informants were recruited from medical and surgical departments, and most had professional backgrounds as medical doctors or nurses. Interviews were analyzed by systemic text condensation. Results We found that there were three phases in clinicians’ journey into management; the development of leadership awareness, taking on the manager role and the experience of entering management. Participants’ experiences suggest that there are different journeys into management, in which both external and internal pressure emerged as a recurrent theme. They had not anticipated a career in clinical management, and experienced that they had been persuaded to take the position. Being thrown into the position, without being sufficiently prepared for the task, was a common experience among participants. Being left to themselves, they had to learn management “on the fly”. Some were frustrated in their role due to increasing administrative workloads, without being able to delegate work effectively. Conclusions Path dependency and social pressure seems to influence clinicians’ decisions to enter into management positions. Hospital organizations should formalize pathways into management, in order to identify, attract, and retain the most qualified talents. Top managers should make sure that necessary

  14. Insights into the Management of Large Carnivores for Profitable Wildlife-Based Land Uses in African Savannas

    PubMed Central

    Funston, Paul J.; Groom, Rosemary J.; Lindsey, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Large African predators, especially lions (Panthera leo) and leopards (Panthera pardus), are financially valuable for ecotourism and trophy hunting operations on land also utilized for the production of other wildlife species for the same purpose. Predation of ungulates used for trophy hunting can create conflict with landholders and trade off thus exists between the value of lions and leopards and their impact on ungulate populations. Therefore productionist and conservation trade-offs are complexly graded and difficult to resolve. We investigated this with a risk-benefit analysis on a large private wildlife production area in Zimbabwe. Our model showed that lions result in substantial financial costs through predation on wild ungulates that may not be offset by profits from hunting them, whereas the returns from trophy hunting of leopards are projected to exceed the costs due to leopard predation. In the absence of additional income derived from photo-tourism the number of lions may need to be managed to minimize their impact. Lions drive important ecological processes, but there is a need to balance ecological and financial imperatives on wildlife ranches, community wildlife lands and other categories of multiple use land used for wildlife production. This will ensure the competitiveness of wildlife based land uses relative to alternatives. Our findings may thus be limited to conservancies, community land-use areas and commercial game ranches, which are expansive in Africa, and should not necessarily applied to areas where biodiversity conservation is the primary objective, even if hunting is allowed there. PMID:23527083

  15. Insights into the management of large carnivores for profitable wildlife-based land uses in African savannas.

    PubMed

    Funston, Paul J; Groom, Rosemary J; Lindsey, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Large African predators, especially lions (Panthera leo) and leopards (Panthera pardus), are financially valuable for ecotourism and trophy hunting operations on land also utilized for the production of other wildlife species for the same purpose. Predation of ungulates used for trophy hunting can create conflict with landholders and trade off thus exists between the value of lions and leopards and their impact on ungulate populations. Therefore productionist and conservation trade-offs are complexly graded and difficult to resolve. We investigated this with a risk-benefit analysis on a large private wildlife production area in Zimbabwe. Our model showed that lions result in substantial financial costs through predation on wild ungulates that may not be offset by profits from hunting them, whereas the returns from trophy hunting of leopards are projected to exceed the costs due to leopard predation. In the absence of additional income derived from photo-tourism the number of lions may need to be managed to minimize their impact. Lions drive important ecological processes, but there is a need to balance ecological and financial imperatives on wildlife ranches, community wildlife lands and other categories of multiple use land used for wildlife production. This will ensure the competitiveness of wildlife based land uses relative to alternatives. Our findings may thus be limited to conservancies, community land-use areas and commercial game ranches, which are expansive in Africa, and should not necessarily applied to areas where biodiversity conservation is the primary objective, even if hunting is allowed there. PMID:23527083

  16. Systematic large-scale study of the inheritance mode of Mendelian disorders provides new insight into human diseasome

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Dapeng; Wang, Guangyu; Yin, Zuojing; Li, Chuanxing; Cui, Yan; Zhou, Meng

    2014-01-01

    One important piece of information about the human Mendelian disorders is the mode of inheritance. Recent studies of human genetic diseases on a large scale have provided many novel insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms. However, most successful analyses ignored the mode of inheritance of diseases, which severely limits our understanding of human disease mechanisms relating to the mode of inheritance at the large scale. Therefore, we here conducted a systematic large-scale study of the inheritance mode of Mendelian disorders, to bring new insight into human diseases. Our analyses include the comparison between dominant and recessive disease genes on both genomic and proteomic characteristics, Mendelian mutations, protein network properties and disease connections on both the genetic and the population levels. We found that dominant disease genes are more functionally central, topological central and more sensitive to disease outcome. On the basis of these findings, we suggested that dominant diseases should have higher genetic heterogeneity and should have more comprehensive connections with each other compared with recessive diseases, a prediction we confirm by disease network and disease comorbidity. PMID:24448549

  17. Student Teachers' Management Practices in Elementary Classrooms: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildenbrand, Susan M.; Arndt, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study of four student teachers completing certification in elementary and special education investigated the classroom management practices of the student teachers. This is an important area of study because management practices are essential for an effective classroom, and student teachers often lack confidence and skill in the…

  18. Administrators' Attitudes toward Cultural Diversity Management: An Empirical Study;

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohapatra, Manindra K.; And Others

    A study was done to test four hypotheses on the orientation of American Urban Administrators toward cultural diversity management in the public sector workplace. The study sought to test: (1) the extent of familiarity with the literature on cultural diversity; (2) relative ranking of cultural diversity management capabilities; (3) how women and…

  19. Correlational Study of Risk Management and Information Technology Project Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Seth J.

    2014-01-01

    Many IT projects fail despite the best efforts to keep these projects within budget, schedule, and scope. Few studies have looked at the effect of project risk management tools and techniques on project success. The primary focus of this study was to examine the extent to which utilization of project risk management processes influence project…

  20. Effective Case Study Methodologies in the Management of IT Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buffington, James R.; Harper, Jeffrey S.

    Many Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) accredited schools require undergraduate Management Information Systems (MIS) majors to take a course in the management of information technology. Over half of these schools utilize case studies in the teaching of this course. Case studies are an important vehicle for teaching…

  1. Organization, Maturation, and Plasticity of Multisensory Integration: Insights from Computational Modeling Studies

    PubMed Central

    Cuppini, Cristiano; Magosso, Elisa; Ursino, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present two neural network models – devoted to two specific and widely investigated aspects of multisensory integration – in order to evidence the potentialities of computational models to gain insight into the neural mechanisms underlying organization, development, and plasticity of multisensory integration in the brain. The first model considers visual–auditory interaction in a midbrain structure named superior colliculus (SC). The model is able to reproduce and explain the main physiological features of multisensory integration in SC neurons and to describe how SC integrative capability – not present at birth – develops gradually during postnatal life depending on sensory experience with cross-modal stimuli. The second model tackles the problem of how tactile stimuli on a body part and visual (or auditory) stimuli close to the same body part are integrated in multimodal parietal neurons to form the perception of peripersonal (i.e., near) space. The model investigates how the extension of peripersonal space – where multimodal integration occurs – may be modified by experience such as use of a tool to interact with the far space. The utility of the modeling approach relies on several aspects: (i) The two models, although devoted to different problems and simulating different brain regions, share some common mechanisms (lateral inhibition and excitation, non-linear neuron characteristics, recurrent connections, competition, Hebbian rules of potentiation and depression) that may govern more generally the fusion of senses in the brain, and the learning and plasticity of multisensory integration. (ii) The models may help interpretation of behavioral and psychophysical responses in terms of neural activity and synaptic connections. (iii) The models can make testable predictions that can help guiding future experiments in order to validate, reject, or modify the main assumptions. PMID:21687448

  2. Manager-employee interaction in ambulance services: an exploratory study of employee perspectives on management communication.

    PubMed

    Nordby, Halvor

    2015-01-01

    Managers of ambulance stations face many communicative challenges in their interaction with employees working in prehospital first-line services. The article presents an exploratory study of how paramedics experience these challenges in communication with station leaders. On the basis of a dialogue perspective in qualitative method, 24 paramedics were interviewed in one-to-one and focus group settings. Naturalistic and phenomenological approaches were used to analyze the interviews. All the paramedics said that they wished to be more involved in decision processes and that station managers should provide better explanations of information "from above." The paramedics understood that it was difficult for the managers to find time for extensive dialogue, but many thought that the managers should give more priority to communication. The paramedics' views correspond to theoretical assumptions in human resource management. According to this model, employees should be involved in decision processes on management levels, as long as it is realistically possible to do so. Furthermore, expressing emotional support and positive attitudes does not take much time, and the study suggests that many ambulance managers should focus more on interpersonal relations to employees. It has been extensively documented that management communication affects organizational performance. The study indicates that managers of ambulance stations should be more aware of how their leadership style affects professional commitment and motivation in the first-line services. PMID:25909398

  3. Science insights.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Kazuyuki

    2015-06-01

    "Below is an essay by Prof. Tanabe originally written in Japanese. It gives an insight to Prof. Tanabe's inquiring mind and his approach to science. He also seek, as always, to inspire and nudge the young to scientific discovery". PMID:25463310

  4. Benefits of economic criteria for water scarcity management under global changes: insights from a large-scale hydroeconomic framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neverre, Noémie; Dumas, Patrice; Nassopoulos, Hypatia

    2016-04-01

    , but in other basins it is higher under historical conditions. Global changes may be an incentive to use valuation in operating rules in some basins. In other basins, the benefits of reservoirs management based on economic criteria are less pronounced; in this case, trade-offs could arise between implementing economic based operation policies or not. Given its generic nature and low data requirements, the framework developed could be implemented in other regions concerned with water scarcity and its cost, or extended to a global coverage. Water policies at the country or regional level could be assessed.

  5. Checklist for managing a general program evaluation study

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-18

    This checklist for managing a general program evaluation study provides action items covering the following topics: initial planning; evaluation design and procurement; implementation of study; and using evaluation results.

  6. Interstitial Fluid Glucose Is Not Just a Shifted-in-Time but a Distorted Mirror of Blood Glucose: Insight from an In Silico Study

    PubMed Central

    Schiavon, Michele; Dalla Man, Chiara; Basu, Ananda; Basu, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Glucose sensors measure glucose concentration in the interstitial fluid (ISF), remote from blood. ISF glucose is well known to be “delayed” with respect to blood glucose (BG). However, ISF glucose is not simply a shifted-in-time version of BG but exhibits a more complex pattern. Methods: To gain insight into this problem, one can use linear systems theory. However, this may lose a more clinical readership, thus we use simulation and two case studies to convey our thinking in an easier way. In particular, we consider BG concentration measured after meal and exercise in 12 healthy volunteers, whereas ISF glucose is simulated using a well-accepted model of blood–ISF glucose kinetics, which permits calculation of the equilibration time, a parameter characterizing the system. Two metrics are defined: blood and ISF glucose difference at each time point and time to reach the same glucose value in blood and ISF. Results: The simulation performed and the two metrics show that the relationship between blood–ISF glucose profiles is more complex than a pure shift in time and that the pattern depends on both equilibration time and BG. Conclusions: In this in silico study, we have illustrated, with simple case studies, the meaning of the of ISF glucose with respect to BG. Understanding that ISF glucose is not just a shifted-in-time version but a distorted mirror of BG is important for a correct use of continuous glucose monitoring for diabetes management. PMID:27253751

  7. Using Health Provider Insights to Inform Pediatric HIV Disclosure: A Qualitative Study and Practice Framework from Kenya

    PubMed Central

    John-Stewart, Grace; Shah, Brandi; Wamalwa, Dalton; Maleche-Obimbo, Elizabeth; Kelley, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Optimal pediatric HIV disclosure impacts illness and developmental experiences while improving access to timely treatment. However, disclosure rates in high HIV prevalence countries remain low and there are limited data on best practices. We conducted a qualitative study of disclosure practices and interviewed healthcare providers from five pediatric HIV clinics in Kenya. We identified themes central to disclosure practices, rationale for approaches, barriers to implementing disclosure, and creative strategies to overcome challenges. We used these insights to develop a practice-based framework for disclosure that is sensitive to practical challenges. Overall, providers had limited training but extensive experience in disclosure, endorsed individualized disclosure practices, invested substantial time on disclosure despite clinical burden, and noted adverse outcomes associated with unplanned or abrupt disclosure. Providers advocated for an approach to disclosure that is child-centered but respects caregiver fears and values. Caregiver support was provided to enable caregivers to be the person who ultimately disclosed HIV status to children. Unplanned or abrupt disclosure to children was reported to have severe and persistent adverse impact and was a stimulus to accelerate disclosure in scenarios when providers believed children may be suspecting their diagnosis. Based on these expert insights, the framework we developed incorporates concurrent evaluation of child and caregiver readiness, identifies cues to prompt disclosure discussions, includes caregiver education and support, and utilizes a gradual approach of unveiling HIV diagnosis to the child. PMID:25216105

  8. Species Conservation and Management: Case Studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akcakaya, H.R.; Burgman, M.A.; Kindvall, O.; Wood, C.C.; Sjogren-Gulve, P.; Hatfield, J.S.; McCarthy, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    This edited volume is a collection of population and metapopulation models for a wide variety of species, including plants, invertebrates, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Each chapter of the book describes the application of RAMAS GIS 4.0 to one species, with the aim of demonstrating how various life history characteristics of the species are incorporated into the model, and how the results of the model has been or can be used in conservation and management of the species. The book comes with a CD that includes a demo version of the program, and the data files for each species.

  9. Management case study: Tampa Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, G.; Greening, H.S.; Yates, K.K.

    2012-01-01

    Tampa Bay, Florida,USA, is a shallow,subtropical estuary that experienced severe cultural eutrophication between the 1940s and 1980s, a period when the human population of its watershed quadrupled. In response, citizen action led to the formation of a public- and private-sector partnership (the Tampa Bay Estuary Program), which adopted a number of management objectives to support the restoration and protection of the bay’s living resources. These included numeric chlorophyll a and water-clarity targets, as well as long-term goals addressing the spatial extent of sea grasses and other selected habitat types, to support estuarine-dependent faunal guilds.

  10. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant - Insights Gained from the INEEL Point Design Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Philip E. MacDonald; A. M. Baxter; P. D. Bayless; J. M. Bolin; H. D. Gougar; R. L. Moore; A. M. Ougouag; M. B. Richards; R. L. Sant; J. W. Sterbentz; W. K. Terry

    2004-08-01

    This paper provides the results of an assessment of two possible versions of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), a prismatic fuel type helium gas-cooled reactor and a pebble-bed fuel helium gas reactor. Insights gained regarding the strengths and weaknesses of the two designs are also discussed. Both designs will meet the three basic requirements that have been set for the NGNP: a coolant outlet temperature of 1000 C, passive safety, and a total power output consistent with that expected for commercial high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Two major modifications of the current Gas Turbine- Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) design were needed to obtain a prismatic block design with a 1000 C outlet temperature: reducing the bypass flow and better controlling the inlet coolant flow distribution to the core. The total power that could be obtained for different core heights without exceeding a peak transient fuel temperature of 1600 °C during a high or low-pressure conduction cooldown event was calculated. With a coolant inlet temperature of 490 °C and 10% nominal core bypass flow, it is estimated that the peak power for a 10-block high core is 686 MWt, for a 12-block high core is 786 MWt, and for a 14-block core is about 889 MWt. The core neutronics calculations showed that the NGNP will exhibit strongly negative Doppler and isothermal temperature coefficients of reactivity over the burnup cycle. In the event of rapid loss of the helium gas, there is negligible core reactivity change. However, water or steam ingress into the core coolant channels can produce a relatively large reactivity effect. Two versions of an annular pebble-bed NGNP have also been developed, a 300 and a 600 MWt module. From this work we learned how to design passively safe pebble bed reactors that produce more than 600 MWt. We also found a way to improve both the fuel utilization and safety by modifying the pebble design (by adjusting the fuel zone radius in the pebble to optimize the fuel

  11. Managing Bullying and Managing Difference: A Case Study of One Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Roz; Smith, Peter; Jenks, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Much work on school bullying focuses on developing our understanding of the various factors that contribute to bullying and its management. This case study focuses on the possible connections between parts and offers a metaperspective of one mainstream secondary school. Demonstrating that bullying and its management is embedded within the network…

  12. Gaps in Management Education: A Case Study of University of Management and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdur-Raouf; Kalim, Rukhsana; Siddiqi, Ahmed F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to identify the gaps in management education highlighted by 3 primary stakeholders: students, faculty and alumni. The study tries to address the issue of relevance and compatibility of management education and investigates areas of improvement perceived by respondents. The paper assumes that business departments of universities…

  13. Study of investigation-derived waste management options. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mountain, B.C.

    1993-09-01

    USAF is dedicated to the clean up of past releases of hazardous substances at its bases under the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) . Clean up decisions are based upon data produced from investigations. Large amounts of waste may be derived from investigations. Investigation-derived waste (IDW), especially that with a hazardous component, may pose significant health protection and regulatory compliance problems if neglected. This study identifies the status and the need for improvement of IDW management to avoid those problems. Information on the background of IDW management was collected through a review of environmental laws, waste management regulations, and existing guidance. Practical IDW management information was gleaned from conversations with iRP managers at twelve USAF bases around the country. This study revealed that IDW management needs improvement. All bases acknowledged IDW concerns and have adopted various methods to deal with them. However, current methods appear to rely more upon expediency rather than permanence. This study showed that critical protection and compliance issues are being overlooked. Development of specific IDW management guidance may better assure that critical issues are addressed. Waste minimization, Waste management, Environmental management, Nonhazardous wastes, Hazardous material, Solid wastes.

  14. Identification of the inhibitory mechanism of FDA approved selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: an insight from molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Xue, Weiwei; Wang, Panpan; Li, Bo; Li, Yinghong; Xu, Xiaofei; Yang, Fengyuan; Yao, Xiaojun; Chen, Yu Zong; Xu, Feng; Zhu, Feng

    2016-01-28

    Antidepressants selectively inhibiting serotonin reuptake (SSRIs) represent a highly effective drug class, and novel therapeutic strategies were proposed to improve SSRIs' drug efficacy. The knowledge of the inhibitory mechanism of FDA approved SSRIs could provide great insights and act as important starting points to discover privileged drug scaffolds with improved efficacy. However, the structure of human serotonin transporter (hSERT) is yet to be determined and the inhibitory mechanism underlying SSRIs still needs to be further explored. In this study, the inhibitory mechanism of 4 approved SSRIs treating major depression (fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine and escitalopram) was identified by integrating multiple computational methods. Firstly, a recently published template with high sequence identity was adopted for the first time to generate hSERT's homology model. Then, docking poses of 4 SSRIs were used as the initial conformation for molecular dynamics (MD) simulation followed by MM/GBSA binding free energy calculation and per-residue free energy decomposition. Finally, the binding mode shared by the 4 studied SSRIs was identified by hierarchically clustering per-residue free energies. The identified binding mode was composed of collective interactions between 3 chemical groups in SSRIs and 11 hot spot residues in hSERT. 6 out of these 11 were validated by previous mutagenesis studies or pharmacophore models, and the remaining 5 (Ala169, Ala173, Thr439, Gly442 and Leu443) found in this work were not yet been identified as common determinants of all the 4 studied SSRIs in binding hSERT. Moreover, changes in SSRIs' binding induced by mutation on hot spot residues were further explored, and 3 mechanisms underlining their drug sensitivity were summarized. In summary, the identified binding mode provided important insights into the inhibitory mechanism of approved SSRIs treating major depression, which could be further utilized as a framework for assessing and

  15. Insights into Brown Adipose Tissue Physiology as Revealed by Imaging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Izzi-Engbeaya, Chioma; Salem, Victoria; Atkar, Rajveer S; Dhillo, Waljit S

    2014-01-01

    There has been resurgence in interest in brown adipose tissue (BAT) following radiological and histological identification of metabolically active BAT in adult humans. Imaging enables BAT to be studied non-invasively and therefore imaging studies have contributed a significant amount to what is known about BAT function in humans. In this review the current knowledge (derived from imaging studies) about the prevalence, function, activity and regulation of BAT in humans (as well as relevant rodent studies), will be summarized. PMID:26167397

  16. EERE Guide for Managing General Program Evaluation Studies Appendix 1: Checklist for Managing a General Program Evaluation Study

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-18

    This checklist for managing a general program evaluation study provides action items covering the following topics: initial planning; evaluation design and procurement; implementation of study; and using evaluation results.

  17. Functions of Arabic-English Code-Switching: Sociolinguistic Insights from a Study Abroad Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Masaeed, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    This sociolinguistic study examines the functions and motivations of code-switching, which is used here to mean the use of more than one language in the same conversation. The conversations studied here take place in a very particular context: one-on-one speaking sessions in a study abroad program in Morocco where English is the L1 and Arabic the…

  18. Cross-site studies "by design:" Experiments and observations that provide new insights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cross-site comparisons presented in the previous chapters are all conducted after the individual studies are completed. The differences in experimental design in individual studies in a posteriori cross-site studies limit the scope of questions that can be addressed, and the powerfulness and co...

  19. Data management for genomic mapping applications: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Markowitz, V.M.; Lewis, S.; McCarthy, J.; Olken, F.; Zorn, M.

    1992-05-01

    In this paper we describe a new approach to the construction of data management systems for genomic mapping applications in molecular biology, genetics, and plant breeding. We discuss the architecture of such systems and propose an incremental approach to the development of such systems. We illustrate the proposed approach and architecture with a case study of a prototype data management system for genomic maps.

  20. Health Professionals' Perceptions of Sexual Assault Management: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancey, Jonine; Meuleners, Lynn; Phillips, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore health professionals' perceptions of sexual assault management practices and identify issues related to these practices across Western Australia (WA). Design: A two-round electronic Delphi study was undertaken with health professionals (medical doctors, registered nurses, social workers and managers). Setting: Healthcare…

  1. Management Studies Educational Knowledge: Technical, Elite or Political?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hordern, Jim

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on the technical, elite and political interpretations of the purpose of management, to identify demands for particular forms of educational knowledge in the management studies curriculum. The varied character of this knowledge is discussed using Bernsteinian concepts of verticality, grammaticality, classification and framing, and…

  2. Decreasing Students' Stress through Time Management Training: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Häfner, Alexander; Stock, Armin; Oberst, Verena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a time management training program on perceived control of time and perceived stress in the context of higher education. Twenty-three undergraduate students attended a time management training intervention and reported demands, perceived stress and perceived control of time directly before 2 and…

  3. Expansion of the MANAGE database with forest and drainage studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The “Measured Annual Nutrient loads from AGricultural Environments” (MANAGE) database was published in 2006 to expand an early 1980’s compilation of nutrient export (load) data from agricultural land uses at the field or farm spatial scale. Then in 2008, MANAGE was updated with 15 additional studie...

  4. Case Studies for Management Development in Bangladesh. Second Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Gary N.

    These 15 case studies developed by faculty at institutions in Bangladesh are appropriate for use in a course in management development. The typical case describes a real business situation in which a real manager had to reach a decision. The case gives quantitative and qualitative information that is, or may be, relevant to that decision.…

  5. Neonatal Respiratory Diseases in the Newborn Infant: Novel Insights from Stable Isotope Tracer Studies.

    PubMed

    Carnielli, Virgilio P; Giorgetti, Chiara; Simonato, Manuela; Vedovelli, Luca; Cogo, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory distress syndrome is a common problem in preterm infants and the etiology is multifactorial. Lung underdevelopment, lung hypoplasia, abnormal lung water metabolism, inflammation, and pulmonary surfactant deficiency or disfunction play a variable role in the pathogenesis of respiratory distress syndrome. High-quality exogenous surfactant replacement studies and studies on surfactant metabolism are available; however, the contribution of surfactant deficiency, alteration or dysfunction in selected neonatal lung conditions is not fully understood. In this article, we describe a series of studies made by applying stable isotope tracers to the study of surfactant metabolism and lung water. In a first set of studies, which we call 'endogenous studies', using stable isotope-labelled intravenous surfactant precursors, we showed the feasibility of measuring surfactant synthesis and kinetics in infants using several metabolic precursors including plasma glucose, plasma fatty acids and body water. In a second set of studies, named 'exogenous studies', using stable isotope-labelled phosphatidylcholine tracer given endotracheally, we could estimate surfactant disaturated phosphatidylcholine pool size and half-life. Very recent studies are focusing on lung water and on the endogenous biosynthesis of the surfactant-specific proteins. Information obtained from these studies in infants will help to better tailor exogenous surfactant treatment in neonatal lung diseases. PMID:27251153

  6. Best Practice Irrigation Management and Extension in Peri-Urban Landscapes--Experiences and Insights from the Hawkesbury-Nepean Catchment, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maheshwari, B. L.; Plunkett, M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article to examine key irrigation management issues and their implications for future research and extension developments. Design/Methodology/Approach: Peri-urban landscapes are important as they supply fresh fruit, vegetables, turf, ornamental plants and other farm products to the cities. In this study, the…

  7. Impact of ambient and supplemental ultraviolet-B stress on kidney bean plants: an insight into oxidative stress management.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suruchi; Sarkar, Abhijit; Agrawal, S B; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, the response of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Pusa Komal) plants was evaluated under three different levels of ultraviolet-B (UV-B), i.e., excluded UV-B (eUV-B), ambient UV-B (aUV-B; 5.8 kJ m(-2) day(-1)), and supplemental UV-B (sUV-B; 280-315 nm; ambient + 7.2 kJ m(-2) day(-1)), under near-natural conditions. eUV-B treatment clearly demonstrated that both aUV-B and sUV-B are capable of causing significant changes in the plant's growth, metabolism, economic yield, genome template stability, total protein, and antioxidative enzyme profiles. The experimental findings showed maximum plant height at eUV-B, but biomass accumulation was minimum. Significant reductions in quantum yield (Fv/Fm) were observed under both aUV-B and sUV-B, as compared to eUV-B. UV-B-absorbing flavonoids increased under higher UV-B exposures with consequent increments in phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities. The final yield was significantly higher in plants grown under eUV-B, compared to those under aUV-B and sUV-B. Total protein profile through sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and analysis of isoenzymes, like superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione reductase (GR), through native PAGE revealed major changes in the leaf proteome under aUV-B and sUV-B, depicting induction of some major stress-related proteins. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profile of genomic DNA also indicated a significant reduction of genome template stability under UV-B exposure. Thus, it can be inferred that more energy is diverted for inducing protection mechanisms rather than utilizing it for growth under high UV-B level. PMID:24728984

  8. Victimization among Peruvian Adolescents: Insights into Mental/Emotional Health from the Young Lives Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lister, Cameron E.; Merrill, Ray M.; Vance, David L.; West, Joshua H.; Hall, Parley C.; Crookston, Benjamin T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bullying is a global problem among children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to explore bully victimization in Peru and to identify potential adverse mental health and social outcomes resulting from bully victimization. Methods: This study analyzed data from an ongoing prospective cohort of children taking part in the…

  9. Gaining Insight into Cultural Geography through the Study of Musical Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalil, Alexander K.

    2010-01-01

    At present, the need for an understanding of both physical and cultural geography is increasingly urgent in America's schools. The present study explores using music as focus for the exploration of geography. Not only is music strongly linked to culture and environment but also its study provides an experiential understanding of a given culture in…

  10. Insights into Inclusive Education through a Small Finnish Case Study of an Inclusive School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarr, Jane Mary; Tsokova, Diana; Takkunen, Ulla-Maija

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to present data and discussion arising from a case study of a school in Finland renowned for its practice in the inclusion of learners with additional support requirements due to cognitive and physical disabilities. It aims to establish how the school staff understand their practice with inclusion through day-to-day professional…

  11. Digital Libraries with Embedded Values: Combining Insights from LIS and Science and Technology Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischmann, Kenneth R.

    2007-01-01

    In the digital age, libraries are increasingly being augmented or even replaced by information technology (IT), which is often accompanied by implicit assumptions of objectivity and neutrality, yet the field of science and technology studies (STS) has a long history of studying what values are embedded in IT and how they are embedded. This article…

  12. Insights into Communication Intervention and AAC in South India: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Saranya; Mathew, Samuel N.; Lloyd, Lyle L.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated current trends in communication intervention and augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) in southern India through a mixed-methods design. Study participants (N = 18) were special educators, speech-language pathologists, and behavior therapists. Responses from the questionnaire were quantitatively analyzed.…

  13. Communicating their individual results to participants in an environmental exposure study: Insights from clinical ethics

    SciTech Connect

    Deck, W.; Kosatsky, T. |

    1999-02-01

    A study measuring the uptake of chemical contaminants among sport fishers who consume fish caught in the St. Lawrence river is currently being conducted in Montreal, Canada. In this study, blood, hair, and urine collected from local sport fishers is being tested for heavy metals and persistent organochlorine chemicals. The objective of this study was to formulate a framework for determining what information to communicate to individual subjects of a study measuring biomarkers of exposure, consistent with the principles of ethical clinical and research practice. Methods consisted of review of the scope of environmental exposure studies, including the use of biomarker measurement in clinical medicine and environmental research and the relevant principles of clinical ethics and research practice. An exposure biomarker study is designed to elucidate constitutional, behavioral, and environmental determinants of tissue concentrations of exogenous substances. Ethical clinical and research practice, aiming to maximize autonomy and beneficence and to minimize harm, requires that study findings concerning the determinants of exposure be communicated to study participants. In addition, investigators should reference clinical action levels beyond which individual biomarker results are routinely communicated to participants. When biomarkers have no known relation to risk, or when levels fall below action levels, it may be preferable not co communicate individual results, if this arrangement has been formalized at the time of informed consent.

