Science.gov

Sample records for manganese ferrite nanoparticles

  1. High-frequency electromagnetic properties of the manganese ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Min; Liu, Jue; Yue, Ming; Yang, Haozhe; Dong, Hangrong; Tang, Wukui; Jiang, He; Liu, Xiaofang; Yu, Ronghai

    2015-05-01

    Manganese (MnFe2O4) nanoparticles are prepared via a facile solvothermal method. The electromagnetic properties are investigated in 1-18 GHz, indicating the MnFe2O4 nanoparticles are the promising materials to be applied as microwave absorbers. The wave absorbing mechanism can be attributed to the dielectric loss, magnetic loss, and the synergetic effect. The permittivity dispersion behavior is explained by Debye dipolar relation expression. The complex permeability is analyzed using Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. Natural resonance, exchange resonance, and eddy current loss arise at different frequencies.

  2. Laccase immobilized manganese ferrite nanoparticle: synthesis and LSSVM intelligent modeling of decolorization.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad; Arabloo, Milad; Abdi, Jafar

    2014-12-15

    Laccase was immobilized onto manganese ferrite nanoparticle (MFN) and dye decolorization from single and binary systems was studied. The characteristics of laccase immobilized manganese ferrite nanoparticle (LIMFN) were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Direct red 31 (DR31), Acid blue 92 (AB92) and Direct green 6 (DG6) were used. A least square support vector machine (LSSVM) was developed to predict the decolorization efficiency of various single and binary systems based on the obtained laboratory data under different experimental conditions. Statistical and graphical quality measures were also employed to evaluate the performance and accuracy of the developed intelligent models. It is shown that the predictions of the designed LSSVM models are in close agreement with the experimental data. The effects of LIMFN dosage, pH and dye concentration on dye decolorization from single and binary systems were evaluated. Decolorization kinetics followed Michaelis-Menten Model. PMID:25282090

  3. Inter-particle interactions and magnetism in manganese-zinc ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poddar, P.; Srikanth, H.; Morrison, S. A.; Carpenter, E. E.

    2005-03-01

    Manganese-zinc ferrite (Mn xZn 1-xFe 2O 4) nanoparticles were synthesized by reverse micelle technique using two different surfactant media—(1) bis-(2-ethylhexl) sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT) and (2) mix of nonylphenol poly(oxyethylene) 5 and nonylphenol poly(oxyethylene) 9 (NP) followed by annealing of precursors to remove the surfactant coating and to obtain better crystalline phase. A comparison of the magnetic properties showed distinct differences in blocking temperature, coercivity and saturation magnetization. Radio-frequency (RF) transverse susceptibility (TS) measurements were in agreement with the static magnetization data. Our precise TS measurements further revealed features associated with anisotropy fields that were dependent on the grain size, crystallinity and inter-particle interactions. Overall, we have demonstrated that RF TS is an excellent probe of the dynamic magnetization and influence of effects such as crystallinity and inter-particle interactions in soft ferrite nanoparticles.

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis of fine stabilized superparamagnetic nanoparticles of Zn2+ substituted manganese ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahraei, Maryam; Monshi, Ahmad; Morales, Maria del Puerto; Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Amirnasr, Mehdi; Behdadfar, Behshid

    2015-11-01

    Superparamagnetic Zn2+ substituted manganese ferrite Mn1-xZnxFe2O4 (x=0.3, 0.35, 0.4 and 0.45) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized via a direct, efficient and environmental friendly hydrothermal method. The synthesized NPs were characterized by X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermo-gravimetry (TG) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The effects of various parameters such as the pH of reaction mixture, time and temperature of hydrothermal treatment and Zn substitution on the spinel phase formation, the magnetization, and the size of resulting NPs are discussed. The Zn2+ substituted manganese ferrite NPs obtained from hydrothermal process crystallized mainly in the spinel phase. Nevertheless, without citrate ions, the hematite phase appeared in the product. The monophase Zn2+ substituted manganese ferrite NPs hydrothermally prepared in the presence of citric acid had mean particle size of 7 nm and a narrow size distribution. Furthermore, the synthesized NPs can be used to prepare ferrofluids for biomedical applications due to their small size, good stability in aqueous medium (pH 7) and also high magnetization value.

  5. Micro Raman, Mossbauer and magnetic studies of manganese substituted zinc ferrite nanoparticles: Role of Mn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thota, Suneetha; Kashyap, Subhash C.; Sharma, Shiv K.; Reddy, V. R.

    2016-04-01

    A series of Mn-Zn Ferrite nanoparticles (<15 nm) with formula MnxZn1-xFe2O4 (where x=0.00, 0.35, 0.50, 0.65) were successfully prepared by citrate-gel method at low temperature (400 °C). X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of single cubic spinel phase in these nanoparticles. The FESEM and TEM micrographs revealed the nanoparticles to be nearly spherical in shape and of fairly uniform size. The fractions of Mn2+, Zn2+ and Fe3+ cations occupying tetrahedral sites along with Fe occupying octahedral sites within the unit cell of different ferrite samples are estimated by room temperature micro-Raman spectroscopy. Low temperature Mossbauer measurement on Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 has reconfirmed the mixed spinel phase of these nanoparticles. Room temperature magnetization studies (PPMS) of Mn substituted samples showed superparamagnetic behavior. Manganese substitution for Zn in the ferrite caused the magnetization to increase from 04 to18 emu/g and Lande's g factor (estimated from ferromagnetic resonance measurement) from 2.02 to 2.12 when x was increased up to 0.50. The FMR has shown that higher Mn cationic substitution leads to increase in dipolar interaction and decrease in super exchange interaction. Thermomagnetic (M-T) and magnetization (M-H) measurements have shown that the increase in Mn concentration (up to x=0.50) enhances the spin ordering temperature up to 150 K (blocking temperature). Magnetocrystalline anisotropy in the nanoparticles was established by Mossbauer, ferromagnetic resonance and thermomagnetic measurements. The optimized substitution of manganese for zinc improves the magnetic properties and makes these nanoparticles a potential candidate for their applications in microwave region and biomedical field.

  6. Structural, dielectric and magnetic properties of Gd substituted manganese ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugesan, C.; Sathyamoorthy, B.; Chandrasekaran, G.

    2015-08-01

    Gd3+ ion-substituted manganese ferrite nanoparticles with the chemical formula MnGdxFe2-xO4 (x = 0.0, 0.05, and 0.1) were synthesized by sol-gel auto combustion method. Thermal stability of the as-prepared sample was analyzed using thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and the result reveals that the prepared sample is thermally stable above 300 °C. Structural and morphology studies were performed using powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Indexed PXRD patterns confirm the formation of pure cubic spinel structure. The average crystallite sizes calculated using Sherrer’s formula decreased from 47 nm to 32 nm and lattice constant was enhanced from 8.407 Å to 8.432 Å. The FTIR spectrum of manganese ferrite shows a high frequency vibrational band at 564 cm-1 assigned to tetrahedral site and a low frequency vibrational band at 450 cm-1 assigned to octahedral site which are shifted to 556 cm-1 and 439 cm-1 for Gd3+ substitution and confirm the incorporation of Gd3+ into manganese ferrite. SEM analysis shows the presence of agglomerated spherical shaped particles at the surface. Room temperature dielectric and magnetic properties were studied using broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). Frequency dependent dielectric constant, ac conductivity and tan delta were found to increase with Gd3+ ion substitution. The measured values of saturation magnetization decrease from 46.6 emu g-1 to 41 emu g-1 with increase in Gd3+ concentration and coercivity decreases from 179.5 Oe to 143 Oe.

  7. Manganese ferrite-based nanoparticles induce ex vivo, but not in vivo, cardiovascular effects.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Allancer D C; Ramalho, Laylla S; Souza, Alvaro P S; Mendes, Elizabeth P; Colugnati, Diego B; Zufelato, Nícholas; Sousa, Marcelo H; Bakuzis, Andris F; Castro, Carlos H

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been used for various biomedical applications. Importantly, manganese ferrite-based nanoparticles have useful magnetic resonance imaging characteristics and potential for hyperthermia treatment, but their effects in the cardiovascular system are poorly reported. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the cardiovascular effects of three different types of manganese ferrite-based magnetic nanoparticles: citrate-coated (CiMNPs); tripolyphosphate-coated (PhMNPs); and bare magnetic nanoparticles (BaMNPs). The samples were characterized by vibrating sample magnetometer, X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. The direct effects of the MNPs on cardiac contractility were evaluated in isolated perfused rat hearts. The CiMNPs, but not PhMNPs and BaMNPs, induced a transient decrease in the left ventricular end-systolic pressure. The PhMNPs and BaMNPs, but not CiMNPs, induced an increase in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, which resulted in a decrease in a left ventricular end developed pressure. Indeed, PhMNPs and BaMNPs also caused a decrease in the maximal rate of left ventricular pressure rise (+dP/dt) and maximal rate of left ventricular pressure decline (-dP/dt). The three MNPs studied induced an increase in the perfusion pressure of isolated hearts. BaMNPs, but not PhMNPs or CiMNPs, induced a slight vasorelaxant effect in the isolated aortic rings. None of the MNPs were able to change heart rate or arterial blood pressure in conscious rats. In summary, although the MNPs were able to induce effects ex vivo, no significant changes were observed in vivo. Thus, given the proper dosages, these MNPs should be considered for possible therapeutic applications. PMID:25031535

  8. Manganese ferrite-based nanoparticles induce ex vivo, but not in vivo, cardiovascular effects

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Allancer DC; Ramalho, Laylla S; Souza, Álvaro PS; Mendes, Elizabeth P; Colugnati, Diego B; Zufelato, Nícholas; Sousa, Marcelo H; Bakuzis, Andris F; Castro, Carlos H

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been used for various biomedical applications. Importantly, manganese ferrite-based nanoparticles have useful magnetic resonance imaging characteristics and potential for hyperthermia treatment, but their effects in the cardiovascular system are poorly reported. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the cardiovascular effects of three different types of manganese ferrite-based magnetic nanoparticles: citrate-coated (CiMNPs); tripolyphosphate-coated (PhMNPs); and bare magnetic nanoparticles (BaMNPs). The samples were characterized by vibrating sample magnetometer, X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. The direct effects of the MNPs on cardiac contractility were evaluated in isolated perfused rat hearts. The CiMNPs, but not PhMNPs and BaMNPs, induced a transient decrease in the left ventricular end-systolic pressure. The PhMNPs and BaMNPs, but not CiMNPs, induced an increase in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, which resulted in a decrease in a left ventricular end developed pressure. Indeed, PhMNPs and BaMNPs also caused a decrease in the maximal rate of left ventricular pressure rise (+dP/dt) and maximal rate of left ventricular pressure decline (−dP/dt). The three MNPs studied induced an increase in the perfusion pressure of isolated hearts. BaMNPs, but not PhMNPs or CiMNPs, induced a slight vasorelaxant effect in the isolated aortic rings. None of the MNPs were able to change heart rate or arterial blood pressure in conscious rats. In summary, although the MNPs were able to induce effects ex vivo, no significant changes were observed in vivo. Thus, given the proper dosages, these MNPs should be considered for possible therapeutic applications. PMID:25031535

  9. Magnetic properties of conducting polymer doped with manganese zinc ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poddar, P.; Wilson, J. L.; Srikanth, H.; Morrison, S. A.; Carpenter, E. E.

    2004-10-01

    The magnetic properties of superparamagnetic particles are influenced by the supporting matrix. We have systematically studied the DC magnetic properties of loosely packed manganese-zinc ferrite (Mn0.68Zn0.25Fe2.07O3) nanoparticles synthesized using a reverse micelle technique. The results have been compared with those for particles suspended in paraffin wax and embedded in a polypyrrole matrix. The polypyrrole-doped particles were prepared using an in situ ultraviolet irradiation method and spin-coated into thin films. The loosely packed particles showed no resolvable coercivity even well below the blocking temperature. On the other hand, the same particles in wax showed the opening up of a large coercivity below the blocking temperature. However, both the samples showed characteristic superparamagnetic transition peaks in the temperature-dependent susceptibility nearly at the same temperature. The particles in the polypyrrole matrix showed a remarkable increase in the blocking temperature and large hysteresis at 300 K. The structural characterization of the polymer-doped sample showed clustering of the nanoparticles.

  10. Galactosylated manganese ferrite nanoparticles for targeted MR imaging of asialoglycoprotein receptor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seung-Hyun; Heo, Dan; Lee, Eugene; Kim, Eunjung; Lim, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Young Han; Haam, Seungjoo; Suh, Jin-Suck; Huh, Yong-Min; Yang, Jaemoon; Park, Sahng Wook

    2013-11-29

    Cancer cells can express specific biomarkers, such as cell membrane proteins and signaling factors. Thus, finding biomarkers and delivering diagnostic agents are important in the diagnosis of cancer. In this study, we investigated a biomarker imaging agent for the diagnosis of hepatic cancers. The asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPr) was selected as a biomarker for hepatoma cells and the ASGPr-targetable imaging agent bearing a galactosyl group was prepared using manganese ferrite nanoparticles (MFNP) and galactosylgluconic acid. The utility of the ASGPr-targetable imaging agent, galactosylated MFNP (G-MFNP) was assessed by several methods in ASGPr-expressing HepG2 cells as target cells and ASGPr-deficient MCF7 cells. Physical and chemical properties of G-MFNP were examined using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. No significant cytotoxicity was observed in either cell line. Targeting ability was assessed using flow cytometry, magnetic resonance imaging, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, absorbance analysis, dark-field microscopy, Prussian blue staining, and transmission electron microscopy. We demonstrated that G-MFNP target successfully and bind to ASGPr-expressing HepG2 cells specifically. We suggest that these results will be useful in strategies for cancer diagnoses based on magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:24192299

  11. Water-soluble superparamagnetic manganese ferrite nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong; Zhang, Cuixia; Shi, Xiangyang; Hu, He; Du, Xiaoxia; Fang, Yong; Ma, Yanbin; Wu, Huixia; Yang, Shiping

    2010-05-01

    We report here a thermal decomposition approach to the synthesis of water-soluble superparamagnetic manganese ferrite (MnFe(2)O(4)) nanoparticles (NPs) for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging applications. In this approach, tetraethylene glycol was utilized as a coordination and stabilization agent, rendering the NPs water-soluble and stable. The formed NPs had a diameter of 7 nm with a narrow size distribution, and were superparamagnetic with a saturated magnetization (Ms) of 39 emu/g. In vitro cytotoxicity test revealed that the MnFe(2)O(4) NPs were biocompatible at a particle concentration below 200 microg/mL. The transverse relaxivity of MnFe(2)O(4) NPs in water and cells after incubation were determined to be 189.3mm(-1)s(-1) and 36.8mm(-1)s(-1) based on iron concentration, respectively. In vivo MR imaging studies in conjunction with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy showed that the MnFe(2)O(4) NPs were preferentially accumulated in liver after intravenous injection for 4h. This suggests that the developed MnFe(2)O(4) NPs can serve as a sensitive MR imaging contrast agent for liver imaging. By appropriately modifying or functionalizing the surface of the NPs, these particles may be used for MR detection of other diseases. PMID:20144480

  12. Galactosylated manganese ferrite nanoparticles for targeted MR imaging of asialoglycoprotein receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Seung-Hyun; Heo, Dan; Lee, Eugene; Kim, Eunjung; Lim, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Young Han; Haam, Seungjoo; Suh, Jin-Suck; Huh, Yong-Min; Yang, Jaemoon; Park, Sahng Wook

    2013-11-01

    Cancer cells can express specific biomarkers, such as cell membrane proteins and signaling factors. Thus, finding biomarkers and delivering diagnostic agents are important in the diagnosis of cancer. In this study, we investigated a biomarker imaging agent for the diagnosis of hepatic cancers. The asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPr) was selected as a biomarker for hepatoma cells and the ASGPr-targetable imaging agent bearing a galactosyl group was prepared using manganese ferrite nanoparticles (MFNP) and galactosylgluconic acid. The utility of the ASGPr-targetable imaging agent, galactosylated MFNP (G-MFNP) was assessed by several methods in ASGPr-expressing HepG2 cells as target cells and ASGPr-deficient MCF7 cells. Physical and chemical properties of G-MFNP were examined using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. No significant cytotoxicity was observed in either cell line. Targeting ability was assessed using flow cytometry, magnetic resonance imaging, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, absorbance analysis, dark-field microscopy, Prussian blue staining, and transmission electron microscopy. We demonstrated that G-MFNP target successfully and bind to ASGPr-expressing HepG2 cells specifically. We suggest that these results will be useful in strategies for cancer diagnoses based on magnetic resonance imaging.

  13. Long-circulating PEGylated manganese ferrite nanoparticles for MRI-based molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Pernia Leal, Manuel; Rivera-Fernández, Sara; Franco, Jaime M; Pozo, David; de la Fuente, Jesús M; García-Martín, María Luisa

    2015-02-01

    Magnetic resonance based molecular imaging has emerged as a very promising technique for early detection and treatment of a wide variety of diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and vascular diseases. The limited sensitivity and specificity of conventional MRI are being overcome by the development of a new generation of contrast agents, using nanotechnology approaches, with improved magnetic and biological properties. In particular, for molecular imaging, high specificity, high sensitivity, and long blood circulation times are required. Furthermore, the lack of toxicity and immunogenicity together with low-cost scalable production are also necessary to get them into the clinics. In this work, we describe a facile, robust and cost-effective ligand-exchange method to synthesize dual T1 and T2 MRI contrast agents with long circulation times. These contrast agents are based on manganese ferrite nanoparticles (MNPs) between 6 and 14 nm in size covered by a 3 kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) shell that leads to a great stability in aqueous media with high crystallinity and magnetization values, thus retaining the magnetic properties of the uncovered MNPs. Moreover, the PEGylated MNPs have shown different relaxivities depending on their size and the magnetic field applied. Thus, the 6 nm PEGylated MNPs are characterized by a low r2/r1 ratio of 4.9 at 1.5 T, hence resulting in good dual T1 and T2 contrast agents under low magnetic fields, whereas the 14 nm MNPs behave as excellent T2 contrast agents under high magnetic fields (r2 = 335.6 mM(-1) s(-1)). The polymer core shell of the PEGylated MNPs minimizes their cytotoxicity, and allows long blood circulation times. This combination of cellular compatibility and excellent T2 and r2/r1 values under low magnetic fields, together with long circulation times, make these nanomaterials very promising contrast agents for molecular imaging. PMID:25554363

  14. Long-circulating PEGylated manganese ferrite nanoparticles for MRI-based molecular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernia Leal, Manuel; Rivera-Fernández, Sara; Franco, Jaime M.; Pozo, David; de La Fuente, Jesús M.; García-Martín, María Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance based molecular imaging has emerged as a very promising technique for early detection and treatment of a wide variety of diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and vascular diseases. The limited sensitivity and specificity of conventional MRI are being overcome by the development of a new generation of contrast agents, using nanotechnology approaches, with improved magnetic and biological properties. In particular, for molecular imaging, high specificity, high sensitivity, and long blood circulation times are required. Furthermore, the lack of toxicity and immunogenicity together with low-cost scalable production are also necessary to get them into the clinics. In this work, we describe a facile, robust and cost-effective ligand-exchange method to synthesize dual T1 and T2 MRI contrast agents with long circulation times. These contrast agents are based on manganese ferrite nanoparticles (MNPs) between 6 and 14 nm in size covered by a 3 kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) shell that leads to a great stability in aqueous media with high crystallinity and magnetization values, thus retaining the magnetic properties of the uncovered MNPs. Moreover, the PEGylated MNPs have shown different relaxivities depending on their size and the magnetic field applied. Thus, the 6 nm PEGylated MNPs are characterized by a low r2/r1 ratio of 4.9 at 1.5 T, hence resulting in good dual T1 and T2 contrast agents under low magnetic fields, whereas the 14 nm MNPs behave as excellent T2 contrast agents under high magnetic fields (r2 = 335.6 mM-1 s-1). The polymer core shell of the PEGylated MNPs minimizes their cytotoxicity, and allows long blood circulation times. This combination of cellular compatibility and excellent T2 and r2/r1 values under low magnetic fields, together with long circulation times, make these nanomaterials very promising contrast agents for molecular imaging.Magnetic resonance based molecular imaging has emerged as a very promising technique for early detection and treatment of a wide variety of diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and vascular diseases. The limited sensitivity and specificity of conventional MRI are being overcome by the development of a new generation of contrast agents, using nanotechnology approaches, with improved magnetic and biological properties. In particular, for molecular imaging, high specificity, high sensitivity, and long blood circulation times are required. Furthermore, the lack of toxicity and immunogenicity together with low-cost scalable production are also necessary to get them into the clinics. In this work, we describe a facile, robust and cost-effective ligand-exchange method to synthesize dual T1 and T2 MRI contrast agents with long circulation times. These contrast agents are based on manganese ferrite nanoparticles (MNPs) between 6 and 14 nm in size covered by a 3 kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) shell that leads to a great stability in aqueous media with high crystallinity and magnetization values, thus retaining the magnetic properties of the uncovered MNPs. Moreover, the PEGylated MNPs have shown different relaxivities depending on their size and the magnetic field applied. Thus, the 6 nm PEGylated MNPs are characterized by a low r2/r1 ratio of 4.9 at 1.5 T, hence resulting in good dual T1 and T2 contrast agents under low magnetic fields, whereas the 14 nm MNPs behave as excellent T2 contrast agents under high magnetic fields (r2 = 335.6 mM-1 s-1). The polymer core shell of the PEGylated MNPs minimizes their cytotoxicity, and allows long blood circulation times. This combination of cellular compatibility and excellent T2 and r2/r1 values under low magnetic fields, together with long circulation times, make these nanomaterials very promising contrast agents for molecular imaging. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional experimental details including TEM images of MNPs, size distribution graphs, thermogravimetric curves, FTIR spectra, and XRD patterns of MNPs. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05781c

  15. Effect of particle size on structural, magnetic and dielectric properties of manganese substituted nickel ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, E. Ranjith; Kamzin, Aleksandr S.; Prakash, T.

    2015-03-01

    Mn substituted NiFe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles (Mn-NiFe2O4) were synthesized by the auto-combustion method. Their actions were carried out at different fuel ratios (50%, 75% and 100%). The nanoparticles have been investigated by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The average crystallite size of the synthesized and annealed samples was between 25 and 75 nm, which were found to be dependent on both fuel ratio and annealing temperatures. However, lattice parameters, interplanar spacing and grain size were controlled by varying the fuel ratio. Magnetic characterizations of the nanoparticles were carried out using a vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature. The saturation magnetization was computed and found to lie between 6 emu/g and 57 emu/g depending on the particle size of the studied sample. The coercivity was found to exhibit non-monotonic behavior with the particle size. Such behavior can be accounted for by the combination between surface anisotropy and thermal energies. The value of dielectric constant and dielectric loss was found to exhibit almost linear dependence on the particle size.

  16. Biocompatible mesoporous silica-coated superparamagnetic manganese ferrite nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery and MR imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Banalata; Devi, K Sanjana P; Dutta, Sujan; Maiti, Tapas K; Pramanik, Panchanan; Dhara, Dibakar

    2014-10-01

    Multifunctional mesoporous silica-coated superparamagnetic manganese ferrite (MnFe2O4) nanoparticles (M-MSN) were synthesized and evaluated for targeted drug delivery and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) applications. MnFe2O4 nanoparticles were prepared by solvothermal route and were silica-coated by surface silylation using sol-gel reactions. Subsequently, silylation was done using (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane in presence of a surfactant (CTAB), followed by selective etching of the surfactant molecules that resulted in amine-functionalized superparamagnetic nanoparticles (NH2-MSN). Further modification of the surface of the NH2-MSN with targeting (folate) or fluorescent (RITC) molecules resulted in M-MSN. The formation of the M-MSN was proved by several characterization techniques viz. XRD, XPS, HRTEM, FESEM, VSM, BET surface area measurement, FTIR, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The M-MSN were loaded with anticancer drug Doxorubicin and the efficacy of the DOX loaded M-MSN was evaluated through in vitro cytotoxicity, fluorescence microscopy, and apoptosis studies. The in vivo biocompatibility of the M-MSN was demonstrated in a mice-model system. Moreover, the M-MSN also acted as superior MRI contrast agent owing to a high magnetization value as well as superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. These folate-conjugated nanoparticles (FA-MSN) exhibited stronger T2-weighted MRI contrast towards HeLa cells as compared to the nanoparticles without folate conjugation, justifying their potential importance in MRI based diagnosis of cancer. Such M-MSN with a magnetic core required for MRI imaging, a porous shell for carrying drug molecules, a targeting moeity for cancer cell specificity and a fluorescent molecule for imaging, all integrated into a single system, may potentially serve as an excellent material in biomedical applications. PMID:24980623

  17. Synthesis, Characterization and in Vitro Evaluation of Manganese Ferrite (MnFe₂O₄) Nanoparticles for Their Biocompatibility with Murine Breast Cancer Cells (4T1).

    PubMed

    Kanagesan, Samikannu; Aziz, Sidek Bin Ab; Hashim, Mansor; Ismail, Ismayadi; Tamilselvan, Subramani; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu Binti Mohammed; Swamy, Mallappa Kumara; Purna Chandra Rao, Bandaru

    2016-01-01

    Manganese ferrite (MnFe₂O₄) magnetic nanoparticles were successfully prepared by a sol-gel self-combustion technique using iron nitrate and manganese nitrate, followed by calcination at 150 °C for 24 h. Calcined sample was systematically characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and vibrational sample magnetometry (VSM) in order to identify the crystalline phase, functional group, morphology, particle size, shape and magnetic behavior. It was observed that the resultant spinal ferrites obtained at low temperature exhibit single phase, nanoparticle size and good magnetic behavior. The study results have revealed the existence of a potent dose dependent cytotoxic effect of MnFe₂O₄ nanoparticles against 4T1 cell lines at varying concentrations with IC50 values of 210, 198 and 171 μg/mL after 24 h, 48 h and 72 h of incubation, respectively. Cells exposed to higher concentrations of nanoparticles showed a progressive increase of apoptotic and necrotic activity. Below 125 μg/mL concentration the nanoparticles were biocompatible with 4T1 cells. PMID:26978339

  18. Magnetocaloric effect in ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poddar, P.; Gass, J.; Rebar, D. J.; Srinath, S.; Srikanth, H.; Morrison, S. A.; Carpenter, E. E.

    2006-12-01

    A comparative study of the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) is reported in two different types of chemically synthesized magnetic nanoparticle systems—cobalt ferrite and manganese zinc ferrite with mean size around 5 and 15 nm, respectively. While CoFe 2O 4 nanoparticles were synthesized using co-precipitation, the Mn 0.68Zn 0.25Fe 2.07O 4 (MZFO) nanoparticles were prepared by reverse micelle technique using AOT as surfactant. Our results indicate that the change in entropy with the change in applied magnetic field (d S/d H) is reasonably large for this class of nanoparticles and has a wide distribution over a broad temperature range covering the region above and below the blocking temperature. The maximum entropy change is influenced by the particle size, overall distribution in anisotropy and magnetic moments.

  19. Radio-frequency-heating capability of silica-coated manganese ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Qing-Wei; Xu, Xiao-Wen; He, Mang; Zhang, Hong-Wang

    2015-06-01

    MnFe2O4 nanoparticles (NPs) with various sizes and tight size-distribution were synthesized by a chemical solution-phase method. The as-synthesized NPs were coated with a silica shell of 4 nm-5 nm in thickness, enabling the water-solubility and biocompatibility of the NPs. The MnFe2O4 NPs with a size of less than 18 nm exhibit superparamagnetic behavior with high saturated magnetization. The capacity of the heat production was enhanced by increasing particle sizes and radio frequency (RF) field strengths. MnFe2O4/SiO2 NPs with 18-nm magnetic cores showed the highest heat-generation ability under an RF field. These MnFe2O4/SiO2 NPs have great potentiality to cancer treatments, controlled drug releases, and remote controls of single cell functions.

  20. Spin canting in ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, J.; Huang, H.; Salih, K. S. M.; Thiel, W. R.; Schünemann, V.

    2016-12-01

    Recently, an easily scalable process for the production of small (3 -7 nm) monodisperse superparamagnetic ferrite nanoparticles MeFe2O4 (Me = Zn, Mn, Co) from iron metal and octanoic acid has been reported (Salih et al., Chem. Mater. 25 1430-1435 2013). Here we present a Mössbauer spectroscopic study of these ferrite nanoparticles in external magnetic fields of up to B = 5 T at liquid helium temperatures. Our analysis shows that all three systems show a comparable inversion degree and the cationic distribution for the tetrahedral A and the octahedral B sites has been determined to (Zn0.19Fe0.81) A [Zn0.81Fe1.19] B O4, (Mn0.15Fe0.85) A [Mn0.85Fe1.15] B O4 and (Co0.27Fe0.73) A [Co0.73Fe1.27] B O4. Spin canting occurs presumably in the B-sites and spin canting angles of 33°, 51° and 59° have been determined for the zinc, the manganese, and the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles.

  1. Atomic engineering of mixed ferrite and core-shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Shannon A; Cahill, Christopher L; Carpenter, Everett E; Calvin, Scott; Harris, Vincent G

    2005-09-01

    Nanoparticulate ferrites such as manganese zinc ferrite and nickel zinc ferrite hold great promise for advanced applications in power electronics. The use of these materials in current applications requires fine control over the nanoparticle size as well as size distribution to maximize their packing density. While there are several techniques for the synthesis of ferrite nanoparticles, reverse micelle techniques provide the greatest flexibility and control over size, crystallinity, and magnetic properties. Recipes for the synthesis of manganese zinc ferrite, nickel zinc ferrite, and an enhanced ferrite are presented along with analysis of the crystalline and magnetic properties. Comparisons are made on the quality of nanoparticles produced using different surfactant systems. The importance of various reaction conditions is explored with a discussion on the corresponding effects on the magnetic properties, particle morphology, stoichiometry, crystallinity, and phase purity. PMID:16193949

  2. Synthesis and magnetic properties of tin spinel ferrites doped manganese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Moussaoui, H.; Mahfoud, T.; Habouti, S.; El Maalam, K.; Ben Ali, M.; Hamedoun, M.; Mounkachi, O.; Masrour, R.; Hlil, E. K.; Benyoussef, A.

    2016-05-01

    In this work we report the synthesis, the microstructural characterization and the magnetic properties of tin spinel ferrites doped manganese (Sn1-xMnxFe2O4 with x=0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1) nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation method. The effect of annealing temperature on the structure, morphology and magnetic properties of Sn0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 has been investigated. The synthesized nanoparticle sizes have been controlled between 4 and 9 nm, with uniform spherical morphology as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). All the samples prepared possess single domain magnetic. The nanoparticles of Sn0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 with 4 nm in diameter have a blocking temperature close to 100 K. In addition, the cation distribution obtained from the X-ray diffraction of this sample was confirmed by magnetic measurement. For the Sn1-xMnxFe2O4; (0≤x≤1) samples, the magnetization and coercive fields increase when the augmentation of Mn content increases. For x=0.5, such parameters decrease when the calcination temperature increases.

  3. Recovery of Manganese Ferrite in Nanoform from the Metallurgical Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semykina, Anna; Seetharaman, Seshadri

    2011-02-01

    The present work investigates the formation of manganese ferrite of nanosize by oxidation of MnO- and FeO-containing slag. A horizontal resistance furnace was used as an experimental setup. The experiment was conducted in the temperature range of 1573 K to 1673 K (1300 °C to 1400 °C) in an oxidizing atmosphere. The samples were quenched to the cold end of the furnace and were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD patterns of the products showed the presence of two phases—manganese ferrite and calcium silicate. The particle size of the manganese ferrite was estimated by the Scherrer formula to be in the range of nanometers.

  4. 40 CFR 721.10223 - Styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). 721.10223 Section 721.10223 Protection of Environment... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (PMN P-09-582) is subject to reporting under this section...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10223 - Styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). 721.10223 Section 721.10223 Protection of Environment... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (PMN P-09-582) is subject to reporting under this section...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10223 - Styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). 721.10223 Section 721.10223 Protection of Environment... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... manganese ferrite with acrylic ester polymer (PMN P-09-582) is subject to reporting under this section...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10222 - Styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Styrenyl surface treated manganese... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10222 Styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite (generic). (a) Chemical... as styrenyl surface treated manganese ferrite (PMN P-09-581) is subject to reporting under...

  8. Ferrite Nanoparticles in Pharmacological Modulation of Angiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, Aparna; Radha, S.; Khan, Y.; Tilak, Priya

    2011-07-01

    Nanoparticles are being explored in the targeted drug delivery of pharmacological agents : angiogenesis being one such novel application which involves formation of new blood vessels or branching of existing ones. The present study involves the use of ferrite nanoparticles for precise therapeutic modulation of angiogenesis. The ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation of ferrous and ferric salts by a suitable base, were found to be 10-20 nm from X-ray diffraction and TEM measurements. The magnetization measurements showed superparamagnetic behavior of the uncoated nanoparticles. These ferrite nanoparticles were found to be bio-compatible with lymphocytes and neural cell lines from the biochemical assays. The chick chorioallantoic membrane(CAM) from the shell of fertile white Leghorn eggs was chosen as a model to study angiogenic activity. An enhancement in the angiogenic activity in the CAM due to addition of uncoated ferrite nanoparticles was observed.

  9. Synthesis, characterization, optical and sensing property of manganese oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manigandan, R.; Suresh, R.; Giribabu, K.; Vijayalakshmi, L.; Stephen, A.; Narayanan, V.

    2014-01-01

    Manganese oxide nanoparticles were prepared by thermal decomposition of manganese oxalate. Manganese oxalate was synthesized by reacting 1:1 mole ratio of manganese acetate and ammonium oxalate along with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The structural characterization of manganese oxalate and manganese oxide nanoparticles was analyzed by XRD. The XRD spectrum confirms the crystal structure of the manganese oxide and manganese oxalate. In addition, the average grain size, lattice parameter values were also calculated using XRD spectrum. Moreover, the diffraction peaks were broadened due to the smaller size of the particle. The band gap of manganese oxide was calculated from optical absorption, which was carried out by DRS UV-Visible spectroscopy. The morphology of manganese oxide nanoparticles was analyzed by SEM images. The FT-IR analysis confirms the formation of the manganese oxide from manganese oxalate nanoparticles. The electrochemical sensing behavior of manganese oxide nanoparticles were investigated using hydrogen peroxide by cyclic voltammetry.

  10. Synthesis, characterization, optical and sensing property of manganese oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Manigandan, R.; Suresh, R.; Giribabu, K.; Narayanan, V.; Vijayalakshmi, L.; Stephen, A.

    2014-01-28

    Manganese oxide nanoparticles were prepared by thermal decomposition of manganese oxalate. Manganese oxalate was synthesized by reacting 1:1 mole ratio of manganese acetate and ammonium oxalate along with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The structural characterization of manganese oxalate and manganese oxide nanoparticles was analyzed by XRD. The XRD spectrum confirms the crystal structure of the manganese oxide and manganese oxalate. In addition, the average grain size, lattice parameter values were also calculated using XRD spectrum. Moreover, the diffraction peaks were broadened due to the smaller size of the particle. The band gap of manganese oxide was calculated from optical absorption, which was carried out by DRS UV-Visible spectroscopy. The morphology of manganese oxide nanoparticles was analyzed by SEM images. The FT-IR analysis confirms the formation of the manganese oxide from manganese oxalate nanoparticles. The electrochemical sensing behavior of manganese oxide nanoparticles were investigated using hydrogen peroxide by cyclic voltammetry.

