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Sample records for managing senegalese water

  1. Managing Senegalese water resources: Definition and relative importance of information needs

    SciTech Connect

    Engi, D.

    1998-09-01

    This report provides an overview of the results of the Vital Issues process as implemented for the Senegal Water Resources Management Initiative, a collaborative effort between the Senegalese Ministry of Water Resources and Sandia National Laboratories. This Initiative is being developed to assist in the development of an efficient and sustainable water resources management system for Senegal. The Vital Issues process was used to provide information for the development of a proposal that will recommend actions to address the key management issues and establish a state-of-the-art decision support system (DSS) for managing Senegal`s water resources. Three Vital Issues panel meetings were convened to (1) develop a goal statement and criteria for identifying and ranking the issues vital to water resources management in Senegal; (2) define and rank the issues, and (3) identify and prioritize a preliminary list of information needed to address the vital issues. The selection of panelists from the four basic institutional perspectives (government, industry, academe, and citizens` interest groups) ensured a high level of stakeholder representation on the panels.

  2. Dietary intake of Senegalese adults

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day) of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90) of all foods; meats 12% (11/90); and grains 11% (10/90). Sauces (6%, 5/90), sweets (4%, 4/90), and desserts (4%, 4/90) were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal. PMID:20167099

  3. Total Water Management - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total Water Management (TWM) examines urban water systems in an interconnected manner. It encompasses reducing water demands, increasing water recycling and reuse, creating water supply assets from stormwater management, matching water quality to end-use needs, and achieving envi...

  4. Total Water Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will investigate total water management (TWM) as a way of improving water resource management and reducing waste streams. This project will also improve management of potable water, wastewater and wet-weather flow through combined management, reuse and recycling wil...

  5. Reading Habits of Senegalese Adults and College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Alice M.; Burley, JoAnne E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses factors contributing to high level of illiteracy in Senegal. Reports on study of Senegalese reading habits--participants enjoy reading, read newspapers often, would like to read better, and would take reading improvement courses if they were offered. (CMG)

  6. Total Water Management - Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current operations put different stresses on the environment and urban infrastructure. Total Water Management (TWM) is an approac...

  7. Purge water management system

    DOEpatents

    Cardoso-Neto, J.E.; Williams, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    A purge water management system is described for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  8. Purge water management system

    DOEpatents

    Cardoso-Neto, Joao E.; Williams, Daniel W.

    1996-01-01

    A purge water management system for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  9. Resilience of Key Biological Parameters of the Senegalese Flat Sardinella to Overfishing and Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Ba, Kamarel; Thiaw, Modou; Lazar, Najih; Sarr, Alassane; Brochier, Timothée; Ndiaye, Ismaïla; Faye, Alioune; Sadio, Oumar; Panfili, Jacques; Thiaw, Omar Thiom; Brehmer, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    The stock of the Senegalese flat sardinella, Sardinella maderensis, is highly exploited in Senegal, West Africa. Its growth and reproduction parameters are key biological indicators for improving fisheries management. This study reviewed these parameters using landing data from small-scale fisheries in Senegal and literature information dated back more than 25 years. Age was estimated using length-frequency data to calculate growth parameters and assess the growth performance index. With global climate change there has been an increase in the average sea surface temperature along the Senegalese coast but the length-weight parameters, sex ratio, size at first sexual maturity, period of reproduction and condition factor of S. maderensis have not changed significantly. The above parameters of S. maderensis have hardly changed, despite high exploitation and fluctuations in environmental conditions that affect the early development phases of small pelagic fish in West Africa. This lack of plasticity of the species regarding of the biological parameters studied should be considered when planning relevant fishery management plans. PMID:27280629

  10. Resilience of Key Biological Parameters of the Senegalese Flat Sardinella to Overfishing and Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Ba, Kamarel; Thiaw, Modou; Lazar, Najih; Sarr, Alassane; Brochier, Timothée; Ndiaye, Ismaïla; Faye, Alioune; Sadio, Oumar; Panfili, Jacques; Thiaw, Omar Thiom; Brehmer, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    The stock of the Senegalese flat sardinella, Sardinella maderensis, is highly exploited in Senegal, West Africa. Its growth and reproduction parameters are key biological indicators for improving fisheries management. This study reviewed these parameters using landing data from small-scale fisheries in Senegal and literature information dated back more than 25 years. Age was estimated using length-frequency data to calculate growth parameters and assess the growth performance index. With global climate change there has been an increase in the average sea surface temperature along the Senegalese coast but the length-weight parameters, sex ratio, size at first sexual maturity, period of reproduction and condition factor of S. maderensis have not changed significantly. The above parameters of S. maderensis have hardly changed, despite high exploitation and fluctuations in environmental conditions that affect the early development phases of small pelagic fish in West Africa. This lack of plasticity of the species regarding of the biological parameters studied should be considered when planning relevant fishery management plans. PMID:27280629

  11. Influence of temperature on Betanodavirus infection in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis).

    PubMed

    Souto, Sandra; Olveira, Jose G; Bandín, Isabel

    2015-09-30

    In this study Senegalese sole juveniles were experimentally infected with a reassortant Betanodavirus strain at three different temperatures: 22 °C, 18 °C and 16 °C by bath challenge and cohabitation. The results obtained showed that virus virulence decreased by reducing the water temperature. At 22 °C mortalities reached 100%, at 18 °C they ranged from 75 to 80% and at 16 °C only 8% of the fish died. In addition, horizontal transmission was demonstrated regardless of the rearing temperature. At 16 °C active viral replication was detected up to 66 days post-infection, but no signs of the disease were observed and only a very low level of mortality was recorded. The increase in water temperature from 16 to 22 °C caused a quick rise in the viral load and a subsequent outbreak of mortalities. These findings demonstrate that this reassortant Betanodavirus strain can cause a persistent infection in Senegalese sole at low temperatures (16 °C) for long periods of time, and when temperature increases the virus is able to trigger an acute infection and provoke high mortalities. PMID:26187680

  12. Energy and Water Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valek, Susan E.

    2008-01-01

    Energy efficiency isn't just a good idea; it's a necessity, both for cost reasons and to meet federal regulatory requirements. First, rising energy unit costs continue to erode NASA's mission budget. NASA spent roughly $156M on facility energy in FY 2007. Although that represents less than one per cent of NASA's overall annual budget, the upward trend in energy costs concerns the agency. While NASA reduced consumption 13%, energy unit costs have risen 63%. Energy cost increases counteract the effects of energy conservation, which results in NASA buying less yet spending more. The second factor is federal energy legislation. The National Energy Conservation Policy Act, as amended by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Executive Order (EO) 13423 (January, 2007), and the Energy Independence and Security Act (December, 2007), mandates energy/water conservation goals for all federal agencies, including NASA. There are also reporting requirements associated with this legislation. The Energy/Water Management Task was created to support NASA Headquarters Environmental Management Division (HO EMD) in meeting these requirements. With assistance from TEERM, HQ EMD compiled and submitted the NASA Annual Report to the Department of Energy FY 2007. The report contains information on how NASA is meeting federally mandated energy and water management goals. TEERM monitored input for timeliness, errors, and conformity to the new energy/water reporting guidelines and helped compile the information into the final report. TEERM also assists NASA Energy/Water Management with proposal and award calls, updates to the energy/water management database, and facilitating communication within the energy/water management community. TEERM is also supporting NASA and the Interagency Working Group (IWG) on Hydrogen and Fuel Cells. Established shortly after the President announced the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative in 2003, this IWG serves as the mechanism for collaboration among the Federal agencies

  13. Water management tools for Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our goal is to equip crop producers in the Southeast with tools to improve crop production and management including: • Knowledge of crop and soil water relations • Irrigation scheduling tools for better water management, and • Economic benefits of water conservation technologies Crop performance can...

  14. Water Science, Management and Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifland, Jonathan

    2004-02-01

    A new AGU book, Water:Science, Management and Policy, edited by Richard Lawford, Denise Fort, Holly Hartmann, and Susanna Eden, explores the scientific and political issues behind water use and sustainability worldwide. The book investigates critical issues facing water managers, policy makers, and scientists in the 21st century, examining specific examples of water planning and decision-making. Among the topics discussed by the authors are the current state of water engineering, sharing resources across state and international borders, and the best methods for managing the resource with the future impact of climate change and additional pollution.

  15. Technology for Water Treatment (National Water Management)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The buildup of scale and corrosion is the most costly maintenance problem in cooling tower operation. Jet Propulsion Laboratory successfully developed a non-chemical system that not only curbed scale and corrosion, but also offered advantages in water conservation, cost savings and the elimination of toxic chemical discharge. In the system, ozone is produced by an on-site generator and introduced to the cooling tower water. Organic impurities are oxidized, and the dissolved ozone removes bacteria and scale. National Water Management, a NASA licensee, has installed its ozone advantage systems at some 200 cooling towers. Customers have saved money and eliminated chemical storage and discharge.

  16. Improving Forecasts for Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arumugam, Sankar; Wood, Andy; Rajagopalan, Balaji; Schaake, John

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in seasonal to interannual hydroclimate predictions provide an opportunity for developing a proactive approach toward water management. This motivated a recent AGU Chapman Conference (see program details at http://chapman.agu.org/watermanagement/). Approximately 85 participants from the United States, Oceania, Asia, Europe, and South America presented and discussed the current state of successes, challenges, and opportunities in seasonal to interannual hydroclimate forecasts and water management, and a number of key messages emerged.

  17. Evidence for functional asymmetry in the olfactory system of the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis).

    PubMed

    Velez, Zélia; Hubbard, Peter C; Barata, Eduardo N; Canário, Adelino V M

    2005-01-01

    The two olfactory epithelia of flatfish of the family Soleidae are essentially in contact with two distinct environments; the upper (right) side samples open water while the lower (left) side samples interstitial water. This study assessed whether there are differences in the responsiveness of the two epithelia by use of the electro-olfactogram in the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis). The upper epithelium was significantly more responsive to the basic amino acids (L-lysine and L-arginine), glycine, and L-threonine than the lower epithelium. The lower epithelium was significantly more responsive to aromatic amino acids (L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine, L-DOPA, and L-phenylalanine), L-leucine, and L-asparagine than the upper. Both epithelia had similar responsiveness to the sulphur-containing amino acids (L-cysteine and L-methionine), L-alanine, L-serine, and L-glutamine. Neither side was responsive to the acidic amino acids (L-aspartate and L-glutamate) or the D-isomers of any amino acid tested. The upper olfactory organ was much more responsive to conspecific-derived stimuli (bile and intestinal fluid) than the lower organ. We suggest that these differences in responsiveness may be related to different functional roles of the upper and lower epithelia in feeding and chemical communication. PMID:16059846

  18. Total Water Management: A Watershed Based Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this urbanizing world, municipal water managers need to develop planning and management frameworks to meet challenges such as limiting fresh water supplies, degrading receiving waters, increasing regulatory requirements, flooding, aging infrastructure, rising utility (energy) ...

  19. Pecos River Water Management Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, J. D.; James, S. C.

    2003-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is providing technical assistance to farmer members of the Carlsbad Irrigation District (CID) to better plan the storage, delivery, and application of water to the Carlsbad Project. The surface waters along the Pecos River are allocated by the State of New Mexico to three major entities: 1) The State of Texas - each year a percentage of water from the natural river flow must be delivered to Texas as governed by the Interstate Streams Commission; 2) CID farmer members - a fixed portion of water must be delivered to the farming members of the CID; and 3) wildlife - an amount of water must be allocated to support the wildlife habitat in the Pecos River, most notably, the endangered Pecos Bluntnose Shiner Minnow. The Pecos Bluntnose Shiner Minnow habitat preference is under investigation by other state and national agencies and preliminary work has established that water depth, water velocity, and sediment activity (dunes, ripples, etc.) are the key parameters influencing minnow habitat preference. The amount of water (river flow rate) necessary to maintain a preferable habitat to support this species has yet to be determined. With a limited amount of water in the Pecos River and its reservoirs, it is critical to allocate water efficiently such that habitat is maintained, the farmers of the CID are supported, and New Mexico meets its commitments to the State of Texas. This study investigates the relationship between flow rate in the river and water depth, water velocity, and sediment activity. The goal is to establish a predictive tool that supports informed decisions about water management practices along the Pecos River that will maximize water available for agriculture and the State of Texas while maintaining the aquatic habitat.

  20. Total Water Management, the New Paradigm for Urban Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current resource management practices put different stresses on local water resources and urban infrastructure. Total Water Manag...

  1. Mercury concentrations in the coastal marine food web along the Senegalese coast.

    PubMed

    Diop, Mamadou; Amara, Rachid

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the results of seasonal (wet and dry seasons) and spatial (five sites) variation of mercury concentration in seven marine organisms representative for shallow Senegalese coastal waters and including species of commercial importance. Total mercury levels were recorded in the green algae (Ulva lactuca); the brown mussel (Perna perna); the Caramote prawn (Penaeus kerathurus); and in the liver and muscles of the following fish: Solea senegalensis, Mugil cephalus, Saratherondon melanotheron, and Sardinella aurita. The total selenium (Se) contents were determined only in the edible part of Perna perna, Penaeus kerathurus and in the muscles of Sardinella aurita and Solea senegalensis. Hg concentration in fish species was higher in liver compared to the muscle. Between species differences in Hg, concentrations were recorded with the highest concentration found in fish and the lowest in algae. The spatiotemporal study showed that there was no clear seasonal pattern in Hg concentrations in biota, but spatial differences existed with highest concentrations in sites located near important anthropogenic pressure. For shrimp, mussel, and the muscles of sardine and sole, Hg concentrations were below the health safety limits for human consumption as defined by the European Union. The Se/Hg molar ratio was always higher than one whatever the species or location suggesting a protection of Se against Hg potential adverse effect. PMID:26961529

  2. Climate Teleconnections and Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abtew, Wossenu; Melesse, Assefa M.

    2014-02-01

    Advancements have been made in identifying teleconnection between various climate phenomena and regional hydrometeorology. This knowledge can be systematically applied to predict regional hydrometeorology to gain lead time for resource and risk management decision making. Adaptations for droughts, floods, and cold and warm weather conditions are necessary for optimal food production and, in many cases, for survival. The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climatic phenomenon has been linked to seasonal weather of many regions mainly through rainfall and temperature. The development of El Niño or La Niña has usually opposing regional effects. Its effects are manifested in regional droughts and crop yield reduction, loss of livestock feed, water supply shortage or floods and flood damages, insect population and pathogens, wildfires, etc. A new method has been used to track ENSO development using cumulative sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly and cumulative Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) from freely available data. The relationships of ENSO indices and the Blue Nile hydrology have been shown using an index that tracks cumulative SST anomaly. It has been shown that the Upper Blue Nile basin rainfall and flows have teleconnection to ENSO. Dry years are likely to occur during El Niño years at a confidence level of 90 % and La Niña years favor wetter condition. The results of this study can be applied to resource management decision making to mitigate drought or flood impacts with a lead time of at least few months. ENSO tracking and forecasting helps prediction of approaching hydrologic conditions to make early water management decisions. A case study with organizational structure and decision making process is presented where ENSO conditions are tracked weekly and results are applied for water management decision making.

  3. Different environmental temperatures affect amino acid metabolism in the eurytherm teleost Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858) as indicated by changes in plasma metabolites.

    PubMed

    Costas, Benjamín; Aragão, Cláudia; Ruiz-Jarabo, Ignacio; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Arjona, Francisco J; Mancera, Juan M; Dinis, Maria T; Conceição, Luís E C

    2012-07-01

    Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) is a eurytherm teleost that under natural conditions can be exposed to annual water temperature fluctuations between 12 and 26°C. This study assessed the effects of temperature on sole metabolic status, in particular in what concerns plasma free amino acid changes during thermal acclimation. Senegalese sole maintained at 18°C were acclimated to either cold (12°C) or warm (26°C) environmental temperatures for 21 days. Fish maintained at 18°C served as control. Plasma concentrations of cortisol, glucose, lactate, triglycerides, proteins, and free amino acids were assessed. Cold acclimation influenced interrenal responses of sole by increasing cortisol release. Moreover, plasma glucose and lactate concentrations increased linearly with temperature, presumably reflecting a higher metabolic activity of sole acclimated to 26°C. Acclimation temperature affected more drastically plasma concentrations of dispensable than that of indispensable amino acids, and different acclimation temperatures induced different responses. Asparagine, glutamine and ornithine seem to be of particular importance for ammonia detoxification mechanisms, synthesis of triglycerides that may be used during homeoviscous adaptation and, to a lesser extent, as energetic substrates in specimens acclimated to 12°C. When sole is acclimated to 26°C taurine, glutamate, GABA and glycine increased, which may suggest important roles as antioxidant defences, in osmoregulatory processes and/or for energetic purposes at this thermal regimen. In conclusion, acclimation to different environmental temperatures induces several metabolic changes in Senegalese sole, suggesting that amino acids may be important for thermal acclimation. PMID:21947601

  4. Oxidative stress and histopathology damage related to the metabolism of dodecylbenzene sulfonate in Senegalese sole.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Muñoz, D; Gómez-Parra, A; Blasco, J; Sarasquete, C; González-Mazo, E

    2009-03-01

    Surfactants such as linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) are widely utilised in the formulation of detergents in commercial products. After use, they pass through waste water treatment plants (WWTP) and are then discharged to aquatic ecosystems, causing risk to aquatic life. The exposure of marine animals to these compounds enhances the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with subsequent damage to macromolecules, and produces histological alterations. A flow-through experiment with Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) has been devised with the object of correlating the metabolism of LAS including sulfophenylcarboxylic acids (SPCs) by fish with their antioxidant defence system (generation of oxyradicals) and histopathological damage. The generation of intermediate degradation products (SPCs) by the organism, the histopathological responses, the antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione S-transferase (GST)), as well as other kinds of enzyme such as acid and alkaline phosphatases (AcP, ALP), were measured. SPCs from 5ØC(6) to 11ØC(12) were identified and quantified in fish and water; their concentrations differed depending on the sampling moment. In general, the responses found in the enzymes were slight: a decrease in the enzymatic activity in gills and activation in the digestive tract. The evidence of histopathological damage identified was also small; the organism's defensive mechanism against pollutants should enable it to recover easily. A direct relationship was established between biotransformation and the generation of SPCs and ROS. In conclusion, the correct functioning of the antioxidant defence system with absence of large variations, the short-term histopathological damage, and the evidence of SPCs indicate an adequate metabolism of 2-phenyl-C(12)-linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (2ØC(12)LAS) by this specie and non-toxic effects at environmentally realistic levels. PMID:19121837

  5. N'Deup and Mental Health: Implications for Treating Senegalese Immigrants in the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conwill, William

    2010-01-01

    Africans, especially the Senegalese, have been the largest visible immigrant group in the United States (US) over the last 30 years. The cultural understanding necessary for effectively providing for their mental and other health needs is limited. This article involves a first-person phenomenographic (Marton 1986) account of an investigation of…

  6. The Influence of Islam on AIDS Prevention among Senegalese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Sarah S.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have attempted to quantify Islam's contributions to HIV/AIDS prevention. Senegal has involved Muslim leaders in its prevention campaign for over a decade. Senegal also has the lowest HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examines how Islam influences AIDS prevention by testing whether Senegalese participants'…

  7. Water resource management: an Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Khadse, G K; Labhasetwar, P K; Wate, S R

    2012-10-01

    Water is precious natural resource for sustaining life and environment. Effective and sustainable management of water resources is vital for ensuring sustainable development. In view of the vital importance of water for human and animal life, for maintaining ecological balance and for economic and developmental activities of all kinds, and considering its increasing scarcity, the planning and management of water resource and its optimal, economical and equitable use has become a matter of the utmost urgency. Management of water resources in India is of paramount importance to sustain one billion plus population. Water management is a composite area with linkage to various sectors of Indian economy including the agricultural, industrial, domestic and household, power, environment, fisheries and transportation sector. The water resources management practices should be based on increasing the water supply and managing the water demand under the stressed water availability conditions. For maintaining the quality of freshwater, water quality management strategies are required to be evolved and implemented. Decision support systems are required to be developed for planning and management of the water resources project. There is interplay of various factors that govern access and utilization of water resources and in light of the increasing demand for water it becomes important to look for holistic and people-centered approaches for water management. Clearly, drinking water is too fundamental and serious an issue to be left to one institution alone. It needs the combined initiative and action of all, if at all we are serious in socioeconomic development. Safe drinking water can be assured, provided we set our mind to address it. The present article deals with the review of various options for sustainable water resource management in India. PMID:25151722

  8. Evolving water management institutions in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearne, Robert R.

    2004-12-01

    Mexico's water management institutions are undergoing a gradual but dramatic change that corresponds to other changes in Mexican society. Implementing these changes has led to the creation of new institutions, including river basin councils, state water commissions, aquifer management committees, and water user associations. Established institutions such as the National Water Commission have accepted new roles. Some of these changes can be considered to be superficial, but this institutional change is impressive. Successful practices can be identified. These include the transfer of the management of large irrigation districts to the users, the periodic practice of establishing a national water plan, the cautious approach to private sector participation in water supply and sanitation, and the national registry of water use. Remaining challenges include weak river basin and aquifer management organizations, overexploitation of key aquifers, polluted surface water, and the inability of water markets to facilitate intersectoral water transfers.

  9. New soil water sensors for irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective irrigation management is key to obtaining the most crop production per unit of water applied and increasing production in the face of competing demands on water resources. Management methods have included calculating crop water needs based on weather station measurements, calculating soil ...

  10. Water footprint as a tool for integrated water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldaya, Maite; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2010-05-01

    In a context where water resources are unevenly distributed and, in some regions precipitation and drought conditions are increasing, enhanced water management is a major challenge to final consumers, businesses, water resource users, water managers and policymakers in general. By linking a large range of sectors and issues, virtual water trade and water footprint analyses provide an appropriate framework to find potential solutions and contribute to a better management of water resources. The water footprint is an indicator of freshwater use that looks not only at direct water use of a consumer or producer, but also at the indirect water use. The water footprint of a product is the volume of freshwater used to produce the product, measured over the full supply chain. It is a multi-dimensional indicator, showing water consumption volumes by source and polluted volumes by type of pollution; all components of a total water footprint are specified geographically and temporally. The water footprint breaks down into three components: the blue (volume of freshwater evaporated from surface or groundwater systems), green (water volume evaporated from rainwater stored in the soil as soil moisture) and grey water footprint (the volume of polluted water associated with the production of goods and services). Closely linked to the concept of water footprint is that of virtual water trade, which represents the amount of water embedded in traded products. Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. Virtual water trade between nations and even continents could thus be used as an instrument to improve global water use efficiency and to achieve water security in water-poor regions of the world. The virtual water trade

  11. Vitamin A supplementation enhances Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) early juvenile's immunocompetence: New insights on potential underlying pathways.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Ignacio; López-Joven, Carmen; Andree, Karl B; Roque, Ana; Gisbert, Enric

    2015-10-01

    Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) has been considered since the 1990's to be a promising flatfish species for diversifying European marine aquaculture. However, pathogen outbreaks leading to high mortality rates can impair Senegalese sole commercial production at the weaning phase. Different approaches have been shown to improve fish immunocompetence; with this in mind the objective of the work described herein was to determine whether increased levels of dietary vitamin A (VA) improve the immune response in early juveniles of Senegalese sole. For this purpose, Senegalese sole were reared and fed with Artemia metanauplii containing increased levels of VA (37,000; 44,666; 82,666 and 203,000 total VA IU Kg(-1)) from 6 to 60 days post-hatch (early juvenile stage). After an induced bacterial infection with a 50% lethal dose of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, survival rate, as well as underlying gene expression of specific immune markers (C1inh, C3, C9, Lgals1, Hamp, LysC, Prdx1, Steap4 and Transf) were evaluated. Results showed that fish fed higher doses of dietary VA were more resistant to the bacterial challenge. The lower mortality was found to be related with differential expression of genes involved in the complement system and iron availability. We suggest that feeding metamorphosed Senegalese sole with 203,000 total VA IU Kg(-1) might be an effective, inexpensive and environmentally friendly method to improve Senegalese sole immunocompetence, thereby improving survival of juveniles and reducing economic losses. PMID:26272637

  12. Sustainable Water Management & Satellite Remote Sensing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eutrophication assessment frameworks such as the Australian National Water Quality Management Strategy, Oslo Paris (OSPAR) Commission Common Procedure, Water Framework Directive (WFD) of the European Union, Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) from the European Commission, ...