  14. On the Challenge of Interpreting Census Data: Insights from a Study of an Endangered Pinniped.

    PubMed

    Trillmich, Fritz; Meise, Kristine; Kalberer, Stephanie; Mueller, Birte; Piedrahita, Paolo; Pörschmann, Ulrich; Wolf, Jochen B W; Krüger, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Population monitoring is vital for conservation and management. However, simple counts of animals can be misleading and this problem is exacerbated in seals (pinnipeds) where individuals spend much time foraging away from colonies. We analyzed a 13-year-series of census data of Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki) from the colony of Caamaño, an islet in the center of the Galapagos archipelago where a large proportion of animals was individually marked. Based on regular resighting efforts during the cold, reproductive (cold-R; August to January) and the warm, non-reproductive (warm-nR; February to May) season, we document changes in numbers for different sex and age classes. During the cold-R season the number of adults increased as the number of newborn pups increased. Numbers were larger in the morning and evening than around mid-day and not significantly influenced by tide levels. More adults frequented the colony during the warm-nR season than the cold-R season. Raw counts suggested a decline in numbers over the 13 years, but Lincoln-Petersen (LP-) estimates (assuming a closed population) did not support that conclusion. Raw counts and LP estimates were not significantly correlated, demonstrating the overwhelming importance of variability in attendance patterns of individuals. The probability of observing a given adult in the colony varied between 16% (mean for cold-R season) and 23% (warm-nR season) and may be much less for independent 2 to 4 year olds. Dependent juveniles (up to the age of about 2 years) are observed much more frequently ashore (35% during the cold-R and 50% during the warm-nR seasons). Simple counts underestimate real population size by a factor of 4-6 and may lead to erroneous conclusions about trends in population size. PMID:27148735

  15. On the Challenge of Interpreting Census Data: Insights from a Study of an Endangered Pinniped

    PubMed Central

    Trillmich, Fritz; Meise, Kristine; Kalberer, Stephanie; Mueller, Birte; Piedrahita, Paolo; Pörschmann, Ulrich; Wolf, Jochen B. W.; Krüger, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Population monitoring is vital for conservation and management. However, simple counts of animals can be misleading and this problem is exacerbated in seals (pinnipeds) where individuals spend much time foraging away from colonies. We analyzed a 13-year-series of census data of Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki) from the colony of Caamaño, an islet in the center of the Galapagos archipelago where a large proportion of animals was individually marked. Based on regular resighting efforts during the cold, reproductive (cold-R; August to January) and the warm, non-reproductive (warm-nR; February to May) season, we document changes in numbers for different sex and age classes. During the cold-R season the number of adults increased as the number of newborn pups increased. Numbers were larger in the morning and evening than around mid-day and not significantly influenced by tide levels. More adults frequented the colony during the warm-nR season than the cold-R season. Raw counts suggested a decline in numbers over the 13 years, but Lincoln-Petersen (LP-) estimates (assuming a closed population) did not support that conclusion. Raw counts and LP estimates were not significantly correlated, demonstrating the overwhelming importance of variability in attendance patterns of individuals. The probability of observing a given adult in the colony varied between 16% (mean for cold-R season) and 23% (warm-nR season) and may be much less for independent 2 to 4 year olds. Dependent juveniles (up to the age of about 2 years) are observed much more frequently ashore (35% during the cold-R and 50% during the warm-nR seasons). Simple counts underestimate real population size by a factor of 4–6 and may lead to erroneous conclusions about trends in population size. PMID:27148735

  16. Commercial Aircraft Integrated Vehicle Health Management Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon Monica; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.; Thomas, Megan A.

    2010-01-01

    Statistical data and literature from academia, industry, and other government agencies were reviewed and analyzed to establish requirements for fixture work in detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation for IVHM related hardware and software. Around 15 to 20 percent of commercial aircraft accidents between 1988 and 2003 involved inalftfnctions or failures of some aircraft system or component. Engine and landing gear failures/malfunctions dominate both accidents and incidents. The IVI vl Project research technologies were found to map to the Joint Planning and Development Office's National Research and Development Plan (RDP) as well as the Safety Working Group's National Aviation Safety Strategic. Plan (NASSP). Future directions in Aviation Technology as related to IVHlvl were identified by reviewing papers from three conferences across a five year time span. A total of twenty-one trend groups in propulsion, aeronautics and aircraft categories were compiled. Current and ftiture directions of IVHM related technologies were gathered and classified according to eight categories: measurement and inspection, sensors, sensor management, detection, component and subsystem monitoring, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation.

  17. Planetary Geology with Imaging Radar: Insights from Earth-based Lunar Studies, 2001–2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Bruce A.

    2016-06-01

    Radar exploration of the Solar System changed dramatically during and beyond the period of the Magellan mission to Venus. These changes included an expansion of the community familiar with microwave data, and the forging of a strong connection with polarimetric scattering models developed through terrestrial field measurements and airborne radar studies. During the period, advances in computing power and imaging techniques also allowed Earth-based radar experiments to acquire data at the highest spatial resolutions permitted by their transmitter systems. This paper traces these developments through a case study of lunar observations over the past 15 years, and their implications for ongoing and future Solar System radar studies.

  18. Therapeutic insights from genomic studies of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Hammerman, Peter S.; Hayes, D. Neil; Grandis, Jennifer R.

    2014-01-01

    Large and comprehensive genomic surveys of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas are now greatly increasing our understanding of the diversity of this disease and the key genomic changes, which drive these tumors. The results from these studies are beginning to inform the introduction of novel therapies for patients with head and neck squamous cell cancers. Here, we review some of the key findings from recent genomic studies of head and neck cancers including the most comprehensive study to date from The Cancer Genome Atlas Network. PMID:25643909

  19. Using Twitter Data to Gain Insights into E-cigarette Marketing and Locations of Use: An Infoveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Annice E; Hopper, Timothy; Simpson, Sean; Nonnemaker, James; Lieberman, Alicea J; Hansen, Heather; Porter, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Background Marketing and use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and other electronic nicotine delivery devices have increased exponentially in recent years fueled, in part, by marketing and word-of-mouth communications via social media platforms, such as Twitter. Objective This study examines Twitter posts about e-cigarettes between 2008 and 2013 to gain insights into (1) marketing trends for selling and promoting e-cigarettes and (2) locations where people use e-cigarettes. Methods We used keywords to gather tweets about e-cigarettes between July 1, 2008 and February 28, 2013. A randomly selected subset of tweets was manually coded as advertising (eg, marketing, advertising, sales, promotion) or nonadvertising (eg, individual users, consumers), and classification algorithms were trained to code the remaining data into these 2 categories. A combination of manual coding and natural language processing methods was used to indicate locations where people used e-cigarettes. Additional metadata were used to generate insights about users who tweeted most frequently about e-cigarettes. Results We identified approximately 1.7 million tweets about e-cigarettes between 2008 and 2013, with the majority of these tweets being advertising (93.43%, 1,559,508/1,669,123). Tweets about e-cigarettes increased more than tenfold between 2009 and 2010, suggesting a rapid increase in the popularity of e-cigarettes and marketing efforts. The Twitter handles tweeting most frequently about e-cigarettes were a mixture of e-cigarette brands, affiliate marketers, and resellers of e-cigarette products. Of the 471 e-cigarette tweets mentioning a specific place, most mentioned e-cigarette use in class (39.1%, 184/471) followed by home/room/bed (12.5%, 59/471), school (12.1%, 57/471), in public (8.7%, 41/471), the bathroom (5.7%, 27/471), and at work (4.5%, 21/471). Conclusions Twitter is being used to promote e-cigarettes by different types of entities and the online marketplace is more

  20. The adoption of mobile health management services: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ming-Chien; Jen, Wen-Yuan

    2012-06-01

    As their populations age, many countries are facing the increasing economic pressure of providing healthcare to their people. In Taiwan, this problem is exacerbated by an increasing rate of obesity and obesity-related conditions. Encouraging the adoption of personal health management services is one way to maintain current levels of personal health and to efficiently manage the distribution of healthcare resources. This study introduces Mobile Health Management Services (MHMS) and employs the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to explore the intention of students in Executive Master of Business Management programs to adopt mobile health management technology. Partial least squares (PLS) was used to analyze the collected data, and the results revealed that "perceived usefulness" and "attitude" significantly affected the behavioral intention of adopting MHMS. Both "perceived ease of use" and "perceived usefulness," significantly affected "attitude," and "perceived ease of use" significantly affected "perceived usefulness" as well. The results also show that the determinants of intention toward MHMS differed with age; young adults had higher intention to adopt MHMS to manage their personal health. Therefore, relevant governmental agencies may profitably promote the management of personal health among this population. Successful promotion of personal health management will contribute to increases in both the level of general health and the efficient management of healthcare resources. PMID:20878452

  1. Assessment of the status of municipal solid waste management in metro cities, state capitals, class I cities, and class II towns in India: an insight.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Bhattacharyya, J K; Vaidya, A N; Chakrabarti, Tapan; Devotta, Sukumar; Akolkar, A B

    2009-02-01

    Solid waste management is one of the most challenging issues in urban cities, which are facing a serious pollution problem due to the generation of huge quantities of solid waste. This paper presents an assessment of the existing situation of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in major cities in India. The quantity and composition of MSW vary from place to place, and bear a rather consistent correlation with the average standard of living. Extensive field investigations were carried out for quantification, analysis of physical composition, and characterization of MSW in each of the identified cities. The MSW management status (per the MSW Rules, 2000) has also been assessed, and an action plan for better management has been formulated; both are presented in this paper. Studies carried out in 59 selected cities in India have revealed that there are many shortcomings in the existing practices used in managing the MSW. These shortcomings pertain mainly to inadequate manpower, financial resources, implements, and machinery required for effectively carrying out various activities for MSWM. To overcome the deficiencies in the existing MSWM systems, an indicative action plan has been presented incorporating strategies and guidelines. Based on this plan, municipal agencies can prepare specific action plans for their respective cities. PMID:18595684

  2. Career Success: An Exploratory Study of Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gattiker, Urs E.; Larwood, Laurie

    Recent studies have evaluated career strategies and their relationship to career success. Previous research has evaluated career success as perceived by persons evaluating others' careers, generally with such criteria as job title, salary, and promotions. This study examined career success through a combination of objective and subjective…

  3. Depression, anxiety, and apathy in Parkinson's disease: insights from neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Wen, M-C; Chan, L L; Tan, L C S; Tan, E K

    2016-06-01

    Depression, anxiety and apathy are common mood disturbances in Parkinson's disease (PD) but their pathophysiology is unclear. Advanced neuroimaging has been increasingly used to unravel neural substrates linked to these disturbances. A systematic review is provided of neuroimaging findings in depression, anxiety and apathy in PD. A PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE search of peer-reviewed original research articles on these mood disturbances in PD identified 38 studies on depression, eight on anxiety and 14 on apathy in PD. Most of the imaging studies used either position emission tomography or single-photon emission computed tomography techniques. These studies generally suggest increased neural activity in the prefrontal regions and decreased functional connectivity between the prefrontal-limbic networks in depressed patients. Functional imaging studies revealed an inverse correlation between dopaminergic density in the caudate and putamen with the severity of anxiety in PD. There was no consistent correlation between dopaminergic density of thalamus and anxiety. Studies demonstrated both positive and inverse correlations between apathy and metabolism or activity in the striatum, amygdalar, prefrontal, temporal and parietal regions. The clinical variability of study subjects and differences in image pre-processing and analytical strategies may contribute to discrepant findings in these studies. Both nigrostriatal and extra-nigrostriatal pathways (in particular the frontal region and its connecting areas) are affected in mood disorders in PD. Identifying the relative contributions of these neural pathways in PD patients with overlapping motor and mood symptoms could provide new pathophysiological clues for the development of better therapeutic targets for affected patients. PMID:27141858

  4. Insights from two industrial hygiene pilot e-cigarette passive vaping studies.

    PubMed

    Maloney, John C; Thompson, Michael K; Oldham, Michael J; Stiff, Charles L; Lilly, Patrick D; Patskan, George J; Shafer, Kenneth H; Sarkar, Mohamadi A

    2016-01-01

    While several reports have been published using research methods of estimating exposure risk to e-cigarette vapors in nonusers, only two have directly measured indoor air concentrations from vaping using validated industrial hygiene sampling methodology. Our first study was designed to measure indoor air concentrations of nicotine, menthol, propylene glycol, glycerol, and total particulates during the use of multiple e-cigarettes in a well-characterized room over a period of time. Our second study was a repeat of the first study, and it also evaluated levels of formaldehyde. Measurements were collected using active sampling, near real-time and direct measurement techniques. Air sampling incorporated industrial hygiene sampling methodology using analytical methods established by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Active samples were collected over a 12-hr period, for 4 days. Background measurements were taken in the same room the day before and the day after vaping. Panelists (n = 185 Study 1; n = 145 Study 2) used menthol and non-menthol MarkTen prototype e-cigarettes. Vaping sessions (six, 1-hr) included 3 prototypes, with total number of puffs ranging from 36-216 per session. Results of the active samples were below the limit of quantitation of the analytical methods. Near real-time data were below the lowest concentration on the established calibration curves. Data from this study indicate that the majority of chemical constituents sampled were below quantifiable levels. Formaldehyde was detected at consistent levels during all sampling periods. These two studies found that indoor vaping of MarkTen prototype e-cigarette does not produce chemical constituents at quantifiable levels or background levels using standard industrial hygiene collection techniques and analytical methods. PMID:26576834

  5. Neural basis of attachment-caregiving systems interaction: insights from neuroimaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Lenzi, Delia; Trentini, Cristina; Tambelli, Renata; Pantano, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    The attachment and the caregiving system are complementary systems which are active simultaneously in infant and mother interactions. This ensures the infant survival and optimal social, emotional, and cognitive development. In this brief review we first define the characteristics of these two behavioral systems and the theory that links them, according to what Bowlby called the “attachment-caregiving social bond” (Bowlby, 1969). We then follow with those neuroimaging studies that have focused on this particular issue, i.e., those which have studied the activation of the careging system in women (using infant stimuli) and have explored how the individual attachment model (through the Adult Attachment Interview) modulates its activity. Studies report altered activation in limbic and prefrontal areas and in basal ganglia and hypothalamus/pituitary regions. These altered activations are thought to be the neural substrate of the attachment-caregiving systems interaction. PMID:26379578

  6. Stable isotope-labeling studies in metabolomics: new insights into structure and dynamics of metabolic networks

    PubMed Central

    Chokkathukalam, Achuthanunni; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Barrett, Michael P; Breitling, Rainer; Creek, Darren J

    2014-01-01

    The rapid emergence of metabolomics has enabled system-wide measurements of metabolites in various organisms. However, advances in the mechanistic understanding of metabolic networks remain limited, as most metabolomics studies cannot routinely provide accurate metabolite identification, absolute quantification and flux measurement. Stable isotope labeling offers opportunities to overcome these limitations. Here we describe some current approaches to stable isotope-labeled metabolomics and provide examples of the significant impact that these studies have had on our understanding of cellular metabolism. Furthermore, we discuss recently developed software solutions for the analysis of stable isotope-labeled metabolomics data and propose the bioinformatics solutions that will pave the way for the broader application and optimal interpretation of system-scale labeling studies in metabolomics. PMID:24568354

  7. Centenarians Today: New Insights on Selection from the 5-COOP Study

    PubMed Central

    Robine, Jean-Marie; Cheung, Siu Lan Karen; Saito, Yasuhiko; Jeune, Bernard; Parker, Marti G.; Herrmann, François R.

    2010-01-01

    The number of oldest old grew tremendously over the past few decades. However, recent studies have disclosed that the pace of increase strongly varies among countries. The present study aims to specify the level of mortality selection among the nonagenarians and centenarians living currently in five low mortality countries, Denmark, France, Japan, Switzerland, and Sweden, part of the 5-Country Oldest Old Project (5-COOP). All data come from the Human Mortality Database, except for the number of centenarians living in Japan. We disclosed three levels of mortality selection, a milder level in Japan, a stronger level in Denmark and Sweden and an intermediary level in France and Switzerland. These divergences offer an opportunity to study the existence of a trade-off between the level of mortality selection and the functional health status of the oldest old survivors which will be seized by the 5-COOP project. PMID:21423541

  8. Research and quality management studies: ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, P A

    1994-04-01

    Federal legislation requires that an IRB must review all research studies receiving federal funding and involving human subjects for the protection of human rights. In addition there must be a provision for informed consent so that subjects can freely choose whether or not to participate. Most health care agencies have adopted this as the standard for conducting research. The ethical principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice, guide review boards in making decisions for protecting human subjects. The standards for conducting QM studies have not been as explicit, but it seems that similar ethical principles could provide a guiding framework. To protect human subjects in QM studies, it has been suggested that studies be submitted to an IRB when they: (a) are prospective, (b) have potential scientific merit, and/or (c) may have application beyond the study setting. In addition even when data are coming from existing sources or patient records and used only for evaluation purposes within the study setting, mechanisms for ensuring privacy, confidentiality, and consent need consideration. PMID:8173626

  9. Intercultural Communicative Competence Development during and after Language Study Abroad: Insights from Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiri, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the development and maintenance of intercultural communicative competence (ICC) among 352 American learners of Arabic who completed summer intensive language programs in five Arab countries. Data were collected through a survey that was based on the 2007 draft of the Culture Proficiency Guidelines (Lampe, 2007; later adopted by…

  10. Gendering/ed Research Spaces: Insights from a Study of Independent Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Joan; Weiner, Gaby

    2013-01-01

    This paper draws on a research study into multiple capitals in independent schooling in Scotland. We examine gender discourses and practices in the specific inter/institutional space created within school and research group relations. A three-level conceptual framing of physical, social and intellectual space is used together with theorizations of…

  11. Mental health implications of music: insight from neuroscientific and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuai-Ting; Yang, Pinchen; Lai, Chien-Yu; Su, Yu-Yun; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Huang, Mei-Feng; Chen, Cheng-Chung

    2011-01-01

    Neuroscientific and clinical studies of music over the past two decades have substantially increased our understanding of its use as a means of therapy. The authors briefly review current literature related to music's effect on people with different mental illnesses, and examine several neurobiological theories that may explain its effectiveness or lack thereof in treating psychiatric disorders. Neuroscientific studies have shown music to be an agent capable of influencing complex neurobiological processes in the brain and suggest that it can potentially play an important role in treatment. Clinical studies provide some evidence that music therapy can be used as an alternative therapy in treating depression, autism, schizophrenia, and dementia, as well as problems of agitation, anxiety, sleeplessness, and substance misuse, though whether it can actually replace other modes of treatment remains undetermined. Future research should include translational studies involving both neuroscience and clinical medicine that investigate the long-term effects of music intervention and that lead to the development of new strategies for music therapy. PMID:21250895

  12. Instructional Guidance in Microblogging-Supported Learning: Insights from a Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Tian

    2015-01-01

    Microblogging tools such as Twitter show potential to enrich classroom experience and benefit student learning. Research shows that instructional guidance is particularly necessary in computer-assisted learning environments, but no research has been done to study the effects of instructional guidance in microblogging-based learning. Using a…

  13. Subcellular components of the amphibian egg - Insights provided by gravitational studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, A. W.; Ritzenthaler, J. D.; Rosenbaum, J. F.

    1989-01-01

    The variability in the response of Xenopus laevis eggs to a given force environment is studied. The roles of cytoplasmic organelle, the yolk platelets, and cytoskeletal components in varying in cytoplasmic mobility are examined. The data reveal that the packing of yolk platelets is not a major factor in causing cytoplasmic mobility differences and microtubules may affect cytoplasmic mobility.

  14. STOP-EXPOSURE STUDIES OF INHALED CHLORINE PROVIDE IMPORTANT INSIGHTS ON PATHOGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a project to inform approaches for risk assessment of inhaled irritants of interest to homeland security, a set of acute (Peay et aI., SOT 2010) and subacute (George et aI., SOT 2010) studies of inhaled chlorine (CI2) in female F344 rats was performed. The exposure des...

  15. How Do I Find an Article? Insights from a Web Usability Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockrell, Barbara J.; Jayne, Elaine Anderson

    2002-01-01

    Describes a Web usability study conducted at Western Michigan University to investigate students' success in locating journal articles. Participants' search paths and comments revealed widespread confusion about the article-finding process and revealed weaknesses in the library's Web site which led to improvements in page layout and library…

  16. Early Malnutrition and Child Neurobehavioral Development: Insights from the Study of Children of Diabetic Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizzo, Thomas A.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Studied whether disturbances in mothers' metabolism (N=139) during pregnancy may exert long-range effects on neurobehavioral development of singleton progeny. Examined detailed pregnancy and perinatal records of mothers who experienced diabetes in pregnancy and intelligence tests of their offspring, administered at ages 7 to 11 years. All…

  17. Surface and bulk uptake of H2O2 to snow: Insights from laboratory studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten; Ulrich, Thomas; Ammann, Markus

    2014-05-01

    The trace gas hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is chemical vey reactive in the atmosphere and in the cryosphere. Its gas-phase concentration may significantly determine OH and O3 levels, and thus the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. In snow, H2O2 can drive oxidation of impurities and also a vivid photochemistry is observed. It is further the only major atmospheric oxidant that is directly taken up by snow. Snow might thus be an important reservoir for atmospheric H2O2 and reconstructions of its atmospheric concentration from ice core records might deliver crucial information about past atmosphere. Because H2O2 readily exchanges with between the ice and the gas phase, the transfer function of H2O2 between snow and the atmosphere is crucial to understand and predict the large-scale importance of its chemistry in snow, its exchange with the atmosphere, and its fate in ice-cores. Characterizing the physical exchange of H2O2 between the snow grains and the surrounding air has consequently received much attention in laboratory studies. In one type of studies that focused on short time scales, a detailed description of the adsorption equilibrium between the gas phase and ice was derived. These studies, done on very thin ice films, indicate that H2O2 exclusively adsorbs to the surface. Earlier studies with packed snow samples, published 30 years ago, have shown a different picture of the H2O2 interaction with snow, where surface adsorption and accommodation into the bulk ice governed the overall uptake in long-lasting experiments. The situation where uptake of a trace gas to snow can be driven by several processes with different time scales is typical for the interaction of a number of trace gases with snow. Describing both processes in detail is thus a key-issue in current research. Generally, the uptake occurring on short time scales in thought to be caused by surface adsorption; slow transfer behaviour is related to uptake to the bulk. As H2O2 is not soluble in solid ice

  18. Oxytocin and Social Adaptation: Insights from Neuroimaging Studies of Healthy and Clinical Populations.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yina; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone; Han, Shihui; Zink, Caroline F

    2016-02-01

    Adaptation to the social environment is critical for human survival. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT), implicated in social cognition and emotions pivotal to sociality and well-being, is a promising pharmacological target for social and emotional dysfunction. We suggest here that the multifaceted role of OT in socio-affective processes improves the capability for social adaptation. We review OT effects on socio-affective processes, with a focus on OT-neuroimaging studies, to elucidate neuropsychological mechanisms through which OT promotes social adaptation. We also review OT-neuroimaging studies of individuals with social deficits and suggest that OT ameliorates impaired social adaptation by normalizing hyper- or hypo-brain activity. The social adaption model (SAM) provides an integrative understanding of discrepant OT effects and the modulations of OT action by personal milieu and context. PMID:26616296

  19. Dynamic conformational ensembles regulate casein kinase-1 isoforms: Insights from molecular dynamics and molecular docking studies.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surya Pratap; Gupta, Dwijendra K

    2016-04-01

    Casein kinase-1 (CK1) isoforms actively participate in the down-regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway; however recent studies have shown their active roles in oncogenesis of various tissues through this pathway. Functional loss of two isoforms (CK1-α/ε) has been shown to activate the carcinogenic pathway which involves the stabilization of of cytoplasmic β-catenin. Development of anticancer therapeutics is very laborious task and depends upon the structural and conformational details of the target. This study focuses on, how the structural dynamics and conformational changes of two CK1 isoforms are synchronized in carcinogenic pathway. The conformational dynamics in kinases is the responsible for their action as has been supported by the molecular docking experiments. PMID:26788877

  20. Interaction of diuron to human serum albumin: Insights from spectroscopic and molecular docking studies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huilun; Rao, Honghao; Yang, Jian; Qiao, Yongxiang; Wang, Fei; Yao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the interaction of diuron with human serum albumin (HSA) was studied by monitoring the spectral behavior of diuron-HSA system. The fluorescence of HSA at 340 nm excited at 230 nm was obviously quenched by diuron due to dynamic collision and the quenching constant was of the order of 10(4) L mol(-1) at 310 K. However, no fluorescence quenching was observed when excited at 280 nm. Thermodynamic investigations revealed that the combination between diuron and HSA was entropy driven by predominantly hydrophobic interactions. The binding of diuron induced the drastic reduction in α-helix conformation and the significant enhancement in β-turn conformation of HSA. In addition, both sites marker competition study and molecular modeling simulation evidenced the binding of diuron to HSA primarily took place in subdomain IIIA (Sudlow's site II). PMID:26671830

  1. Current advances in invertebrate vision: insights from patch-clamp studies of photoreceptors in apposition eyes.

    PubMed

    Frolov, Roman V

    2016-08-01

    Traditional electrophysiological research on invertebrate photoreceptors has been conducted in vivo, using intracellular recordings from intact compound eyes. The only exception used to be Drosophila melanogaster, which was exhaustively studied by both intracellular recording and patch-clamp methods. Recently, several patch-clamp studies have provided new information on the biophysical properties of photoreceptors of diverse insect species, having both apposition and neural superposition eyes, in the contexts of visual ecology, behavior, and ontogenesis. Here, I discuss these and other relevant results, emphasizing differences between fruit flies and other species, between photoreceptors of diurnal and nocturnal insects, properties of distinct functional types of photoreceptors, postembryonic developmental changes, and relationships between voltage-gated potassium channels and visual ecology. PMID:27250910

  2. Intangible Benefits Quantified: Insights from Micro-level Return on Investment Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation addresses the question: must socio-economic benefits of geospatial projects be considered intangible and thus unquantifiable? The question will be answered from the perspective of an engineer and geospatial practitioner, with examples provided from case studies using micro level financial analysis. Topics will include: 1. Quantification as a tool for setting and achieving goals, illustrated with individual and societal uses of measurement. 2. Geospatial data as a driver for economic and social development. 3. Building use cases from documented work processes, demographic information and external research results. 4. Moving beyond GDP to quantify the well being of individuals and society. 5. Extrapolation of case study results to quantify a technology's current and potential return on investment to society. 6. Is it realistic for society to work toward commonly held measurements of well being? Or should individual cases maintain uniquely developed measurements to more accurately characterize their results?

  3. REM sleep, hippocampus, and memory processing: insights from functional neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Spoormaker, Victor I; Czisch, Michael; Holsboer, Florian

    2013-12-01

    Neuroimaging studies show that episodic memory encoding is associated with increased activity in hippocampus and lateral prefrontal cortex; however, the latter structure shows decreased activity in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Together with few episodic memory traces in REM sleep, and REM sleep deprivation affecting hippocampus-independent emotional processes, this argues for generic information processing in REM sleep rather than linking episodic memory traces. PMID:24304771

  4. Common Variants Confer Susceptibility to Barrett's Esophagus: Insights from the First Genome-Wide Association Studies.