  11. Magnetocaloric effect in ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebar, D.

    2005-03-01

    Miniaturization of the electronic devices for space, military and consumer applications requires cooling devices to be fabricated on a chip for power efficient, noise-free operations. Refrigeration based on the adiabatic-demagnetization has been used for several decades for cooling down to sub-kelvin temperatures. Superparamagnetic particles also hold tremendous potential towards this application. We have studied magnetocaloric effect (MCE) properties in chemically synthesized ferrite nanoparticles over a broad range in temperature and magnetic fields. Nanoparticles investigated include Fe3O4 (average size = 8 nm, synthesized using co-precipitation method), MnZnFe2O4 (average size = 15 nm, synthesized using reverse-micelle technique) and CoFe2O4 (average size 8 nm, synthesized using pyrolectic technique). The magnetic entropy change was calculated by applying Maxwell's relations to magnetization vs magnetic field curves at various temperatures. Our results indicate that the single-domain particles in their superparamagnetic state show a considerable entropy change near the blocking temperature. The influence of interactions on MCE effect will also be discussed. Work supported by NSF through Grant No. CTS-0408933

  12. Studies on the activation energy from the ac conductivity measurements of rubber ferrite composites containing manganese zinc ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Mohd.; Alimuddin; Kumar, Shalendra; Shirsath, Sagar E.; Mohammed, E. M.; Chung, Hanshik; Kumar, Ravi

    2012-11-01

    Manganese zinc ferrites (MZF) have resistivities between 0.01 and 10 Ω m. Making composite materials of ferrites with either natural rubber or plastics will modify the electrical properties of ferrites. The moldability and flexibility of these composites find wide use in industrial and other scientific applications. Mixed ferrites belonging to the series Mn(1-x)ZnxFe2O4 were synthesized for different ‘x’ values in steps of 0.2, and incorporated in natural rubber matrix (RFC). From the dielectric measurements of the ceramic manganese zinc ferrite and rubber ferrite composites, ac conductivity and activation energy were evaluated. A program was developed with the aid of the LabVIEW package to automate the measurements. The ac conductivity of RFC was then correlated with that of the magnetic filler and matrix by a mixture equation which helps to tailor properties of these composites.

  13. Magnetic properties of superparamagnetic lithium ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Seema; Joy, P. A.

    2005-12-01

    Magnetic properties of lithium ferrite nanoparticles of size in the range of 4-50nm, synthesized by a low-temperature method, have been evaluated. A broad maximum at ˜220K in the temperature variation of the zero-field-cooled magnetization as well as the ac susceptibility and divergence of the zero-field-cooled and field-cooled magnetizations below this temperature indicate the superparamagnetic behavior of the lithium ferrite particles of size ˜4nm. On the other hand, at high temperatures, these particles show a cusp immediately below the Curie temperature of bulk lithium ferrite (895K). This anomalous magnetic behavior of the lithium ferrite nanoparticles, similar to that arising from the Hopkinson effect for bulk materials, is probed in detail and is explained in terms of the cumulative effect of the temperature variation of the anisotropy and particle size growth during the measurements at high temperatures.

  14. State of adsorption layers of fatty acids on the surfaces of iron, manganese, and copper ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balmasova, O. V.; Ramazanova, A. G.; Korolev, V. V.

    2012-07-01

    States of adsorbed substances in surface layers arising during the adsorption of oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids from carbon tetrachloride, heptane, and cyclohexane solutions on the surfaces of iron, manganese, and copper ferrites, are investigated. Adsorption isotherms and two-dimensional state diagrams of surface layers of iron, manganese, and copper ferrites are obtained experimentally. It is shown that the adsorption of fatty acids from solutions in organic solvents proceeds via filling the volume of the ferrites' porous space with adsorption solutions, while the state of ferrite surface layers changes due to the structural rearrangement of adsorption solutions upon an increase in solute concentration.

  15. A facile microwave synthetic route for ferrite nanoparticles with direct impact in magnetic particle hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Makridis, A; Chatzitheodorou, I; Topouridou, K; Yavropoulou, M P; Angelakeris, M; Dendrinou-Samara, C

    2016-06-01

    The application of ferrite magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in medicine finds its rapidly developing emphasis on heating mediators for magnetic hyperthermia, the ever-promising "fourth leg" of cancer treatment. Usage of MNPs depends largely on the preparation processes to select optimal conditions and effective routes to finely tailor MNPs. Microwave heating, instead of conventional heating offers nanocrystals at significantly enhanced rate and yield. In this work, a facile mass-production microwave hydrothermal synthetic approach was used to synthesize stable ferromagnetic manganese and cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with sizes smaller than 14nm from metal acetylacetonates in the presence of octadecylamine. Prolonging the reaction time from 15 to 60min, led to ferrites with improved crystallinity while the sizes are slight increased. The high crystallinity magnetic nanoparticles showed exceptional magnetic heating parameters. In vitro application was performed using the human osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2 incubated with manganese ferrite nanoparticles. Hyperthermia applied in a two cycle process, while AC magnetic field remained on until the upper limit of 45°C was achieved. The comparative results of the AC hyperthermia efficiency of ferrite nanoparticles in combination with the in vitro study coincide with the magnetic features and their tunability may be further exploited for AC magnetic hyperthermia driven applications. PMID:27040263

  16. Electromagnetic interference shielding performance of epoxy composites filled with multiwalled carbon nanotubes/manganese zinc ferrite hybrid fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, C. H.; Mariatti, M.; Koh, Y. H.

    2016-03-01

    An effective electromagnetic-interference (EMI) shielding epoxy composite has been fabricated with a combination of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and manganese zinc ferrite (MnZn ferrite) fillers. MWCNTs were functionalized to improve dispersibility while manganese zinc ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized via the citrate gel method. The EMI-shielding performance of the fabricated composites was examined. It was found that the composite with a filler ratio of MWNCTs to MnZn ferrite=3:1 obtained the highest EMI shielding effectiveness (SE), with the shielding mechanism dominated by absorption. In addition, the EMI shielding performance of composites was improved by increases in the filler loading and thickness of composites. Composites with a filler loading of 4.0 vol% and thickness of 2.0 mm achieved an SE of 44 dB at 10 GHz with the assistance of conductive silver backing. This EMI SE is better than that of composites filled with single conductive filler and comparable with that of commercial EMI absorber.

  17. Graphene oxide/manganese ferrite nanohybrids for magnetic resonance imaging, photothermal therapy and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Shi, Haili; Wang, Yapei; Shi, Benzhao; Guo, Linlin; Wu, Dongmei; Yang, Shiping; Wu, Huixia

    2016-01-01

    Superparamagnetic manganese ferrite (MnFe2O4) nanoparticles have been deposited on graphene oxide (GO) by the thermal decomposition of manganese (II) acetylacetonate and iron (III) acetylacetonate precursors in triethylene glycol. The resulting GO/MnFe2O4 nanohybrids show very low cytotoxicity, negligible hemolytic activity, and imperceptible in vivo toxicity. In vitro and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging experiments demonstrate that GO/MnFe2O4 nanohybrids could be used as an effective T2 contrast agent. The strong optical absorbance in the near-infrared (NIR) region and good photothermal stability of GO/MnFe2O4 nanohybrids result in the highly efficient photothermal ablation of cancer cells. GO/MnFe2O4 nanohybrids can be further loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) by π-π conjugate effect for chemotherapy. DOX release from GO/MnFe2O4 is significantly influenced by pH and can be triggered by NIR laser. The enhanced cancer cell killing by GO/MnFe2O4/DOX composites has been achieved when irradiated with near-infrared light, suggesting that the nanohybrids could deliver both DOX chemotherapy and photothermal therapy with a synergistic effect. PMID:26296777

  18. Ferrite nanoparticles for future heart diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Nguyen Hoa; Raghavender, A. T.; Ciftja, O.; Phan, M.-H.; Stojak, K.; Srikanth, H.; Zhang, Yin Hua

    2013-08-01

    Normally, CoFe2O4 has been known as ferromagnetic ferrite with a quite large magnetic moment. However, since we aim to inject the particles into the human body, we are also interested in ZnFe2O4 because in the human body, Fe and Zn exist, so that adding ZnFe2O4 is safer. In both cases, the nanoparticles are coated by silica in order to get rid of toxicity. Our main purpose is to test whether these nanoparticles affect the contractile function of heart cells. Our results on rat's heart cells have shown that both Zn and Co ferrites improved the contractility of heart cells. Notably, although both nanoparticles increased contraction and delayed relaxation, Co ferrites induced a greater contraction but with a slower relaxation. We can theoretically argue that the magnetization effects of the quantum dots have a considerable effect on the pulsating properties of the heart cells. Through this effect, the locally applied magnetic field is able to induce as well as turn on/off various regular beating patterns, thus, resetting the heart beatings.

  19. Magnetic materials based on manganese zinc ferrite with surface-organized polyaniline coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazantseva, N. E.; Bespyatykh, Yu. I.; Sapurina, I.; Stejskal, J.; Vilčáková, J.; Sáha, P.

    2006-06-01

    Core-shell composites of manganese-zinc (MnZn) ferrite and polyaniline (PANI) have been prepared by the oxidation of aniline with ammonium peroxydisulfate in the presence of ferrite. The various reaction conditions allowed controlling the thickness of PANI coating, 50-250 nm. Complex magnetic permeability spectra of MnZn ferrite of various particles sizes, 25-250 μm, and of their composites with PANI, have been studied in the frequency range 1 MHz-10 GHz. The formation of a polymer p-semiconducting nanolayer on the surface of a MnZn ferrite particle changes the character of the frequency dispersion of the permeability. The interfacial effects between MnZn ferrite and PANI nanofilm are responsible for the shifts of resonance frequency from MHz closer to GHz. This effect strongly depends on the specific area of the ferrite-PANI interface and, moreover, on the properties of the PANI overlayer.

  20. Multifunctional nano manganese ferrite ferrofluid for efficient theranostic application.

    PubMed

    Beeran, Ansar Ereath; Fernandez, Francis Boniface; Nazeer, Shaiju S; Jayasree, Ramapurath S; John, Annie; Anil, Sukumaran; Vellappally, Sajith; Al Kheraif, Abdul Aziz A; Varma, P R Harikrishna

    2015-12-01

    Ferrofluid-based manganese (Mn(2+)) substituted superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized by surface coating with trisodium citrate (MnIOTCs) were synthesized for enhanced hyperthermic activity and use as negative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast media intended for applications in theranostics. The synthesized MnIOTC materials were characterized based on their physicochemical and biological features. The crystal size and the particle size at the nano level were studied using XRD and TEM. The presence of citrate molecules on the crystal surface of the iron oxide was established by FTIR, TGA, DLS and zeta potential measurements. The superparamagnetic property of MnIOTCs was measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer. Superparamagnetic iron oxide substituted with Mn(2+) with a 3:1 molar concentration of Mn(2+) to Fe(2+) and surface modified with trisodium citrate (MnIO75TC) that exhibited a high T2 relaxivity of 184.6mM(-1)s(-1) and showed excellent signal intensity variation in vitro. Hyperthermia via application of an alternating magnetic field to MnIO75TC in a HeLa cell population induced apoptosis, which was further confirmed by FACS and cLSM observations. The morphological features of the cells were highly disrupted after the hyperthermia experiment, as evidenced from E-SEM images. Biocompatibility evaluation was performed using an alamar blue assay and hemolysis studies, and the results indicated good cytocompatibility and hemocompatibility for the synthesized particles. In the current study, the potential of MnIO75TC as a negative MRI contrast agent and a hyperthermia agent was demonstrated to confirm its utility in the burgeoning field of theranostics. PMID:26595389

  1. Transformation Characteristics of Ferrite/Carbide Aggregate in Continuously Cooled, Low Carbon-Manganese Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Martino, S. F.; Thewlis, G.

    2014-02-01

    Transformation characteristics and morphological features of ferrite/carbide aggregate (FCA) in low carbon-manganese steels have been investigated. Work shows that FCA has neither the lamellae structure of pearlite nor the lath structure of bainite and martensite. It consists of a fine dispersion of cementite particles in a smooth ferrite matrix. Carbide morphologies range from arrays of globular particles or short fibers to extended, branched, and densely interconnected fibers. Work demonstrates that FCA forms over similar cooling rate ranges to Widmanstätten ferrite. Rapid transformation of both phases occurs at temperatures between 798 K and 973 K (525 °C and 700 °C). FCA reaction is not simultaneous with Widmanstätten ferrite but occurs at temperatures intermediate between Widmanstätten ferrite and bainite. Austenite carbon content calculations verify that cementite precipitation is thermodynamically possible at FCA reaction temperatures without bainite formation. The pattern of precipitation is confirmed to be discontinuous. CCT diagrams have been constructed that incorporate FCA. At low steel manganese content, Widmanstätten ferrite and bainite bay sizes are significantly reduced so that large amounts of FCA are formed over a wide range of cooling rates.

  2. Facile synthesis of manganese ferrite/graphene oxide nanocomposites for controlled targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guangshuo; Ma, Yingying; Zhang, Lina; Mu, Jingbo; Zhang, Zhixiao; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Che, Hongwei; Bai, Yongmei; Hou, Junxian

    2016-03-01

    In this study, manganese ferrite/graphene oxide (MnFe2O4/GO) nanocomposites as controlled targeted drug delivery were prepared by a facile sonochemical method. It was found that GO nanosheets were fully exfoliated and decorated with MnFe2O4 nanoparticles having diameters of 5-13 nm. The field-dependent magnetization curve indicated superparamagnetic behavior of the obtained MnFe2O4/GO with saturation magnetization of 34.9 emu/g at room temperature. The in vitro cytotoxicity testing exhibited negligible cytotoxicity of as-prepared MnFe2O4/GO even at the concentration as high as 150 μg/mL. Doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) as an anti-tumor model drug was utilized to explore the application potential of MnFe2O4/GO for controlled drug delivery. The drug loading capacity of this nanocarrier was as high as 0.97 mg/mg and the drug release behavior showed a sustained and pH-responsive way.

  3. Friction and wear of single-crystal manganese-zinc ferrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with single crystal manganese-zinc ferrite in contact with itself and with transition metals. Results indicate mating highest atomic density directions (110) on matched crystallographic planes exhibit the lowest coefficient of friction, indicating that direction is important in the friction behavior of ferrite. Matched parallel high atomic density planes and crystallographic directions at the interface exhibit low coefficients of friction. The coefficients of friction for ferrite in contact with various metals are related to the relative chemical activity of these metals. The more active the metal, the higher the coefficient of friction. Cracking and the formation of hexagon- and rectangular-shaped platelet wear debris due to cleavages of (110) planes are observed on the ferrite surfaces as a result of sliding.

  4. Friction and wear of single-crystal manganese-zinc ferrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with single-crystal manganese-zinc ferrite in contact with itself and with transition metals. Results indicate mating highest atomic density directions (110 line type) on matched crystallographic planes exhibit the lowest coefficient of friction indicating that direction is important in the friction behavior of ferrite. Matched parallel high atomic density planes and crystallographic directions at the interface exhibit low coefficients of friction. The coefficients of friction for ferrite in contact with various metals are related to the relative chemical activity of these metals. The more active the metal, the higher the coefficient of friction. Cracking and the formation of hexagon- and rectangular-shaped platelet wear debris due to cleavages are observed on the ferrite surfaces as a result of sliding.

  5. Structural and magnetic study of dysprosium substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Hemaunt; Srivastava, R. C.; Pal Singh, Jitendra; Negi, P.; Agrawal, H. M.; Das, D.; Hwa Chae, Keun

    2016-03-01

    The present work investigates the magnetic behavior of Dy3+ substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction studies reveal presence of cubic spinel phases in these nanoparticles. Raman spectra of these nanoparticles show change in intensity of Raman bands, which reflects cation redistribution in cubic spinel lattice. Saturation magnetization and coercivity decrease with increase of Dy3+concentration in these nanoparticles. Room temperature Mössbauer measurements show the cation redistribution in these nanoparticles and corroborates the results obtained from Raman Spectroscopic measurements. Decrease in magnetization of Dy3+ substituted cobalt ferrite is attributed to the reduction in the magnetic interaction and cation redistribution.

  6. Recycling spent zinc manganese dioxide batteries through synthesizing Zn-Mn ferrite magnetic materials.

    PubMed

    Nan, Junmin; Han, Dongmei; Cui, Ming; Yang, Minjie; Pan, Linmao

    2006-05-20

    A novel process to reclaim spent zinc manganese dioxide batteries (SDBs) through synthesizing Zn-Mn ferrite magnetic materials is present. Firstly, the dismantling, watering, magnetism, baking and griddling steps were consecutively carried out to obtain iron battery shells, zinc grains and manganese compounds using the collected SDBs, and then these separated substances were dissolved with 4 mol L(-1) H(2)SO(4) to prepare FeSO(4), ZnSO(4) and MnSO(4) reactant solutions. Secondly, Zn-Mn ferrites with stoichiometric ratio of Mn(0.26)Zn(0.24)FeO(2) were synthesized using chemical co precipitation process with ammonium oxalate precipitator. The XRD results showed that the obtained Zn-Mn ferrites had spinel structure and high purity at the calcining temperatures of 850-1250 degrees C. With the increase of calcining temperature, the finer crystalline structure could be formed, and their intensity of saturation magnetization reached the highest value at 1150 degrees C. The magnetization performances of Zn-Mn ferrites prepared from the SDBs were similar to that of from analysis reagents, suggesting the feasibility to synthesize Zn-Mn ferrites with high properties from SDBs. PMID:16310946

  7. Thermodynamic modelling of the formation of zinc-manganese ferrite spinel in electric arc furnace dust.

    PubMed

    Pickles, C A

    2010-07-15

    Electric arc furnace dust is generated when automobile scrap, containing galvanized steel, is remelted in an electric arc furnace. This dust is considered as a hazardous waste in most countries. Zinc is a major component of the dust and can be of significant commercial value. Typically, the majority of the zinc exists as zinc oxide (ZnO) and as a zinc-manganese ferrite spinel ((Zn(x)Mn(y)Fe(1-x-y))Fe(2)O(4)). The recovery of the zinc from the dust in metal recycling and recovery processes, particularly in the hydrometallurgical extraction processes, is often hindered by the presence of the mixed ferrite spinel. However, there is a paucity of information available in the literature on the formation of this spinel. Therefore, in the present research, the equilibrium module of HSC Chemistry 6.1 was utilized to investigate the thermodynamics of the formation of the spinel and the effect of variables on the amount and the composition of the mixed ferrite spinel. It is proposed that the mixed ferrite spinel forms due to the reaction of iron-manganese particulates with both gaseous oxygen and zinc, at the high temperatures in the freeboard of the furnace above the steel melt. Based on the thermodynamic predictions, methods are proposed for minimizing the formation of the mixed ferrite spinel. PMID:20356673

  8. A biosensor system using nickel ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Prachi; Rathore, Deepshikha

    2016-05-01

    NiFe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method and the structural characteristics were investigated using X-ray diffraction technique, where single cubic phase formation of nanoparticles was confirmed. The average particle size of NiFe2O4 was found to be 4.9 nm. Nanoscale magnetic materials are an important source of labels for biosensing due to their strong magnetic properties which are not found in biological systems. This property of the material was exploited and the fabrication of the NiFe2O4 nanoparticle based biosensor was done in the form of a capacitor system, with NiFe2O4 as the dielectric material. The biosensor system was tested towards different biological materials with the help of electrochemical workstation and the same was analysed through Cole-Cole plot of NiFe2O4. The performance of the sensor was determined based on its sensitivity, response time and recovery time.

  9. Anisotropic friction and wear of single-crystal manganese-zinc ferrite in contact with itself

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1978-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with manganese-zinc ferrite (100), (110), (111), and (211) planes in contact with themselves. Mating the highest-atomic-density directions, (110), of matched crystallographic planes resulted in the lowest coefficients of friction. Mating matched (same) high-atomic-density planes and matched (same)crystallographic directions resulted in low coefficients of friction. Mating dissimilar crystallographic planes, however, did not give significantly different friction results from those with matched planes. Sliding caused cracking and the formation of hexagonal- and rectangular-platelet wear debris on ferrite surfaces, primarily from cleavage of the (110) planes.

  10. Transition metal-substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Sanpo, Noppakun; Berndt, Christopher C; Wen, Cuie; Wang, James

    2013-03-01

    Transition metals of copper, zinc, chromium and nickel were substituted into cobalt ferrite nanoparticles via a sol-gel route using citric acid as a chelating agent. The microstructure and elemental composition were characterized using scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Phase analysis of transition metal-substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles was performed via X-ray diffraction. Surface wettability was measured using the water contact angle technique. The surface roughness of all nanoparticles was measured using profilometry. Moreover, thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were performed to determine the temperature at which the decomposition and oxidation of the chelating agents took place. Results indicated that the substitution of transition metals influences strongly the microstructure, crystal structure and antibacterial property of the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. PMID:23137676

  11. Structural and magnetic properties of cadmium substituted manganese ferrites prepared by hydrothermal route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafa, Nasser Y.; Zaki, Z. I.; Heiba, Z. K.

    2013-03-01

    Cd-substituted manganese ferrite Mn1-xCdxFe2O4 powders with x having values 0.0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 have been synthesized by hydrothermal route at 180 °C in presence of NaOH as mineralizer. The obtained ferrite samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The XRD analysis showed that pure single phases of cubic ferrites were obtained with x upto 0.3. However, sample with x≥0.5 showed hexagonal phase of cadmium hydroxide (Cd(OH)2) besides the ferrite phase. The increase in Cd-substitution upto x=0.3 leads to an increase in the lattice parameter as well as the average crystallite size of the prepared ferrites. The average crystallite size increased by increasing the Cd-content and was in the range of 39-57 nm. According to VSM results, the saturation magnetization increased with Cd ion substitution.

  12. Ferrite Nanoparticles, Films, Single Crystals, and Metamaterials: High Frequency Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Harris,V.

    2006-01-01

    Ferrite materials have long played an important role in power conditioning, conversion, and generation across a wide spectrum of frequencies (up to ten decades). They remain the preferred magnetic materials, having suitably low losses, for most applications above 1 MHz, and are the only viable materials for nonreciprocal magnetic microwave and millimeter-wave devices (including tunable filters, isolators, phase shifters, and circulators). Recently, novel processing techniques have led to a resurgence of research interest in the design and processing of ferrite materials as nanoparticles, films, single crystals, and metamaterials. These latest developments have set the stage for their use in emerging technologies that include cancer remediation therapies such as magnetohyperthermia, magnetic targeted drug delivery, and magneto-rheological fluids, as well as enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. With reduced dimensionality of nanoparticles and films, and the inherent nonequilibrium nature of many processing schemes, changes in local chemistry and structure have profound effects on the functional properties and performance of ferrites. In this lecture, we will explore these effects upon the fundamental magnetic and electronic properties of ferrites. Density functional theory will be applied to predict the properties of these ferrites, with synchrotron radiation techniques used to elucidate the chemical and structural short-range order. This approach will be extended to study the atomic design of ferrites by alternating target laser-ablation deposition. Recently, this approach has been shown to produce ferrites that offer attractive properties not found in conventionally grown ferrites. We will explore the latest research developments involving ferrites as related to microwave and millimeter-wave applications and the attempt to integrate these materials with semiconductor materials platforms.

  13. The role of cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles in medical science.

    PubMed

    Amiri, S; Shokrollahi, H

    2013-01-01

    The nanotechnology industry is rapidly growing and promises that the substantial changes that will have significant economic and scientific impacts be applicable to a wide range of areas, such as aerospace engineering, nano-electronics, environmental remediation and medical healthcare. In this area, cobalt ferrite nanoparticles have been regarded as one of the competitive candidates because of their suitable physical, chemical and magnetic properties like the high anisotropy constant, high coercivity and high Curie temperature, moderate saturation magnetization and ease of synthesis. This paper introduces the magnetic properties, synthesis methods and some medical applications, including the hyperthermia, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic separation and drug delivery of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. PMID:25428034

  14. An aqueous method for the controlled manganese (Mn(2+)) substitution in superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for contrast enhancement in MRI.

    PubMed

    Ereath Beeran, Ansar; Nazeer, Shaiju S; Fernandez, Francis Boniface; Muvvala, Krishna Surendra; Wunderlich, Wilfried; Anil, Sukumaran; Vellappally, Sajith; Ramachandra Rao, M S; John, Annie; Jayasree, Ramapurath S; Varma, P R Harikrishna

    2015-02-14

    Despite the success in the use of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) for various scientific applications, its potential in biomedical fields has not been exploited to its full potential. In this context, an in situ substitution of Mn(2+) was performed in SPION and a series of ferrite particles, MnxFe1-xFe2O4 with a varying molar ratio of Mn(2+) : Fe(2+) where 'x' varies from 0-0.75. The ferrite particles obtained were further studied in MRI contrast applications and showed appreciable enhancement in their MRI contrast properties. Manganese substituted ferrite nanocrystals (MnIOs) were synthesized using a novel, one-step aqueous co-precipitation method based on the use of a combination of sodium hydroxide and trisodium citrate (TSC). This approach yielded the formation of highly crystalline, superparamagnetic MnIOs with good control over their size and bivalent Mn ion crystal substitution. The presence of a TSC hydrophilic layer on the surface facilitated easy dispersion of the materials in an aqueous media. Primary characterizations such as structural, chemical and magnetic properties demonstrated the successful formation of manganese substituted ferrite. More significantly, the MRI relaxivity of the MnIOs improved fourfold when compared to SPION crystals imparting high potential for use as an MRI contrast agent. Further, the cytocompatibility and blood compatibility evaluations demonstrated excellent cell morphological integrity even at high concentrations of nanoparticles supporting the non-toxic nature of nanoparticles. These results open new horizons for the design of biocompatible water dispersible ferrite nanoparticles with good relaxivity properties via a versatile and easily scalable co-precipitation route. PMID:25586703

  15. Ultrasonic cavitation induced water in vegetable oil emulsion droplets--a simple and easy technique to synthesize manganese zinc ferrite nanocrystals with improved magnetization.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Manickam; Towata, Atsuya; Yasui, Kyuichi; Tuziuti, Toru; Kozuka, Teruyuki; Iida, Yasuo; Maiorov, Michail M; Blums, Elmars; Bhattacharya, Dipten; Sivakumar, Neelagesi; Ashok, M

    2012-05-01

    In the present investigation, synthesis of manganese zinc ferrite (Mn(0.5)Zn(0.5)Fe(2)O(4)) nanoparticles with narrow size distribution have been prepared using ultrasound assisted emulsion (consisting of rapeseed oil as an oil phase and aqueous solution of Mn(2+), Zn(2+) and Fe(2+) acetates) and evaporation processes. The as-prepared ferrite was nanocrystalline. In order to remove the small amount of oil present on the surface of the ferrite, it was subjected to heat treatment at 300 °C for 3h. Both the as-prepared and heat treated ferrites have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), TGA/DTA, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. As-prepared ferrite is of 20 nm, whereas the heat treated ferrite shows the size of 33 nm. In addition, magnetic properties of the as-prepared as well as the heat treated ferrites have also been carried out and the results of which show that the spontaneous magnetization (σ(s)) of the heat treated sample (24.1 emu/g) is significantly higher than that of the as-synthesized sample (1.81 emu/g). The key features of this method are avoiding (a) the cumbersome conditions that exist in the conventional methods; (b) usage of necessary additive components (stabilizers or surfactants, precipitants) and (c) calcination requirements. In addition, rapeseed oil as an oil phase has been used for the first time, replacing the toxic and troublesome organic nonpolar solvents. As a whole, this simple straightforward sonochemical approach results in more phase pure system with improved magnetization. PMID:22113061

  16. Structural, dielectric and gas sensing behavior of Mn substituted spinel MFe2O4 (M=Zn, Cu, Ni, and Co) ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjith Kumar, E.; Siva Prasada Reddy, P.; Sarala Devi, G.; Sathiyaraj, S.

    2016-01-01

    Spinel ferrite (MnZnFe2O4, MnCuFe2O4, MnNiFe2O4 and MnCoFe2O4) nanoparticles have been prepared by evaporation method. The annealing temperature plays an important role on changing particle size of the spinel ferrite nanoparticles was found out by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The role of manganese substitution in the spinel ferrite nanoparticles were also analyzed for different annealing temperature. The substitution of Mn also creates a vital change in dielectric properties have been measured in the frequency range of 100 kHz to 5 MHz. These spinel ferrites are decomposed to α-Fe2O3 after annealing above 550 °C in air. Through the characterization of the prepared powder, the effect of annealing temperature, chemical composition and preparation technique on the microstructure, particle size and dielectric properties of the Mn substituted spinel ferrite nanoparticles are discussed. Furthermore, Conductance response of Mn substituted MFe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles were measured by exposing the materials to reducing gas like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).

  17. High-Performance Ferrite Nanoparticles through Nonaqueous Redox Phase Tuning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ritchie; Christiansen, Michael G; Sourakov, Alexandra; Mohr, Alan; Matsumoto, Yuri; Okada, Satoshi; Jasanoff, Alan; Anikeeva, Polina

    2016-02-10

    From magnetic resonance imaging to cancer hyperthermia and wireless control of cell signaling, ferrite nanoparticles produced by thermal decomposition methods are ubiquitous across biomedical applications. While well-established synthetic protocols allow for precise control over the size and shape of the magnetic nanoparticles, structural defects within seemingly single-crystalline materials contribute to variability in the reported magnetic properties. We found that stabilization of metastable wüstite in commonly used hydrocarbon solvents contributed to significant cation disorder, leading to nanoparticles with poor hyperthermic efficiencies and transverse relaxivities. By introducing aromatic ethers that undergo radical decomposition upon thermolysis, the electrochemical potential of the solvent environment was tuned to favor the ferrimagnetic phase. Structural and magnetic characterization identified hallmark features of nearly defect-free ferrite nanoparticles that could not be demonstrated through postsynthesis oxidation with nearly 500% increase in the specific loss powers and transverse relaxivity times compared to similarly sized nanoparticles containing defects. The improved crystallinity of the nanoparticles enabled rapid wireless control of intracellular calcium. Our work demonstrates that redox tuning during solvent thermolysis can generate potent theranostic agents through selective phase control in ferrites and can be extended to other transition metal oxides relevant to memory and electrochemical storage devices. PMID:26756463

  18. Structural and some magnetic properties of manganese-substituted lithium ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazen, S. A.; Abu-Elsaad, N. I.

    2012-10-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of Mn-substituted lithium ferrites having the general formula Li0.5-0.5xMnxFe2.5-0.5xO4 (where x=0.0-1.0) prepared by the standard ceramic technique have been studied. Single phase cubic structure is confirmed by X-ray diffractometer. This result demonstrates that the samples are homogeneous, and the sharp peaks reveal that the samples are in crystalline form. The lattice parameter 'a' and average grain diameter 'D' increase with increasing Mn2+ ion substitution. The saturation magnetization and the experimental magnetic moment are found to increase with manganese up to x=0.5 and then tends to decrease for x>0.5. The increase in magnetic moment with manganese is attributed to Neel's two sublattice model according to which the magnetic moment is the vector sum of lattice magnetic moment. The decrease in magnetization for x>0.5 obeys the Yafet-Kittel (Y-K) model. The increase in Y-K angles for x≥0.5 indicates the increased favor for triangle spin arrangements on B-sites. This suggests the existence of canted spin structure in the ferrite system with higher content of Mn. Hystersis loops were measured. The initial permeability μi was measured as a function of temperature.

  19. Strong and moldable cellulose magnets with high ferrite nanoparticle content.

    PubMed

    Galland, Sylvain; Andersson, Richard L; Ström, Valter; Olsson, Richard T; Berglund, Lars A

    2014-11-26

    A major limitation in the development of highly functional hybrid nanocomposites is brittleness and low tensile strength at high inorganic nanoparticle content. Herein, cellulose nanofibers were extracted from wood and individually decorated with cobalt-ferrite nanoparticles and then for the first time molded at low temperature (<120 °C) into magnetic nanocomposites with up to 93 wt % inorganic content. The material structure was characterized by TEM and FE-SEM and mechanically tested as compression molded samples. The obtained porous magnetic sheets were further impregnated with a thermosetting epoxy resin, which improved the load-bearing functions of ferrite and cellulose material. A nanocomposite with 70 wt % ferrite, 20 wt % cellulose nanofibers, and 10 wt % epoxy showed a modulus of 12.6 GPa, a tensile strength of 97 MPa, and a strain at failure of ca. 4%. Magnetic characterization was performed in a vibrating sample magnetometer, which showed that the coercivity was unaffected and that the saturation magnetization was in proportion with the ferrite content. The used ferrite, CoFe2O4, is a magnetically hard material, demonstrated by that the composite material behaved as a traditional permanent magnet. The presented processing route is easily adaptable to prepare millimeter-thick and moldable magnetic objects. This suggests that the processing method has the potential to be scaled-up for industrial use for the preparation of a new subcategory of magnetic, low-cost, and moldable objects based on cellulose nanofibers. PMID:25331121

  20. Bifunctional Manganese Ferrite/Polyaniline Hybrid as Electrode Material for Enhanced Energy Recovery in Microbial Fuel Cell.

    PubMed

    Khilari, Santimoy; Pandit, Soumya; Varanasi, Jhansi L; Das, Debabrata; Pradhan, Debabrata

    2015-09-23

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are emerging as a sustainable technology for waste to energy conversion where electrode materials play a vital role on its performance. Platinum (Pt) is the most common material used as cathode catalyst in the MFCs. However, the high cost and low earth abundance associated with Pt prompt the researcher to explore inexpensive catalysts. The present study demonstrates a noble metal-free MFC using a manganese ferrite (MnFe2O4)/polyaniline (PANI)-based electrode material. The MnFe2O4 nanoparticles (NPs) and MnFe2O4 NPs/PANI hybrid composite not only exhibited superior oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity for the air cathode but also enhanced anode half-cell potential upon modifying carbon cloth anode in the single-chambered MFC. This is attributed to the improved extracellular electron transfer of exoelectrogens due to Fe(3+) in MnFe2O4 and its capacitive nature. The present work demonstrates for the first time the dual property of MnFe2O4 NPs/PANI, i.e., as cathode catalyst and an anode modifier, thereby promising cost-effective MFCs for practical applications. PMID:26315619

  1. Magnetoabsorption and magnetic hysteresis in Ni ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Gómez, P.; Muñoz, J. M.; Valente, M. A.; Torres, C.; de Francisco, C.

    2013-01-01

    Nickel ferrite nanoparticles were prepared by a modified sol-gel technique employing coconut oil, and then annealed at different temperatures in 400-1200 °C range. This route of preparation has revealed to be one efficient and cheap technique to obtain high quality nickel ferrite nanosized powder. Sample particles sizes obtained with XRD data and Scherrer's formula lie in 13 nm to 138 nm, with increased size with annealing temperature. Hysteresis loops have been obtained at room temperature with an inductive method. Magnetic field induced microwave absorption in nanoscale ferrites is a recent an active area of research, in order to characterize and explore potential novel applications. In the present work microwave magnetoabsorption data of the annealed nickel ferrite nanoparticles are presented. These data have been obtained with a system based on a network analyzer that operates in the frequency range 0 - 8.5 GHz. At fields up to 400 mT we can observe a peak according to ferromagnetic resonance theory. Sample annealed at higher temperature exhibits different absorption, coercivity and saturation magnetization figures, revealing its multidomain character.

  2. Oriented attachment explains cobalt ferrite nanoparticle growth in bioinspired syntheses.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Annalena; Hetaba, Walid; Wißbrock, Marco; Löffler, Stefan; Mill, Nadine; Eckstädt, Katrin; Dreyer, Axel; Ennen, Inga; Sewald, Norbert; Schattschneider, Peter; Hütten, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Oriented attachment has created a great debate about the description of crystal growth throughout the last decade. This aggregation-based model has successfully described biomineralization processes as well as forms of inorganic crystal growth, which could not be explained by classical crystal growth theory. Understanding the nanoparticle growth is essential since physical properties, such as the magnetic behavior, are highly dependent on the microstructure, morphology and composition of the inorganic crystals. In this work, the underlying nanoparticle growth of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles in a bioinspired synthesis was studied. Bioinspired syntheses have sparked great interest in recent years due to their ability to influence and alter inorganic crystal growth and therefore tailor properties of nanoparticles. In this synthesis, a short synthetic version of the protein MMS6, involved in nanoparticle formation within magnetotactic bacteria, was used to alter the growth of cobalt ferrite. We demonstrate that the bioinspired nanoparticle growth can be described by the oriented attachment model. The intermediate stages proposed in the theoretical model, including primary-building-block-like substructures as well as mesocrystal-like structures, were observed in HRTEM measurements. These structures display regions of substantial orientation and possess the same shape and size as the resulting discs. An increase in orientation with time was observed in electron diffraction measurements. The change of particle diameter with time agrees with the recently proposed kinetic model for oriented attachment. PMID:24605288

  3. Size-dependent magnetic properties of calcium ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, Lavanya; Verma, N. K.