  13. Drainage water management for water quality protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land drainage has been central to the development of North America since colonial times. Increasingly, agricultural drainage is being targeted as a conduit for pollution, particularly nutrient pollution. The export of agricultural drainage water and associated pollutants to surface water can be mana...

  14. Economic resilience through "One-Water" management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Randall T.; Schmid, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Disruption of water availability leads to food scarcity and loss of economic opportunity. Development of effective water-resource policies and management strategies could provide resiliance to local economies in the face of water disruptions such as drought, flood, and climate change. To accomplish this, a detailed understanding of human water use and natural water resource availability is needed. A hydrologic model is a computer software system that simulates the movement and use of water in a geographic area. It takes into account all components of the water cycle--“One Water”--and helps estimate water budgets for groundwater, surface water, and landscape features. The U.S. Geological Survey MODFLOW One-Water Integrated Hydrologic Model (MODFLOWOWHM) software and scientific methods can provide water managers and political leaders with hydrologic information they need to help ensure water security and economic resilience.

  15. Drinking water quality management: a holistic approach.

    PubMed

    Rizak, S; Cunliffe, D; Sinclair, M; Vulcano, R; Howard, J; Hrudey, S; Callan, P

    2003-01-01

    A growing list of water contaminants has led to some water suppliers relying primarily on compliance monitoring as a mechanism for managing drinking water quality. While such monitoring is a necessary part of drinking water quality management, experiences with waterborne disease threats and outbreaks have shown that compliance monitoring for numerical limits is not, in itself, sufficient to guarantee the safety and quality of drinking water supplies. To address these issues, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) has developed a Framework for Management of Drinking Water Quality (the Framework) for incorporation in the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines, the primary reference on drinking water quality in Australia. The Framework was developed specifically for drinking water supplies and provides a comprehensive and preventive risk management approach from catchment to consumer. It includes holistic guidance on a range of issues considered good practice for system management. The Framework addresses four key areas: Commitment to Drinking Water Quality Management, System Analysis and System Management, Supporting Requirements, and Review. The Framework represents a significantly enhanced approach to the management and regulation of drinking water quality and offers a flexible and proactive means of optimising drinking water quality and protecting public health. Rather than the primary reliance on compliance monitoring, the Framework emphasises prevention, the importance of risk assessment, maintaining the integrity of water supply systems and application of multiple barriers to assure protection of public health. Development of the Framework was undertaken in collaboration with the water industry, regulators and other stakeholder, and will promote a common and unified approach to drinking water quality management throughout Australia. The Framework has attracted international interest. PMID:12830937

  16. Frameworks for amending reservoir water management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mower, Ethan; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2013-01-01

    Managing water storage and withdrawals in many reservoirs requires establishing seasonal targets for water levels (i.e., rule curves) that are influenced by regional precipitation and diverse water demands. Rule curves are established as an attempt to balance various water needs such as flood control, irrigation, and environmental benefits such as fish and wildlife management. The processes and challenges associated with amending rule curves to balance multiuse needs are complicated and mostly unfamiliar to non-US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) natural resource managers and to the public. To inform natural resource managers and the public we describe the policies and process involved in amending rule curves in USACE reservoirs, including 3 frameworks: a general investigation, a continuing authority program, and the water control plan. Our review suggests that water management in reservoirs can be amended, but generally a multitude of constraints and competing demands must be addressed before such a change can be realized.

  17. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Pruitt, Jennifer; Brown, Christopher A.; Bazley, Jesse; Gazda, Daniel; Schaezler, Ryan; Bankers, Lyndsey

    2016-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of May 2016 and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  18. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Pruitt, Jennifer; Brown, Christopher A.; Schaezler, Ryan; Bankers, Lyndsey

    2015-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of May 2015 and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past two years.

  19. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Wilson, Laura Labuda; Orozco, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of May 2011, and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  20. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Brown, Christopher; Orozco, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of June 2013, and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  1. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Tobias, Barry; Orozco, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of June 2012, and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  2. WQM: A Water Quality Management Simulation Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharda, Ramesh; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Description of WQM, a simulation game designed to introduce students to the water quality management function, emphasizes the decision-making process involved in various facets of business. The simulation model is described, computer support is explained, and issues in water resource management are discussed. (13 references) (LRW)

  3. Residuals Management and Water Pollution Control Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

    This pamphlet addresses the problems associated with residuals and water quality especially as it relates to the National Water Pollution Control Program. The types of residuals and appropriate management systems are discussed. Additionally, one section is devoted to the role of citizen participation in developing management programs. (CS)

  4. Water Availability and Management of Water Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the most pressing national and global issues is the availability of freshwater due to global climate change, energy scarcity issues and the increase in world population and accompanying economic growth. Estimates of water supplies and flows through the world's hydrologic c...

  5. Assessment of trace element contamination and bioaccumulation in algae (Ulva lactuca), mussels (Perna perna), shrimp (Penaeus kerathurus), and fish (Mugil cephalus, Saratherondon melanotheron) along the Senegalese coast.

    PubMed

    Diop, Mamadou; Howsam, Michael; Diop, Cheikh; Goossens, Jean F; Diouf, Amadou; Amara, Rachid

    2016-02-15

    Concentrations of 11 elements were quantified in five marine species from different trophic levels of a food web (algae, mussel, shrimp and fish), representative for shallow Senegalese coastal waters, and including species of commercial importance. Significant differences in element concentrations and bioaccumulation were demonstrated, revealing the utility of employing a suite of organisms as bioindicators to monitor metal contamination in coastal areas. There was no clear seasonal pattern in concentration of elements, however inter-site differences were observed. Calculations of transfer factors for all the studied elements showed that transfer factors from water were greater than those from sediments. For shrimp and mussel, the concentrations of Pb and Cd were below the EU's maximum level for human consumption, however high concentrations of arsenic in shrimp were recorded at all sites. PMID:26763317

  6. Experimental susceptibility of European sea bass and Senegalese sole to different betanodavirus isolates.

    PubMed

    Souto, S; Lopez-Jimena, B; Alonso, M C; García-Rosado, E; Bandín, I

    2015-05-15

    The susceptibility of juvenile European sea bass and Senegalese sole to three VNNV isolates (a reassortant RGNNV/SJNNV, as well as the parental RGNNV and SJNNV genotypes) has been evaluated by challenges using two inoculation ways (bath and intramuscular injection). The results demonstrate that these two fish species are susceptible to all the VNNV isolates tested. In European sea bass, RGNNV caused the highest cumulative mortality, reaching maximum values of viral RNA and titres. Although the SJNNV isolate did not provoke mortality or clinical signs of disease in this fish species, viral production in survivor fish was determined; on the other hand the reassortant isolate did cause mortality and clinical signs of disease, although less evident than those recorded after RGNNV infection. These results suggest that the changes suffered by the SJNNV RNA2 segment of the reassortant isolate, compared to the parental SJNNV, may have involved host-specificity and/or virulence determinants for European sea bass. Regarding Senegalese sole, although the three isolates caused 100% mortality, the reassortant strain provoked the most acute symptoms, and more quickly, especially in the bath challenge. This was also the isolate showing less difference between the number of RNA copies and viral titre, reaching the highest titres of infective viral particles in nervous tissue of infected animals. The RGNNV isolate produced the lowest values of infective viral particles. All these results suggest that the RGNNV and the reassortant isolates are the most suited for infecting European sea bass and Senegalese sole, respectively. PMID:25770892

  7. Drainage Water Management for the Midwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subsurface tile drainage is an essential water management practice on many highly productive fields in the Midwest. However, nitrate carried in drainage water can lead to local water quality problems and contribute to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico, so strategies are needed to reduce the nitrate load...

  8. Water quality management plan for Cherokee Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The management plan provides an assessment of Cherokee Reservoir's current water quality, identifies those factors which affect reservoir water quality, and develops recommendations aimed at restoring or maintaining water quality at levels sufficient to support diverse beneficial uses. 20 references, 8 figures, 15 tables. (ACR)

  9. STORM WATER MANAGEMENT MODEL (SWMM) MODERNIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Water Supply and Water Resources Division in partnership with the consulting firm of CDM to redevelop and modernize the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). In the initial phase of this project EPA rewrote SWMM's computational engine usi...

  10. Guide to Managing Pasture Water: Streamside Buffers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Properly managed pasture water not only provides high-quality water which promotes healthy and productive livestock, but also contributes to maintaining water quality downstream. Riparian (streamside) areas serve as a transition between upland pastures and waterways. In other words, they link pastur...

  11. Seeking sustainability: Israel's evolving water management strategy.

    PubMed

    Tal, Alon

    2006-08-25

    The water management policies adopted to address Israel's chronic scarcity have not been without environmental consequences. Yet, through a trial-and-error process, a combined strategy of water transport, rainwater harvesting, and wastewater reuse and desalination, along with a variety of water conservation measures, have put the country on a more sustainable path for the future. PMID:16931752

  12. NONPOTABLE WATER REUSE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Globally, the need for water reuse is increasing due to rising water demands and finite water resources. In addition, certain regulations and policies, such as zero discharge initiatives or limited new dam construction, may indirectly contribute to the need for reuse. Also, with ...

  13. NONPOTABLE WATER REUSE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Globally, the need for water reuse is increasing due to rising water demands and finite water resources. In addition, certain regulations and policies, such as zero discharge initiatives or limited new dam construction, may indirectly contribute to the need for reuse. With growin...

  14. Operational Management System for Regulated Water Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loenen, A.; van Dijk, M.; van Verseveld, W.; Berger, H.

    2012-04-01

    Most of the Dutch large rivers, canals and lakes are controlled by the Dutch water authorities. The main reasons concern safety, navigation and fresh water supply. Historically the separate water bodies have been controlled locally. For optimizating management of these water systems an integrated approach was required. Presented is a platform which integrates data from all control objects for monitoring and control purposes. The Operational Management System for Regulated Water Systems (IWP) is an implementation of Delft-FEWS which supports operational control of water systems and actively gives advice. One of the main characteristics of IWP is that is real-time collects, transforms and presents different types of data, which all add to the operational water management. Next to that, hydrodynamic models and intelligent decision support tools are added to support the water managers during their daily control activities. An important advantage of IWP is that it uses the Delft-FEWS framework, therefore processes like central data collection, transformations, data processing and presentation are simply configured. At all control locations the same information is readily available. The operational water management itself gains from this information, but it can also contribute to cost efficiency (no unnecessary pumping), better use of available storage and advise during (water polution) calamities.

  15. Techniques for integrated water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The course, Decision Support Techniques for Integrated Water Resources Management, is designed mainly for technical managers and staff of water resources management agencies at the international, national, regional, and local water board level, as well as consultants in other professions working in or interested in the field of water resources development, planning, and operation. It will be held in Wageningen, The Netherlands, June 10-15, 1991.The course objective is to promote better understanding and dissemination of techniques to be applied in “real-world” integrated water resources management. The course offers an introduction to the concepts of decision modeling, plus ample case studies to demonstrate their applicability. It covers decision theory, operations research and simulation methods, as well as certain aspects of law and psychology. Selected multiple objective techniques will be presented, followed by an overview of recent trends in the field. Computer-based techniques will be demonstrated.

  16. Spatial and seasonal variations of trace elements concentrations in liver and muscle of round Sardinelle (Sardinella aurita) and Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) along the Senegalese coast.

    PubMed

    Diop, Mamadou; Howsam, Michael; Diop, Cheikh; Cazier, Fabrice; Goossens, Jean F; Diouf, Amadou; Amara, Rachid

    2016-02-01

    Concentrations of 11 elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se,V and Zn) were quantified in liver and muscle from two commercially important fish species from the Senegalese coast. The fish, a small pelagic species (the round sardinella) and a benthic species (the Senegalese sole) were collected from five sites during the dry and wet seasons in 2013. For both species, elements were more concentrated in liver than in muscle. There was no clear seasonal pattern in concentration of elements, however inter-site differences were observed. We found significant differences in element concentrations between the two studied species, likely associated with their behavior, feeding and habitat use. The concentrations of Cd, Fe, and Pb were significantly higher in sardinella whereas concentration of As, Cu, Cr, Mn and Se were highest in sole. The concentration of cadmium was particularly high in the liver of sardinella (from 0.9 to 56 mg kg(-1), with a mean ± sd of 17.2 ± 11.5 mg kg(-1)) and may be related to anthropogenic pressure such as the phosphate industry but also to the upwelling current which brings dissolved elements to the surface that are taken up by plankton. The results showed that concentrations of Cd and Pb were below the limit values established by the European Community and pose no threat to public health. PMID:26410572

  17. Indian water rights settlements and water management innovations: The role of the Arizona Water Settlements Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bark, Rosalind H.; Jacobs, Katharine L.

    2009-05-01

    In the American southwest, over-allocated water supplies, groundwater depletion, and potential climate change impacts are major water management concerns. It may therefore seem counterintuitive that the resolution of outstanding senior tribal water claims, essentially reallocating finite water supplies to tribes, could support improved water supply reliability for many water users as is the case with the 2004 Arizona Water Settlements Act. The large size of the settlement and its multiple components translate to significant impacts on water policy in Arizona. Key water management solutions incorporated into the settlement and associated legislation have expanded the water manager's "toolbox" and are expected to enhance water supply reliability both within and outside Arizona's active management areas. Many of these new tools are transferable to water management applications in other states.

  18. Moving towards Total Water Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation will discuss the following topics: Stormwater Best Management Practice (BMP) Placement (SUSTAIN); Sanitary Sewer Overflow Toolbox (SSOAP); BMP and Low Impact Development (LID) Performance; Green/Grey Infrastructure for Stormwater; Combined Sewers and Reuse; Infra...

  19. WASTE AND WATER MANAGEMENT FOR CONVENTIONAL COAL COMBUSTION ASSESSMENT REPORT - 1979; VOLUME II. WATER MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, the second of five volumes, describes water management for conventional combustion sources and assesses the current status of various studies and programs in water management and trends in water recycle/reuse. A coal-fired boiler produces both chemical and thermal pol...

  20. Water governance across competing scales: Coupling land and water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, Katherine A.; Barreteau, Olivier

    2014-11-01

    Water governance is becoming an increasingly important area of study for hydrologists, as the impacts of human decisions on water flows and their various management scales are recognised. Hydrology has long tackled issues of water flow and quality across basins-from rain to soil and sub-soil, from upstream to downstream, between surface water and groundwater systems, and through interlinked watersheds-with the understanding that these stocks and flows can be modified en-route due to the actions of people, including through organised water management and governance processes. In this setting, one common aim of water governance is to develop management processes and infrastructure systems that can control hydrological variability at different levels of spatial and temporal scales. For example, water storages, distribution systems and drainage networks are developed for long-term seasonal and inter-decadal variability-in the case of large dams and irrigation systems-as well as shorter-term variability, such as flooding events, that may take place over hours (e.g. urban flash floods), days (e.g. catchment-based river flooding) or months (e.g. basin-wide flood-plain inundation events). Particularly when looking at water supply issues, water allocation rules are elaborated and negotiated in order to provide water to people when and where they most need it, rather than when and where it would naturally be available.

  1. Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use

    SciTech Connect

    Terry Brown; Carol Frost; Thomas Hayes; Leo Heath; Drew Johnson; David Lopez; Demian Saffer; Michael Urynowicz; John Wheaton; Mark Zoback

    2007-10-31

    Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm.

  2. Water management in the Roman world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dermody, Brian J.; van Beek, Rens L. P. H.; Meeks, Elijah; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; Scheidel, Walter; Wassen, Martin J.; van der Velde, Ype; Dekker, Stefan C.

    2014-05-01

    Climate variability can have extreme impacts on societies in regions that are water-limited for agriculture. A society's ability to manage its water resources in such environments is critical to its long-term viability. Water management can involve improving agricultural yields through in-situ irrigation or redistributing water resources through trade in food. Here, we explore how such water management strategies affected the resilience of the Roman Empire to climate variability in the water-limited region of the Mediterranean. Using the large-scale hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB and estimates of landcover based on the Historical Database of the Global Environment (HYDE) we generate potential agricultural yield maps under variable climate. HYDE maps of population density in conjunction with potential yield estimates are used to develop maps of agricultural surplus and deficit. The surplus and deficit regions are abstracted to nodes on a water redistribution network based on the Stanford Geospatial Network Model of the Roman World (ORBIS). This demand-driven, water redistribution network allows us to quantitatively explore how water management strategies such as irrigation and food trade improved the resilience of the Roman Empire to climate variability.

  3. Municipal Water Demand: Statistical and Management Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, William E.

    In the foreword to this volume, Charles W. Howe, general editor of the Westview Press series on water policy and management, states that the goal of this book is to emphasize “the potential for improved water management with reduced economic and environmental costs by utilizing modern methods of demand estimation that take into account user responsiveness to price, conservation measures, and economic-demographic changes.” The authors accomplish their purpose, but the book itself leaves much to be desired.

  4. Water supply: Yield relationships developed for study of water management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USA's west-central Great Plains is a semiarid region with irrigation largely from the Ogallala Aquifer, which has experienced extensive water-level declines. Farmers respond to reduced water supplies with alternative management, irrigation equipment, and crops; and, it is imperative the economic...

  5. Water Security - science and management challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheater, H. S.

    2015-04-01

    This paper briefly reviews the contemporary issues of Water Security, noting that current and prospective pressures represent major challenges for society. It is argued that, given the complex interdependencies and multi-faceted nature of these challenges, new trans-disciplinary science is needed to support the development of science-based policy and management. The effects of human society on land and water are now large and extensive. Hence we conclude that: (a) the management of water involves the management of a complex human-natural system, and (b) potential impacts of the human footprint on land and water systems can influence not only water quantity and quality, but also local and regional climate. We note, however, that research to quantify impacts of human activities is, in many respects, in its infancy. The development of the science base requires a trans-disciplinary place-based focus that must include the natural sciences, social sciences and engineering, and address management challenges at scales that range from local to large river basin scale, and may include trans-boundary issues. Large basin scale studies can provide the focus to address these science and management challenges, including the feedbacks associated with man's impact from land and water management on regional climate systems.

  6. Troubled waters: managing our vital resources.

    PubMed

    1999-03-01

    Presented are articles from Global Issues, an electronic journal of the US Information Agency that focuses on managing the water resources of the world. The three main articles are as follows: 1) ¿The Quiet Revolution to Restore Our Aquatic Ecosystems¿, 2) ¿Charting a New Course to Save America's Waters¿, and 3) ¿Freshwater: Will the World's Future Needs be Met?¿ The journal also presents commentaries on the age-old water shortage in the Middle East; solutions to water waste on the farm and in cities; managing water scarcity in the driest region of the US; and a new approach to environmental management in the Bermejo River in Argentina and Bolivia. Furthermore, this issue contains statistics on water usage and supplies and a report that examines proposals for policies that could set the world on a better course for water management. Lastly, this issue provides a bibliography of books, documents, and articles on freshwater issues as well as a list of Internet sites offering further information on water quality, supplies, and conservation. PMID:12290381

  7. Water Management in England: A Regional Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okun, Daniel A.

    1975-01-01

    Reorganization of authorities resulting in sound direction, greater flexibility, and more attention to cost effectiveness has helped the British achieve a high quality of water service. The history and development of British water management are reviewed and more cooperation between federal and state agencies is encouraged. (BT)

  8. Crop water productivity and irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern irrigation systems offer large increases in crop water productivity compared with rainfed or gravity irrigation, but require different management approaches to achieve this. Flood, sprinkler, low-energy precision application, LEPA, and subsurface drip irrigation methods vary widely in water a...

  9. Drinking Water Supplies: Protection Through Watershed Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, G. William

    1984-04-01

    The practice of purchasing land to protect surface water supply sources is rarely practical today. This is particularly true near urban areas. Therefore, Drinking Water Supplies attempts to provide an action-oriented guidebook on how to develop and implement watershed management strategies to protect surface water supplies from contamination under the constraints of today's economic, legal, institutional, and political conditions. The book succeeds in providing a very clear and useful guide to the process of developing such a strategy. It should be helpful to small and moderate-sized water supply systems and local governments interested in taking action to protect their surface water supply sources.

  10. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management (WQM) plans. WQM plans consist of...

  11. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management (WQM) plans. WQM plans consist of...

  12. Potato Nitrogen and Water Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato tuber yields and quality are extremely sensitive to adequate availability of water and nitrogen, particularly at some growth stages. Irrigation to replenish 70% of evapotranspiration (ET) as compared to that of full ET, resulted in about 18% reduction in tuber yield. However, 20% deficit irri...

  13. Joint management of water and electricity in State Water Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, T.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the relationship between California's water and electrical power is important for improving the management and planning of these two vital resources to the state's economy development and people's well-being. It is often unclear for consumers, managers and decision-makers that water and electricity in California are inextricably connected. In the past, insufficient considerations of electricity production, consumption and cost in the State Water Project (SWP) - the world's largest publicly built and operated water and power development and conveyance system-has led to significant water rate and electricity rate increase. An innovative concept of this proposed study is developing new technology capable of managing and planning water and power jointly in SWP to promote its operation efficiency, sustainability and resilience to potential water shortage caused by climate change and population increase. To achieve this goal, a nonlinear, two-fold network model describing water delivery in company with power consumption and generation will be constructed, and a multi-objective optimization scheme is to be used to resolve this complex nonlinear network problem.

  14. Urban water sustainability: an integrative framework for regional water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, P.; Ajami, N. K.

    2015-11-01

    Traditional urban water supply portfolios have proven to be unsustainable under the uncertainties associated with growth and long-term climate variability. Introducing alternative water supplies such as recycled water, captured runoff, desalination, as well as demand management strategies such as conservation and efficiency measures, has been widely proposed to address the long-term sustainability of urban water resources. Collaborative efforts have the potential to achieve this goal through more efficient use of common pool resources and access to funding opportunities for supply diversification projects. However, this requires a paradigm shift towards holistic solutions that address the complexity of hydrologic, socio-economic and governance dynamics surrounding water management issues. The objective of this work is to develop a regional integrative framework for the assessment of water resource sustainability under current management practices, as well as to identify opportunities for sustainability improvement in coupled socio-hydrologic systems. We define the sustainability of a water utility as the ability to access reliable supplies to consistently satisfy current needs, make responsible use of supplies, and have the capacity to adapt to future scenarios. To compute a quantitative measure of sustainability, we develop a numerical index comprised of supply, demand, and adaptive capacity indicators, including an innovative way to account for the importance of having diverse supply sources. We demonstrate the application of this framework to the Hetch Hetchy Regional Water System in the San Francisco Bay Area of California. Our analyses demonstrate that water agencies that share common water supplies are in a good position to establish integrative regional management partnerships in order to achieve individual and collective short-term and long-term benefits.

  15. 18 CFR 740.4 - State water management planning program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false State water management planning program. 740.4 Section 740.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL STATE WATER MANAGEMENT PLANNING PROGRAM § 740.4 State water management planning program. (a) A...