    PubMed

    Palles, Claire; Findlay, John M; Tomlinson, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Eight loci have been identified by the two genome-wide association studies of Barrett's esophagus that have been conducted to date. Esophageal adenocarcinoma cases were included in the second study following evidence that predisposing genetic variants for this cancer overlap with those for Barrett's esophagus. Genes with roles in embryonic development of the foregut are adjacent to 6 of the loci identified (FOXF1, BARX1, FOXP1, GDF7, TBX5, and ALDH1A2). An additional locus maps to a gene with known oncogenic potential (CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1), but expression quantitative trait data implicates yet another gene involved in esophageal development (PBX4). These results strongly support a model whereby dysregulation of genes involved in esophageal and thoracic development increases susceptibility to Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma, probably by reducing anatomical antireflux mechanisms. An additional signal at 6p21 in the major histocompatibility complex also reinforces evidence that immune and inflammatory response to reflux is involved in the development of both diseases. All of the variants identified are intronic or intergenic rather than coding and are presumed to be or to mark regulatory variants. As with genome-wide association studies of other diseases, the functional variants at each locus are yet to be identified and the genes affected need confirming. In this chapter as well as discussing the biology behind each genome-wide association signal, we review the requirements for successfully conducting genome-wide association studies and discuss how progress in understanding the genetic variants that contribute to Barrett's esophagus/esophageal adenocarcinoma susceptibility compares to other cancers. PMID:27573776

  5. Integrating the results of user research into medical device development: insights from a case study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background It is well established that considering users is an important aspect of medical device development. However it is also well established that there are numerous barriers to successfully conducting user research and integrating the results into product development. It is not sufficient to simply conduct user research, it must also be effectively integrated into product development. Methods A case study of the development of a new medical imaging device was conducted to examine in detail how users were involved in a medical device development project. Two user research studies were conducted: a requirements elicitation interview study and an early prototype evaluation using contextual inquiry. A descriptive in situ approach was taken to investigate how these studies contributed to the product development process and how the results of this work influenced the development of the technology. Data was collected qualitatively through interviews with the development team, participant observation at development meetings and document analysis. The focus was on investigating the barriers that exist to prevent user data from being integrated into product development. Results A number of individual, organisational and system barriers were identified that functioned to prevent the results of the user research being fully integrated into development. The user and technological aspects of development were seen as separate work streams during development. The expectations of the developers were that user research would collect requirements for the appearance of the device, rather than challenge its fundamental concept. The manner that the user data was communicated to the development team was not effective in conveying the significance or breadth of the findings. Conclusion There are a range of informal and formal organisational processes that can affect the uptake of user data during medical device development. Adopting formal decision making processes may assist

  6. Temporal changes in tolerance of uncertainty among medical students: insights from an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Paul K. J.; Schupack, Daniel; Daggett, Susannah; Holt, Christina T.; Strout, Tania D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Physicians’ tolerance of uncertainty (TU) is a trait potentially associated with desirable outcomes, and emerging evidence suggests it may change over time. Past studies of TU, however, have been cross-sectional and have not measured tolerance of the different, specific types of uncertainty that physicians confront. We addressed these limitations in a longitudinal exploratory study of medical students. Methods At the end of medical school (Doctor of Medicine degree) Years 1 and 4, a cohort of 26 students at a US medical school completed measures assessing tolerance of different types of uncertainty: 1) complexity (uncertainty arising from features of information that make it difficult to comprehend); 2) risk (uncertainty arising from the indeterminacy of future outcomes); and 3) ambiguity (uncertainty arising from limitations in the reliability, credibility, or adequacy of information). Change in uncertainty-specific TU was assessed using paired t-tests. Results Between Years 1 and 4, there was a significant decrease in tolerance of ambiguity (t=3.22, p=0.004), but no change in students’ tolerance of complexity or risk. Conclusions Tolerance of ambiguity – but not other types of uncertainty – decreases during medical school, suggesting that TU is a multidimensional, partially mutable state. Future studies should measure tolerance of different uncertainties and examine how TU might be improved. PMID:26356230

  7. Global Health Initiatives and aid effectiveness: insights from a Ugandan case study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The emergence of Global Health Initiatives (GHIs) has been a major feature of the aid environment of the last decade. This paper seeks to examine in depth the behaviour of two prominent GHIs in the early stages of their operation in Uganda as well as the responses of the government. Methods The study adopted a qualitative and case study approach to investigate the governance of aid transactions in Uganda. Data sources included documentary review, in-depth and semi-structured interviews and observation of meetings. Agency theory guided the conceptual framework of the study. Results The Ugandan government had a stated preference for donor funding to be channelled through the general or sectoral budgets. Despite this preference, two large GHIs opted to allocate resources and deliver activities through projects with a disease-specific approach. The mixed motives of contributor country governments, recipient country governments and GHI executives produced incentive regimes in conflict between different aid mechanisms. Conclusion Notwithstanding attempts to align and harmonize donor activities, the interests and motives of the various actors (GHIs and different parts of the government) undermine such efforts. PMID:21726431

  8. Structural-functional insights and studies on saccharide binding of Sophora japonica seed lectin.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Priya; Shahane, Ganesh; Ramasamy, Sureshkumar; Sengupta, Durba; Gaikwad, Sushama

    2016-10-01

    Functional and conformational transitions of the Sophora japonica seed lectin (SJL) were studied in detail using bioinformatics and biophysical tools. Homology model of the lectin displayed all the characteristics of the legume lectin monomer and the experimental observations correlated well with the structural information. In silico studies were performed by protein-ligand docking, calculating the respective binding energies and the residues involved in the interactions were derived from LigPlot(+) analysis. Fluorescence titrations showed three times higher affinity of T-antigen disaccharide than N-acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc) towards SJL indicating extended sugar binding site of the lectin. Thermodynamic parameters of T-antigen binding to SJL indicated the process to be endothermic and entropically driven while those of GalNAc showed biphasic process. SDS-PAGE showed post-translationally modified homotetrameric species of the lectin under native conditions. In presence of guanidine hydrochloride (0.5-5.0M), the tetramer first dissociated into dimers followed by unfolding of the protein as indicated by size exclusion chromatography, fluorescence and CD spectroscopy. Different structural rearrangements were observed during thermal denaturation of SJL at physiological pH 7.2, native pH 8.5 and molten globule inducing pH 1.0. Topological information revealed by solute quenching studies at respective pH indicated differential hydrophobic environment and charge density around tryptophan residues. PMID:27185070

  9. Diffusion Tensor Imaging of the Spinal Cord: Insights From Animal and Human Studies

    PubMed Central

    Vedantam, Aditya; Jirjis, Michael B.; Schmit, Brian D.; Wang, Marjorie C.; Ulmer, John L.; Kurpad, Shekar N.

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides a measure of the directional diffusion of water molecules in tissues. The measurement of DTI indices within the spinal cord provides a quantitative assessment of neural damage in various spinal cord pathologies. DTI studies in animal models of spinal cord injury indicate that DTI is a reliable imaging technique with important histological and functional correlates. These studies demonstrate that DTI is a non-invasive marker of microstructural change within the spinal cord. In human studies, spinal cord DTI shows definite changes in subjects with acute and chronic spinal cord injury, as well as cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Interestingly, changes in DTI indices are visualized in regions of the cord, which appear normal on conventional MRI and are remote from the site of cord compression. Spinal cord DTI provides data that can help us understand underlying microstructural changes within the cord, and assist in prognostication and planning of therapies. In this article, we review the use of DTI to investigate spinal cord pathology in animals and humans, and describe advances in this technique that establish DTI as a promising biomarker for spinal cord disorders. PMID:24064483

  10. National accounts manager: Design study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, J.

    1998-09-01

    This document addresses a typical application -- that of a hypothetical nationwide chain of restaurants. The design study uses the Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP) as a guideline for specifying standard systems. Far from limiting the study`s usefulness to a particular type of National Account, this guideline is highly portable, and will be useful, with slight modifications only, in similarly specifying systems for other types of customers. A brief list of other applications could include many ``campus`` environments -- government agencies and university systems as well as manufacturers, airports, railyards, ski resorts, apartment complexes, hotels, hospitals, telecommunication facilities, oil fields, irrigation systems, municipal water/sewer systems, and so on.

  11. Illinois scrap-tire management study

    SciTech Connect

    Wietting, N.E.

    1989-10-01

    Pursuant to the mandate under Public Act 85-1196 (HB 3389), the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources initiated a study that reports on feasible methods for recycling of scrap motor vehicle tires which may be available to municipalities and counties. The study answers that mandate. It examines various methods for the recovery or reuse of motor vehicle tires. In addition, the study provides a detailed economic analysis of two alternative systems judged to be effective uses of scrap tires that can be implemented at this time. Finally, a discussion of policy issues is provided to assist the State of Illinois in determining which combination of uses and legislation would be an effective means of controlling the growing problem of scrap tires.

  12. Recent advances in biosynthetic modeling of nitric oxide reductases and insights gained from nuclear resonance vibrational and other spectroscopic studies

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chakraborty, Saumen; Reed, Julian; Sage, Timothy; Branagan, Nicole C.; Petrik, Igor D.; Miner, Kyle D.; Hu, Michael Y.; Zhao, Jiyong; Alp, E. Ercan; Lu, Yi

    2015-08-14

    This Forum Article focuses on recent advances in structural and spectroscopic studies of biosynthetic models of nitric oxide reductases (NORs). NORs are complex metalloenzymes found in the denitrification pathway of Earth's nitrogen cycle where they catalyze the proton-dependent twoelectron reduction of nitric oxide (NO) to nitrous oxide (N2O). While much progress has been made in biochemical and biophysical studies of native NORs and their variants, a. clear mechanistic understanding of this important metalloenzyme related to its function is still elusive. We report herein UV vis and nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) studies of mononitrosylated intermediates of the NOR reaction ofmore » a biosynthetic model. The ability to selectively substitute metals at either heme or nonheme metal sites allows the introduction of independent 57Fe probe atoms at either site, as well as allowing the preparation of analogues of stable reaction intermediates by replacing either metal with a redox inactive metal. Together with previous structural and spectroscopic results, we summarize insights gained from studying these biosynthetic models toward understanding structural features responsible for the NOR activity and its mechanism. As a result, the outlook on NOR modeling is also discussed, with an emphasis on the design of models capable of catalytic turnovers designed based on close mimics of the secondary coordination sphere of native NORs.« less

  13. Recent advances in biosynthetic modeling of nitric oxide reductases and insights gained from nuclear resonance vibrational and other spectroscopic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Saumen; Reed, Julian; Sage, Timothy; Branagan, Nicole C.; Petrik, Igor D.; Miner, Kyle D.; Hu, Michael Y.; Zhao, Jiyong; Alp, E. Ercan; Lu, Yi

    2015-10-05

    This Forum Article focuses on recent advances in structural and spectroscopic studies of biosynthetic models of nitric oxide reductases (NORs). NORs are complex metalloenzymes found in the denitrification pathway of Earth's nitrogen cycle where they catalyze the proton-dependent twoelectron reduction of nitric oxide (NO) to nitrous oxide (N2O). While much progress has been made in biochemical and biophysical studies of native NORs and their variants, a. clear mechanistic understanding of this important metalloenzyme related to its function is still elusive. We report herein UV vis and nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) studies of mononitrosylated intermediates of the NOR reaction of a biosynthetic model. The ability to selectively substitute metals at either heme or nonheme metal sites allows the introduction of independent 57Fe probe atoms at either site, as well as allowing the preparation of analogues of stable reaction intermediates by replacing either metal with a redox inactive metal. Together with previous structural and spectroscopic results, we summarize insights gained from studying these biosynthetic models toward understanding structural features responsible for the NOR activity and its mechanism. As a result, the outlook on NOR modeling is also discussed, with an emphasis on the design of models capable of catalytic turnovers designed based on close mimics of the secondary coordination sphere of native NORs.

  14. Recent advances in biosynthetic modeling of nitric oxide reductases and insights gained from nuclear resonance vibrational and other spectroscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Saumen; Reed, Julian; Sage, J Timothy; Branagan, Nicole C; Petrik, Igor D; Miner, Kyle D; Hu, Michael Y; Zhao, Jiyong; Alp, E Ercan; Lu, Yi

    2015-10-01

    This Forum Article focuses on recent advances in structural and spectroscopic studies of biosynthetic models of nitric oxide reductases (NORs). NORs are complex metalloenzymes found in the denitrification pathway of Earth's nitrogen cycle where they catalyze the proton-dependent two-electron reduction of nitric oxide (NO) to nitrous oxide (N2O). While much progress has been made in biochemical and biophysical studies of native NORs and their variants, a clear mechanistic understanding of this important metalloenzyme related to its function is still elusive. We report herein UV-vis and nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) studies of mononitrosylated intermediates of the NOR reaction of a biosynthetic model. The ability to selectively substitute metals at either heme or nonheme metal sites allows the introduction of independent (57)Fe probe atoms at either site, as well as allowing the preparation of analogues of stable reaction intermediates by replacing either metal with a redox inactive metal. Together with previous structural and spectroscopic results, we summarize insights gained from studying these biosynthetic models toward understanding structural features responsible for the NOR activity and its mechanism. The outlook on NOR modeling is also discussed, with an emphasis on the design of models capable of catalytic turnovers designed based on close mimics of the secondary coordination sphere of native NORs. PMID:26274098

  15. A study on the role and importance of irrigation management in integrated river basin management.

    PubMed

    Koç, Cengiz

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the role and the importance of irrigation management in integrated river basin management during arid and semi-arid conditions. The study has been conducted at Büyük Menderes Basin which is located in southwest of Turkey and where different sectors (irrigation, drinking and using, industry, tourism, ecology) related to the use and distribution of water sources compete with each other and also where the water demands for important ecological considerations is evaluated and where the river pollution has reached important magnitudes. Since, approximately 73% of the water resources of the basin are utilized for irrigation; as a result, irrigation management becomes important for basin management. Irrigation operations have an effect on basin soil resources, water users, and environmental and ecological conditions. Thus, the determination of the role and importance of irrigation management require an integrated and interdisciplinary approach. In the studies conducted in Turkey, usually the environmental reactions have been analyzed in the basin studies and so the other topics related to integrated river basin management have not been taken into account. Therefore, this study also is to address these existing gaps in the literature and practice. PMID:26148688

  16. The application of supply chain management principles to emergency management logistics: An empirical study.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Matthew R; Young, Richard R; Gordon, Gary A

    2016-01-01

    Key elements of supply chain theory remain relevant to emergency management (EM) logistics activities. The Supply Chain Operations Reference model can also serve as a useful template for the planning, organizing, and execution of EM logistics. Through a series of case studies (developed through intensive survey of organizations and individuals responsible for EM), the authors identified the extent supply chain theory is being adopted and whether the theory was useful for emergency logistics managers. The authors found several drivers that influence the likelihood of an organization to implement elements of supply chain management: the frequency of events, organizational resources, population density, range of events, and severity of the disaster or emergency. PMID:27575640

  17. A CASE STUDY OF ENVIRONMENTAL DATA MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to support our ongoing research in watershed ecology and global climate change, we gather and analyze environmental data from several government agencies. This case study demonstrates a researcher’s approach to accessing, organizing, and using intersectoral data. T...

  18. Insights into Molecular Features of Venerupis decussata Oocytes: A Microarray-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Pauletto, Marianna; Milan, Massimo; de Sousa, Joana Teixeira; Huvet, Arnaud; Joaquim, Sandra; Matias, Domitília; Leitão, Alexandra; Patarnello, Tomaso; Bargelloni, Luca

    2014-01-01

    The production of Venerupis decussata relies on wild seed collection, which has been recently compromised due to recruitment failure and severe mortalities. To address this issue and provide an alternative source of seed, artificial spawning and larval rearing programs were developed. However, hatchery-based seed production is a relatively new industry and it is still underdeveloped. A major hurdle in the European clam seed production is the control of spawning and reproduction, which is further hindered by the impossibility of obtaining fertile gametes by gonadal “stripping”, as meiosis re-initiation is constrained to a maturation process along the genital ducts. In the present study, oocytes were collected from 15 females and microarray analyses was performed to investigate gene expression profiles characterizing released and stripped ovarian oocytes. A total of 198 differentially expressed transcripts between stripped and spawned oocytes were detected. Functional analysis carried out on these transcripts highlighted the importance of a few biological processes, which are most probably implicated in the control of oocyte competence. Significant differences were observed for transcripts encoding proteins involved in meiosis progression (e.g. dual specificity phosphatase CDC25), WNT signalling (e.g. frizzled class receptor 8, wingless-type MMTV integration site family member 4), steroid synthesis (e.g. progestin and adipoQ receptor family member 3, cytochrome P450-C17), mRNA processing (e.g. zinc finger protein XlCOF28), calcium regulation (e.g. regucalcin, calmodulin) and ceramide metabolism (ceramidase B, sphingomyelinase). This study provides new information on transcriptional profiles putatively associated with ovarian egg infertility, and suggests potential mechanisms regulating early oocyte development in clams. Genes which were differentially expressed between stripped and spawned oocytes might have a pivotal role during maturation process in the gonadal

  19. Insights into molecular features of Venerupis decussata oocytes: a microarray-based study.

    PubMed

    Pauletto, Marianna; Milan, Massimo; de Sousa, Joana Teixeira; Huvet, Arnaud; Joaquim, Sandra; Matias, Domitília; Leitão, Alexandra; Patarnello, Tomaso; Bargelloni, Luca

    2014-01-01

    The production of Venerupis decussata relies on wild seed collection, which has been recently compromised due to recruitment failure and severe mortalities. To address this issue and provide an alternative source of seed, artificial spawning and larval rearing programs were developed. However, hatchery-based seed production is a relatively new industry and it is still underdeveloped. A major hurdle in the European clam seed production is the control of spawning and reproduction, which is further hindered by the impossibility of obtaining fertile gametes by gonadal "stripping", as meiosis re-initiation is constrained to a maturation process along the genital ducts. In the present study, oocytes were collected from 15 females and microarray analyses was performed to investigate gene expression profiles characterizing released and stripped ovarian oocytes. A total of 198 differentially expressed transcripts between stripped and spawned oocytes were detected. Functional analysis carried out on these transcripts highlighted the importance of a few biological processes, which are most probably implicated in the control of oocyte competence. Significant differences were observed for transcripts encoding proteins involved in meiosis progression (e.g. dual specificity phosphatase CDC25), WNT signalling (e.g. frizzled class receptor 8, wingless-type MMTV integration site family member 4), steroid synthesis (e.g. progestin and adipoQ receptor family member 3, cytochrome P450-C17), mRNA processing (e.g. zinc finger protein XlCOF28), calcium regulation (e.g. regucalcin, calmodulin) and ceramide metabolism (ceramidase B, sphingomyelinase). This study provides new information on transcriptional profiles putatively associated with ovarian egg infertility, and suggests potential mechanisms regulating early oocyte development in clams. Genes which were differentially expressed between stripped and spawned oocytes might have a pivotal role during maturation process in the gonadal

  20. Shifting from grassland to shrubland: New insights from recent experimental studies in the Chihuahuan Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. J.; Ravi, S.

    2015-12-01

    The desert grasslands of the southwestern U.S. have undergone extensive woody shrub encroachment over the last 150 years. Although this process has been initiated and reinforced by a number of mechanisms, their relative importance has rarely been studied. The U.S. portion of the Chihuahuan Desert provides different stages of shrub encroachment from the south (middle-late) to the north (early), along with an intensity gradient for many biophysical processes including wind and fire. The objective of this study is to synthesize our recent studies in the south (Jornada LTER) and in the north (Sevilleta LTER), and to investigate the relative importance of abiotic factors, in particular wind and fire, in relating to the ecosystem dynamics in the Chihuahuan Desert. Our results demonstrated that aeolian processes play a vital role in the formation and reinforcement of shrub islands and associated soil resources heterogeneity in Jornada, whereas in Sevilleta, wind is deeply involved in the ecosystem dynamics only when the surface is disturbed, such as by fire. In the south (Jornada), the removal of grasses has resulted in a quick expansion of shrub islands owing to the increase in the distribution of sediments from grass interspaces. While in the north (Sevilleta), shrub islands have diminished and numerous small grass islands were formed after the removal of shrubs by fire. Collectively, we found that the soil resource islands are dynamic (e.g., can be destroyed and reformed) in Sevilleta due to the presence of fires while at Jornada they are static but continuously reinforced as fires are absent and the intensity of wind is strong.

  1. Reverse hydrogen spillover on and hydrogenation of supported metal clusters: insights from computational model studies.

    PubMed

    Vayssilov, Georgi N; Petrova, Galina P; Shor, Elena A Ivanova; Nasluzov, Vladimir A; Shor, Alexei M; St Petkov, Petko; Rösch, Notker

    2012-05-01

    "Reverse" spillover of hydrogen from hydroxyl groups of the support onto supported transition metal clusters, forming multiply hydrogenated metal species, is an essential aspect of various catalytic systems which comprise small, highly active transition metal particles on a support with a high surface area. We review and analyze the results of our computational model studies related to reverse hydrogen spillover, interpreting available structural and spectral data for the supported species and examining the relationship between metal-support and metal-hydrogen interactions. On the examples of small clusters of late transition metals, adsorbed in zeolite cavities, we showed with computational model studies that reverse spillover of hydrogen is energetically favorable for late transition metals, except for Au. This preference is crucial for the chemical reactivity of such bifunctional catalytic systems because both functions, of metal species and of acidic sites, are strongly modified, in some cases even suppressed - due to partial oxidation of the metal cluster and the conversion of protons from acidic hydroxyl groups to hydride ligands of the metal moiety. Modeling multiple hydrogen adsorption on metal clusters allowed us to quantify how (i) the support affects the adsorption capacity of the clusters and (ii) structure and oxidation state of the metal moiety changes upon adsorption. In all models of neutral systems we found that the metal atoms are partially positively charged, compensated by a negative charge of the adsorbed hydrogen ligands and of the support. In a case study we demonstrated with calculated thermodynamic parameters how to predict the average hydrogen coverage of the transition metal cluster at a given temperature and hydrogen pressure. PMID:22353996

  2. Heterogeneous behavior of metalloproteins toward metal ion binding and selectivity: insights from molecular dynamics studies.

    PubMed

    Gogoi, Prerana; Chandravanshi, Monika; Mandal, Suraj Kumar; Srivastava, Ambuj; Kanaujia, Shankar Prasad

    2016-07-01

    About one-third of the existing proteins require metal ions as cofactors for their catalytic activities and structural complexities. While many of them bind only to a specific metal, others bind to multiple (different) metal ions. However, the exact mechanism of their metal preference has not been deduced to clarity. In this study, we used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate whether a cognate metal (bound to the structure) can be replaced with other similar metal ions. We have chosen seven different proteins (phospholipase A2, sucrose phosphatase, pyrazinamidase, cysteine dioxygenase (CDO), plastocyanin, monoclonal anti-CD4 antibody Q425, and synaptotagmin 1 C2B domain) bound to seven different divalent metal ions (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Zn(2+), Fe(2+), Cu(2+), Ba(2+), and Sr(2+), respectively). In total, 49 MD simulations each of 50 ns were performed and each trajectory was analyzed independently. Results demonstrate that in some cases, cognate metal ions can be exchanged with similar metal ions. On the contrary, some proteins show binding affinity specifically to their cognate metal ions. Surprisingly, two proteins CDO and plastocyanin which are known to bind Fe(2+) and Cu(2+), respectively, do not exhibit binding affinity to any metal ion. Furthermore, the study reveals that in some cases, the active site topology remains rigid even without cognate metals, whereas, some require them for their active site stability. Thus, it will be interesting to experimentally verify the accuracy of these observations obtained computationally. Moreover, the study can help in designing novel active sites for proteins to sequester metal ions particularly of toxic nature. PMID:26248730

  3. Perivascular Spaces Are Associated with Atherosclerosis: An Insight from the Northern Manhattan Study

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, J.; Rundek, T.; Ekind, M.S.V.; Sacco, R.L.; Wright, C.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Perivascular spaces are potential spaces found between brain blood vessels and surrounding leptomeninges that have been associated with cardiovascular risk factors and dementia, but less is known about their relationship to atherosclerosis. We tested the hypothesis that perivascular spaces are associated with atherosclerosis. Materials and Methods Participants from the Northern Manhattan Study who remained stroke-free were invited to participate in an MR imaging substudy. Parenchymal hypointensities of <3 mm identified on brain axial T1-weighted MR imaging were scored as perivascular spaces. A semiquantitative score was created to express the degree of brain involvement. Generalized linear models were used to assess statistical associations with carotid plaque as a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis. Results The studied sample included 706 participants (mean age, 72.6 ±8.0 years; 60% women, 61% Hispanic, 68% with hypertension, 19% with diabetes, and 57% with high cholesterol). The perivascular spaces score ranged from 0 to 19 with 52% of the sample having a perivascular spaces score of ≤4. In unadjusted analysis, perivascular spaces were associated with age (β = 0.01 per year, P = <.001), non-Hispanic black race-ethnicity (β = 0.16, P = .02), hypertension (β = 0.24, P = <.001), and carotid plaque (β = 0.22, P < .001). In multivariable analysis, only age (β = 0.01, P = .02), hypertension (β = 0.17, P = .01), and carotid plaque (β = 0.22, P = < .001) remained independently associated with perivascular spaces. Conclusions Perivascular spaces were more frequently found in older participants, in those with hypertension, and in the presence of carotid plaque. These results suggest that mechanisms leading to atherosclerosis might also lead to an increased number of perivascular spaces. These results need confirmation in prospective studies. PMID:23557952

  4. A New Insight into the Earthquake Recurrence Studies from the Three-parameter Generalized Exponential Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasari, S.; Kundu, D.; Dikshit, O.

    2012-12-01

    Earthquake recurrence interval is one of the important ingredients towards probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) for any location. Exponential, gamma, Weibull and lognormal distributions are quite established probability models in this recurrence interval estimation. However, they have certain shortcomings too. Thus, it is imperative to search for some alternative sophisticated distributions. In this paper, we introduce a three-parameter (location, scale and shape) exponentiated exponential distribution and investigate the scope of this distribution as an alternative of the afore-mentioned distributions in earthquake recurrence studies. This distribution is a particular member of the exponentiated Weibull distribution. Despite of its complicated form, it is widely accepted in medical and biological applications. Furthermore, it shares many physical properties with gamma and Weibull family. Unlike gamma distribution, the hazard function of generalized exponential distribution can be easily computed even if the shape parameter is not an integer. To contemplate the plausibility of this model, a complete and homogeneous earthquake catalogue of 20 events (M ≥ 7.0) spanning for the period 1846 to 1995 from North-East Himalayan region (20-32 deg N and 87-100 deg E) has been used. The model parameters are estimated using maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) and method of moment estimator (MOME). No geological or geophysical evidences have been considered in this calculation. The estimated conditional probability reaches quite high after about a decade for an elapsed time of 17 years (i.e. 2012). Moreover, this study shows that the generalized exponential distribution fits the above data events more closely compared to the conventional models and hence it is tentatively concluded that generalized exponential distribution can be effectively considered in earthquake recurrence studies.

  5. Insights from an 8-Year Longitudinal Study of Female REU Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    The long-running REU program is tacitly intended to increase retention and provide "an important educational experience" for undergraduates, particularly women, minorities and underrepresented groups. This 8-year, two-stage study was designed to explore the ways in which the REU acted as an educational experience for 51 women from a single scientific discipline. This paper describes the results of that analysis in two sections. The first section describes the results from an ex post facto longitudinal data analysis. This data included multiple interviews with each participant during their REU, annual open-ended alumni surveys, faculty interviews, and extensive field notes, over an 8-year period. As a result of this analysis, four themes emerged, related to developing understandings of the nature of professional scientific work, the nature of the scientific process, the culture of academia, and finally, an understanding of the "self." This analysis served as an initial theory that was used to design the second stage, interview protocol. In the second stage over 10 hours of interviews with 8 participants were conducted and analyzed. These 8 participants were selected to represent a variety of career stages, and for their potential to disconfirm the initial theory. Analysis of this interview data failed to provide disconfirming evidence. Results from this study indicate that the REU did not provide a substantive educational experience related to the nature of scientific work, the scientific process, or the culture of academia. Results further indicated that the REU did not serve to transform participants' conceptions about themselves as situated in science, and learning gains with regard to other aspects of the self, were somewhat limited. Instead, the data suggests that these women arrived at the REU with pre-existing and remarkably strong conceptions in these areas, and that the REU did not functional to alter those states. These conceptions were frequently the

  6. Insights into hERG K+ channel structure and function from NMR studies.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chai Ann; Torres, Allan M; Pagès, Guilhem; Kuchel, Philip W; Vandenberg, Jamie I

    2013-01-01

    The unique gating kinetics of hERG K(+) channels are critical for normal cardiac repolarization, and patients with mutations in hERG have a markedly increased risk of cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac arrest. HERG K(+) channels are also remarkably promiscuous with respect to drug binding, which has been a very significant problem for the pharmaceutical industry. Here, we review the progress that has been made in understanding the structure and function of hERG K(+) channels with a particular focus on nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the domains of the hERG K(+) channel. PMID:22552870

  7. Building a brain under nutritional restriction: insights on sparing and plasticity from Drosophila studies

    PubMed Central

    Lanet, Elodie; Maurange, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    While the growth of the developing brain is known to be well-protected compared to other organs in the face of nutrient restriction (NR), careful analysis has revealed a range of structural alterations and long-term neurological defects. Yet, despite intensive studies, little is known about the basic principles that govern brain development under nutrient deprivation. For over 20 years, Drosophila has proved to be a useful model for investigating how a functional nervous system develops from a restricted number of neural stem cells (NSCs). Recently, a few studies have started to uncover molecular mechanisms as well as region-specific adaptive strategies that preserve brain functionality and neuronal repertoire under NR, while modulating neuron numbers. Here, we review the developmental constraints that condition the response of the developing brain to NR. We then analyze the recent Drosophila work to highlight key principles that drive sparing and plasticity in different regions of the central nervous system (CNS). As simple animal models start to build a more integrated picture, understanding how the developing brain copes with NR could help in defining strategies to limit damage and improve brain recovery after birth. PMID:24723892

  8. Morphogenesis of pestiviruses: new insights from ultrastructural studies of strain Giraffe-1.

    PubMed

    Schmeiser, Stefanie; Mast, Jan; Thiel, Heinz-Jürgen; König, Matthias

    2014-03-01

    Knowledge on the morphogenesis of pestiviruses is limited due to low virus production in infected cells. In order to localize virion morphogenesis and replication sites of pestiviruses and to examine intracellular virion transport, a cell culture model was established to facilitate ultrastructural studies. Based on results of virus growth kinetic analysis and quantification of viral RNA, pestivirus strain Giraffe-1 turned out to be a suitable candidate for studies on virion generation and export from culture cells. Using conventional transmission electron microscopy and single-tilt electron tomography, we found virions located predominately in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in infected cells and were able to depict the budding process of virions at ER membranes. Colocalization of the viral core protein and the envelope glycoprotein E2 with the ER marker protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) was demonstrated by immunogold labeling of cryosections. Moreover, pestivirions could be shown in transport vesicles and the Golgi complex and during exocytosis. Interestingly, viral capsid protein and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) were detected in multivesicular bodies (MVBs), which implies that the endosomal compartment plays a role in pestiviral replication. Significant cellular membrane alterations such as those described for members of the Flavivirus and Hepacivirus genera were not found. Based on the gained morphological data, we present a consistent model of pestivirus morphogenesis. PMID:24352462

  9. Dynamics of mtDNA introgression during species range expansion: insights from an experimental longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Mastrantonio, V; Porretta, D; Urbanelli, S; Crasta, G; Nascetti, G

    2016-01-01

    Introgressive hybridization represents one of the long-lasting debated genetic consequences of species range expansion. Mitochondrial DNA has been shown to heavily introgress between interbreeding animal species that meet in new sympatric areas and, often, asymmetric introgression from local to the colonizing populations has been observed. Disentangling among the evolutionary and ecological processes that might shape this pattern remains difficult, because they continuously act across time and space. In this context, long-term studies can be of paramount importance. Here, we investigated the dynamics of mitochondrial introgression between two mosquito species (Aedes mariae and Ae. zammitii ) during a colonization event that started in 1986 after a translocation experiment. By analyzing 1,659 individuals across 25 years, we showed that introgression occurred earlier and at a higher frequency in the introduced than in the local species, showing a pattern of asymmetric introgression. Throughout time, introgression increased slowly in the local species, becoming reciprocal at most sites. The rare opportunity to investigate the pattern of introgression across time during a range expansion along with the characteristics of our study-system allowed us to support a role of demographic dynamics in determining the observed introgression pattern. PMID:27460445

  10. Insights into the binding of thiosemicarbazone derivatives with human serum albumin: spectroscopy and molecular modelling studies.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Subramani; Bharanidharan, Ganesan; Kesherwani, Manish; Mani, Karthik Ananth; Srinivasan, Narasimhan; Velmurugan, Devadasan; Aruna, Prakasarao; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2016-06-01

    4-[(1Z)-1-(2-carbamothioylhydrazinylidene)ethyl]phenyl acetate [Ace semi],4-[(1Z)-1-(2-carbamothioylhydrazinylidene)ethyl]phenyl propanoate [Pro semi] from the family of thiosemicarbazones derivative has been newly synthesized. It has good anticancer activity as well as antibacterial and it is also less toxic in nature, its binding characteristics are therefore of huge interest for understanding pharmacokinetic mechanism of the drug. The binding of thiosemicarbazone derivative to human serum albumin (HSA) has been investigated by studying its quenching mechanism, binding kinetics and the molecular distance (r) between donor (HSA) and acceptor (thiosemicarbazone derivative) was estimated according to Forster's theory of non-radiative energy transfer using fluorescence spectroscopy. The binding dynamics has been elaborated using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, and the feature of thiosemicarbazone derivative induced structural changes of HSA has been studied by circular dichorism, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Molecular modelling simulations explore the hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding which stabilizes the interaction. PMID:26368536

  11. Insights into the venom composition of the ectoparasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis from bioinformatic and proteomic studies

    PubMed Central

    de Graaf, D. C.; Aerts, M.; Brunain, M.; Desjardins, C. A.; Jacobs, F. J.; Werren, J. H.; Devreese, B.