    2013-06-01

    The union of nanotechnology with the other fields of science heralds the influx of many newer and better technologies, with the capability to revolutionize the human life. In the present work, calcium ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by conventional sol-gel method and were characterised by X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron microscope, Vibrating sample magnetometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscope. The synthesized nanoparticles were calcined at different temperatures and their magnetic behaviour was studied. The synthesized nanoparticles calcined at 900 °C were formed in the shape of capsules and exhibited mixed characteristics of ferrimagnetic and paramagnetic grains with magnetic saturation of 0.85 emu/g whereas nanoparticles calcined at 500 °C were spherical in shape and exhibited superparamagnetic characteristics with saturation magnetization of 37.67 emu/g.

  4. Microwave-assisted synthesis and characterization of nickel ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Gopal; Sen, Ravindra; Malviya, Nitin; Gupta, Nitish

    2015-08-01

    Nickel ferrite nanoparticles (NiFe2O4) were successfully prepared by microwave-assisted combustion method (MWAC) using citric Electron acid as a chelating agent. NiFe2O4 nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, Scanning Microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and UV-Visible techniques. XRD analysis revealed that NiFe2O4 nanoparticles have spinel cubic structure with the average crystalline size of 26.38 nm. SEM analysis revealed random and porous structural morphology of particles and FTIR showed absorption bands related to octahedral and tetrahedral sites, in the range 400-600cm-1 which strongly favor the formation of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles. The optical band gap is determined by UV Visible method and found to be 5.4 eV.

  5. Cr(3+) substituted spinel ferrite nanoparticles with high coercivity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zuo, Xudong; Zhang, Dongmei; Wu, Chengwei; Silva, S Ravi P

    2016-06-17

    The low coercivity of spinel ferrites is a major barrier that significantly limits their use in high density magnetic recording applications. By controlling the substituting content of Cr(3+), in this article we describe how magnetic CoCr x Fe2-x O4 (0 < x < 1.2) nanoparticles with coercivity of up to 6.4 kOe were successfully obtained by the hydrothermal process. The high coercivity is attributed to the synergetic effects of magnetocrystalline anisotropy and the nanoscale size effect. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the spinel structure of the nanoparticles with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) suggesting regular tetragonal morphology. The TEM indicated an edge length ranging from 15 nm to 150 nm, which increases monotonically with increasing Cr content. Raman analyses supported the proposed model on the formation mechanism of the nanoparticles, i.e. heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation. PMID:27159283

  6. Adsorption isotherms of linoleic and linolenic acids from solutions in carbon tetrachloride on surfaces of highly dispersed manganese and copper ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balmasova, O. V.; Korolev, V. V.; Ramazanova, A. G.

    2012-04-01

    A comparative study of adsorption-desorption isotherms of linoleic and linolenic acids from solutions in carbon tetrachloride on surfaces of manganese and copper ferrites is performed by means of equilibrium adsorption. Adsorption isotherms of fatty acids are described in terms of the theory of volume filling of micropores, and the values of the limiting adsorption, the characteristic adsorption energy, and the pore space volume are calculated. It is established that the limiting adsorption values of linoleic and linolenic acids from solutions in carbon tetrachloride on a copper ferrite surface are higher than on a manganese ferrite surface. It is shown that the adsorption-desorption isotherms have a hysteresis loop.

  7. Oxidative stress mediated apoptosis induced by nickel ferrite nanoparticles in cultured A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Ahamed, Maqusood; Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Siddiqui, Maqsood A; Ahmad, Javed; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; AlSalhi, Mohamad S; Alrokayan, Salman A

    2011-05-10

    Due to the interesting magnetic and electrical properties with good chemical and thermal stabilities, nickel ferrite nanoparticles are being utilized in many applications including magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery and hyperthermia. Recent studies have shown that nickel ferrite nanoparticles produce cytotoxicity in mammalian cells. However, there is very limited information concerning the toxicity of nickel ferrite nanoparticles at the cellular and molecular level. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and apoptosis induction by well-characterized nickel ferrite nanoparticles (size 26 nm) in human lung epithelial (A549) cells. Nickel ferrite nanoparticles induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity in A549 cells demonstrated by MTT, NRU and LDH assays. Nickel ferrite nanoparticles were also found to induce oxidative stress evidenced by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depletion of antioxidant glutathione (GSH). Further, co-treatment with the antioxidant L-ascorbic acid mitigated the ROS generation and GSH depletion due to nickel ferrite nanoparticles suggesting the potential mechanism of oxidative stress. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that following the exposure of A549 cells to nickel ferrite nanoparticles, the level of mRNA expressions of cell cycle checkpoint protein p53 and apoptotic proteins (bax, caspase-3 and caspase-9) were significantly up-regulated, whereas the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (survivin and bcl-2) were down-regulated. Moreover, activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9 enzymes were also significantly higher in nickel ferrite nanoparticles exposed cells. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report showing that nickel ferrite nanoparticles induced apoptosis in A549 cells through ROS generation and oxidative stress via p53, survivin, bax/bcl-2 and caspase pathways. PMID:21382431

  8. Magnetoactive feature of in-situ polymerised polyaniline film developed on the surface of manganese-zinc ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babayan, V.; Kazantseva, N. E.; Sapurina, I.; Moučka, R.; Vilčáková, J.; Stejskal, J.

    2012-07-01

    A polyaniline film exhibits magnetoactive properties when deposited on the surface of multidomain particles of manganese-zinc ferrite during in-situ polymerisation of aniline. This is reflected in the increased coercivity and thermomagnetic stability of an in-situ prepared composite compared with bare ferrite and its mixed composite with polyaniline. In addition, the deposition of a polyaniline film results in a shift of the complex-permeability dispersion region towards ultrahigh frequency band. These changes in the magnetic properties of polyaniline-coated ferrite are attributed to the increased value of the inner demagnetisation factor, which results from stress-induced magnetic anisotropy due to the pinning of domain walls appearing on the surface of ferrite. This study is focused on the mechanism of pinning of domain walls and its influence on the magnetic properties of in-situ prepared composites in terms of the molecular mechanism of oxidative polymerisation of aniline. Ferrite stimulates the propagation of polyaniline chains, which start to grow on the domain walls on the ferrite surface. It leads to the pinning of domain walls and restricts their mobility in a magnetic field. The further increase in the coercivity and the resonance frequency of polyaniline-coated ferrite due to film shrinkage after deprotonation of polyaniline makes it obvious that polyaniline coating induces elastic stresses in a ferrite particle that stimulate the growth of the effective magnetic anisotropy. Stress-induced magnetic anisotropy contributes to the reorientation of the magnetisation vectors in domains with respect to the new directions of easy magnetisation, given by magnetoelastic stresses, which leads to complex changes in the magnetic properties of in-situ prepared composites.

  9. The role of annealing temperature and bio template (egg white) on the structural, morphological and magnetic properties of manganese substituted MFe2O4 (M=Zn, Cu, Ni, Co) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjith Kumar, E.; Jayaprakash, R.; Kumar, Sanjay

    2014-02-01

    Manganese substituted ferrites (ZnFe2O4, CuFe2O4, NiFe2O4 and CoFe2O4) have been prepared in the bio template medium by using a simple evaporation method. The annealing temperature plays an important position on changing particle size and morphology of the mixed ferrite nanoparticles were found out by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy methods. The role of manganese substitution in the mixed ferrite nanoparticles were also analyzed for different annealing temperature. The substitution of Mn also creates a vital change in magnetic properties which is studied by using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). These spinel ferrites are decomposed to α-Fe2O3 after annealing above 550 °C in air. However, α-Fe2O3 phase was slowly vanished after ferrites annealing above 900 °C. The effect of this secondary phase on the structural change and magnetic properties of the mixed ferrite nanoparticles is discussed.

  10. Ultrafine grained high density manganese zinc ferrite produced using polyol process assisted by Spark Plasma Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudisson, T.; Beji, Z.; Herbst, F.; Nowak, S.; Ammar, S.; Valenzuela, R.

    2015-08-01

    We report the synthesis of Mn-Zn ferrite (MZFO) nanoparticles (NPs) by the polyol process and their consolidation by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) technique at relatively low temperature and short time, namely 500 °C for 10 min. NPs were obtained as perfectly epitaxied aggregated nanoclusters forming a kind of spherical pseudo-single-crystals of about 40 nm in size. The results on NPs consolidation by SPS underlined the importance of this clustering on the grain growth mechanism. Grain growth proceeds by coalescing nanocrystalline aggregates into single grain of almost the same average size, thus leading to a high density ceramic. Due to magnetic exchange interactions between grains, the produced ceramic does not exhibit thermal relaxation whereas their precursor polyol-made NPs are superparamagnetic.

  11. Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles in a mesoporous silicon dioxide matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komogortsev, S. V.; Patrusheva, T. N.; Balaev, D. A.; Denisova, E. A.; Ponomarenko, I. V.

    2009-10-01

    We have studied magnetic nanoparticles of cobalt ferrite obtained by the extraction-pyrolysis method in a mesoporous silicon dioxide (MSM-41) molecular sieve matrix. The X-ray diffraction data show evidence for the formation of CoFe2O4 particles with a coherent scattering domain size of ˜40 nm. Measurements of the magnetization curves showed that powders consisting of these nanoparticles are magnetically hard materials with a coercive field of H c(4.2 K) = 9.0 kOe and H c(300 K) = 1.8 kOe and a reduced remanent magnetization of M r/ M s(4.2 K) = 0.83 and M r/ M s(300 K) = 0.49. The shape of the low-temperature (4.2 K) magnetization curves is adequately described in terms of the Stoner-Wohlfarth model for randomly oriented single-domain particles with a cubic magnetic anisotropy.

  12. Combined effect of demagnetizing field and induced magnetic anisotropy on the magnetic properties of manganese-zinc ferrite composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babayan, V.; Kazantseva, N. E.; Moučka, R.; Sapurina, I.; Spivak, Yu. M.; Moshnikov, V. A.

    2012-01-01

    This work is devoted to the analysis of factors responsible for the high-frequency shift of the complex permeability (μ*) dispersion region in polymer composites of manganese-zinc (MnZn) ferrite, as well as to the increase in their thermomagnetic stability. The magnetic spectra of the ferrite and its composites with polyurethane (MnZn-PU) and polyaniline (MnZn-PANI) are measured in the frequency range from 1 MHz to 3 GHz in a longitudinal magnetization field of up to 700 Ое and in the temperature interval from -20 °С to +150 °С. The approximation of the magnetic spectra by a model, which takes into account the role of domain wall motion and magnetization rotation, allows one to determine the specific contribution of resonance processes associated with domain wall motion and the natural ferromagnetic resonance to the μ*. It is established that, at high frequencies, the μ* of the MnZn ferrite is determined solely by magnetization rotation, which occurs in the region of natural ferromagnetic resonance when the ferrite is in the “single domain” state. In the polymer composites of the MnZn ferrite, the high-frequency permeability is also determined mainly by the magnetization rotation; however, up to high values of magnetizing fields, there is a contribution of domain wall motion, thus the “single domain” state in ferrite is not reached. The frequency and temperature dependence of μ* in polymer composites are governed by demagnetizing field and the induced magnetic anisotropy. The contribution of the induced magnetic anisotropy is crucial for MnZn-PANI. It is attributed to the elastic stresses that arise due to the domain wall pinning by a polyaniline film adsorbed on the surface of the ferrite during in-situ polymerization.

  13. Photoacoustic and magnetoelastic property of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles and its attenuation with barium titanate coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betal, Soutik; Dutta, Moumita; Khachatryan, Edward; Cotica, Luiz; Nash, Kelly; Bhalla, Amar; Guo, Ruyan

    2015-08-01

    We report an experimental study, where Cobalt Ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles exhibit Photoacoustic (PA) emission peak intensity of 235.2V/J when analyzed under the Opto-Acoustic measurement setup. PA emission peak intensity decreases to 210V/J when AC Magnetic field is applied and further when Barium Titanate coated cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were analyzed, the PA peak further reduces to 68.76667V/J and with application of AC magnetic field the peak completely disappears. The measurement depicts the Photoacoustic and magnetoelastic behavior of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles.

  14. Correlation between structural, magnetic, and dielectric properties of manganese substituted cobalt ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Ramana, C. V. Kolekar, Y. D.; Kamala Bharathi, K.; Sinha, B.; Ghosh, K.

    2013-11-14

    Manganese (Mn) substituted cobalt ferrites (CoFe{sub 2−x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 4}, referred to CFMO) were synthesized and their structural, magnetic, and dielectric properties were evaluated. X-ray diffraction measurements coupled with Rietveld refinement indicate that the CFMO materials crystallize in the inverse cubic spinel phase. Temperature (T = 300 K and 10 K) dependent magnetization (M(H)) measurements indicate the long range ferromagnetic ordering in CoFe{sub 2−x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 4} (x = 0.00–0.15) ferrites. The cubic anisotropy constant (K{sub 1}(T)) and saturation magnetization (M{sub s}(T)) were derived by using the “law of approach” to saturation that describes the field dependence of M(H) for magnetic fields much higher than the coercive field (H{sub c}). Saturation magnetization (M{sub s}), obtained from the model, decreases with increasing temperature. For CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, M{sub s} decreases from 3.63 μ{sub B} per formula unit (f.u.) to 3.47 μ{sub B}/f.u. with increasing temperature from 10 to 300 K. CFMO (0.00–0.15) exhibit the similar trend while the magnitude of M{sub s} is dependent on Mn-concentration. M{sub s}-T functional relationship obeys the Bloch's law. The lattice parameter and magnetic moment calculated for CFMO reveals that Mn ions occupying the Fe and Co position at the octahedral site in the inverse cubic spinel phase. The structure and magnetism in CFMO are further corroborated by bond length and bond angle calculations. The dielectric constant dispersion of CFMO in the frequency range of 20 Hz–1 MHz fits to the modified Debye's function with more than one ion contributing to the relaxation. The relaxation time and spread factor derived from modeling the experimental data are ∼10{sup −4} s and ∼0.35(±0.05), respectively.

  15. Effect of O-vacancies on magnetic properties of bismuth ferrite nanoparticles by solution evaporation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afzal, A. M.; Umair, M.; Dastgeer, G.; Rizwan, M.; Yaqoob, M. Z.; Rashid, R.; Munir, H. S.

    2016-02-01

    Bismuth ferrite is a multiferroic material which shows high magnetization and polarization at room temperature. In present work, the effect of Oxygen (O) vacancies on magnetic properties of bismuth ferrite nanoparticles is studied. Bismuth ferrite nanoparticles (BiFeO3) were synthesized by solution evaporation method (SEM) at room temperature. The sample was annealed under two different atmospheres such as in air and oxygen, to check the effect of O-vacancies on magnetic properties. The average crystallite size of Bismuth ferrite nanoparticles (NPs) as calculated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) falls in the range of 23-32 nm and 26-39 nm for the case of air and oxygen respectively. The crystallite size of bismuth ferrite nanoparticles increases as the temperature was varied from 450 °C to 650 °C. Further the influence of annealing temperature on the magnetic properties of the bismuth ferrite nanoparticles was also observed. It was concluded that the magnetic properties of Bismuth ferrite nanoparticles are directly interconnected to annealing atmosphere and annealing temperature. The magnetic properties were increased in the case of oxygen annealing, which actually leads in our case to an improvement of the crystallinity.

  16. Chemical equilibria involved in the oxygen-releasing step of manganese ferrite water-splitting thermochemical cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Seralessandri, L.; Bellusci, M.; Alvani, C.; La Barbera, A.; Padella, F.; Varsano, F.

    2008-08-15

    Sodium ferrimanganite carbonatation reaction was investigated at different temperatures/carbon dioxide partial pressures to evaluate the feasibility of the thermochemical water-splitting cycle based on the MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/Na(Mn{sub 1/3}Fe{sub 2/3})O{sub 2} system. After thermal treatments in selected experimental conditions, the obtained powder samples were investigated by using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and Rietveld analysis. Two different lamellar Na{sub 1-x}Mn{sub 1/3}Fe{sub 2/3}O{sub 2-{delta}} phases were observed together with the expected MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} mixture. Different equilibrium regions among sodium-depleted lamellar phases, manganese ferrite and sodium carbonate were found as a function of the different reaction conditions. A hypothesis concerning the regeneration mechanism of the initial compounds is proposed. Chemical equilibrium between stoichiometric and sub-stoichiometric forms of sodium ferrimanganite and sodium carbonate formation/dissociation appears to be essential factors governing the oxygen-releasing step of the manganese ferrite thermochemical cycle. - Graphical abstract: Na(Mn{sub 1/3}Fe{sub 2/3})O{sub 2} disproportion reaction in the presence of CO{sub 2} was studied. Chemical equilibria among Na{sub 1-x}(Mn{sub 1/3}Fe{sub 2/3})O{sub 2}, MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} compounds were evidenced and studied by means of Rietveld analysis performed on XRD patterns. Two different sodium-depleted lamellar structures were identified. The role of sodium carbonate formation/dissociation equilibrium in the oxygen-releasing step of the manganese ferrite thermochemical cycle has been highlighted.

  17. Dielectric relaxations and alternating current conductivity in manganese substituted cobalt ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Kolekar, Y. D.; Sanchez, L. J.; Ramana, C. V.

    2014-04-14

    Manganese (Mn) substituted cobalt ferrites (CoFe{sub 2-x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 4}, referred to CFMO) have been synthesized by the solid state reaction method and their dielectric properties and ac conductivity have been evaluated as a function of applied frequency and temperature. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that CFMO crystallize in the inverse cubic spinel phase with a lattice constant ∼8.38 Å. Frequency dependent dielectric measurements at room temperature obey the modified Debye model with relaxation time of 10{sup −4} s and spreading factor of 0.35(±0.05). The frequency (20 Hz–1 MHz) and temperature (T = 300–900 K) dependent dielectric constant analyses indicate that CFMO exhibit two dielectric relaxations at lower frequencies (1–10 kHz), while completely single dielectric relaxation for higher frequencies (100 kHz–1 MHz). The dielectric constant of CFMO is T-independent up to ∼400 K, at which point increasing trend prevails. The dielectric constant increase with T > 400 K is explained through impedance spectroscopy assuming a two-layer model, where low-resistive grains separated from each other by high-resistive grain boundaries. Following this model, the two electrical responses in impedance formalism are attributed to the grain and grain-boundary effects, respectively, which also satisfactorily accounts for the two dielectric relaxations. The capacitance of the bulk of the grain determined from impedance analyses is ∼10 pF, which remains constant with T, while the grain-boundary capacitance increases up to ∼3.5 nF with increasing T. The tan δ (loss tangent)-T also reveals the typical behavior of relaxation losses in CFMO.

  18. Dielectric relaxations and alternating current conductivity in manganese substituted cobalt ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolekar, Y. D.; Sanchez, L. J.; Ramana, C. V.

    2014-04-01

    Manganese (Mn) substituted cobalt ferrites (CoFe2-xMnxO4, referred to CFMO) have been synthesized by the solid state reaction method and their dielectric properties and ac conductivity have been evaluated as a function of applied frequency and temperature. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that CFMO crystallize in the inverse cubic spinel phase with a lattice constant 8.38 . Frequency dependent dielectric measurements at room temperature obey the modified Debye model with relaxation time of 10-4 s and spreading factor of 0.35(0.05). The frequency (20 Hz-1 MHz) and temperature (T = 300-900 K) dependent dielectric constant analyses indicate that CFMO exhibit two dielectric relaxations at lower frequencies (1-10 kHz), while completely single dielectric relaxation for higher frequencies (100 kHz-1 MHz). The dielectric constant of CFMO is T-independent up to 400 K, at which point increasing trend prevails. The dielectric constant increase with T > 400 K is explained through impedance spectroscopy assuming a two-layer model, where low-resistive grains separated from each other by high-resistive grain boundaries. Following this model, the two electrical responses in impedance formalism are attributed to the grain and grain-boundary effects, respectively, which also satisfactorily accounts for the two dielectric relaxations. The capacitance of the bulk of the grain determined from impedance analyses is 10 pF, which remains constant with T, while the grain-boundary capacitance increases up to 3.5 nF with increasing T. The tan ? (loss tangent)-T also reveals the typical behavior of relaxation losses in CFMO.

  19. Complex Impedance of Manganese Ferrite Powders Obtained by Two Different Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mălăescu, I.; Lungu, Antoanetta; Marin, C. N.; Vlăzan, Paulina; Sfirloagă, Paula

    2015-12-01

    Two samples of manganese ferrite powder were obtained by the calcination method (sample A) and hydrothermal method (sample B). The crystal structure of the samples has been determined using X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The results shown that the sample A has three phases (FeMnO3, Mn2O3 and Fe2O3) and the prevailing phase is FeMnO3 with perovskite structure and the sample B has only a single phase (MnFe2O4). The grain morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the compositional analysis was done by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDAX). Measurements of the frequency (f) and temperature (T) dependent complex impedance, Z(f, T) = Z'(f, T) - i Z''(f, T) of the samples over the frequency range 20 Hz - 2 MHz, at various temperature values from 300C to 1100C are presented. From these measurements, we have shown that the temperature dependence of the relaxation time is of Arhenius type, which suggests that the conduction process is thermally activated. The values obtained for the activation energy Ea, are: 16meV (sample A) and 147.65meV (sample B). Applying complex impedance spectroscopy technique, the obtained results shows the shape of a single semicircle at each temperature over the measurement range, meaning that the electrical process obeys to a single relaxation mechanism. The impedance and related parameters of the electrical equivalent circuit depend on the temperature and the microstructure of samples. The resistive and capacitive properties of the investigated samples are dominated with the conduction and relaxation processes associated with the grain boundaries mechanism..

  20. Cytotoxicity of nickel zinc ferrite nanoparticles on cancer cells of epithelial origin

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna Sadiq; Rasedee, Abdullah; Flaifel, Moayad Husein; Ahmad, Sahrim HJ; Hussein-Al-Ali, Samer; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Eid, Eltayeb EM; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Saeed, Mohd; Ilowefah, Muna; Fakurazi, Sharida; Isa, Norhaszalina Mohd; Zowalaty, Mohamed Ezzat El

    2013-01-01

    In this study, in vitro cytotoxicity of nickel zinc (NiZn) ferrite nanoparticles against human colon cancer HT29, breast cancer MCF7, and liver cancer HepG2 cells was examined. The morphology, homogeneity, and elemental composition of NiZn ferrite nanoparticles were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. The exposure of cancer cells to NiZn ferrite nanoparticles (15.6–1,000 μg/mL; 72 hours) has resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth determined by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The quantification of caspase-3 and -9 activities and DNA fragmentation to assess the cell death pathway of the treated cells showed that both were stimulated when exposed to NiZn ferrite nanoparticles. Light microscopy examination of the cells exposed to NiZn ferrite nanoparticles demonstrated significant changes in cellular morphology. The HepG2 cells were most prone to apoptosis among the three cells lines examined, as the result of treatment with NiZn nanoparticles. In conclusion, NiZn ferrite nanoparticles are suggested to have potential cytotoxicity against cancer cells. PMID:23885175

  1. Microwave-hydrothermal synthesis of perovskite bismuth ferrite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Biasotto, G.; Simoes, A.Z.; Foschini, C.R.; Zaghete, M.A.; Varela, J.A.; Longo, E.

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) nanoparticles were grown by hydrothermal microwave method (HTMW). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The soaking time is effective in improving phase formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rietveld refinement reveals an orthorhombic structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The observed magnetism of the BFO crystallites is a consequence of particle size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The HTMW is a genuine technique for low temperatures and short times of synthesis. -- Abstract: Hydrothermal microwave method (HTMW) was used to synthesize crystalline bismuth ferrite (BiFeO{sub 3}) nanoparticles (BFO) in the temperature of 180 Degree-Sign C with times ranging from 5 min to 1 h. BFO nanoparticles were characterized by means of X-ray analyses, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, TG-DTA and FE-SEM. X-ray diffraction results indicated that longer soaking time was benefit to refraining the formation of any impurity phases and growing BFO crystallites into almost single-phase perovskites. Typical FT-IR spectra for BFO nanoparticles presented well defined bands, indicating a substantial short-range order in the system. TG-DTA analyses confirmed the presence of lattice OH{sup -} groups, commonly found in materials obtained by HTMW process. Compared with the conventional solid-state reaction process, submicron BFO crystallites with better homogeneity could be produced at the temperature as low as 180 Degree-Sign C. These results show that the HTMW synthesis route is rapid, cost effective, and could be used as an alternative to obtain BFO nanoparticles in the temperature of 180 Degree-Sign C for 1 h.

  2. Dielectric properties of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles in ultrathin nanocomposite films.

    PubMed

    Alcantara, Gustavo B; Paterno, Leonardo G; Fonseca, Fernando J; Pereira-da-Silva, Marcelo A; Morais, Paulo C; Soler, Maria A G

    2013-12-01

    Multilayered nanocomposite films (thickness 50-90 nm) of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (np-CoFe2O4, 18 nm) were deposited on top of interdigitated microelectrodes by the layer-by-layer technique in order to study their dielectric properties. For that purpose, two different types of nanocomposite films were prepared by assembling np-CoFe2O4 either with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene):poly(styrene sulfonic acid) or with polyaniline and sulfonated lignin. Despite the different film architectures, the morphology of both was dominated by densely-packed layers of nanoparticles surrounded by polyelectrolytes. The dominant effect of np-CoFe2O4 was also observed after impedance spectroscopy measurements, which revealed that dielectric behavior of the nanocomposites was largely influenced by the charge transport across nanoparticle-polyelectrolyte interfaces. For example, nanocomposites containing np-CoFe2O4 exhibited a single low-frequency relaxation process, with time constants exceeding 15 ms. At 1 kHz, the dielectric constant and the dissipation factor (tan δ) of these nanocomposites were 15 and 0.15, respectively. These values are substantially inferior to those reported for pressed pellets made exclusively of similar nanoparticles. Impedance data were further fitted with equivalent circuit models from which individual contributions of particle's bulk and interfaces to the charge transport within the nanocomposites could be evaluated. The present study evidences that such nanocomposites display a dielectric behavior dissimilar from that exhibited by their individual counterparts much likely due to enlarged nanoparticle-polyelectrolyte interfaces. PMID:24145704

  3. Direct dyes removal using modified magnetic ferrite nanoparticle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic adsorbent nanoparticle was modified using cationic surface active agent. Zinc ferrite nanoparticle and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide were used as an adsorbent and a surface active agent, respectively. Dye removal ability of the surface modified nanoparticle as an adsorbent was investigated. Direct Green 6 (DG6), Direct Red 31 (DR31) and Direct Red 23 (DR23) were used. The characteristics of the adsorbent were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effect of adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration and salt was evaluated. In ternary system, dye removal of the adsorbent at 90, 120, 150 and 200 mg/L dye concentration was 63, 45, 30 and 23% for DR23, 97, 90, 78 and 45% for DR31 and 51, 48, 42 and 37% for DG6, respectively. It was found that dye adsorption onto the adsorbent followed Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption kinetic of dyes was found to conform to pseudo-second order kinetics. PMID:24991427

  4. Electrophoretic deposition of nickel zinc ferrite nanoparticles into microstructured patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Stefan J.; Wen, Xiao; Arnold, David P.; Andrew, Jennifer S.

    2016-05-01

    Using DC electric fields, nickel-zinc ferrite (Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4) nanoparticles (Dh =16.6 ± 3.6 nm) are electrophoretically deposited onto silicon substrates to form dense structures defined by photoresist molds. Parameters such as electric field, bath composition, and deposition time are tuned to produce films ranging in thickness from 177 to 805 nm. The deposited films exhibit soft magnetic properties with a saturation magnetization of 60 emu/g and a coercivity of 2.6 kA/m (33 Oe). Additionally, the influence of the photoresist mold on the deposit profile is studied, and patterned films with different shapes (lines, squares, circles, etc.) are demonstrated with feature sizes down to 5 μm.

  5. Synthesis of Trimagnetic Multishell MnFe2 O4 @CoFe2 O4 @NiFe2 O4 Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gavrilov-Isaac, Véronica; Neveu, Sophie; Dupuis, Vincent; Taverna, Dario; Gloter, Alexandre; Cabuil, Valérie

    2015-06-10

    The synthesis and characterization of original ferrite multishell magnetic nanoparticles made of a soft core (manganese ferrite) covered with two successive shells, a hard one (cobalt ferrite) and then a soft one (nickel ferrite), are described. The results demonstrate the modulation of the coercivity when new magnetic shells are added. PMID:25684735

  6. Substitution of manganese and iron into hydroxyapatite: Core/shell nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Pon-On, Weeraphat; Meejoo, Siwaporn; Tang, I.-Ming

    2008-08-04

    The bioceramics, hydroxyapatite (HAP), is a material which is biocompatible to the human body and is well suited to be used in hyperthermia applications for the treatment of bone cancer. We investigate the substitution of iron and manganese into the hydroxyapatite to yield ceramics having the empirical formula Ca{sub 9.4}Fe{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 0.2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}. The samples were prepared by the co-precipitation method. The formation of the nanocrystallites in the HAP structure as the heating temperatures were raised to obtain a glass-ceramic system are confirmed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction (ED) and electron spin resonance (ESR). TEM images show the core/shell structure of the nanoparticles, with the core being formed by the ferrites and the shell by the hydroxyapatite. The ED patterns indicate the nanoparticles formed at 500 deg. C have an amorphous structure while the nanoparticles formed at 1000 deg. C are crystalline. ESR spectroscopy indicated that the Fe{sup 3+} ions have a g-factor of 4.23 and the Mn{sup 2+} ions have a g-factor of 2.01. The values of the parameters in the spin Hamiltonian which describes the interaction between the transition metal ions and the Ca{sup 2+} ions, indicate that the Mn{sup 2+} ion substitute into the Ca{sup 2+} sites which are ninefold coordinated, i.e., the Ca(1) sites.

  7. Chitosan-coated nickel-ferrite nanoparticles as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Tanveer; Bae, Hongsub; Iqbal, Yousaf; Rhee, Ilsu; Hong, Sungwook; Chang, Yongmin; Lee, Jaejun; Sohn, Derac

    2015-05-01

    We report evidence for the possible application of chitosan-coated nickel-ferrite (NiFe2O4) nanoparticles as both T1 and T2 contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The coating of nickel-ferrite nanoparticles with chitosan was performed simultaneously with the synthesis of the nickel-ferrite nanoparticles by a chemical co-precipitation method. The coated nanoparticles were cylindrical in shape with an average length of 17 nm and an average width of 4.4 nm. The bonding of chitosan onto the ferrite nanoparticles was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The T1 and T2 relaxivities were 0.858±0.04 and 1.71±0.03 mM-1 s-1, respectively. In animal experimentation, both a 25% signal enhancement in the T1-weighted mage and a 71% signal loss in the T2-weighted image were observed. This demonstrated that chitosan-coated nickel-ferrite nanoparticles are suitable as both T1 and T2 contrast agents in MRI. We note that the applicability of our nanoparticles as both T1 and T2 contrast agents is due to their cylindrical shape, which gives rise to both inner and outer sphere processes of nanoparticles.

  8. Effect of cobalt substitution on structural and magnetic properties and chromium adsorption of manganese ferrite nano particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahalya, K.; Suriyanarayanan, N.; Ranjithkumar, V.

    2014-12-01

    Manganese ferrite (MnFe2O4) and cobalt doped manganese ferrite (Mn1-xCoxFe2O4) with x=0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 are synthesized at pH 11 and an annealing temperature of 900 °C, through co-precipitation technique. The particle sizes are found to be in the range of 30-35 nm. The varying dopant concentrations influence the crystalline edges, surface morphology and magnetic properties of the samples. Particle size initially increases for the incorporation of cobalt up to x=0.6 and then decreases. As cobalt concentration increases, the saturation magnetization increases up to x=0.6 and then decreases. Stretching and bending of bonds at tetrahedral and octahedral sites respectively are noticed and they shift towards the longer wavelengths. The samples are tested for their application as adsorbents of toxic heavy metal Cr(VI). The adsorption efficiency variations with dopant concentrations of samples, quantity of adsorbent and concentrations of chromium are studied.

  9. Exchange spring like magnetic behavior in cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chithra, M.; Anumol, C. N.; Sahu, Baidyanath; Sahoo, Subasa C.

    2016-03-01

    Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel technique and were annealed at 900 °C in air for 2 h. Structural properties were studied by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies show presence of mostly two different sizes of grains in these samples. Magnetization value of 58.36 emu/g was observed at 300 K for the as prepared sample and an enhanced magnetization close to the bulk value of 80.59 emu/g was observed for the annealed sample. At 10 K a two stepped hysteresis loop showing exchange spring magnetic behavior was observed accompanied by very high values of coercivity and remanence. Two clear peaks were observed in the derivative of demagnetization curve in the as prepared sample where as two partially overlapped peaks were observed in the annealed sample. The observed magnetic properties can be understood on the basis of the grain size and their distribution leading to the different types of intergranular interactions in these nanoparticles.

  10. Magnetic liposomes based on nickel ferrite nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Ana Rita O; Gomes, I T; Almeida, Bernardo G; Araújo, J P; Castanheira, Elisabete M S; Coutinho, Paulo J G

    2015-07-21

    Nickel ferrite nanoparticles with superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature were synthesized using a coprecipitation method. These magnetic nanoparticles were either covered with a lipid bilayer, forming dry magnetic liposomes (DMLs), or entrapped in liposomes, originating aqueous magnetoliposomes (AMLs). A new and promising method for the synthesis of DMLs is described. The presence of the lipid bilayer in DMLs was confirmed by FRET (Förster Resonance Energy Transfer) measurements between the fluorescent-labeled lipids NBD-C12-HPC (NBD acting as a donor) included in the second lipid layer and rhodamine B-DOPE (acceptor) in the first lipid layer. An average donor-acceptor distance of 3 nm was estimated. Assays of the non-specific interactions of magnetoliposomes with biological membranes (modeled using giant unilamellar vesicles, GUVs) were performed. Membrane fusion between both aqueous and dry magnetoliposomes and GUVs was confirmed by FRET, which is an important result regarding applications of these systems both as hyperthermia agents and antitumor drug nanocarriers. PMID:26095537

  11. Synthesis and characterization of Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) nanoparticles by solution evaporation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzoor, A.; Afzal, A. M.; Umair, M.; Ali, Adnan; Rizwan, M.; Yaqoob, M. Z.

    2015-11-01

    Single phase Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) with high magnetization and polarization was synthesized by solution evaporation method (SEM) at room temperature. The influence of temperature and size of nanoparticles on magnetic properties was studied. The prepared Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to investigate the structure and size of crystal. The average crystallite size of nanoparticles (NPs) as calculated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) falls in the range of 22-31 nm. The crystallite size of Bismuth ferrite increased as the temperature varied from 450 °C to 650 °C. Magnetic properties were studied by using physical properties measurement system (PPMS). It was also observed that the magnetic properties were directly related to the size and temperature of Bismuth ferrite nanoparticles. It has been investigated that the magnetization was decreased as the temperature and crystallite size increased.