  16. 18 CFR 740.4 - State water management planning program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false State water management planning program. 740.4 Section 740.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL STATE WATER MANAGEMENT PLANNING PROGRAM § 740.4 State water management planning program. (a) A...

  17. 18 CFR 740.4 - State water management planning program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State water management planning program. 740.4 Section 740.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL STATE WATER MANAGEMENT PLANNING PROGRAM § 740.4 State water management planning program. (a) A State shall submit a description of its...

  18. 18 CFR 740.4 - State water management planning program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false State water management planning program. 740.4 Section 740.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL STATE WATER MANAGEMENT PLANNING PROGRAM § 740.4 State water management planning program. (a) A...

  19. 18 CFR 740.4 - State water management planning program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true State water management planning program. 740.4 Section 740.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL STATE WATER MANAGEMENT PLANNING PROGRAM § 740.4 State water management planning program. (a) A State shall submit a description of its...

  20. AOIPS water resources data management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merritt, E. S.; Shotwell, R. L.; Place, M. C.; Belknap, N. J.

    1976-01-01

    A geocoded data management system applicable for hydrological applications was designed to demonstrate the utility of the Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information Processing System (AOIPS) for hydrological applications. Within that context, the geocoded hydrology data management system was designed to take advantage of the interactive capability of the AOIPS hardware. Portions of the Water Resource Data Management System which best demonstrate the interactive nature of the hydrology data management system were implemented on the AOIPS. A hydrological case study was prepared using all data supplied for the Bear River watershed located in northwest Utah, southeast Idaho, and western Wyoming.

  1. Decision Support for Active Water Management (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidment, D. R.; Salas, F.; Minsker, B. S.

    2013-12-01

    Active water management refers to real-time adjustment of water management decisions based on observation and modeling of current water conditions. A case study is presented of a decision-support system for active water management in the San Antonio and Guadalupe basins using web services and cloud computing to create at the University of Texas a repository of observations, forecasts and model simulations from federal, state and regional water agencies and academia. Each day, National Weather Service river flow forecasts at 47 points in the basin are densified to create corresponding flows in 5500 river reaches using the RAPID river flow model operated in "Model as a Service" mode at the University of Illinois. These flows are adjusted by using the "Declarations of Intent" to pump water compiled by the Texas Commission for Environmental Quality which is the WaterMaster for all surface water withdrawals in the basin. The results are viewed through web maps that convey both maps of the spatial pattern of flow at a particular point in time, and charts of time series of flows at particular points in space.

  2. Illinois drainage water management demonstration project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitts, D.J.; Cooke, R.; Terrio, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    Due to naturally high water tables and flat topography, there are approximately 4 million ha (10 million ac) of farmland artificially drained with subsurface (tile) systems in Illinois. Subsurface drainage is practiced to insure trafficable field conditions for farm equipment and to reduce crop stress from excess water within the root zone. Although drainage is essential for economic crop production, there have been some significant environmental costs. Tile drainage systems tend to intercept nutrient (nitrate) rich soil-water and shunt it to surface water. Data from numerous monitoring studies have shown that a significant amount of the total nitrate load in Illinois is being delivered to surface water from tile drainage systems. In Illinois, these drainage systems are typically installed without control mechanisms and allow the soil to drain whenever the water table is above the elevation of the tile outlet. An assessment of water quality in the tile drained areas of Illinois showed that approximately 50 percent of the nitrate load was being delivered through the tile systems during the fallow period when there was no production need for drainage to occur. In 1998, a demonstration project to introduce drainage water management to producers in Illinois was initiated by NRCS4 An initial aspect of the project was to identify producers that were willing to manage their drainage system to create a raised water table during the fallow (November-March) period. Financial assistance from two federal programs was used to assist producers in retrofitting the existing drainage systems with control structures. Growers were also provided guidance on the management of the structures for both water quality and production benefits. Some of the retrofitted systems were monitored to determine the effect of the practice on water quality. This paper provides background on the water quality impacts of tile drainage in Illinois, the status of the demonstration project, preliminary

  3. Hanford site ground water protection management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    Ground water protection at the Hanford Site consists of preventative and remedial measures that are implemented in compliance with a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. These measures seek to ensure that the resource can sustain a broad range of beneficial uses. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the U.S. Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This order requires all U.S. Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate ground water protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Ground Water Protection Management Plan (GPMP) for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the GPMP covers the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the ground water regime; (2) design and implementation of a ground water monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations; (3) a management program for ground water protection and remediation; (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste; (5) strategies for controlling hazardous waste sources; (6) a remedial action program; and (7) decontamination, decommissioning, and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are currently covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing ground water protection activities. The GPMP provides the ground water protection policy and strategies for ground water protection/management at the Hanford Site, as well as an implementation plan to improve coordination of site ground water activities.

  4. Busulfan administration produces sublethal effects on somatic tissues and inhibits gametogenesis in Senegalese sole juveniles.

    PubMed

    Pacchiarini, T; Olague, E; Sarasquete, C; Cabrita, E

    2014-05-01

    Busulfan, a cytotoxic alkylating agent used for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia has effects in mammalian germ cells. In fish species, the use of this compound is of special interest in intra and interspecies germ cell transplants. To determine the effects of busulfan in fish a previous range finding experiment was designed. Survival and growth rate of 150-days after hatching (150DAH) Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles was determined. In a second experiment, the effects of a sublethal busulfan dose in fish germ cell depletion and in somatic tissues were analysed. Sublethal effects of several busulfan treatments (B10-10 days after injection, B20-20 days after injection, B20÷-20 days after injection with double injection) were determined in somatic and gonadal tissues. Alterations were registered through histopathological techniques, TUNEL (cell apoptosis) and quantified at molecular level (Q-PCR analyses) using the vasa mRNAs (Ssvasa1-2 and Ssvasa3-4 mRNAs) as molecular markers for germinal cells in Senegalese sole juveniles. Several sublethal effects were observed with 40 mg kg⁻¹ busulfan, a non-lethal dose, such as: pyknosis in liver, increase of melanomacrophage centres and blood stagnation in spleen and interruption of gonadal development. Females were more affected by busulfan treatments than males in terms of germ cell disruption, since a significant decrease in the expression of both Ssvasa1-2 and Ssvasa3-4 markers was found in the gonad of treated females rather than males. At 10 days post-treatment (B10), females already presented a decrease in germ cell proliferation, as confirmed by Q-PCR. Ssvasa expression proved to be a reliable tool for the direct evaluation of the effects of busulfan on Senegalese sole gonadal development, proving that busulfan can be a suitable treatment for causing transient sterility in recipient gonads for germ cell transplantation. PMID:24371034

  5. Prevalence of hepatitis B markers in Senegalese HIV-1-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Lô, Gora; Sow-Sall, Amina; Diop-Ndiaye, Halimatou; Mandiouba, Nokoa Chadia Ines Danty; Thiam, Moussa; Diop, Fatou; Ndiaye, Ousseynou; Gueye, Sokhna Bousso; Seck, Sidy Mouhamed; Dioura, Abou Abdallah Malick; Mbow, Moustapha; Gaye-Diallo, Aïssatou; Mboup, Souleymane; Touré-Kâne, Coumba

    2016-03-01

    The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and to describe the HBV virological profiles among Senegalese HIV-1-infected patients. We conducted a retrospective study between 2006 and 2010 among Senegalese HIV-1-infected patients from the antiretroviral therapy cohort. Samples were screened using Determine(®) HBsAg or MONOLISA(®) POC test. The HBsAg positivity status was confirmed by Architect(®) HBsAg. Detection of HBeAg, anti-HBe Ab, and HBV DNA load were done for the HBsAg-positive samples. Then, Anti-HBcAb was tested for the HBsAg-negative samples. Microsoft Excel was used for data collection and statistical analyses were performed using Epi info 3.5.1. Overall, 466 HIV-infected patients were enrolled including 271 women (58.4%), and 193 men (41.6%) with a median age of 39 years (19-74 years). The global prevalence of HIV/HBV coinfection (HBsAg positive) was 8.8% (41/466). For HBsAg positives samples, the prevalence of HBeAg and the anti-HBeAb were, respectively, 24.4 and 69.2% and the median of HBV DNA viral load, for 27 HBsAg-positive samples, was 3.75 log10 copies/ml. The virological profiles were the following: 7, 15, and 5 patients infected, respectively, by a replicative virus, an inactive virus and a probably mutant virus. For HBsAg-negative samples, 83 out of 109 were positive for anti-HBcAb. This study showed a significant decrease of the prevalence of HBV/HIV coinfection between 2004 and 2014 (P = 0.003), which highlighted the performance of the Senegalese HBV vaccine program. However, implementing a systematic quantification of HBV DNA viral load could improve the monitoring of HBV-infected patient. PMID:26252424

  6. Integrated water resources management using engineering measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.

    2015-04-01

    The management process of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) consists of aspects of policies/strategies, measures (engineering measures and non-engineering measures) and organizational management structures, etc., among which engineering measures such as reservoirs, dikes, canals, etc., play the backbone that enables IWRM through redistribution and reallocation of water in time and space. Engineering measures are usually adopted for different objectives of water utilization and water disaster prevention, such as flood control and drought relief. The paper discusses the planning and implementation of engineering measures in IWRM of the Changjiang River, China. Planning and implementation practices of engineering measures for flood control and water utilization, etc., are presented. Operation practices of the Three Gorges Reservoir, particularly the development and application of regulation rules for flood management, power generation, water supply, ecosystem needs and sediment issues (e.g. erosion and siltation), are also presented. The experience obtained in the implementation of engineering measures in Changjiang River show that engineering measures are vital for IWRM. However, efforts should be made to deal with changes of the river system affected by the operation of engineering measures, in addition to escalatory development of new demands associated with socio-economic development.

  7. Managing the urban water-energy nexus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escriva-Bou, Alvar; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Lund, Jay R.

    2016-04-01

    Water use directly causes a significant amount of energy use in cities. In this paper we assess energy and greenhouse emissions related with each part of the urban water cycle and the consequences of several changes in residential water use for customers, water and energy utilities, and the environment. First, we develop an hourly model of urban water uses by customer category including water-related energy consumption. Next, using real data from East Bay Municipal Utility District in California, we calibrate a model of the energy used in water supply, treatment, pumping and wastewater treatment by the utility. Then, using data from the California Independent System Operator, we obtain hourly costs of energy for the energy utility. Finally, and using emission factors reported by the energy utilities we estimate greenhouse gas emissions for the entire urban water cycle. Results of the business-as-usual scenario show that water end uses account for almost 95% of all water-related energy use, but the 5% managed by the utility is still worth over 12 million annually. Several simulations analyze the potential benefits for water demand management actions showing that moving some water end-uses from peak to off-peak hours such as outdoor use, dishwasher or clothes washer use have large benefits for water and energy utilities, especially for locations with a high proportion of electric water heaters. Other interesting result is that under the current energy rate structures with low or no fixed charges, energy utilities burden most of the cost of the conservation actions.

  8. ``Virtual water'': An unfolding concept in integrated water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hong; Zehnder, Alexander

    2007-12-01

    In its broadest sense, virtual water refers to the water required for the production of food commodities. Issues relating to virtual water have drawn much attention in scientific communities and the political sphere since the mid 1990s. This paper provides a critical review of major research issues and results in the virtual water literature and pinpoints the remaining questions and the direction of research in future virtual water studies. We conclude that virtual water studies have helped to raise the awareness of water scarcity and its impact on food security and to improve the understanding of the role of food trade in compensating for water deficit. However, the studies so far have been overwhelmingly concerned with the international food trade, and many solely quantified virtual water flows associated with food trade. There is a general lack of direct policy relevance to the solutions to water scarcity and food insecurity, which are often local, regional, and river basin issues. The obscurity in the conceptual basis of virtual water also entails some confusion. The methodologies and databases of the studies are often crude, affecting the robustness and reliability of the results. Looking ahead, future virtual water studies need to enhance the policy relevance by strengthening their linkages with national and regional water resources management. Meanwhile, integrated approaches taking into consideration the spatial and temporal variations of blue and green water resources availability and the complexity of natural, socioeconomic, and political conditions are necessary in assessing the trade-offs of the virtual water strategy in dealing with water scarcity. To this end, interdisciplinary efforts and quantitative methods supported by improved data availability are greatly important.

  9. Plasmodium falciparum- and merozoite surface protein 1-specific antibody isotype balance in immune Senegalese adults.

    PubMed Central

    Nguer, C M; Diallo, T O; Diouf, A; Tall, A; Dieye, A; Perraut, R; Garraud, O

    1997-01-01

    This study shows markedly different isotype distributions of antibodies to asexual blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum and to merozoite surface protein 1 in clinically immune Senegalese adults depending on the study site. The relationships between immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG and between IgG3 and IgG1 antibodies differed in settings where transmission is perennial compared to settings where it is seasonal. This suggests a role for antibody class and/or subclass production and utilization in the regulation of protective immunity to such antigens. PMID:9353079

  10. Ground water protection management program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 requires the establishment of a ground water protection management program to ensure compliance with DOE requirements and applicable federal, state, and local laws and regulations. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office was prepared this Ground Water Protection Management Program Plan (ground water protection plan) whose scope and detail reflect the program`s significance and address the seven activities required in DOE Order 5400.1, Chapter III, for special program planning. This ground water protection plan highlights the methods designed to preserve, protect, and monitor ground water resources at UMTRA Project processing and disposal sites. The plan includes an overview of the remedial action status at the 24 designated processing sites and identifies technical guidance documents and site-specific documents for the UMTRA Project ground water protection management program. In addition, the plan addresses the general information required to develop a water resources protection strategy at the permanent disposal sites. Finally, the plan describes ongoing activities that are in various stages of development at UMTRA Project sites.

  11. Water resources. [mapping and management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.

    1974-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in applying ERTS-1 data to water resources problems, nevertheless, more time and effort still appear necessary for further quantification of results, including the specification of thematic measurement accuracies. More modeling can be done very profitably. In particular, more strategy models describing the processes wherein ERTS-1 data would be acquired, analyzed, processed, and utilized in operational situations could be profitably accomplished. It is generally observed that the ERTS-1 data applicability is evident in several areas and that the next most general and substantive steps in the implementation of the data in operational situations would be greatly encouraged by the establishment of an operational earth resources satellite organization and capability. Further encouragement of this operational capability would be facilitated by all investigators striving to document their procedures as fully as possible and by providing time and cost comparisons between ERTS-1 and conventional acquisition approaches.

  12. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... purposes of this rule and the Clean Water Act assistance programs under 40 CFR part 35, subparts A and H if... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management...

  13. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... purposes of this rule and the Clean Water Act assistance programs under 40 CFR part 35, subparts A and H if... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Water quality management plans. 130.6... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management...

  14. Training needs for water demand management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumbo, Bekithemba; van der Zaag, Pieter; Robinson, Peter; Jonker, Lewis; Buckle, Hannes

    There is no doubt that delivery of education and training is essential in increasing awareness and equipping various stakeholders with the necessary skills and tools to implement Water Demand Management (WDM) in the Southern African region. At present there is limited capacity in the region to drive WDM programmes. One of the identified major constraints to the adoption of Water Demand Management (WDM) measures is the absence of well structured educational and training programmes or courses suitably targeted to all stakeholders in the water management chain. As one unpacks the Pandora’s Box of education and training certain key questions arise. What form of education and training in required? How does it fit in broader programmes like Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM)? Who should be educated or trained and what are the target figures? And, importantly, who funds the exercise? As much as WDM awareness has been given due attention, education and training to move beyond the barriers to implementation have been lacking. This paper describes the development of the IUCN-WaterNet WDM Tertiary Training Module for middle and senior managers in institutions within the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC). The paper outlines the structure of the module and the philosophy which guided its development and selection of content. The results of relevant training needs surveys are also highlighted. Human development indicators for the SADC member states are provided as background information to contextualise the challenges facing the region. There are a number of constraints and threats to building WDM human resource capital. Recommendations are made for possible co-operation among the educators and trainers, public and private sectors, and possibly within the framework and mandate of the SADC Water Sector Co-ordinating Unit. Cooperation would ensure that WDM knowledge and skills are imparted to a significant number of water professionals in the region within

  15. Scientific basis of water-resource management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This volume contains 11 reports regarding water-resource management. Topics include: long-term and large-scale problems of water management, such as groundwater contamination due to toxic and nuclear-waste disposal; nonpoint sources of pollution on our stream systems; impacts of changes in both flow and water quality on the aquatic ecosystem; the frequency, duration, and impacts of droughts including long-term trends toward desertification; long-term hydrologic budgets for assessing the adequacy of regional or national water resources; global geochemical cycles such as the fate of nitrogen and sulfur; and protection of engineered systems against hydrologic extrema. These macroscale and long-term problems, involving large investments and the health and well-being of much of the world's population, demand increasingly precise and accurate predictive statements. Individual reports are indexed separately on the energy data base.

  16. Managing water resources for crop production

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, J. S.; Batchelor, C. H.

    1997-01-01

    Increasing crop production to meet the food requirements of the world's growing population will put great pressure on global water resources. Given that the vast freshwater resources that are available in the world are far from fully exploited, globally there should be sufficient water for future agricultural requirements. However, there are large areas where low water supply and high human demand may lead to regional shortages of water for future food production. In these arid and semi-arid areas, where water is a major constraint on production, improving water resource management is crucial if Malthusian disasters are to be avoided. There is considerable scope for improvement, since in both dryland and irrigated agriculture only about one-third of the available water (as rainfall, surface, or groundwater) is used to grow useful plants. This paper illustrates a range of techniques that could lead to increased crop production by improving agricultural water use efficiency. This may be achieved by increasing the total amount of water available to plants or by increasing the efficiency with which that water is used to produce biomass. Although the crash from the Malthusian precipice may ultimately be inevitable if population growth is not addressed, the time taken to reach the edge of the precipice could be lengthened by more efficient use of existing water resources.

  17. Water inventory management in condenser pool of boiling water reactor

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.

    1996-03-12

    An improved system for managing the water inventory in the condenser pool of a boiling water reactor has means for raising the level of the upper surface of the condenser pool water without adding water to the isolation pool. A tank filled with water is installed in a chamber of the condenser pool. The water-filled tank contains one or more holes or openings at its lowermost periphery and is connected via piping and a passive-type valve (e.g., squib valve) to a high-pressure gas-charged pneumatic tank of appropriate volume. The valve is normally closed, but can be opened at an appropriate time following a loss-of-coolant accident. When the valve opens, high-pressure gas inside the pneumatic tank is released to flow passively through the piping to pressurize the interior of the water-filled tank. In so doing, the initial water contents of the tank are expelled through the openings, causing the water level in the condenser pool to rise. This increases the volume of water available to be boiled off by heat conducted from the passive containment cooling heat exchangers. 4 figs.

  18. Water inventory management in condenser pool of boiling water reactor

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M.

    1996-01-01

    An improved system for managing the water inventory in the condenser pool of a boiling water reactor has means for raising the level of the upper surface of the condenser pool water without adding water to the isolation pool. A tank filled with water is installed in a chamber of the condenser pool. The water-filled tank contains one or more holes or openings at its lowermost periphery and is connected via piping and a passive-type valve (e.g., squib valve) to a high-pressure gas-charged pneumatic tank of appropriate volume. The valve is normally closed, but can be opened at an appropriate time following a loss-of-coolant accident. When the valve opens, high-pressure gas inside the pneumatic tank is released to flow passively through the piping to pressurize the interior of the water-filled tank. In so doing, the initial water contents of the tank are expelled through the openings, causing the water level in the condenser pool to rise. This increases the volume of water available to be boiled off by heat conducted from the passive containment cooling heat exchangers. 4 figs.

  19. Watershed management: Clean water`s next act

    SciTech Connect

    Hite, R.W.

    1996-09-23

    14 articles related to watershed management comprise this special advertising section of the Association of Metropolitan Sewerage Agencies. Subtopics include water quality, regulations, US Environmental Protection Agency activities, analysis tools, economics, flooding and erosions, and non-point source pollutions. Articles on arid and coastal are included. Several articles describe municipal watershed programs being planned or in place.

  20. Knowledge and information management for integrated water resource management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watershed information systems that integrate data and analytical tools are critical enabling technologies to support Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) by converting data into information, and information into knowledge. Many factors bring people to the table to participate in an IWRM fra...

  1. Total Water Management: A Watershed Based Approach - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT In this urbanizing world, municipal water managers need to develop planning and management frameworks to meet challenges such as limiting fresh water supplies, degrading receiving waters, increasing regulatory requirements, flooding, aging infrastructure, rising utility...

  2. Water resources management. World Bank policy paper

    SciTech Connect

    Easter, K.W.; Feder, G.; Le Moigne, G.; Duda, A.M.; Forsyth, E.

    1993-01-01

    Water resources have been one of the most important areas of World Bank lending during the past three decades. Through its support for sector work and investments in irrigation, water supply, sanitation, flood control, and hydropower, the Bank has contributed to the development of many countries and helped provide essential services to many communities. Moreover, the Bank and governments have not taken sufficient account of environmental concerns in the management of water resources. (Copyright (c) 1993 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank.)

  3. Integrated waste and water management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, R. W.; Sauer, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The performance requirements of the NASA Space Station have prompted a reexamination of a previously developed integrated waste and water management system that used distillation and catalytic oxydation to purify waste water, and microbial digestion and incineration for waste solids disposal. This system successfully operated continuously for 206 days, for a 4-man equivalent load of urine, feces, wash water, condensate, and trash. Attention is given to synergisms that could be established with other life support systems, in the cases of thermal integration, design commonality, and novel technologies.

  4. Game Theory in water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsanevaki, Styliani Maria; Varouchakis, Emmanouil; Karatzas, George

    2015-04-01

    Rural water management is a basic requirement for the development of the primary sector and involves the exploitation of surface/ground-water resources. Rational management requires the study of parameters that determine their exploitation mainly environmental, economic and social. These parameters reflect the influence of irrigation on the aquifer behaviour and on the level-streamflow of nearby rivers as well as on the profit from the farming activity for the farmers' welfare. The question of rural water management belongs to the socio-political problems, since the factors involved are closely related to user behaviour and state position. By applying Game Theory one seeks to simulate the behaviour of the system 'surface/ground-water resources to water-users' with a model based on a well-known game, "The Prisoner's Dilemma" for economic development of the farmers without overexploitation of the water resources. This is a game of two players that have been extensively studied in Game Theory, economy and politics because it can describe real-world cases. The present proposal aims to investigate the rural water management issue that is referred to two competitive small partnerships organised to manage their agricultural production and to achieve a better profit. For the farmers' activities water is required and ground-water is generally preferable because consists a more stable recourse than river-water which in most of the cases in Greece are of intermittent flow. If the two farmer groups cooperate and exploit the agreed water quantities they will gain equal profits and benefit from the sustainable availability of the water recourses (p). If both groups overexploitate the resource to maximize profit, then in the medium-term they will incur a loss (g), due to the water resources reduction and the increase of the pumping costs. If one overexploit the resource while the other use the necessary required, then the first will gain great benefit (P), and the second will

  5. Water Management Applications of Advanced Precipitation Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, L. E.; Braswell, G.; Delaney, C.