    2013-01-01

    With the Nasonia vitripennis genome sequences available, we attempted to determine the proteins present in venom by two different approaches. First, we searched for the transcripts of venom proteins by a bioinformatic approach using amino acid sequences of known hymenopteran venom proteins. Second, we performed proteomic analyses of crude N. vitripennis venom removed from the venom reservoir, implementing both an off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (2D-LC-MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) and a two-dimensional liquid chromatography electrospray ionization Founer transform ion cyclotron resonance (2D-LC-ESI-FT-ICR) MS setup. This combination of bioinformatic and proteomic studies resulted in an extraordinary richness of identified venom constituents. Moreover, half of the 79 identified proteins were not yet associated with insect venoms: 16 proteins showed similarity only to known proteins from other tissues or secretions, and an additional 23 did not show similarity to any known protein. Serine proteases and their inhibitors were the most represented. Fifteen nonsecretory proteins were also identified by proteomic means and probably represent so-called ‘venom trace elements’. The present study contributes greatly to the understanding of the biological diversity of the venom of parasitoid wasps at the molecular level. PMID:20167014

  12. Morphogenesis of Pestiviruses: New Insights from Ultrastructural Studies of Strain Giraffe-1

    PubMed Central

    Mast, Jan; Thiel, Heinz-Jürgen; König, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge on the morphogenesis of pestiviruses is limited due to low virus production in infected cells. In order to localize virion morphogenesis and replication sites of pestiviruses and to examine intracellular virion transport, a cell culture model was established to facilitate ultrastructural studies. Based on results of virus growth kinetic analysis and quantification of viral RNA, pestivirus strain Giraffe-1 turned out to be a suitable candidate for studies on virion generation and export from culture cells. Using conventional transmission electron microscopy and single-tilt electron tomography, we found virions located predominately in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in infected cells and were able to depict the budding process of virions at ER membranes. Colocalization of the viral core protein and the envelope glycoprotein E2 with the ER marker protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) was demonstrated by immunogold labeling of cryosections. Moreover, pestivirions could be shown in transport vesicles and the Golgi complex and during exocytosis. Interestingly, viral capsid protein and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) were detected in multivesicular bodies (MVBs), which implies that the endosomal compartment plays a role in pestiviral replication. Significant cellular membrane alterations such as those described for members of the Flavivirus and Hepacivirus genera were not found. Based on the gained morphological data, we present a consistent model of pestivirus morphogenesis. PMID:24352462

  13. Adult stem cells and mammalian epimorphic regeneration-insights from studying annual renewal of deer antlers.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunyi; Yang, Fuhe; Sheppard, Allan

    2009-09-01

    Mammalian organ regeneration is the "Holy Grail" of modern regenerative biology and medicine. The most dramatic organ replacement is known as epimorphic regeneration. To date our knowledge of epimorphic regeneration has come from studies of amphibians. Notably, these animals have the ability to reprogram phenotypically committed cells at the amputation plane toward an embryonic-like cell phenotype (dedifferentiation). The capability of mammals to initiate analogous regeneration, and whether similar mechanisms would be involved if it were to occur, remain unclear. Deer antlers are the only mammalian appendages capable of full renewal, and therefore offer a unique opportunity to explore how nature has solved the problem of mammalian epimorphic regeneration. Following casting of old hard antlers, new antlers regenerate from permanent bony protuberances, known as pedicles. Studies through morphological and histological examinations, tissue deletion and transplantation, and cellular and molecular techniques have demonstrated that antler renewal is markedly different from that of amphibian limb regeneration (dedifferentiation-based), being a stem cell-based epimorphic process. Antler stem cells reside in the pedicle periosteum. We envisage that epimorphic regeneration of mammalian appendages, other than antler, could be made possible by recreating comparable milieu to that which supports the elaboration of that structure from the pedicle periosteum. PMID:19492976

  14. Dynamics of mtDNA introgression during species range expansion: insights from an experimental longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Mastrantonio, V.; Porretta, D.; Urbanelli, S.; Crasta, G.; Nascetti, G.

    2016-01-01

    Introgressive hybridization represents one of the long-lasting debated genetic consequences of species range expansion. Mitochondrial DNA has been shown to heavily introgress between interbreeding animal species that meet in new sympatric areas and, often, asymmetric introgression from local to the colonizing populations has been observed. Disentangling among the evolutionary and ecological processes that might shape this pattern remains difficult, because they continuously act across time and space. In this context, long-term studies can be of paramount importance. Here, we investigated the dynamics of mitochondrial introgression between two mosquito species (Aedes mariae and Ae. zammitii ) during a colonization event that started in 1986 after a translocation experiment. By analyzing 1,659 individuals across 25 years, we showed that introgression occurred earlier and at a higher frequency in the introduced than in the local species, showing a pattern of asymmetric introgression. Throughout time, introgression increased slowly in the local species, becoming reciprocal at most sites. The rare opportunity to investigate the pattern of introgression across time during a range expansion along with the characteristics of our study-system allowed us to support a role of demographic dynamics in determining the observed introgression pattern. PMID:27460445

  15. Digesting the Genetics of Inflammatory Bowel Disease – Insights from Studies of Autophagy Risk Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kabi, Amrita; Nickerson, Kourtney P.; Homer, Craig R.; McDonald, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The success of genetic analyses identifying multiple loci associated with IBD susceptibility has resulted in the identification of several risk genes linked to a common cellular process called autophagy. Autophagy is a process involving the encapsulation of cytosolic cellular components in double membraned vesicles, their subsequent lysosomal degradation, and recycling of the degraded components for use by the cell. It plays an important part in the innate immune response to a variety of intracellular pathogens, and it is this component of autophagy that appears to be defective in IBD. This has lead to the hypothesis that CD may result from an impaired anti-bacterial response, which leads to ineffective control of bacterial infection, dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota, and chronic inflammation. Several recurrent themes have surfaced from studies examining the function of autophagy-related genes in the context of IBD - with cellular context, disease status, risk variant effect and risk gene interplay all affecting the interpretation of these studies. The identification of autophagy as a major risk pathway in IBD is a significant step forward and may lead to pathway-focused therapy in the future, however there is more to understand in order to unravel the complexity of this disease. PMID:21936032

  16. Towards New Insights in the Sterol/Amphotericin Nanochannels Formation: A Molecular Dynamic Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Boukari, Khaoula; Balme, Sébastien; Janot, Jean-Marc; Picaud, Fabien

    2016-06-01

    Amphotericin B (AmB) is a well-known polyene which self-organizes into membrane cell in order to cause the cell death. Its specific action towards fungal cell is not fully understood but was proved to become from sterol composition. The mechanism was shown experimentally to require the formation of stable sterol/polyene couples which could then organize in a nanochannel. This would allow the leakage of ions responsible for the death of fungal cells, only. In this present study, we investigate the arrangement of AmB/sterols in biological membrane using molecular dynamic simulations in order to understand the role of the sterol structure on the antifungal action of the polyene. We show in particular that the nanochannels tend to close up when cell was composed with cholesterol (animal cell) due to strong interaction between amphotericin and sterol. On the other side, with ergosterol (fungal cell) the largest interactions between amphotericin and lipid membrane lead to the appearance of large hole that could favor the important leakage of ions and thus, the fungal cell death. This work appears as a good complement in the extensive studies linked to the understanding of the antifungal molecules in membrane cells. PMID:26700625

  17. Optimal decision-making in mammals: insights from a robot study of rodent texture discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Lepora, Nathan F.; Fox, Charles W.; Evans, Mathew H.; Diamond, Mathew E.; Gurney, Kevin; Prescott, Tony J.

    2012-01-01

    Texture perception is studied here in a physical model of the rat whisker system consisting of a robot equipped with a biomimetic vibrissal sensor. Investigations of whisker motion in rodents have led to several explanations for texture discrimination, such as resonance or stick-slips. Meanwhile, electrophysiological studies of decision-making in monkeys have suggested a neural mechanism of evidence accumulation to threshold for competing percepts, described by a probabilistic model of Bayesian sequential analysis. For our robot whisker data, we find that variable reaction-time decision-making with sequential analysis performs better than the fixed response-time maximum-likelihood estimation. These probabilistic classifiers also use whatever available features of the whisker signals aid the discrimination, giving improved performance over a single-feature strategy, such as matching the peak power spectra of whisker vibrations. These results cast new light on how the various proposals for texture discrimination in rodents depend on the whisker contact mechanics and suggest the possibility of a common account of decision-making across mammalian species. PMID:22279155

  18. New Insights into Sulfur Metabolism in Yeasts as Revealed by Studies of Yarrowia lipolytica

    PubMed Central

    Hébert, Agnès; Forquin-Gomez, Marie-Pierre; Roux, Aurélie; Aubert, Julie; Junot, Christophe; Heilier, Jean-François; Landaud, Sophie; Bonnarme, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica, located at the frontier of hemiascomycetous yeasts and fungi, is an excellent candidate for studies of metabolism evolution. This yeast, widely recognized for its technological applications, in particular produces volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) that fully contribute to the flavor of smear cheese. We report here a relevant global vision of sulfur metabolism in Y. lipolytica based on a comparison between high- and low-sulfur source supplies (sulfate, methionine, or cystine) by combined approaches (transcriptomics, metabolite profiling, and VSC analysis). The strongest repression of the sulfate assimilation pathway was observed in the case of high methionine supply, together with a large accumulation of sulfur intermediates. A high sulfate supply seems to provoke considerable cellular stress via sulfite production, resulting in a decrease of the availability of the glutathione pathway's sulfur intermediates. The most limited effect was observed for the cystine supply, suggesting that the intracellular cysteine level is more controlled than that of methionine and sulfate. Using a combination of metabolomic profiling and genetic experiments, we revealed taurine and hypotaurine metabolism in yeast for the first time. On the basis of a phylogenetic study, we then demonstrated that this pathway was lost by some of the hemiascomycetous yeasts during evolution. PMID:23220962

  19. Optimal decision-making in mammals: insights from a robot study of rodent texture discrimination.

    PubMed

    Lepora, Nathan F; Fox, Charles W; Evans, Mathew H; Diamond, Mathew E; Gurney, Kevin; Prescott, Tony J

    2012-07-01

    Texture perception is studied here in a physical model of the rat whisker system consisting of a robot equipped with a biomimetic vibrissal sensor. Investigations of whisker motion in rodents have led to several explanations for texture discrimination, such as resonance or stick-slips. Meanwhile, electrophysiological studies of decision-making in monkeys have suggested a neural mechanism of evidence accumulation to threshold for competing percepts, described by a probabilistic model of Bayesian sequential analysis. For our robot whisker data, we find that variable reaction-time decision-making with sequential analysis performs better than the fixed response-time maximum-likelihood estimation. These probabilistic classifiers also use whatever available features of the whisker signals aid the discrimination, giving improved performance over a single-feature strategy, such as matching the peak power spectra of whisker vibrations. These results cast new light on how the various proposals for texture discrimination in rodents depend on the whisker contact mechanics and suggest the possibility of a common account of decision-making across mammalian species. PMID:22279155

  20. Extrapolating psychological insights from Facebook profiles: a study of religion and relationship status.

    PubMed

    Young, Sean; Dutta, Debo; Dommety, Gopal

    2009-06-01

    Online social network users may leave creative, subtle cues on their public profiles to communicate their motivations and interests to other network participants. This paper explores whether psychological predictions can be made about the motivations of social network users by identifying and analyzing these cues. Focusing on the domain of relationship seeking, we predicted that people using social networks for dating would reveal that they have a single relationship status as a method of eliciting contact from potential romantic others. Based on results from a pilot study (n = 20) supporting this hypothesis, we predicted that people attempting to attract users of the same religious background would report a religious affiliation along with a single relationship status. Using observational data from 150 Facebook profiles, results from a multivariate logistic regression suggest that people providing a religious affiliation were more likely to list themselves as single (a proxy for their interest in using the network to find romantic partners) than people who do not provide religious information. We discuss the implications for extracting psychological information from Facebook profiles. To our knowledge, this is the first study to suggest that information from publicly available online social networking profiles can be used to predict people's motivations for using social networks. PMID:19366321

  1. High-pressure study of lithium amidoborane using Raman spectroscopy and insight into dihydrogen bonding absence

    PubMed Central

    Najiba, Shah; Chen, Jiuhua

    2012-01-01

    One of the major obstacles to the use of hydrogen as an energy carrier is the lack of proper hydrogen storage material. Lithium amidoborane has attracted significant attention as hydrogen storage material. It releases ∼10.9 wt% hydrogen, which is beyond the Department of Energy target, at remarkably low temperature (∼90 °C) without borazine emission. It is essential to study the bonding behavior of this potential material to improve its dehydrogenation behavior further and also to make rehydrogenation possible. We have studied the high-pressure behavior of lithium amidoborane in a diamond anvil cell using in situ Raman spectroscopy. We have discovered that there is no dihydrogen bonding in this material, as the N—H stretching modes do not show redshift with pressure. The absence of the dihydrogen bonding in this material is an interesting phenomenon, as the dihydrogen bonding is the dominant bonding feature in its parent compound ammonia borane. This observation may provide guidance to the improvement of the hydrogen storage properties of this potential material and to design new material for hydrogen storage application. Also two phase transitions were found at high pressure at 3.9 and 12.7 GPa, which are characterized by sequential changes of Raman modes. PMID:23115332

  2. High-pressure study of lithium amidoborane using Raman spectroscopy and insight into dihydrogen bonding absence.

    PubMed

    Najiba, Shah; Chen, Jiuhua

    2012-11-20

    One of the major obstacles to the use of hydrogen as an energy carrier is the lack of proper hydrogen storage material. Lithium amidoborane has attracted significant attention as hydrogen storage material. It releases ∼10.9 wt% hydrogen, which is beyond the Department of Energy target, at remarkably low temperature (∼90 °C) without borazine emission. It is essential to study the bonding behavior of this potential material to improve its dehydrogenation behavior further and also to make rehydrogenation possible. We have studied the high-pressure behavior of lithium amidoborane in a diamond anvil cell using in situ Raman spectroscopy. We have discovered that there is no dihydrogen bonding in this material, as the N-H stretching modes do not show redshift with pressure. The absence of the dihydrogen bonding in this material is an interesting phenomenon, as the dihydrogen bonding is the dominant bonding feature in its parent compound ammonia borane. This observation may provide guidance to the improvement of the hydrogen storage properties of this potential material and to design new material for hydrogen storage application. Also two phase transitions were found at high pressure at 3.9 and 12.7 GPa, which are characterized by sequential changes of Raman modes. PMID:23115332

  3. Are You Being Rejected or Excluded? Insights from Neuroimaging Studies Using Different Rejection Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Rejection sensitivity is the heightened tendency to perceive or anxiously expect disengagement from others during social interaction. There has been a recent wave of neuroimaging studies of rejection. The aim of the current review was to determine key brain regions involved in social rejection by selectively reviewing neuroimaging studies that employed one of three paradigms of social rejection, namely social exclusion during a ball-tossing game, evaluating feedback about preference from peers and viewing scenes depicting rejection during social interaction. Across the different paradigms of social rejection, there was concordance in regions for experiencing rejection, namely dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), subgenual ACC and ventral ACC. Functional dissociation between the regions for experiencing rejection and those for emotion regulation, namely medial prefrontal cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and ventral striatum, was evident in the positive association between social distress and regions for experiencing rejection and the inverse association between social distress and the emotion regulation regions. The paradigms of social exclusion and scenes depicting rejection in social interaction were more adept at evoking rejection-specific neural responses. These responses were varyingly influenced by the amount of social distress during the task, social support received, self-esteem and social competence. Presenting rejection cues as scenes of people in social interaction showed high rejection sensitive or schizotypal individuals to under-activate the dorsal ACC and VLPFC, suggesting that such individuals who perceive rejection cues in others down-regulate their response to the perceived rejection by distancing themselves from the scene. PMID:23430682

  4. New insights on ctenophore neural anatomy: immunofluorescence study in Pleurobrachia pileus (Müller, 1776).

    PubMed

    Jager, Muriel; Chiori, Roxane; Alié, Alexandre; Dayraud, Cyrielle; Quéinnec, Eric; Manuel, Michaël

    2011-05-15

    Ctenophores are non-bilaterian animals sharing with cnidarians and bilaterians the presence of sensory receptors, nerve cells, and synapses, absent in placozoans and sponges. Although recent immunofluorescence studies have renewed our knowledge of cnidarian neuro-anatomy, ctenophores have been much less investigated despite their importance to understanding the origin and early evolution of the nervous system. In this study, the neuro-anatomy of the ctenophore Pleurobrachia pileus (Müller, 1776) was explored by whole-mount fluorescent antibody staining using antibodies against tyrosylated -tubulin, FMRFamide, and vasopressin. We describe the morphology of nerve nets and their local specializations, and the organization of the aboral neuro-sensory complex comprising the apical organ and polar fields. Two distinct nerve nets are distinguished: a mesogleal nerve net, loosely organized throughout body mesoglea, and a much more compact “nerve net” with polygonal meshes in the ectodermal epithelium. The latter is organized as a plexus of short nerve cords. This epithelial nervous system contains distinct sub-populations of dispersed FMRFamide and vasopressin immunoreactive nerve cells. In the aboral neuro-sensory complex, our most significant observations include specialized nerve nets underlying the apical organ and polar fields, a tangential bundle of actin-rich fibers (interpreted as a muscle) within the polar fields, and distinct groups of neurons labeled by anti-FMRFamide and anti-vasopressin antibodies, within the apical organ floor. These results are discussed in a comparative perspective. PMID:21462312

  5. New insight into the formation of nitrogen sulfide: a quantum chemical study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Priscila S S; Macedo, Luiz G M; Pimentel, André S

    2010-01-14

    We studied the chemical mechanism for the formation of (2)NS in the interstellar medium was by using the CCSD/6-311++G(d,p) and CCSD(T)/6-311++G(3df,3pd) levels of theory. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detailed study of the chemical mechanism for the formation of (2)NS. Several reactions proposed in this article are spin-forbidden. They were treated with the Landau-Zener theory and by the MRCI methodology. The following reactions paths proposed in this article are energetically favorable: (1) (1)NH + (2)SH --> cis-(2)HNSH --> TS1 --> trans-(2)HNSH --> TS2 --> (2)H(2)NS --> TS3 --> (2)NS + H(2) and (2) (4)N + (1)SH --> (1)NSH --> TS13 --> (1)HNS --> (2)NS + (2)H. However, the latter reaction, (4)N + (1)SH --> (1)NSH, is spin-forbidden, and its probability of occuring (p(sh)) is zero. The chemical mechanism for the formation of (2)NS in the interstellar medium is now presented in more detail, which is of great importance. PMID:20000609

  6. Estimating parametric survival model parameters in gerontological aging studies: methodological problems and insights.

    PubMed

    Eakin, T; Shouman, R; Qi, Y; Liu, G; Witten, M

    1995-05-01

    Studies of the biology of aging (both experimental and evolutionary) frequently involve the estimation of parameters arising in various multi-parameter survival models such as the Gompertz or Weibull distribution. Standard parameter estimation methodologies, such as maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) or nonlinear regression (NLR), require knowledge of the actual life spans or their explicit algebraic equivalents in order to provide reliable parameter estimates. Many fundamental biological discussions and conclusions are highly dependent upon accurate estimates of these survival parameters (this has historically been the case in the study of genetic and environmental effects on longevity and the evolutionary biology of aging). In this article, we examine some of the issues arising in the estimation of gerontologic survival model parameters. We not only address issues of accuracy when the original life-span data are unknown, we consider the accuracy of the estimates even when the exact life spans are known. We examine these issues as applied to known experimental data on diet restriction and we fit the frequently used, two-parameter Gompertzian survival distribution to these experimental data. Consequences of methodological misuse are demonstrated and subsequently related to the values of the final parameter estimates and their associated errors. These results generalize to other multiparametric distributions such as the Weibull, Makeham, and logistic survival distributions. PMID:7743396

  7. Optical coherence tomography studies provides new insights into diagnosis and prognosis of infantile nystagmus: a review.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Mervyn G; Gottlob, Irene

    2012-12-01

    Infantile nystagmus is commonly associated with afferent abnormalities that can be detected using a range of investigative modalities. Optical coherence tomography allows high-resolution in vivo imaging of the retina. Recent studies have shown characteristic foveal abnormalities in patients with albinism, PAX6 mutations, and isolated foveal hypoplasia. Arrested development of the fovea leads to foveal hypoplasia, which causes reduction in visual acuity. Previous studies have shown correlations between visual acuity and the degree of foveal hypoplasia. Furthermore, in achromatopsia a characteristic lesion has been described that is associated with cone photoreceptor degeneration. Patients with achromatopsia also have foveal hypoplasia, however with atypical features. The signs of photoreceptor degeneration were progressive, which suggests that gene therapy is likely to be most beneficial if given within the first few years of life. With the advent of high speed and ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography it is now possible to document reliably the stages of foveal development and cone photoreceptor degeneration. This will aid clinicians in diagnosis and predicting prognosis in patients with infantile nystagmus. PMID:23211143

  8. Cortical Brain Development in Schizophrenia: Insights From Neuroimaging Studies in Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Gogtay, Nitin

    2008-01-01

    Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS; defined as onset by age 12 years) is rare, difficult to diagnose, and represents a severe and chronic phenotype of the adult-onset illness. A study of childhood-onset psychoses has been ongoing at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) since 1990, where children with COS and severe atypical psychoses (provisionally labeled “multidimensionally impaired” or MDI by the NIMH team) are studied prospectively along with all first-degree relatives. COS subjects have robust cortical gray matter (GM) loss during adolescence, which appears to be an exaggeration of the normal cortical GM developmental pattern and eventually mimics the pattern seen in adult-onset cases as the children become young adults. These cortical GM changes in COS are diagnostically specific and seemingly unrelated to the effects of medications. Furthermore, the cortical GM loss is also shared by healthy full siblings of COS probands suggesting a genetic influence on the abnormal brain development. PMID:17906336

  9. Attacking the Multi-tiered Proteolytic Pathology of COPD: New Insights from Basic and Translational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Djekic, Uros V; Gaggar, Amit; Weathington, Nathaniel M

    2015-01-01

    Protease activity in inflammation is complex. Proteases released by cells in response to infection, cytokines, or environmental triggers like cigarette smoking cause breakdown of the extracellular matrix (ECM). In chronic inflammatory diseases like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), current findings indicate that pathology and morbidity are driven by dysregulation of protease activity, either through hyperactivity of proteases or deficiency or dysfunction their antiprotease regulators. Animal studies demonstrate the accuracy of this hypothesis through genetic and pharmacologic tools. New work shows that ECM destruction generates peptide fragments active on leukocytes via neutrophil or macrophage chemotaxis towards collagen and elastin derived peptides respectively. Such fragments now have been isolated and characterized in vivo in each case. Collectively, this describes a biochemical circuit in which protease activity leads to activation of local immunocytes, which in turn release cytokines and more proteases, leading to further leukocyte infiltration and cyclical disease progression that is chronic. This circuit concept is well known, and is intrinsic to the protease-antiprotease hypothesis; recently analytic techniques have become sensitive enough to establish fundamental mechanisms of this hypothesis, and basic and clinical data now implicate protease activity and peptide signaling as pathologically significant pharmacologic targets. This review discusses targeting protease activity for chronic inflammatory disease with special attention to COPD, covering important basic and clinical findings in the field; novel therapeutic strategies in animal or human studies; and a perspective on the successes and failures of agents with a focus on clinical potential in human disease. PMID:19026684

  10. REFLEX, a social-cognitive group treatment to improve insight in schizophrenia: study protocol of a multi-center RCT

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Insight is impaired in a majority of people with schizophrenia. Impaired insight is associated with poorer outcomes of the disorder. Based on existing literature, we developed a model that explains which processes may possibly play a role in impaired insight. This model was the starting point of the development of REFLEX: a brief psychosocial intervention to improve insight in schizophrenia. REFLEX is a 12-sessions group training, consisting of three modules of four sessions each. Modules in this intervention are: "coping with stigma", "you and your personal narrative", and "you in the present". Methods/Design REFLEX is currently evaluated in a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Eight mental health institutions in the Netherlands participate in this evaluation. Patients are randomly assigned to either REFLEX or an active control condition, existing of cognitive remediation exercises in a group. In a subgroup of patients, fMRI scans are made before and after training in order to assess potential haemodynamic changes associated with the effects of the training. Discussion REFLEX is one of the few interventions aiming specifically to improving insight in schizophrenia and has potential value for improving insight. Targeting insight in schizophrenia is a complex task, that comes with several methodological issues. These issues are addressed in the discussion of this paper. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN50247539 PMID:21975132

  11. 60 YEARS OF NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY: Glucocorticoid dynamics: insights from mathematical, experimental and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Spiga, Francesca; Walker, Jamie J; Gupta, Rita; Terry, John R; Lightman, Stafford L

    2015-08-01

    A pulsatile pattern of secretion is a characteristic of many hormonal systems, including the glucocorticoid-producing hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Despite recent evidence supporting its importance for behavioral, neuroendocrine and transcriptional effects of glucocorticoids, there has been a paucity of information regarding the origin of glucocorticoid pulsatility. In this review we discuss the mechanisms regulating pulsatile dynamics of the HPA axis, and how these dynamics become disrupted in disease. Our recent mathematical, experimental and clinical studies show that glucocorticoid pulsatility can be generated and maintained by dynamic processes at the level of the pituitary-adrenal axis, and that an intra-adrenal negative feedback may contribute to these dynamics. PMID:26148724

  12. Insights into metabolic disease from studying genetics in isolated populations: stories from Greece to Greenland.

    PubMed

    Zeggini, Eleftheria; Gloyn, Anna L; Hansen, Torben

    2016-05-01

    Over the last 10 years substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the genetic basis for type 2 diabetes and related traits. These developments have been facilitated by technological advancements that have allowed comprehensive genome-wide assessments of the impact of common genetic variation on disease risk. Current efforts are now focused on extending this to genetic variants in the rare and low-frequency spectrum by capitalising on next-generation sequencing technologies. This review discusses the important contributions that studies in isolated populations are making to this effort for diabetes and metabolic disease, drawing on specific examples from populations in Greece and Greenland. This review summarises a presentation given at the 'Exciting news in genetics of diabetes' symposium at the 2015 annual meeting of the EASD, with topics presented by Eleftheria Zeggini and Torben Hansen, and an overview by the Session Chair, Anna Gloyn. PMID:26993633

  13. Advancing knowledge of right ventricular pathophysiology in chronic pressure overload: Insights from experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Guihaire, Julien; Noly, Pierre Emmanuel; Schrepfer, Sonja; Mercier, Olaf

    2015-10-01

    The right ventricle (RV) has to face major changes in loading conditions due to cardiovascular diseases and pulmonary vascular disorders. Clinical experience supports evidence that the RV better compensates for volume than for pressure overload, and for chronic than for acute changes. For a long time, right ventricular (RV) pathophysiology has been restricted to patterns extrapolated from left heart studies. However, the two ventricles are anatomically, haemodynamically and functionally distinct. RV metabolic properties may also result in a different behaviour in response to pathological conditions compared with the left ventricle. In this review, current knowledge of RV pathophysiology is reported in the setting of chronic pressure overload, including recent experimental findings and emerging concepts. After a time-varying compensated period with preserved cardiac output despite overload conditions, RV failure finally occurs, leading to death. The underlying mechanisms involved in the transition from compensatory hypertrophy to maladaptive remodelling are not completely understood. PMID:26184869

  14. A Case Study of Measuring Process Risk for Early Insights into Software Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layman, Lucas; Basili, Victor; Zelkowitz, Marvin V.; Fisher, Karen L.