  12. Manganese

    MedlinePlus

    ... helps improve symptoms of PMS, including pain, crying, loneliness, anxiety, restlessness, irritability, mood swings, depression, and tension. ... Manganese is LIKELY SAFE for most adults when taken by mouth in amounts up to 11 mg per day. However, people who have trouble getting rid of manganese from ...

  13. Abrasion and deformed layer formation of manganese-zinc ferrite in sliding contact with lapping tapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.; Tanaka, K.

    1986-01-01

    Wear experiments were conducted using replication electron microscopy and reflection electron diffraction to study abrasion and the deformed layers produced in single-crystal Mn-Zn ferrite simulated heads during contact with lapping tapes. The crystaline state of the head is changed drastically during the abrasion process. Crystalline states ranging from nearly amorphous to highly textured polycrystalline can be produced on the wear surface of a single-crystal Mn-Zn ferrite head. The total thickness of the deformed layer was approximately 0.8 microns. This thickness increased as the load and abrasive grit size increased. The anisotropic wear of the ferrite was found to be inversely proportional to the hardness of the wear surface. The wear was lower in the order 211 111 10 0110. The wear of the ferrite increased markedly with an increase in sliding velocity and abrasive grit size.

  14. Polyvinyl alcohol functionalized cobalt ferrite nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salunkhe, A. B.; Khot, V. M.; Thorat, N. D.; Phadatare, M. R.; Sathish, C. I.; Dhawale, D. S.; Pawar, S. H.

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (CoFe2O4 NPs) have been synthesized by combustion method. The surface of the CoFe2O4 NPs was modified with biocompatible polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). To investigate effect and nature of coating on the surface of CoFe2O4 NPs, the NPs were characterized X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) results demonstrate the monodispersed characteristics of CoFe2O4 NPs after surface modification with PVA. The decrease in contact angle from 162° to 50° with PVA coating on NPs indicates the transition from hydrophobic nature to hydrophilic. The Magnetic properties measurement system (MPMS) results show that the NPs have ferromagnetic behavior with high magnetization of 75.04 and 71.02 emu/g of uncoated and coated CoFe2O4 NPs respectively. These PVA coated NPs exhibit less toxicity over uncoated CoFe2O4 NPs up to 1.8 mg mL-1 when tested with mouse fibroblast L929 cell line.

  15. Embryotoxicity of cobalt ferrite and gold nanoparticles: a first in vitro approach.

    PubMed

    Di Guglielmo, Claudia; López, David Ramos; De Lapuente, Joaquín; Mallafre, Joan Maria Llobet; Suàrez, Miquel Borràs

    2010-09-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are emerging as promising biomedical tools thanks to their peculiar characteristics. Our purpose was to investigate the embryotoxicity of cobalt ferrite and gold NPs through the Embryonic Stem Cell Test (EST). The EST is an in vitro standard assay, which permits to classify substances as strongly, weakly or non-embryotoxic. Due to the particular physical-chemical nature of nanoparticles, we introduced a modification to the standard protocol exposing the Embryonic Stem Cells (ES-D3) to nanoparticles only during the first 5 days of the assay. Moreover, we proposed a method to discriminate and compare the embryotoxicity of the substances within the weakly embryotoxic range. Our ID(50) results permit to classify cobalt ferrite nanoparticles coated with gold and silanes as non-embryotoxic. The remaining nanoparticles have been classified as weakly embryotoxic in this decreasing order: gold salt (HAuCl(4).3H(2)O)>cobalt ferrite salt (CoFe(2)O(4))>cobalt ferrite nanoparticles coated with silanes (Si-CoFe)>gold nanoparticles coated with hyaluronic acid (HA-Au). PMID:20566333

  16. Moessbauer studies in zinc-manganese ferrites for use in measuring small velocities and accelerations with great precision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escue, W. T.; Gupta, R. G.; Mendiratta, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    Mossbauer spectroscopy was used for a systematic study of the magnetic behavior of manganese and zinc in mixed ferrites. It was observed that Zn2+ has preference to substitute Mn2+ at interstitial sites where the metal ions are tetrahedrally coordinated with four oxygen neighbors. The internal magnetic hyperfine field at the tetrahedral iron site is larger than that at the octahedral site. The relaxation effects were observed to play an important role as the zinc contents were increased, while the spin-correlation time and the magnetic field were observed to decrease in strength. It is concluded that Mossbauer effect data on complex materials, when used in conjunction with other data, can provide useful insight into the origin of the microscopic properties of magnetic materials.

  17. Copper ferrite nanoparticle-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Ahamed, Maqusood; Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Alshamsan, Aws

    2016-06-01

    Copper ferrite (CuFe2O4) nanoparticles (NPs) are important magnetic materials currently under research due to their applicability in nanomedicine. However, information concerning the biological interaction of copper ferrite NPs is largely lacking. In this study, we investigated the cellular response of copper ferrite NPs in human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells. Copper ferrite NPs were prepared by co-precipitation technique with the thermal effect. Prepared NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission transmission electron microscopy (FETEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Characterization data showed that copper ferrite NPs were crystalline, spherical with smooth surfaces and average diameter of 15nm. Biochemical studies showed that copper ferrite NPs induce cell viability reduction and membrane damage in MCF-7 cells and degree of induction was dose- and time-dependent. High SubG1 cell population during cell cycle progression and MMP loss with a concomitant up-regulation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 genes suggested that copper ferrite NP-induced cell death through mitochondrial pathway. Copper ferrite NP was also found to induce oxidative stress in MCF-7 cells as indicated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and glutathione depletion. Cytotoxicity due to copper ferrite NPs exposure was effectively abrogated by N-acetyl-cysteine (ROS scavenger) suggesting that oxidative stress could be the plausible mechanism of copper ferrite NPs toxicity. Further studies are underway to explore the toxicity mechanisms of copper ferrite NPs in different types of human cells. This study warrants further generation of extensive biointeraction data before their application in nanomedicine. PMID:26925725

  18. An Approach for Enhancement of Saturation Magnetization in Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles by Incorporation of Terbium Cation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodaee, Tahmineh; Ghasemi, Ali; Paimozd, Ebrahim; Paesano, Andrea; Morisako, Akimitsu

    2013-09-01

    Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by a reverse micelle process. The optimum processing conditions required to fabricate nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite using a reverse micelle technique, especially the effect of water-to-surfactant molar ratios including w = 8, 10, 12, and 14, pH values in the range of 8 to 11, and annealing temperatures in the range of 400°C to 800°C, were evaluated. x-Ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), vibrating-sample magnetometry, and superconducting quantum interference device analysis were employed to evaluate the structural and magnetic properties of synthesized nanoparticles. XRD analysis confirms that the nanoparticles have a single-phase cubic spinel structure. The average particle size increases with increasing pH value and annealing temperature. Magnetization study reveals that the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles exhibit a superparamagnetic trend. The zero-field-cooled magnetization curves of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles indicated that, with an increase in pH value, the blocking temperature increases. Based on the obtained optimum parameters, terbium-substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with composition CoFe2- x Tb x O4 ( x = 0.1 to 0.5) were prepared by a reverse micelle process. XRD and field-emission scanning electron microscopy evaluation demonstrated that single-phase spinel ferrites with narrow size distribution were obtained. Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to determine the site preference of terbium cation. The results confirm that terbium cations were distributed at tetrahedral and octahedral sites, but with a preference for the former. It was observed that, with an increase in terbium content, the saturation magnetization increases.

  19. Organ weight changes in mice after long-term inhalation exposure to manganese oxides nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeman, T.; Buchtová, M.; Dočekal, B.; Míšek, I.; Navrátil, J.; Mikuška, P.; Šerý, O.; Večeřa, Z.

    2015-05-01

    Recently, it has been proven that manganese from inhaled particles of manganese compounds can accumulate in the internal organs of laboratory animals. Nevertheless, there were only a few researches dealing with changes in body morphology induced by inhalation of these particles, even though results of some studies indicate existence of such changes. The aim of our research was to assess the effect of inhaled manganese oxides nanoparticles on weight of internal organs. For this purpose a long-term inhalation experiment on laboratory mice was performed, during which the mice were exposed to MnO.Mn2O3 nanoparticles in concentration 2 × 106 particles/cm3 for 17 weeks, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Manganese oxides nanoparticles were synthesized continuously via aerosol route in a hot wall tube flow reactor using thermal decomposition of metal organic precursor manganese(II)acetylacetonate in the flow tube reactor at temperature 750 °C in the presence of 30 vol% of oxygen. It was proven that inhaled nanoparticles can influence the weight of internal organs of mice. Moreover, it was discovered that the resulting change in weight of selected organs is disproportional. The mice from the experimental group had statistically significantly lighter kidneys, liver and spleen and heavier pancreas compared to the mice from the control group.

  20. Zinc ferrite nanoparticle as a magnetic catalyst: Synthesis and dye degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Red 198 and Reactive Red 120 by the synthesized zinc ferrite nanoparticle. - Highlights: • Magnetic zinc ferrite nanoparticle was synthesized and characterized. • Photocatalytic dye degradation by magnetic nanoparticle was studied. • Formate, acetate and oxalate were detected as dominant dye degradation aliphatic intermediates. • Nitrate and sulfate ions were detected as mineralization products of dyes. • Zinc ferrite nanoparticle was an effective magnetic photocatalyst to degrade dyes. - Abstract: In this paper, magnetic zinc ferrite (ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticle was synthesized and its photocatalytic dye degradation ability from colored wastewater was studied. Reactive Red 198 (RR198) and Reactive Red 120 (RR120) were used as model dyes. The characteristics of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Photocatalytic dye degradation by ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was studied by UV–vis spectrophotometer and ion chromatography (IC). The effects of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} dosage, initial dye concentration and salt on dye degradation were evaluated. Formate, acetate and oxalate anions were detected as dominant aliphatic intermediate. Inorganic anions (nitrate and sulfate anions) were detected as dye mineralization products. The results indicated that ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} could be used as a magnetic photocatalyst to degrade dyes from colored wastewater.

  1. Probing bismuth ferrite nanoparticles by hard x-ray photoemission: Anomalous occurrence of metallic bismuth

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, Smita; Rajendra, Ranguwar; Ballav, Nirmalya; Kulkarni, Sulabha; Sarkar, Indranil; Shirolkar, Mandar M.; Jeng, U-Ser; Yeh, Yi-Qi

    2014-09-08

    We have investigated bismuth ferrite nanoparticles (∼75 nm and ∼155 nm) synthesized by a chemical method, using soft X-ray (1253.6 eV) and hard X-ray (3500, 5500, and 7500 eV) photoelectron spectroscopy. This provided an evidence for the variation of chemical state of bismuth in crystalline, phase pure nanoparticles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis using Mg Kα (1253.6 eV) source showed that iron and bismuth were present in both Fe{sup 3+} and Bi{sup 3+} valence states as expected for bismuth ferrite. However, hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the bismuth ferrite nanoparticles using variable photon energies unexpectedly showed the presence of Bi{sup 0} valence state below the surface region, indicating that bismuth ferrite nanoparticles are chemically inhomogeneous in the radial direction. Consistently, small-angle X-ray scattering reveals a core-shell structure for these radial inhomogeneous nanoparticles.

  2. Auto-combustion synthesis, Mössbauer study and catalytic properties of copper-manganese ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velinov, N.; Petrova, T.; Tsoncheva, T.; Genova, I.; Koleva, K.; Kovacheva, D.; Mitov, I.

    2016-12-01

    Spinel ferrites with nominal composition Cu 0.5Mn 0.5Fe 2 O 4 and different distribution of the ions are obtained by auto-combustion method. Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction, Thermogravimetry-Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Scanning Electron Microscopy and catalytic test in the reaction of methanol decomposition is used for characterization of synthesized materials. The spectral results evidence that the phase composition, microstructure of the synthesized materials and the cation distribution depend on the preparation conditions. Varying the pH of the initial solution microstructure, ferrite crystallite size, cation oxidation state and distribution of ions in the in the spinel structure could be controlled. The catalytic behaviour of ferrites in the reaction of methanol decomposition also depends on the pH of the initial solution. Reduction transformations of mixed ferrites accompanied with the formation of Hägg carbide χ-Fe 5 C 2 were observed by the influence of the reaction medium.

  3. Manganese

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Manganese ; CASRN 7439 - 96 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  4. Manganese Nanoparticle Activates Mitochondrial Dependent Apoptotic Signaling and Autophagy in Dopaminergic Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ngwa, Hilary Afeseh; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Gu, Yan; Fang, Ning; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2011-01-01

    The production of man-made nanoparticles for various modern applications has increased exponentially in recent years, but the potential health effects of most nanoparticles are not well characterized. Unfortunately, in vitro nanoparticle toxicity studies are extremely limited by yet unresolved problems relating to dosimetry. In the present study, we systematically characterized manganese (Mn) nanoparticle sizes and examined the nanoparticle-induced oxidative signaling in dopaminergic neuronal cells. Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies revealed that Mn nanoparticles range in size from single nanoparticles (~25 nM) to larger agglomerates when in treatment media. Manganese nanoparticles were effectively internalized in N27 dopaminergic neuronal cells, and they induced a time-dependent upregulation of the transporter protein transferrin. Exposure to 25–400 µg/mL Mn nanoparticles induced cell death in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Mn nanoparticles also significantly increased ROS, accompanied by a caspase-mediated proteolytic cleavage of proapoptotic protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ), as well as activation loop phosphorylation. Blocking Mn nanoparticle-induced ROS failed to protect against the neurotoxic effects, suggesting the involvement of other pathways. Further mechanistic studies revealed changes in Beclin1 and LC3, indicating that Mn nanoparticles induce autophagy. Primary mesencephalic neuron exposure to Mn nanoparticles induced loss of TH positive dopaminergic neurons and neuronal processes. Collectively, our results suggest that Mn nanoparticles effectively enter dopaminergic neuronal cells and exert neurotoxic effects by activating an apoptotic signaling pathway and autophagy, emphasizing the need for assessing possible health risks associated with an increased use of Mn nanoparticles in modern applications. PMID:21856324

  5. Structural, morphological, magnetic and dielectric characterization of nano-phased antimony doped manganese zinc ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhar, Ch. S. L. N.; Lakshmi, Ch. S.; Govindraj, G.; Bangarraju, S.; Satyanarayana, L.; Potukuchi, D. M.

    2016-05-01

    Nano-phased doped Mn-Zn ferrites, viz., Mn0.5-x/2Zn0.5-x/2SbXFe2O4 for x=0 to 0.3 (in steps of 0.05) prepared by hydrothermal method are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Infrared and scanning electron microscopy. XRD and SEM infer the growth of nano-crystalline cubic and hematite (α-Fe2O3) phase structures. IR reveals the ferrite phase abundance and metal ion replacement with dopant. Decreasing trend of lattice constant with dopant reflects the preferential replacement of Fe3+ions by Sb5+ion. Doping is found to cause for the decrease (i.e., 46-14 nm) of grain size. An overall trend of decreasing saturation magnetization is observed with doping. Low magnetization is attributed to the diamagnetic nature of dopant, abundance of hematite (α-Fe2O3) phase, non-stoichiometry and low temperature (800 °C) sintering conditions. Increasing Yafet-Kittel angle reflects surface spin canting to pronounce lower Ms. Lower coercivity is observed for x≤0.1, while a large Hc results for higher concentrations. High ac resistivity (~106 ohm-cm) and low dielectric loss factor (tan δ~10-2-10-3) are witnessed. Resistivity is explained on the base of a transformation in the Metal Cation-to-Oxide anion bond configuration and blockade of conductivity path. Retarded hopping (between adjacent B-sites) of carriers across the grain boundaries is addressed. Relatively higher resistivity and low dielectric loss in Sbdoped Mn-Zn ferrite systems pronounce their utility in high frequency applications.

  6. Frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility of magnetite and cobalt ferrite nanoparticles embedded in PAA hydrogel.

    PubMed

    van Berkum, Susanne; Dee, Joris T; Philipse, Albert P; Erné, Ben H

    2013-01-01

    Chemically responsive hydrogels with embedded magnetic nanoparticles are of interest for biosensors that magnetically detect chemical changes. A crucial point is the irreversible linkage of nanoparticles to the hydrogel network, preventing loss of nanoparticles upon repeated swelling and shrinking of the gel. Here, acrylic acid monomers are adsorbed onto ferrite nanoparticles, which subsequently participate in polymerization during synthesis of poly(acrylic acid)-based hydrogels (PAA). To demonstrate the fixation of the nanoparticles to the polymer, our original approach is to measure low-field AC magnetic susceptibility spectra in the 0.1 Hz to 1 MHz range. In the hydrogel, the magnetization dynamics of small iron oxide nanoparticles are comparable to those of the particles dispersed in a liquid, due to fast Néel relaxation inside the particles; this renders the ferrogel useful for chemical sensing at frequencies of several kHz. However, ferrogels holding thermally blocked iron oxide or cobalt ferrite nanoparticles show significant decrease of the magnetic susceptibility resulting from a frozen magnetic structure. This confirms that the nanoparticles are unable to rotate thermally inside the hydrogel, in agreement with their irreversible fixation to the polymer network. PMID:23673482

  7. Electrical and optical properties of gadolinium doped bismuth ferrite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, A. Banerjee, M. Basu, S.; Pal, M.

    2014-04-24

    Multiferroic bismuth ferrite (BFO) and gadolinium (Gd) doped bismuth ferrite had been synthesized by a sol-gel method. Particle size had been estimated by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and found to decrease with Gd doping. We studied the temperature and frequency dependence of impedance and electric modulus and calculated the grain and grain boundary resistance and capacitance of the investigated samples. We observed that electrical activation energy increases for all the doped samples. Optical band gap also increases for the doped samples which can be used in photocatalytic application of BFO.

  8. The anti-microbial activity of titania-nickel ferrite composite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, S.; Misra, R. D. K.

    2005-12-01

    A novel approach to synthesize a new generation of composite nanoparticles consisting of a photocatalytic shell of anatase-titania and a magnetic core of nickel ferrite has been adopted combining reverse micelle and chemical hydrolysis techniques. Titania is an effective anti-microbial agent that can be directly sprayed on infected areas of the human body or environment. Unfortunately, titania is an electrical insulator and is difficult to extract from the sprayed surface after treatment. The titania photocatalytic shell provides good antimicrobial capability that renders the bacteria inactive and removes the organic pollutants, while the nickel ferrite magnetic core enables controlled delivery of composite nanoparticles through the application of a small magnetic field, encouraging their application as removable anti-microbial photocatalyst nanoparticles.

  9. Structure of Oxide Nanoparticles in Fe-16Cr MA/ODS Ferritic Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiung, L; Fluss, M; Kimura, A

    2010-04-06

    Oxide nanoparticles in Fe-16Cr ODS ferritic steel fabricated by mechanical alloying (MA) method have been examined using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques. A partial crystallization of oxide nanoparticles was frequently observed in as-fabricated ODS steel. The crystal structure of crystalline oxide particles is identified to be mainly Y{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} (YAM) with a monoclinic structure. Large nanoparticles with a diameter larger than 20 nm tend to be incoherent and have a nearly spherical shape, whereas small nanoparticles with a diameter smaller than 10 nm tend to be coherent or semi-coherent and have faceted boundaries. The oxide nanoparticles become fully crystallized after prolonged annealing at 900 C. These results lead us to propose a three-stage formation mechanism of oxide nanoparticles in MA/ODS steels.

  10. Investigations on Laser Beam Welding Dissimilar Material Combinations of Austenitic High Manganese (FeMn) and Ferrite Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behm, Velten; Höfemann, Matthias; Hatscher, Ansgar; Springer, André; Kaierle, Stefan; Hein, David; Otto, Manuel; Overmeyer, Ludger

    For the past few years the customer's demand for more fuel efficient and at the same time safer vehicles has steadily increased. Consequently, light weight design has become one of the main interests in engineering. With regard to sheet metal components, a new class of high manganese steels, based on the TWIP (twinning induced plasticity) effect, provides the opportunity of shaping light weight designedthin and complex sheet metal geometries with advanced crash performance. In terms of weldability, due to their thermo-physical properties (high content of C, Mn, Al, Si), FeMn steels have to be handled differently in comparison to conventional steel grades. Particularly dissimilar material combinations of FeMn and ferrite steels are in the center of interest for industrial applications. This study reveals that metallurgical properties of dissimilar welding seams can be influenced considerably by laser beam welding, resulting in a change of the mechanical properties of the seam which is practicable without using filler material as described in (Flügge et al., 2011).

  11. Preparation and Characterization of Hexagonal W-type Barium Ferrite Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trif, László; Tolnai, Gyula; Sajó, István; Kálmán, Erika

    New chemical synthesis procedure for preparation of nickel-zinc doped W-type hexagonal, nickel-zinc doped barium ferrite nanoparticles has been developed, using the nitrate-citrate sol-gel auto-combustion method (NCSAM). The crystalline phase attributes, microstructure, morphology, thermal behavior of the as-burnt phase and the sintered powders were characterized using XRD, SEM, TG-DTA, FT-IR measurements. The pure W-type ferrite phase is formed during 4 h annealing at a temperature of 1 200 °C.

  12. Magnetic properties of bio-synthesized zinc ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeary, Lucas W.; Moon, Ji-Won; Rawn, Claudia J.; Love, Lonnie J.; Rondinone, Adam J.; Thompson, James R.; Chakoumakos, Bryan C.; Phelps, Tommy J.

    2011-12-01

    The magnetic properties of zinc ferrite (Zn-substituted magnetite, ZnyFe1-yFe2O4) formed by a microbial process compared favorably with chemically synthesized materials. A metal reducing bacterium, Thermoanaerobacter, strain TOR-39 was incubated with ZnxFe1-xOOH (x=0.01, 0.1, and 0.15) precursors and produced nanoparticulate zinc ferrites. Composition and crystalline structure of the resulting zinc ferrites were verified using X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and neutron diffraction. The average composition from triplicates gave a value for y of 0.02, 0.23, and 0.30 with the greatest standard deviation of 0.02. Average crystallite sizes were determined to be 67, 49, and 25 nm, respectively. While crystallite size decreased with more Zn substitution, the lattice parameter and the unit cell volume showed a gradual increase in agreement with previous literature values. The magnetic properties were characterized using a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer and were compared with values for the saturation magnetization (Ms) reported in the literature. The averaged Ms values for the triplicates with the largest amount of zinc (y=0.30) gave values of 100.1, 96.5, and 69.7 emu/g at temperatures of 5, 80, and 300 K, respectively indicating increased magnetic properties of the bacterially synthesized zinc ferrites.

  13. Magnetic properties of bio-synthesized zinc ferrite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Yeary, Lucas W; Moon, Ji Won; Rawn, Claudia J; Love, Lonnie J; Rondinone, Adam Justin; Thompson, James R; Chakoumakos, Bryan C; Phelps, Tommy Joe

    2011-01-01

    The magnetic properties of zinc ferrite (Zn-substituted magnetite, Zn{sub y}Fe{sub 1-y}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) formed by a microbial process compared favorably with chemically synthesized materials. A metal reducing bacterium, Thermoanaerobacter, strain TOR-39 was incubated with Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 1-x}OOH (x=0.01, 0.1, and 0.15) precursors and produced nanoparticulate zinc ferrites. Composition and crystalline structure of the resulting zinc ferrites were verified using X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and neutron diffraction. The average composition from triplicates gave a value for y of 0.02, 0.23, and 0.30 with the greatest standard deviation of 0.02. Average crystallite sizes were determined to be 67, 49, and 25 nm, respectively. While crystallite size decreased with more Zn substitution, the lattice parameter and the unit cell volume showed a gradual increase in agreement with previous literature values. The magnetic properties were characterized using a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer and were compared with values for the saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) reported in the literature. The averaged M{sub s} values for the triplicates with the largest amount of zinc (y=0.30) gave values of 100.1, 96.5, and 69.7 emu/g at temperatures of 5, 80, and 300 K, respectively indicating increased magnetic properties of the bacterially synthesized zinc ferrites.

  14. Nanotexaphyrin: One-Pot Synthesis of a Manganese Texaphyrin-Phospholipid Nanoparticle for Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Keca, Joseph M; Chen, Juan; Overchuk, Marta; Muhanna, Nidal; MacLaughlin, Christina M; Jin, Cheng S; Foltz, Warren D; Irish, Jonathan C; Zheng, Gang

    2016-05-17

    The discovery and synthesis of novel multifunctional organic building blocks for nanoparticles is challenging. Texaphyrin macrocycles are capable and multifunctional chelators. However, they remain elusive as building blocks for nanoparticles because of the difficulty associated with synthesis of texaphyrin constructs capable of self-assembly. A novel manganese (Mn)-texaphyrin-phospholipid building block is described, along with its one-pot synthesis and self-assembly into a Mn-nanotexaphyrin. This nanoparticle possesses strong resilience to manganese dissociation, structural stability, in vivo bio-safety, and structure-dependent T1 and T2 relaxivities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast enhanced visualization of lymphatic drainage is demonstrated with respect to proximal lymph nodes on the head and neck VX-2 tumors of a rabbit. Synthesis of 17 additional metallo-texaphyrin building blocks suggests that this novel one-pot synthetic procedure for nanotexaphyrins may lead to a wide range of applications in the field of nanomedicines. PMID:27071806

  15. Development of Manganese-Based Nanoparticles as Contrast Probes for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Zipeng; Xie, Jin

    2012-01-01

    MRI is one of the most important imaging tools in clinics. It interrogates nuclei of atoms in a living subject, providing detailed delineation with high spatial and temporal resolutions. To compensate the innate low sensitivity, MRI contrast probes were developed and widely used. These are typically paramagnetic or superparamagnetic materials, functioning by reducing relaxation times of nearby protons. Previously, gadolinium(Gd)-based T1 contrast probes were dominantly used. However, it was found recently that their uses are occasionally associated with nephrogenic system fibrosis (NSF), which suggests a need of finding alternatives. Among the efforts, manganese-containing nanoparticles have attracted much attention. By careful engineering, manganese nanoparticles with comparable r1 relaxivities can be yielded. Moreover, other functionalities, be a targeting motif, a therapeutic agent or a second imaging component, can be loaded onto these nanoparticles, resulting in multifunctional nanoplatforms. PMID:22272218

  16. Biodistribution and acute toxicity of a nanofluid containing manganese iron oxide nanoparticles produced by a mechanochemical process.

    PubMed

    Bellusci, Mariangela; La Barbera, Aurelio; Padella, Franco; Mancuso, Mariateresa; Pasquo, Alessandra; Grollino, Maria Giuseppa; Leter, Giorgio; Nardi, Elisa; Cremisini, Carlo; Giardullo, Paola; Pacchierotti, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are candidate contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging and targeted drug delivery. Biodistribution and toxicity assessment are critical for the development of nanoparticle-based drugs, because of nanoparticle-enhanced biological reactivity. Here, we investigated the uptake, in vivo biodistribution, and in vitro and in vivo potential toxicity of manganese ferrite (MnFe2O4) nanoparticles, synthesized by an original high-yield, low-cost mechanochemical process. Cultures of murine Balb/3T3 fibroblasts were exposed for 24, 48, or 72 hours to increasing ferrofluid concentrations. Nanoparticle cellular uptake was assessed by flow-cytometry scatter-light measurements and microscopy imaging after Prussian blue staining; cytotoxicity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and colony-forming assays. After a single intravenous injection, in vivo nanoparticle biodistribution and clearance were evaluated in mice by Mn spectrophotometric determination and Prussian blue staining in the liver, kidneys, spleen, and brain at different posttreatment times up to 21 days. The same organs were analyzed for any possible histopathological change. The in vitro study demonstrated dose-dependent nanoparticle uptake and statistically significant cytotoxic effects from a concentration of 50 μg/mL for the MTT assay and 20 μg/mL for the colony-forming assay. Significant increases in Mn concentrations were detected in all analyzed organs, peaking at 6 hours after injection and then gradually declining. Clearance appeared complete at 7 days in the kidneys, spleen, and brain, whereas in the liver Mn levels remained statistically higher than in vehicle-treated mice up to 3 weeks postinjection. No evidence of irreversible histopathological damage to any of the tested organs was observed. A comparison of the lowest in vitro toxic concentration with the intravenously injected dose and the administered dose of other ferrofluid drugs currently in clinical practice suggests that there might be sufficient safety margins for further development of our formulation. PMID:24790434

  17. Biodistribution and acute toxicity of a nanofluid containing manganese iron oxide nanoparticles produced by a mechanochemical process

    PubMed Central

    Bellusci, Mariangela; La Barbera, Aurelio; Padella, Franco; Mancuso, Mariateresa; Pasquo, Alessandra; Grollino, Maria Giuseppa; Leter, Giorgio; Nardi, Elisa; Cremisini, Carlo; Giardullo, Paola; Pacchierotti, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are candidate contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging and targeted drug delivery. Biodistribution and toxicity assessment are critical for the development of nanoparticle-based drugs, because of nanoparticle-enhanced biological reactivity. Here, we investigated the uptake, in vivo biodistribution, and in vitro and in vivo potential toxicity of manganese ferrite (MnFe2O4) nanoparticles, synthesized by an original high-yield, low-cost mechanochemical process. Cultures of murine Balb/3T3 fibroblasts were exposed for 24, 48, or 72 hours to increasing ferrofluid concentrations. Nanoparticle cellular uptake was assessed by flow-cytometry scatter-light measurements and microscopy imaging after Prussian blue staining; cytotoxicity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and colony-forming assays. After a single intravenous injection, in vivo nanoparticle biodistribution and clearance were evaluated in mice by Mn spectrophotometric determination and Prussian blue staining in the liver, kidneys, spleen, and brain at different posttreatment times up to 21 days. The same organs were analyzed for any possible histopathological change. The in vitro study demonstrated dose-dependent nanoparticle uptake and statistically significant cytotoxic effects from a concentration of 50 μg/mL for the MTT assay and 20 μg/mL for the colony-forming assay. Significant increases in Mn concentrations were detected in all analyzed organs, peaking at 6 hours after injection and then gradually declining. Clearance appeared complete at 7 days in the kidneys, spleen, and brain, whereas in the liver Mn levels remained statistically higher than in vehicle-treated mice up to 3 weeks postinjection. No evidence of irreversible histopathological damage to any of the tested organs was observed. A comparison of the lowest in vitro toxic concentration with the intravenously injected dose and the administered dose of other ferrofluid drugs currently in clinical practice suggests that there might be sufficient safety margins for further development of our formulation. PMID:24790434

  18. Manganese nanoparticle activates mitochondrial dependent apoptotic signaling and autophagy in dopaminergic neuronal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Afeseh Ngwa, Hilary; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Gu, Yan; Fang, Ning; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2011-11-15

    The production of man-made nanoparticles for various modern applications has increased exponentially in recent years, but the potential health effects of most nanoparticles are not well characterized. Unfortunately, in vitro nanoparticle toxicity studies are extremely limited by yet unresolved problems relating to dosimetry. In the present study, we systematically characterized manganese (Mn) nanoparticle sizes and examined the nanoparticle-induced oxidative signaling in dopaminergic neuronal cells. Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies revealed that Mn nanoparticles range in size from single nanoparticles ({approx} 25 nM) to larger agglomerates when in treatment media. Manganese nanoparticles were effectively internalized in N27 dopaminergic neuronal cells, and they induced a time-dependent upregulation of the transporter protein transferrin. Exposure to 25-400 {mu}g/mL Mn nanoparticles induced cell death in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Mn nanoparticles also significantly increased ROS, accompanied by a caspase-mediated proteolytic cleavage of proapoptotic protein kinase C{delta} (PKC{delta}), as well as activation loop phosphorylation. Blocking Mn nanoparticle-induced ROS failed to protect against the neurotoxic effects, suggesting the involvement of other pathways. Further mechanistic studies revealed changes in Beclin 1 and LC3, indicating that Mn nanoparticles induce autophagy. Primary mesencephalic neuron exposure to Mn nanoparticles induced loss of TH positive dopaminergic neurons and neuronal processes. Collectively, our results suggest that Mn nanoparticles effectively enter dopaminergic neuronal cells and exert neurotoxic effects by activating an apoptotic signaling pathway and autophagy, emphasizing the need for assessing possible health risks associated with an increased use of Mn nanoparticles in modern applications. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn nanoparticles activate mitochondrial cell death signaling in dopaminergic neuron. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn nanoparticles activate caspase-mediated proteolytic cleavage of PKC{delta} cascade. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn nanoparticles induce autophagy in dopaminergic neuronal cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn nanoparticles induce loss of TH{sup +} neurons in primary mesencephalic cultures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study emphasizes neurotoxic risks of Mn nanoparticles to nigral dopaminergic system.

  19. On the dielectric dispersion and absorption in nanosized manganese zinc mixed ferrites.

    PubMed

    Veena Gopalan, E; Malini, K A; Sakthi Kumar, D; Yoshida, Yasuhiko; Al-Omari, I A; Saravanan, S; Anantharaman, M R

    2009-04-01

    The temperature and frequency dependence of dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss of nanosized Mn(1-x)Zn(x)Fe(2)O(4) (for x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1) were investigated. The impact of zinc substitution on the dielectric properties of the mixed ferrite is elucidated. Strong dielectric dispersion and broad relaxation were exhibited by Mn(1-x)Zn(x)Fe(2)O(4). The variation of dielectric relaxation time with temperature suggests the involvement of multiple relaxation processes. Cole-Cole plots were employed as an effective tool for studying the observed phenomenon. The activation energies were calculated from relaxation peaks and Cole-Cole plots and found to be consistent with each other and indicative of a polaron conduction. PMID:21825353

  20. Oleate Coated Magnetic Cores Based on Magnetite, Zn Ferrite and Co Ferrite Nanoparticles - Preparation, Physical Characterization and Biological Impact on Helianthus Annuus Photosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ursache-Oprisan, Manuela; Foca-nici, Ecaterina; Cirlescu, Aurelian; Caltun, Ovidiu; Creanga, Dorina

    2010-12-02

    Sodium oleate was used as coating shell for magnetite, Zn ferrite and Co ferrite powders to stabilize them in the form of aqueous magnetic suspensions. The physical characterization was carried out by applying X-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements. Both crystallite size and magnetic core diameter ranged between 7 and 11 nm. The influence of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions (corresponding to magnetic nanoparticle levels of 10{sup -14}-10{sup -15}/cm{sup 3}) on sunflower seedlings was studied considering the changes in the photosynthesis pigment levels. Similar responses were obtained for magnetite and cobalt ferrite nanoparticle treatment consisting in the apparent inhibition of chlorophyll biosynthesis while for zinc ferrite nanoparticles some concentrations seemed to have stimulatory effects on the chlorophylls as well as on the carotene levels. But the chlorophyll ratio was diminished in the case of all three types of magnetic nanoparticles meaning their slight negative effect on the light harvesting complex II (LHC II) from the chloroplast membranes and consequently on the photosynthesis efficiency.

  1. Magnetic hyperthermia heating of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles prepared by low temperature ferrous sulfate based method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadavalli, Tejabhiram; Jain, Hardik; Chandrasekharan, Gopalakrishnan; Chennakesavulu, Ramasamy

    2016-05-01

    A facile low temperature co-precipitation method for the synthesis of crystalline cobalt ferrite nanostructures using ferrous sulfate salt as the precursor has been discussed. The prepared samples were compared with nanoparticles prepared by conventional co-precipitation and hydrothermal methods using ferric nitrate as the precursor. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the formation of cubic spinel cobalt ferrites when dried at 110 °C as opposed to conventional methods which required higher temperatures/pressure for the formation of the same. Field emission scanning electron microscope studies of these powders revealed the formation of nearly spherical nanostructures in the size range of 20-30 nm which were comparable to those prepared by conventional methods. Magnetic measurements confirmed the ferromagnetic nature of the cobalt ferrites with low magnetic remanance. Further magnetic hyperthermia studies of nanostructures prepared by low temperature method showed a rise in temperature to 50 °C in 600 s.