    2012-12-01

    Advanced precipitation sensors and numerical models track storms as they occur and forecast the likelihood of heavy rain for time frames ranging from 1 to 8 hours, 1 day, and extended outlooks out to 3 to 7 days. Forecast skill decreases at the extended time frames but the outlooks have been shown to provide "situational awareness" which aids in preparation for flood mitigation and water supply operations. In California the California-Nevada River Forecast Centers and local Weather Forecast Offices provide precipitation products that are widely used to support water management and flood response activities of various kinds. The Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT) program is being conducted to help advance the science of precipitation tracking and forecasting in support of the NWS. HMT high-resolution products have found applications for other non-federal water management activities as well. This presentation will describe water management applications of HMT advanced precipitation products, and characterization of benefits expected to accrue. Two case examples will be highlighted, 1) reservoir operations for flood control and water supply, and 2) urban stormwater management. Application of advanced precipitation products in support of reservoir operations is a focus of the Sonoma County Water Agency. Examples include: a) interfacing the high-resolution QPE products with a distributed hydrologic model for the Russian-Napa watersheds, b) providing early warning of in-coming storms for flood preparedness and water supply storage operations. For the stormwater case, San Francisco wastewater engineers are developing a plan to deploy high resolution gap-filling radars looking off shore to obtain longer lead times on approaching storms. A 4 to 8 hour lead time would provide opportunity to optimize stormwater capture and treatment operations, and minimize combined sewer overflows into the Bay.ussian River distributed hydrologic model.

  6. STORM WATER MANAGEMENT MODEL (SWMM) BIBLIOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Available literature sources were reviewed to locate references to the theory, documentation, use, or other activities related to the EPA Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). Listed in the annotated bibliography are 237 such citations, along with keywords and brief abstracts. The...

  7. Nutrient Management: Water Quality/Use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient management programs must have a positive impact on water quality. The challenge for producers is to understand the nutrient balance in the soil and to reduce the risk of surface runoff of manure. The challenge for science is to increase our understanding of the value of manure in the soil a...

  8. Hydrology and Water Quality from Managed Turf

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantification of nutrient and pesticide losses from managed turf systems (golf courses) is scant. A study was initiated at Northland Country Club in Duluth, MN, in 2003 to quantify nutrient and pesticide losses in surface and subsurface discharge waters. Based on the four years of data collected at...

  9. Crop Management Strategies for Low Water Availability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The High Plains is a temperate semi-arid region with highly variable rainfall. Extended periods of drought are common. In general, crop management strategies attempt to maximize the total water available to the crop and to maximize transpiration by minimizing soil evaporation. Summer fallow, the pra...

  10. Storm Water Management Model Applications Manual

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is a dynamic rainfall-runoff simulation model that computes runoff quantity and quality from primarily urban areas. This manual is a practical application guide for new SWMM users who have already had some previous training in hydrolog...

  11. Immunohistochemical diagnosis of tenacibaculosis in paraffin-embedded tissues of Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858.

    PubMed

    Faílde, L D; Bermúdez, R; Losada, A P; Riaza, A; Santos, Y; Quiroga, M I

    2014-11-01

    A sensitive and specific immunohistochemical technique was developed to improve the diagnosis of tenacibaculosis and to better understand its pathogenesis. Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858 were inoculated subcutaneously with a bacterial suspension of Tenacibaculum maritimum, and samples were taken at different hours post-inoculation. Sections from different organs were used as positive controls. In addition, a total of 128 field samples from different organs collected from tenacibaculosis outbreaks were used. Tenacibaculum maritimum antigens were detected in several organs of experimentally infected Senegalese sole and in at least one of the tissues from fish suffering from natural tenacibaculosis previously confirmed by culture and PCR-based methods. In fish collected during outbreaks, a strong positive reaction was detected in ulcerative skin areas. Moreover, bacterial antigen was identified inside scale pockets and in sites of the skin with mild lesion. In kidney and spleen, evident immunostaining of bacterial antigen was detected in both naturally and experimentally infected fish. Besides, the presence of T. maritimum in the intestinal tract without associated histological changes suggests that this organ may act as a reservoir for T. maritimum. The results of this study confirm the usefulness of IHC for the diagnosis of tenacibaculosis in paraffin-embedded tissues. PMID:24274927

  12. First haploid genetic map based on microsatellite markers in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup 1858).

    PubMed

    Molina-Luzón, Ma Jesús; Hermida, Miguel; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Robles, Francisca; Navas, José Ignacio; Ruiz-Rejón, Carmelo; Bouza, Carmen; Martínez, Paulino; de la Herrán, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    The Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup 1858) is a flatfish species of great value for aquaculture. In this study, we develop the first linkage map in this species based on microsatellite markers characterized from genomic DNA libraries and EST databases of Senegalese sole and from other flatfish species. Three reference gynogenetic families were obtained by chromosome-manipulation techniques: two haploid gynogenetics, used to assign and order microsatellites to linkage groups and another diploid gynogenetic family, used for estimating marker-centromere distances. The consensus map consists of 129 microsatellites distributed in 27 linkage groups (LG), with an average density of 4.7 markers per LG and comprising 1,004 centimorgans (cM). Additionally, 15 markers remained unlinked. Through half-tetrad analysis, we were able to estimate the centromere distance for 81 markers belonging to 24 LG, representing an average of 3 markers per LG. Comparative mapping was performed between flatfish species LG and model fish species chromosomes (stickleback, Tetraodon, medaka, fugu and zebrafish). The usefulness of microsatellite markers and the genetic map as tools for comparative mapping and evolution studies is discussed. PMID:25107689

  13. Chromosomal manipulation in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858): induction of triploidy and gynogenesis.

    PubMed

    Molina-Luzón, Maria Jesús; López, Jose Ramón; Robles, Francisca; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Ruiz-Rejón, Carmelo; De la Herrán, Roberto; Navas, Jose Ignacio

    2015-02-01

    In this study we have developed protocols for induced triploidy and gynogenesis of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis), a promising flatfish species for marine aquaculture, in order to: 1) identify the sex-determination mechanism; and 2) to improve its production by generating a) sterile fish, avoiding problems related with sexual maturation, and b) all-female stocks, of higher growth rate. Triploidy was induced by means of a cold shock. Gynogenesis was induced by activating eggs with UV-irradiated sperm, and to prompt diploid gynogenesis, a cold-shock step was also used. Ploidy of putative triploid larvae and gynogenetic embryos were determined by means of karyotyping and microsatellite analysis. Haploid gynogenetic embryos showed the typical "haploid syndrome". As expected, triploid and gynogenetic groups showed lower fertilization, hatching, and survival rates than in the diploid control group. Survival rate, calculated 49 days after hatching, for haploid and diploid gynogenetic groups was similar to those observed in other fish species (0% and 62.5%, respectively), whereas triploids showed worse values (45%). Sex was determined macroscopically and by histological procedures, revealing that all the diploid gynogenetic individuals were females. In conclusion, we have successfully applied chromosomal-manipulation techniques in the flatfish species Senegalese sole in order to produce triploid, haploid, and diploid gynogenetic progenies. PMID:25056710

  14. Integrated urban water management in commercial buildings.

    PubMed

    Trowsdale, S; Gabe, J; Vale, R

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring results are presented as an annual water balance from the pioneering Landcare Research green building containing commercial laboratory and office space. The building makes use of harvested roof runoff to flush toilets and urinals and irrigate glasshouse experiments, reducing the demand for city-supplied water and stormwater runoff. Stormwater treatment devices also manage the runoff from the carpark, helping curb stream degradation. Composting toilets and low-flow tap fittings further reduce the water demand. Despite research activities requiring the use of large volumes of water, the demand for city-supplied water is less than has been measured in many other green buildings. In line with the principles of sustainability, the composting toilets produce a useable product from wastes and internalise the wastewater treatment process. PMID:21411934

  15. Water management and productivity in planted forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nettles, J. E.

    2014-09-01

    As climate variability endangers water security in many parts of the world, maximizing the carbon balance of plantation forestry is of global importance. High plant water use efficiency is generally associated with lower plant productivity, so an explicit balance in resources is necessary to optimize water yield and tree growth. This balance requires predicting plant water use under different soil, climate, and planting conditions, as well as a mechanism to account for trade-offs in ecosystem services. Several strategies for reducing the water use of forests have been published but there is little research tying these to operational forestry. Using data from silvicultural and biofuel feedstock research in pine plantation ownership in the southeastern USA, proposed water management tools were evaluated against known treatment responses to estimate water yield, forest productivity, and economic outcomes. Ecosystem impacts were considered qualitatively and related to water use metrics. This work is an attempt to measure and compare important variables to make sound decisions about plantations and water use.

  16. Water demand management research: A psychological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Sally; Fielding, Kelly

    2010-05-01

    The availability of fresh water for human consumption is a critical global issue and one that will be exacerbated by the impacts of climate change. Water demand management has an important role to play in reducing the vulnerability of freshwater supplies to climate change impacts. In this paper, we argue that the field of psychology and environmental psychology in particular can make a vital contribution in understanding further the drivers of residential water demand. A growing body of literature in environmental psychology has examined the determinants of water conservation behavior, and this research has many potential applications for water demand policy. In this paper we offer a review of current psychological research that examines the five broad causes of residential water conservation behaviors: attitudes, beliefs, habits or routines, personal capabilities, and contextual factors. We assess how psychologists have studied water conservation behavior to date, identify shortcomings, and indicate how this research can be used to further promote residential water conservation and to inform evidence-based policy and practice.

  17. Integrating social and physical sciences in water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Jay R.

    2015-08-01

    Water management has always required more than physical science. This paper reviews the accomplishments of integrating social with physical sciences for water management in the last 50 years. Particular successes are highlighted to illustrate how fundamentals from both physical science and social science have been brought together to improve the performance of water management systems. Some forward-looking lessons for managing practical and academic interdisciplinary research for water management are also provided.

  18. Integrated Water Resources Management: A Global Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, V.; Cohen, M.; Akudago, J.; Keith, D.; Palaniappan, M.

    2011-12-01

    The diversity of water resources endowments and the societal arrangements to use, manage, and govern water makes defining a single paradigm or lens through which to define, prioritize and evaluate interventions in the water sector particularly challenging. Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) emerged as the dominant intervention paradigm for water sector interventions in the early 1990s. Since then, while many successful implementations of IWRM have been demonstrated at the local, basin, national and trans-national scales, IWRM has also been severely criticized by the global water community as "having a dubious record that has never been comprehensively analyzed", "curiously ambiguous", and "ineffective at best and counterproductive at worst". Does IWRM hold together as a coherent paradigm or is it a convenient buzzword to describe a diverse collection of water sector interventions? We analyzed 184 case study summaries of IWRM interventions on the Global Water Partnership (GWP) website. The case studies were assessed to find the nature, scale, objectives and outcomes of IWRM. The analysis does not suggest any coherence in IWRM as a paradigm - but does indicate distinct regional trends in IWRM. First, IWRM was done at very different scales in different regions. In Africa two-thirds of the IWRM interventions involved creating national or transnational organizations. In contrast, in Asia and South America, almost two-thirds were watershed, basin, or local body initiatives. Second, IWRM interventions involved very different types of activities in different regions. In Africa and Europe, IWRM entailed creation of policy documents, basin plans and institution building. In contrast, in Asia and Latin America the interventions were much more likely to entail new technology, infrastructure or watershed measures. In Australia, economic measures, new laws and enforcement mechanisms were more commonly used than anywhere else.

  19. Russia in the World Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibikova, Tatiana; Koronkevich, Nikolay; Barabanova, Elena; Zaytseva, Irina

    2014-05-01

    resources, including surface and ground waters, for the territory and the population; precipitation; indicators of anthropogenic impact, such as population, water withdrawals, sewage waters, irrevocable consumption of water, data on flow regulation by reservoirs; the state of natural waters was estimated by comparison of the average long-term values of water resources with characteristics of anthropogenic impact, and economic efficiency of water use - by water and gross domestic product comparison. The objective of this paper was to give a general idea of the position of Russia in the world water management in the period of time. Further work on this subject is aimed at clarifying the indicators of water resources, human impact on them and the effectiveness of their use. Particular attention will be paid to the assessment of the impact of economic activity in the catchment on rivers and reservoirs. Such kind of assessment is necessary for achieving sustainable water supply in the near and distant future, raising living standards and preserving the environment. References: Koronkevich N.I., Zaytseva I.S., 2003. Anthropogenic Influences on Water Resources of Russia and Neighboring Countries at the end of XXth Century. Moscow, Nauka. Bibikova T., 2011 Comparative Analysis of Anthropogenic Impact on Water Resources in Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine in the Post-Soviet Period. Water Res. Vol. 38 No. 5, 549-556.

  20. Water management, purification, and conservation in arid climates. Volume 1: Water management

    SciTech Connect

    Goosen, M.F.A.; Shayya, W.H.

    1999-07-01

    Arid regions are already feeling the severe restraining effects of potable water shortages. In coming years, humid and sub-humid regions of the world will also have to face many of these same problems. In the future, serious conflicts may arise not because of a lack of oil, but due to water shortages. Are there solutions to these problems? Aside from increasing public awareness about the importance of water, society needs to take a three pronged approach: water needs to be effectively managed, it needs to be economically purified, and it needs to be conserved. Only by doing these three things in unison can they hope to alleviate the water problems faced by arid regions of the world. This book presents information valuable to seeking, finding and using current technologies to help solve these problems now. Volume 1 examines water management problems in detail, along with water problems and water resources in arid climates, and includes chapters that cover aspects of water management. Water purification technology is another key issue. The economics of this technology is becoming more critical in arid areas due to increasing urbanization and industrialization.

  1. Adapting water accounting for integrated water resource management. The Júcar Water Resource System (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momblanch, Andrea; Andreu, Joaquín; Paredes-Arquiola, Javier; Solera, Abel; Pedro-Monzonís, María

    2014-11-01

    An increase in water demands, exacerbated by climate change and the tightening of environmental requirements, leads to a reduction in available water resources for economic uses. This situation poses challenges for water resource planning and management. Water accounting has emerged as an appropriate tool to improve transparency and control in water management. There are multiple water accounting approaches, but they generally involve a very exhaustive list of accounted concepts. According to our findings in this research, one of the best water accounting methodologies is the Australian Water Accounting Standard. However, its implementation for integrated water resource planning and management purposes calls into questioning the amount of information and level of detail necessary for the users of water accounts. In this paper, we present a different method of applying the Australian Water Accounting Standard in relation to water resource management, which improves its utility. In order to compare the original approach and that proposed here, we present and discuss an application to the Júcar Water Resource System, in eastern Spain.

  2. Water quality management library. 2. edition

    SciTech Connect

    Eckenfelder, W.W.; Malina, J.F.; Patterson, J.W.

    1998-12-31

    A series of ten books offered in conjunction with Water Quality International, the Biennial Conference and Exposition of the International Association on Water Pollution Research and Control (IAWPRC). Volume 1, Activated Sludge Process, Design and Control, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 2, Upgrading Wastewater Treatment Plants, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 3, Toxicity Reduction, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 4, Municipal Sewage Sludge Management, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 5, Design and Retrofit of Wastewater Treatment Plants for Biological Nutrient Removal, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 6, Dynamics and Control of the Activated Sludge Process, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 7: Design of Anaerobic Processes for the Treatment of Industrial and Municipal Wastes, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 8, Groundwater Remediation, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 9, Nonpoint Pollution and Urban Stormwater Management, 1st edition, 1995: Volume 10, Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse, 1st edition, 1998.

  3. Developing Sustainable Spacecraft Water Management Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Evan A.; Klaus, David M.

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that water handling systems used in a spacecraft are prone to failure caused by biofouling and mineral scaling, which can clog mechanical systems and degrade the performance of capillary-based technologies. Long duration spaceflight applications, such as extended stays at a Lunar Outpost or during a Mars transit mission, will increasingly benefit from hardware that is generally more robust and operationally sustainable overtime. This paper presents potential design and testing considerations for improving the reliability of water handling technologies for exploration spacecraft. Our application of interest is to devise a spacecraft wastewater management system wherein fouling can be accommodated by design attributes of the management hardware, rather than implementing some means of preventing its occurrence.

  4. Water resource management planning guide for Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, J.E.; Stephenson, D.E.; Steele, J.L. and Co., Aiken, SC . Savannah River Lab.); Gordon, D.E. and Co., Aiken, SC . Savannah River Plant)

    1988-10-01

    The Water Resource Management Planning Guide provides an outline for the development of a Savannah River Plant Water Resource Management Plan (WRMP) to protect, manage, and monitor the site's water resources. The management plan is based on three principle elements: (1) protection of the water quality, (2) management of the water quantity, and (3) monitoring of the water quality and quantity. The plan will assure that changes in water quality and quantity are identified and that corrective action is implemented as needed. In addition, water management activities within and between Savannah River Plant (SRP) organizations and departments will be coordinated to ensure the proper management of water resources. This document is intended as a guide to suggest goals and objectives that will provide a basis for the development of a water resource plan for SRP. Planning should be flexible rather than rigid, and the plan outlines in this document was prepared to be modified or updated as conditions necessitate. 16 refs., 12 figs.

  5. Water Management of Noninsulating and Insulating Sheathings

    SciTech Connect

    Smegal, J.; Lstiburek, J.

    2012-04-01

    There is an increasing market in liquid (or fluid) applied water management barriers for residential applications that could be used in place of tapes and other self-adhering membranes if applied correctly, especially around penetrations in the enclosure. This report discusses current best practices, recommends ways in which the best practices can be improved, and looks at some current laboratory testing and testing standards.

  6. Tapping Alternatives: The Benefits of Managing Urban Water Demands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziegielewski, Benedykt; Baumann, Duane D.

    1992-01-01

    Presents the California plan for water demand management. Water conservation techniques are used to balance demand with supply. Discusses the implementation process: (1) water-use and service area analysis; (2) water-use forecasts; (3) benefit-cost analysis; (4) and development of a long-term water management plan. (17 references) (MCO)

  7. CALCULATION: PRECIPITATION CHARACTERISITICS FOR STORM WATER MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    D. Ambos

    2000-08-14

    This Calculation is intended to satisfy engineering requirements for maximum 60-minute precipitation amounts for 50 and 100-year return periods at and near Yucca Mountain. This data requirement is documented in the ''Interface Control Document for Support Operations to Surface Facilities Operations Functional and Organizational Interfaces'' (CRWMS M&O 1998a). These developed data will supplement the information on 0.1 hour to 6-hour (in 0.1-hour increments) probable maximum precipitation (PMP) presented in the report, ''Precipitation Design Criteria for Storm Water Management'' (CRWMS M&O 1998b). The Reference Information Base (RIB) item, Precipitation ''Characteristics for Storm Water Management'' (M09902RIB00045 .OOO), was developed based on CRWMS M&O (1998b) and will be supplemented (via revision) with the information developed in this Calculation. The ''Development Plan for the Calculation: Precipitation Characteristics for Storm Water Management'' (CRWMS M&O 2000) was prepared in accordance with AP-2.l3Q, ''Technical Product Development Planning''. This calculation was developed in accordance with AP-3.12Q, Rev. O/ICN 2.

  8. Multi-agent Water Resources Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelletti, A.; Giuliani, M.

    2011-12-01

    Increasing environmental awareness and emerging trends such as water trading, energy market, deregulation and democratization of water-related services are challenging integrated water resources planning and management worldwide. The traditional approach to water management design based on sector-by-sector optimization has to be reshaped to account for multiple interrelated decision-makers and many stakeholders with increasing decision power. Centralized management, though interesting from a conceptual point of view, is unfeasible in most of the modern social and institutional contexts, and often economically inefficient. Coordinated management, where different actors interact within a full open trust exchange paradigm under some institutional supervision is a promising alternative to the ideal centralized solution and the actual uncoordinated practices. This is a significant issue in most of the Southern Alps regulated lakes, where upstream hydropower reservoirs maximize their benefit independently form downstream users; it becomes even more relevant in the case of transboundary systems, where water management upstream affects water availability downstream (e.g. the River Zambesi flowing through Zambia, Zimbabwe and Mozambique or the Red River flowing from South-Western China through Northern Vietnam. In this study we apply Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) theory to design an optimal management in a decentralized way, considering a set of multiple autonomous agents acting in the same environment and taking into account the pay-off of individual water users, which are inherently distributed along the river and need to coordinate to jointly reach their objectives. In this way each real-world actor, representing the decision-making entity (e.g. the operator of a reservoir or a diversion dam) can be represented one-to-one by a computer agent, defined as a computer system that is situated in some environment and that is capable of autonomous action in this environment in

  9. Linking integrated water resources management and integrated coastal zone management.

    PubMed

    Rasch, P S; Ipsen, N; Malmgren-Hansen, A; Mogensen, B

    2005-01-01

    Some of the world's most valuable aquatic ecosystems such as deltas, lagoons and estuaries are located in the coastal zone. However, the coastal zone and its aquatic ecosystems are in many places under environmental stress from human activities. About 50% of the human population lives within 200 km of the coastline, and the population density is increasing every day. In addition, the majority of urban centres are located in the coastal zone. It is commonly known that there are important linkages between the activities in the upstream river basins and the environment conditions in the downstream coastal zones. Changes in river flows, e.g. caused by irrigation, hydropower and water supply, have changed salinity in estuaries and lagoons. Land use changes, such as intensified agricultural activities and urban and industrial development, cause increasing loads of nutrients and a variety of chemicals resulting in considerable adverse impacts in the coastal zones. It is recognised that the solution to such problems calls for an integrated approach. Therefore, the terms Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) are increasingly in focus on the international agenda. Unfortunately, the concepts of IWRM and ICZM are mostly being developed independently from each other by separate management bodies using their own individual approaches and tools. The present paper describes how modelling tools can be used to link IWRM and ICZM. It draws a line from the traditional sectoral use of models for the Istanbul Master Planning and assessment of the water quality and ecological impact in the Bosphorus Strait and the Black Sea 10 years ago, to the most recent use of models in a Water Framework Directive (WFD) context for one of the selected Pilot River Basins in Denmark used for testing of the WFD Guidance Documents. PMID:16114636

  10. An open source simulator for water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Stephen; Meier, Philipp; Selby, Philip; Mohammed, Khaled; Khadem, Majed; Padula, Silvia; Harou, Julien; Rosenberg, David; Rheinheimer, David

    2015-04-01

    Descriptive modelling of water resource systems requires the representation of different aspects in one model: the physical system including hydrological inputs and engineered infrastructure, and human management, including social, economic and institutional behaviours and constraints. Although most water resource systems share some characteristics such as the ability to represent them as a network of nodes and links, geographical, institutional and other differences mean that invariably each water system functions in a unique way. A diverse group is developing an open source simulation framework which will allow model developers to build generalised water management models that are customised to the institutional, physical and economical components they are seeking to model. The framework will allow the simulation of complex individual and institutional behaviour required for the assessment of real-world resource systems. It supports the spatial and hierarchical structures commonly found in water resource systems. The individual infrastructures can be operated by different actors while policies are defined at a regional level by one or more institutional actors. The framework enables building multi-agent system simulators in which developers can define their own agent types and add their own decision making code. Developers using the framework have two main tasks: (i) Extend the core classes to represent the aspects of their particular system, and (ii) write model structure files. Both are done in Python. For task one, users must either write new decision making code for each class or link to an existing code base to provide functionality to each of these extension classes. The model structure file links these extension classes in a standardised way to the network topology. The framework will be open-source and written in Python and is to be available directly for download through standard installer packages. Many water management model developers are unfamiliar

  11. Building America Top Innovations 2012: EEBA Water Management Guide

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes the DOE-sponsored Water Management Guide, which identifies durability issues and solutions for high-performance homes. The Water Management Guide has sold 15,000 copies since its first printing.

  12. First year of of an ocean-atmosphere mooring in the Senegalese coastal upwelling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazar, Alban; Dausse, Denis; del Rey, Marta Martin; Diakhaté, Moussa; Machu, Éric; Faye, Saliou; Dagorne, Dominique; Gaye, Amadou

    2016-04-01

    The Joint International Laboratory ECLAIRS set up an oceanographic and meteorological buoy, dedicated to monitoring and analysis of the short and long-term changes in climate, atmosphere and marine environment within the Senegal upwelling. The buoy "MELAX" was deployed early 2015 in the heart of the Senegalese upwelling by 30m-depth at (14°20'N, 17°14'W). Data collected are, for the atmosphere, surface wind, solar radiation, humidity and rain, and for the ocean, temperatures, salinity, and currents (from the surface to the bottom) and oxygen. We present the first year of observations, in particular the relationship between wind, sea surface temperatures, hydrology and current, but also briochemistry. Satellite and model data are used to provide a larger-scale context to the punctual observations.