    2011-01-01

    In this case study, we examine software safety risk in three flight hardware systems in NASA's Constellation spaceflight program. We applied our Technical and Process Risk Measurement (TPRM) methodology to the Constellation hazard analysis process to quantify the technical and process risks involving software safety in the early design phase of these projects. We analyzed 154 hazard reports and collected metrics to measure the prevalence of software in hazards and the specificity of descriptions of software causes of hazardous conditions. We found that 49-70% of 154 hazardous conditions could be caused by software or software was involved in the prevention of the hazardous condition. We also found that 12-17% of the 2013 hazard causes involved software, and that 23-29% of all causes had a software control. The application of the TPRM methodology identified process risks in the application of the hazard analysis process itself that may lead to software safety risk.

  15. Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology

    PubMed Central

    Day, Felix R.; Powell, Corey; Vedantam, Sailaja; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Yang, Jian; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian’an; Mägi, Reedik; Randall, Joshua C.; Winkler, Thomas W.; Wood, Andrew R.; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Faul, Jessica D.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Hedman, Åsa K.; Karjalainen, Juha; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Deng, Guohong; Ehret, Georg B.; Feenstra, Bjarke; Feitosa, Mary F.; Fischer, Krista; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Jian; Jackson, Anne U.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E.; Kristiansson, Kati; Lim, Unhee; Lotay, Vaneet; Mangino, Massimo; Leach, Irene Mateo; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Medland, Sarah E.; Nalls, Michael A.; Palmer, Cameron D.; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J.; Prokopenko, Inga; Shungin, Dmitry; Stančáková, Alena; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; van der Laan, Sander W.; van Setten, Jessica; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Wang, Zhaoming; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Isaacs, Aaron; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M.; Attwood, Antony P.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bas, Isabelita N.; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J.; Berne, Christian; Blagieva, Roza; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Böttcher, Yvonne; Boyd, Heather A.; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Caspersen, Ida H.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E. Warwick; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Delgado, Graciela; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S. F.; Eklund, Niina; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Folkersen, Lasse; Fraser, Ross M.; Garcia, Melissa E.; Geller, Frank; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S.; Golay, Alain; Goodall, Alison H.; Gordon, Scott D.; Gorski, Mathias; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B.; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grönberg, Henrik; Groves, Christopher J.; Gusto, Gaëlle; Haessler, Jeffrey; Hall, Per; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Helmer, Quinta; Hengstenberg, Christian; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; James, Alan L.; Jeff, Janina M.; Johansson, Åsa; Jolley, Jennifer; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Koskenvuo, Markku; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Laitinen, Jaana; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R.; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lo, Ken Sin; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorbeer, Roberto; Lu, Yingchang; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L.; McLachlan, Stela; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L.; Morken, Mario A.; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Musk, Arthur W.; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nöthen, Markus M.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Pilz, Stefan; Rayner, Nigel W.; Renstrom, Frida; Rettig, Rainer; Ried, Janina S.; Ripke, Stephan; Robertson, Neil R.; Rose, Lynda M.; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Scott, William R.; Seufferlein, Thomas; Shi, Jianxin; Smith, Albert Vernon; Smolonska, Joanna; Stanton, Alice V.; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M.; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A.; Swift, Amy J.; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Uh, Hae-Won; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Warren, Helen R.; Waterworth, Dawn; Weedon, Michael N.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Willenborg, Christina; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Brennan, Eoin P.; Choi, Murim; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W.; Eriksson, Per; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gådin, Jesper R.; Gharavi, Ali G.; Goddard, Michael E.; Handsaker, Robert E.; Huang, Jinyan; Karpe, Fredrik; Kathiresan, Sekar; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Kubo, Michiaki; Lee, Jong-Young; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P.; Ma, Baoshan; McCarroll, Steven A.; McKnight, Amy J.; Min, Josine L.; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R.; Okada, Yukinori; Perry, John R. B.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224 individuals. This analysis identifies 97 BMI-associated loci (P < 5 × 10−8), 56 of which are novel. Five loci demonstrate clear evidence of several independent association signals, and many loci have significant effects on other metabolic phenotypes. The 97 loci account for ~2.7% of BMI variation, and genome-wide estimates suggest that common variation accounts for >20% of BMI variation. Pathway analyses provide strong support for a role of the central nervous system in obesity susceptibility and implicate new genes and pathways, including those related to synaptic function, glutamate signalling, insulin secretion/action, energy metabolism, lipid biology and adipogenesis. PMID:25673413

  16. Brain glucose metabolism during hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes: insights from functional and metabolic neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Rooijackers, Hanne M M; Wiegers, Evita C; Tack, Cees J; van der Graaf, Marinette; de Galan, Bastiaan E

    2016-02-01

    Hypoglycemia is the most frequent complication of insulin therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes. Since the brain is reliant on circulating glucose as its main source of energy, hypoglycemia poses a threat for normal brain function. Paradoxically, although hypoglycemia commonly induces immediate decline in cognitive function, long-lasting changes in brain structure and cognitive function are uncommon in patients with type 1 diabetes. In fact, recurrent hypoglycemia initiates a process of habituation that suppresses hormonal responses to and impairs awareness of subsequent hypoglycemia, which has been attributed to adaptations in the brain. These observations sparked great scientific interest into the brain's handling of glucose during (recurrent) hypoglycemia. Various neuroimaging techniques have been employed to study brain (glucose) metabolism, including PET, fMRI, MRS and ASL. This review discusses what is currently known about cerebral metabolism during hypoglycemia, and how findings obtained by functional and metabolic neuroimaging techniques contributed to this knowledge. PMID:26521082

  17. Metabolome-based genome-wide association study of maize kernel leads to novel biochemical insights

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Weiwei; Li, Dong; Li, Xiang; Gao, Yanqiang; Li, Wenqiang; Li, Huihui; Liu, Jie; Liu, Haijun; Chen, Wei; Luo, Jie; Yan, Jianbing

    2014-01-01

    Plants produce a variety of metabolites that have a critical role in growth and development. Here we present a comprehensive study of maize metabolism, combining genetic, metabolite and expression profiling methodologies to dissect the genetic basis of metabolic diversity in maize kernels. We quantify 983 metabolite features in 702 maize genotypes planted at multiple locations. We identify 1,459 significant locus–trait associations (P≤1.8 × 10−6) across three environments through metabolite-based genome-wide association mapping. Most (58.5%) of the identified loci are supported by expression QTLs, and some (14.7%) are validated through linkage mapping. Re-sequencing and candidate gene association analysis identifies potential causal variants for five candidate genes involved in metabolic traits. Two of these genes were further validated by mutant and transgenic analysis. Metabolite features associated with kernel weight could be used as biomarkers to facilitate genetic improvement of maize. PMID:24633423

  18. Insights into the cycloaddition reaction mechanism between ketenimine and unsaturated hydrocarbon: A theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wenxing; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Nana; Tan, Xiaojun; Wang, Weihua; Li, Ping

    2016-05-01

    The cycloaddition reaction mechanisms between interstellar molecule ketenimine and unsaturated hydrocarbon (ethyne and ethylene) have been systematically investigated employing the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) method. Geometry optimizations and vibrational analyses have been performed for the stationary points on the potential energy surfaces of the system. The calculated results show that it can be produced the five-membered cyclic carbene intermediates through pericyclic reaction processes between ketenimine and ethyne (or ethylene). For the reaction between ketenimine and ethyne, through the following H-transferred processes, carbene intermediate can be isomerized to the pyrrole compounds. For the reaction between ketenimine and ethylene, carbene intermediate can be isomerized to the pyrroline compounds. The present study is helpful to understand the reactivity of nitrogenous cumulene ketenimine and the formation of prebiotic species in interstellar space.

  19. An insight into real and average structure from diffuse X-ray scattering - a case study.

    PubMed

    Chodkiewicz, Michał Leszek; Makal, Anna; Gajda, Roman; Vidovic, Dragoslav; Woźniak, Krzysztof

    2016-08-01

    Two-dimensional diffuse X-ray scattering from an organic salt [N-(3-(2,6-dimethylanilino)-1-methylbut-2-enylidene)-2,6-dimethylanilinium chloride, C21H27N2(+)Cl(-)] was interpreted with the help of an analytical model of diffuse scattering. An analysis of the relationship between symmetry and diffuse scattering for the studied system has been undertaken. The symmetry of the system explains the extinction pattern, taking the form of curves, on the diffuse scattering planes. We have also tested the relationship between the average structure model and scattering intensities. Two models, differing in their representation of overlapping atoms, were used. In the case of diffuse scattering the difference between resulting intensities is immense, while for the Bragg intensities it is much smaller. This sensitivity of diffuse scattering could potentially be used to improve the description of the average structure. PMID:27484378

  20. Insights to repository performance through study of a nuclear test site

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D K; Kersting, A B; Thompson, J L; Finnegan, D L

    2000-07-12

    Underground nuclear test sites offer an unprecedented opportunity to evaluate processes relevant to high-level waste repository performance in the absence of engineered barriers. Radionuclide migration programs at the Nevada Test Site represent a twenty-five year systematic investigation of the diverse radiologic source terms residual from weapons testing and the evolution of the hydrologic source term which comprises those radionuclides dissolved in or otherwise available for transport by groundwater. The Nevada Test Site shares actinide source terms, correlative geology, an identical tectonic setting, similar climate, and a thick unsaturated zone with the adjacent proposed Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository and provides a natural laboratory to assess long-term radionuclide transport in the near field. Analog studies may ultimately help validate predictions of radionuclide transport from the Yucca Mountain repository.

  1. Gene Ontology Analysis of GWA Study Data Sets Provides Insights into the Biology of Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Holmans, Peter; Green, Elaine K.; Pahwa, Jaspreet Singh; Ferreira, Manuel A.R.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Sklar, Pamela; Owen, Michael J.; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Craddock, Nick

    2009-01-01

    We present a method for testing overrepresentation of biological pathways, indexed by gene-ontology terms, in lists of significant SNPs from genome-wide association studies. This method corrects for linkage disequilibrium between SNPs, variable gene size, and multiple testing of nonindependent pathways. The method was applied to the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium Crohn disease (CD) data set. At a general level, the biological basis of CD is relatively well known for a complex genetic trait, and it thus acted as a test of the method. The method, known as ALIGATOR (Association LIst Go AnnoTatOR), successfully detected biological pathways implicated in CD. The method was also applied to a meta-analysis of bipolar disorder, and it implicated the modulation of transcription and cellular activity, including that which occurs via hormonal action, as an important player in pathogenesis. PMID:19539887

  2. Gene ontology analysis of GWA study data sets provides insights into the biology of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Holmans, Peter; Green, Elaine K; Pahwa, Jaspreet Singh; Ferreira, Manuel A R; Purcell, Shaun M; Sklar, Pamela; Owen, Michael J; O'Donovan, Michael C; Craddock, Nick

    2009-07-01

    We present a method for testing overrepresentation of biological pathways, indexed by gene-ontology terms, in lists of significant SNPs from genome-wide association studies. This method corrects for linkage disequilibrium between SNPs, variable gene size, and multiple testing of nonindependent pathways. The method was applied to the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium Crohn disease (CD) data set. At a general level, the biological basis of CD is relatively well known for a complex genetic trait, and it thus acted as a test of the method. The method, known as ALIGATOR (Association LIst Go AnnoTatOR), successfully detected biological pathways implicated in CD. The method was also applied to a meta-analysis of bipolar disorder, and it implicated the modulation of transcription and cellular activity, including that which occurs via hormonal action, as an important player in pathogenesis. PMID:19539887

  3. Geochemical Insight from Nonlinear Optical Studies of Mineral-Water Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covert, Paul A.; Hore, Dennis K.

    2016-05-01

    The physics and chemistry of mineral-water interfaces are complex, even in idealized systems. Our need to understand this complexity is driven by both pure and applied sciences, that is, by the need for basic understanding of earth systems and for the knowledge to mitigate our influences upon them. The second-order nonlinear optical techniques of second-harmonic generation and sum-frequency generation spectroscopy have proven adept at probing these types of interfaces. This review focuses on the contributions to geochemistry made by nonlinear optical methods. The types of questions probed have included a basic description of the structure adopted by water molecules at the mineral interface, how flow and porosity affect this structure, adsorption of trace metal and organic species, and dissolution mechanisms. We also discuss directions and challenges that lie ahead and the outlook for the continued use of nonlinear optical methods for studies of mineral-water boundaries.

  4. Single-filament kinetic studies provide novel insights into regulation of actin-based motility

    PubMed Central

    Shekhar, Shashank; Carlier, Marie-France

    2016-01-01

    Polarized assembly of actin filaments forms the basis of actin-based motility and is regulated both spatially and temporally. Cells use a variety of mechanisms by which intrinsically slower processes are accelerated, and faster ones decelerated, to match rates observed in vivo. Here we discuss how kinetic studies of individual reactions and cycles that drive actin remodeling have provided a mechanistic and quantitative understanding of such processes. We specifically consider key barbed-end regulators such as capping protein and formins as illustrative examples. We compare and contrast different kinetic approaches, such as the traditional pyrene-polymerization bulk assays, as well as more recently developed single-filament and single-molecule imaging approaches. Recent development of novel biophysical methods for sensing and applying forces will in future allow us to address the very important relationship between mechanical stimulus and kinetics of actin-based motility. PMID:26715420

  5. Molecular hydrogen adsorbed on benzene: Insights from a quantum Monte Carlo study.

    PubMed

    Beaudet, Todd D; Casula, Michele; Kim, Jeongnim; Sorella, Sandro; Martin, Richard M

    2008-10-28

    We present a quantum Monte Carlo study of the hydrogen-benzene system where binding is very weak. We demonstrate that the binding is well described at both variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) levels by a Jastrow correlated single determinant geminal wave function with an optimized compact basis set that includes diffuse orbitals. Agreement between VMC and fixed-node DMC binding energies is found to be within 0.18 mhartree, suggesting that the calculations are well converged with respect to the basis. Essentially the same binding is also found in independent DMC calculations using a different trial wave function of a more conventional Slater-Jastrow form, supporting our conclusion that the binding energy is accurate and includes all effects of correlation. We compare with previous calculations, and we discuss the physical mechanisms of the interaction, the role of diffuse basis functions, and the charge redistribution in the bond. PMID:19045302

  6. The biomineralization and fossilization of magnetotactic bacteria: Insights from experimental and field studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.; LI, J.; Menguy, N.; Deng, C.; Kissel, C.; Liu, Q.; Zhu, R.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are widespread prokaryotes which can navigate along the Earth's magnetic field lines and produce tens to hundreds of nanocrystals of magnetite (Fe3O4) or/and greigite (Fe3S4) aligned in chain(s) within a cell. The remains of MTB (i.e. magnetofossils) within geological records have therefore been considered as potential recorders of paleomagnetic, paleoenvironmental and ancient-life signals. These intracellularly-formed nanocrystals, called magnetosomes, generally have distinctively physical, chemical and crystallographic features from those magnetic minerals produced by abiotic or extracellular mineralization processes, and therefore could be distinguished by rock magnetic and electron microscopic approaches. However, identification and quantification of magnetofossils from sediments or sedimentary rocks are nevertheless not straightforward not only due to their tiny sizes, relatively low concentration, always mixing with abiotic magnetic minerals, but also the chain collapse and crystal maghemization during post-depositional processes. Comprehensive studies on the biomineralization and fossilization of magnetosomes are therefore essential for unambiguously identifying and quantitating magnetofossils from geologic samples. In this presentation, we summarize the biomineralization processes and magnetic properties of magnetosome chains within modern cultured and uncultured MTB. Experimental studies on the effects of the chain aligning and collapsing on the magnetic properties of magnetosomes are discussed, which give useful clues to understand the possible occurrence of magnetofossils within natural materials and their corresponding magnetic changes. Recent findings in magnetofossils from marine and lake sediments, showing how to identify magnetofossils from sediments by using the comprehensive rock magnetism, ferromagnetic resonance, and transmission electron microscopy approaches, as well as their implications for sedimentary magnetism

  7. Understanding mechanism of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus aestivation: Insights from TMT-based proteomic study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Muyan; Li, Xingke; Zhu, Aijun; Storey, Kenneth B; Sun, Lina; Gao, Tianxiang; Wang, Tianming

    2016-09-01

    Marine invertebrate aestivation is a unique strategy for summer survival in response to hot marine conditions. The sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, is an excellent model marine invertebrate for studies of environmentally-induced aestivation. In the present study, we used a tandem mass tag (TMT)-coupled LC-MS/MS approach to identify and quantify the global proteome expression profile over the aestivation-arousal cycle of A. japonicus. A total of 3920 proteins were identified from the intestine of sea cucumber. Among them, 630 proteins showed significant differential expression when comparing three conditions of sea cucumbers: non-aestivating (active), deep-aestivation (at least 15days of continuous aestivation), and arousal after aestivation (renewed moving and feeding). Sea cucumbers in deep aestivation showed substantial differentially expressed proteins (143 up-regulated and 267 down-regulated proteins compared with non-aestivating controls). These differentially expressed proteins suggested that protein and phospholipid probably are major fuel sources during hypometabolism and a general attenuation of carbohydrate metabolism was observed during deep aestivation. Differentially expressed proteins also provided the first global picture of a shift in protein synthesis, protein folding, DNA binding, apoptosis, cellular transport and signaling, and cytoskeletal proteins during deep aestivation in sea cucumbers. A comparison of arousal from aestivation with deep aestivation, revealed a general reversal of the changes that occurred in aestivation for most proteins. Western blot detection further validated the significant up-regulation of HSP70 and down-regulation of methyltransferase-like protein 7A-like in deep-aestivation. Our results suggest that there is substantial post-transcriptional regulation of proteins during the aestivation-arousal cycle in sea cucumbers. PMID:27376927

  8. Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters for gas-chromatographic analysis of marine lipids: insight studies.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ana P; Malcata, F Xavier

    2005-06-29

    Assays for fatty acid composition in biological materials are commonly carried out by gas chromatography, after conversion of the lipid material into the corresponding methyl esters (FAME) via suitable derivatization reactions. Quantitative derivatization depends on the type of catalyst and processing conditions employed, as well as the solubility of said sample in the reaction medium. Most literature pertinent to derivatization has focused on differential comparison between alternative methods; although useful to find out the best method for a particular sample, additional studies on factors that may affect each step of FAME preparation are urged. In this work, the influence of various parameters in each step of derivatization reactions was studied, using both cod liver oil and microalgal biomass as model systems. The accuracies of said methodologies were tested via comparison with the AOCS standard method, whereas their reproducibility was assessed by analysis of variance of (replicated) data. Alkaline catalysts generated lower levels of long-chain unsaturated FAME than acidic ones. Among these, acetyl chloride and BF(3) were statistically equivalent to each other. The standard method, which involves alkaline treatment of samples before acidic methylation with BF(3), provided equivalent results when compared with acidic methylation with BF(3) alone. Polarity of the reaction medium was found to be of the utmost importance in the process: intermediate values of polarity [e.g., obtained by a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of methanol with diethyl ether or toluene] provided amounts of extracted polyunsaturated fatty acids statistically higher than those obtained via the standard method. PMID:15969474

  9. New insights from coral growth band studies in an era of rapid environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lough, Janice M.; Cooper, Timothy F.

    2011-10-01

    The rapid formation of calcium carbonate coral skeletons (calcification) fuelled by the coral-algal symbiosis is the backbone of tropical coral reef ecosystems. However, the efficacy of calcification is measurably influenced by the sea's physico-chemical environment, which is changing rapidly. Warming oceans have already led to increased frequency and severity of coral bleaching, and ocean acidification has a demonstrable potential to cause reduced rates of calcification. There is now general agreement that ocean warming and acidification are attributable to human activities increasing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, and the large part of the extra carbon dioxide (the main greenhouse gas) that is absorbed by oceans. Certain massive corals provide historical perspectives on calcification through the presence of dateable annual density banding patterns. Each band is a page in an environmental archive that reveals past responses of growth (linear extension, skeletal density and calcification rate) and provides a basis for prediction of future of coral growth. A second major line of research focuses on the measurement of various geochemical tracers incorporated into the growth bands, allowing the reconstruction of past marine climate conditions (i.e. palaeoclimatology). Here, we focus on the structural properties of the annual density bands themselves (viz. density; linear extension), exploring their utility in providing both perspectives on the past and pointers to the future of calcification on coral reefs. We conclude that these types of coral growth records, though relatively neglected in recent years compared to the geochemical studies, remain immensely valuable aids to unravelling the consequences of anthropogenic climate change on coral reefs. Moreover, an understanding of coral growth processes is an essential pre-requisite for proper interpretation of studies of geochemical tracers in corals.

  10. Characterization of a rarely studied ecosystem: Initial insights into the functioning of Antarctic supraglacial streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaros, C.; SanClements, M.; McKnight, D. M.; Foreman, C. M.; Tedesco, M.; Smith, H.; Wei-Haas, M.; Chin, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Glacial ecosystems are biogeochemically active environments that influence downstream ecosystem function, yet there are few studies describing supraglacial stream systems, especially in Antarctica. During the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 austral summers we sampled the supraglacial Cotton Glacier Stream at regular intervals to characterize one of these rarely studied systems. Throughout the 2009-2010 summer we focused on stream chemistry and dissolved organic matter (DOM) characterization. During the 2010-2011 season we established a meteorological station on the glacial surface to conduct measurements of the physical environment. Meteorological data revealed that during summer, temperatures do not frequently exceed zero Celsius for extended periods of time. Pressure transducers and time lapse cameras were installed to capture changes in water depth and revealed a system capable of extreme change on the time-scale of hours. While both temperature and solar radiation appeared to exert significant influence on the daily flow regime, they were not the dominant factor in driving extreme changes in hydrology during the summer. Our observations indicate that extreme hydrologic events (i.e. rapid flooding and draining), were largely controlled by downstream moulins which dictate the drainage of Cotton Stream. This suggests the flow regimes of large Antarctic supraglacial streams may be controlled by a complex relationship between geomorphology and meteorology; resulting in a decoupling of flow, temperature and solar radiation. Chemical analysis and DOM characterization indicate that the dynamic nature of Cotton Stream, paired with very dilute nutrient concentrations, results in an ecosystem with little to no legacy of microbial communities and DOM from year to year.

  11. Tectonic Evolution of the Patagonian Orocline: New Insights from a Paleomagnetic Study in Southernmost America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roperch, P. J.; Poblete, F.; Arriagada, C.; Herve, F.; Ramirez de Arellano, C.

    2015-12-01

    One of the most noteworthy features of the Southern Andes is its bend, where the orogenic trend and main tectonic provinces change from Andean N-S oriented structures to W-E orientations in Tierra del Fuego. Few paleomagnetic studies have been carried out, and whether the bending is a primary curvature or a true orocline is still matter of controversy; also the mechanism of its formation. We have conducted a paleomagnetic study between 50°S to ~56°S, where 146 sites were drilled. Paleomagnetic data were obtained in 44 sites. Results in Early Cretaceous sediments and volcanics rocks confirm a remagnetization event during the mid-Cretaceous and record ~90° of counterclockwise rotation. Paleomagnetic results in mid-Cretaceous intrusives rocks record large counterclockwise rotation (>90°) while Late Cretaceous-Early Eocene intrusive rocks only record ~45° to ~30°. The paleomagnetic results reveal a systematic pattern of rotation—the Fueguian rotation pattern—suggesting that the curvature of Patagonia would have occurred in two stages: the first stage during the collapse and obduction of the Rocas Verdes basin in the mid-Cretaceous and a second stage between the Late Cretaceous and the Paleocene, concomitant with exhumation of Cordillera Darwin and propagation of the fold and thrust belt into the Magallanes foreland. Integrating this result in plate reconstructions shows the Antarctic Peninsula as a prolongation of Patagonia and would have acted as a non-rotational rigid block, facilitating the development of the Patagonia Bend. This land bridge could be a dispersal mechanism for fauna between Australia and South America and would have restricted deep ocean water circulation.

  12. Vesiculation and fragmentation in silicic magmas: insights from case studies in the Kermadec Arc, SW Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotella, M. D.; Wilson, C. J.; Barker, S. J.; Cashman, K.; Houghton, B. F.; Wright, I. C.; Wysoczanski, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    There is debate over the processes involved in the vesiculation and fragmentation of silicic magmas. One aspect is to what extent do the densities and vesicularity characteristics of pyroclasts accurately reflect the point of fragmentation, or whether they have undergone post-fragmentation modification. Here we present pyroclast densities and vesicle size and number characteristics from a suite of representative clasts from six silicic eruptions of contrasting size and style from Raoul volcano in the Kermadec arc. Density/vesicularity distributions show a dearth in pyroclasts with ~70-75% vesicularity. However, pyroclasts closest to ~70-75% vesicularity have the highest bubble number density (BND) values for all eruptions regardless of intensity, style or degree of interaction with external water. Bubble size distributions (BSDs) and BNDs, corrected for clast vesicularity and crystal content show variations consistent with this vesicularity range representing a critical transition at which vesiculating magma is most likely to undergo fragmentation. Clasts with vesicularity >70-75% have decreasing BNDs, interpreted to reflect bubble coalescence and expansion after magmatic fragmentation, but prior to quenching. Clasts with vesicularities <70-75% also have decreasing BNDs but in our examples preserve textures indicative of pre-fragmentation processes such as stalling and volatile loss prior to vesiculation in a microlite-rich magma, or vesiculation during slow ascent of degassing magma. The results of this study, therefore, show that modal density clasts (the usual targets for vesicularity studies) have likely undergone some degree of post-fragmentation vesiculation and therefore may not be accurately representative of the magma at the moment of fragmentation. We show that analyses of multiple samples covering the full range of vesicularities being erupted at any one stage in the eruption is required to bracket the vesicle characteristics at the point of

  13. Insights from EMF Associated Agricultural and Forestry Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Studies

    SciTech Connect

    McCarl, Bruce A.; Murray, Brian; Kim, Man-Keun; Lee, Heng-Chi; Sands, Ronald D.; Schneider, Uwe

    2007-11-19

    Integrated assessment modeling (IAM) as employed by the Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) generally involves a multi-sector appraisal of greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) mitigation alternatives and climate change effects typically at the global level. Such a multi-sector evaluation encompasses potential climate change effects and mitigative actions within the agricultural and forestry (AF) sectors. In comparison with many of the other sectors covered by IAM, the AF sectors may require somewhat different treatment due to their critical dependence upon spatially and temporally varying resource and climatic conditions. In particular, in large countries like the United States, forest production conditions vary dramatically across the landscape. For example, some areas in the southern US present conditions favorable to production of fast growing, heat tolerant pine species, while more northern regions often favor slower-growing hardwood and softwood species. Moreover, some lands are currently not suitable for forest production (e.g., the arid western plains). Similarly, in agriculture, the US has areas where citrus and cotton can be grown and other areas where barley and wheat are more suitable. This diversity across the landscape causes differential GHGE mitigation potential in the face of climatic changes and/or responses to policy or price incentives. It is difficult for a reasonably sized global IAM system to reflect the full range of sub-national geographic AF production possibilities alluded to above. AF response in the face of climate change altered temperature precipitation regimes or mitigation incentives will likely involve region-specific shifts in land use and agricultural/forest production. This chapter addresses AF sectoral responses in climate change mitigation analysis. Specifically, we draw upon US-based studies of AF GHGE mitigation possibilities that incorporate sub-national detail drawing largely on a body of studies done by the authors in association with

  14. Modelling wet weather sediment removal by stormwater constructed wetlands: Insights from a laboratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Deletic, A.; Fletcher, T. D.