  2. Structural, dielectric and magnetic properties of nickel substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles: Effect of nickel concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velhal, Ninad B.; Patil, Narayan D.; Shelke, Abhijeet R.; Deshpande, Nishad G.; Puri, Vijaya R.

    2015-09-01

    Nickel substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with composition Co1-xNixFe2O4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0) was synthesized using simple, low temperature auto combustion method. The X-ray diffraction patterns reveal the formation of cubic phase spinel structure. The crystallite size varies from 30-44 nm with the nickel content. Porous and agglomerated morphology of the bulk sample was displayed in the scanning electron microscopy. Micro Raman spectroscopy reveals continuous shift of Eg and Eg(2) stokes line up to 0.8 Ni substitution. The dispersion behavior of the dielectric constant with frequency and the semicircle nature of the impedance spectra show the cobalt nickel ferrite to have high resistance. The ferromagnetic nature is observed in all the samples, however, the maximum saturation magnetization was achieved by the 0.4 Ni substituted cobalt ferrite, which is up to the 92.87 emu/gm at 30K.

  3. Effect of heat treatment on microwave absorption properties of Ni-Zn-Mg-La ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi; Wei, Shicheng; Xu, Binshi; Wang, Yujiang; Tian, Haoliang; Tong, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Spinel structure Ni-Zn-Mg-La ferrites have been prepared by the sol-gel route and investigated as a radar absorbing material (RAM) in a frequency range of 1-18 GHz. The structure and morphological studies on the nanoparticles of the ferrites have been carried out using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The complex permeability and complex permittivity are measured by a network analyzer. The electromagnetic wave loss and microwave absorbing property are studied as a function of frequency, annealing temperature and thickness of the absorber. The results indicate that electromagnetic wave loss of the ferrite only annealed at 850 °C shows two peaks. The reflection loss varies with the change of the annealing temperature. The absorber annealed at 850 °C exhibits the best microwave absorbing properties, which is suitable for microwave absorption materials.

  4. Investigation of structural, thermal and magnetic properties of cadmium substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkata Reddy, Ch.; Byon, Chan; Narendra, B.; Baskar, D.; Srinivas, G.; Shim, Jaesool; Prabhakar Vattikuti, S. V.

    2015-06-01

    Cd substituted Cobalt ferrite nano particles are synthesis using co-precipitation method. The as prepared samples are calcinated at 300 and 600 °C respectively. The existence of single phase spinal cubic structure of the prepared ferrite material is confirmed by the powder XRD measurement. The surface morphology images, compositional features are studied by SEM with EDX, and TEM. From the FT-IR spectra the absorption bands observed at 595 and 402 cm-1 are attributed to vibrations of tetrahedral and octahedral complexes respectively. From the VSM data, parameters like magnetization, coercivity, remanent magnetization and remanent squareness are measured. The saturation magnetization value is increases with increasing calcination temperature. The DSC and TG-DTA curves reveal that the thermal stability of the prepared ferrite nanoparticles. The calcination temperature affects the crystallite size, morphology and magnetic properties of the samples.

  5. Enhanced magnetic anisotropy and heating efficiency in multi-functional manganese ferrite/graphene oxide nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Le, Anh-Tuan; Giang, Chu Duy; Tam, Le Thi; Tuan, Ta Quoc; Phan, Vu Ngoc; Alonso, Javier; Devkota, Jagannath; Garaio, Eneko; García, José Ángel; Martín-Rodríguez, Rosa; Fdez-Gubieda, Ma Luisa; Srikanth, Hariharan; Phan, Manh-Huong

    2016-04-15

    A promising nanocomposite material composed of MnFe2O4 (MFO) nanoparticles of ∼17 nm diameter deposited onto graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets was successfully synthesized using a modified co-precipitation method. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and selected area electron diffraction confirmed the quality of the synthesized samples. Fourier transform infrared measurements and analysis evidenced that the MFO nanoparticles were attached to the GO surface. Magnetic measurements and analysis using the modified Langevin model evidenced the superparamagnetic characteristic of both the bare MFO nanoparticles and the MFO-GO nanocomposite at room temperature, and an appreciable increase of the effective anisotropy for the MFO-GO sample. Magnetic hyperthermia experiments performed by both calorimetric and ac magnetometry methods indicated that relative to the bare MFO nanoparticles, the heating efficiency of the MFO-GO nanocomposite was similar at low ac fields (0-300 Oe) but became progressively larger with increasing ac fields (>300 Oe). This has been related to the higher effective anisotropy of the MFO-GO nanocomposite. In comparison with the bare MFO nanoparticles, a smaller reduction in the heating efficiency was observed in the MFO-GO composites when embedded in agar or when their concentration was increased, indicating that the GO helped minimize the physical rotation and aggregation of the MFO nanoparticles. These findings can be of practical importance in exploiting this type of nanocomposite for advanced hyperthermia. Magnetoimpedance-based biodetection studies also indicated that the MFO-GO nanocomposite could be used as a promising magnetic biomarker in biosensing applications. PMID:26933975

  6. Enhanced magnetic anisotropy and heating efficiency in multi-functional manganese ferrite/graphene oxide nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Anh-Tuan; Duy Giang, Chu; Thi Tam, Le; Tuan, Ta Quoc; Phan, Vu Ngoc; Alonso, Javier; Devkota, Jagannath; Garaio, Eneko; Ángel García, José; Martín-Rodríguez, Rosa; Fdez-Gubieda, Ma Luisa; Srikanth, Hariharan; Phan, Manh-Huong

    2016-04-01

    A promising nanocomposite material composed of MnFe2O4 (MFO) nanoparticles of ˜17 nm diameter deposited onto graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets was successfully synthesized using a modified co-precipitation method. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and selected area electron diffraction confirmed the quality of the synthesized samples. Fourier transform infrared measurements and analysis evidenced that the MFO nanoparticles were attached to the GO surface. Magnetic measurements and analysis using the modified Langevin model evidenced the superparamagnetic characteristic of both the bare MFO nanoparticles and the MFO-GO nanocomposite at room temperature, and an appreciable increase of the effective anisotropy for the MFO-GO sample. Magnetic hyperthermia experiments performed by both calorimetric and ac magnetometry methods indicated that relative to the bare MFO nanoparticles, the heating efficiency of the MFO-GO nanocomposite was similar at low ac fields (0-300 Oe) but became progressively larger with increasing ac fields (>300 Oe). This has been related to the higher effective anisotropy of the MFO-GO nanocomposite. In comparison with the bare MFO nanoparticles, a smaller reduction in the heating efficiency was observed in the MFO-GO composites when embedded in agar or when their concentration was increased, indicating that the GO helped minimize the physical rotation and aggregation of the MFO nanoparticles. These findings can be of practical importance in exploiting this type of nanocomposite for advanced hyperthermia. Magnetoimpedance-based biodetection studies also indicated that the MFO-GO nanocomposite could be used as a promising magnetic biomarker in biosensing applications.

  7. Magnetic Silver-Coated Ferrite Nanoparticles and Their Application in Thick Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianguo; Huang, Baling; Li, Xiangyou; Li, Ping; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2010-12-01

    Magnetic silver-coated ferrite nanoparticles with 39.8% weight gain (relative to ferrite nanopowder coated by a silver layer) were synthesized by electroless deposition of silver on ferrite nanopowder. The mechanism of the electroless deposition was explored in terms of pretreatment, sensitization, activation, and the reduction of silver-ammonia complexes. Experiments showed that the optimal deposition conditions were a temperature of 50°C, pH value of 10 to 12, duration of 65 min with ethanol plus polyethylene glycol as additives, and ultrasonic vibration as a method of dispersing the nanoparticles. From transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, it was observed that as-synthesized nanoparticles had a core-shell structure with a particle size of 35 nm to 90 nm and a shell thickness of 5 nm to 20 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed that only ferrite and metallic silver were present in the product. Electrical resistance and magnetic hysteresis measurements demonstrated that the nanoparticles were both electrically conductive (volume electrical resistivity on the order of 10-4 Ω cm to 10-3 Ω cm when compressed to pressure of 2 × 10 6 Pa) and possessed ferrimagnetic properties. After a thick-film paste, obtained with the nanoparticles as the functional phase, was directly written and sintered, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and electrical resistance measurements of conductive lines in the acquired array pattern showed that an electrically conductive network with some defects and cavities was formed, with a volume electrical resistivity of 1 × 10-4 Ω cm to 1 × 10-3 Ω cm.

  8. Spherical barium ferrite nanoparticles and hexaferrite single crystals for information data storage and RF devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalli, Jeevan Prasad

    Since their discovery in the early 1950's hexagonal ferrites or hexaferrites have been studied for a long time because of their technological applications, such as microwave devices and high density magnetic recording media. In this dissertation efforts have been made to address these two applications by developing nanosized spherical barium ferrite particles for advanced magnetic recording media, and hexaferrite single crystals for low loss RF devices. Accordingly, this dissertation consists of two parts; part one spherical barium ferrite nanoparticles for information data storage media, and part two hexaferrite single crystals for RF devices. Part I. Spherical Barium Ferrite Nanoparticles Hexagonal barium ferrite (H-BaFe) nanoparticles are good candidates for particulate recording media due to their high uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy, excellent chemical stability, and narrow switching field distribution. One major disadvantage of using H-BaFe particles for particulate recording media is their poor dispersion and a high degree of stacking that deteriorate the recording capability by creating large media noise and surface roughness. One way to solve and improve the recording performance of H-BaFe media is employing substantially nanosized spherical barium ferrite (S­BaFe) particles. Spherical shaped particles have low aspect ratio and only form a point-to-point contact, unlike the H-BaFe particles. Therefore, using S-BaFe particles not only decrease the degree of magnetic interaction between the particles but also can substantially increases the recording performance by improving the dispersion and SNR of the particles in the magnetic media. In this dissertation, two different approaches were employed successfully to synthesize S-BaFe nanoparticles in the range of 20-45 nm. Part II. Hexaferrite Single Crystals As wireless communication systems are flourishing, and the operating frequencies are increasing, there is a great demand for RF devices such as circulators and isolators. Traditional RF devices using spinel or garnets are disadvantageous in the millimeter range frequencies, since they require a strong external bias field provided by external permanent magnets. A promising approach to circumvent this problem is to use the high crystalline anisotropy field in the hexaferrites. Single crystals of M and Y-type hexaferrites show promising results with their low microwave losses and excellent magnetic and physical properties. In this dissertation efforts to grow, high-quality bulk M and Y-type single crystals with the aim to study and improve their magnetic and microwave properties with respect to different cation dopant elements is reported. Also, a liquid phase epitaxial technique was developed to grow thick barium ferrite films onto semiconductor substrates. Finally, magnetic domain patterns on bulk M-type single crystals was studied by using a magnetic force microscopy technique.

  9. Study of Zn-Cu Ferrite Nanoparticles for LPG Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Anuj; Baranwal, Ravi Kant; Bharti, Ajaya; Vakil, Z.; Prajapati, C. S.

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured zinc-copper mixed ferrite was synthesized using sol-gel method. XRD patterns of different compositions of zinc-copper ferrite, Zn(1−x)CuxFe2O4 (x = 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75), revealed single phase inverse spinel ferrite in all the samples synthesized. With increasing copper concentration, the crystallite size was found to be increased from 28 nm to 47 nm. The surface morphology of all the samples studied by the Scanning Electron Microscopy there exhibits porous structure of particles throughout the samples. The pellets of the samples are prepared for LPG sensing characteristics. The sensing is carried out at different operating temperatures (200, 225, and 250°C) with the variation of LPG concentrations (0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 vol%). The maximum sensitivity of 55.33% is observed at 250°C operating for the 0.6 vol% LPG. PMID:23864833

  10. Cytotoxicity and physicochemical characterization of iron–manganese-doped sulfated zirconia nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Al-Fahdawi, Mohamed Qasim; Rasedee, Abdullah; Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna Sadiq; Alhassan, Fatah H; Rosli, Rozita; El Zowalaty, Mohamed Ezzat; Naadja, Seïf-Eddine; Webster, Thomas J; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin

    2015-01-01

    Iron–manganese-doped sulfated zirconia nanoparticles with both Lewis and Brønsted acidic sites were prepared by a hydrothermal impregnation method followed by calcination at 650°C for 5 hours, and their cytotoxicity properties against cancer cell lines were determined. The characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Brauner–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area measurements, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, zeta size potential, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The cytotoxicity of iron–manganese-doped sulfated zirconia nanoparticles was determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays against three human cancer cell lines (breast cancer MDA-MB231 cells, colon carcinoma HT29 cells, and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells) and two normal human cell lines (normal hepatocyte Chang cells and normal human umbilical vein endothelial cells [HUVECs]). The results suggest for the first time that iron–manganese-doped sulfated zirconia nanoparticles are cytotoxic to MDA-MB231 and HepG2 cancer cells but have less toxicity to HT29 and normal cells at concentrations from 7.8 μg/mL to 500 μg/mL. The morphology of the treated cells was also studied, and the results supported those from the cytotoxicity study in that the nanoparticle-treated HepG2 and MDA-MB231 cells had more dramatic changes in cell morphology than the HT29 cells. In this manner, this study provides the first evidence that iron–manganese-doped sulfated zirconia nanoparticles should be further studied for a wide range of cancer applications without detrimental effects on healthy cell functions. PMID:26425082

  11. Comparative Cytogenetic Study on the Toxicity of Magnetite and Zinc Ferrite Nanoparticles in Sunflower Root Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foca-nici, Ecaterina; Capraru, Gabriela; Creanga, Dorina

    2010-12-01

    In this experimental study the authors present their results regarding the cellular division rate and the percentage of chromosomal aberrations in the root meristematic cells of Helianthus annuus cultivated in the presence of different volume fractions of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions, ranging between 20 and 100 microl/l. The aqueous magnetic colloids were prepared from chemically co-precipitated ferrites coated in sodium oleate. Tissue samples from the root meristeme of 2-3 day old germinated seeds were taken to prepare microscope slides following Squash method combined with Fuelgen techniques. Microscope investigation (cytogenetic tests) has resulted in the evaluation of mitotic index and chromosomal aberration index that appeared diminished and respectively increased following the addition of magnetic nanoparticles in the culture medium of the young seedlings. Zinc ferrite toxic influence appeared to be higher than that of magnetite, according to both cytogenetic parameters.

  12. Manganese-containing Prussian blue nanoparticles for imaging of pediatric brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Matthieu F; Yadavilli, Sridevi; Sze, Raymond W; Nazarian, Javad; Fernandes, Rohan

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric brain tumors (PBTs) are a leading cause of death in children. For an improved prognosis in patients with PBTs, there is a critical need to develop molecularly-specific imaging agents to monitor disease progression and response to treatment. In this paper, we describe manganese-containing Prussian blue nanoparticles as agents for molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorescence-based imaging of PBTs. Our core-shell nanoparticles consist of a core lattice structure that incorporates and retains paramagnetic Mn2+ ions, and generates MRI contrast (both negative and positive). The biofunctionalized shell is comprised of fluorescent avidin, which serves the dual purpose of enabling fluorescence imaging and functioning as a platform for the attachment of biotinylated ligands that target PBTs. The surfaces of our nanoparticles are modified with biotinylated antibodies targeting neuron-glial antigen 2 or biotinylated transferrin. Both neuron-glial antigen 2 and the transferrin receptor are protein markers overexpressed in PBTs. We describe the synthesis, biofunctionalization, and characterization of these multimodal nanoparticles. Further, we demonstrate the MRI and fluorescence imaging capabilities of manganese-containing Prussian blue nanoparticles in vitro. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of these nanoparticles as PBT imaging agents by measuring their organ and brain biodistribution in an orthotopic mouse model of PBTs using ex vivo fluorescence imaging. PMID:24920896

  13. Faraday rotation of cobalt ferrite nanoparticle polymer composite films at cryogenic temperatures.

    PubMed

    Demir, Veysi; Gangopadhyay, Palash; Norwood, Robert A; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    2014-04-01

    This paper investigates the behavior of the Verdet constant for cobalt ferrite (CoFe₂O₄) nanoparticles polymer composite films at low temperatures using a 532 nm laser source. An experimental setup for Faraday rotation (FR) at low temperatures is introduced and FRs were measured at various temperatures. Verdet constants were deduced from the paramagnetic model for terbium gallium garnet glass where ~4× improvement was observed at 40° K for CoFe₂O₄ composite film. PMID:24787165

  14. Magnetic properties of nanocomposites based on opal matrices with embedded ferrite-spinel nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinkevich, A. B.; Korolev, A. V.; Samoylovich, M. I.; Klescheva, S. M.; Perov, D. V.

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic properties of nanocomposites based on opal matrices with ferrite-spinel nanoparticles embedded have been investigated in temperature range from 2 to 300 K. The magnetization curves and hysteresis loops as well as the temperature dependence of magnetic moment and the temperature and frequency dependences of AC susceptibility have been measured. The results of magnetic measurements are compared to X-ray analysis and electron microscopy investigations.

  15. Experimental evidence of surface effects in the magnetic dynamics behavior of ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, E. C.; Alves, C. R.; Aquino, R.; Sousa, M. H.; Goya, G. F.; Rechenberg, H. R.; Tourinho, F. A.; Depeyrot, J.

    2005-03-01

    The magnetic dynamics behavior of copper and nickel ferrite nanoparticles used in the magnetic fluid elaboration and with mean sizes between 3.5 to 10.4 nm is investigated by measurements of magnetic hysteretic properties and zero field cooling (ZFC) susceptibility. The dependence of the irreversibility field, inversely proportional to the particle size, clearly indicates that the magnetic anisotropy of our particles finds its origin on the surface layer.

  16. Comparison of surface effects in SiO2 coated and uncoated nickel ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, K.; Krenn, H.; Sarwar, W.; Mumtaz, M.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic properties of uncoated and silica coated nickel ferrite nanoparticles of comparable sizes have been studied in detail. Silica coated and uncoated nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel and co-precipitation methods, respectively. Average crystallite size determined by X-ray diffraction is 12 nm and 14 nm for the silica coated and uncoated nanoparticles, respectively. Normalized saturation magnetization value of the coated nanoparticles was found to be lower than of uncoated nanoparticles, while a comparable small coercivity is observed for both the samples. Zero field cooled/field cooled (ZFC/FC) measurements reveal that the average blocking temperature (TB) of coated nanoparticles is lower than of the uncoated nanoparticles and is shifted to lower temperatures at high field. Thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) measurement indicates that the relaxation of coated nanoparticles have not been influenced very much with increasing cooling field as compared to uncoated nanoparticles and is attributed to enhanced surface effects in coated nanoparticles. The main source of enhanced surface effects in the coated nanoparticles is foremost disordered surface spins due to silica matrix. Temperature dependent AC susceptibility exhibits two peaks for the coated nanoparticles' sample. First peak corresponds to blocking of huge core spin while second peak at lower temperature is may be due to enhanced surface effects (spin-glass behavior). All these findings such as lower saturation magnetization, faster shift of blocking temperature at high field, small effect of high magnetic field on magnetic relaxation, low temperature out-of-phase AC susceptibility peak for the coated nanoparticles signify enhanced surface effects in them as compared to uncoated nanoparticles.

  17. Valence-driven electrical behavior of manganese-modified bismuth ferrite thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Jiagang; Wang, John; Xiao Dingquan; Zhu Jianguo

    2011-06-15

    BiFe{sub 0.95}R{sub 0.05}O{sub 3} (Mn{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 3+}, and Mn{sup 4+}) thin films with (110) orientation were fabricated on SrRuO{sub 3}/Pt/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si(100) substrates via rf sputtering. With the increasing valence of Mn in BiFe{sub 0.95}R{sub 0.05}O{sub 3}, the concentration of Fe{sup 2+} increases, whereas the concentration of oxygen vacancies decreases. The electrical properties of BiFe{sub 0.95}R{sub 0.05}O{sub 3} are correlated with the valence of Mn. Their leakage current density is dependent on the concentration of oxygen vacancies caused by different valences of Mn. Their P-E loops become better with the increasing valence of Mn owing to a lower leakage current density in high electric field regions, and a large remanent polarization of 2P{sub r} {approx} 145.2 {mu}C/cm{sup 2} is obtained for the Mn{sup 4+}-doped film. For the Mn{sup 2+}-doped bismuth ferrite film, the space-charge-limited conduction and Schottky barrier dominate its leakage behavior under a negative electric field, the Ohmic conduction and Schottky barrier are involved in the leakage behavior under a positive electric field, and the interface-limited Fowler-Nordheim tunneling is their dominant mechanism in a high electric field region. In contrast, an Ohmic conduction dominates the leakage behavior of Mn{sup 3+}- and Mn{sup 4+}-doped films regardless of negative and positive directions or measurement temperatures.

  18. Preparation and characterization of MnZn-ferrite nanoparticles using reverse micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, S. A.; Cahill, C. L.; Carpenter, E. E.; Calvin, S.; Harris, V. G.

    2003-05-01

    Research on manganese zinc ferrites (MZFO) has undergone a renewal in recent years as advances in synthetic techniques promise smaller grain sizes and corresponding changes in material properties. Current techniques for nanoscale synthesis of ferrites, however, produce a broad distribution of particle sizes, thus limiting the density of compacted materials, and consequently altering coercivity [C. Rath et al., J. Appl. Phys. 91, 2211 (2002)]. To minimize porosity, bulk materials need to be pressed from uniform particles. Wet chemical synthesis performed in reverse micelles, in which pools of water are encased by surfactant molecules in an excess volume of oil, provides the greatest control over size and morphology. During synthesis, surfactant molecules keep particles separated and restrict particle growth. This affords greater control over the size and shape of the particles grown in the micelles and commonly results in highly uniform morphologies [J. P. Chen et al., J. Appl. Phys. 76, 6316 (1994); C. Liu et al., J. Phys. Chem. B. 104, 1141 (2000)]. As a first step, it is necessary to produce pure phase, nanosized ferrite particles, therefore in this study, analysis of the powder of a sample prepared by a reverse micelle technique is compared to a sample prepared by a traditional ceramic method. Future studies will focus on the porosity and subsequent material properties of compacted forms of the pure phase samples.

  19. Cobalt Zinc Ferrite Nanoparticles as a Potential Magnetic Resonance Imaging Agent: An In vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemian, Zeinab; Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Manouchehri, Sohrab

    2015-01-01

    Background: Magnetic Nanoparticles (MNP) have been used for contrast enhancement in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). In recent years, research on the use of ferrite nanoparticles in T2 contrast agents has shown a great potential application in MR imaging. In this work, Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 and Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4-DMSA magnetic nanoparticles, CZF-MNPs and CZF-MNPs-DMSA, were investigated as MR imaging contrast agents. Methods: Cobalt zinc ferrite nanoparticles and their suitable coating, DMSA, were investigated under in vitro condition. Human prostate cancer cell lines (DU145 and PC3) with bare (uncoated) and coated magnetic nanoparticles were investigated as nano-contrast MR imaging agents. Results: Using T2-weighted MR images identified that signal intensity of bare and coated MNPs was enhanced with increasing concentration of MNPs in water. The values of 1/T2 relaxivity (r2) for bare and coated MNPs were found to be 88.46 and 28.80 (mM−1 s−1), respectively. Conclusion: The results show that bare and coated MNPs are suitable as T2-weighted MR imaging contrast agents. Also, the obtained r2/r1 values (59.3 and 50) for bare and coated MNPs were in agreement with the results of other previous relevant works. PMID:26140183

  20. Surface effects in the magnetic properties of crystalline 3 nm ferrite nanoparticles chemically synthesized

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, E.; De Biasi, E.; Mansilla, M. Vasquez; Saleta, M. E.; Effenberg, F.; Rossi, L. M.; Cohen, R.; Rechenberg, H. R.; Zysler, R. D.

    2010-11-01

    We have systematically studied the magnetic properties of ferrite nanoparticles with 3, 7, and 11 nm of diameter with very narrow grain size distributions. Samples were prepared by the thermal decomposition of Fe(acac)3 in the presence of surfactants giving nanoparticles covered by oleic acid. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images and XRD diffraction patterns confirms that all samples are composed by crystalline nanoparticles with the spinel structure expected for the iron ferrite. ac and dc magnetization measurements, as well in-field Mössbauer spectroscopy, indicate that the magnetic properties of nanoparticles with 11 and 7 nm are close to those expected for a monodomain, presenting large MS (close to the magnetite bulk). Despite the crystalline structure observed in HRTEM images, the nanoparticles with 3 nm are composed by a magnetically ordered region (core) and a surface region that presents a different magnetic order and it contains about 66% of Fe atoms. The high saturation and irreversibility fields in the M(H ) loops of the particles with 3 nm together with the misalignment at 120 kOe in the in-field Mössbauer spectrum of surface component indicate a high surface anisotropy for the surface atoms, which is not observed for the core. For T <10 K, we observe an increase in the susceptibility and of the magnetization for former sample, indicating that surface moments tend to align with applied field increasing the magnetic core size.

  1. Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticle-Stabilized and Manganese-Modified Rhodium Nanoparticles as Catalysts for Highly Selective Synthesis of Ethanol and Acetaldehyde from Syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yulin; Deng, Weihua; Guo, Enruo; Chung, Po-Wen; Chen, Senniang; Trewyn, Brian; Brown, Robert; Lin, Victor

    2012-03-30

    Well-defined and monodispersed rhodium nanoparticles as small as approximately 2?nm were encapsulated in?situ and stabilized in a mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) framework during the synthesis of the mesoporous material. Although both the activity and selectivity of MSN-encapsulated rhodium nanoparticles in CO hydrogenation could be improved by the addition of manganese oxide as expected, the carbon selectivity for C2 oxygenates (including ethanol and acetaldehyde) was unprecedentedly high at 74.5?% with a very small amount of methanol produced if rhodium nanoparticles were modified by manganese oxide with very close interaction.

  2. Structural and morphological studies of manganese substituted CoFe2O4 and NiFe2O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjith kumar, E.; Jayaprakash, R.; Patel, Rajesh

    2013-10-01

    Nanocrystalline manganese substituted cobalt and nickel ferrites have been synthesized through the evaporation method by using egg white. These powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The XRD pattern of manganese substituted spinel ferrites contains some impurity peaks, which are the decomposition of the ferrites to ?-Fe2O3 phase at higher annealing temperature. The microstructure and particle size of the annealed sample analyzed by TEM, which gives the particle size well with XRD. The magnetic properties were measured using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The surface/near-surface chemical states of the nanocrystalline manganese substituted cobalt and nickel ferrites are analyzed by XPS within a range of binding energies of 0-1000 eV.

  3. Recent advances in nanosized Mn-Zn ferrite magnetic fluid hyperthermia for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei; Huang, Junxing; Sha, Min

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent research and development of nanosized manganese zinc (Mn-Zn) ferrite magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) for cancer treatment. Mn-Zn ferrite MFH, which has a targeted positioning function that only the temperature of tumor tissue with magnetic nanoparticles can rise, while normal tissue without magnetic nanoparticles is not subject to thermal damage, is a promising therapy for cancer. We introduce briefly the composition and properties of magnetic fluid, the concept of MFH, and features of Mn-Zn ferrite magnetic nanoparticles for MFH such as thermal bystander effect, universality, high specific absorption rate, the targeting effect of small size, uniformity of hyperthermia temperature, and automatic temperature control and constant temperature effect. Next, preparation methods of Mn-Zn ferrite magnetic fluid are discussed, and biocompatibility and biosecurity of Mn-Zn ferrite magnetic fluid are analyzed. Then the applications of nanosized Mn-Zn ferrite MFH in cancer are highlighted, including nanosized Mn-Zn ferrite MFH alone, nanosized Mn-Zn ferrite MFH combined with As2O3 chemotherapy, and nanosized Mn-Zn ferrite MFH combined with radiotherapy. Finally, the combination application of nanosized Mn-Zn ferrite MFH and gene-therapy is conceived, and the challenges and perspectives for the future of nanosized Mn-Zn ferrite MFH for oncotherapy are discussed. PMID:24730298

  4. Bacterially synthesized ferrite nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia applications.

    PubMed

    Céspedes, Eva; Byrne, James M; Farrow, Neil; Moise, Sandhya; Coker, Victoria S; Bencsik, Martin; Lloyd, Jonathan R; Telling, Neil D

    2014-11-01

    Magnetic hyperthermia uses AC stimulation of magnetic nanoparticles to generate heat for cancer cell destruction. Whilst nanoparticles produced inside magnetotactic bacteria have shown amongst the highest reported heating to date, these particles are magnetically blocked so that strong heating occurs only for mobile particles, unless magnetic field parameters are far outside clinical limits. Here, nanoparticles extracellularly produced by the bacteria Geobacter sulfurreducens are investigated that contain Co or Zn dopants to tune the magnetic anisotropy, saturation magnetization and nanoparticle sizes, enabling heating within clinical field constraints. The heating mechanisms specific to either Co or Zn doping are determined from frequency dependent specific absorption rate (SAR) measurements and innovative AC susceptometry simulations that use a realistic model concerning clusters of polydisperse nanoparticles in suspension. Whilst both particle types undergo magnetization relaxation and show heating effects in water under low AC frequency and field, only Zn doped particles maintain relaxation combined with hysteresis losses even when immobilized. This magnetic heating process could prove important in the biological environment where nanoparticle mobility may not be possible. Obtained SARs are discussed regarding clinical conditions which, together with their enhanced MRI contrast, indicate that biogenic Zn doped particles are promising for combined diagnostics and cancer therapy. PMID:25232657

  5. Magnetic relaxation/stability of Co ferrite nanoparticles embedded in amorphous silica particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caizer, C.; ?ura, V.

    2006-06-01

    The investigated system consisted of Co ferrite nanoparticles embedded in amorphous SiO 2 particles, with ?=1% magnetic volume fraction. The M- H curve ( M is the magnetization and H is the external magnetic field) of the particle system, recorded at room temperature using a 50 Hz alternating magnetic field, showed a very wide hysteresis loop indicating a strong deviation from the theoretical Langevin curve. The structural phases and mean diameter of the nanoparticles were determined by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Structural analysis results and theoretical evaluations of the critical diameter under which the particle has a single-domain magnetic structure suggested that the factor accounting for the observed behavior is a high magnetic anisotropy (anisotropy constant around 1.610 5 Jm -3); even the volume of Co ferrite nanoparticles is within the superparamagnetic range. The observed behavior was explained assuming that the magnetic moments of nanoparticles could be blocked even at room temperature, due to the existence of a high (0.64 eV) energy barrier which cannot be exceeded by thermal activation alone (0.03 eV). The magnetic relaxation time (?=2.510-1 s) evaluated from experimental data was much longer than the experiment time (t=210-2 s), in agreement with the observed magnetic remanence. The Co ferrite nanoparticles embedded in amorphous SiO 2 showed stable magnetic single-domain structure in a very wide range of diameters (7.6-162 nm), and the particle shape appeared to be unimportant due to the high magnetic anisotropy. The results reported in the present paper demonstrate the existence of a relatively simple preparation method of interesting magnetic nanomaterials with potential application for magnetic recording media.

  6. Bacterially synthesized ferrite nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Céspedes, Eva; Byrne, James M.; Farrow, Neil; Moise, Sandhya; Coker, Victoria S.; Bencsik, Martin; Lloyd, Jonathan R.; Telling, Neil D.

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic hyperthermia uses AC stimulation of magnetic nanoparticles to generate heat for cancer cell destruction. Whilst nanoparticles produced inside magnetotactic bacteria have shown amongst the highest reported heating to date, these particles are magnetically blocked so that strong heating occurs only for mobile particles, unless magnetic field parameters are far outside clinical limits. Here, nanoparticles extracellularly produced by the bacteria Geobacter sulfurreducens are investigated that contain Co or Zn dopants to tune the magnetic anisotropy, saturation magnetization and nanoparticle sizes, enabling heating within clinical field constraints. The heating mechanisms specific to either Co or Zn doping are determined from frequency dependent specific absorption rate (SAR) measurements and innovative AC susceptometry simulations that use a realistic model concerning clusters of polydisperse nanoparticles in suspension. Whilst both particle types undergo magnetization relaxation and show heating effects in water under low AC frequency and field, only Zn doped particles maintain relaxation combined with hysteresis losses even when immobilized. This magnetic heating process could prove important in the biological environment where nanoparticle mobility may not be possible. Obtained SARs are discussed regarding clinical conditions which, together with their enhanced MRI contrast, indicate that biogenic Zn doped particles are promising for combined diagnostics and cancer therapy.Magnetic hyperthermia uses AC stimulation of magnetic nanoparticles to generate heat for cancer cell destruction. Whilst nanoparticles produced inside magnetotactic bacteria have shown amongst the highest reported heating to date, these particles are magnetically blocked so that strong heating occurs only for mobile particles, unless magnetic field parameters are far outside clinical limits. Here, nanoparticles extracellularly produced by the bacteria Geobacter sulfurreducens are investigated that contain Co or Zn dopants to tune the magnetic anisotropy, saturation magnetization and nanoparticle sizes, enabling heating within clinical field constraints. The heating mechanisms specific to either Co or Zn doping are determined from frequency dependent specific absorption rate (SAR) measurements and innovative AC susceptometry simulations that use a realistic model concerning clusters of polydisperse nanoparticles in suspension. Whilst both particle types undergo magnetization relaxation and show heating effects in water under low AC frequency and field, only Zn doped particles maintain relaxation combined with hysteresis losses even when immobilized. This magnetic heating process could prove important in the biological environment where nanoparticle mobility may not be possible. Obtained SARs are discussed regarding clinical conditions which, together with their enhanced MRI contrast, indicate that biogenic Zn doped particles are promising for combined diagnostics and cancer therapy. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Further details of the cluster model of polydisperse nanoparticles used for the AC susceptibility simulations (Fig. S1 to S3). Examples of the heating curves and the linear fit used to determine the SAR values are shown in Fig. S4. Fig. S5 exhibits the energy loss per mass of iron during magnetic hyperthermia (from SAR values) normalized to H2 and frequency for further comparison among samples. Fig. S6 shows the comparison between the simulations of AC susceptibility spectra including regions below and above the experimental frequency range for MNA, Zn0.2 and Zn0.4 nanoparticles suspended in solvents with different viscosities (water, glycerol and a hypothetical high viscous solvent). Fig. S7 exhibits a comparison among the simulated χ'' susceptibility of MNA, Zn0.2 and Zn0.4 nanoparticles (a) in water and (b) in glycerol. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03004d

  7. Synthesis of manganese ferrite/graphene oxide nanocomposites for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Peng, Erwin; Choo, Eugene Shi Guang; Chandrasekharan, Prashant; Yang, Chang-Tong; Ding, Jun; Chuang, Kai-Hsiang; Xue, Jun Min

    2012-12-01

    In this study, MnFe(2)O(4) nanoparticle (MFNP)-decorated graphene oxide nanocomposites (MGONCs) are prepared through a simple mini-emulsion and solvent evaporation process. It is demonstrated that the loading of magnetic nanocrystals can be tuned by varying the ratio of graphene oxide/magnetic nanoparticles. On top of that, the hydrodynamic size range of the obtained nanocomposites can be optimized by varying the sonication time during the emulsion process. By fine-tuning the sonication time, MGONCs as small as 56.8 ± 1.1 nm, 55.0 ± 0.6 nm and 56.2 ± 0.4 nm loaded with 6 nm, 11 nm, and 14 nm MFNPs, respectively, are successfully fabricated. In order to improve the colloidal stability of MGONCs in physiological solutions (e.g., phosphate buffered saline or PBS solution), MGONCs are further conjugated with polyethylene glycol (PEG). Heating by exposing MGONCs samples to an alternating magnetic field (AMF) show that the obtained nanocomposites are efficient hyperthermia agents. At concentrations as low as 0.1 mg Fe mL(-1) and under an 59.99 kA m(-1) field, the highest specific absorption rate (SAR) recorded is 1588.83 W g(-1) for MGONCs loaded with 14 nm MFNPs. It is also demonstrated that MGONCs are promising as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T(2) contrast agents. A T(2) relaxivity value (r(2) ) as high as 256.2 (mM Fe)(-1) s(-1) could be achieved with MGONCs loaded with 14 nm MFNPs. The cytotoxicity results show that PEGylated MGONCs exhibit an excellent biocompatibility that is suitable for biomedical applications. PMID:22962025

  8. Effects of magnetic cobalt ferrite nanoparticles on biological and artificial lipid membranes

    PubMed Central

    Drašler, Barbara; Drobne, Damjana; Novak, Sara; Valant, Janez; Boljte, Sabina; Otrin, Lado; Rappolt, Michael; Sartori, Barbara; Iglič, Aleš; Kralj-Iglič, Veronika; Šuštar, Vid; Makovec, Darko; Gyergyek, Sašo; Hočevar, Matej; Godec, Matjaž; Zupanc, Jernej

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this work is to provide experimental evidence on the interactions of suspended nanoparticles with artificial or biological membranes and to assess the possibility of suspended nanoparticles interacting with the lipid component of biological membranes. Methods 1-Palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) lipid vesicles and human red blood cells were incubated in suspensions of magnetic bare cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) or citric acid (CA)-adsorbed CoFe2O4 nanoparticles dispersed in phosphate-buffered saline and glucose solution. The stability of POPC giant unilamellar vesicles after incubation in the tested nanoparticle suspensions was assessed by phase-contrast light microscopy and analyzed with computer-aided imaging. Structural changes in the POPC multilamellar vesicles were assessed by small angle X-ray scattering, and the shape transformation of red blood cells after incubation in tested suspensions of nanoparticles was observed using scanning electron microscopy and sedimentation, agglutination, and hemolysis assays. Results Artificial lipid membranes were disturbed more by CA-adsorbed CoFe2O4 nanoparticle suspensions than by bare CoFe2O4 nanoparticle suspensions. CA-adsorbed CoFe2O4-CA nanoparticles caused more significant shape transformation in red blood cells than bare CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. Conclusion Consistent with their smaller sized agglomerates, CA-adsorbed CoFe2O4 nanoparticles demonstrate more pronounced effects on artificial and biological membranes. Larger agglomerates of nanoparticles were confirmed to be reactive against lipid membranes and thus not acceptable for use with red blood cells. This finding is significant with respect to the efficient and safe application of nanoparticles as medicinal agents. PMID:24741305

  9. Plant extract-mediated biogenic synthesis of silver, manganese dioxide, silver-doped manganese dioxide nanoparticles and their antibacterial activity against food- and water-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Krishnaraj, Chandran; Ji, Byoung-Jun; Harper, Stacey L; Yun, Soon-Il

    2016-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), manganese dioxide nanoparticles (MnO2NPs) and silver-doped manganese dioxide nanoparticles (Ag-doped MnO2NPs) were synthesized by simultaneous green chemistry reduction approach. Aqueous extract from the leaves of medicinally important plant Cucurbita pepo was used as reducing and capping agents. Various characterization techniques were carried out to affirm the formation of nanoparticles. HR-TEM analysis confirmed the size of nanoparticles in the range of 15-70 nm and also metal doping was confirmed through XRD and EDS analyses. FT-IR analysis confirmed that the presence of biomolecules in the aqueous leaves extract was responsible for nanoparticles synthesis. Further, the concentration of metals and their doping in the reaction mixture was achieved by ICP-MS. The growth curve and well diffusion study of synthesized nanoparticles were performed against food- and water-borne Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. The mode of interaction of nanoparticles on bacterial cells was demonstrated through Bio-TEM analysis. Interestingly, AgNPs and Ag-doped MnO2 NPs showed better antibacterial activity against all the tested bacterial pathogens; however, MnO2NPs alone did not show any antibacterial properties. Hence, AgNPs and Ag-doped MnO2 NPs synthesized from aqueous plant leaves extract may have important role in controlling various food spoilage caused by bacteria. PMID:26857369

  10. Synthesis of manganese spinel nanoparticles at room temperature by coprecipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Giovannelli, F.; Autret-Lambert, C.; Mathieu, C.; Chartier, T.; Delorme, F.; Seron, A

    2012-08-15

    This paper is focused on a new route to synthesize Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles by alkalisation by sodium hydroxide on a manganeous solution at room temperature. The precipitates obtained at different pH values have been characterized by XRD and TEM. Since the first addition of sodium hydroxide, a white Mn(OH){sub 2} precipitate appears. At pH=7, {gamma}-MnOOH phase is predominant with needle like shaped particles. At pH=10, hausmanite nanoparticles, which exhibits well defined cubic shape in the range 50-120 nm are obtained. This new precipitation route is a fast and easy environmentally friendly process to obtain well crystallized hausmanite nanoparticles. - Graphical abstract: TEM image showing Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles after a precipitation at pH=10. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new route to synthesize Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles has been demonstrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis has been performed by precipitation at room temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The size of the Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles is between 50 and 120 nm.