  13. A Study of Rural Senegalese Attitudes and Perceptions of Their Behavior to Changes in the Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieye, Amadou M.; Roy, D. P.

    2012-11-01

    Semi-structured focus group discussions were employed to capture rural Senegalese attitudes and perceptions of their behavior to changes in the climate and their land use and livelihood strategies. Seven focus groups stratified by gender, ethnicity (Wolof and Peulh) and dominant production system (cultivators and pastoralists) in five villages in semi-arid northern Senegal revealed seven main themes. Rural livelihoods remain predominantly based on rainfall dependant practices, and although cultivators and pastoralists had a clear appreciation of changes in natural resources compared to a perceived more favorable past, few adaptive coping strategies beyond established ones were advocated. The seven themes are discussed in detail and their implications for rural livelihoods under future long term climate predictions discussed with the implications of this study for the development of scenarios of future land cover land use.

  14. [Migration strategies and ethnic networks compared: the Burkina Faso and Senegalese groups in Italy].

    PubMed

    Schmidt Di Friedberg, O

    1996-03-01

    "African immigration towards Italy is presented as part of the wider international context. The function of emigration networks is briefly examined. A comparison is made between the Burkinabe and Senegalese groups, the latter being the most important group from West Africa. The different ways of entering the labour market are studied according to the legal situation of migrants (whether regulars or clandestines), the Italian region of settlement, and above all according to the characteristics of the ethnic networks established by the two above-mentioned nationalities.... The article shows how the choice of individual or group integration strategies depends both on cultural factors of the society of origin and on the economic and social situation of the Italian region of settlement." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) PMID:12320684

  15. HIV-1 Genetic Diversity and Drug Resistance among Senegalese Patients in the Public Health System

    PubMed Central

    Thiam, Moussa; Diop-Ndiaye, Halimatou; Diouf, Aminata Diaw; Vidal, Nicole; Ndiaye, Ousseynou; Ndiaye, Ibrahima; Ngom-Gueye, Ndeye Fatou; Diallo, Sada; Diongue, Oumy Diop; Camara, Makhtar; Seck, Abdoulaye; Mboup, Souleymane

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance mutations and genetic variability among Senegalese patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the public health system. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 72 patients with suspected therapeutic failure. HIV-1 genotyping was performed with Viroseq HIV-1 Genotyping System v2.0 or the procedure developed by the ANRS AC11 resistance study group, and a phylogenetic analysis was performed. The median follow-up visit was at 40 (range, 12 to 123) months, and the median viral load was 4.67 (range, 3.13 to 6.94) log10 copies/ml. The first-line therapeutic regimen was nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) plus efavirenz (EFV) or NRTIs plus nevirapine (NVP) (54/72 patients; 75%), and the second-line therapy was NRTIs plus a protease inhibitor (PI/r) (18/72; 25%). Fifty-five patients (55/72; 76.39%) had at least one drug resistance mutation. The drug resistance rates were 72.22 and 88.89% for the first-line and second-line ARTs, respectively. In NRTI mutations, thymidine analog mutations (TAMs) were found in 50.79% and the M184V mutation was found in 34.92% of the samples. For non-NRTI resistance, we noted a predominance of the K103N mutation (46.27%). For PI/r, several cases of mutations were found with a predominance of M46I and L76V/F at 24% each. The phylogenetic analysis revealed CRF02_AG as the predominant circulating recombinant form (43/72; 59.72%). We found a high prevalence of resistance mutations and a high rate of TAMs among Senegalese patients in the public health system. These findings emphasize the need to improve virological monitoring in resource-limited settings. PMID:23241378

  16. Role of the IFN I system against the VHSV infection in juvenile Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis).

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Torres, Daniel; Podadera, Ana M; Bejar, Julia; Bandin, Isabel; Alonso, M Carmen; Garcia-Rosado, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Senegalese sole is susceptible to marine VHSV isolates but is not affected by freshwater isolates, which may indicate differences regarding virus-host immune system interaction. IFN I induces an antiviral state in fish, stimulating the expression of genes encoding antiviral proteins (ISG). In this study, the stimulation of the Senegalese sole IFN I by VHSV infections has been evaluated by the relative quantification of the transcription of several ISG (Mx, Isg15 and Pkr) after inoculation with marine (pathogenic) and freshwater (non-pathogenic) VHSV isolates. Compared to marine VHSV, lower levels of RNA of the freshwater VHSV induced transcription of ISG to similar levels, with the Isg15 showing the highest fold induction. The protective role of the IFN I system was evaluated in poly I:C-inoculated animals subsequently challenged with VHSV isolates. The cumulative mortality caused by the marine isolate in the control group was 68%, whereas in the poly I:C-stimulated group was 5%. The freshwater VHSV isolate did not cause any mortality. Furthermore, viral RNA fold change and viral titers were lower in animals from the poly I:C + VHSV groups than in the controls. The implication of the IFN I system in the protection observed was confirmed by the transcription of the ISG in animals from the poly I:C + VHSV groups. However, the marine VHSV isolate exerts a negative effect on the ISG transcription at 3 and 6 h post-inoculation (hpi), which is not observed for the freshwater isolate. This difference might be partly responsible for the virulence shown by the marine isolate. PMID:26743229

  17. A perspective on nonstationarity and water management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hirsch, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    This essay offers some perspectives on climate-related nonstationarity and water resources. Hydrologists must not lose sight of the many sources of nonstationarity, recognizing that many of them may be of much greater magnitude than those that may arise from climate change. It is paradoxical that statistical and deterministic approaches give us better insights about changes in mean conditions than about the tails of probability distributions, and yet the tails are very important to water management. Another paradox is that it is difficult to distinguish between long-term hydrologic persistence and trend. Using very long hydrologic records is helpful in mitigating this problem, but does not guarantee success. Empirical approaches, using long-term hydrologic records, should be an important part of the portfolio of research being applied to understand the hydrologic response to climate change. An example presented here shows very mixed results for trends in the size of the annual floods, with some strong clusters of positive trends and a strong cluster of negative trends. The potential for nonstationarity highlights the importance of the continuity of hydrologic records, the need for repeated analysis of the data as the time series grow, and the need for a well-trained cadre of scientists and engineers, ready to interpret the data and use those analyses to help adjust the management of our water resources.

  18. Total Water Management: The New Paradigm for Urban Water Resources Planning

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current resource management practices put different stresses on local water resources and urban infrastructure. Total Water Manag...

  19. An overview of soil water sensors for salinity & irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation water management has to do with the appropriate application of water to soils, in terms of amounts, rates, and timing to satisfy crop water demands while protecting the soil and water resources from degradation. Accurate irrigation management is even more important in salt affected soils ...

  20. Comparative Medical Ethnobotany of the Senegalese Community Living in Turin (Northwestern Italy) and in Adeane (Southern Senegal)

    PubMed Central

    Ellena, Rachele; Quave, Cassandra L.; Pieroni, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    A medico-ethnobotanical survey was conducted among the Senegalese migrant communities of Turin (Piedmont, NW Italy) and their peers living in Adeane (Casamance, Southern Senegal), both among healers and laypeople. Through 27 in-depth interviews, 71 medicinal plant taxa were recorded and identified in Adeane and 41 in Turin, for a total of 315 different folk remedies recorded in Senegal and 62 in Turin. The large majority of the medicinal plants recorded among Senegalese migrants in Turin were also used in their country of origin. These findings demonstrate the resilience of home remedies among migrants and consequently the role they should have in shaping public health policies devoted to migrant groups in Western Countries, which seek to seriously take into account culturally sensitive approaches, that is, emic health-seeking strategies. PMID:22761638

  1. AOIPS water resources data management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanwie, P.

    1977-01-01

    The text and computer-generated displays used to demonstrate the AOIPS (Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information Processing System) water resources data management system are investigated. The system was developed to assist hydrologists in analyzing the physical processes occurring in watersheds. It was designed to alleviate some of the problems encountered while investigating the complex interrelationships of variables such as land-cover type, topography, precipitation, snow melt, surface runoff, evapotranspiration, and streamflow rates. The system has an interactive image processing capability and a color video display to display results as they are obtained.

  2. Enhanced water management using bromine chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Sergent, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper focuses on bromine chemistry and some of its unique properties, with regard to providing solutions to new and changing problems. Bromine Chemistry offers many unique properties for enhancing a water management program. Regardless of the method used to generate a residual, hypobromous acid delivers faster kill rates than an equimolar concentration of hypochlorous acid at an elevated pH or in the presence of ammonia or nitrogenous materials. In addition, the faster degradation of most bromine compounds relative to their chlorinated analogs increases the environmental acceptability of most brominated effluents relative to chlorination. Based on these advantages, the application of bromine chemistry to water treatment requirements has moved out of the speculative research phase and has moved into the sphere of a practical, commercial reality.

  3. New direction for environmental water management.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Akio; Nakura, Yoshio; Ishikawa, Takuya

    2016-01-30

    Japan experienced severe environmental problems including water pollution and damages to aquatic organisms and fishery industry through and after the high economic growth period in the 1960s. One of the countermeasures to address these problems was the Total Pollutant Load Control System (TPLCS), which has been implemented with the aim of reducing the total amount of pollutant loads, specifically targeting Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), total nitrogen and total phosphorus. The TPLCS has significantly improved the quality of the coastal sea water. However, while the accumulated pollutant loads from the past industrialization have still remained, new environmental concerns have arisen. Our new environmental policies are thus to deal with conservation of biological diversity and other related marine environmental issues. Japan has entered a new phase of environmental management, setting the new direction and framework toward a beautiful, bio-diverse, bustling-with-people and bountiful sea. PMID:26952992

  4. The new regime for managing US—Mexican water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumme, Stephen P.

    1995-11-01

    United States-Mexican transboundary water resources management is presently experiencing significant reform resulting from long-term demographic processes in the border region and greater economic integration. The recently concluded North American Free Trade Agreement and supplementary environmental accord modify existing agreements and provide old institution with new mandates. Particularly affected is the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC), long the lead agency in binational water management. This essay reviews the development of the new water management regime against the two preceding phases of management reform and considers its implications for improved water management in the border region.

  5. Water Resources Management for Shale Energy Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoxtheimer, D.

    2015-12-01

    The increase in the exploration and extraction of hydrocarbons, especially natural gas, from shale formations has been facilitated by advents in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies. Shale energy resources are very promising as an abundant energy source, though environmental challenges exist with their development, including potential adverse impacts to water quality. The well drilling and construction process itself has the potential to impact groundwater quality, however if proper protocols are followed and well integrity is established then impacts such as methane migration or drilling fluids releases can be minimized. Once a shale well has been drilled and hydraulically fractured, approximately 10-50% of the volume of injected fluids (flowback fluids) may flow out of the well initially with continued generation of fluids (produced fluids) throughout the well's productive life. Produced fluid TDS concentrations often exceed 200,000 mg/L, with elevated levels of strontium (Sr), bromide (Br), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), barium (Ba), chloride (Cl), radionuclides originating from the shale formation as well as fracturing additives. Storing, managing and properly disposisng of these fluids is critical to ensure water resources are not impacted by unintended releases. The most recent data in Pennsylvania suggests an estimated 85% of the produced fluids were being recycled for hydraulic fracturing operations, while many other states reuse less than 50% of these fluids and rely moreso on underground injection wells for disposal. Over the last few years there has been a shift to reuse more produced fluids during well fracturing operations in shale plays around the U.S., which has a combination of economic, regulatory, environmental, and technological drivers. The reuse of water is cost-competitive with sourcing of fresh water and disposal of flowback, especially when considering the costs of advanced treatment to or disposal well injection and lessens

  6. Sustainable Water Management - Slogan or Practicable Concept?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinzelbach, W. K.

    2009-05-01

    A definition of sustainability is difficult. It is much easier to define what is not sustainable. In general a practice is non-sustainable, if on one hand there is no alternative to it and on the other hand it cannot go on indefinitely without running into a crisis. Translated to water resources, non-sustainability may show in the depletion of a finite resource, which cannot be substituted, the resource being water itself, or resources linked to it such as soil and ecosystems. It can also show in the accumulation of substances - such as salts - to harmful levels, build-up of conflict potential due to unfair water allocation or bad governance leading to failure of institutions. To judge whether a regional water resources management strategy is sustainable, one can model the situation and extrapolate to time infinity to determine whether the system has a solution which is acceptable in economic, social and environmental terms. An example from the arid west of China is given. The solution of such a modeling effort need not be steady state but could be quasi-periodic or even non-stationary. A difficulty in testing for sustainability is the fact that system parameters and boundary conditions are not constant in time. Population, climate and values keep changing and adaptivity to those changes should be provided for. Another difficulty stems from the fact that parameters and boundary conditions (especially those in the future) are subject to uncertainty. That requires conservatism and robustness of a strategy. It may well be that for a region no sustainable solution can be designed without a substantial change in system characteristics such as population, area of cultivated land, or trans-basin water transfer.

  7. A Monte Carlo approach to water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutsoyiannis, D.

    2012-04-01

    Common methods for making optimal decisions in water management problems are insufficient. Linear programming methods are inappropriate because hydrosystems are nonlinear with respect to their dynamics, operation constraints and objectives. Dynamic programming methods are inappropriate because water management problems cannot be divided into sequential stages. Also, these deterministic methods cannot properly deal with the uncertainty of future conditions (inflows, demands, etc.). Even stochastic extensions of these methods (e.g. linear-quadratic-Gaussian control) necessitate such drastic oversimplifications of hydrosystems that may make the obtained results irrelevant to the real world problems. However, a Monte Carlo approach is feasible and can form a general methodology applicable to any type of hydrosystem. This methodology uses stochastic simulation to generate system inputs, either unconditional or conditioned on a prediction, if available, and represents the operation of the entire system through a simulation model as faithful as possible, without demanding a specific mathematical form that would imply oversimplifications. Such representation fully respects the physical constraints, while at the same time it evaluates the system operation constraints and objectives in probabilistic terms, and derives their distribution functions and statistics through Monte Carlo simulation. As the performance criteria of a hydrosystem operation will generally be highly nonlinear and highly nonconvex functions of the control variables, a second Monte Carlo procedure, implementing stochastic optimization, is necessary to optimize system performance and evaluate the control variables of the system. The latter is facilitated if the entire representation is parsimonious, i.e. if the number of control variables is kept at a minimum by involving a suitable system parameterization. The approach is illustrated through three examples for (a) a hypothetical system of two reservoirs

  8. Innovation & Collaboration Are Keys to Campus Water Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaler-Carter, Ruth E.

    2013-01-01

    Water, water everywhere--managing and conserving water resources is a major factor at campuses worldwide. Doing so is a challenge, since water is one of the most-used and ubiquitous resources in any environment. Water is often taken for granted and not measured by the people who use it the most, yet it might have the greatest potential for helping…

  9. Using soil water sensors to improve irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation water management has to do with the appropriate application of water to soils, in terms of amounts, rates, and timing to satisfy crop water demands while protecting the soil and water resources from degradation. In this regard, sensors can be used to monitor the soil water status; and som...

  10. 33 CFR 151.2025 - Ballast water management requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... operate a ballast water management system (BWMS) that has been approved by the Coast Guard under 46 CFR...) Use only water from a U.S. public water system (PWS), as defined in 40 CFR 141.2, that meets the requirements of 40 CFR parts 141 and 143 as ballast water. Vessels using water from a PWS as ballast...

  11. 33 CFR 151.2025 - Ballast water management requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... operate a ballast water management system (BWMS) that has been approved by the Coast Guard under 46 CFR...) Use only water from a U.S. public water system (PWS), as defined in 40 CFR 141.2, that meets the requirements of 40 CFR parts 141 and 143 as ballast water. Vessels using water from a PWS as ballast...

  12. 33 CFR 151.2025 - Ballast water management requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... operate a ballast water management system (BWMS) that has been approved by the Coast Guard under 46 CFR...) Use only water from a U.S. public water system (PWS), as defined in 40 CFR 141.2, that meets the requirements of 40 CFR parts 141 and 143 as ballast water. Vessels using water from a PWS as ballast...

  13. Androgen Metabolism Gene Polymorphisms, Associations with Prostate Cancer Risk and Pathological Characteristics: A Comparative Analysis between South African and Senegalese Men

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Pedro; Zeigler-Johnson, Charnita M.; Spangler, Elaine; van der Merwe, André; Jalloh, Mohamed; Gueye, Serigne M.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in developed countries and the leading cause of mortality in males in less developed countries. African ethnicity is one of the major risk factors for developing prostate cancer. Pathways involved in androgen metabolism have been implicated in the etiology of the disease. Analyses of clinical data and CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and SRD5A2 genotypes were performed in South African White (120 cases; 134 controls), Mixed Ancestry (207 cases; 167 controls), and Black (25 cases; 20 controls) men, as well as in Senegalese men (86 cases; 300 controls). Senegalese men were diagnosed earlier with prostate cancer and had higher median PSA levels compared to South African men. Metastasis occurred more frequently in Senegalese men. Gene polymorphism frequencies differed significantly between South African and Senegalese men. The CYP3A4 rs2740574 polymorphism was associated with prostate cancer risk and tumor aggressiveness in South African men, after correction for population stratification, and the SRD5A2 rs523349 CG genotype was inversely associated with high-stage disease in Senegalese men. These data suggest that variants previously associated with prostate cancer in other populations may also affect prostate cancer risk in African men. PMID:23091730

  14. Impacts of climate change on the Senegalese coastal zones: Examples of the Cap Vert peninsula and Saloum estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niang, Isabelle; Dansokho, Mamadou; Faye, Serigne; Gueye, Khadim; Ndiaye, Pape

    2010-07-01

    Following a first study made to assess the impacts of sea level rise on the Senegalese coastline ( Dennis et al., 1995), this vulnerability and adaptation (V&A) study tried to determine the impacts of climate change on two representative coastal zones, the Cap Vert peninsula and the Saloum estuary as well as potential adaptation options. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Methodology ( Carter et al., 1994), completed by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Handbook ( Feenstra et al., 1998), were used together with different models (like the Bruun rule, the FEFLOW model), geographical information system and economic data to determine the physical and socio-economic impacts of different climate change scenarios on these coastal zones. Land losses are expected due to sea level rise that will enhance coastal erosion and increase inundation levels, the second phenomenon being responsible for most of these losses, especially in low lying areas like the Saloum estuary (27% of the total area lost with a 1 m inundation level). The combination of sea level rise and decreased precipitation will increase the salt water intrusion in a number of coastal aquifers, especially around Dakar and in the Saloum estuary. Population at risk of inundation in the Cap Vert peninsula could represent between 1 and 12% of the total population of this area. Economic values at risk were estimated by considering socio-economic scenarios and discount rates. For a 1 m inundation level by 2050, this could represent (for the two areas) 14.1% of the actual Gross Domestic Product. While housings represent more than 90% of this value in the Cap Vert peninsula, in the Saloum estuary, it is the agricultural production which represents the dominant form of value at risk (55%). Only two adaptation options, protection works (sea walls and groins) and afforestation of littoral dunes, were evaluated and costed. For a 1 m inundation level by 2050, this will represent 7.3% of the

  15. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2102 Water quality... Administrator shall first determine that the project is: (a) Included in any water quality management plan...

  16. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality... to the States to carry out water quality management planning including but not limited to:...

  17. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2102 Water quality... Administrator shall first determine that the project is: (a) Included in any water quality management plan...

  18. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality... to the States to carry out water quality management planning including but not limited to:...

  19. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2102 Water quality... Administrator shall first determine that the project is: (a) Included in any water quality management plan...

  20. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality... to the States to carry out water quality management planning including but not limited to:...

  1. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality... to the States to carry out water quality management planning including but not limited to:...

  2. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2102 Water quality... Administrator shall first determine that the project is: (a) Included in any water quality management plan...

  3. Identifying Cost-Effective Water Resources Management Strategies: Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a public-domain software application designed to aid decision makers with integrated water resources management. The tool allows water resource managers and planners to screen a wide-range of management practices for c...

  4. What Do Experienced Water Managers Think of Water Resources of Our Nation and Its Management Infrastructure?

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Faisal; Arnold, Jeffrey; Beighley, Ed; Brown, Casey; Burian, Steve; Chen, Ji; Mitra, Anindita; Niyogi, Dev; Pielke, Roger; Tidwell, Vincent; Wegner, Dave

    2015-01-01

    This article represents the second report by an ASCE Task Committee “Infrastructure Impacts of Landscape-driven Weather Change” under the ASCE Watershed Management Technical Committee and the ASCE Hydroclimate Technical Committee. Herein, the ‘infrastructure impacts” are referred to as infrastructure-sensitive changes in weather and climate patterns (extremes and non-extremes) that are modulated, among other factors, by changes in landscape, land use and land cover change. In this first report, the article argued for explicitly considering the well-established feedbacks triggered by infrastructure systems to the land-atmosphere system via landscape change. In this report by the ASCE Task Committee (TC), we present the results of this ASCE TC’s survey of a cross section of experienced water managers using a set of carefully crafted questions. These questions covered water resources management, infrastructure resiliency and recommendations for inclusion in education and curriculum. We describe here the specifics of the survey and the results obtained in the form of statistical averages on the ‘perception’ of these managers. Finally, we discuss what these ‘perception’ averages may indicate to the ASCE TC and community as a whole for stewardship of the civil engineering profession. The survey and the responses gathered are not exhaustive nor do they represent the ASCE-endorsed viewpoint. However, the survey provides a critical first step to developing the framework of a research and education plan for ASCE. Given the Water Resources Reform and Development Act passed in 2014, we must now take into account the perceived concerns of the water management community. PMID:26544045

  5. Predicting local Soil- and Land-units with Random Forest in the Senegalese Sahel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grau, Tobias; Brandt, Martin; Samimi, Cyrus

    2013-04-01

    MODIS (MCD12Q1) or Globcover are often the only available global land-cover products, however ground-truthing in the Sahel of Senegal has shown that most classes do have any agreement with actual land-cover making those products unusable in any local application. We suggest a methodology, which models local Wolof land- and soil-types in an area in the Senegalese Ferlo around Linguère at different scales. In a first step, interviews with the local population were conducted to ascertain the local denotation of soil units, as well as their agricultural use and woody vegetation mainly growing on them. "Ndjor" are soft sand soils with mainly Combretum glutinosum trees. They are suitable for groundnuts and beans while millet is grown on hard sand soils ("Bardjen") dominated by Balanites aegyptiaca and Acacia tortilis. "Xur" are clayey depressions with a high diversity of tree species. Lateritic pasture sites with dense woody vegetation (mostly Pterocarpus lucens and Guiera senegalensis) have never been used for cropping and are called "All". In a second step, vegetation and soil parameters of 85 plots (~1 ha) were surveyed in the field. 28 different soil parameters are clustered into 4 classes using the WARD algorithm. Here, 81% agree with the local classification. Then, an ordination (NMDS) with 2 dimensions and a stress-value of 9.13% was calculated using the 28 soil parameters. It shows several significant relationships between the soil classes and the fitted environmental parameters which are derived from field data, a digital elevation model, Landsat and RapidEye imagery as well as TRMM rainfall data. Landsat's band 5 reflectance values (1.55 - 1.75 µm) of mean dry season image (2000-2010) has a R² of 0.42 and is the most important of 9 significant variables (5%-level). A random forest classifier is then used to extrapolate the 4 classes to the whole study area based on the 9 significant environmental parameters. At a resolution of 30 m the OBB (out-of-bag) error

  6. Management of the water balance and quality in mining areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasanen, Antti; Krogerus, Kirsti; Mroueh, Ulla-Maija; Turunen, Kaisa; Backnäs, Soile; Vento, Tiia; Veijalainen, Noora; Hentinen, Kimmo; Korkealaakso, Juhani

    2015-04-01

    Although mining companies have long been conscious of water related risks they still face environmental management problems. These problems mainly emerge because mine sites' water balances have not been adequately assessed in the stage of the planning of mines. More consistent approach is required to help mining companies identify risks and opportunities related to the management of water resources in all stages of mining. This approach requires that the water cycle of a mine site is interconnected with the general hydrologic water cycle. In addition to knowledge on hydrological conditions, the control of the water balance in the mining processes require knowledge of mining processes, the ability to adjust process parameters to variable hydrological conditions, adaptation of suitable water management tools and systems, systematic monitoring of amounts and quality of water, adequate capacity in water management infrastructure to handle the variable water flows, best practices to assess the dispersion, mixing and dilution of mine water and pollutant loading to receiving water bodies, and dewatering and separation of water from tailing and precipitates. WaterSmart project aims to improve the awareness of actual quantities of water, and water balances in mine areas to improve the forecasting and the management of the water volumes. The study is executed through hydrogeological and hydrological surveys and online monitoring procedures. One of the aims is to exploit on-line water quantity and quality monitoring for the better management of the water balances. The target is to develop a practical and end-user-specific on-line input and output procedures. The second objective is to develop mathematical models to calculate combined water balances including the surface, ground and process waters. WSFS, the Hydrological Modeling and Forecasting System of SYKE is being modified for mining areas. New modelling tools are developed on spreadsheet and system dynamics platforms to

  7. Scientific Basis of Water Resource Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel-Seytoux, H. J.

    The least that one can say about the report is that it is very enjoyable reading. Every chapter has been carefully written, and the literary merit of some chapters is outstanding (particularly those by Klemes, ‘Empirical and Causal Models in Hydrology,’ and by Baker, ‘Geology, Determinism, and Risk Assessment’). The best that one can say about the report is that it does meet its stated objectives of (1) evaluation of the adequacy of present hydrologic knowledge and of the appropriateness of present research programs to provide information for decision making and (2) description of the impact of hydrologic knowledge on the planning and management of water resources. The worst that one can say about the report is that it is not particularly original and that there are few really fresh new arguments developed in it. One notable exception is provided in Chapter 11, by Matalas, Landwehr, and Wolman, which challenges the traditional (implicit) assumption that ‘human activity is an external perturbation of the hydrologic cycle.’ Though not the explicit intent of chapter 4, by Bredehoeft, Papadopulos, and Cooper, with the explosion of the water-budget myth in groundwater, this chapter illustrates clearly the profound interaction of man (through wells) in the hydrologic cycle, a situation that cannot be comprehended from a study of the system free from human influence.