    2007-05-01

    SummaryConstructed wetlands are now commonly used to control polluted urban stormwater discharges. A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the treatment of solids in these systems. Three mesocosm stormwater wetlands (vegetated with a well-established canopy of different densities) and one mesocosm non-vegetated pond were used, all sized to achieve particle fall number ( Nf, a ratio between the times of the particle travel in horizontal and vertical directions) and Particle Shear Velocity Reynolds Number, Re∗, which are reflective of full-scale systems. The mesocosm vegetated systems had also similar turbulent Reynolds Numbers ( ReT) to those funds in full-scale systems. Ten groups of steady-state experiments were carried out, all with different hydraulic loadings and sediment inflow concentrations (also maintained within the ranges found in real systems during wet weather). Samples were taken along the mesocosms and analysed for Total Suspended Solids concentrations (TSS) and Particle Size Distribution (PSD). It was found that both Re∗ and ReT do not significantly influence the trapping of sediments, and therefore the particle re-suspension induced by water flow is not important for sedimentation in constructed stormwater wetlands. Vegetation density was found not to be an important factor, while particle diameter, and flow characteristics (e.g., flow rate and velocity) do influence trapping efficiency of particles. It was concluded that sediment trapping correlates strongly with particle fall number, Nf, and therefore can be explained by this single non-dimensional number. A simple non-linear two-parameter regression model is proposed for prediction of particle trapping efficiency in constructed stormwater wetlands. However, further work is needed before the method can be used in practice. The aim of the ongoing work is to test whether the proposed model could be used across a number of real stormwater constructed wetlands without any further

  15. Data collection challenges in community settings: Insights from two field studies of patients with chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Richard J.; McDougald Scott, Amanda M.; Hoonakker, Peter L.T.; Hundt, Ann S.; Carayon, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Collecting information about health and disease directly from patients can be fruitfully accomplished using contextual approaches, ones that combine more and less structured methods in home and community settings. This paper's purpose is to describe and illustrate a framework of the challenges of contextual data collection. Methods A framework is presented based on prior work in community-based participatory research and organizational science, comprised of ten types of challenges across four broader categories. Illustrations of challenges and suggestions for addressing them are drawn from two mixed-method, contextual studies of patients with chronic disease in two regions of the US. Results The first major category of challenges was concerned with the researcher-participant partnership, for example, the initial lack of mutual trust and understanding between researchers, patients, and family members. The second category concerned patient characteristics such as cognitive limitations and a busy personal schedule that created barriers to successful data collection. The third concerned research logistics and procedures such as recruitment, travel distances, and compensation. The fourth concerned scientific quality and interpretation, including issues of validity, reliability, and combining data from multiple sources. The two illustrative studies faced both common and diverse research challenges and used many different strategies to address them. Conclusion Collecting less structured data from patients and others in the community is potentially very productive but requires the anticipation, avoidance, or negotiation of various challenges. Future work is necessary to better understand these challenges across different methods and settings, as well as to test and identify strategies to address them. PMID:25154464

  16. Cross-study and cross-omics comparisons of three nephrotoxic compounds reveal mechanistic insights and new candidate biomarkers

    SciTech Connect

    Matheis, Katja A.; Com, Emmanuelle; Gautier, Jean-Charles; Guerreiro, Nelson; Brandenburg, Arnd; Gmuender, Hans; Sposny, Alexandra; Hewitt, Philip; Amberg, Alexander; Boernsen, Olaf; Riefke, Bjoern; Hoffmann, Dana; Mally, Angela; Kalkuhl, Arno; Suter, Laura; Dieterle, Frank; Staedtler, Frank

    2011-04-15

    The European InnoMed-PredTox project was a collaborative effort between 15 pharmaceutical companies, 2 small and mid-sized enterprises, and 3 universities with the goal of delivering deeper insights into the molecular mechanisms of kidney and liver toxicity and to identify mechanism-linked diagnostic or prognostic safety biomarker candidates by combining conventional toxicological parameters with 'omics' data. Mechanistic toxicity studies with 16 different compounds, 2 dose levels, and 3 time points were performed in male Crl: WI(Han) rats. Three of the 16 investigated compounds, BI-3 (FP007SE), Gentamicin (FP009SF), and IMM125 (FP013NO), induced kidney proximal tubule damage (PTD). In addition to histopathology and clinical chemistry, transcriptomics microarray and proteomics 2D-DIGE analysis were performed. Data from the three PTD studies were combined for a cross-study and cross-omics meta-analysis of the target organ. The mechanistic interpretation of kidney PTD-associated deregulated transcripts revealed, in addition to previously described kidney damage transcript biomarkers such as KIM-1, CLU and TIMP-1, a number of additional deregulated pathways congruent with histopathology observations on a single animal basis, including a specific effect on the complement system. The identification of new, more specific biomarker candidates for PTD was most successful when transcriptomics data were used. Combining transcriptomics data with proteomics data added extra value.

  17. Functional genomic and advanced genetic studies reveal novel insights into the metabolism, regulation, and biology of Haloferax volcanii.

    PubMed

    Soppa, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    The genome sequence of Haloferax volcanii is available and several comparative genomic in silico studies were performed that yielded novel insight for example into protein export, RNA modifications, small non-coding RNAs, and ubiquitin-like Small Archaeal Modifier Proteins. The full range of functional genomic methods has been established and results from transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic studies are discussed. Notably, Hfx. volcanii is together with Halobacterium salinarum the only prokaryotic species for which a translatome analysis has been performed. The results revealed that the fraction of translationally-regulated genes in haloarchaea is as high as in eukaryotes. A highly efficient genetic system has been established that enables the application of libraries as well as the parallel generation of genomic deletion mutants. Facile mutant generation is complemented by the possibility to culture Hfx. volcanii in microtiter plates, allowing the phenotyping of mutant collections. Genetic approaches are currently used to study diverse biological questions-from replication to posttranslational modification-and selected results are discussed. Taken together, the wealth of functional genomic and genetic tools make Hfx. volcanii a bona fide archaeal model species, which has enabled the generation of important results in recent years and will most likely generate further breakthroughs in the future. PMID:22190865

  18. Outcomes of Interorganizational Networks in Canada for Chronic Disease Prevention: Insights From a Concept Mapping Study, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Kernoghan, Alison; Riley, Barbara; Popp, Janice; Best, Allan; Milward, H. Brinton

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We conducted a mixed methods study from June 2014 to March 2015 to assess the perspectives of stakeholders in networks that adopt a population approach for chronic disease prevention (CDP). The purpose of the study was to identify important and feasible outcome measures for monitoring network performance. Methods Participants from CDP networks in Canada completed an online concept mapping exercise, which was followed by interviews with network stakeholders to further understand the findings. Results Nine concepts were considered important outcomes of CDP networks: enhanced learning, improved use of resources, enhanced or increased relationships, improved collaborative action, network cohesion, improved system outcomes, improved population health outcomes, improved practice and policy planning, and improved intersectoral engagement. Three themes emerged from participant interviews related to measurement of the identified concepts: the methodological difficulties in measuring network outcomes, the dynamic nature of network evolution and function and implications for outcome assessment, and the challenge of measuring multisectoral engagement in CDP networks. Conclusion Results from this study provide initial insights into concepts that can be used to describe the outcomes of networks for CDP and may offer foundations for strengthening network outcome-monitoring strategies and methodologies. PMID:26583571

  19. Using community insight to understand physical activity adoption in overweight and obese African American and Hispanic women: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Mama, Scherezade K; McCurdy, Sheryl A; Evans, Alexandra E; Thompson, Deborah I; Diamond, Pamela M; Lee, Rebecca E

    2015-06-01

    Ecologic models suggest that multiple levels of influencing factors are important for determining physical activity participation and include individual, social, and environmental factors. The purpose of this qualitative study was to use an ecologic framework to gain a deeper understanding of the underlying behavioral mechanisms that influence physical activity adoption among ethnic minority women. Eighteen African American and Hispanic women completed a 1-hour in-depth interview. Verbatim interview transcripts were analyzed for emergent themes using a constant comparison approach. Women were middle-aged (age M = 43.9 ± 7.3 years), obese (body mass index M = 35.0 ± 8.9 kg/m(2)), and of high socioeconomic status (88.9% completed some college or more, 41.2% reported income >$82,600/year). Participants discussed individual factors, including the need for confidence, motivation and time, and emphasized the importance of environmental factors, including their physical neighborhood environments and safety of and accessibility to physical activity resources. Women talked about caretaking for others and social support and how these influenced physical activity behavior. The findings from this study highlight the multilevel, interactive complexities that influence physical activity, emphasizing the need for a more sophisticated, ecologic approach for increasing physical activity adoption and maintenance among ethnic minority women. Community insight gleaned from this study may be used to better understand determinants of physical activity and develop multilevel solutions and programs guided by an ecologic framework to increase physical activity in ethnic minority women. PMID:25504569

  20. Using Community Insight to Understand Physical Activity Adoption in Overweight and Obese African American and Hispanic Women: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Mama, Scherezade K.; McCurdy, Sheryl A.; Evans, Alexandra E.; Thompson, Deborah I.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Lee, Rebecca E.

    2015-01-01

    Ecologic models suggest that multiple levels of influencing factors are important for determining physical activity participation and include individual, social, and environmental factors. The purpose of this qualitative study was to use an ecologic framework to gain a deeper understanding of the underlying behavioral mechanisms that influence physical activity adoption among ethnic minority women. Eighteen African American and Hispanic women completed a 1-hour in-depth interview. Verbatim interview transcripts were analyzed for emergent themes using a constant comparison approach. Women were middle-aged (age M = 43.9 ± 7.3 years), obese (body mass index M = 35.0 ± 8.9 kg/m2), and of high socioeconomic status (88.9% completed some college or more, 41.2% reported income >$82,600/year). Participants discussed individual factors, including the need for confidence, motivation and time, and emphasized the importance of environmental factors, including their physical neighborhood environments and safety of and accessibility to physical activity resources. Women talked about caretaking for others and social support and how these influenced physical activity behavior. The findings from this study highlight the multilevel, interactive complexities that influence physical activity, emphasizing the need for a more sophisticated, ecologic approach for increasing physical activity adoption and maintenance among ethnic minority women. Community insight gleaned from this study may be used to better understand determinants of physical activity and develop multilevel solutions and programs guided by an ecologic framework to increase physical activity in ethnic minority women. PMID:25504569

  1. Diversity in High Schools and Diversity Management: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordu, Aydan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to present the diversities in high schools and opinions of teachers about management of these diversities. The sample of the study is from nine teachers working at the official high schools in the center of Denizli in Turkey. In this qualitative study, the data are collected with a semi-structured interview form…

  2. Vestibular and Somatosensory Covergence in Postural Equilibrium Control: Insights from Spaceflight and Bed Rest Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulavara, A. P.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Peters, B. T.; Phillips, T.; Platts, S. H.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Ryder, J. W.; Stenger, M. B.; Taylor, L. C.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Functional Task Test study is to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. We are currently conducting studies on both International Space Station (ISS) astronauts experiencing up to 6 months of microgravity and subjects experiencing 70 days of 6??head-down bed-rest as an analog for space flight. Bed-rest provides the opportunity for us to investigate the role of prolonged axial body unloading in isolation from the other physiological effects produced by exposure to the microgravity environment of space flight. This allows us to parse out the contribution of the body unloading somatosensory component on functional performance. Both ISS crewmembers and bed-rest subjects were tested using a protocol that evaluated functional performance along with tests of postural and locomotor control before and after space flight and bed-rest, respectively. Functional tests included ladder climbing, hatch opening, jump down, manual manipulation of objects and tool use, seat egress and obstacle avoidance, recovery from a fall, and object translation tasks. Astronauts were tested three times before flight, and on 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. Bed-rest subjects were tested three times before bed-rest and immediately after getting up from bed-rest as well as 1, 6, and 12 days after re-ambulation. A comparison of bed-rest and space flight data showed a significant concordance in performance changes across all functional tests. Tasks requiring a greater demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium (i.e. fall recovery, seat egress/obstacle avoidance during walking, object translation, jump down) showed the greatest decrement in performance. Functional tests with reduced requirements for postural stability showed less reduction in performance. Results indicate that body unloading

  3. High-level managers' considerations for RFID adoption in hospitals: an empirical study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hui-Min; Lin, I-Chun; Tseng, Ling-Tzu

    2014-02-01

    Prior researches have indicated that an appropriate adoption of information technology (IT) can help hospitals significantly improve services and operations. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is believed to be the next generation innovation technology for automatic data collection and asset/people tracking. Based on the Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE) framework, this study investigated high-level managers' considerations for RFID adoption in hospitals. This research reviewed literature related IT adoption in business and followed the results of a preliminary survey with 37 practical experts in hospitals to theorize a model for the RFID adoption in hospitals. Through a field survey of 102 hospitals and hypotheses testing, this research identified key factors influencing RFID adoption. Follow-up in-depth interviews with three high-level managers of IS department from three case hospitals respectively also presented an insight into the decision of RFID's adoption. Based on the research findings, cost, ubiquity, compatibility, security and privacy risk, top management support, hospital scale, financial readiness and government policy were concluded to be the key factors influencing RFID adoption in hospitals. For practitioners, this study provided a comprehensive overview of government policies able to promote the technology, while helping the RFID solution providers understand how to reduce the IT barriers in order to enhance hospitals' willingness to adopt RFID. PMID:24445396

  4. Belowground carbon allocation dynamics in changing environments: insights from in situ pulse labeling studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahn, M.

    2012-12-01

    Belowground carbon (C) allocation is a key process in ecosystems: it plays an important role for plant C storage, fuels root metabolism and provides substrates for soil microorganisms, with strong implications for microbial community composition and activity and thus soil organic matter turnover. Belowground C allocation has been well studied in young plants and mesocosms, and as long-term patterns in ecosystems. Much less is known on the short-term dynamics of C allocation in mature plants and ecosystems, which reflect more closely the actual processes underlying observed C allocation patterns and the mechanisms determining responses to changing environmental conditions. C allocation dynamics can best be analyzed with isotopic pulse labeling experiments, which permit a tracing of recently photo-assimilated C to carbohydrate pools, microbial communities and respiratory fluxes. This overview talk will highlight the potential and limitations of in situ isotopic tracer experiments for assessing belowground C allocation dynamics in changing environments, summarize some major recent findings and point towards emerging research questions.

  5. The role of gut microbiota in fetal methylmercury exposure: Insights from a pilot study

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rothenberg, Sarah E.; Keiser, Sharon; Ajami, Nadim J.; Wong, Matthew C.; Gesell, Jonathan; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Johs, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    The mechanisms by which gut microbiota contribute to methylmercury metabolism remain unclear. Among a cohort of pregnant mothers, the main objectives of our pilot study were to determine 1) associations between gut microbiota and mercury concentrations in biomarkers (stool, hair and cord blood) and 2) the contributions of gut microbial mercury methylation/demethylation to stool methylmercury. Moreover, for pregnant women (36-39 weeks gestation, n=17) donated hair and stool specimens, and cord blood was collected for a subset (n=7). The diversity of gut microbiota was determined using 16S rRNA gene profiling (n=17). For 6 stool samples with highest/lowest methylmercury concentrations, metagenomic wholemore » genome shotgun sequencing was employed to search for one mercury methylation gene (hgcA), and two mer operon genes involved in methylmercury detoxification (merA and merB). There were seventeen bacterial genera that were significantly correlated (increasing or decreasing) with stool methylmercury, stool inorganic mercury, or hair total mercury; however, aside from one genus, there was no overlap between biomarkers. No definitive matches for hgcA or merB, while merA were detected at low concentrations in all six samples. Proportional differences in stool methylmercury were not likely attributed to gut microbiota through methylation/demethylation. Gut microbiota potentially altered methylmercury metabolism using indirect pathways.« less

  6. Radicalization and Radical Catalysis of Biomass Sugars: Insights from First-principles Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Gang; Zhu, Chang; Zou, Xianli; Zhou, Lijun

    2016-07-01

    Ab initio and density functional calculations are conducted to investigate the radicalization processes and radical catalysis of biomass sugars. Structural alterations due to radicalization generally focus on the radicalized sites, and radicalization affects H-bonds in D-fructofuranose more than in D-glucopyranose, potentially with outcome of new H-bonds. Performances of different functionals and basis sets are evaluated for all radicalization processes, and enthalpy changes and Gibbs free energies for these processes are presented with high accuracy, which can be referenced for subsequent experimental and theoretical studies. It shows that radicalization can be utilized for direct transformation of biomass sugars, and for each sugar, C rather than O sites are always preferred for radicalization, thus suggesting the possibility to activate C-H bonds of biomass sugars. Radical catalysis is further combined with Brønsted acids, and it clearly states that functionalization fundamentally regulates the catalytic effects of biomass sugars. In presence of explicit water molecules, functionalization significantly affects the activation barriers and reaction energies of protonation rather than dehydration steps. Tertiary butyl and phenyl groups with large steric hindrances or hydroxyl and amino groups resulting in high stabilities for protonation products drive the protonation steps to occur facilely at ambient conditions.

  7. ART and health: clinical outcomes and insights on molecular mechanisms from rodent studies

    PubMed Central

    Feuer, S.K.; Camarano, L.; Rinaudo, P.F.

    2013-01-01

    Since the birth of the first IVF-conceived child in 1978, the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) has grown dramatically, contributing to the successful birth of 5 million individuals worldwide. However, there are several reported associations of ART with pregnancy complications, such as low birthweight (LBW), preterm birth, birth defects, epigenetic disorders, cancer and poor metabolic health. Whether this is attributed to ART procedures or to the subset of the population seeking ART remains a controversy, but the most relevant question today concerns the potential long-term implications of assisted conception. Recent evidence has emerged suggesting that ART-conceived children have distinct metabolic profiles that may predispose to cardiovascular pathologies in adulthood. Because the eldest IVF individuals are still too young to exhibit components of chronic middle-aged syndromes, the use of animal models has become particularly useful in describing the effects of unusual or stressful preimplantation experiences on adult fitness. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms by which embryos integrate environmental signals into development and metabolic gene expression programs will be essential for optimizing ART procedures such as in vitro culture conditions, embryo selection and transfer. In the future, additional animal studies to identify mechanisms underlying unfavorable ART outcomes, as well as more epidemiological reviews to monitor the long-term health of ART children are required, given that ART procedures have become routine medical practice. PMID:23264495

  8. The link between childhood trauma and depression: insights from HPA axis studies in humans.

    PubMed

    Heim, Christine; Newport, D Jeffrey; Mletzko, Tanja; Miller, Andrew H; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2008-07-01

    Childhood trauma is a potent risk factor for developing depression in adulthood, particularly in response to additional stress. We here summarize results from a series of clinical studies suggesting that childhood trauma in humans is associated with sensitization of the neuroendocrine stress response, glucocorticoid resistance, increased central corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) activity, immune activation, and reduced hippocampal volume, closely paralleling several of the neuroendocrine features of depression. Neuroendocrine changes secondary to early-life stress likely reflect risk to develop depression in response to stress, potentially due to failure of a connected neural circuitry implicated in emotional, neuroendocrine and autonomic control to compensate in response to challenge. However, not all of depression is related to childhood trauma and our results suggest the existence of biologically distinguishable subtypes of depression as a function of childhood trauma that are also responsive to differential treatment. Other risk factors, such as female gender and genetic dispositions, interfere with components of the stress response and further increase vulnerability for depression. Similar associations apply to a spectrum of other psychiatric and medical disorders that frequently coincide with depression and are aggravated by stress. Taken together, this line of evidence demonstrates that psychoneuroendocrine research may ultimately promote optimized clinical care and help prevent the adverse outcomes of childhood trauma. PMID:18602762

  9. Radicalization and Radical Catalysis of Biomass Sugars: Insights from First-principles Studies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gang; Zhu, Chang; Zou, Xianli; Zhou, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Ab initio and density functional calculations are conducted to investigate the radicalization processes and radical catalysis of biomass sugars. Structural alterations due to radicalization generally focus on the radicalized sites, and radicalization affects H-bonds in D-fructofuranose more than in D-glucopyranose, potentially with outcome of new H-bonds. Performances of different functionals and basis sets are evaluated for all radicalization processes, and enthalpy changes and Gibbs free energies for these processes are presented with high accuracy, which can be referenced for subsequent experimental and theoretical studies. It shows that radicalization can be utilized for direct transformation of biomass sugars, and for each sugar, C rather than O sites are always preferred for radicalization, thus suggesting the possibility to activate C-H bonds of biomass sugars. Radical catalysis is further combined with Brønsted acids, and it clearly states that functionalization fundamentally regulates the catalytic effects of biomass sugars. In presence of explicit water molecules, functionalization significantly affects the activation barriers and reaction energies of protonation rather than dehydration steps. Tertiary butyl and phenyl groups with large steric hindrances or hydroxyl and amino groups resulting in high stabilities for protonation products drive the protonation steps to occur facilely at ambient conditions. PMID:27405843

  10. Retinal very long-chain PUFAs: new insights from studies on ELOVL4 protein

    PubMed Central

    Agbaga, Martin-Paul; Mandal, Md Nawajes A.; Anderson, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Compared with other mammalian tissues, retina is highly enriched in PUFA. Long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA; C18-C24) are essential FAs that are enriched in the retina and are necessary for maintenance of normal retinal development and function. The retina, brain, and sperm also contain very LC-PUFA (VLC-PUFA; >C24). Although VLC-PUFA were discovered more than two decades ago, very little is known about their biosynthesis and functional roles in the retina. This is due mainly to intrinsic difficulties associated with working on these unusually long polyunsaturated hydrocarbon chains and their existence in small amounts. Recent studies on the FA elongase elongation of very long chain fatty acids-4 (ELOVL4) protein, however, suggest that VLC-PUFA probably play some uniquely important roles in the retina as well as the other tissues. Mutations in the ELOVL4 gene are found in patients with autosomal dominant Stargardt disease. Here, we review the recent literature on VLC-PUFA with special emphasis on the elongases responsible for their synthesis. We focus on a novel elongase, ELOVL4, involved in the synthesis of VLC-PUFA, and the importance of these FAs in maintaining the structural and functional integrity of retinal photoreceptors. PMID:20299492

  11. The mechanisms of hydrothermal deconstruction of lignocellulose: New insights from thermal–analytical and complementary studies

    PubMed Central

    Ibbett, Roger; Gaddipati, Sanyasi; Davies, Scott; Hill, Sandra; Tucker, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis, gravimetric and chemical techniques have been used to study hydrothermal reactions of straw biomass. Exothermic degradation initiates above 195 °C, due to breakdown of the xylose ring from hemicellulose, which may be similar to reactions occurring during the early stage pyrolysis of dry biomass, though activated at lower temperature through water mediation. The temperature and magnitude of the exotherm reduce with increasing acid concentration, suggesting a reduction in activation energy and a change in the balance of reaction pathways. The presence of xylan oligomers in auto-catalytic hydrolysates is believed to be due to a low rate constant rather than a specific reaction mechanism. The loss of the lignin glass transition indicates that the lignin phase is reorganised under high temperature auto-catalytic conditions, but remains partially intact under lower temperature acid-catalytic conditions. This shows that lignin degradation reactions are activated thermally but are not effectively catalysed by aqueous acid. PMID:21763128

  12. Comparative study on waterborne parasites between Malaysia and Thailand: A new insight.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Thulasi; Onichandran, Subashini; Lim, Yvonne A L; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Ithoi, Init; Andiappan, Hemah; Salibay, Cristina C; Dungca, Julieta Z; Chye, Tan Tian; Sulaiman, Wan Y W; Ling Lau, Yee; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the distribution of parasites as main contaminants in water environments of peninsular Malaysia (October 2011-December 2011) and the southeastern coast of Thailand (June 2012). Sixty-four water samples, 33 from Malaysia and 31 from Thailand, of various water types were examined according to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. Drinking or household water types from both countries were free from parasitic contamination. The recreational/environmental (except a swimming pool in Malaysia) and effluent water types from these two countries were contaminated with waterborne parasites: Giardia (0.04-4 cysts/L), Cryptosporidium (0.06-2.33 oocysts/L), hookworm (6.67-350 ova/L), Ascaris (0.33-33.33 ova/L), and Schistosoma (9.25-13.33 ova/L). The most contaminated sites were recreational lake garden 3 in Malaysia and river 2 in Thailand. Higher concentrations of Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and hookworm were found in samples from Malaysia than in samples from Thailand. The presence of Giardia cysts showed a significant association with the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts (P < 0.005). PMID:24567315

  13. Fibulin-4 and fibulin-5 in elastogenesis and beyond: Insights from mouse and human studies.

    PubMed

    Papke, Christina L; Yanagisawa, Hiromi

    2014-07-01

    The fibulin family of extracellular matrix/matricellular proteins is composed of long fibulins (fibulin-1, -2, -6) and short fibulins (fibulin-3, -4, -5, -7) and is involved in protein-protein interaction with the components of basement membrane and extracellular matrix proteins. Fibulin-1, -2, -3, -4, and -5 bind the monomeric form of elastin (tropoelastin) in vitro and fibulin-2, -3, -4, and -5 are shown to be involved in various aspects of elastic fiber development in vivo. In particular, fibulin-4 and -5 are critical molecules for elastic fiber assembly and play a non-redundant role during elastic fiber formation. Despite manifestation of systemic elastic fiber defects in all elastogenic tissues, fibulin-5 null (Fbln5(-/-)) mice have a normal lifespan. In contrast, fibulin-4 null (Fbln4(-/-)) mice die during the perinatal period due to rupture of aortic aneurysms, indicating differential functions of fibulin-4 and fibulin-5 in normal development. In this review, we will update biochemical characterization of fibulin-4 and fibulin-5 and discuss their roles in elastogenesis and outside of elastogenesis based on knowledge obtained from loss-of-function studies in mouse and in human patients with FBLN4 or FBLN5 mutations. Finally, we will evaluate therapeutic options for matrix-related diseases. PMID:24613575

  14. Contributions of GABA to alcohol responsivity during adolescence: Insights from preclinical and clinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Silveri, Marisa M.

    2015-01-01

    There is a considerable body of literature demonstrating that adolescence is a unique age period, which includes rapid and dramatic maturation of behavioral, cognitive, hormonal and neurobiological systems. Most notably, adolescence is also a period of unique responsiveness to alcohol effects, with both hyposensitivity and hypersensitivity observed to the various effects of alcohol. Multiple neurotransmitter systems are undergoing fine-tuning during this critical period of brain development, including those that contribute to the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. The role of developmental maturation of the γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA) system, however, has received less attention in contributing to age-specific alcohol sensitivities. This review integrates GABA findings from human magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies as they may translate to understanding adolescent-specific responsiveness to alcohol effects. Better understanding of the vulnerability of the GABA system both during adolescent development, and in psychiatric conditions that include alcohol dependence, could point to a putative mechanism, boosting brain GABA, that may have increased effectiveness for treating alcohol abuse disorders. PMID:24631274

  15. Signaling mechanisms of LOV domains: New insights from molecular dynamics studies

    PubMed Central

    Freddolino, Peter L.; Gardner, Kevin H.; Schulten, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Phototropins are one of several classes of photoreceptors used by plants and algae to respond to light. These proteins contain flavin-binding LOV (Light-Oxygen-Voltage) domains that form covalent cysteine-flavin adducts upon exposure to blue light, leading to the enhancement of phototropin kinase activity. Several lines of evidence suggest that adduct formation in the phototropin LOV2 domains leads to the dissociation of an alpha helix (Jα) from these domains as part of the light-induced activation process. However, crystal structures of LOV domains both in the presence and absence of the Jα helix show very few differences between dark and illuminated states, and thus the precise mechanism through which adduct formation triggers helical dissociation remains poorly understood. Using Avena sativa phototropin 1 LOV2 as a model system, we have studied the interactions of the LOV domain core with the Jα helix through a series of equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. Here we show that conformational transitions of a conserved glutamine residue in the flavin binding pocket are coupled to altered dynamics of the Jα helix both through a shift in dynamics of the main β-sheet of the LOV domain core and through a secondary pathway involving the N-terminal A′α helix. PMID:23407663

  16. Radicalization and Radical Catalysis of Biomass Sugars: Insights from First-principles Studies

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Gang; Zhu, Chang; Zou, Xianli; Zhou, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Ab initio and density functional calculations are conducted to investigate the radicalization processes and radical catalysis of biomass sugars. Structural alterations due to radicalization generally focus on the radicalized sites, and radicalization affects H-bonds in D-fructofuranose more than in D-glucopyranose, potentially with outcome of new H-bonds. Performances of different functionals and basis sets are evaluated for all radicalization processes, and enthalpy changes and Gibbs free energies for these processes are presented with high accuracy, which can be referenced for subsequent experimental and theoretical studies. It shows that radicalization can be utilized for direct transformation of biomass sugars, and for each sugar, C rather than O sites are always preferred for radicalization, thus suggesting the possibility to activate C-H bonds of biomass sugars. Radical catalysis is further combined with Brønsted acids, and it clearly states that functionalization fundamentally regulates the catalytic effects of biomass sugars. In presence of explicit water molecules, functionalization significantly affects the activation barriers and reaction energies of protonation rather than dehydration steps. Tertiary butyl and phenyl groups with large steric hindrances or hydroxyl and amino groups resulting in high stabilities for protonation products drive the protonation steps to occur facilely at ambient conditions. PMID:27405843

  17. Chemoreflex Physiology and Implications for Sleep Apnea – Insights from Studies in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Mansukhani, Meghna P.; Wang, Shihan; Somers, Virend K.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of the chemoreflex in response to hypoxemia results in an increase in sympathetic neural outflow. This process is predominantly mediated by the peripheral chemoreceptors in the carotid bodies and is potentiated by the absence of the sympatho-inhibitory influence of ventilation during apnea, as is seen in patients with sleep apnea. In these patients, repetitive nocturnal hyoxemia and apnea elicit sympathetic activation, which may persist into wakefulness, and is thought to contribute to the development of systemic hypertension, and cardiac and vascular dysfunction. Chemoreflex activation could possibly lead to adverse cardiovascular outcomes such as nocturnal myocardial infarction, systolic and/or diastolic heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death in patients with sleep apnea. This review summarizes chemoreflex physiology in health and disease, with specific focus on chemoreflex-mediated pathophysiology in obstructive and central sleep apnea. Measurement of the chemoreflex response may serve as a potential avenue for individualized screening for cardiovascular disease. Whether modulation of this response in sleep apnea may aid in the prevention and treatment of adverse cardiovascular consequences will require further study. PMID:25398715

  18. Comparative Study on Waterborne Parasites between Malaysia and Thailand: A New Insight

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Thulasi; Onichandran, Subashini; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Ithoi, Init; Andiappan, Hemah; Salibay, Cristina C.; Dungca, Julieta Z.; Chye, Tan Tian; Sulaiman, Wan Y. W.; Ling Lau, Yee; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the distribution of parasites as main contaminants in water environments of peninsular Malaysia (October 2011–December 2011) and the southeastern coast of Thailand (June 2012). Sixty-four water samples, 33 from Malaysia and 31 from Thailand, of various water types were examined according to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. Drinking or household water types from both countries were free from parasitic contamination. The recreational/environmental (except a swimming pool in Malaysia) and effluent water types from these two countries were contaminated with waterborne parasites: Giardia (0.04–4 cysts/L), Cryptosporidium (0.06–2.33 oocysts/L), hookworm (6.67–350 ova/L), Ascaris (0.33–33.33 ova/L), and Schistosoma (9.25–13.33 ova/L). The most contaminated sites were recreational lake garden 3 in Malaysia and river 2 in Thailand. Higher concentrations of Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and hookworm were found in samples from Malaysia than in samples from Thailand. The presence of Giardia cysts showed a significant association with the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts (P < 0.005). PMID:24567315

  19. Cardiac valve cells and their microenvironment—insights from in vitro studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huan; Leinwand, Leslie A.; Anseth, Kristi S.