  11. Highly aluminium doped barium and strontium ferrite nanoparticles prepared by citrate auto-combustion synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Shirtcliffe, Neil J. . E-mail: neil.shirtcliffe@ntu.ac.uk; Thompson, Simon; O'Keefe, Eoin S.; Appleton, Steve; Perry, Carole C. . E-mail: carole.perry@ntu.ac.uk

    2007-02-15

    Aluminium doped barium and strontium hexaferrite nanoparticles BaAl {sub x}Fe{sub (12-x)}O{sub 19} and SrAl {sub x}Fe{sub (12-x)}O{sub 19} were synthesised via a sol-gel route using citric acid to complex the ions followed by an auto-combustion reaction. This method shows promise for the synthesis of complex ferrite powders with small particle size. It was found that around half of the iron could be substituted for aluminium in the barium ferrite with structure retention, whereas strontium aluminium ferrites could be produced with any aluminium content including total substitution of the iron. All synthesised materials consisted of particles smaller than 1 {mu}m, which is the size of a single magnetic domain, and various doping levels were achieved with the final elemental composition being within the bounds of experimental error. The materials show structural and morphological changes as they move from iron to aluminium ferrites. Such materials may be promising for imaging applications.

  12. Comparative cytotoxic response of nickel ferrite nanoparticles in human liver HepG2 and breast MFC-7 cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ahamed, Maqusood; Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Khan, M A Majeed; Alrokayan, Salman A

    2015-09-01

    Nickel ferrite nanoparticles (NPs) have received much attention for their potential applications in biomedical fields such as magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery and cancer hyperthermia. However, little is known about the toxicity of nickel ferrite NPs at the cellular and molecular levels. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic responses of nickel ferrite NPs in two different types of human cells (i.e., liver HepG2 and breast MCF-7). Nickel ferrite NPs induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity in both types of cells, which was demonstrated by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT), neutral red uptake (NRU) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Nickel ferrite NPs were also found to induce oxidative stress, which was evident by the depletion of glutathione and the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation. The mitochondrial membrane potential due to nickel ferrite NP exposure was also observed. The mRNA levels for the tumor suppressor gene p53 and the apoptotic genes bax, CASP3 and CASP9 were up-regulated, while the anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2 was down-regulated following nickel ferrite NP exposure. Furthermore, the activities of apoptotic enzymes (caspase-3 and caspase-9) were also higher in both types of cells treated with nickel ferrite NPs. Cytotoxicity induced by nickel ferrite was efficiently prevented by N-acetyl cysteine (ROS scavenger) treatment, which suggested that oxidative stress might be one of the possible mechanisms of nickel ferrite NP toxicity. We also observed that MCF-7 cells were slightly more susceptible to nickel ferrite NP exposure than HepG2 cells. This study warrants further investigation to explore the potential mechanisms of different cytotoxic responses of nickel ferrite NPs in different cell lines. PMID:25966046

  13. Enhancement in magnetic properties of magnesium substituted bismuth ferrite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jianlong; Xie, Dan E-mail: RenTL@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Teng, Changjiu; Zhang, Xiaowen; Zhang, Cheng; Sun, Yilin; Ren, Tian-Ling E-mail: RenTL@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Zeng, Min; Gao, Xingsen; Zhao, Yonggang

    2015-06-14

    We report a potential way to effectively improve the magnetic properties of BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) nanoparticles through Mg{sup 2+} ion substitution at the Fe-sites of BFO lattice. The high purity and structural changes induced by Mg doping are confirmed by X-ray powder diffractometer and Raman spectra. Enhanced magnetic properties are observed in Mg substituted samples, which simultaneously exhibit ferromagnetic and superparamagnetic properties at room temperature. A physical model is proposed to support the observed ferromagnetism of Mg doped samples, and the superparamagnetic properties are revealed by the temperature dependent magnetization measurements. The improved magnetic properties and soft nature obtained by Mg doping in BFO nanoparticles demonstrate the possibility of BFO nanoparticles to practical applications.

  14. Fine structure of the okα X-ray emission band in Sc3+-activated lithium-manganese ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, V. V.; Zhurakovskii, E. A.

    1987-11-01

    The okα x-ray emission band of oxygen in a group of magnetically soft lithium squareloop ferrites has been obtained for the first time. The form of this band is complicated, by number and position it is similar to the FeKβ5 band in the same ferrites, which suggests that the 3d states of Fe are significantly hybridized with the 2p states of oxygen and that the latter could participate in Anderson indirect exchange. The effect of small additions of Sc ions, improving the properties of the ferrite, on the spectrum of the ferrite is discussed.

  15. Copper Core-Porous Manganese Oxide Shell Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, Nachal D.; Moreno, Juana; Spivey, James J.; Kumar, Challa S.S.R.

    2011-01-01

    Core–shell nanoparticles, especially those with nanoporous oxide shells, exhibit chemical and physical properties that are distinct from those of the bulk materials due to the atomic-level proximity and morphology of the core and shell atoms. Here, we demonstrate a wet-chemical method for the synthesis of Cu core (~6.1 nm)–porous Mn₃O₄ shell (~3.4 nm thick) nanoparticles. Various characterization techniques, including synchrotron radiation-based small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) tools, confirm the core–shell structure. Both the chemical and physical properties of these Cu-based nanoparticles are influenced by the Mn₃O₄ shell. For example, the magnetic properties of the core–shell particles are found to be similar to those of Mn₃O₄ nanoparticles reported in the literature. Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) results demonstrate that these materials are catalytically active for CO adsorption and hydrogenation.

  16. Online monitoring of cell metabolism to assess the toxicity of nanoparticles: the case of cobalt ferrite.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Valentina; Ponti, Jessica; Giudetti, Guido; Broggi, Francesca; Marmorato, Patrick; Gioria, Sabrina; Franchini, Fabio; Rauscher, Hubert; Rossi, François

    2012-05-01

    Different in vitro assays are successfully used to determine the relative cytotoxicity of a broad range of compounds. Nevertheless, different research groups have pointed out the difficulty in using the same tests to assess the toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs). In this study, we evaluated the possible use of a microphysiometer, Bionas 2500 analyzing system Bionas GmbH®, to detect in real time changes in cell metabolisms linked to NPs exposure. We focused our work on response changes of fibroblast cultures linked to exposure by cobalt ferrite NPs and compared the results to conventional in vitro assays. The measurements with the microphysiometer showed a cobalt ferrite cytotoxic effect, confirmed by the Colony Forming Efficiency assay. In conclusion, this work demonstrated that the measurement of metabolic parameters with a microphysiometer is a promising method to assess the toxicity of NPs and offers the advantage to follow on-line the cell metabolic changes. PMID:21495878

  17. Investigations of cations distributions and morphology of cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandekar, Kamlesh V.; Kant, K. Mohan

    2016-05-01

    Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation method and structural properties was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) at room temperature. X-ray diffraction data was used to determine lattice parameter, X-ray density, distributions of cations among tetrahedral and octahedral sites, site radii, ionic radii and bond length of inverse spinel cobalt ferrite. XRD analysis revealed crystallinity and high intense peak correspond to cubic inverse spinel structure with average crystalline size measured by X-ray line profile fitting was found to be 13nm for most intense peak (311). The surface morphology and microstructural feature was investigated by TEM analysis which revealed that particle size varying from 12-22 nm with selected electron diffraction pattern (SAED).

  18. The superspin glass transition in zinc ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaman, O.; Ko?nkov, T.; Jirk, Z.; Maryko, M.; Veverka, M.

    2015-05-01

    Nanoparticles of the ZnxFe3-xO4 (x = 0.3-0.4) spinel phase having 5 and 15 nm size were synthesized by thermal decomposition of the respective acetylacetonates in a high boiling-point solvent employing surfactants. The collective behaviour of the nanoparticles was probed by dc and ac magnetic measurements of tightly compressed pellets of the particles and silica coated products which were prepared by reverse microemulsion technique. The assembly of bare 5 nm particles remains in the superparamagnetic state with Curie-Weiss characteristics down to 35 K when a rather sharp freezing of superspins is detected. The larger particles show a similar but more diffusive transition at 250 K. The cores encapsulated into the diamagnetic silica do not exhibit glassy freezing.

  19. Manganese oxides supported on gold nanoparticles: new findings and current controversies for the role of gold.

    PubMed

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Hosseini, Seyedeh Maedeh; Hołyńska, Małgorzata; Tomo, Tatsuya; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I

    2015-12-01

    We synthesized manganese oxides supported on gold nanoparticles (diameter <100 nm) by the reaction of KMnO4 with gold nanoparticles under hydrothermal conditions. In this green method Mn oxide is deposited on the gold nanoparticles. The compounds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and atomic absorption spectroscopy. In the next step, the water-oxidizing activities of these compounds in the presence of cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate as a non-oxo transfer oxidant were studied. The results show that these compounds are good catalysts toward water oxidation with a turnover frequency of 1.0 ± 0.1 (mmol O2/(mol Mn·s)). A comparison with other previously reported Mn oxides and important factors influencing the water-oxidizing activities of Mn oxides is also discussed. PMID:26076756

  20. Citric Acid Fuctionalized Magnetic Ferrite Nanoparticles for Photocatalytic Degradation of Azo Dye.

    PubMed

    Mahto, Triveni Kumar; Roy, Anurag; Sahoo, Banalata; Sahu, Sumanta Kumar

    2015-01-01

    In this study different magnetic ferrite nanoparticles (MFe2O4, where M = Fe, Mn, Zn) were synthesized through an aqueous coprecipitation method and then functionalized with citric acid for the degradation of azo dye present in industrial waste water. Here we evaluated the role of citric acid for photocatalytic application. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the catalytic activity in degradation of methyl orange (MO) was evaluated. The rate of MO degradation in different magnetic systems was determined by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The effect of active parameters (pH, initial MO concentration and effect of sunlight) on degradation performance was investigated. For the first time, citric acid chemistry is successfully exploited to develop a photocatalyst that can successfully degrade the dyes. This citric acid functionalized magnetic ferrite nanoparticles are very much effective for photocalytic degradation of dye and also these can be recollected with the help of permanent magnet for successive uses. PMID:26328345

  1. HRTEM Study of Oxide Nanoparticles in K3-ODS Ferritic Steel Developed for Radiation Tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiung, L; Fluss, M; Tumey, S; Kuntz, J; El-Dasher, B; Wall, M; Choi, W; Kimura, A; Willaime, F; Serruys, Y

    2009-11-02

    Crystal and interfacial structures of oxide nanoparticles and radiation damage in 16Cr-4.5Al-0.3Ti-2W-0.37 Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} ODS ferritic steel have been examined using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques. Oxide nanoparticles with a complex-oxide core and an amorphous shell were frequently observed. The crystal structure of complex-oxide core is identified to be mainly monoclinic Y{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} (YAM) oxide compound. Orientation relationships between the oxide and the matrix are found to be dependent on the particle size. Large particles (> 20 nm) tend to be incoherent and have a spherical shape, whereas small particles (< 10 nm) tend to be coherent or semi-coherent and have a faceted interface. The observations of partially amorphous nanoparticles and multiple crystalline domains formed within a nanoparticle lead us to propose a three-stage mechanism to rationalize the formation of oxide nanoparticles containing core/shell structures in as-fabricated ODS steels. Effects of nanoparticle size and density on cavity formation induced by (Fe{sup 8+} + He{sup +}) dual-beam irradiation are briefly addressed.

  2. HRTEM Study of the Role of Nanoparticles in ODS Ferritic Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiung, L; Tumey, S; Fluss, M; Serruys, Y; Willaime, F

    2011-08-30

    Structures of nanoparticles and their role in dual-ion irradiated Fe-16Cr-4.5Al-0.3Ti-2W-0.37Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (K3) ODS ferritic steel produced by mechanical alloying (MA) were studied using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques. The observation of Y{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} complex-oxide nanoparticles in the ODS steel imply that decomposition of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} in association with internal oxidation of Al occurred during mechanical alloying. HRTEM observations of crystalline and partially crystalline nanoparticles larger than {approx}2 nm and amorphous cluster-domains smaller than {approx}2 nm provide an insight into the formation mechanism of nanoparticles/clusters in MA/ODS steels, which we believe involves solid-state amorphization and re-crystallization. The role of nanoparticles/clusters in suppressing radiation-induced swelling is revealed through TEM examinations of cavity distributions in (Fe + He) dual-ion irradiated K3-ODS steel. HRTEM observations of helium-filled cavities (helium bubbles) preferably trapped at nanoparticle/clusters in dual-ion irradiated K3-ODS are presented.

  3. [Superparamagnetic Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles "Blow up" Spatial Ordering of Double-stranded DNA Molecules].

    PubMed

    Yevdokimov, Yu M; Pershina, A G; Salyanov, V I; Magaeva, A A; Popenko, V I; Shtykova, E V; Dadinova, L A; Skuridin, S G

    2015-01-01

    The formation of cholesteric liquid-crystalline dispersions formed by double-stranded DNA molecules, handled by positively charged superparamagnetic cobalt ferrite nanoparticles, as well as action of these nanoparticles on DNA dispersion, are considered. The binding of magnetic nanoparticles to the linear double-stranded DNA in solution of high ionic strength (0.3 M NaCl) and subsequent phase exclusion of these complexes from polyethylene glycol-containing solutions lead to their inability to form dispersions, whose particles do possess the spatially twisted arrangement of neighboring double-stranded DNA molecules. The action of magnetic nanoparticles on DNA dispersion (one magnetic nanoparticle per one double-stranded DNA molecule) results in such "perturbation" of DNA structure at sites of magnetic nanoparticles binding that the regular spatial structure of DNA dispersion particles "blows up"; this process is accompanied by disappearance of both abnormal optical activity and characteristic Bragg maximum on the small-angle X-ray scattering curve. Allowing with the fact that the physicochemical properties of the DNA liquid-crystalline dispersion particles reflect features of spatial organization of these molecules in chromosomes of primitive organisms, it is possible, that the found effect can have the relevant biological consequences. PMID:26349206

  4. HRTEM study of oxide nanoparticles in K3-ODS ferritic steel developed for radiation tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiung, L.; Fluss, M.; Tumey, S.; Kuntz, J.; El-Dasher, B.; Wall, M.; Choi, B.; Kimura, A.; Willaime, F.; Serruys, Y.

    2011-02-01

    Crystal and interfacial structures of oxide nanoparticles and radiation damage in 16Cr-4.5Al-0.3Ti-2W-0.37 Y 2O 3 ODS ferritic steel have been examined using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques. Oxide nanoparticles with a complex-oxide core and an amorphous shell were frequently observed. The crystal structure of complex-oxide core is identified to be mainly monoclinic Y 4Al 2O 9 (YAM) oxide compound. Orientation relationships between the oxide and the matrix are found to be dependent on the particle size. Large particles (>20 nm) tend to be incoherent and have a spherical shape, whereas small particles (<10 nm) tend to be coherent or semi-coherent and have a faceted interface. The observations of partially amorphous nanoparticles and multiple crystalline domains formed within a nanoparticle lead us to propose a three-stage mechanism to rationalize the formation of oxide nanoparticles containing core/shell structures in as-fabricated ODS steels. Effects of nanoparticle size and density on cavity formation induced by (Fe 8+ + He +) dual-beam irradiation are briefly addressed.

  5. Sapindus mukorossi mediated green synthesis of some manganese oxide nanoparticles interaction with aromatic amines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jassal, Vidhisha; Shanker, Uma; Gahlot, Sweta; Kaith, B. S.; Kamaluddin; Iqubal, Md Asif; Samuel, Pankaj

    2016-04-01

    A green route was successfully used to synthesize some manganese oxides (MO) nanoparticles like MnO2, Mn2O3 and Mn3O4 with varied Mn/O ratio. This approach involved utilization of Sapindus mukorossi (raw reetha)-water as a natural surfactant-solvent system. The most important feature of present work was that during the synthesis of nanoparticles, no harmful toxic solvent or chemicals were used in order to follow the principles of green chemistry. The size of nanoparticles was recorded below 100 nm with different shapes and morphologies. MnO2 nanoparticles were found to have needle shape, Mn2O3: spherical and Mn3O4: cubic shape. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The synthesized MO nanoparticles were found to act as a solid support cum catalysts for the oxidation and polymerization of some aromatic amines like p-anisidine, p-toluidine, p-chloroaniline and aniline.

  6. Influence of spherical assembly of copper ferrite nanoparticles on magnetic properties: orientation of magnetic easy axis.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Biplab K; Bhattacharjee, Kaustav; Dey, Abhishek; Ghosh, Chandan K; Chattopadhyay, Kalyan K

    2014-06-01

    The magnetic properties of copper ferrite (CuFe2O4) nanoparticles prepared via sol-gel auto combustion and facile solvothermal method are studied focusing on the effect of nanoparticle arrangement. Randomly oriented CuFe2O4 nanoparticles (NP) are obtained from the sol-gel auto combustion method, while the solvothermal method allows us to prepare iso-oriented uniform spherical ensembles of CuFe2O4 nanoparticles (NS). X-ray diffractometry (XRD), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), infra-red (IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), (57)Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) are used to investigate the composition, microstructure and magnetic properties of as-prepared ferrite nanoparticles. The field-dependent magnetization measurement for the NS sample at low temperature exhibits a step-like rectangular hysteresis loop (M(R)/M(S) ~ 1), suggesting cubic anisotropy in the system, whereas for the NP sample, typical features of uniaxial anisotropy (M(R)/M(S) ~ 0.5) are observed. The coercive field (HC) for the NS sample shows anomalous temperature dependence, which is correlated with the variation of effective anisotropy (K(E)) of the system. A high-temperature enhancement of H(C) and K(E) for the NS sample coincides with a strong spin-orbit coupling in the sample as evidenced by significant modification of Cu/Fe-O bond distances. The spherical arrangement of nanocrystals at mesoscopic scale provokes a high degree of alignment of the magnetic easy axis along the applied field leading to a step-like rectangular hysteresis loop. A detailed study on the temperature dependence of magnetic anisotropy of the system is carried out, emphasizing the influence of the formation of spherical iso-oriented assemblies. PMID:24714977

  7. Preparation of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles via a novel solvothermal approach using divalent iron salt as precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Jie; Green Bio- and Eco-Chem. Eng. Lab, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology ; Zhao, Jiantao; Li, Wenlie; Zhang, Shuping; Green Bio- and Eco-Chem. Eng. Lab, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology ; Tian, Zhenran; Basov, Sergey

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are obtained via solvothermal approach using Fe{sup 2+} salt as iron resource. The magnetic properties can be modified by some additives. Display Omitted Highlights: ► CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are synthesized by a facile one-step novel solvothermal method. ► The system is firstly performed in water–glycol mixture solvent with an ordinary air surrounding. ► The ferrous ions are used as iron source without adding oxidant. ► It is firstly found the low-coercivity CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles can be obtained with the help of some additives in the synthesis system. -- Abstract: Cobalt ferrite (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles are synthesized by a facile novel solvothermal method. The reactions are firstly performed in water–glycol system and Fe{sup 2+} salt is used as iron source without oxidant help. Some factors influenced the reactions, including temperature, reaction time, additives, are investigated. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The magnetic properties of some samples are detected by vibrating sample magnetometry techniques (VSM). It is firstly found that the magnetism of cobalt ferrites nanomaterials can be modified by some additives. The coercivity of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles evidently decreases from 600 to 50 Oe in the presence of PEG-4000 in the system.

  8. Effect of abrasive grit size on wear of manganese-zinc ferrite under three-body abrasion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1987-01-01

    Wear experiments were conducted using replication electron microscopy and reflection electron diffraction to study abrasion and deformed layers produced in single-crystal Mn-Zn ferrites under three-body abrasion. The abrasion mechanism of Mn-Zn ferrite changes drastically with the size of abrasive grits. With 15-micron (1000-mesh) SiC grits, abrasion of Mn-Zn ferrite is due principally to brittle fracture; while with 4- and 2-micron (4000- and 6000-mesh) SiC grits, abrasion is due to plastic deformation and fracture. Both microcracking and plastic flow produce polycrystalline states on the wear surfaces of single-crystal Mn-Zn ferrites. Coefficient of wear, total thickness of the deformed layers, and surface roughness of the wear surfaces increase markedly with an increase in abrasive grit size. The total thicknesses of the deformed layers are 3 microns for the ferrite abraded by 15-micron SiC, 0.9 microns for the ferrite abraded by 4-micron SiC, and 0.8 microns for the ferrite abraded by 1-micron SiC.

  9. Biological synthesis of manganese dioxide nanoparticles by Kalopanax pictus plant extract.

    PubMed

    Moon, Sun A; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Alkotaini, Bassam; Sathiyamoorthi, Ezhaveni; Kim, Beom Soo

    2015-08-01

    Manganese dioxide (MnO₂) nanoparticles were synthesised by the reduction of potassium permanganate (KMnO₄) using Kalopanax pictus leaf extract at room temperature. A transparent dark-brown colour appeared after the addition of K. pictus leaf extract to the solution of permanganate. The time course of the reduction of KMnO₄and synthesis of MnO₂ nanoparticles was monitored by means of UV-Vis spectra. The reduction of KMnO₄occurred after addition of plant extract with disappearance of KMnO₄specific peaks and emergence of peak specific for MnO₂nanoparticles. MnO₂nanoparticles showed absorption maxima at 404 nm. The electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses confirmed the presence of Mn and O in the sample. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed characteristic binding energies for MnO₂nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy micrographs revealed presence of uniformly dispersed spherical shaped particles with average size of 19.2 nm. The selected area electron diffraction patterns revealed the crystalline nature of MnO₂nanoparticles. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy spectra of pure MnO₂show the occurrence of O-Mn-O vibrational mode at around 518 cm⁻¹. The phyto-synthesised MnO₂nanoparticles showed degradation ability of dyes (congo red and safranin O) similar to chemically synthesised MnO₂nanoparticles. This study shows simple and eco-friendly synthesis of MnO₂nanoparticles by plant extract and their utilisation for dye degradation for the first time. PMID:26224352

  10. Synchrotron study on load partitioning between ferrite/martensite and nanoparticles of a 9Cr ODS steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Kun; Zhou, Zhangjian; Miao, Yinbin; Yun, Di; Tung, Hsiao-Ming; Zhang, Guangming; Chen, Weiying; Almer, Jonathan; Stubbins, James F.

    2014-12-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels exhibit exceptional radiation resistance and high-temperature creep strength when compared to traditional ferritic and ferritic/martensitic (F/M) steels. Their excellent mechanical properties result from very fine nanoparticles dispersed within the matrix. In this work, we applied a high-energy synchrotron radiation X-ray to study the deformation process of a 9Cr ODS steel. The load partitioning between the ferrite/martensite and the nanoparticles was observed during sample yielding. During plastic deformation, the nanoparticles experienced a dramatic loading process, and the internal stress on the nanoparticles increased to a maximum value of 3.7 GPa, which was much higher than the maximum applied stress (∼986 MPa). After necking, the loading capacity of the nanoparticles was significantly decreased due to a debonding of the particles from the matrix, as indicated by a decline in lattice strain/internal stress. Due to the load partitioning, the ferrite/martensite slightly relaxed during early yielding, and slowly strained until failure. This study develops a better understanding of loading behavior for various phases in the ODS F/M steel.

  11. Synthesis and cytotoxicity study of magnesium ferrite-gold core-shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Nonkumwong, Jeeranan; Pakawanit, Phakkhananan; Wipatanawin, Angkana; Jantaratana, Pongsakorn; Ananta, Supon; Srisombat, Laongnuan

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the core-magnesium ferrite (MgFe2O4) nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal technique. Completed gold (Au) shell coating on the surfaces of MgFe2O4 nanoparticles was obtained by varying core/shell ratios via a reduction method. Phase identification, morphological evolution, optical properties, magnetic properties and cytotoxicity to mammalian cells of these MgFe2O4 core coated with Au nanoparticles were examined by using a combination of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), vibrating sample magnetometry and resazurin microplate assay techniques. In general, TEM images revealed different sizes of the core-shell nanoparticles generated from various core/shell ratios and confirmed the completed Au shell coating on MgFe2O4 core nanoparticles via suitable core/shell ratio with particle size less than 100nm. The core-shell nanoparticle size and the quality of coating influence the optical properties of the products. The UV-vis spectra of complete coated MgFe2O4-Au core-shell nanoparticles exhibit the absorption bands in the near-Infrared (NIR) region indicating high potential for therapeutic applications. Based on the magnetic property measurement, it was found that the obtained MgFe2O4-Au core-shell nanoparticles still exhibit superparamagnetism with lower saturation magnetization value, compared with MgFe2O4 core. Both of MgFe2O4 and MgFe2O4-Au core-shell also showed in vitro non-cytotoxicity to mouse areola fibroblast (L-929) cell line. PMID:26838832

  12. Highly coercive cobalt ferrite nanoparticles-CuTl-1223 superconductor composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabbar, Abdul; Qasim, Irfan; Khan, Shahid A.; Nadeem, K.; Waqee-ur-Rehman, M.; Mumtaz, M.; Zeb, F.

    2015-03-01

    We explored the effects of highly coercive cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles addition on structural, morphological, and superconducting properties of Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2Ca2Cu3O10-δ (CuTl-1223} matrix. Series of (CoFe2O4)x/CuTl-1223 (x=0 2.0 wt%) composites samples were synthesized and were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectroscopy, and dc-resistivity versus temperature measurements. The magnetic behavior of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles was determined by MH-loops with the help of superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). MH-loops analysis showed that these nanoparticles exhibit high saturation magnetization (86 emu/g) and high coercivity (3350 Oe) at 50 K. The tetragonal structure of host CuTl-1223 superconducting matrix was not altered after the addition of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, which gave us a clue that these nanoparticles had occupied the inter-granular sites (grain-boundaries) and had filled the pores. The increase of mass density with increasing content of these nanoparticles in composites can also be an evidence of filling up the voids in the matrix. The resistivity versus temperature measurements showed an increase in zero resistivity critical {Tc(0)}, which could be most probably due to improvement of weak-links by the addition of these nanoparticles. But the addition of these nanoparticles beyond an optimum level caused the agglomeration and produced additional stresses in material and suppressed the superconductivity.

  13. Surface spin-glass in cobalt ferrite nanoparticles dispersed in silica matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeb, F.; Sarwer, W.; Nadeem, K.; Kamran, M.; Mumtaz, M.; Krenn, H.; Letofsky-Papst, I.

    2016-06-01

    Surface effects in cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles dispersed in a silica (SiO2) matrix were studied by using AC and DC magnetization. Nanoparticles with different concentration of SiO2 were synthesized by using sol-gel method. Average crystallite size lies in the range 25-34 nm for different SiO2 concentration. TEM image showed that particles are spherical and elongated in shape. Nanoparticles with higher concentration of SiO2 exhibit two peaks in the out-of-phase ac-susceptibility. First peak lies in the high temperature regime and corresponds to average blocking temperature of the nanoparticles. Second peak lies in the low temperature regime and is attributed to surface spin-glass freezing in these nanoparticles. Low temperature peak showed SiO2 concentration dependence and was vanished for large uncoated nanoparticles. The frequency dependence of the AC-susceptibility of low temperature peak was fitted with dynamic scaling law which ensures the presence of spin-glass behavior. With increasing applied DC field, the low temperature peak showed less shift as compared to blocking peak, broaden, and decreased in magnitude which also signifies its identity as spin-glass peak for smaller nanoparticles. M-H loops showed the presence of more surface disorder in nanoparticles dispersed in 60% SiO2 matrix. All these measurements revealed that surface effects become strengthen with increasing SiO2 matrix concentration and surface spins freeze in to spin-glass state at low temperatures.

  14. Preparation of silica coated cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles for the purification of histidine-tagged proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygar, Gülfem; Kaya, Murat; Özkan, Necati; Kocabıyık, Semra; Volkan, Mürvet

    2015-12-01

    Surface modified cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles containing Ni-NTA affinity group were synthesized and used for the separation of histidine tag proteins from the complex matrices through the use of imidazole side chains of histidine molecules. Firstly, CoFe2O4 nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution were prepared in an aqueous solution using the controlled co-precipitation method. In order to obtain small CoFe2O4 agglomerates, oleic acid and sodium chloride were used as dispersants. The CoFe2O4 particles were coated with silica and subsequently the surface of these silica coated particles (SiO2-CoFe2O4) was modified by amine (NH2) groups in order to add further functional groups on the silica shell. Then, carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups were added to the SiO2-CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles through the NH2 groups. After that Nα,Nα-Bis(carboxymethyl)-L-lysine hydrate (NTA) was attached to carboxyl ends of the structure. Finally, the surface modified nanoparticles were labeled with nickel (Ni) (II) ions. Furthermore, the modified SiO2-CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles were utilized as a new system that allows purification of the N-terminal His-tagged recombinant small heat shock protein, Tpv-sHSP 14.3.

  15. Electromagnetic properties of NiZn ferrite nanoparticles and their polymer composites

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, P.; Duncan, K.; Giri, A. K.; Xiao, J. Q.; Karna, S. P.

    2014-05-07

    The magnetic properties of polycrystalline NiZn ferrite nanoparticles synthesized using a polyol-reduction and coprecipitation reaction methods have been investigated. The effects on magnetization of synthesis approach, chemical composition, processing conditions, and on the size of nanoparticles on magnetization have been investigated. The measured room-temperature magnetization for the as-prepared magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) synthesized via polyol-reduction and coprecipitation is 69 Am{sup 2} kg{sup −1} and 14 Am{sup 2} kg{sup −1}, respectively. X-ray diffraction measurements confirm spinel structure of the particles with an estimated grain size of ∼80 nm obtained from the polyol-reduction and 28 nm obtained from these coprecipitation techniques. Upon calcination under atmospheric conditions at different temperatures between 800 °C and 1000 °C, the magnetization, M, of the coprecipitated MNP increases to 76 Am{sup 2} kg{sup −1} with an estimated grain size of 90 nm. The MNP-polymer nanocomposites made from the synthesized MNP in various loading fraction and high density polyethylene exhibit interesting electromagnetic properties. The measured permeability and permittivity of the magnetic nanoparticle-polymer nanocomposites increases with the loading fractions of the magnetic nanoparticles, suggesting control for impedance matching for antenna applications.

  16. Room temperature optical and dielectric properties of Sr and Ni doped lanthanum ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naseem, Swaleha; Khan, Wasi; Singh, B. R.; Naqvi, A. H.

    2015-06-01

    Strontium and nickel doped lanthanum ferrite (LaFeO3) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared reverse micelle (RM) and calcinated at 700°C. Microstructural studies were carried by XRD and SEM/EDS techniques. The results of structural characterization show the formation of all samples in single phase without any impurity. Optical properties were studied by UV- visible spectroscopy and band gap energy was estimated 3.89 eV. Room temperature dielectric constant (ɛ') decreases abruptly at lower frequencies owing to the charge transport relaxation time. The observed behavior of the dielectric properties can be attributed on the basis of Koop's theory based on Maxwell-Wagner's two layer model in studied nanoparticles.