  8. Water Management Decisions within a Changing Hydrologic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    Across the United States and around the world we are facing unprecedented demands on our surface and ground water. Increasing population demands coupled with maintaining water quality, supporting species and ecosystem services, distribution of supply, hydrologic variability associated with changing climatic conditions - all require us to look more rigorously at the intersection of policy, management and science. The water supply and hydroelectric constituencies has embraced the concept of Adaptive Management in balancing the needs of resources, people, economies and providing ecosystem support. In its infancy Adaptive Management was employed as a way to move forward on dam operation and reservoir management decisions while recognizing the unknowns of how up or downstream physical and biological elements of freshwater systems would respond. River science at the time was not mature or expansive enough to address the interrelated and complex impacts of the nuances of changing operations of dams. Adaptive Management, the concept, made good sense and has provided a framework to inform management and policy decisions while keeping the door open for integrating new knowledge into a management matrix - the essence of adaptation. The application of Adaptive Management principles has continued to expand as water management demands increase. The application and reality of the use of Adaptive Management has had variable success. In the United States we have over 25 federal agencies that have water in their mission statements. Combine this with 50 states with their own water management requirements, Native American Tribes, and countless watershed and local water supply constraints and you get a sense of the challenge associated with collaborating and addressing water management issues. Without having a set of national water objectives and goals (a National Water Policy) it is up to the collaboration and integration of the multiple water silos with appropriate science. It is

  9. Evolving urban water and residuals management paradigms: water reclamation and reuse, decentralization, and resource recovery.

    PubMed

    Daigger, Glen T

    2009-08-01

    Population growth and improving standards of living, coupled with dramatically increased urbanization, are placing increased pressures on available water resources, necessitating new approaches to urban water management. The tradition linear "take, make, waste" approach to managing water increasingly is proving to be unsustainable, as it is leading to water stress (insufficient water supplies), unsustainable resource (energy and chemicals) consumption, the dispersion of nutrients into the aquatic environment (especially phosphorus), and financially unstable utilities. Different approaches are needed to achieve economic, environmental, and social sustainability. Fortunately, a toolkit consisting of stormwater management/rainwater harvesting, water conservation, water reclamation and reuse, energy management, nutrient recovery, and source separation is available to allow more closed-loop urban water and resource management systems to be developed and implemented. Water conservation and water reclamation and reuse (multiple uses) are becoming commonplace in numerous water-short locations. Decentralization, enabled by new, high-performance treatment technologies and distributed stormwater management/rainwater harvesting, is furthering this transition. Likewise, traditional approaches to residuals management are evolving, as higher levels of energy recovery are desired, and nutrient recovery and reuse is to be enhanced. A variety of factors affect selection of the optimum approach for a particular urban area, including local hydrology, available water supplies, water demands, local energy and nutrient-management situations, existing infrastructure, and utility governance structure. A proper approach to economic analysis is critical to determine the most sustainable solutions. Stove piping (i.e., separate management of drinking, storm, and waste water) within the urban water and resource management profession must be eliminated. Adoption of these new approaches to urban

  10. Managing field water supply to increase water use efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field water supply (FWS) represents the three sources of water that a crop can use for evapotranspiration (ET), and consists of available soil water at planting (ASWP), rainfall, and irrigation. Because it integrates all sources of water available to a crop, it impacts crop water production function...

  11. The Concept of 'Peak Water' for Managing Water Resources in a Rapidly Changing World (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleick, P. H.

    2010-12-01

    Managing water resources, and new threats to those resources, will require new thinking, strategies, and tools. Part of the inability to successfully address water problems is the result of traditional approaches to water management that fail to integrate economic, social, and political considerations into technology- and science-based strategies. In particular, human uses of water have consistently come at the expense of ecosystems because of, initially, a lack of knowledge of the links between human and environmental water needs, and later, an inability to integrate the two. This talk will introduce the concept of "Peak Water," recently defined in three ways: peak renewable water resources, peak non-renewable water resources, and peak ecological water. Each of these terms offers the opportunity to help reshape water management decisions in particular regions in ways that can reduce risks to water systems and help managers develop adaptation strategies that meet multiple objectives.

  12. Targeting of Watershed Management Practices for Water Quality Protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ensuring a clean and adequate water supply implies conservative use of water and protecting water resources from pollution. Sediment, nutrient, and pesticide losses in runoff are major pollutants of surface waters in the Midwest. This publication addresses the targeting of best management practices ...

  13. Measure Guideline. Water Management at Tub and Shower Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, Bruce

    2011-12-01

    Due to the high concentrations of water and the consequential risk of water damage to the home’s structure a comprehensive water management system is imperative to protect the building assemblies underlying the finish surround of tub and shower areas. This guide shows how to install fundamental waterproofing strategies to prevent water related issues at shower and tub areas.

  14. [Assessment of the level of urinary iodine deficiency in children of Senegalese central regions].

    PubMed

    Sall, N D; Sall, M G; Sarr, N G; Gaye, O; Diatta, A; Diallo, F; Mbaye, A M; Ndiaye, B; Toure, M

    2000-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) are a major public health problem in Senegal, where strategies of salt iodization were adopted in the southern and eastern regions. The aim of this study led in four districts (Koungheul, Bambey, Mekhe and Kebemer), was to estimate by a questionnaire, the women knowleges, attitudes and practices (KAP) concerning IDD, and to measure children urinary iodine excretion by the Sandell-Kolthoff method to assess a potential deficiency. Six hundred ninety eight households were selected covering 1336 women (age 15 to 49 years) and 400 children (age 6 to 12 years). Sixty three per cent of the women knew the goiter, 89% of them considered that it was a disease and only 0.6% knew the role of iodized salt in the treatment. On the other hand, 20% of the children presented a normal range of urinary iodine excretion superior to 100 microg/l, the deficiency was light (50 to 100 microg/l) in 38% of the children, moderate (25 to 50 microg/l) in 27% and severe (< 25 microg/l) in 15% of them. These results show that other Senegalese regions are concerned by iodine deficiency disorders and need information, education and iodine supplementation programmes, notably for children and young women. PMID:15779170

  15. Selection of nonapoptotic sperm by magnetic-activated cell sorting in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis).

    PubMed

    Valcarce, D G; Herráez, M P; Chereguini, O; Rodríguez, C; Robles, V

    2016-09-15

    Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) is a promising species in aquaculture. However, owing to decreased sperm quality in F1 generations and the absence of courtship in those individuals born in captivity, artificial fertilization is being used to generate new progenies. The objective of this study was to implement a sperm selection method for nonapoptotic sperm subpopulation recovery before sperm cryopreservation. In particular, magnetic-activated cell sorting is used to eliminate apoptotic spermatozoa. This study represents the proof-of-concept for magnetic-activated cell sorting applicability in teleost species relevant in aquaculture. Apoptotic cell population was studied by flow cytometry using YO-PRO-1 and a caspase detection kit. Also, reactive oxygen species were measured in sperm samples. Our data demonstrated that caspase detection is more specific than YO-PRO-1 in the identification of apoptotic cells in S senegalensis seminal samples. The results showed that the percentage of apoptotic cells (caspase positive) was significantly higher (P = 0.04) in seminal samples from F1 than that from wild individuals. Magnetic-activated cell sorting removed a significant number of apoptotic cells from the samples (54% and 75% in wild and F1 individuals, respectively), decreasing the level of cells positive for reactive oxygen species (P = 0.17). In conclusion, this technique reduces the percentage of nonfunctional spermatozoa in a seminal sample before cryopreservation. This novel technique can be applied directly in the aquaculture industry. PMID:27173958

  16. Micro-anatomical characterization of vertebral curvatures in Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis.

    PubMed

    Cardeira, J; Mendes, A C; Pousão-Ferreira, P; Cancela, M L; Gavaia, P J

    2015-06-01

    The micro-anatomical changes associated with lordotic and kyphotic vertebral curvatures (VC) in juvenile and adult Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis are described. In addition, it is demonstrated that the tissue and cellular structures of individual vertebrae can be severely affected. Two main conformations were found in deformed juvenile specimens: flattened vertebrae with dorso-ventral compression and trapezoidal vertebrae forming concave and convex sides under compressive and tensile stresses. Histological analyses revealed the occurrence of an ectopic cartilaginous tissue within the acellular bone, both in juveniles and adults, possibly to cope with altered mechanical stress in deformed vertebrae. The results suggest that the alteration in loading to which curved vertebral columns are subjected might trigger vertebral reshaping and differentiation of cells towards this ectopic tissue. In addition, mesenchymal cells appear to play an important role in its formation. It is here proposed that the acellular bone of S. senegalensis is capable of adaptively responding to altered loading regimes at the structural level by reshaping vertebrae and at the micro-anatomical level by recruiting chondrocyte-like cells to areas of altered mechanical stress. PMID:25943303

  17. Physiological short-term response to sudden salinity change in the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis).

    PubMed

    Herrera, Marcelino; Aragão, Cláudia; Hachero, Ismael; Ruiz-Jarabo, Ignacio; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Mancera, Juan Miguel; Conceição, Luis E C

    2012-12-01

    The physiological responses of Senegalese sole to a sudden salinity change were investigated. The fish were first acclimated to an initial salinity of 37.5 ppt for 4 h. Then, one group was subjected to increased salinity (55 ppt) while another group was subjected to decreased salinity (5 ppt). The third group (control group) remained at 37.5 ppt. We measured the oxygen consumption rate, osmoregulatory (plasma osmolality, gill and kidney Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activities) and stress (plasma cortisol and metabolites) parameters 0.5 and 3 h after transfer. Oxygen consumption at both salinities was higher than for the control at both sampling times. Gill Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity was significantly higher for the 55 ppt salinity at 0.5 h. Plasma osmolality decreased in the fish exposed to 5 ppt at the two sampling times but no changes were detected for high salinities. Plasma cortisol levels significantly increased at both salinities, although these values declined in the low-salinity group 3 h after transfer. Plasma glucose at 5 ppt salinity did not vary significantly at 0.5 h but decreased at 3 h, while lactate increased for both treatments at the first sampling time and returned to the control levels at 3 h. Overall, the physiological response of S. senegalensis was immediate and involved a rise in oxygen consumption and plasma cortisol values as well as greater metabolite mobilization at both salinities. PMID:22678707

  18. Effects of acute handling stress on cerebral monoaminergic neurotransmitters in juvenile Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis.

    PubMed

    Weber, R A; Pérez Maceira, J J; Aldegunde, M J; Peleteiro, J B; García Martín, L O; Aldegunde, M

    2015-11-01

    Juvenile Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis were subjected for short periods to two different types of handling-related stress: air exposure stress and net handling stress. The S. senegalensis were sacrificed 2 and 24 h after the stress events and the levels of serotonin (5-HT), noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA) and their respective major metabolites, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), were measured in three brain regions (telencephalon, hypothalamus and optic tectum) and compared with those in control, non-stressed S. senegalensis. Neither type of stress caused any significant alteration of serotoninergic activity (5-HIAA:5-HT ratio) or NA levels. Dopaminergic activity (DOPAC:DA ratio) was lower in stressed fish in all of the brain regions studied. For both air exposure stress and net handling stress, DA levels were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in the control S. senegalensis. In addition, the higher DA levels after net handling stress were always significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those observed after acute air exposure stress, except in the telencephalon after 24 h. The significantly lower DOPAC:DA ratio (P < 0.05) in all of the brain regions studied was only observed in response to net handling stress. PMID:26387448

  19. Banking for the future: Prospects for integrated cyclical water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Integrated management of surface water and groundwater can provide efficient and flexible use of water by making the best use of the properties of different types of water resources. Integrated cyclical water management can help adaptation to climate variation and uncertainty by varying the proportion of surface water and groundwater allocations over time in response to changing water availability. Water use entitlements and rules specify conditions for the use, storage and exchange of surface water and groundwater. These entitlements and rules provide certainty for water users, investors and managers. Entitlements and rules also need to be flexible to enable users and managers to respond to changing water availability and knowledge. Arrangements to provide certainty and flexibility can conflict. For example guarantees of specific long-term allocations of water, or shares of allocations can conflict with arrangements to bank water underground during wet periods and then to use an increased amount of groundwater in dry periods. Systems of water entitlements and rules need to achieve a balance between certainty and flexibility. This article explores the effect of water entitlements and rules, and arrangements to provide certainty and flexibility for the integration of surface water and groundwater management over time. The analysis draws on case studies from the Namoi River basin in New South Wales and the South Platte River basin in Colorado. Integrated cyclical water management requires a comprehensive, flexible and balanced system of water entitlements and rules that allow extended water carryover, water banking, aquifer storage and recovery over the wet and dry climate cycle. Opportunities for extended carryover and aquifer storage and recovery over the wet and dry climate cycle merit further consideration in New South Wales, Colorado and other jurisdictions.

  20. Recent California water transfers: Emerging options in water management. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.R.; Israel, M.

    1992-12-01

    Report examines the recent use of water transfers in California. Emphasis is on the use of water transfers during the current drought and how planners and operators of federal, state, and local systems can integrate water transfers into the planning and operations of their systems. Through the California experience, the study identifies motivations for incorporating water transfers into water supply systems, reviews a variety of water transfer types, and discusses the integration of water transfers with traditional supply argumentation and water conservation measures. Limitations, constraints, and difficulties for employing water transfers within existing systems are also discussed. The study focuses primarily on the technical, planning, and operational aspects of water transfers, rather than the legal, economic, and social implications. Water transfers, Water management, Water bank, Water supply, Water use, Water institutions, Infrastructure, California state water project, Water rights, Drought, Surface water, Groundwater.

  1. Managing the Financial Risks of Water Scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Characklis, Greg; Foster, Ben; Kern, Jordan; Meyer, Eliot; Zeff, Harrison

    2015-04-01

    of financial losses experienced by such entities as water utilities, hydropower producers and inland shipping firms as a result of water scarcity, all of which suggest a growing role for financial instruments in managing environmental risk.

  2. Total Water Management: A Research Project of the United States Environmental Protection Agency

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total Water Management (TWM) examines urban water systems in an interconnected manner. It encompasses reducing water demands, increasing water recycling and reuse, creating water supply assets from stormwater management, matching water quality to end-use needs, and achieving envi...

  3. Evaluating data worth for ground-water management under uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models-a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programing sampling network design model-to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring network design model identifies, prior to data collection, the sampling strategy that will minimize model uncertainty; (3) the optimal ground-water management strategy is recalculated on the basis of the projected model uncertainty after sampling; and (4) the worth of the monitoring strategy is assessed by comparing the value of the sample information-i.e., the projected reduction in management costs-with the cost of data collection. Steps 2-4 are repeated for a series of data collection budgets, producing a suite of management/monitoring alternatives, from which the best alternative can be selected. A hypothetical example demonstrates the methodology's ability to identify the ground-water sampling strategy with greatest net economic benefit for ground-water management.A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models - a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programming sampling network design model - to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring

  4. Drinking-water quality management: the Australian framework.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Martha; Rizak, Samantha

    The most effective means of assuring drinking-water quality and the protection of public health is through adoption of a preventive management approach that encompasses all steps in water production from catchment to consumer. However, the reliance of current regulatory structures on compliance monitoring of treated water tends to promote a reactive management style where corrective actions are initiated after monitoring reveals that prescribed levels have been exceeded, and generally after consumers have received the noncomplying water. Unfortunately, the important limitations of treated water monitoring are often not appreciated, and there is a widespread tendency to assume that intensification of compliance monitoring or lowering of compliance limits is an effective strategy to improving the protection of public health. To address these issues and emphasize the role of preventive system management, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council in collaboration with the Co-operative Research Centre for Water Quality and Treatment has developed a comprehensive quality management approach for drinking water. This Framework for Management of Drinking Water Quality will assist water suppliers in providing a higher level of assurance for drinking water quality and safety. The framework integrates quality and risk management principles, and provides a comprehensive, flexible, and proactive means of optimizing, drinking-water quality and protecting public health. It does not eliminate the requirement for compliance monitoring but allows it to be viewed in the proper perspective as providing verification that preventive measures are effective, rather than as the primary means of protecting public health. PMID:15371202

  5. Overview of the Environmental and Water Resources Institute's "Guidelines For Integrated Water Resources Management" Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald Sehlke

    2005-03-01

    Integrated Water Resources Management is a systematic approach to optimizing our understanding, control and management of water resources within a basin to meet multiple objectives. Recognition of the need for integrating water resources within basins is not unique to the Environmental and Water Resources Institute’s Integrated Water Resources Management Task Committee. Many individuals, governments and other organizations have attempted to develop holistic water resources management programs. In some cases, the results have been very effective and in other cases, valiant attempts have fallen far short of their initial goals. The intent of this Task Committee is to provide a set of guidelines that discusses the concepts, methods and tools necessary for integrating and optimizing the management of the physical resources and to optimize and integrate programs, organizations, infrastructure, and socioeconomic institutions into comprehensive water resources management programs.

  6. Technologies for water resources management: an integrated approach to manage global and regional water resources

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, W. C., LLNL

    1998-03-23

    Recent droughts in California have highlighted and refocused attention on the problem of providing reliable sources of water to sustain the State`s future economic development. Specific elements of concern include not only the stability and availability of future water supplies in the State, but also how current surface and groundwater storage and distribution systems may be more effectively managed and upgraded, how treated wastewater may be more widely recycled, and how legislative and regulatory processes may be used or modified to address conflicts between advocates of urban growth, industrial, agricultural, and environmental concerns. California is not alone with respect to these issues. They are clearly relevant throughout the West, and are becoming more so in other parts of the US. They have become increasingly important in developing and highly populated nations such as China, India, and Mexico. They are critically important in the Middle East and Southeast Asia, especially as they relate to regional stability and security issues. Indeed, in almost all cases, there are underlying themes of `reliability` and `sustainability` that pertain to the assurance of current and future water supplies, as well as a broader set of `stability` and `security` issues that relate to these assurances--or lack thereof--to the political and economic future of various countries and regions. In this latter sense, and with respect to regions such as China, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia, water resource issues may take on a very serious strategic nature, one that is most illustrative and central to the emerging notion of `environmental security.` In this report, we have identified a suite of technical tools that, when developed and integrated together, may prove effective in providing regional governments the ability to manage their water resources. Our goal is to formulate a framework for an Integrated Systems Analysis (ISA): As a strategic planning tool for managing

  7. Nutrient Management Certification for Delaware: Developing a Water Quality Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, David J.; Binford, Gregory D.

    2004-01-01

    Water quality is a critical environmental, social, and political issue in Delaware. In the late 1990s, a series of events related to water quality issues led to the passage of a state nutrient management law. This new law required nutrient management planning and established a state certification program for nutrient users in the agricultural and…

  8. A DECISION SUPPORT TOOL FOR SUSTAINABLE URBAN WATER MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cities have to seek sustainable development to meet the needs of the growing human populations while managing and minimizing their impact on the natural environment. The water system is an important component in any urban area. Urban water management involves the interaction be...

  9. Water facts and figures for planners and managers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feth, John Henry Frederick

    1973-01-01

    The units commonly used by hydrologists with respect to quantities and quality of water are denned; their significance in water management is outlined, and metric-english equivalents are given for many. A glossary of terms concludes the report which is intended as a reference work for use by planners and managers.

  10. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35.2102 Section 35.2102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2102 Water quality management planning. Before...

  11. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35.2023 Section 35.2023 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality management planning. (a) From...

  12. Water Resources Management Issues in Turkey and Recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emin Baris, Mehmet; Ayfer Karadag, Aybike

    The prevailing trends towards rising population, increasing urbanization, spread of more water intensive life styles as well as widespread use of water intensive agriculture sweeping around the world are going to make water resources even scarcer especially in countries like Turkey with scarce water resources and high development and population growth rate, economic and social aspects of water resources become even more important. Turkey, like many countries today, faces challenges in efficiently developing and managing its limited water resources while maintaining water quality and protecting the environment. To add to the challenge, Turkey will need to continue to develop its water resources in order for its economic and social development to keep pace with its rapidly growing and urbanizing population. This article deals with water resources management problems in Turkey and provides recommendations on water resources management issues at the country level. Its objectives are to summarize key water resources management issues to review institutional and legal framework and to provide suggestions for effective water resources management in Turkey.

  13. Saving Water. Managing School Facilities, Guide 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Employment, London (England). Architects and Building Branch.