    2015-01-01

    During every heartbeat, cardiac valves open and close coordinately to control unidirectional flow of blood. In this dynamically challenging environment, resident valve cells actively maintain homeostasis, but the signalling between cells and their microenvironment is complex. When this homeostasis is disrupted and valve opening obstructed, haemodynamic profiles can be altered and lead to impaired cardiac function. Currently, late stages of cardiac valve diseases are treated surgically, as there are no known drug therapies to reverse or halt disease progression. Consequently investigators have sought to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms of valvular diseases usi in vitro cell culture systems and biomaterials scaffolds that can mimic extracellular microenvironment. In this Review we describe how signals in the extra cellular matrix regulate valve cell function. We propose that the cellular context is a critical factor when studying the molecular basis of valvular diseases in vitro, and one should consider how the surrounding matrix might influence cell signalling and functional outcomes in the valve. Investigators need to build a systems level understanding of the complex signalling network involved in valve regulation, to facilitate drug target identification and promote in situ or ex vivo heart valve regeneration. PMID:25311230

  20. Scanpaths of Complex Image Viewing: Insights From Experimental and Modeling Studies.

    PubMed

    Samarin, Anatoly; Koltunova, Tatiana; Osinov, Vladislav; Shaposhnikov, Dmitry; Podladchikova, Lubov

    2015-01-01

    From the first works of Buswell, Yarbus, and Noton and Stark, the scan path for viewing complex images has been considered as a possible key to objective estimation of cognitive processes and their dynamics. However, evidences both pro and con were revealed in the modern research. In this article, the results supporting the Yarbus-Stark concept are presented. In psychophysical tests, two types of images (three paintings from Yarbus` works and four textures) were used with two instructions, namely, "free viewing" and "search for modified image regions." The focus of the analysis of experimental results and modeling has been given to local elements of the scan path. It was shown that each parameter used (square of viewing area, S; distance between center of mass of viewing area and image center, R; parameter Xi, based on duration of the current fixation and angle between preceding and following saccades), reflects the specificity of both visual task and image properties. Additionally, the return gaze fixations which have a set of specific properties and mainly address to the areas of interest on image were revealed. Evidently these facts can be formalized in an advanced mathematical model as additional instrument to study the mechanisms of complex image viewing. PMID:26562920

  1. Enhanced heme accessibility in horse heart mini-myoglobin: Insights from molecular modelling and reactivity studies.

    PubMed

    Polticelli, Fabio; Zobnina, Veranika; Ciaccio, Chiara; de Sanctis, Giampiero; Ascenzi, Paolo; Coletta, Massimo

    2015-11-01

    Mini-myoglobin (mini-HHMb) is a fragment of horse-heart myoglobin (HHMb) considered to be the prototype of the product encoded by the central exon of the HHMb gene. For this reason, mini-HHMb has been studied extensively showing that carbonylation and oxygenation properties of the ferrous form are similar to those of the full-length protein, while kinetics and thermodynamics of azide binding to the ferric form are significantly different from those of HHMb. To analyze the structure-function relationships in mini-HHMb and the role of conformational fluctuations in ligand accessibility, the molecular model of mini-HHMb has been built and refined by molecular dynamics simulations, and analyzed in parallel with that of full length HHMb. Moreover, imidazole binding parameters of ferric mini-HHMb and HHMb have been determined. Furthermore, structural data of ferric mini-HHMb and HHMb have been correlated with the imidazole and previously determined azide binding properties. Present results indicate that, despite the extensive trimming, the heme-α-helices E-F substructure is essentially unaltered in mini-HHMb with respect to HHMb. However, the heme-Fe atom displays an enhanced accessibility in mini-HHMb, which may affect both ligand association and dissociation kinetics. PMID:26363214

  2. Heart Failure in Women--Insights from the Framingham Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Kenchaiah, Satish; Vasan, Ramachandran S

    2015-08-01

    In the latter half of the 20th century, among participants of the Framingham Heart Study, incidence of heart failure (HF) has declined by about a third in women but not in men and survival after the onset of HF has improved in both sexes; however, HF remains highly lethal with over 50% dying within 5 years after onset of HF. Overall, the 8-year relative risk of HF is 24% lower in women compared with men. The 8-year incidence rates of HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF; EF >45%) and HF with reduced EF (HFREF; EF ≤ 45%) in women and HFPEF in men are similar; however, men have a 2-fold higher cumulative incidence of HFREF than HFPEF. The lifetime risk of HF is about 20% in both women and men at 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 years of age. Contribution of hypertension and diabetes mellitus to the risk of HF was more prominent in women than in men. Serum levels of several biomarkers were distinctly different in women compared with men and had differential effects on left ventricular structure and function; however, the strength and direction of the association between biomarkers levels and HF risk were generally similar in women and men. In individuals with HF, about two-thirds of the underlying cause of death and about one-half of the immediate cause of death were due to cardiovascular causes. Non-cardiovascular underlying and immediate causes of death were more evident in HFPEF. PMID:26245740

  3. Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology.

    PubMed

    Locke, Adam E; Kahali, Bratati; Berndt, Sonja I; Justice, Anne E; Pers, Tune H; Day, Felix R; Powell, Corey; Vedantam, Sailaja; Buchkovich, Martin L; Yang, Jian; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian'an; Mägi, Reedik; Randall, Joshua C; Winkler, Thomas W; Wood, Andrew R; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Faul, Jessica D; Smith, Jennifer A; Hua Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Hedman, Åsa K; Karjalainen, Juha; Schmidt, Ellen M; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bolton, Jennifer L; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Deng, Guohong; Ehret, Georg B; Feenstra, Bjarke; Feitosa, Mary F; Fischer, Krista; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Jian; Jackson, Anne U; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Lim, Unhee; Lotay, Vaneet; Mangino, Massimo; Mateo Leach, Irene; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Medland, Sarah E; Nalls, Michael A; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J; Prokopenko, Inga; Shungin, Dmitry; Stančáková, Alena; Strawbridge, Rona J; Ju Sung, Yun; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; van der Laan, Sander W; van Setten, Jessica; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Wang, Zhaoming; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Isaacs, Aaron; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Attwood, Antony P; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bas, Isabelita N; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blagieva, Roza; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Böttcher, Yvonne; Boyd, Heather A; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Caspersen, Ida H; Ida Chen, Yii-Der; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E Warwick; de Craen, Anton J M; Delgado, Graciela; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S F; Eklund, Niina; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Folkersen, Lasse; Fraser, Ross M; Garcia, Melissa E; Geller, Frank; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S; Golay, Alain; Goodall, Alison H; Gordon, Scott D; Gorski, Mathias; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grönberg, Henrik; Groves, Christopher J; Gusto, Gaëlle; Haessler, Jeffrey; Hall, Per; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Helmer, Quinta; Hengstenberg, Christian; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; James, Alan L; Jeff, Janina M; Johansson, Åsa; Jolley, Jennifer; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Koskenvuo, Markku; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Laitinen, Jaana; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Sin Lo, Ken; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorbeer, Roberto; Lu, Yingchang; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L; McLachlan, Stela; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Morken, Mario A; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Musk, Arthur W; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nöthen, Markus M; Nolte, Ilja M; Pilz, Stefan; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Rettig, Rainer; Ried, Janina S; Ripke, Stephan; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Scott, William R; Seufferlein, Thomas; Shi, Jianxin; Vernon Smith, Albert; Smolonska, Joanna; Stanton, Alice V; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Uh, Hae-Won; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Verhulst, Frank C; Vermeulen, Sita H; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Warren, Helen R; Waterworth, Dawn; Weedon, Michael N; Wilkens, Lynne R; Willenborg, Christina; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F; Zhang, Qunyuan; Brennan, Eoin P; Choi, Murim; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W; Eriksson, Per; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gådin, Jesper R; Gharavi, Ali G; Goddard, Michael E; Handsaker, Robert E; Huang, Jinyan; Karpe, Fredrik; Kathiresan, Sekar; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Kubo, Michiaki; Lee, Jong-Young; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P; Ma, Baoshan; McCarroll, Steven A; McKnight, Amy J; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Montgomery, Grant W; Murabito, Joanne M; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R; Okada, Yukinori; Perry, John R B; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M; Sandholm, Niina; Scott, Robert A; Stolk, Lisette; Takahashi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Van't Hooft, Ferdinand M; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zheng, Wei; Zondervan, Krina T; Heath, Andrew C; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J L; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Blangero, John; Bovet, Pascal; Campbell, Harry; Caulfield, Mark J; Cesana, Giancarlo; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chasman, Daniel I; Chines, Peter S; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Cupples, L Adrienne; Cusi, Daniele; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; den Ruijter, Hester M; Dominiczak, Anna F; Erbel, Raimund; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Felix, Stephan B; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Ford, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gejman, Pablo V; Gieger, Christian; Gottesman, Omri; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hall, Alistair S; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hicks, Andrew A; Hindorff, Lucia A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Hovingh, G Kees; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jacobs, Kevin B; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jukema, J Wouter; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kastelein, John J P; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Knekt, Paul; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKenzie, Colin A; McKnight, Barbara; Moll, Frans L; Morris, Andrew D; Morris, Andrew P; Murray, Jeffrey C; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Madden, Pamela A F; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Peden, John F; Peters, Annette; Postma, Dirkje S; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Qi, Lu; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Ridker, Paul M; Rioux, John D; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schunkert, Heribert; Schwarz, Peter E H; Sever, Peter; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sinisalo, Juha; Stolk, Ronald P; Strauch, Konstantin; Tönjes, Anke; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Waeber, Gérard; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Zillikens, M Carola; Adair, Linda S; Amouyel, Philippe; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bottinger, Erwin P; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Chambers, John C; Chanock, Stephen J; Cooper, Richard S; de Bakker, Paul I W; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franks, Paul W; Froguel, Philippe; Groop, Leif C; Haiman, Christopher A; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hunter, David J; Hveem, Kristian; Kaplan, Robert C; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; Melbye, Mads; Metspalu, Andres; Moebus, Susanne; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin N A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Sattar, Naveed; Schadt, Eric E; Schlessinger, David; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Weir, David R; Wichmann, H-Erich; Wilson, James F; Zanen, Pieter; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S; Heid, Iris M; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Strachan, David P; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M; McCarthy, Mark I; Visscher, Peter M; Scherag, André; Willer, Cristen J; Boehnke, Michael; Mohlke, Karen L; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Beckmann, Jacques S; Barroso, Inês; North, Kari E; Ingelsson, Erik; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Loos, Ruth J F; Speliotes, Elizabeth K

    2015-02-12

    Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224 individuals. This analysis identifies 97 BMI-associated loci (P < 5 × 10(-8)), 56 of which are novel. Five loci demonstrate clear evidence of several independent association signals, and many loci have significant effects on other metabolic phenotypes. The 97 loci account for ∼2.7% of BMI variation, and genome-wide estimates suggest that common variation accounts for >20% of BMI variation. Pathway analyses provide strong support for a role of the central nervous system in obesity susceptibility and implicate new genes and pathways, including those related to synaptic function, glutamate signalling, insulin secretion/action, energy metabolism, lipid biology and adipogenesis. PMID:25673413

  4. Insights into the transport of aqueous quaternary ammonium cations: a combined experimental and computational study.

    PubMed

    Sarode, Himanshu N; Lindberg, Gerrick E; Yang, Yuan; Felberg, Lisa E; Voth, Gregory A; Herring, Andrew M

    2014-02-01

    This study focuses on understanding the relative effects of ammonium substituent groups (we primarily consider tetramethylammonium, benzyltrimethylammonium, and tetraethylammonium cations) and anion species (OH(-), HCO3(-), CO3(2-), Cl(-), and F(-)) on ion transport by combining experimental and computational approaches. We characterize transport experimentally using ionic conductivity and self-diffusion coefficients measured from NMR. These experimental results are interpreted using simulation methods to describe the transport of these cations and anions considering the effects of the counterion. It is particularly noteworthy that we directly probe cation and anion diffusion with pulsed gradient stimulated echo NMR and molecular dynamics simulations, corroborating these methods and providing a direct link between atomic-resolution simulations and macroscale experiments. By pairing diffusion measurements and simulations with residence times, we were able to understand the interplay between short-time and long-time dynamics with ionic conductivity. With experiment, we determined that solutions of benzyltrimethylammonium hydroxide have the highest ionic conductivity (0.26 S/cm at 65 °C), which appears to be due to differences for the ions in long-time diffusion and short-time water caging. We also examined the effect of CO2 on ionic conductivity in ammonium hydroxide solutions. CO2 readily reacts with OH(-) to form HCO(-)3 and is found to lower the solution ionic conductivity by almost 50%. PMID:24437699

  5. Understanding the Basis of Auriculocondylar Syndrome: Insights From Human and Mouse Genetic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Clouthier, David E.; Passos Bueno, Maria Rita; Tavares, Andre L.P.; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Amiel, Jeanne; Gordon, Christopher T.

    2014-01-01

    Among human birth defect syndromes, malformations affecting the face are perhaps the most striking due to cultural and psychological expectations of facial shape. One such syndrome is auriculocondylar syndrome (ACS), in which patients present with defects in ear and mandible development. Affected structures arise from cranial neural crest cells, a population of cells in the embryo that reside in the pharyngeal arches and give rise to most of the bone, cartilage and connective tissue of the face. Recent studies have found that most cases of ACS arise from defects in signaling molecules associated with the endothelin signaling pathway. Disruption of this signaling pathway in both mouse and zebrafish results in loss of identity of neural crest cells of the mandibular portion of the first pharyngeal arch and the subsequent repatterning of these cells, leading to homeosis of lower jaw structures into more maxillary-like structures. These findings illustrate the importance of endothelin signaling in normal human craniofacial development and illustrate how clinical and basic science approaches can coalesce to improve our understanding of the genetic basis of human birth syndromes. Further, understanding the genetic basis for ACS that lies outside of known endothelin signaling components may help elucidate unknown aspects critical to the establishment of neural crest cell patterning during facial morphogenesis. PMID:24123988

  6. Study of systems and techniques for data base management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Data management areas were studied to identify pertinent problems and issues that will affect future NASA data users in terms of performance and cost. Specific topics discussed include the identifications of potential NASA data users other than those normally discussed, consideration affecting the clustering of minicomputers, low cost computer system for information retrieval and analysis, the testing of minicomputer based data base management systems, ongoing work related to the use of dedicated systems for data base management, and the problems of data interchange among a community of NASA data users.

  7. Mechanical stratigraphy of deep-water sandstones: insights from a multisciplinary field and laboratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agosta, Fabrizio; di Celma, Claudio; Tondi, Emanuele; Corradetti, Amerigo; Cantalamessa, Gino

    2010-05-01

    -perpendicular joint spacing/bed thickness (S/T) relationships on sandstone bodies that experienced similar diagenetic and tectonic histories. The field area is located in the Periadriatic foreland basin, eastern central Italy, which show late Pliocene slope turbidites in excellent 3d views. The Periadriatic foreland basin is an elongated, roughly N-S oriented trough located immediately east of the Apennines fold-thrust belt. The basin fill mostly consists of deepwater Plio-Pleistocene sediments partially incorporated into the frontal part of the orogenic wedge. During the late Pliocene, gravel and sand originated from the uplifting Apennines were abundantly supplied to the deep-water basin through a series of erosional conduits that, in the rock record, appear as a series of N-S oriented slope submarine canyon systems deeply incised into the hemipelagic mudstones of the adjacent slope. The studied exposure allows direct observation of spatial and temporal relationships among the various depositional elements comprising the canyon system and related lithofacies, as well as the bed-perpendicular joint density within each lithofacies. We performed a multidisciplinary work involving the following tasks: (i) 3D stratigraphic model of the depositional architecture of the Castignano and Ascensione canyon systems (Marche region, Italy); (ii) 2D scanline survey of several outcrops displaying bed-perpendicular joints; (iii) digital image analysis of selected thin-section obtained from oriented hand samples to characterize the 3D intergranualr porosity; (iv) Stiffness analysis of representative sandstone bodies by mean of Schmidt hammer tests. The first results of this ongoing study on the mechanical stratigraphy of the two Late Pliocene canyon systems are consistent with the joint density being effected by both geometrical (i.e., bed thickness) and mechanical properties. This data set will help field and experimental geologists to better define common strategies to assess the controlling

  8. Structure of parasite component communities of didelphid marsupials: insights from a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, F Agustín; Catzeflis, François; Gardner, Scott L

    2011-10-01

    The parasite fauna of the gray four-eyed opossum, Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758), and the common opossum, Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758, in Camp du Tigre, French Guiana, is characterized. Nine species from the gastrointestinal system were recovered from both species, which shared 80% of their parasites. The parasite fauna comprised several monoxenous species (63%) and was dominated by Aspidodera raillieti Travassos, 1914, which exhibited high levels of prevalence and abundance in both communities. Only 2 species (Moennigia sp. and Spirura guianensis) had been recorded in other species of mammals. Both species richness and taxonomic composition at the level of component communities from this locality were compared against 11 communities present in the Virginia ( Didelphis virginiana ), white-bellied (Didelphis albiventris), and common opossum from Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Neither host phylogeny nor taxonomy accounted for statistical differences in species richness. There was no statistical difference among species richness values among the 9 localities studied. Taxonomic similarity was analyzed by means of the Jaccard's similarity index, including all, and only common species (occurring in prevalence >10%). The results suggest that sympatric species of marsupials share more species of parasites than parasite communities occurring in conspecific marsupials from different localities. As a consequence, taxonomic composition of these parasite communities varied depending on the locality. Probably, marsupials of the monophyletic Didelphini offer the same compatibility toward their parasites, by presenting them with similar habitats. Subtle differences in lifestyles of the marsupials may determine the chance of encounter between the symbionts and prevent some parasites from completing their life cycles. Further and more rigorous tests are necessary to determine the roles of encounter and compatibility filters, as well as the role of

  9. Functional insights from molecular modeling, docking, and dynamics study of a cypoviral RNA dependent RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Anirban; Dutta, Anirudha; Biswas, Poulomi; Das, Amit Kumar; Ghosh, Ananta Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Antheraea mylitta cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (AmCPV) contains 11 double stranded RNA genome segments and infects tasar silkworm A. mylitta. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is reported as a key enzyme responsible for propagation of the virus in the host cell but its structure function relationship still remains elusive. Here a computational approach has been taken to compare sequence and secondary structure of AmCPV RdRp with other viral RdRps to identify consensus motifs. Then a reliable pairwise sequence alignment of AmCPV RdRp with its closest sequence structure homologue λ3 RdRp is done to predict three dimensional structure of AmCPV RdRp. After comparing with other structurally known viral RdRps, important sequence and/or structural features involved in substrate entry or binding, polymerase reaction and the product release events have been identified. A conserved RNA pentanucleotide (5'-AGAGC-3') at the 3'-end of virus genome is predicted as cis-acting signal for RNA synthesis and its docking and simulation study along with the model of AmCPV RdRp has allowed to predict mode of template binding by the viral polymerase. It is found that template RNA enters into the catalytic center through nine sequence-independent and two sequence-dependent interactions with the specific amino acid residues. However, number of sequence dependent interactions remains almost same during 10 nano-second simulation time while total number of interactions decreases. Further, docking of N(7)-methyl-GpppG (mRNA cap) on the model as well as prediction of RNA secondary structure has shown the template entry process in the active site. These findings have led to postulate the mechanism of RNA-dependent RNA polymerization process by AmCPV RdRp. To our knowledge, this is the first report to evaluate structure function relationship of a cypoviral RdRp. PMID:26264734

  10. A Comparative Study of Lung Host Defense in Murine Obesity Models. Insights into Neutrophil Function.

    PubMed

    Ubags, Niki D J; Burg, Elianne; Antkowiak, Maryellen; Wallace, Aaron M; Dilli, Estee; Bement, Jenna; Wargo, Matthew J; Poynter, Matthew E; Wouters, Emiel F M; Suratt, Benjamin T

    2016-08-01

    We have shown that obesity-associated attenuation of murine acute lung injury is driven, in part, by blunted neutrophil chemotaxis, yet differences were noted between the two models of obesity studied. We hypothesized that obesity-associated impairment of multiple neutrophil functions contributes to increased risk for respiratory infection but that such impairments may vary between murine models of obesity. We examined the most commonly used murine obesity models (diet-induced obesity, db/db, CPE(fat/fat), and ob/ob) using a Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia model and LPS-induced pneumonitis. Marrow-derived neutrophils from uninjured lean and obese mice were examined for in vitro functional responses. All obesity models showed impaired clearance of K. pneumoniae, but in differing temporal patterns. Failure to contain infection in obese mice was seen in the db/db model at both 24 and 48 hours, yet this defect was only evident at 24 hours in CPE(fat/fat) and ob/ob models, and at 48 hours in diet-induced obesity. LPS-induced airspace neutrophilia was decreased in all models, and associated with blood neutropenia in the ob/ob model but with leukocytosis in the others. Obese mouse neutrophils from all models demonstrated impaired chemotaxis, whereas neutrophil granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mediated survival, LPS-induced cytokine transcription, and mitogen-activated protein kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation in response to LPS and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, respectively, were variably impaired across the four models. Obesity-associated impairment of host response to lung infection is characterized by defects in neutrophil recruitment and survival. However, critical differences exist between commonly used mouse models of obesity and may reflect variable penetrance of elements of the metabolic syndrome, as well as other factors. PMID:27128821

  11. Social networks and physician adoption of electronic health records: insights from an empirical study

    PubMed Central

    Padman, Rema; Krackhardt, David; Johnson, Michael P; Diamond, Herbert S

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study how social interactions influence physician adoption of an electronic health records (EHR) system. Design A social network survey was used to delineate the structure of social interactions among 40 residents and 15 attending physicians in an ambulatory primary care practice. Social network analysis was then applied to relate the interaction structures to individual physicians' utilization rates of an EHR system. Measurements The social network survey assessed three distinct types of interaction structures: professional network based on consultation on patient care-related matters; friendship network based on personal intimacy; and perceived influence network based on a person's perception of how other people have affected her intention to adopt the EHR system. EHR utilization rates were measured as the proportion of patient visits in which sentinel use events consisting of patient data documentation or retrieval activities were recorded. The usage data were collected over a time period of 14 months from computer-recorded audit trail logs. Results Neither the professional nor the perceived influence network is correlated with EHR usage. The structure of the friendship network significantly influenced individual physicians' adoption of the EHR system. Residents who occupied similar social positions in the friendship network shared similar EHR utilization rates (p<0.05). In other words, residents who had personal friends in common tended to develop comparable levels of EHR adoption. This effect is particularly prominent when the mutual personal friends of these ‘socially similar’ residents were attending physicians (p<0.001). Conclusions Social influence affecting physician adoption of EHR seems to be predominantly conveyed through interactions with personal friends rather than interactions in professional settings. PMID:20442152

  12. Insights into the origins of fish hunting in venomous cone snails from studies of Conus tessulatus.

    PubMed

    Aman, Joseph W; Imperial, Julita S; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Zhang, Min-Min; Aguilar, Manuel; Taylor, Dylan; Watkins, Maren; Yoshikami, Doju; Showers-Corneli, Patrice; Safavi-Hemami, Helena; Biggs, Jason; Teichert, Russell W; Olivera, Baldomero M

    2015-04-21

    Prey shifts in carnivorous predators are events that can initiate the accelerated generation of new biodiversity. However, it is seldom possible to reconstruct how the change in prey preference occurred. Here we describe an evolutionary "smoking gun" that illuminates the transition from worm hunting to fish hunting among marine cone snails, resulting in the adaptive radiation of fish-hunting lineages comprising ∼100 piscivorous Conus species. This smoking gun is δ-conotoxin TsVIA, a peptide from the venom of Conus tessulatus that delays inactivation of vertebrate voltage-gated sodium channels. C. tessulatus is a species in a worm-hunting clade, which is phylogenetically closely related to the fish-hunting cone snail specialists. The discovery of a δ-conotoxin that potently acts on vertebrate sodium channels in the venom of a worm-hunting cone snail suggests that a closely related ancestral toxin enabled the transition from worm hunting to fish hunting, as δ-conotoxins are highly conserved among fish hunters and critical to their mechanism of prey capture; this peptide, δ-conotoxin TsVIA, has striking sequence similarity to these δ-conotoxins from piscivorous cone snail venoms. Calcium-imaging studies on dissociated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons revealed the peptide's putative molecular target (voltage-gated sodium channels) and mechanism of action (inhibition of channel inactivation). The results were confirmed by electrophysiology. This work demonstrates how elucidating the specific interactions between toxins and receptors from phylogenetically well-defined lineages can uncover molecular mechanisms that underlie significant evolutionary transitions. PMID:25848010

  13. Insights into the origins of fish hunting in venomous cone snails from studies of Conus tessulatus

    PubMed Central

    Aman, Joseph W.; Imperial, Julita S.; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Zhang, Min-Min; Aguilar, Manuel; Taylor, Dylan; Watkins, Maren; Yoshikami, Doju; Showers-Corneli, Patrice; Safavi-Hemami, Helena; Biggs, Jason; Teichert, Russell W.; Olivera, Baldomero M.

    2015-01-01

    Prey shifts in carnivorous predators are events that can initiate the accelerated generation of new biodiversity. However, it is seldom possible to reconstruct how the change in prey preference occurred. Here we describe an evolutionary “smoking gun” that illuminates the transition from worm hunting to fish hunting among marine cone snails, resulting in the adaptive radiation of fish-hunting lineages comprising ∼100 piscivorous Conus species. This smoking gun is δ-conotoxin TsVIA, a peptide from the venom of Conus tessulatus that delays inactivation of vertebrate voltage-gated sodium channels. C. tessulatus is a species in a worm-hunting clade, which is phylogenetically closely related to the fish-hunting cone snail specialists. The discovery of a δ-conotoxin that potently acts on vertebrate sodium channels in the venom of a worm-hunting cone snail suggests that a closely related ancestral toxin enabled the transition from worm hunting to fish hunting, as δ-conotoxins are highly conserved among fish hunters and critical to their mechanism of prey capture; this peptide, δ-conotoxin TsVIA, has striking sequence similarity to these δ-conotoxins from piscivorous cone snail venoms. Calcium-imaging studies on dissociated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons revealed the peptide’s putative molecular target (voltage-gated sodium channels) and mechanism of action (inhibition of channel inactivation). The results were confirmed by electrophysiology. This work demonstrates how elucidating the specific interactions between toxins and receptors from phylogenetically well-defined lineages can uncover molecular mechanisms that underlie significant evolutionary transitions. PMID:25848010

  14. Services just for men? Insights from a national study of the well men services pilots

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Men continue to have a lower life expectancy in most countries compared to women. Explanations of this gendered health inequality tend to focus on male risk taking, unhealthy lifestyle choices and resistance to seeking help from health services. In the period 2005–2008 the Scottish Government funded a nationwide community health promotion programme aimed at improving men’s health, called Well Men Service Pilots (henceforth WMS). Method This paper explores WMS programme users’ perspectives and experiences of health help-seeking against theories of hegemonic masculinity as explanatory frameworks for men’s behaviour around health and illness, and their views on a male-specific focus of the programme. It is based on a secondary analysis of 43 semi-structured interviews with men who engaged with this programme. Results We challenge the commonly held notion of men as being disinterested in their health, and point to their heterogeneity in relation to their views about health and notions of health seeking. Moreover, men in our study were largely ambivalent about the need for gender specific services, despite their positive reactions to the programme in general. Conclusions Our findings question the utility of some theories of masculinity that posit somewhat simplistic explanations for men’s reluctance to seek help from formal healthcare services. They also suggest that providing male-specific health services may not significantly address men’s supposed reluctance to seek help from formal health services. Essentially, age seemed to be more important than gender. All encompassing health programmes are likely to fail to meet their health improvement objectives if they attempt to engage with men on the simple basis that they are male. PMID:23634701

  15. Structural studies on tobacco streak virus coat protein: Insights into the pleomorphic nature of ilarviruses.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Ashutosh; Alapati, Kavitha; Murthy, Abhinandan; Savithri, H S; Murthy, M R N

    2016-02-01

    Tobacco streak virus (TSV), the type member of Ilarvirus genus, is a major plant pathogen. TSV purified from infected plants consists of a ss-RNA genome encapsidated in spheroidal particles with diameters of 27, 30 and 33nm constructed from multiple copies of a single species of coat protein (CP) subunits. Apart from protecting the viral genome, CPs of ilarviruses play several key roles in the life cycle of these viruses. Unlike the related bromo and cucumoviruses, ilarvirus particles are labile and pleomorphic, which has posed difficulties in their crystallization and structure determination. In the current study, a truncated TSV-CP was crystallized in two distinct forms and their structures were determined at resolutions of 2.4Å and 2.1Å, respectively. The core of TSV CP was found to possess the canonical β-barrel jelly roll tertiary structure observed in several other viruses. Dimers of CP with swapped C-terminal arms (C-arm) were observed in both the crystal forms. The C-arm was found to be flexible and is likely to be responsible for the polymorphic and pleomorphic nature of TSV capsids. Consistent with this observation, mutations in the hinge region of the C-arm that reduce the flexibility resulted in the formation of more uniform particles. TSV CP was found to be structurally similar to that of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) accounting for similar mechanism of genome activation in alfamo and ilar viruses. This communication represents the first report on the structure of the CP from an ilarvirus. PMID:26706030

  16. Hair cortisol: a parameter of chronic stress? Insights from a radiometabolism study in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Keckeis, Karin; Lepschy, Michael; Schöpper, Hanna; Moser, Lukas; Troxler, Josef; Palme, Rupert

    2012-10-01

    Measurement of hair cortisol has become popular in the evaluation of chronic stress in various species. However, a sound validation is still missing. Therefore, deposition of radioactivity in hair and excretion into feces and urine after repeated injection of (3)H-cortisol was studied in guinea pigs (n = 8). Each animal was given intraperitoneally 243.6 kBq (3)H-cortisol/day on 3 successive days. After the first injection, all voided excreta were collected for 3 days. After the second injection, hair was shaved off the animals' back and newly grown hair was obtained on day 7. Following methanol extraction, radiolabeled and unlabeled glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM) in fecal and hair samples were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and enzyme immunoassays (EIA). In feces, maximum radioactivity was reached 8 h (median) post each injection, whereas maxima in urine were detected in the first samples (median 2.5 h). Metabolites excreted into feces (13.3% ± 3.7) or urine (86.7%) returned nearly to background levels. HPLC of fecal extracts showed minor variation between individuals and sexes. In hair, small amounts of radioactivity were present. However, two EIAs detected large amounts of unlabeled GCM, including high levels at the position of the cortisol standard; radioactivity was absent in this fraction, demonstrating that (3)H-cortisol was metabolized. Furthermore, large amounts of immunoreactivity coinciding with a radioactive peak at the elution position of cortisone were found. These results show for the first time that only small amounts of systemically administered radioactive glucocorticoids are deposited in hair of guinea pigs, while measurement of large amounts of unlabeled GCM strongly suggests local production of glucocorticoids in hair follicles. PMID:22592890

  17. Degradation of cellulose under alkaline conditions: new insights from a 12 years degradation study.

    PubMed

    Glaus, Martin A; Van Loon, Luc R

    2008-04-15

    Cellulose degradation under alkaline conditions is of relevance to the mobility of many cations of the transition metal, lanthanide, and actinide series in the geosphere because strong complexants such as isosaccharinic acids, 3-deoxy-2-C-hydroxymethyl-D-erythro-pentonic acid (alpha-ISA) and 3-deoxy-2-C-hydroxymethyl-D-threo-pentonic acid (beta-ISA) may be formed. In the context of the long-term safety of cementitious repositories for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste, where large amounts of cellulose may be present, the question of the time scales needed for the complete degradation of cellulose is important. The present paper reports the results of a 12 year study of the degradation of four different cellulosic materials (pure cellulose, tissue, cotton, paper) in an artificial cement pore water under anaerobic conditions at approximately 25 degrees C. The observed reaction characteristics can be divided into a fast reaction phase (2-3 years), dominated by the stepwise conversion of terminal glucose monomeric units to alpha-ISA and beta-ISA, and a very slow reaction phase during which the same products were found. The slow rate of the alkaline degradation of cellulose during this second reaction phase shows that previous kinetic models of cellulose degradation did not adequately describe the long-term behavior under alkaline conditions and need to be reassessed. It is postulated that a previously unknown mechanism by which crystalline or inaccessible reducing end groups of the polysaccharide chain become temporarily susceptible to alkaline attack is responsible for the slow rate of cellulose degradation. PMID:18497142

  18. New insights into the antioxidant activity of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic systems: spectroscopic, electrochemistry, and cellular studies.