  17. Photochemical modulation of biosafe manganese nanoparticles on Vigna radiata: a detailed molecular, biochemical, and biophysical study.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Saheli; Patra, Prasun; Das, Sumistha; Chandra, Sourov; Mitra, Shouvik; Dey, Kushal Kumar; Akbar, Shirin; Palit, Pratip; Goswami, Arunava

    2013-11-19

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element for plants which intervenes mainly in photosynthesis. In this study we establish that manganese nanoparticles (MnNP) work as a better micronutrient than commercially available manganese salt, MnSO4 (MS) at recommended doses on leguminous plant mung bean (Vigna radiata) under laboratory condition. At higher doses it does not impart toxicity to the plant unlike MS. MnNP-treated chloroplasts show greater photophosphorylation, oxygen evolution with respect to control and MS-treated chloroplasts as determined by biophysical and biochemical techniques. Water splitting by an oxygen evolving complex is enhanced by MnNP in isolated chloroplast as confirmed by polarographic and spectroscopic techniques. Enhanced activity of the CP43 protein of a photosystem II (PS II) Mn4Ca complex influenced better phosphorylation in the electron transport chain in the case of MnNP-treated chloroplast, which is evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and corresponding Western blot analysis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report to augment photosynthesis using MnNP and its detailed correlation with different molecular, biochemical and biophysical parameters of photosynthetic pathways. At effective dosage, MnNP is found to be biosafe both in plant and animal model systems. Therefore MnNP would be a novel potential nanomodulator of photochemistry in the agricultural sector. PMID:24144189

  18. Colorimetric detection of manganese(II) ions using gold/dopa nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Kannan Badri; Park, Hyun Ho

    2014-10-15

    We report here a one-pot, greener, eco-friendly strategy for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using L-dopa. The as-prepared dopa-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs/dopa) can detect low concentrations of manganese(II) metal ions in aqueous solution. The binding forces between dopa and Mn(2+) ions cause dopa-functionalized gold nanoparticles to come closer together, decreasing the interparticle distance and aggregating it with a change in color of colloidal solution from red to purplish-blue. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis showed a decreased surface charge on the surface of gold nanoparticles when exposed to Mn(2+) ions, which caused cross-linking aggregation. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) images also revealed the aggregation of gold nanoparticles with the addition of Mn(2+) ions. The extinction ratio of absorbance at 700-550nm (A700/A550) was linear against the concentration of [Mn(2+)] ions. Thus, the optical absorption spectra of gold colloidal solution before and after the addition of Mn(2+) ions reveal the concentration of Mn(2+) ions in solution. PMID:24825666

  19. Energy Migration Upconversion in Manganese(II)-Doped Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiyan; Liu, Xiaowang; Chevrier, Daniel M; Qin, Xian; Xie, Xiaoji; Song, Shuyan; Zhang, Hongjie; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Xiaogang

    2015-11-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of cubic NaGdF4:Yb/Tm@NaGdF4:Mn core-shell structures. By taking advantage of energy transfer through Yb→Tm→Gd→Mn in these core-shell nanoparticles, we have realized upconversion emission of Mn(2+) at room temperature in lanthanide tetrafluoride based host lattices. The upconverted Mn(2+) emission, enabled by trapping the excitation energy through a Gd(3+) lattice, was validated by the observation of a decreased lifetime from 941 to 532 μs in the emission of Gd(3+) at 310 nm ((6)P(7/2)→(8)S(7/2)). This multiphoton upconversion process can be further enhanced under pulsed laser excitation at high power densities. Both experimental and theoretical studies provide evidence for Mn(2+) doping in the lanthanide-based host lattice arising from the formation of F(-) vacancies around Mn(2+) ions to maintain charge neutrality in the shell layer. PMID:26358961

  20. Synthesis of nickel–zinc ferrite magnetic nanoparticle and dye degradation using photocatalytic ozonation

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad; Bashiri, Marziyeh; Moeen, Shirin Jebeli

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Nickel–zinc ferrite magnetic nanoparticle (NZFMN) was synthesized and characterized. ► Dye degradation by photocatalytic ozonation using NZFMN was studied. ► Formate, acetate and oxalate were detected as dominant dye degradation aliphatic intermediates. ► Nitrate, sulfate and chloride ions were detected as mineralization products of dyes. ► NZFMN was an effective magnetic nanocatalyst to degrade dyes. -- Abstract: In this paper, nickel–zinc ferrite magnetic nanoparticle (NZFMN) was synthesized and its dye degradation ability using photocatalytic ozonation was investigated. The NZFMN was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopic (SEM), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) and alternative gradient force magnetometer (AGFM). Reactive Red 198 (RR198) and Direct Green 6 (DG6) were used as dye models. UV–vis and ion chromatography (IC) analyses were employed to study dye degradation. The effects of operational parameters on decolorization such as NZFMN dosage, dye concentration, salt and pH were studied. RR198 and DG6 were completely decolorized (100%) by photocatalytic ozonation using NZFMN. Formate, acetate and oxalate anions were detected as dominant aliphatic intermediates. Nitrate, sulfate and chloride ions were detected as mineralization products of dyes. Results showed that the photocatalytic ozonation using NZFMN was a very effective method for dye degradation.

  1. Synthesis, structural and magnetic behavior studies of Zn-Al substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, Samad; Ati, Ali A.; Dabagh, Shadab; Rosnan, R. M.; Othaman, Zulkafli

    2015-06-01

    A series of nano-sized Zn-Al substituted cobalt ferrite Co(1-x)Zn(x)Fe2-xAlxO4 with 0.0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1.0 have been synthesized by chemical co-precipitation technique. The XRD spectra revealed the single phase spinel structure of Co(1-x)Zn(x)Fe2-xAlxO4 with average size of nanoparticles are estimated to be 17-30 nm. These are small enough to achieve the suitable signal to noise ratio, which is important in the high-density recording media. The FTIR spectra show the characteristic of two strong absorption bands at 560-600 cm-1 corresponds to the intrinsic stretching vibrations of the metal at the tetrahedral site and lowest band is observed at 370-410 cm-1 corresponds to octahedral site. The crystalline structures of nanoparticles composite were characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM). The magnetic properties such as saturation magnetization, remanence magnetization, and coercivity were calculated from the hysteresis loops. Saturation magnetization were found to increase up to x = 0.4 while remanence magnetization and coercivity continuously decrease with increasing Zn-Al concentration. The stability in coercivity while increase in saturation magnetization confirms that the Co0.6Zn0.4Fe1.6Al0.4O4 ferrite sample is suitable for applications in high-density recording media.

  2. Ultrafast and continuous synthesis of crystalline ferrite nanoparticles in supercritical ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascu, Oana; Marre, Samuel; Aymonier, Cyril; Roig, Anna

    2013-02-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are of increasing interest in various industrially relevant products. For these, the development of greener and faster approaches facilitating scaling-up production is of paramount importance. Here, we report a novel, green and potentially scalable approach for the continuous and ultrafast (90 s) synthesis of superparamagnetic ferrite NPs (MnFe2O4, Fe3O4) in supercritical ethanol (scEtOH) at a fairly moderate temperature (260 °C). ScEtOH exhibits numerous advantages such as its production from bio-resources, its lack of toxicity and its relatively low supercritical coordinates (pc = 6.39 MPa and Tc = 243 °C), being therefore appropriate for the development of sustainable technologies. The present study is completed by the investigation of both in situ and ex situ NP surface functionalization. The as-obtained nanoparticles present good crystallinity, sizes below 8 nm, superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature and high saturation magnetization. Moreover, depending on the capping strategy, the ferrite NPs present extended (for in situ coated NPs) or short-term (for ex situ coated NPs) colloidal stability.

  3. Influence of manganese substitution on the microstructure and magnetostrictive properties of Co1-xMnxFe2O4 (x = 0.0-0.4) ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atif, M.; Sato Turtelli, R.; Grossinger, R.; Kubel, F.

    2013-04-01

    Manganese substituted cobalt ferrite, Co1-xMnxFe2O4 (x = 0.0-0.4), was prepared by a ceramic method. The heat-treated powders were pressed at hydrostatic pressure of 167 MPa, and were annealed at 1350 °C for 24 h. These samples present a single-phase cubic spinel structure and the compositional mass ratios are close to the empirical formula. The lattice constant determined from XRD increases with the increase of Mn content, whereas SEM study reveals that Mn substitution changes the microstructure and cause pores within the grains, which reduces the bulk density of the samples. The magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant, coercive field, and magnetostriction were observed to decrease with increasing Mn substitution; however, the strain derivative (dλ/dH) reaches a maximum value for x = 0.3. The observed variation in strain derivative in the Mn substituted cobalt ferrite is correlated to the microstructure whereas the reduced anisotropy of the system plays only a minor role.

  4. Magnetic properties of cobalt-ferrite nanoparticles embedded in polystyrene resin

    SciTech Connect

    Vaishnava, P. P.; Senaratne, U.; Buc, E.; Naik, R.; Naik, V. M.; Tsoi, G.; Wenger, L. E.; Boolchand, P.

    2006-04-15

    Samples of maghemite and cobalt-ferrite nanoparticles (sizes, 3-10 nm) were prepared by cross-linking sulfonated polystyrene resin with aqueous solutions of (1) FeCl{sub 2}, (2) 80%FeCl{sub 2}+20%CoCl{sub 2}, (3) FeCl{sub 3}, and (4) 80%FeCl{sub 3}+20%CoCl{sub 2} by volume. Chemical analysis, x-ray powder-diffraction, and {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopic measurements show that samples 1 and 3 consist of {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles (sizes, {approx}10 and 3 nm) and sample 2 and 4 consist of Co{sub x}Fe{sub 3-x}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (sizes, {approx}10 and 4 nm). The temperature dependence of the zero-field-cooled and field-cooled magnetizations at low temperatures, together with a magnetic hysteresis in the M versus H data below blocking temperatures, demonstrate superparamagnetic behavior. The introduction of Co in the iron oxide-resin matrix results in an increase in the blocking temperature of nanoparticles.

  5. Microstructural and Mössbauer properties of low temperature synthesized Ni-Cd-Al ferrite nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We report the influence of Al3+ doping on the microstructural and Mössbauer properties of ferrite nanoparticles of basic composition Ni0.2Cd0.3Fe2.5 - xAlxO4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) prepared through simple sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR), and Mössbauer spectroscopy techniques were used to investigate the structural, chemical, and Mössbauer properties of the grown nanoparticles. XRD results confirm that all the samples are single-phase cubic spinel in structure excluding the presence of any secondary phase corresponding to any structure. SEM micrographs show the synthesized nanoparticles are agglomerated but spherical in shape. The average crystallite size of the grown nanoparticles was calculated through Scherrer formula and confirmed by TEM and was found between 2 and 8 nm (± 1). FTIR results show the presence of two vibrational bands corresponding to tetrahedral and octahedral sites. Mössbauer spectroscopy shows that all the samples exhibit superparamagnetism, and the quadrupole interaction increases with the substitution of Al3+ ions. PMID:21851597

  6. In-situ high-pressure x-ray diffraction study of zinc ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, S.; Kumar, R. S.; Grinblat, F.; Aphesteguy, J. C.; Saccone, F. D.; Errandonea, D.

    2016-06-01

    We have studied the high-pressure structural behavior of zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) nanoparticles by powder X-ray diffraction measurements up to 47 GPa. We found that the cubic spinel structure of ZnFe2O4 remains up to 33 GPa and a phase transition is induced beyond this pressure. The high-pressure phase is indexed to an orthorhombic CaMn2O4-type structure. Upon decompression the low- and high-pressure phases coexist. The compressibility of both structures was also investigated. We have observed that the lattice parameters of the high-pressure phase behave anisotropically upon compression. Further, we predict possible phase transition around 55 GPa. For comparison, we also studied the compression behavior of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles by X-ray diffraction up to 23 GPa. Spinel-type ZnFe2O4 and Fe3O4 nanoparticles have a bulk modulus of 172 (20) GPa and 152 (9) GPa, respectively. This indicates that in both cases the nanoparticles do not undergo a Hall-Petch strengthening.

  7. L-DOPA-Coated Manganese Oxide Nanoparticles as Dual MRI Contrast Agents and Drug-Delivery Vehicles.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, Birgitte Hjelmeland; Singh, Gurvinder; Hak, Sjoerd; Bandyopadhyay, Sulalit; Augestad, Ingrid Lovise; Peddis, Davide; Sandvig, Ioanna; Sandvig, Axel; Glomm, Wilhelm Robert

    2016-01-01

    Manganese oxide nanoparticles (MONPs) are capable of time-dependent magnetic resonance imaging contrast switching as well as releasing a surface-bound drug. MONPs give T2/T2* contrast, but dissolve and release T1-active Mn(2+) and L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine. Complementary images are acquired with a single contrast agent, and applications toward Parkinson's disease are suggested. PMID:26619158

  8. Iron-based soft magnetic composites with Mn-Zn ferrite nanoparticles coating obtained by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shen; Sun, Aizhi; Xu, Wenhuan; Zhang, Qian; Zhai, Fuqiang; Logan, Philip; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2012-11-01

    This paper focuses on iron-based soft magnetic composites which were synthesized by utilizing Mn-Zn ferrite nanoparticles to coat iron powder. The nanocrystalline iron powders, with an average particle diameter of 20 nm, were obtained via the sol-gel method. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and distribution maps show that the iron particle surface is covered with a thin layer of Mn-Zn ferrites. Mn-Zn ferrite uniformly coated the surface of the powder particles, resulting in a reduced imaginary permeability, increased electrical resistivity and a higher operating frequency of the synthesized magnets. Mn-Zn ferrite coated samples have higher permeability and lower magnetic loss when compared with the non-magnetic epoxy resin coated compacts. The real part of permeability increases by 33.5% when compared with the epoxy resin coated samples at 10 kHz. The effects of heat treatment temperature on crystalline phase formation and on the magnetic properties of the Mn-Zn ferrite were investigated via X-ray diffraction and a vibrating sample magnetometer. Ferrites decomposed to FeO and MnO after annealing above 400 °C in nitrogen; thus it is the optimum annealing temperature to attain the desired permeability.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of CoFe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles obtained by an electrochemical method.

    PubMed

    Mazarío, E; Herrasti, P; Morales, M P; Menéndez, N

    2012-09-01

    Uniform size cobalt ferrite nanoparticles have been synthesized in one step using an electrochemical technique. Synthesis parameters such as the current density, temperature and stirring were optimized to produce pure cobalt ferrite. The nanoparticles have been investigated by means of magnetic measurements, Mössbauer spectroscopy, x-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The average size of the electrosynthesized samples was controlled by the synthesis parameters and this showed a rather narrow size distribution. The x-ray analysis shows that the CoFe(2)O(4) obtained presents a totally inverse spinel structure. The magnetic properties of the stoichiometric nanoparticles show ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature with a coercivity up to 6386 Oe and a saturation magnetization of 85 emu g(-1). PMID:22894928

  10. Structural characterization of microwave-synthesized zinc-substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmar, Harshida; Desai, Rucha; Upadhyay, R. V.

    2011-07-01

    Microwave combustion technique modified by post treatment procedure is used to synthesize single-phase spinel ferrites of cobalt, zinc, and substituted magnetic nanoparticles of typical size 390 Å. The post treatment does not alter the crystal structure but increases the crystallinity. This is confirmed by powder x-ray diffraction and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) studies. Citric acid is used as a fuel. The fresh synthesized sample shows an impurity phase in x-ray and in FTIR. This is due to the unreacted citrate molecule adsorbed on the particle surface. It is shown that by treating the sample with 0.1 M HCl, we can eliminate the impurity phase, and one can obtain a pure single phase. The magnetization at 8 kOe increases by nearly 8% after the removal of impurity. In order to remove surface adsorbed OH- ion, samples are treated with NaCl and heated to 200°C for four hours. The XRD result indicates that after the treatment neither the crystallite size nor the distribution changes, but it removes OH- ion. This is also confirmed by FTIR analysis. Thus, this modified technique can be used to synthesize pure nanocrystalline samples of spinel ferrites.

  11. Structural and magnetic properties correlated with cation distribution of Mo-substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiba, Z. K.; Mostafa, Nasser Y.; Abd-Elkader, Omar H.

    2014-11-01

    Mo-substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles; CoFe2-2xMoxO4 (0.0≤x≤0.3) were prepared by a one-step solution combustion synthesis technique. The reactants were metal nitrates and glycine as a fuel. The samples were characterized using an X-ray diffraction (XRD), a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). XRD analysis revealed a pure single phase of cubic spinel ferrites for all samples with x up to 0.3. The lattice parameter decreases with Mo6+ substitution linearly up to x=0.15, then nonlinearly for x≥0.2. Rietveld analysis and saturation magnetization (Ms) revealed that Mo6+ replaced Fe3+ in the tetrahedral A-sites up to x=0.15, then it replaced Fe3+ in both A-sites and B-sites for x≥0.2. The saturation magnetization (Ms) increases with increasing Mo6+ substitution up to x=0.15 then decreases. The crystallite size decreased while the microstrain increased with increasing Mo6+ substitution. Inserting Mo6+ produces large residents of defects and cation vacancies.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Cobalt Substituted Zinc Ferrite Nanoparticles by Microwave Combustion Method.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, M; Kennedy, L John; Vijaya, J Judith

    2015-09-01

    Pure and cobalt doped zinc ferrites were prepared by microwave combustion method using L-arginine as a fuel. The prepared samples were characterized by various instrumental techniques such as X-ray powder diffractometry, high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis, Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy and UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Vibrating sample magnetometry at room temperature was recorded to study the magnetic behavior of the samples. X-ray analysis confirmed the formation of zinc ferrites normal spinel-type structure with an average crystallite sizes in the range, 25.69 nm to 35.68 nm. The lattice parameters decreased as cobalt fraction was increased. The HR-SEM images showed nanoparticles are agglomerated. The estimated band gap energy value was found to decrease with an increase in cobalt content (1.87 to 1.62 eV). Broad visible emissions are observed in the photoluminescence spectra. A gradual increase in the coercivity and saturation magnetization (M(s)) were noted at relatively higher cobalt doping fractions. PMID:26716235

  13. Influence of Ce-Substitution on Structural, Magnetic and Electrical Properties of Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashhash, A.; Kaiser, M.

    2016-01-01

    Nano-crystalline samples of cerium substituted cobalt ferrites with chemical formula CoCe x Fe2- x O4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1) were prepared using the citrate auto-combustion method. The prepared ferrites were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The XRD patterns and FTIR spectra confirm that the prepared samples reveal the formation of a single-phase spinel structure. TEM micrographs showed that the particles are made up of spherical and elongated nano-metric shapes. A limitation of the size of nanoparticles is observed as the Ce3+ concentration increases. VSM measurements showed that the coercivity H c and magnetization values M s are strongly dependent on Ce3+ content and particle size. The values of H c lie in the range of (411-1600 G), which suggest that these samples are convenient for different applications. The alternating current electrical conductivity ( σ), dielectric permittivities ( ɛ', ɛ″), and dielectric loss tangent (tan δ) were studied at different ranges of frequency and temperature. The relation of conductivity with temperature revealed a semiconductor to semi-metallic behavior as cerium concentration increases. The variation in (tan δ) with frequency at different temperature shows abnormal behavior with more than one relaxation peak. The conduction mechanism used in the present study has been discussed in the light of cation-anion-cation interactions over the octahedral B-site.

  14. Amperometric ascorbic acid sensor based on doped ferrites nanoparticles modified glassy carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Dimitrijević, Teodora; Vulić, Predrag; Manojlović, Dragan; Nikolić, Aleksandar S; Stanković, Dalibor M

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a novel electrochemical sensor for quantification of ascorbic acid with amperometric detection in physiological conditions was constructed. For this purpose, cobalt and nickel ferrites were synthesized using microwave and ultrasound assistance, characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and used for modification of glassy carbon paste electrode (GCPE). It was shown that introducing these nanoparticles to the structure of GCPE led to increasing analytical performance. Co ferrite modified GCPE (CoFeGCPE) showed better characteristics toward ascorbic acid sensing. The limit of detection (LOD) obtained by sensor was calculated to be 0.0270 mg/L, with linear range from 0.1758 to 2.6010 mg/L. This sensor was successfully applied for practical analysis, and the obtained results demonstrated that the proposed procedure could be a promising replacement for the conventional electrode materials and time-consuming and expensive separation methods. PMID:27059753

  15. Giant antiresonance in electromagnetic wave reflection from a 3D structure with ferrite spinel nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustinov, V. V.; Rinkevich, A. B.; Perov, D. V.; Burkhanov, A. M.; Samoylovich, M. I.; Kleshcheva, S. M.; Kuznetsov, E. A.

    2013-04-01

    We analyze the microwave properties of nanocomposite materials obtained by embedding opal matrices (regular packing of SiO2 spheres about 250 nm in diameter) of ferrite spinel nanoparticles in the interspherical space. It is found that the main reason for microwave changes is the magnetic resonance in a nanocomposite. In addition to the resonance, antiresonance also takes place, which is manifested as a minimum of absorbed power at frequencies higher than a certain frequency characteristic of the given type of ferrite particles. Antiresonance appears in the fields smaller than the resonance field. The amplitude of the reflected signal in antiresonance increases fourfold. The measurements are taken in the frequency range from 26 to 38 GHz. The change in the moduli of transmission and reflection coefficients in the external magnetic field in a rectangular waveguide containing a nanocomposite is analyzed. The modulus of the wave transmittance through a rectangular resonator with a nanocomposite specimen is measured. The structural analysis of nanocomposites is carried out. In addition, the magnetization curves and hysteresis loops are measured.

  16. Effect of Ni2+ substitution on structural and magnetic properties of Ni-Zn ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Ch.; Tirupanyam, B. V.; Satish, A.; Seshubai, V.; Sastry, D. L.; Caltun, O. F.

    2015-05-01

    A series of co-precipitated NixZn1-xFe2O4 (x=0.5, 0.6, 0.7) ferrite nanoparticles heat treated at 200 °C were produced in order to understand the influence of substitution level on structural and magnetic properties including magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The XRD, FE-SEM, VSM and FC-ZFC techniques were used to characterize the samples. It is observed that as Ni2+ concentration increases crystallite size (D), saturation magnetization (Ms) and blocking temperature (TB) and decreases coercive field (Hc). All particles exhibit superparamagnetism at room temperature and hence lie in the single domain range. The magnetic anisotropy constant (K) is estimated to be maximum for Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 sample, whose particle size is the smallest. The results are interpreted presuming the presence of core shell interactions and/or cation redistribution that influence the magnetic properties of these ferrite nano particles.

  17. Competing magnetic interactions in nickel ferrite nanoparticle clusters: Role of magnetic interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Rakesh; Annapoorni, S.; Lamba, Subhalakshmi; Sharma, Parmanand; Inoue, Akihisa

    2008-09-01

    The magnetic behavior of nickel ferrite nanoparticles of different sizes was studied by annealing nickel ferrite powders at temperatures ranging from 300 to 900 °C. Transmission electron microscopy studies show that the average particle sizes change from ˜8 to ˜120 nm with increasing annealing temperatures. The x-ray diffraction patterns of the annealed samples reveal that a single phase is retained. Hysteresis measurements performed up to a field of 10 kOe show a tendency toward saturation. The saturation magnetization is found to increase with annealing temperature (particle size) with the magnetization tending toward the bulk value for powders annealed at 900 °C. Zero field cooled-field cooled measurements performed at 0.5 kOe indicate the presence of a superparamagnetic phase up to an annealing temperature of 700 °C with blocking temperatures in the range of 150-330 K. Numerical simulations are carried out using an interacting model of an array of single domain magnetic particles to explain the change in the magnetic behavior of the samples with annealing temperature and to estimate the anisotropy of the system. Our studies indicate that the observed magnetic behavior can be explained by the changes in the anisotropy of the system and the dominance of the short range interparticle exchange interactions over the long range dipolar interactions with increasing particle sizes. This change in the interaction profile is further confirmed by the Henkel plots for the particles annealed at different temperatures.

  18. Synergetic effect of size and morphology of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles on proton relaxivity.

    PubMed

    N, Venkatesha; Srivastava, Chandan; Hegde, Veena

    2014-12-01

    Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with average sizes of 14, 9 and 6 nm were synthesised by the chemical co-precipitation technique. Average particle sizes were varied by changing the chitosan surfactant to precursor molar ratio in the reaction mixture. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed a faceted and irregular morphology for the as-synthesised nanoparticles. Magnetic measurements revealed a ferromagnetic nature for the 14 and 9 nm particles and a superparamagnetic nature for the 6 nm particles. An increase in saturation magnetisation with increasing particle size was noted. Relaxivity measurements were carried out to determine T2 value as a function of particle size using nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. The relaxivity coefficient increased with decrease in particle size and decrease in the saturation magnetisation value. The observed trend in the change of relaxivity value with particle size was attributed to the faceted nature of as-synthesised nanoparticles. Faceted morphology results in the creation of high gradient of magnetic field in the regions adjacent to the facet edges increasing the relaxivity value. The effect of edges in increasing the relaxivity value increases with decrease in the particle size because of an increase in the total number of edges per particle dispersion. PMID:25429495

  19. Evaluation of nickel ferrite nanoparticles coated with oleylamine by NMR relaxation measurements and magnetic hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Menelaou, M; Georgoula, K; Simeonidis, K; Dendrinou-Samara, C

    2014-03-01

    Nickel ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized via a facile solvothermal approach. Oleylamine (OAm) was used in all synthetic procedures as a stabilizing agent and solvent. By varying the polarity of the solvents, hydrophobic NiFe2O4 nanoparticles coated with OAm of relatively similar sizes (9-11.7 nm) and in a range of magnetization values (32.0-53.5 emu g(-1)) were obtained. The as-prepared hydrophobic nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM, TGA and VSM and converted to hydrophilic by two different approaches. The addition of a positively charged ligand (cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, CTAB) and the ligand exchange procedure (2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid, DMSA) have been successfully applied. The aqueous suspensions of NiFe2O4@CTAB and NiFe2O4@DMSA showed good colloidal stability after a long period of time. The different surface modification affected both the NMR relaxometric measurements and the hyperthermia effects. In both techniques CTAB modification demonstrated higher r2 relaxivity (278.9 s(-1) mM(-1) in an NMR spectrometer at 11.7 T) and SAR values (423.4 W g(-1) at an applied AC field with a particle concentration of 0.5 mg mL(-1)). The results indicate that a coating with a larger molecule as CTAB under the same size, shape and magnetization of NiFe2O4 NPs gave rise to NMR relaxometric properties and heating efficacy. PMID:24413465

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on the structural and magnetic properties of Co–Zn spinel ferrite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Raut, Anil V.; Kurmude, D.V.; Shengule, D.R.; Jadhav, K.M.

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Co–Zn ferrite nanoparticles were examined before and after γ-irradiation. • Single phase cubic spinel structure of Co–Zn was confirmed by XRD data. • The grain size was reported in the range of 52–62 nm after γ-irradiation. • Ms, Hc, n{sub B} were reported to be increased after gamma irradiation. - Abstract: In this work, the structural and magnetic properties of Co{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0) ferrite nanoparticles were studied before and after gamma irradiation. The as-synthesized samples of Co–Zn ferrite nanoparticles prepared by sol–gel auto-combustion technique were analysed by XRD which suggested the single phase; cubic spinel structure of the material. Crystal defects produced in the spinel lattice were studied before and after Co{sup 60} γ-irradiation in a gamma cell with a dose rate of 0.1 Mrad/h in order to report the changes in structural and magnetic properties of the Co–Zn ferrite nanoparticles. The average crystallite size (t), lattice parameter (α) and other structural parameters of gamma-irradiated and un-irradiated Co{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel ferrite system was calculated from XRD data. The morphological characterizations were performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The magnetic properties were measured using pulse field hysteresis loop tracer by applying magnetic field of 1000 Oe, and the analysis of data obtained revealed that the magnetic property such as saturation magnetization (Ms), coecivity (Hc), magneton number (n{sub B}) etc. magnetic parameters were increased after irradiation.

  1. Fabrication of a glucose biosensor based on citric acid assisted cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Rahul; Titus, Elby; Chandra, Sudeshna; Bardhan, Neel Kanth; Krishna, Rohit; Bahadur, Dhirendra; Gracio, José

    2012-08-01

    A novel and practical glucose biosensor was fabricated with immobilization of Glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme on the surface of citric acid (CA) assisted cobalt ferrite (CF) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). This innovative sensor was constructed with glassy carbon electrode which is represented as (GOx)/CA-CF/(GCE). An explicit high negative zeta potential value (-22.4 mV at pH 7.0) was observed on the surface of CA-CF MNPs. Our sensor works on the principle of detection of H2O2 which is produced by the enzymatic oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid. This sensor has tremendous potential for application in glucose biosensing due to the higher sensitivity 2.5 microA/cm2-mM and substantial increment of the anodic peak current from 0.2 microA to 10.5 microA. PMID:22962799

  2. Cellular distribution and degradation of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles in Balb/3T3 mouse fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Marmorato, Patrick; Ceccone, Giacomo; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Pascolo, Lorella; Ponti, Jessica; Rossi, François; Salomé, Murielle; Kaulich, Burkhard; Kiskinova, Maya

    2011-11-30

    The effect of the concentration of cobalt ferrite (CoFe(2)O(4)) nanoparticles (NPs) on their intracellular location and distribution has been explored by synchrotron radiation X-ray and fluorescence microscopy (SR-XRF) monitoring the evolution of NPs elemental composition as well. In cells exposed to low concentrations of CoFe(2)O(4) NPs, the NPs preferentially segregate in the perinuclear region preserving their initial chemical content. At concentrations exceeding 500 μM the XRF spectra indicate the presence of Co and Fe also in the nuclear region, accompanied by sensible changes in the cellular morphology. The increase of the Co/Fe ratio measured in the nuclear compartment indicates that above certain concentrations the CoFe(2)O(4) NPs intracellular distribution could be accompanied by biodegradation resulting in Co accumulation in the nucleus. PMID:21925252

  3. Aqueous synthesis and transmission electron microscopy observation of seed-grown spherical ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, T.; Tada, M.; Nakagawa, T.; Abe, M.

    2012-03-01

    Uniform-sized spherical iron ferrite nanoparticles grew on seed crystals in an aqueous solution containing sucrose. Using the seed crystals which were highly dispersed in acidic or alkaline seed-crystal suspension without relation to pH of the suspension, we widely controlled the particle diameter in the range 20-200 nm by changing the additive amount of the seed crystals. By transmission electron microscopy observation and X-ray diffraction analysis, it indicated that the particles were highly crystalline but not amorphous. Selected area diffraction patterns of the particles by using transmission electron microscope revealed that the particles were composed of one to several crystals. Thus we provided the evidence that the particles grew on clusters composed of one to several seed crystals to which those of several dozen seed crystals were disintegrated.

  4. Manganese doping of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: tailoring surface reactivity for a regenerable heavy metal sorbent.

    PubMed

    Warner, Cynthia L; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Mackie, Katherine E; Neiner, Doinita; Saraf, Laxmikant V; Droubay, Timothy C; Warner, Marvin G; Addleman, R Shane

    2012-02-28

    A method for tuning the analyte affinity of magnetic, inorganic nanostructured sorbents for heavy metal contaminants is described. The manganese-doped iron oxide nanoparticle sorbents have a remarkably high affinity compared to the precursor material. Sorbent affinity can be tuned toward an analyte of interest simply by adjustment of the dopant quantity. The results show that following the Mn doping process there is a large increase in affinity and capacity for heavy metals (i.e., Co, Ni, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, Hg, and Tl). Capacity measurements were carried out for the removal of cadmium from river water and showed significantly higher loading than the relevant commercial sorbents tested for comparison. The reduction in Cd concentration from 100 ppb spiked river water to 1 ppb (less than the EPA drinking water limit of 5 ppb for Cd) was achieved following treatment with the Mn-doped iron oxide nanoparticles. The Mn-doped iron oxide nanoparticles were able to load ~1 ppm of Cd followed by complete stripping and recovery of the Cd with a mild acid wash. The Cd loading and stripping is shown to be consistent through multiple cycles with no loss of sorbent performance. PMID:22329500

  5. Manganese Doping of Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Tailoring Surface Reactivity for a Regenerable Heavy Metal Sorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, Cynthia L.; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Mackie, Katherine E.; Neiner, Doinita; Saraf, Laxmikant; Droubay, Timothy C.; Warner, Marvin G.; Addleman, Raymond S.

    2012-02-28

    A method for tuning the analyte affinity of magnetic, inorganic nanostructured sorbents for heavy metal contaminants is described. The manganese-doped iron oxide nanoparticle sorbents have a remarkably high affinity compared to the precursor material. Sorbent affinity can be tuned toward an analyte of interest simply by adjustment of the dopant quantity. The results show that following the Mn doping process there is a large increase in affinity and capacity for heavy metals (i.e., Co, Ni, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, Hg, and Tl). Capacity measurements were carried out for the removal of cadmium from river water and showed significantly higher loading than the relevant commercial sorbents tested for comparison. The reduction in Cd concentration from 100 ppb spiked river water to 1 ppb (less than the EPA drinking water limit of 5 ppb for Cd) was achieved following treatment with the Mn-doped iron oxide nanoparticles. The Mn-doped iron oxide nanoparticles were able to load 1 ppm of Cd followed by complete stripping and recovery of the Cd with a mild acid wash. The Cd loading and stripping is shown to be consistent through multiple cycles with no loss of sorbent performance.

  6. Polyethylene glycol coated CoFe2O4 nanoparticles: A potential spinel ferrite for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humbe, Ashok V.; Birajdar, Shankar D.; Bhandari, J. M.; Waghule, N. N.; Bhagwat, V. R.; Jadhav, K. M.

    2015-06-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of the polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated cobalt spinel ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles have been reported in the present study. CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel auto-combustion method using citric acid + ethylene glycol as a fuel. The prepared powder of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles was annealed at 600°C for 6h and used for further study. The structural characterization of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were carried out by X-ray diffraction technique. The X-ray analysis confirmed the formation of single phase cubic spinel structure. The crystallite size, Lattice constant and X-ray density of the PEG coated CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were calculated by using XRD data. The presence of PEG on CoFe2O4 nanoparticles and reduced agglomeration in the CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were revealed by SEM studies. The magnetic properties were studied by pulse field hysteresis loop tracer technique at a room temperature. The magnetic parameters such as saturation magnetization, remanence magnetization, coercivity etc have been obtained. These magnetic parameters were get decreased by PEG coating.