    This guide examines typical water costs for schools and points out financial and environmental benefits of using water economically. The guide explains the make-up of a typical water bill, including standing charges and sewerage rates. Ways of saving water are described, including use of self-closing and spray taps and urinal flush controllers. A…

  14. Tensions in water management: Dutch tradition and European policy.

    PubMed

    Ravesteijn, W; Kroesen, O

    2007-01-01

    Present-day worldwide water problems require new management tools and sustainable system innovations. At Delft University of Technology research is being carried out into water resources and management development aimed at forming such tools and innovations, focused on Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM). One of the case-studies deals with Dutch water management and technology in the context of European IRBM in the form of the 2000 Water Frame Directive. The Netherlands experience many water problems and European IRBM could bring help by offering a framework for both international cooperation and technological innovations. To work as an adequate management tool European IRBM should be tailored to the Dutch water tradition, which recently culminated in Integrated Water Management. Both approaches are in some respects contradicting. Europe pursues, for example, centralized control; while the Dutch have their strongly water boards based decentralized administration. The tensions between both approaches require mutual adaptation, for which the concept of subsidiarity might offer points of departure. This paper describes the first results of the case-research into Dutch water management and technology in the context of Europe as well as the backgrounds and the set-up of the research as a whole. PMID:17851211

  15. Potential Water Quality Impact of Drainage Water Management in the Midwest Cornbelt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drainage water management (DWM) is being investigated as a possible management option for reducing nitrate leaching to surface waters from the artificially drained Midwest cornbelt. This work builds on earlier modeling studies where a calibrated Root Zone Water Quality Model was used to predict the...

  16. Co-occurrence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection and autoimmune hepatitis in a young Senegalese girl.

    PubMed

    Nobili, Valerio; Marcellini, Matilde; Devito, Rita; Comparcola, Donatella; Vento, Sandro

    2006-08-01

    We report the case of a 9-year-old Senegalese girl with co-occurring wild-type (HBeAg-positive) chronic hepatitis B and antinuclear antibody-positive autoimmune hepatitis. Her HLA haplotype was A1, B8, DRB1*04, DQB1*02. Steriod and lamivudine therapy led to biochemical remission, and reactivation occurred when the patient stopped steroids. Persistent HBV infection due to wild-type virus (likely acquired vertically or early in life, as the mother was HBsAg positive) may have acted as a trigger for autoimmune hepatitis in this young girl. PMID:16825914

  17. Natural water purification and water management by artificial groundwater recharge

    PubMed Central

    Balke, Klaus-Dieter; Zhu, Yan

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide, several regions suffer from water scarcity and contamination. The infiltration and subsurface storage of rain and river water can reduce water stress. Artificial groundwater recharge, possibly combined with bank filtration, plant purification and/or the use of subsurface dams and artificial aquifers, is especially advantageous in areas where layers of gravel and sand exist below the earth’s surface. Artificial infiltration of surface water into the uppermost aquifer has qualitative and quantitative advantages. The contamination of infiltrated river water will be reduced by natural attenuation. Clay minerals, iron hydroxide and humic matter as well as microorganisms located in the subsurface have high decontamination capacities. By this, a final water treatment, if necessary, becomes much easier and cheaper. The quantitative effect concerns the seasonally changing river discharge that influences the possibility of water extraction for drinking water purposes. Such changes can be equalised by seasonally adapted infiltration/extraction of water in/out of the aquifer according to the river discharge and the water need. This method enables a continuous water supply over the whole year. Generally, artificially recharged groundwater is better protected against pollution than surface water, and the delimitation of water protection zones makes it even more save. PMID:18357624

  18. Assessing Water and Carbon Footprints for Sustainable Water Resource Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    The key points of this presentation are: (1) Water footprint and carbon footprint as two sustainability attributes in adaptations to climate and socioeconomic changes, (2) Necessary to evaluate carbon and water footprints relative to constraints in resource capacity, (3) Critical...

  19. Managing Water Scarcity: Why Water Conservation Matters to Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiwak, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    The issue of water scarcity has often hit the headlines in the past several years. Some states have gone to court over water rights and access even as others have agonized over scarce supplies. University presidents and their staff of directors understand that the days of unlimited, inexpensive water are almost over. While it remains inexpensive…

  20. Watering the forest for the trees: an emerging priority for managing water in forest landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, Gordon E.; Tague, Christina L.; Allen, Craig D.

    2013-01-01

    Widespread threats to forests resulting from drought stress are prompting a re-evaluation of priorities for water management on forest lands. In contrast to the widely held view that forest management should emphasize providing water for downstream uses, we argue that maintaining forest health in the context of a changing climate may require focusing on the forests themselves and on strategies to reduce their vulnerability to increasing water stress. Management strategies would need to be tailored to specific landscapes but could include thinning, planting and selecting for drought-tolerant species, irrigating, and making more water available to plants for transpiration. Hydrologic modeling reveals that specific management actions could reduce tree mortality due to drought stress. Adopting water conservation for vegetation as a priority for managing water on forested lands would represent a fundamental change in perspective and potentially involve trade-offs with other downstream uses of water.

  1. Local water rights and local water user entities: the unsung heroines of water resource management in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokile, Charles S.; Koppen, Barbara van

    When considering water management, formal institutions tend to overshadow the local informal ones although the latter guide day-to-day interactions on water use. Conversely, Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) has demonstrated a bias toward the formal state-based institutions for water management. A study was carried out to examine how local water rights and local informal institutional arrangements influence water management in the Great Ruaha River catchment in the Rufiji basin in Tanzania. Participatory appraisals were carried out, supplemented by focus group discussions, interviews, and a stakeholders’ workshop. It was found that local water rights, local water rotations and local water user groups are widely in use and are more influential than the formal water rights, water fees and water user associations (WUAs). Water allocation at the driest period depends on local informal relations among irrigators. More than 70% of water users surveyed choose to settle disputes over water via informal channels and the latter are more effective in resolving water conflicts and reconciling the antagonists compared to the formal routes. It was also found that although much emphasis and many resources have been expended in transforming local water rights and water related organisations to formal registered ones, the former have remained popular and water users feel more affiliated to local arrangements. The paper concludes that local informal water management can offer the best lessons for the formal management arrangements and should not be simply overlooked. Finally, the paper recommends that the formal and informal institutions should be amalgamated to bring forth a real Integrated Water Resource Management framework.

  2. Governance Experiments in Water Management: From Interests to Building Blocks.

    PubMed

    Doorn, Neelke

    2016-06-01

    The management of water is a topic of great concern. Inadequate management may lead to water scarcity and ecological destruction, but also to an increase of catastrophic floods. With climate change, both water scarcity and the risk of flooding are likely to increase even further in the coming decades. This makes water management currently a highly dynamic field, in which experiments are made with new forms of policy making. In the current paper, a case study is presented in which different interest groups were invited for developing new water policy. The case was innovative in that stakeholders were invited to identify and frame the most urgent water issues, rather than asking them to reflect on possible solutions developed by the water authority itself. The case suggests that stakeholders can participate more effectively if their contribution is focused on underlying competing values rather than conflicting interests. PMID:25652657

  3. Water resources management. (Arabic version). World Bank policy paper

    SciTech Connect

    1993-10-01

    A new approach, recognizing that water is a scarce natural resource-subject to many interdependencies in conveyance and use-should be adopted by the World Bank and its member countries. Chapter 2 discusses the management problems that have beset the sector in many countries and how these are being aggravated by increasing demands for water and rising costs of new supplies. Chapter 3 outlines the strategy for improving the management of water resources. Chapter 4 spells out the role of the World Bank in helping countries implement better approaches to water resources management. Five appendixes discuss in detail market failures and public policy; lessons learned about the relation among water, people, and the environment; privatization and user participation; Bank guidelines related to water resources; and Bank experience with investments in water resources.

  4. Novel gas diffusion layer with water management function for PEMFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jinhua; Matsuura, Toyoaki; Hori, Michio

    The water management of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is a critical technology in developing a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). To maintain the MEA with a satisfactory water content and distribution, a novel gas diffusion layer (GDL) was designed by inserting a water management layer (WML) between the traditional GDL and the catalyst layer of the PEMFC. A simulator was developed for the optimization of the GDL, where the water distribution in the electrode and the profile of the water transport in the polymer membrane could be predicted. For this purpose, the water vapor permeability of the GDL, which was the main variable, was investigated under conditions similar to the PEMFC. Furthermore, the cell performance of the PEMFC with the GDL was tested. The testing results indicated that the water management in the MEA could be significantly improved by using the WML.

  5. Water resources. [monitoring and management from ERTS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS-1 applications in snow and ice monitoring, surface water monitoring, including monitoring of wetland areas and flood inundated area mapping, and also watershed monitoring for runoff prediction are discussed. Results also indicate that geological features can be noted which relate to ground water. ERTS-1 data can be used successfully in operational situations by water resources management agencies.

  6. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... purposes of this rule and the Clean Water Act assistance programs under 40 CFR part 35, subparts A and H if... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS...

  7. 33 CFR 151.1510 - Ballast water management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.). ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ballast water management. 151... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL...

  8. 33 CFR 151.1510 - Ballast water management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.). ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ballast water management. 151... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL...

  9. Hidden diversity in Senegalese bats and associated findings in the systematics of the family Vespertilionidae

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Vespertilionidae is the largest family of bats, characterized by high occurrence of morphologically convergent groups, which impedes the study of their evolutionary history. The situation is even more complicated in the tropics, where certain regions remain under-sampled. Results Two hundred and thirteen vespertilionid bats from Senegal (West Africa) were studied with the use of non-differentially stained karyotypes and multi-locus sequence data analysed with maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. These bats were identified as 10 different taxa, five of which were distinctive from their nominate species (Pipistrellus hesperidus, Nycticeinops schlieffenii, Scotoecus hirundo, Neoromicia nana and N. somalica), based on both karyotypes and molecular data. These five cryptic taxa are unrelated, suggesting that these West African populations have long been isolated from other African regions. Additionally, we phylogenetically analysed 166 vespertilionid taxa from localities worldwide using GenBank data (some 80% of the genera of the family) and 14 representatives of closely related groups, together with our Senegalese specimens. The systematic position of several taxa differed from previous studies and the tribes Pipistrellini and Vespertilionini were redefined. The African Pipistrellus rueppellii was basal to the Pipistrellus/Nyctalus clade and the Oriental species Glischropus tylopus was basal to the East Asian pipistrelles within the tribe Pipistrellini. The African genus Neoromicia was confirmed to be diphyletic. Based on GenBank data, Eptesicus was polyphyletic, with the Asian E. nasutus and E. dimissus both supported as phylogenetically distinct from the Eptesicus clade. The subfamily Scotophilinae was confirmed as one of the basal branches of Vespertilionidae. Conclusions New taxa and new systematic arrangements show that there is still much to resolve in the vespertilionids and that West Africa is a biogeographic hotspot with more diversity to

  10. Changes in liver proteome expression of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) in response to repeated handling stress.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Odete D; Silva, Tomé S; Alves, Ricardo N; Costas, Benjamin; Wulff, Tune; Richard, Nadège; de Vareilles, Mahaut; Conceição, Luís E C; Rodrigues, Pedro M

    2012-12-01

    The Senegalese sole, a high-value flatfish, is a good candidate for aquaculture production. Nevertheless, there are still issues regarding this species' sensitivity to stress in captivity. We aimed to characterize the hepatic proteome expression for this species in response to repeated handling and identify potential molecular markers that indicate a physiological response to chronic stress. Two groups of fish were reared in duplicate for 28 days, one of them weekly exposed to handling stress (including hypoxia) for 3 min, and the other left undisturbed. Two-dimensional electrophoresis enabled the detection of 287 spots significantly affected by repeated handling stress (Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0.05), 33 of which could be reliably identified by peptide mass spectrometry. Chronic exposure to stress seems to have affected protein synthesis, folding and turnover (40S ribosomal protein S12, cathepsin B, disulfide-isomerase A3 precursor, cell-division cycle 48, and five distinct heat shock proteins), amino acid metabolism, urea cycle and methylation/folate pathways (methionine adenosyltransferase I α, phenylalanine hydroxylase, mitochondrial agmatinase, serine hydroxymethyltransferase, 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase, and betaine homocysteine methyltransferase), cytoskeletal (40S ribosomal protein SA, α-actin, β-actin, α-tubulin, and cytokeratin K18), aldehyde detoxification (aldehyde dehydrogenase 4A1 family and aldehyde dehydrogenase 7A1 family), carbohydrate metabolism and energy homeostasis (fatty acid-binding protein, enolase 3, enolase 1, phosphoglycerate kinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, aconitase 1, mitochondrial ATP synthase α-subunit, and electron-transfer flavoprotein α polypeptide), iron and selenium homeostasis (transferrin and selenium binding protein 1), steroid hormone metabolism (3-oxo-5-β-steroid 4-dehydrogenase), and purine salvage (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase). Further characterization is

  11. Hydroeconomic optimization of reservoir management under downstream water quality constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xingguo; Holm, Peter E.; Trapp, Stefan; Rosbjerg, Dan; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2015-10-01

    A hydroeconomic optimization approach is used to guide water management in a Chinese river basin with the objectives of meeting water quantity and water quality constraints, in line with the China 2011 No. 1 Policy Document and 2015 Ten-point Water Plan. The proposed modeling framework couples water quantity and water quality management and minimizes the total costs over a planning period assuming stochastic future runoff. The outcome includes cost-optimal reservoir releases, groundwater pumping, water allocation, wastewater treatments and water curtailments. The optimization model uses a variant of stochastic dynamic programming known as the water value method. Nonlinearity arising from the water quality constraints is handled with an effective hybrid method combining genetic algorithms and linear programming. Untreated pollutant loads are represented by biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and the resulting minimum dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration is computed with the Streeter-Phelps equation and constrained to match Chinese water quality targets. The baseline water scarcity and operational costs are estimated to 15.6 billion CNY/year. Compliance to water quality grade III causes a relatively low increase to 16.4 billion CNY/year. Dilution plays an important role and increases the share of surface water allocations to users situated furthest downstream in the system. The modeling framework generates decision rules that result in the economically efficient strategy for complying with both water quantity and water quality constraints.

  12. Agricultural Adaptation and Water Management in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, E.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Efficient management of freshwater resources is critical as concerns with water security increase due to changes in climate, population, and land use. Effective water management in agricultural systems is especially important for irrigation and water quality. This research explores the implications of tradeoffs between maximization of crop yield and minimization of nitrogen loss to the environment, primarily to surface water and groundwater, in rice production in Sri Lanka. We run the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model under Sri Lankan climate and soil conditions. The model serves as a tool to simulate crop management scenarios with different irrigation and fertilizer practices in two climate regions of the country. Our investigation uses DNDC to compare rice yields, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and nitrogen leaching under different cultivation scenarios. The results will inform best practices for farmers and decision makers in Sri Lanka on the management of water resources and crops.

  13. Climate Change and Water Resources Management: A Federal Perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brekke, Levi D.; Kiang, Julie E.; Olsen, J. Rolf; Pulwarty, Roger S.; Raff, David A.; Turnipseed, D. Phil; Webb, Robert S.; White, Kathleen D.

    2009-01-01

    Many challenges, including climate change, face the Nation's water managers. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has provided estimates of how climate may change, but more understanding of the processes driving the changes, the sequences of the changes, and the manifestation of these global changes at different scales could be beneficial. Since the changes will likely affect fundamental drivers of the hydrological cycle, climate change may have a large impact on water resources and water resources managers. The purpose of this interagency report prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is to explore strategies to improve water management by tracking, anticipating, and responding to climate change. This report describes the existing and still needed underpinning science crucial to addressing the many impacts of climate change on water resources management.

  14. Promoting the management and protection of private water wells.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Hugh

    Rural families in Ontario depend almost entirely on groundwater from private wells for their potable water supply. In many cases, groundwater may be the only feasible water supply source and it requires management and protection. A significant potential source of ground water contamination is the movement of contaminated surface water through water wells that are improperly constructed, maintained, or should be decommissioned. Therefore, proper water well construction and maintenance, and eventual decommissioning, are critical for managing and protecting the quantity and quality of groundwater, as well as ensuring the integrity of rural drinking-water supplies. These actions are important for protecting private water supplies from both potential human and natural contamination. Individual well owners each have a personal interest and valuable role in ensuring the integrity of their water supplies. The following information is required to help well owners ensure the integrity of their water supply: different types of wells, why some wells are at greater risk of contamination than others, and sources of groundwater contaminants; groundwater contaminants, how they can move through soil and water, and potential risks to human health; benefits of ensuring that wells are properly maintained and operate efficiently; and importance of a regular well water quality testing program. This paper summarizes the technical information that should be provided to rural well owners concerning proper water well and groundwater management and protection, and provides an example of how this information can be promoted in an effective manner. PMID:15371209

  15. Hydroeconomic optimization of integrated water management and transfers under stochastic surface water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Tingju; Marques, Guilherme Fernandes; Lund, Jay R.

    2015-05-01

    Efficient reallocation and conjunctive operation of existing water supplies is gaining importance as demands grow, competitions among users intensify, and new supplies become more costly. This paper analyzes the roles and benefits of conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater and market-based water transfers in an integrated regional water system where agricultural and urban water users coordinate supply and demand management based on supply reliability and economic values of water. Agricultural users optimize land and water use for annual and perennial crops to maximize farm income, while urban users choose short-term and long-term water conservation actions to maintain reliability and minimize costs. The temporal order of these decisions is represented in a two-stage optimization that maximizes the net expected benefits of crop production, urban conservation and water management including conjunctive use and water transfers. Long-term decisions are in the first stage and short-term decisions are in a second stage based on probabilities of water availability events. Analytical and numerical analyses are made. Results show that conjunctive use and water transfers can substantially stabilize farmer's income and reduce system costs by reducing expensive urban water conservation or construction. Water transfers can equalize marginal values of water across users, while conjunctive use minimizes water marginal value differences in time. Model results are useful for exploring the integration of different water demands and supplies through water transfers, conjunctive use, and conservation, providing valuable insights for improving system management.

  16. Integrated water management system - Description and test results. [for Space Station waste water processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elden, N. C.; Winkler, H. E.; Price, D. F.; Reysa, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    Water recovery subsystems are being tested at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center for Space Station use to process waste water generated from urine and wash water collection facilities. These subsystems are being integrated into a water management system that will incorporate wash water and urine processing through the use of hyperfiltration and vapor compression distillation subsystems. Other hardware in the water management system includes a whole body shower, a clothes washing facility, a urine collection and pretreatment unit, a recovered water post-treatment system, and a water quality monitor. This paper describes the integrated test configuration, pertinent performance data, and feasibility and design compatibility conclusions of the integrated water management system.

  17. Conservative water management in the widespread conifer genus Callitris

    PubMed Central

    Brodribb, Timothy J.; Bowman, David M. J. S.; Grierson, Pauline F.; Murphy, Brett P.; Nichols, Scott; Prior, Lynda D.

    2013-01-01

    Water management by woody species encompasses characters involved in seeking, transporting and evaporating water. Examples of adaptation of individual characters to water availability are common, but little is known about the adaptability of whole-plant water management. Here we use plant hydration and growth to examine variation in whole-plant water management characteristics within the conifer genus Callitris. Using four species that cover the environmental extremes in the Australian continent, we compare seasonal patterns of growth and hydration over 2 years to determine the extent to which species exhibit adaptive variation to the local environment. Detailed measurements of gas exchange in one species are used to produce a hydraulic model to predict changes in leaf water potential throughout the year. This same model, when applied to the remaining three species, provided a close representation of the measured patterns of water potential gradient at all sites, suggesting strong conservation in water management, a conclusion supported by carbon and oxygen isotope measurements in Callitris from across the continent. We conclude that despite its large range in terms of rainfall, Callitris has a conservative water management strategy, characterized by a high sensitivity of growth to rainfall and a delayed (anisohydric) closure of stomata during soil drying.

  18. An Integrated Risk Management Model for Source Water Protection Areas

    PubMed Central

    Chiueh, Pei-Te; Shang, Wei-Ting; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2012-01-01

    Watersheds are recognized as the most effective management unit for the protection of water resources. For surface water supplies that use water from upstream watersheds, evaluating threats to water quality and implementing a watershed management plan are crucial for the maintenance of drinking water safe for humans. The aim of this article is to establish a risk assessment model that provides basic information for identifying critical pollutants and areas at high risk for degraded water quality. In this study, a quantitative risk model that uses hazard quotients for each water quality parameter was combined with a qualitative risk model that uses the relative risk level of potential pollution events in order to characterize the current condition and potential risk of watersheds providing drinking water. In a case study of Taipei Source Water Area in northern Taiwan, total coliforms and total phosphorus were the top two pollutants of concern. Intensive tea-growing and recreational activities around the riparian zone may contribute the greatest pollution to the watershed. Our risk assessment tool may be enhanced by developing, recording, and updating information on pollution sources in the water supply watersheds. Moreover, management authorities could use the resultant information to create watershed risk management plans. PMID:23202770

  19. The economics of water reuse and implications for joint water quality-quantity management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwayama, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Traditionally, economists have treated the management of water quality and water quantity as separate problems. However, there are some water management issues for which economic analysis requires the simultaneous consideration of water quality and quantity policies and outcomes. Water reuse, which has expanded significantly over the last several decades, is one of these issues. Analyzing the cost effectiveness and social welfare outcomes of adopting water reuse requires a joint water quality-quantity optimization framework because, at its most basic level, water reuse requires decision makers to consider (a) its potential for alleviating water scarcity, (b) the quality to which the water should be treated prior to reuse, and (c) the benefits of discharging less wastewater into the environment. In this project, we develop a theoretical model of water reuse management to illustrate how the availability of water reuse technologies and practices can lead to a departure from established rules in the water resource economics literature for the optimal allocation of freshwater and water pollution abatement. We also conduct an econometric analysis of a unique dataset of county-level water reuse from the state of Florida over the seventeen-year period between 1996 and 2012 in order to determine whether water quality or scarcity concerns drive greater adoption of water reuse practices.

  20. Evaluating participation in water resource management: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, G.; BlöSchl, G.; Loucks, D. P.

    2012-11-01

    Key documents such as the European Water Framework Directive and the U.S. Clean Water Act state that public and stakeholder participation in water resource management is required. Participation aims to enhance resource management and involve individuals and groups in a democratic way. Evaluation of participatory programs and projects is necessary to assess whether these objectives are being achieved and to identify how participatory programs and projects can be improved. The different methods of evaluation can be classified into three groups: (i) process evaluation assesses the quality of participation process, for example, whether it is legitimate and promotes equal power between participants, (ii) intermediary outcome evaluation assesses the achievement of mainly nontangible outcomes, such as trust and communication, as well as short- to medium-term tangible outcomes, such as agreements and institutional change, and (iii) resource management outcome evaluation assesses the achievement of changes in resource management, such as water quality improvements. Process evaluation forms a major component of the literature but can rarely indicate whether a participation program improves water resource management. Resource management outcome evaluation is challenging because resource changes often emerge beyond the typical period covered by the evaluation and because changes cannot always be clearly related to participation activities. Intermediary outcome evaluation has been given less attention than process evaluation but can identify some real achievements and side benefits that emerge through participation. This review suggests that intermediary outcome evaluation should play a more important role in evaluating participation in water resource management.

  1. Managing Scarce Water Resources in China's Coal Power Industry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Zhong, Lijin; Fu, Xiaotian; Zhao, Zhongnan

    2016-06-01

    Coal power generation capacity is expanding rapidly in the arid northwest regions in China. Its impact on water resources is attracting growing concerns from policy-makers, researchers, as well as mass media. This paper briefly describes the situation of electricity-water conflict in China and provides a comprehensive review on a variety of water resources management policies in China's coal power industry. These policies range from mandatory regulations to incentive-based instruments, covering water withdrawal standards, technological requirements on water saving, unconventional water resources utilization (such as reclaimed municipal wastewater, seawater, and mine water), water resources fee, and water permit transfer. Implementing these policies jointly is of crucial importance for alleviating the water stress from the expanding coal power industry in China. PMID:26908125

  2. Managing Scarce Water Resources in China's Coal Power Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao; Zhong, Lijin; Fu, Xiaotian; Zhao, Zhongnan

    2016-06-01

    Coal power generation capacity is expanding rapidly in the arid northwest regions in China. Its impact on water resources is attracting growing concerns from policy-makers, researchers, as well as mass media. This paper briefly describes the situation of electricity-water conflict in China and provides a comprehensive review on a variety of water resources management policies in China's coal power industry. These policies range from mandatory regulations to incentive-based instruments, covering water withdrawal standards, technological requirements on water saving, unconventional water resources utilization (such as reclaimed municipal wastewater, seawater, and mine water), water resources fee, and water permit transfer. Implementing these policies jointly is of crucial importance for alleviating the water stress from the expanding coal power industry in China.