    PubMed

    Mura, F; Silva, T; Castro, C; Borges, F; Zuñiga, M C; Morales, J; Olea-Azar, C

    2014-12-01

    A series hydroxycinnamic and gallic acids and their derivatives were studied with the aim of evaluating their in vitro antioxidant properties both in homogeneous and in cellular systems. It was concluded from the oxygen radical absorbance capacity-fluorescein (ORAC-FL), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and cyclic voltammetry data that some compounds exhibit remarkable antioxidant properties. In general, in homogeneous media (DPPH assay), galloyl-based cinnamic and benzoic systems (compounds 7-11) were the most active, exhibiting the lowest oxidation potentials in both dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and phosphate buffer. Yet, p-coumaric acid and its derivatives (compounds 1-3) disclosed the highest scavenging activity toward peroxyl radicals (ORAC-FL assay). Interesting structure-property- activity relationships between ORAC-FL, or DPPH radical, and redox potentials have been attained, showing that the latter parameter can be a valuable antioxidant measure. It was evidenced that redox potentials are related to the structural features of cinnamic and benzoic systems and that their activities are also dependent on the radical generated in the assay. Electron spin resonance data of the phenoxyl radicals generated both in DMSO and phosphate buffer support the assumption that radical stability is related to the type of phenolic system. Galloyl-based cinnamic and benzoic ester-type systems (compounds 9 and 11) were the most active and effective compounds in cell-based assays (51.13 ± 1.27% and 54.90 ± 3.65%, respectively). In cellular systems, hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic systems operate based on their intrinsic antioxidant outline and lipophilic properties, so the balance between these two properties is considered of the utmost importance to ensure their performance in the prevention or minimization of the effects due to free radical overproduction. PMID:25236566

  19. Soil formation and mineralogy of a Rhodic Luvisol — insights from magnetic and geochemical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordanova, Neli; Jordanova, Diana; Liu, Qingsong; Hu, Pengxiang; Petrov, Petar; Petrovský, Eduard

    2013-11-01

    Relict terra rossa soil from the most south-eastern part of Bulgaria, characterized by transitional Mediterranean climate, has been comprehensively studied by integrating magnetic, geochemical and spectroscopic methods to reveal the origin, pedogenic processes and phases in soil development of this particular soil type. The red colored Rhodic Luvisol is developed on metamorphosed Triassic limestones. Magnetic methods, which include thermomagnetic analysis of susceptibility, isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) acquisition and thermal demagnetization, IRM component analysis, hysteresis measurements, low-temperature (down to 10 K) IRM behavior, anhysteretic remanence and frequency dependent susceptibility, indicate the presence of three major magnetic phases - maghemite, hematite (Hm) and goethite (Gt). Hematite and goethite are identified also by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Depth variations of the ratio Hm/(Hm + Gt), deduced from the DRS spectra show higher hematite content in the upper soil horizons (A + B), while goethite's contribution is enriched in the lowermost part of the profile. A similar ratio, based on the established magnetic proxies for hematite and goethite, was constructed and its variations were compared with the DRS data. The magnetic proxy for Hm/(Hm + Gt) reflects the variations in the remanence-carrying mineral fraction of hematite and goethite and the obtained difference with the DRS data are ascribed to the presence of the paramagnetic (or superparamagnetic) goethite in the A and illuvial Bt1 and Bt2 horizons. The low ratio Feo/Fed between dithionite (Fed)- and oxalate (Feo)-extractable iron, and the large proportion of extractable iron with respect to total iron (Fed/Fetot) indicate an advanced degree of weathering. Depth variations of magnetic parameters and ratios (χlf, χfd, S-ratio) suggest magnetic enhancement with SP-SD maghemite grains, accompanied by magnetically stable magnetic carriers in the soil, while the parent

  20. Is it possible to reverse aged acetylcholinesterase inhibited by organophosphorus compounds? Insight from the theoretical study.

    PubMed

    An, Yun; Zhu, Yali; Yao, Yuan; Liu, Junjun

    2016-04-14

    The main treatment for organophosphorus (OP) compound poisoning in clinics is to restore the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) through oxime-induced reactivation of the phosphorylated OP-AChE adduct. It suffers from a competitive and irreversible aging reaction of the phosphorylated OP-AChE adduct, resulting in permanent inactivity of AChE. However, it was recently reported that N-methyl-2-methoxypyridinium species can act as methylating agents to methylate the methyl methane-phosphonate monoanion, in which the reaction mimics the reverse of the aging reaction of the phosphorylated OP-AChE adduct. If the aging reaction could be really reversed, the efficiency for the OP detoxification should be significantly improved, bringing up the possibility to develop an agent to reverse the aging process of the phosphorylated OP-AChE adduct. However, such a reaction with the N-methyl-2-methoxypyridinium species in the enzyme is still not reported so far. It is of great interest to know whether or not this reaction is observable in the enzyme, and more importantly, if it turns out to be not observable in the enzyme, why such a reaction proceeds quickly in aqueous solution but not in the enzyme. In the present study, we performed DFT calculations and quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations to reveal the fundamental mechanism for the methylation of both the methyl methane-phosphonate monoanion and the aged sarin-AChE adduct by N-methyl-2-methoxypyridinium species, respectively. The obtained results support the SN2 reaction mechanism, not the stepwise mechanism, for the methylation of the methyl methane-phosphonate monoanion by 9 reported N-methyl-2-methoxypyridinium compounds. The calculated free energy barriers are in good agreement with the experimental data. The methylation of the aged sarin-AChE adduct by one N-methyl-2-methoxypyridinium compound (labeled as compound 2) also employs the SN2 reaction mechanism with an extremely high free energy

  1. New Insights in Abdominal Pain in Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH): A MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    De Cobelli, Francesco; Pezzetti, Giulio; Margari, Sergio; Esposito, Antonio; Giganti, Francesco; Agostini, Giulia; Del Maschio, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Abdominal pain in PNH has never been investigated by in-vivo imaging studies. With MRI, we aimed to assess mesenteric vessels flow and small bowel wall perfusion to investigate the ischemic origin of abdominal pain. Materials and Methods Six PNH patients with (AP) and six without (NOP) abdominal pain underwent MRI. In a blinded fashion, mean flow (MF, quantity of blood moving through a vessel within a second, in mL·s-1) and stroke volume (SV, volume of blood pumped out at each heart contraction, in mL) of Superior Mesenteric Vein (SMV) and Artery (SMA), areas under the curve at 60 (AUC60) and 90 seconds (AUC90) and Ktrans were assessed by two operators. Results Mean total perfusion and flow parameters were lower in AP than in NOP group. AUC60: 84.81 ± 11.75 vs. 131.73 ± 18.89 (P < 0.001); AUC90: 102.33 ± 14.16 vs. 152.58 ± 22.70 (P < 0.001); Ktrans: 0.0346 min-1 ± 0.0019 vs. 0.0521 ± 0.0015 (P = 0.093 duodenum, 0.009 jejunum/ileum). SMV: MF 4.67 ml/s ± 0.85 vs. 8.32 ± 2.14 (P = 0.002); SV 3.85 ml ± 0.76 vs. 6.55 ± 1.57 (P = 0.02). SMA: MF 6.95 ± 2.61 vs. 11.2 ± 2.32 (P = 0.07); SV 6.52 ± 2.19 vs. 8.78 ± 1.63 (P = 0.07). We found a significant correlation between MF and SV of SMV and AUC60 (MF:ρ = 0.88, P < 0.001; SV: ρ = 0.644, P = 0.024), AUC90 (MF: ρ = 0.874, P < 0.001; SV:ρ = 0.774, P = 0.003) and Ktrans (MF:ρ = 0.734, P = 0.007; SV:ρ = 0.581, P = 0.047). Conclusions Perfusion and flow MRI findings suggest that the impairment of small bowel blood supply is significantly associated with abdominal pain in PNH. PMID:25897796

  2. Profiling physicochemical changes within catalyst bodies during preparation: new insights from invasive and noninvasive microspectroscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Alonso, Leticia; Beale, Andrew M; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2010-09-21

    -dependent. Different processes occurring in the core or in the outer rim of the catalytic solid are enhanced by several factors, such as the impregnation solution pH, the metal ion concentration, the presence of organic additives, and the temperature gradients inside the body. Invasive methods for studying the molecular nature of the metal-ion species during the preparation of catalyst bodies include Raman, UV-vis-NIR, and IR microspectroscopies. Noninvasive techniques include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Synchrotron-based techniques such as tomographic energy dispersive diffraction imaging (TEDDI) and X-ray microtomography for noninvasive characterization are also evaluated. PMID:20604550

  3. Patterns of Twentieth Century Treeline Advance in Alaska: Insights from Dendrochronology and Permanent Plot Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, A. H.; Fastie, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    Warming over the last several decades has led to an upward or poleward shift in the distributional limit of trees at sites around the circumboreal north. In our own research in three regions in Alaska, we found evidence for an upward shift in treeline at every site, in the form of a decline in population age with increasing elevation. The prevalence of that particular signature of change suggests that continued expansion of forest vegetation at treeline is likely. But how fast, and how sustained are those changes likely to be in the future? Changing disturbance regimes, non-linear growth responses to warming, and unexplained regional variability in the rate of historical responses to warming all introduce significant uncertainty to projections of future change at treeline. In an effort to compare historical with current patterns of change, we set up permanent plots in each of the sites at which we had reconstructed forest history, tagging each tree and seedling. We resampled these plots more than a decade after the initial measurements, and thus have an opportunity to compare the actual trajectory of change in each plot with the trajectory that we inferred from our dendrochronological reconstructions. At most sites, the observed pattern of change over the last 10-15 years is consistent with the trajectory inferred from dendrochronological studies. Seedling density at treeline and above treeline increased significantly over this time period-- almost doubling (98.6% increase) at treeline plots, and increasing more than 189%, on average, in above treeline plots. The expansion of forest vegetation at treeline has thus continued at an extremely rapid pace. The remeasurements also, however, yielded surprises that could not have been anticipated from the reconstructions at forest history. A severe fire at one of our sites killed most of the seedlings that had established above treeline, and in the years since the fire, aspen-- which is not a common treeline species in

  4. Langley applications experiments data management system study. [for space shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanham, C. C., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A data management system study is presented that defines, in functional terms, the most cost effective ground data management system to support Advanced Technology Laboratory (ATL) flights of the space shuttle. Results from each subtask performed and the recommended system configuration for reformatting the experiment instrumentation tapes to computer compatible tape are examined. Included are cost factors for development of a mini control center for real-time support of the ATL flights.

  5. Management of diabetic foot ulcers: evaluation of case studies.

    PubMed

    Torkington-Stokes, Rachel; Metcalf, Daniel; Bowler, Philip

    2016-08-11

    This article explores local barriers to diabetic foot ulcer healing, and describes the use of a dressing designed to manage exudate, infection and biofilm (AQUACEL® Ag+ dressing (AQAg+)) on recalcitrant diabetic foot ulcers. The authors consider four case studies that demonstrate how managing local barriers to wound healing with antimicrobial and anti-biofilm dressings in protocols of care can improve outcomes for patients. PMID:27523769

  6. Insights into iron sources and pathways in the Amazon River provided by isotopic and spectroscopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulholland, Daniel Santos; Poitrasson, Franck; Boaventura, Geraldo Resende; Allard, Thierry; Vieira, Lucieth Cruz; Santos, Roberto Ventura; Mancini, Luiz; Seyler, Patrick

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated the weathering and transport mechanisms of Fe in the Amazon River. A particular emphasis was placed on Fe partitioning, speciation, and isotopic fractionation in the contrasting waters of the Solimões and Negro rivers and their mixing zone at the beginning of the Amazon River. Samples collected in the end-member rivers and thirteen sites distributed throughout the mixing zone were processed through frontal vacuum filtration and tangential-flow ultrafiltration to separate the different suspended solid fractions, i.e., particulate (P > 0.45 μm and P > 0.22 μm), colloidal (0.22 μm > C > 5 kDa) and truly dissolved elements (TD < 5 kDa). The Fe isotopic composition and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) species were measured on these different pore-sized fractions. The acidic and organo-Fe-rich waters of the Negro River displayed dissolved and colloidal fractions enriched in heavy isotopes (∼1.2‰, in δ57Fe values relative to IRMM-14), while the particulate fractions yielded light isotopic compositions of -0.344‰ for P > 0.22 μm and -0.104‰ for P > 0.45 μm fractions). The mineral particulate-rich waters of the Solimões River had dissolved and colloidal fractions with light isotopic composition (-0.532‰ and -0.176‰, respectively), whereas the particulate fractions yielded δ57Fe values close to those of the continental crust (i.e., -0.029‰ for P > 0.22 μm and 0.028‰ for P > 0.45 μm). Ten kilometers downstream from the Negro and Solimões junction, the concentrations of colloidal and dissolved Fe species deviate markedly from conservative mixing. A maximum Fe loss of 43 μg/L (i.e., 50% of the dissolved and colloidal Fe) is observed 110 km downstream from the rivers junction. The contrasting Negro and Solimões Rivers isotopic compositions along the pore-sized water fractions is attributable to the biogeochemical processes involving different types of upland soils and parental materials. For instance, the isotopic

  7. Functional insights from a comparative study on the dynamics of Antigen85 proteins and MPT51 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Sundar, Shobana; Annaraj, David; Selvan, Anitha; Biswas, Pallavi Guha; Vijayakumaran, Reshma; Anishetty, Sharmila

    2015-12-01

    Antigen85 (Ag85) proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are mycolyl transferases that aid in cell wall biosynthesis. MPT51 (Ag85D) is closely related to Ag85 proteins. We have performed a comparative molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study of Ag85 proteins (Ag85A, Ag85B, and Ag85C) and MPT51. We observe that helix α5, β7-α9 loop, and N-terminal region of helix α9 of Ag85 proteins are mobile, suggestive of lid like movement over the active site. Further, in Ag85B, we observe the proposed scooting mode of the hydrophobic gating residue Phe232. Our simulations also show a similar scooting mode for Phe232 of Ag85A and Trp158 of Ag85C. We also found aromatic residue clusters at the ends of the hydrophobic channel of Ag85 proteins, which may have functional significance. Although MPT51 lacks the tunnel, it has the aromatic clusters. The aromatic cluster region has the ability to bind trehalose. From an immunoinformatics study, a promiscuous linear epitope was identified in MPT51 which could be useful in subunit vaccine studies. Recent studies have shown that a mycobacterial protein HupB, interacts with Ag85 proteins and has a regulatory role in cell wall biogenesis, with implications in growth rate and latency. We performed molecular docking studies of HupB protein with Ag85 proteins and predicted potential sites of interaction in Ag85 proteins. The insights gained through the current study can potentially pave way for newer therapeutic interventions. Graphical Abstract Dynamics of antigen85 proteins and MPT51 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:26564147

  8. Genome-Wide Association Study Provides Insight into the Genetic Control of Plant Height in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chengming; Wang, Benqi; Yan, Lei; Hu, Kaining; Liu, Sheng; Zhou, Yongming; Guan, Chunyun; Zhang, Zhenqian; Li, Jiana; Zhang, Jiefu; Chen, Song; Wen, Jing; Ma, Chaozhi; Tu, Jinxing; Shen, Jinxiong; Fu, Tingdong; Yi, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Plant height is a key morphological trait of rapeseed. In this study, we measured plant height of a rapeseed population across six environments. This population contains 476 inbred lines representing the major Chinese rapeseed genepool and 44 lines from other countries. The 60K Brassica Infinium® SNP array was utilized to genotype the association panel. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed via three methods, including a robust, novel, nonparametric Anderson–Darling (A–D) test. Consequently, 68 loci were identified as significantly associated with plant height (P < 5.22 × 10−5), and more than 70% of the loci (48) overlapped the confidence intervals of reported QTLs from nine mapping populations. Moreover, 24 GWAS loci were detected with selective sweep signals, which reflected the signatures of historical semi-dwarf breeding. In the linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay range up—and downstream of 65 loci (r2 > 0.1), we found plausible candidates orthologous to the documented Arabidopsis genes involved in height regulation. One significant association found by GWAS colocalized with the established height locus BnRGA in rapeseed. Our results provide insights into the genetic basis of plant height in rapeseed and may facilitate marker-based breeding. PMID:27512396

  9. Insights into the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles from the study of the Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bonifacino, Juan S

    2004-12-01

    Lysosome-related organelles (LROs) are a family of cell-type-specific organelles that include melanosomes, platelet dense bodies, and cytotoxic T cell granules. The name, LRO, recognizes the fact that all of these organelles contain subsets of lysosomal proteins in addition to cell-type-specific proteins. The recent identification of genetic disorders that cause combined defects in several of these organelles indicates that they share common biogenetic pathways. Studies of one of these disorders, the Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS), have provided helpful insights into the molecular machinery involved in LRO biogenesis. HPS is a genetically heterogeneous disorder caused by mutations in any of 7 genes in humans and 15 genes in mice. These genes encode subunits of 4 multi-protein complexes named AP-3, BLOC-1, BLOC-2 and BLOC-3, in addition to miscellaneous components of the general protein trafficking machinery. The AP-3 complex is a coat protein involved in vesicle formation and cargo selection in the endosomal-lysosomal system. One of these cargo molecules is the melanosomal enzyme, tyrosinase, the missorting of which may explain the defective melanosomes in AP-3-deficient humans and mice. The function of the BLOC complexes is unknown, although they are thought to mediate either vesicle tethering/fusion or cytoplasmic dispersal of LROs. Further studies of these complexes should contribute to the elucidation of the mechanisms of LRO biogenesis and the pathogenesis of HPS. PMID:15838104

  10. Genome-Wide Association Study Provides Insight into the Genetic Control of Plant Height in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Sun, Chengming; Wang, Benqi; Yan, Lei; Hu, Kaining; Liu, Sheng; Zhou, Yongming; Guan, Chunyun; Zhang, Zhenqian; Li, Jiana; Zhang, Jiefu; Chen, Song; Wen, Jing; Ma, Chaozhi; Tu, Jinxing; Shen, Jinxiong; Fu, Tingdong; Yi, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Plant height is a key morphological trait of rapeseed. In this study, we measured plant height of a rapeseed population across six environments. This population contains 476 inbred lines representing the major Chinese rapeseed genepool and 44 lines from other countries. The 60K Brassica Infinium® SNP array was utilized to genotype the association panel. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed via three methods, including a robust, novel, nonparametric Anderson-Darling (A-D) test. Consequently, 68 loci were identified as significantly associated with plant height (P < 5.22 × 10(-5)), and more than 70% of the loci (48) overlapped the confidence intervals of reported QTLs from nine mapping populations. Moreover, 24 GWAS loci were detected with selective sweep signals, which reflected the signatures of historical semi-dwarf breeding. In the linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay range up-and downstream of 65 loci (r (2) > 0.1), we found plausible candidates orthologous to the documented Arabidopsis genes involved in height regulation. One significant association found by GWAS colocalized with the established height locus BnRGA in rapeseed. Our results provide insights into the genetic basis of plant height in rapeseed and may facilitate marker-based breeding. PMID:27512396

  11. Needs of caregivers in heart failure management: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Julia; Britten, Nicky; Jolly, Kate; Greaves, Colin; Abraham, Charles; Dalal, Hayes

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify the needs of caregivers supporting a person with heart failure and to inform the development of a caregiver resource to be used as part of a home-based self-management programme. Methods A qualitative study informed by thematic analysis involving 26 caregivers in individual interviews or a focus group. Results Three distinct aspects of caregiver support in heart failure management were identified. Firstly, caregivers identified needs about supporting management of heart failure including: coping with the variability of heart failure symptoms, what to do in an emergency, understanding and managing medicines, providing emotional support, promoting exercise and physical activity, providing personal care, living with a cardiac device and supporting depression management. Secondly, as they make the transition to becoming a caregiver, they need to develop skills to undertake difficult discussions about the role; communicate with health professionals; manage their own mental health, well-being and sleep; and manage home and work. Thirdly, caregivers require skills to engage social support, and voluntary and formal services while recognising that the long-term future is uncertain. Discussion The identification of the needs of caregiver has been used to inform the development of a home-based heart failure intervention facilitated by a trained health care practitioner. PMID:25795144

  12. Shedding light on insight: Priming bright ideas

    PubMed Central

    Slepian, Michael L.; Weisbuch, Max; Rutchick, Abraham M.; Newman, Leonard S.; Ambady, Nalini

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has characterized insight as the product of internal processes, and has thus investigated the cognitive and motivational processes that immediately precede it. In this research, however, we investigate whether insight can be catalyzed by a cultural artifact, an external object imbued with learned meaning. Specifically, we exposed participants to an illuminating lightbulb – an iconic image of insight – prior to or during insight problem-solving. Across four studies, exposing participants to an illuminating lightbulb primed concepts associated with achieving an insight, and enhanced insight problem-solving in three different domains (spatial, verbal, and mathematical), but did not enhance general (non-insight) problem-solving. PMID:20652087

  13. Ancillary study management systems: a review of needs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The valuable clinical data, specimens, and assay results collected during a primary clinical trial or observational study can enable researchers to answer additional, pressing questions with relatively small investments in new measurements. However, management of such follow-on, “ancillary” studies is complex. It requires coordinating across institutions, sites, repositories, and approval boards, as well as distributing, integrating, and analyzing diverse data types. General-purpose software systems that simplify the management of ancillary studies have not yet been explored in the research literature. Methods We have identified requirements for ancillary study management primarily as part of our ongoing work with a number of large research consortia. These organizations include the Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology (CHAVI), the Immune Tolerance Network (ITN), the HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN), the U.S. Military HIV Research Program (MHRP), and the Network for Pancreatic Organ Donors with Diabetes (nPOD). We also consulted with researchers at a range of other disease research organizations regarding their workflows and data management strategies. Lastly, to enhance breadth, we reviewed process documents for ancillary study management from other organizations. Results By exploring characteristics of ancillary studies, we identify differentiating requirements and scenarios for ancillary study management systems (ASMSs). Distinguishing characteristics of ancillary studies may include the collection of additional measurements (particularly new analyses of existing specimens); the initiation of studies by investigators unaffiliated with the original study; cross-protocol data pooling and analysis; pre-existing participant consent; and pre-existing data context and provenance. For an ASMS to address these characteristics, it would need to address both operational requirements (e.g., allocating existing specimens) and data management requirements

  14. Industrial Management Practices and Management Education in West Pakistan; A Study of Their Relationship in the Industrial Development Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Sandra Clayton

    A study was made of relationships of industrial management practices to management education in West Pakistan's industrial development. Directors of institutions having management education courses, and over 69 managers at 30 family, government, and foreign controlled plants in Karachi were interviewed on policies, practices, and problems in…

  15. The long-term control of vegetation and woody debris on channel and flood-plain evolution: insights from a paired catchment study in southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Andrew P.; Brierley, Gary J.; Millar, Robert G.

    2003-03-01

    Numerous case studies have demonstrated that alluvial and semi-alluvial rivers in SE Australia have undergone dramatic metamorphosis in historical times. However, very few studies place these changes within a long-term evolutionary context. As a consequence, the magnitude of, and ultimate controls on, the changes to river form and processes are not fully appreciated. In this study, a paired catchment analysis is undertaken between two moderate-sized sand-bed rivers in East Gippsland, Australia. From the Thurra River, direct insight is gained into the predisturbance control exerted by riparian vegetation and wood in a lowland alluvial river. This river is effectively in the same condition today as it was at the time of the arrival of Europeans in Australia. In contrast, the adjacent Cann River, which has been settled by Europeans for 150 years, but was previously very similar to the Thurra River, exhibits stark differences today. Channel morphodynamics observed within the Thurra River, when coupled with historical and geomorphic evidence for the former condition of the Cann River, provide a detailed reference by which the recent changes to the Cann River are measured. Chronostratigraphic evidence from both flood plains places recent channel behavior within an evolutionary context extending well into the Pleistocene. Since European settlement, the study reach of the Cann River has experienced a 360% increase in channel depth, a 240% increase in channel slope, a 700% increase in channel capacity, and up to a 150-fold increase in the rate of lateral channel migration. The contemporary condition of the Cann River channel differs profoundly to that which has prevailed over at least the previous 27 ka. The first-order control on the historical channel metamorphosis is the removal of riparian vegetation and woody debris (WD). Numerous thresholds have been crossed as a result of historical channel changes, particularly the relationship between average length of woody debris

  16. Educational Administration and Management. Reports Studies C.95.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Trevor; Persaud, Ganga

    This case study reports results of research on the extent of nonformal education in Guyana; comparison of commitment in private and public enterprises; and financial support, program organization and management, learners' background and objectives, content and methodology, and evaluation strategy. The first two chapters describe the study's…

  17. Strategy Maps in University Management: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Shuangmiao; Zhong, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the conceptual use of the strategy map approach and the strategy map which it produces have been adapted from the business sector and introduced as tools for achieving more effective strategic planning and management in higher education institutions (HEIs). This study discusses the development of strategy maps as transformational…

  18. Some Reflections on and Criticisms of China's Educational Management Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Tian-ping

    2007-01-01

    In spite of having undergone one century's vicissitude, China's educational management studies are still lagging behind those abroad. Two research lines, one being induction and generalization, another being deduction and transplantation, have been roughly evolved over these studies. Both of them have reached the level of empirical science. Since…

  19. Ethical and Social Values in Business Administration and Management Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Lozano, Mercedes; de los Rios-Bergillos, Araceli; Tirado-Valencia, Pilar; Millan-Lara, Salud

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to analyze the impact of the learning process in business administration and management of students' values, through the application of factor analysis to the information obtained in a survey consisting of students in the first and fifth year of studies. The study derived the following conclusions: First,…

  20. Democratic Classroom Management in Higher Education: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sentürk, Ilknur; Oyman, Nidan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine teacher candidates' awareness of the concept of democracy, how they describe this concept, how their perceptions relate to the democratic classroom management process in the faculty of education, and their opinions about the qualifications of faculty members. This research is a descriptive study. This…