  3. Water resources management: case study of Sharkia governorate, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Y. A.; Rashad, M.

    2012-06-01

    Ministry of water resources and irrigation in Egypt is currently implementing projects that expand new cultivated area, and accordingly the supplies of Nile River to the Nile Delta will be negatively affected. So, Enormous interest toward water resources management has been taken in the Egyptian water sector. Conveyance infrastructure and irrigation technology has been gradually improved to ensure efficient distribution and utilization of scarce water resources. The present study is focused on the optimum utilization of water resources in Sharkia governorate, Egypt. Operational and planning distribution model is implemented on the selected case study (Sharkia governorate) to develop appropriate water plan. The gross revenue of all crops is correlated to surface water discharge, ground water discharge, surface water salinity, and ground water salinity. In addition, the effect of varying both surface and groundwater quantities and qualities on the gross revenue has been investigated. Moreover, the effect of limiting rice production on the gross revenue is allocated.

  4. Integrated irrigation and drainage water management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Results from several research projects conducted in the 1990's are summarized in this manuscript. The first projects are irrigation studies that evaluated the impact of pre-plant irrigation water on crop water use and deep percolation losses. The results showed significant losses with pre-plant ir...

  5. Towards Sustainable Water Management in a Country that Faces Extreme Water Scarcity and Dependency: Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schyns, J.; Hamaideh, A.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Mekonnen, M. M.; Schyns, M.

    2015-12-01

    Jordan faces a great variety of water-related challenges: domestic water resources are scarce and polluted; the sharing of transboundary waters has led to tensions and conflicts; and Jordan is extremely dependent of foreign water resources through trade. Therefore, sustainable water management in Jordan is a challenging task, which has not yet been accomplished. The objective of this study was to analyse Jordan's domestic water scarcity and pollution and the country's external water dependency, and subsequently review sustainable solutions that reduce the risk of extreme water scarcity and dependency. We have estimated the green, blue and grey water footprint of five different sectors in Jordan: crop production, grazing, animal water supply, industrial production and domestic water supply. Next, we assessed the blue water scarcity ratio for the sum of surface- and groundwater and for groundwater separately, and calculated the water pollution level. Finally, we reviewed the sustainability of proposed solutions to Jordan's domestic water problems and external water dependency in literature, while involving the results and conclusions from our analysis. We have quantified that: even while taking into account the return flows, blue water scarcity in Jordan is severe; groundwater consumption is nearly double the sustainable yield; water pollution aggravates blue water scarcity; and Jordan's external virtual water dependency is 86%. Our review yields ten essential ingredients that a sustainable water management strategy for Jordan, that reduces the risk of extreme water scarcity and dependency, should involve. With respect to these, Jordan's current water policy requires a strong redirection towards water demand management. Especially, more attention should be paid to reducing water demand by changing the consumption patterns of Jordan consumers. Moreover, exploitation of fossil groundwater should soon be halted and planned desalination projects require careful

  6. Molecular characterization and transcriptional regulation of the renin-angiotensin system genes in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858): differential gene regulation by salinity.

    PubMed

    Armesto, Paula; Cousin, Xavier; Salas-Leiton, Emilio; Asensio, Esther; Manchado, Manuel; Infante, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    In this work, the complete cDNA sequence encoding angiotensinogen (agt) in the euryhaline flatfish Senegalese sole was obtained. Additionally, putative coding sequences belonging to other renin-angiotensin system (RAS) genes including renin (ren), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ace), angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ace2), as well as angiotensin II receptor type I (agtr1) and type II (agtr2), were also identified. In juvenile tissues, agt transcripts were mainly detected in liver, ren in kidney, ace and ace2 in intestine, agtr1 in kidney and brain, and agtr2 in liver and kidney. Expression analysis of the six RAS genes after a salinity shift revealed a clear increase of agt mRNA abundance in liver just after transferring soles to high salinity water (60 ppt) with a peak at 48 h. Moreover, gene expression analysis in gills showed transcriptional regulation of ace and agtr1 at 48 h and agtr2 at 96 h after transferring soles to 60 ppt. Incubation of larvae before mouth opening (until 3 days post hatch; dph) at low salinity (10 ppt) resulted in a coordinated transcriptional up-regulation of RAS genes. Nevertheless, no differences in mRNA abundance between salinities were observed when larvae were cultivated to low salinity after mouth opening. Whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) signal for agt and ace in 3 dph larvae incubated at 10 ppt and 35 ppt confirmed that the former gene was mainly expressed in liver whereas the later gene was mainly located in pharynx and posterior gut, without pronounced differences in intensity between salinities. Possible physiological significance of all these results is discussed. PMID:25645294

  7. Molecular characterization of a novel type II keratin gene (sseKer3) in the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis): Differential expression of keratin genes by salinity.

    PubMed

    Infante, Carlos; Ponce, Marian; Asensio, Esther; Zerolo, Ricardo; Manchado, Manuel

    2011-09-01

    Keratins make up the largest subgroup of intermediate filaments and, in chordates, represent the most abundant proteins in epithelial cells. Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) is a commercially important flatfish in which only two type I keratin genes, sseKer1 and sseKer2, have been described. We obtained the entire cDNAs encoding for a novel type II keratin, referred to as sseKer3. Main features and sequence identities with other fish and mammalian type II keratins are described. Expression profiles during larval development and in juvenile tissues were analyzed using a real-time PCR approach. In juvenile fish, sseKer3 was strongly expressed in gills, intestine, skin and stomach. During metamorphosis climax a drop in sseKer3 expression was observed. Transcriptional regulation of sseKer3 by thyroid hormones (THs) was also evaluated. Larvae exposed to the goitrogen thiourea (TU) exhibited higher mRNA levels than untreated control. Moreover, adding exogenous T4 hormone to TU-treated larvae restored or even reduced the sseKer3 transcript levels with respect to the untreated control. The possible role of keratins in osmotic stress response was evaluated in juvenile gills exposed to three different water salinities (15, 37 and 60psu). Whereas no significant changes in sseKer2 expression were detected; sseKer1 was early (12h) up-regulated at hypo-osmotic conditions and sseKer3 was down-regulated both at low and high salinity after 24h and 48h. Their possible role is discussed. PMID:21536146

  8. Increasing Awareness of Sustainable Water Management for Future Civil Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilic, Suzana; Karleusa, Barbara; Deluka-Tibljas, Aleksandra

    2010-05-01

    There are more than 1.2 billion people around the world that do not have access to drinking water. While there are plans under the United Nations Millennium Development Goals to halve this number by 2015, there are a number of regions that will be exposed to water scarcity in the coming future. Providing sufficient water for future development is a great challenge for planners and designers of water supply systems. In order to design sustainable water supplies for the future, it is important to learn how people consume water and how water consumption can be reduced. The education of future civil engineers should take into account not only technical aspects of the water supply but also the accompanying social and economical issues, and appreciated the strengths and weaknesses of traditional solutions. The Faculty of Civil Engineering, at the University of Rijeka, has begun incorporating a series of activities that engage undergraduate students and the local community to develop a mutual understanding of the future needs for sustainable management. We present one of the activities, collaboration with the Lancaster Environment Centre at Lancaster University in the UK through the field course Water and environmental management in Mediterranean context. The course, which is designed for the Lancaster University geography students, features a combination of field trips and visits to provide an understanding of the socio-economic and environmental context of water management in two counties (Istra and Primorsko-Goranska). Students from Lancaster visit the Croatian water authority and a regional water company, where they learn about current management practices and problems in managing water supplies and demand through the year. They make their own observations of current management practices in the field and learn about water consumption from the end users. One day field visit to a village in the area that is still not connected to the main water supply system is

  9. Estimation of crop water requirements using remote sensing for operational water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliades, Lampros; Spiliotopoulos, Marios; Tzabiras, John; Loukas, Athanasios; Mylopoulos, Nikitas

    2015-06-01

    An integrated modeling system, developed in the framework of "Hydromentor" research project, is applied to evaluate crop water requirements for operational water resources management at Lake Karla watershed, Greece. The framework includes coupled components for operation of hydrotechnical projects (reservoir operation and irrigation works) and estimation of agricultural water demands at several spatial scales using remote sensing. The study area was sub-divided into irrigation zones based on land use maps derived from Landsat 5 TM images for the year 2007. Satellite-based energy balance for mapping evapotranspiration with internalized calibration (METRIC) was used to derive actual evapotranspiration (ET) and crop coefficient (ETrF) values from Landsat TM imagery. Agricultural water needs were estimated using the FAO method for each zone and each control node of the system for a number of water resources management strategies. Two operational strategies of hydro-technical project development (present situation without operation of the reservoir and future situation with the operation of the reservoir) are coupled with three water demand strategies. In total, eight (8) water management strategies are evaluated and compared. The results show that, under the existing operational water resources management strategies, the crop water requirements are quite large. However, the operation of the proposed hydro-technical projects in Lake Karla watershed coupled with water demand management measures, like improvement of existing water distribution systems, change of irrigation methods, and changes of crop cultivation could alleviate the problem and lead to sustainable and ecological use of water resources in the study area.

  10. Bioinspired materials for water supply and management: water collection, water purification and separation of water from oil.

    PubMed

    Brown, Philip S; Bhushan, Bharat

    2016-08-01

    Access to a safe supply of water is a human right. However, with growing populations, global warming and contamination due to human activity, it is one that is increasingly under threat. It is hoped that nature can inspire the creation of materials to aid in the supply and management of water, from water collection and purification to water source clean-up and rehabilitation from oil contamination. Many species thrive in even the driest places, with some surviving on water harvested from fog. By studying these species, new materials can be developed to provide a source of fresh water from fog for communities across the globe. The vast majority of water on the Earth is in the oceans. However, current desalination processes are energy-intensive. Systems in our own bodies have evolved to transport water efficiently while blocking other molecules and ions. Inspiration can be taken from such to improve the efficiency of desalination and help purify water containing other contaminants. Finally, oil contamination of water from spills or the fracking technique can be a devastating environmental disaster. By studying how natural surfaces interact with liquids, new techniques can be developed to clean up oil spills and further protect our most precious resource.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science'. PMID:27354732

  11. Staggering successes amid controversy in California water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Water in California has always been important and controversial, and it probably always will be. California has a large, growing economy and population in a semi-arid climate. But California's aridity, hydrologic variability, and water controversies have not precluded considerable economic successes. The successes of California's water system have stemmed from the decentralization of water management with historically punctuated periods of more centralized strategic decision-making. Decentralized management has allowed California's water users to efficiently explore incremental solutions to water problems, ranging from early local development of water systems (such as Hetch Hetchy, Owens Valley, and numerous local irrigation projects) to more contemporary efforts at water conservation, water markets, wastewater reuse, and conjunctive use of surface and groundwater. In the cacophony of local and stakeholder interests, strategic decisions have been more difficult, and consequently occur less frequently. California state water projects and Sacramento Valley flood control are examples where decades of effort, crises, floods and droughts were needed to mobilize local interests to agree to major strategic decisions. Currently, the state is faced with making strategic environmental and water management decisions regarding its deteriorating Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Not surprisingly, human uncertainties and physical and fiscal non-stationarities dominate this process.

  12. Predicting climate fluctuations for water management by applying neural network

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, E.Y.

    1996-12-31

    The ability to forecast climate fluctuations would be a valuable asset to regional water management authorities such as the South Florida Water Management District. These forecasts may provide advanced warnings of possible extended periods of deficits or surpluses of water availability allowing better regional water management for flood protection, water supply, and environmental enhancement. In order to achieve this goal, it is necessary to have a global perspective of the oceanic and atmospheric phenomena which may affect regional water resources. However, the complexity involved may hinder traditional analytical approaches in forecasting because such approaches are based on many simplified assumptions about the natural phenomena. This paper investigates the applicability of neural networks in climate forecasting for regional water resources management. This paper applies the most widely used Back Propagation model to the climate forecasting. In this study, issues such as selecting a best fit neural network configuration, deploying a proper training algorithm, and preprocessing input data are addressed. The effects of various global oceanic and atmospheric variables to the regional water resources are also discussed. The study is focused on the prediction of water storage for Lake Okeechobee, the liquid heart for south Florida. Several global weather parameters over the past several decades are used as input data for training and testing. Different combinations of the variables are explored. Preliminary results show that the neural networks are promising tools in this type of forecasting.

  13. Water management by early people in the Yucatan, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Back, W.

    1995-01-01

    The Yucatan Peninsula is a coastal plain underlain by permeable limestone and receives abundant rainfall. Such hydrogeologic conditions should provide major supplies of water; however, factors of climate and hydrogeology have combined to form a hydrologic system with chemical boundaries that limits the amount of fresh water available. Management of water resources has long had a major influence on the cultural and economic development of the Yucatan. The Mayan culture of the northern Yucatan developed on extensive use of groundwater. The religion was water oriented and the Mayan priests prayed to Chac, the water god, for assistance in water management, primarily to decrease the severity of droughts. The Spaniards arrived in 1517 and augmented the supply by digging wells, which remained the common practice for more than 300 years. Many wells now have been abandoned because of serious problems of pollution. A historical perspective of a paper such as this provides insight into the attitudes concerning water of early people and perhaps provides insight into current attitudes concerning water. Hydrogeologists possess the expertise to generate relevant information required by water managers to arrive at management programs to achieve sustainable development. ?? 1995 Springer-Verlag.

  14. A Water Demand Management Strategy For The Namibian Tourism Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schachtschneider, K.; Winter, K.

    The arid conditions of Namibia are forcing its decision-makers to resort to new wa- ter resource management approaches, including Water Demand Management (WDM). When Namibia achieved its independence from South Africa 1990, a new opportunity arose to rewrite certain restrictive laws and policies in order to bring about redress, development and transformation. The new Water Policy is one example in which the mindset is changed from a supply to a demand oriented water management ap- proach. Legal support for WDM within the new Water Act is a critical component that will support the implementation of WDM in all economic sectors, such as agri- culture, mining and tourism. It is argued that an appropriate WDM strategy should be designed specifically for each sector, once the typical water use patterns in a sec- tor are understood and key water resource managers at all levels are identified. The Namibian tourism sector is geographically dispersed and control over its operations is compounded by the fact that it is frequently located in extremely remote areas that are arid and ecologically sensitive. In general, WDM is rarely practised, because it is not yet supported by law and there are currently no institutional arrangements to con- trol water use in this geographically dispersed industrial sector through which WDM could be enforced either through metering and/or payments. Managers of tourist en- terprises undertake most of the water management themselves, and have been identi- fied as being crucial to the implementation of WDM strategies. A study of six tourist facilities determined the willingness and motivation of these managers to undertake various WDM initiatives. The study identified three factors which appear to influence the actions of managers, namely external controls, economics and company ethics. It is recommended that a tourism sector WDM strategy should focus on these three factors in order to transform the WDM aims and objectives on the policy level into

  15. Water resources management plan: Great Basin National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, R.W.; Flora, M.

    1994-06-01

    The enabling legislation creating Great Basin National Park calls for the National Park Service (NPS) to protect, manage, and administer the park in such manner as to conserve and protect the scenery as well as the natural, geologic, historic, and archaeological resources of the park. NPS policies require that each unit of the National Park System develop and implement a General Management Plan (GMP). This plan is designed to serve as a management action plan to guide park water-related activities over the next 10 to 15 years. This WRMP is complementary to, and consistent with, other existing park management documents, including the GMP (NPS 1993) and Resource Management Plan (in review).

  16. Conceptualizing and communicating management effects on forest water quality.

    PubMed

    Futter, Martyn N; Högbom, Lars; Valinia, Salar; Sponseller, Ryan A; Laudon, Hjalmar

    2016-02-01

    We present a framework for evaluating and communicating effects of human activity on water quality in managed forests. The framework is based on the following processes: atmospheric deposition, weathering, accumulation, recirculation and flux. Impairments to water quality are characterized in terms of their extent, longevity and frequency. Impacts are communicated using a "traffic lights" metaphor for characterizing severity of water quality impairments arising from forestry and other anthropogenic pressures. The most serious impairments to water quality in managed boreal forests include (i) forestry activities causing excessive sediment mobilization and extirpation of aquatic species and (ii) other anthropogenic pressures caused by long-range transport of mercury and acidifying pollutants. The framework and tool presented here can help evaluate, summarize and communicate the most important issues in circumstances where land management and other anthropogenic pressures combine to impair water quality and may also assist in implementing the "polluter pays" principle. PMID:26744053

  17. Integrating water resources management in eco-hydrological modelling.

    PubMed

    Koch, H; Liersch, S; Hattermann, F F

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the integration of water resources management with regard to reservoir management in an eco-hydrological model is described. The model was designed to simulate different reservoir management options, such as optimized hydropower production, irrigation intake from the reservoir or optimized provisioning downstream. The integrated model can be used to investigate the impacts of climate variability/change on discharge or to study possible adaptation strategies in terms of reservoir management. The study area, the Upper Niger Basin located in the West African Sahel, is characterized by a monsoon-type climate. Rainfall and discharge regime are subject to strong seasonality. Measured data from a reservoir are used to show that the reservoir model and the integrated management options can be used to simulate the regulation of this reservoir. The inflow into the reservoir and the discharge downstream of the reservoir are quite distinctive, which points out the importance of the inclusion of water resources management. PMID:23552241

  18. Bringing ecosystem services into integrated water resources management.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuang; Crossman, Neville D; Nolan, Martin; Ghirmay, Hiyoba

    2013-11-15

    In this paper we propose an ecosystem service framework to support integrated water resource management and apply it to the Murray-Darling Basin in Australia. Water resources in the Murray-Darling Basin have been over-allocated for irrigation use with the consequent degradation of freshwater ecosystems. In line with integrated water resource management principles, Australian Government reforms are reducing the amount of water diverted for irrigation to improve ecosystem health. However, limited understanding of the broader benefits and trade-offs associated with reducing irrigation diversions has hampered the planning process supporting this reform. Ecosystem services offer an integrative framework to identify the broader benefits associated with integrated water resource management in the Murray-Darling Basin, thereby providing support for the Government to reform decision-making. We conducted a multi-criteria decision analysis for ranking regional potentials to provide ecosystem services at river basin scale. We surveyed the wider public about their understanding of, and priorities for, managing ecosystem services and then integrated the results with spatially explicit indicators of ecosystem service provision. The preliminary results of this work identified the sub-catchments with the greatest potential synergies and trade-offs of ecosystem service provision under the integrated water resources management reform process. With future development, our framework could be used as a decision support tool by those grappling with the challenge of the sustainable allocation of water between irrigation and the environment. PMID:23900082

  19. Drainage water management effects on tile discharge and water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) fluxes from tile drained watersheds have been implicated in water quality studies of the Mississippi River Basin, but the contribution of tile drains to N export in headwater watersheds is not well understood. The objective of this study was to ascertain seasonal and annual contribution...

  20. STORM WATER MANAGEMENT MODEL, VERSION 4. PART A: USER'S MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is a comprehensive mathematical model for simulation of urban runoff water quality and quantity in storm and combined sewer systems. All aspects of the urban hydrologic and quality cycles are simulated, including surface and subsurface ...

  1. Managing runoff water quality from recently manured, furrow irrigated fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient losses in furrow irrigation runoff potentially increase when soils are amended with manure. We evaluated the effect of tillage, water soluble polyacrylamide (WSPAM) and irrigation management on runoff water quality during the first furrow irrigation on a calcareous silt loam soil, which had...

  2. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER HANDBOOK: MANAGEMENT OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT RESIDUALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Potable water treatment processes produce safe drinking water and generate a wide variety of waste products known as residuals, including organic and inorganic compounds in liquid, solid, and gaseous forms. In the current regulatory climate, a complete management program for a w...

  3. On the matter of sustainable water resources management

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter attempts to develop the concept of sustainability and make it operational in the realm of water resources management. Water is unique in its primacy among natural resources as an essential component of life itself. Due to its equally unique chemical and physical prop...

  4. OREGON ECOLOGICAL REGIONS AND SUBREGIONS FOR WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    To aid the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) in producing a State Clean Water Strategy and in managing water resources, scientists working with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have defined an initial set of regions and subregions of the state with po...

  5. Managing phosphorus for water quality protection - 10 principles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accelerated eutrophication of aquatic systems has primarily been the concern of developed nations where it represents the most pervasive impairment of surface water bodies. Managing phosphorus for water quality protection requires prudent tempering of agronomic emphases to build soil phosphorus,...

  6. Applications of space technology to water resources management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.

    1977-01-01

    Space technology transfer is discussed in terms of applying visible and infrared remote sensing measurement to water resources management. Mapping and monitoring of snowcovered areas, hydrologic land use, and surface water areas are discussed, using information acquired from LANDSAT and NOAA satellite systems.

  7. Managing the Nation's water in a changing climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lins, H.F.; Stakhiv, E.Z.

    1998-01-01

    Among the many concerns associated with global climate change, the potential effects on water resources are frequently cited as the most worrisome. In contrast, those who manage water resources do not rate climatic change among their top planning and operational concerns. The difference in these views can be associated with how water managers operate their systems and the types of stresses, and the operative time horizons, that affect the Nation's water resources infrastructure. Climate, or more precisely weather, is an important variable in the management of water resources at daily to monthly time scales because water resources systems generally are operated on a daily basis. At decadal to centennial time scales, though, climate is much less important because (1) forecasts, particularly of regional precipitation, are extremely uncertain over such time periods, and (2) the magnitude of effects due to changes in climate on water resources is small relative to changes in other variables such as population, technology, economics, and environmental regulation. Thus, water management agencies find it difficult to justify changing design features or operating rules on the basis of simulated climatic change at the present time, especially given that reservoir-design criteria incorporate considerable buffering capacity for extreme meteorological and hydrological events.

  8. Managing water resources for biomass production in a biofuel economy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One goal of our national security policy is to become more energy independent using biofuels. The expanded production of agricultural crops for bioenergy production has introduced new challenges for management of water. Water availability has been widely presumed in the discussion of bioenergy crop ...

  9. A Public Education Program in Water Resources Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amend, John R.; Armold, Anita A.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a program designed to improve public awareness/understanding of major factors in managing water resources. Use is made of an interactive computer simulator to place lay people and teachers in decision-making situations involving real variables and alternatives and to project for them the probable consequences of their water management…

  10. A management and optimisation model for water supply planning in water deficit areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinos-Senante, María; Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Mocholí-Arce, Manuel; Sala-Garrido, Ramón

    2014-07-01

    The integrated water resources management approach has proven to be a suitable option for efficient, equitable and sustainable water management. In water-poor regions experiencing acute and/or chronic shortages, optimisation techniques are a useful tool for supporting the decision process of water allocation. In order to maximise the value of water use, an optimisation model was developed which involves multiple supply sources (conventional and non-conventional) and multiple users. Penalties, representing monetary losses in the event of an unfulfilled water demand, have been incorporated into the objective function. This model represents a novel approach which considers water distribution efficiency and the physical connections between water supply and demand points. Subsequent empirical testing using data from a Spanish Mediterranean river basin demonstrated the usefulness of the global optimisation model to solve existing water imbalances at the river basin level.