  7. Facile synthesis and functionalization of manganese oxide nanoparticles for targeted T1-weighted tumor MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yu; Yang, Jia; Li, Jingchao; Yu, Zhibo; Zhang, Guixiang; Shi, Xiangyang; Shen, Mingwu

    2015-12-01

    We report the polyethyleneimine (PEI)-enabled synthesis and functionalization of manganese oxide (Mn3O4) nanoparticles (NPs) for targeted tumor magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in vivo. In this work, monodispersed PEI-coated Mn3O4 NPs were formed by decomposition of acetylacetone manganese via a solvothermal approach. The Mn3O4 NPs with PEI coating were sequentially conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate, folic acid (FA)-linked polyethylene glycol (PEG), and PEG monomethyl ether. Followed by final acetylation of the remaining PEI surface amines, multifunctional Mn3O4 NPs were formed and well characterized. We show that the formed multifunctional Mn3O4 NPs with a mean diameter of 8.0 nm possess good water-dispersibility, colloidal stability, and cytocompatibility and hemocompatibility in the given concentration range. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopic observation reveal that the multifunctional Mn3O4 NPs are able to target FA receptor-overexpressing cancer cells in vitro. Importantly, the FA-targeted Mn3O4 NPs can be used as a nanoprobe for efficient T1-weighted MR imaging of cancer cells in vitro and the xenografted tumor model in vivo via an active FA-mediated targeting pathway. With the facile PEI-enabled formation and functionalization, the developed PEI-coated Mn3O4 NPs may be modified with other biomolecules for different biomedical imaging applications. PMID:26454057

  8. Manganese (II) Chelate Functionalized Copper Sulfide Nanoparticles for Efficient Magnetic Resonance/Photoacoustic Dual-Modal Imaging Guided Photothermal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Renfa; Jing, Lijia; Peng, Dong; Li, Yong; Tian, Jie; Dai, Zhifei

    2015-01-01

    The integration of diagnostic and therapeutic functionalities into one nanoplatform shows great promise in cancer therapy. In this research, manganese (II) chelate functionalized copper sulfide nanoparticles were successfully prepared using a facile hydrothermal method. The obtained ultrasmall nanoparticles exhibit excellent photothermal effect and photoaoustic activity. Besides, the high loading content of Mn(II) chelates makes the nanoparticles attractive T1 contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In vivo photoacoustic imaging (PAI) results showed that the nanoparticles could be efficiently accumulated in tumor site in 24 h after systematic administration, which was further validated by MRI tests. The subsequent photothermal therapy of cancer in vivo was achieved without inducing any observed side effects. Therefore, the copper sulfide nanoparticles functionalized with Mn(II) chelate hold great promise as a theranostic nanomedicine for MR/PA dual-modal imaging guided photothermal therapy of cancer. PMID:26284144

  9. Superior electro-optic response in multiferroic bismuth ferrite nanoparticle doped nematic liquid crystal device.

    PubMed

    Nayek, Prasenjit; Li, Guoqiang

    2015-01-01

    A superior electro-optic (E-O) response has been achieved when multiferroic bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3/BFO) nanoparticles (NPs) were doped in nematic liquid crystal (NLC) host E7 and the LC device was addressed in the large signal regime by an amplitude modulated square wave signal at the frequency of 100 Hz. The optimized concentration of BFO is 0.15 wt%, and the corresponding total optical response time (rise time + decay time) for a 5 μm-thick cell is 2.5 ms for ~7 V(rms). This might be exploited for the construction of adaptive lenses, modulators, displays, and other E-O devices. The possible reason behind the fast response time could be the visco-elastic constant and restoring force imparted by the locally ordered LCs induced by the multiferroic nanoparticles (MNPs). Polarized optical microscopic textural observation shows that the macroscopic dislocation-free excellent contrast have significant impact on improving the image quality and performance of the devices. PMID:26041701

  10. Superior electro-optic response in multiferroic bismuth ferrite nanoparticle doped nematic liquid crystal device

    PubMed Central

    Nayek, Prasenjit; Li, Guoqiang

    2015-01-01

    A superior electro-optic (E-O) response has been achieved when multiferroic bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3/BFO) nanoparticles (NPs) were doped in nematic liquid crystal (NLC) host E7 and the LC device was addressed in the large signal regime by an amplitude modulated square wave signal at the frequency of 100 Hz. The optimized concentration of BFO is 0.15 wt%, and the corresponding total optical response time (rise time + decay time) for a 5 μm-thick cell is 2.5 ms for ~7 Vrms. This might be exploited for the construction of adaptive lenses, modulators, displays, and other E-O devices. The possible reason behind the fast response time could be the visco-elastic constant and restoring force imparted by the locally ordered LCs induced by the multiferroic nanoparticles (MNPs). Polarized optical microscopic textural observation shows that the macroscopic dislocation-free excellent contrast have significant impact on improving the image quality and performance of the devices. PMID:26041701

  11. Nickel Ferrite Nanoparticles Anchored onto Silica Nanofibers for Designing Magnetic and Flexible Nanofibrous Membranes.

    PubMed

    Hong, Feifei; Yan, Chengcheng; Si, Yang; He, Jianxin; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2015-09-16

    Many applications proposed for magnetic silica nanofibers require their assembly into a cellular membrane structure. The feature to keep structure stable upon large deformation is crucial for a macroscopic porous material which functions reliably. However, it remains a key issue to realize robust flexibility in two-dimensional (2D) magnetic silica nanofibrous networks. Here, we report that the combination of electrospun silica nanofibers with zein dip-coating can lead to the formation of flexible, magnetic, and hierarchical porous silica nanofibrous membranes (SNM). The 290 nm diameter silica nanofibers act as templates for the uniform anchoring of nickel ferrite nanoparticles (size of 50 nm). Benefiting from the homogeneous and stable nanofiber-nanoparticle composite structure, the resulting magnetic SNM can maintain their structure integrity under repeated bending as high as 180° and can facilely recover. The unique hierarchical structure also provides this new class of silica membrane with integrated properties of ultralow density, high porosity, large surface area, good magnetic responsiveness, robust dye adsorption capacity, and effective emulsion separation performance. Significantly, the synthesis of such fascinating membranes may provide new insight for further application of silica in a self-supporting, structurally adaptive, and 2D membrane form. PMID:26301575

  12. Magnetic studies of nickel ferrite nanoparticles prepared by sol-gel technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anumol, C. N.; Chithra, M.; Sahoo, Subasa C.

    2016-05-01

    Ni-ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel technique by varying the solvent concentration. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the phase purity in the samples. The lattice constant and grain size were found to be in the range of 0.833-0.834 nm and 14-26 nm respectively. There was no systematic variation in magnetization value with the solvent concentration and grain size. The highest magnetization, remanence and coercivity values of 60 emu/g, 12 emu/g and 180 Oe respectively were observed at 300K in the present study for the sample prepared in 75ml of solvent. The observed magnetization value is 20% higher than the bulk value of 50 emu/g. The magnetization, coercivity and remanence values were enhanced at 60K compared to those at 300K. The observed high magnetization value in the nanoparticles can be explained on the basis of modified cation distribution in the lattice sites. The enhanced magnetic properties at 60K may be understood due to the reduced thermal fluctuation and increased anisotropy at low temperature.

  13. Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetic characteristics, and reflection loss analysis of nickel-strontium substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Ghasemi, Ali; Paesano, Andrea; Cerqueira Machado, Carla Fabiana; Shirsath, Sagar E.; Liu, Xiaoxi; Morisako, Akimitsu

    2014-05-07

    In current research work, Co{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x/2}Sr{sub x/2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0–1 in a step of 0.2) ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by a sol-gel method. According to the evolution in the subspectral areas obtained from Mössbauer spectroscopy, it was found that the relaxing iron belongs mostly to the site B, since the Mössbauer fraction of site A does not vary appreciably. With an increase in Ni-Sr substitution contents in cobalt ferrite, the coercivity and saturation of magnetization decrease. Variation of reflection loss versus frequency in microwave X-band demonstrates that the reflection peak shifts to lower frequency by adding substituted cations and the synthesized nanoparticles can be considered for application in electromagnetic wave absorber technology.

  14. Incorporation of cobalt-ferrite nanoparticles into a conducting polymer in aqueous micellar medium: strategy to get photocatalytic composites.

    PubMed

    Endrődi, Balázs; Hursán, Dorottya; Petrilla, Liliána; Bencsik, Gábor; Visy, Csaba; Chams, Amani; Maslah, Nabiha; Perruchot, Christian; Jouini, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    In this study an easy strategy for conducting polymer based nanocomposite formation is presented through the deposition of cobalt-ferrite (CoFe(2)O(4)) containing poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) thin layers. The electrochemical polymerization has been performed galvanostatically in an aqueous micellar medium in the presence of the nanoparticles and the surface active Triton X-100. The nanoparticles have been characterized by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the thin layers has been studied by applying Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the basic electrochemical properties have been also determined. Moreover, electrocatalytic activity of the composite was demonstrated in the electrooxidation reaction of dopamine (DA). The enhanced sensitivity - related to the cobalt-ferrite content - and the experienced photocatalyitic activity are promising for future application. PMID:25125121

  15. Some patterns of metallic nanoparticles' combined subchronic toxicity as exemplified by a combination of nickel and manganese oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Katsnelson, Boris A; Minigaliyeva, Ilzira A; Panov, Vladimir G; Privalova, Larisa I; Varaksin, Anatoly N; Gurvich, Vladimir B; Sutunkova, Marina P; Shur, Vladimir Ya; Shishkina, Ekaterina V; Valamina, Irene E; Makeyev, Oleg H

    2015-12-01

    Stable suspensions of NiO and/or Mn3O4 nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 16.7 ± 8.2 nm and 18.4 ± 5.4 nm, respectively, prepared by laser ablation of 99.99% pure metals in de-ionized water were repeatedly injected IP to rats at a dose of 0.50 mg or 0.25 mg 3 times a week up to 18 injections, either separately or in different combinations. Many functional indices as well as histological features of the liver, spleen, kidneys and brain were evaluated for signs of toxicity. The accumulation of Ni and Mn in these organs was measured with the help of AES and EPR methods. Both metallic nanoparticles proved adversely bio-active, but those of Mn3O4 were found to be more noxious in most of the non-specific toxicity manifestations. Moreover, they induced a more marked damaging effect in the neurons of the caudate nucleus and hippocampus which may be considered an experimental correlate of manganese-induced parkinsonism. Mathematical analysis based on the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) revealed a diversity of combined toxicity types depending not only on particular effects these types are assessed for but on their level as well. The prognostic power of the RSM model proved satisfactory. PMID:26607108

  16. Effects of Thermal Annealing on Structural and Magnetic Properties of Lithium Ferrite Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Jovic, Natasa G.; Masadeh, Ahmad S.; Kremenovic, Aleksandar S.; Antic, Bratislav V.; Blanusa, Jovan L.; Cvjeticanin, Nikola D.; Goya, Gerardo F.; Antisari, Marco Vittori; Bozin, Emil S.

    2010-01-12

    Pure, crystalline, {approx}10 nm lithium ferrite phase (Li{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2.5}O{sub 4}), was successfully synthesized at very low temperature using a modified combustion method. The crystal structure and microstructure evolution of this system upon annealing were monitored by a careful investigation of X-ray diffractograms collected on a synchrotron source. Comparative analysis of the results obtained from the full profile Rietveld method (in reciprocal space) and the pair distribution function method (in direct space) was carried out. Nanocrystalline samples exhibit similar crystal structure, on average, with a partial ordering of Li{sup +} and Fe{sup 3+} ions between octahedral 4b and 12d sites on the spinel crystal lattice (space group P4{sub 3}32). After annealing at 973 K, cation distribution changes to a completely ordered, resembling that which is seen in the bulk lithium ferrite. The PDF analysis reveals abnormally high values of oxygen atomic displacement parameters in tetrahedral 8c sites (O1) indicating a significant disordering of the O1 network and suggests migration of lithium ions from 4b sites to the outer layers of nanoparticles. Analysis of room temperature Moessbauer spectra has shown that the hyperfine field for Fe{sup 3+} ions in tetrahedral 8c sites is the most sensitive on increasing the particle size and improving the crystallinity. From the differential thermal analysis, it was found that a lower driving force is required to induce an order-disorder phase transition in nanocrystalline samples, compared to the bulk-like sample, presumably due to the higher crystal disordering in these samples.

  17. Magnesium-zinc ferrite nanoparticles: effect of copper doping on the structural, electrical and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Zaki, H M; Al-Heniti, S; Umar, Ahmad; Al-Marzouki, F; Abdel-Daiem, A; Elmosalami, T A; Dawoud, H A; Al-Hazmi, F S; Ata-Allah, S S

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, Mg0.5Zn0.5-Cu(x)Fe2O4 ferrites nanoparticles were synthesized by facile co-precipitation route and characterized in detail in terms of their structural, electrical and magnetic properties as a function of Cu concentration. The prepared samples have cubic spinel phase as confirmed by X-ray diffraction patterns. The decrease of the lattice constant and increase of X-ray density indicate the solubility of Cu ions in the spinel lattice. The AC conductivity measurements between 300 K and 773 K at different frequencies 1 KHz up to 1 MHz, showed two different behaviors as semiconductor-like at high temperature and frequency depending behavior associated with dispersion phenomena at low temperatures. The conduction mechanism in the system is influenced by Cu concentration and the dominant one is the hopping conduction mechanism. Dielectric measurements at the same conditions of temperatures and frequencies exhibited that the dielectric loss increases with increasing the temperature and decreasing the frequency indicating the semiconducting nature of the ferrite compounds. An anomalous behavior of the dielectric loss is observed in samples with high Cu content which explained in terms of resonance between frequency accompanied the electronic hopping and the frequency of the external electric field. The analysis of Mössbauer spectra revealed that copper free compound is super-paramagnetically relaxed in nature and zinc free compound demonstrates ferrimagnetic order. Moreover, hyperfine field spectrum shows the migration of Cu ions from octahedral to tetrahedral site in zinc free compound. PMID:23862448

  18. Development of optically transparent water oxidation catalysts using manganese pyrophosphate compounds.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Toshihiro; Hotori, Yuki; Irie, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    One challenge in artificial photosynthetic systems is the development of active oxygen evolution catalysts composed of abundant elements. The oxygen evolution activities of manganese pyrophosphate compounds were examined in electrochemical and photochemical experiments. Electrocatalysis using calcium-manganese pyrophosphate exhibited good catalytic ability under neutral pH and an oxygen evolution reaction was driven with a small overpotential (η<100 mV). UV-vis diffuse reflectance measurements revealed that manganese pyrophosphates exhibit weak absorption in the visible light region while commonly used oxygen evolution catalysts exhibit intense absorption. Therefore, the efficient light absorption of a photocatalyst was retained even after surface modification with a manganese pyrophosphate, and photochemical oxygen evolution was achieved by using magnesium ferrite modified with manganese pyrophosphate nanoparticles under the illumination of visible light at wavelength of over 420 nm. PMID:25648929

  19. Radiation induced structural and magnetic transformations in nanoparticle MnxZn(1-x)Fe2O4 ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, P. P.; Tangsali, R. B.; Sonaye, B.; Sugur, S.

    2015-07-01

    Nanoparticle magnetic materials are suitable for multiple modern high end medical applications like targeted drug delivery, gene therapy, hyperthermia and MR thermometry imaging. Majority of these applications are confined to use of Mn-Zn ferrite nanoparticles. These nanoparticles are normally left in the body after their requisite application. Preparing these nanoparticles is usually a much involved job. However with the development of the simple technique MnxZn1-xFe2O4 nanoparticles could be prepared with much ease. The nanoparticles of MnxZn1-xFe2O4 with (x=1.0, 0.7, 0.5, 0.3, 0.0) were prepared and irradiated with gamma radiation of various intensities ranging between 500 R to 10,000 R, after appropriate structural and magnetic characterization. Irradiated samples were investigated for structural and magnetic properties, as well as for structural stability and cation distribution. The irradiated nanoparticles exhibited structural stability with varied cation distribution and magnetic properties, dependent on gamma radiation dose. Surprisingly samples also exhibited quenching of lattice parameter and particle size. The changes introduced in the cation distribution, lattice constant, particle size and magnetic properties were found to be irreversible with time lapse and were of permanent nature exhibiting good stability even after several months. Thus the useful properties of nanoparticles could be enhanced on modifying the cation distribution inside the nanoparticles by application of gamma radiation.

  20. A structural study and magnetic properties of electrospun carbon/manganese ferrite (C/MnFe2O4) composite nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidkhunthod, Pinit; Nilmoung, Sukanya; Mahakot, Sompin; Rodporn, Somboonsub; Phumying, Santi; Maensiri, Santi

    2016-03-01

    Carbon/manganese ferrite (C/MnFe2O4) composite nanofibers were fabricated using electrospinning technique followed by carbonization process under mixed of air and argon atmosphere at 400, 600 and 800 °C, respectively. The prepared composite nanofibers were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) including X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). After calcination at 800 °C, the composite nanofibers of C/MnFe2O4 were obtained with a mean diameter of nanofibers of approximately 700-800 nm. The structure of MnFe2O4 was successfully studied using XAS technique and was found to be cubic spinel with a coupling of Mn2/Mn3+ and Fe3+ oxidation states. All composite nanofibers exhibited ferromagnetic behavior especially after being calcined at 800 °C. This ferromagnetic properties were related to the distribution of cations over tetrahedral and octahedral sites as revealed by EXAFS results.

  1. Comparison effects and electron spin resonance studies of α-Fe2O4 spinel type ferrite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bayrakdar, H; Yalçın, O; Cengiz, U; Özüm, S; Anigi, E; Topel, O

    2014-11-11

    α-Fe2O4 spinel type ferrite nanoparticles have been synthesized by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) assisted hydrothermal route by using NaOH solution. Electron spin resonance (ESR/EPR) measurements of α-Fe2O4 nanoparticles have been performed by a conventional x-band spectrometer at room temperature. The comparison effect of nanoparticles prepared by using CTAB and EDTA in different α-doping on the structural and morphological properties have been investigated in detail. The effect of EDTA-assisted synthesis for α-Fe2O4 nanoparticles are refined, and thus the spectroscopic g-factor are detected by using ESR signals. These samples can be considered as great benefits for magnetic recording media, electromagnetic and drug delivery applications. PMID:24858357

  2. Comparison effects and electron spin resonance studies of α-Fe2O4 spinel type ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayrakdar, H.; Yalçın, O.; Cengiz, U.; Özüm, S.; Anigi, E.; Topel, O.

    2014-11-01

    α-Fe2O4 spinel type ferrite nanoparticles have been synthesized by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) assisted hydrothermal route by using NaOH solution. Electron spin resonance (ESR/EPR) measurements of α-Fe2O4 nanoparticles have been performed by a conventional x-band spectrometer at room temperature. The comparison effect of nanoparticles prepared by using CTAB and EDTA in different α-doping on the structural and morphological properties have been investigated in detail. The effect of EDTA-assisted synthesis for α-Fe2O4 nanoparticles are refined, and thus the spectroscopic g-factor are detected by using ESR signals. These samples can be considered as great benefits for magnetic recording media, electromagnetic and drug delivery applications.

  3. Preliminary evaluation of a 99mTc labeled hybrid nanoparticle bearing a cobalt ferrite core: in vivo biodistribution.

    PubMed

    Psimadas, Dimitrios; Baldi, Giovanni; Ravagli, Costanza; Bouziotis, Penelope; Xanthopoulos, Stavros; Franchini, Mauro Comes; Georgoulias, Panagiotis; Loudos, George

    2012-08-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles have become important tools for imaging a wide range of diseases, improving drug delivery and applying hyperthermic treatment. Iron oxide based nanoparticles have been widely examined, unlike cobalt ferrite based ones. Herein, monodisperse and stable CoFe2O4 nanoparticles have been produced, coated and further stabilized using ethyl 12-(hydroxyamino)-12-oxododecanoate, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and bovine serum albumin. The final product, NBRh1, was fully characterized and has been directly radiolabeled with 99mTc using SnCl1 as the reducing agent in high yields. In vitro stability and hyperthermic properties of 99mTC-NBRh1 were encouraging for further application in low frequencies hyperthermia and biomagnetic applications. In vivo evaluation followed after injection in healthy mice. The planar and SPECT imaging data as well as the biodistribution results were in accordance, showing high liver and spleen uptake as expected starting almost immediately after administration. In conclusion the preliminary results for nanoparticles bearing a cobalt ferrite core justify further investigations towards potential hyperthermic applications, drug transportation and liver or spleen imaging. PMID:22852467

  4. Enhanced biomedical heat-triggered carriers via nanomagnetism tuning in ferrite-based nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelakeris, M.; Li, Zi-An; Hilgendorff, M.; Simeonidis, K.; Sakellari, D.; Filippousi, M.; Tian, H.; Van Tendeloo, G.; Spasova, M.; Acet, M.; Farle, M.

    2015-05-01

    Biomedical nanomagnetic carriers are getting a higher impact in therapy and diagnosis schemes while their constraints and prerequisites are more and more successfully confronted. Such particles should possess a well-defined size with minimum agglomeration and they should be synthesized in a facile and reproducible high-yield way together with a controllable response to an applied static or dynamic field tailored for the specific application. Here, we attempt to enhance the heating efficiency in magnetic particle hyperthermia treatment through the proper adjustment of the core-shell morphology in ferrite particles, by controlling exchange and dipolar magnetic interactions at the nanoscale. Thus, core-shell nanoparticles with mutual coupling of magnetically hard (CoFe2O4) and soft (MnFe2O4) components are synthesized with facile synthetic controls resulting in uniform size and shell thickness as evidenced by high resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging, excellent crystallinity and size monodispersity. Such a magnetic coupling enables the fine tuning of magnetic anisotropy and magnetic interactions without sparing the good structural, chemical and colloidal stability. Consequently, the magnetic heating efficiency of CoFe2O4 and MnFe2O4 core-shell nanoparticles is distinctively different from that of their counterparts, even though all these nanocrystals were synthesized under similar conditions. For better understanding of the AC magnetic hyperthermia response and its correlation with magnetic-origin features we study the effect of the volume ratio of magnetic hard and soft phases in the bimagnetic core-shell nanocrystals. Eventually, such particles may be considered as novel heating carriers that under further biomedical functionalization may become adaptable multifunctional heat-triggered nanoplatforms.

  5. Photodynamic Anticancer Activities of Multifunctional Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles in Various Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Bong Joo; Choi, Kyong-Hoon; Nam, Ki Chang; Ali, Anser; Min, Joe Eun; Son, Hyungbin; Uhm, Han S; Kim, Ho-Joong; Jung, Jin-Seung; Choi, Eun Ha

    2015-02-01

    To develop novel multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with good magnetic properties, biocompatibility, and anticancer activities by photodynamic therapy (PDT), we synthesized multifunctional cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles (CoFe2O4-HPs-FAs) functionalized by coating them with hematoporphyrin (HP) for introducing photo-functionality and by conjugating with folic acid (FA) for targeting cancer cells. We evaluated the activities of the CoFe2O4-HPs-FAs by checking magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in vitro, its biocompatibility, and photodynamic anticancer activities on FA receptor (FR)-positive and FR-negative cancer cell lines, Hela, KB, MCF-7, and PC-3 cells, to use for clinical applications. In this study, we have demonstrated that the CoFe2O4-HPs-FAs have good MRI and biocompatibility with non-cytotoxicity, and remarkable photodynamic anticancer activities at very low concentrations regardless of cell types. Particularly, the photo-killing abilities in 3.13 μg/mL of CoFe2O4-HPs-FAs were measured to be 91.8% (p < 0.002) for Hela, 94.5% (p < 0.007) for KB, 79.1% (p < 0.003) for MCF-7, and 71.3% (p < 0.006) for PC-3. The photodynamic anticancer activities in 6.25 and 12.5 μg/mL of CoFe2O4-HPs-FAs were measured to be over 95% (p < 0.004) to almost 100% regardless of cell types. The newly developed multifunctional CoFe2O4-HPs-FAs are effective for PDT and have potential as therapeutic agents for MRI-based PDT, because they have a high saturation value of magnetization and superparamagnetism. PMID:26349298

  6. Improved electrical properties of cadmium substituted cobalt ferrites nano-particles for microwave application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Rabia; Hussain Gul, Iftikhar; Zarrar, Muhammad; Anwar, Humaira; khan Niazi, Muhammad Bilal; Khan, Azim

    2016-05-01

    Cadmium substituted cobalt ferrites with formula CdxCo1-xFe2O4 (x=0.0, 0.2, 0.35, 0.5), have been synthesized by wet chemical co-precipitation technique. Electrical, morphological and Structural properties of the samples have been studied using DC electrical resistivity and Impedance analyzer, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), respectively. XRD, SEM and AFM have been used to study the structural parameters such as measured density, lattice constant, X-ray density, crystallite size and morphology of the synthesized nano-particles. Debye-Scherrer formula has been used for the estimation of crystallite sizes. The estimated crystallite sizes were to be 15-19±2 nm. Hopping length of octahedral and tetrahedral sites have been calculated using indexed XRD data. The porosity and lattice constant increased as Cd2+concentration increases. DC electrical resistivity was performed using two probe technique. The decrease of resistivity with temperature confirms the semiconducting nature of the samples. The dielectric properties variation has been studied at room temperature as a function of frequency. Variation of dielectric properties from 100 Hz to 5 MHz has been explained on the basis of Maxwell and Wagner's model and hoping of electrons on octahedral sites. To separates the grains boundary and grains of the system CdxCo1-xFe2O4 the impedance analysis were performed.

  7. Assessment of Immunotoxicity of Dextran Coated Ferrite Nanoparticles in Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Syama, Santhakumar; Gayathri, Viswanathan; Mohanan, Parayanthala Valappil

    2015-01-01

    In this study, dextran coated ferrite nanoparticles (DFNPs) of size <25 nm were synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and oxidative stress by in vitro and in vivo methods. Cytotoxicity was performed in vitro using splenocytes with different concentrations of DFNPs. Gene expression of selected cytokines (IL-1, IL-10, and TNF β) secretion by splenocytes was evaluated. Also, 100 mg of DFNPs was injected intraperitoneally to 18 albino mice for immunological stimulations. Six animals each were sacrificed at the end of 7, 14, and 21 days. Spleen was subjected to immunotoxic response and liver was analyzed for antioxidant parameters (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione reductase). The results indicated that DFNPs failed to induce any immunological reactions and no significant alternation in antioxidant defense mechanism. Also, mRNA expression of the cytokines revealed an increase in IL-10 expression and subsequent decreased expression of IL-1 and TNF β. Eventually, DNA sequencing of liver actin gene revealed base alteration in nonconserved regions (10–20 bases) of all the treated groups when compared to control samples. Hence, it can be concluded that the DFNPs were nontoxic at the cellular level and nonimmunotoxic when exposed intraperitoneally to mice. PMID:26576301

  8. Manifestation of weak ferromagnetism and photocatalytic activity in bismuth ferrite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Sakar, M.; Balakumar, S.; Saravanan, P.; Jaisankar, S. N.

    2013-02-05

    Bismuth ferrite (BFO) nanoparticles were synthesized by auto-ignition technique with and without adding ignition fuel such as citric acid. The presence of citric acid in the reaction mixture yielded highly-magnetic BFO/{gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite. When this composite was annealed to 650 Degree-Sign C, a single phase BFO was formed with average crystallite size of 50 nm and showed weak ferromagnetic behavior. Conversely, the phase pure BFO prepared without adding citric acid exhibited antiferromagnetism because of its larger crystallite size of around 70 nm. The visible-light driven photocatalytic activity of both the pure BFO and BFO/{gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite were examined by degrading methyl orange dye. The pure BFO showed a moderate photocatalytic activity; while BFO/{gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite showed enhanced activity. This could be probably due to the optimal band gap ratio between BFO and {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases reduced the recombination of electron-hole pairs which aided in the enhancement of photocatalytic activity.

  9. High-Performance Flexible Organic Nano-Floating Gate Memory Devices Functionalized with Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ji Hyung; Kim, Sunghwan; Kim, Hyeonjung; Park, Jongnam; Oh, Joon Hak

    2015-10-01

    Nano-floating gate memory (NFGM) devices are transistor-type memory devices that use nanostructured materials as charge trap sites. They have recently attracted a great deal of attention due to their excellent performance, capability for multilevel programming, and suitability as platforms for integrated circuits. Herein, novel NFGM devices have been fabricated using semiconducting cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles (NPs) as charge trap sites and pentacene as a p-type semiconductor. Monodisperse CoFe2O4 NPs with different diameters have been synthesized by thermal decomposition and embedded in NFGM devices. The particle size effects on the memory performance have been investigated in terms of energy levels and particle-particle interactions. CoFe2O4 NP-based memory devices exhibit a large memory window (≈73.84 V), a high read current on/off ratio (read I(on)/I(off)) of ≈2.98 × 10(3), and excellent data retention. Fast switching behaviors are observed due to the exceptional charge trapping/release capability of CoFe2O4 NPs surrounded by the oleate layer, which acts as an alternative tunneling dielectric layer and simplifies the device fabrication process. Furthermore, the NFGM devices show excellent thermal stability, and flexible memory devices fabricated on plastic substrates exhibit remarkable mechanical and electrical stability. This study demonstrates a viable means of fabricating highly flexible, high-performance organic memory devices. PMID:26153227

  10. Study Of Structural And Dielectric Properties Of Ni-Mg Ferrite Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Nongjai, Razia; Batoo, Khalid Mujasam; Khan, Shakeel

    2010-12-01

    Ferrite nanoparticles of basic composition Ni{sub 0.7}Mg{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 2-x}Al{sub x}O{sub 4}(0.0{<=}x{<=}0.5) were prepared through citrate gel method and characterized using XRD, TEM and dielectric spectroscopy techniques. The dielectric properties were studied as a function of frequency (42 Hz-5 MHz) at room temperature. The average particle size has been found between 8-17 nm. The dispersion in dielectric properties and ac conductivity ({sigma}{sub ac}), with frequency reveals that the dispersion is due to Maxwell-Wagner type of interfacial polarization in general and the hopping of charge between Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} as well as between Ni{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 3+} ions at B-sites. The dielectric loss tangent (tan {delta}) shows abnormal behavior for the compositions 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 which has been explained in the light of Rezlescue model.

  11. Magnetic phase transitions in ferrite nanoparticles characterized by electron spin resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Flores-Arias, Yesica Vázquez-Victorio, Gabriela; Ortega-Zempoalteca, Raul; Acevedo-Salas, Ulises; Valenzuela, Raul; Ammar, Souad

    2015-05-07

    Ferrite magnetic nanoparticles in the composition Zn{sub 0.7}Ni{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were synthesized by the polyol method, with an average size of 8 nm. Electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements were carried out at a frequency of 9.45 GHz in the 100–500 K temperature range. Obtained results exhibited a characteristic ESR signal in terms of resonance field, H{sub res}, linewidth, ΔH, and peak ratio, R, for each magnetic phase. At low temperatures, the ferrimagnetic phase showed low H{sub res}, broad ΔH, and asymmetric R. At high temperatures, these parameters exhibited opposite values: high H{sub res}, small ΔH, and R ∼ 1. For intermediate temperatures, a different phase was observed, which was identified as a superparamagnetic phase by means of zero-field cooling-field cooling and hysteresis loops measurements. The observed differences were explained in terms of the internal fields and especially due to the cubic anisotropy in the ordered phase.

  12. Adsorption of Cu2+ ions using chitosan-modified magnetic Mn ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Yuying; Chen, Deyang; Sun, Yitao; Jiao, Dongling; Zeng, Dechang; Liu, Zhongwu

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan-modified Mn ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by a one-step microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. These Mn ferrite magnetic composite nanoparticles were employed to absorb Cu2+ ions in water. XRD verified the spinel structure of the MnFe2O4 nanoparticles. Chitosan modification does not result in any phase change of MnFe2O4. FTIR and zeta potentials curves for all samples suggest that chitosan can be successfully coated on the Mn ferrites. TEM characterization showed that the modified MnFe2O4 nanoparticles have a cubic shape with a mean diameter of ∼100 nm. For adsorption behavior, the effects of experiment parameters such as solution pH value, contact time and initial Cu2+ ions concentration on the adsorption efficiency were systematically investigated. The results showed that increasing solution pH value and extending contact time are favorable for improving adsorption efficiency. Especially, adsorption efficiency can reach up to 100% and 96.7% after 500 min adsorption at pH 6.5 for the solutions with initial Cu2+ ions concentration of 50 mg/L and 100 mg/L. Adsorption data fits well with the Langmuir isotherm models with a maximum adsorption capacity (qm) and a Langmuir adsorption equilibrium constant (K) of 65.1 mg/g and 0.090 L/mg, respectively. The adsorption kinetic agrees well with pseudo second order model with the pseudo second rate constants (K2) of 0.0468 and 0.00189 g/mg/min for solutions with initial Cu2+ ions of 50 and 100 mg/L, respectively.

  13. Adsorption of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles within layer-by-layer films: a kinetic study carried out using quartz crystal microbalance.

    PubMed

    Alcantara, Gustavo B; Paterno, Leonardo G; Afonso, André S; Faria, Ronaldo C; Pereira-da-Silva, Marcelo A; Morais, Paulo C; Soler, Maria A G

    2011-12-28

    The paper reports on the successful use of the quartz crystal microbalance technique to assess accurate kinetics and equilibrium parameters regarding the investigation of in situ adsorption of nanosized cobalt ferrite particles (CoFe(2)O(4)--10.5 nm-diameter) onto two different surfaces. Firstly, a single layer of nanoparticles was deposited onto the surface provided by the gold-coated quartz resonator functionalized with sodium 3-mercapto propanesulfonate (3-MPS). Secondly, the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique was used to build multilayers in which the CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticle-based layer alternates with the sodium sulfonated polystyrene (PSS) layer. The adsorption experiments were conducted by modulating the number of adsorbed CoFe(2)O(4)/PSS bilayers (n) and/or by changing the CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticle concentration while suspended as a stable colloidal dispersion. Adsorption of CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles onto the 3-MPS-functionalized surface follows perfectly a first order kinetic process in a wide range (two orders of magnitude) of nanoparticle concentrations. These data were used to assess the equilibrium constant and the adsorption free energy. Alternatively, the Langmuir adsorption constant was obtained while analyzing the isotherm data at the equilibrium. Adsorption of CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles while growing multilayers of CoFe(2)O(4)/PSS was conducted using colloidal suspensions with CoFe(2)O(4) concentration in the range of 10(-8) to 10(-6) (moles of cobalt ferrite per litre) and for different numbers of cycles n = 1, 3, 5, and 10. We found the adsorption of CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles within the CoFe(2)O(4)/PSS bilayers perfectly following a first order kinetic process, with the characteristic rate constant growing with the increase of CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticle concentration and decreasing with the rise of the number of LbL cycles (n). Additionally, atomic force microscopy was employed for assessing the LbL film roughness and thickness. We found the film thickness increasing from about 20 to 120 nm while shifting from 3 to 10 CoFe(2)O(4)/PSS bilayers, using the 8.9 × 10(-6) (moles of cobalt ferrite per litre) suspension. PMID:22025281

  14. Comparing highly ordered monolayers of nanoparticles fabricated using electrophoretic deposition: Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles versus iron oxide nanoparticles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dickerson, James H.; Krejci, Alex J.; Garcia, Adriana -Mendoza; Sun, Shouheng; Pham, Viet Hung

    2015-08-01

    Ordered assemblies of nanoparticles remain challenging to fabricate, yet could open the door to many potential applications of nanomaterials. Here, we demonstrate that locally ordered arrays of nanoparticles, using electrophoretic deposition, can be extended to produce long-range order among the constituents. Voronoi tessellations along with multiple statistical analyses show dramatic increases in order compared with previously reported assemblies formed through electric field-assisted assembly. As a result, based on subsequent physical measurements of the nanoparticles and the deposition system, the underlying mechanisms that generate increased order are inferred.

  15. Size tuned polyol-made Zn0.9M0.1Fe2O4 (M = Mn, Co, Ni) ferrite nanoparticles as potential heating agents for magnetic hyperthermia: from synthesis control to toxicity survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basti, H.; Hanini, A.; Levy, M.; Ben Tahar, L.; Herbst, F.; Smiri, L. S.; Kacem, K.; Gavard, J.; Wilhelm, C.; Gazeau, F.; Chau, F.; Ammar, S.

    2014-12-01

    Zn-rich substituted Zn0.9M0.1Fe2O4 (M = Mn, Co, Ni) ferrite nanoparticles (NPs) of about 5 and 10 nm were produced by the so-called polyol method. They were engineered for hyperthermia therapy based on their magnetic and morphological properties. Indeed, because of their comparatively low Curie temperature and reasonable magnetization, these probes may turn into useful self-regulated heating agents under suitable conditions. For such a purpose, the structure, the microstructure, the magnetic and magnetocalorimetric properties of the produced NPs as well as their in vitro cytotoxicity were investigated. Our results demonstrate that the magnetic properties of these magnetically diluted spinel ferrite particles can be largely modified by just changing their size. They also show that the about 10 nm sized manganese-based ones exhibit the highest heating power under a 700 kHz ac magnetic field and the lowest cytotoxicity on Immortalized human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC).

  16. Impact of Nd3+ in CoFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles on cation distribution, structural and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Raghvendra Singh; Havlica, Jaromir; Masilko, Jiri; Kalina, Lukas; Wasserbauer, Jaromir; Hajdúchová, Miroslava; Enev, Vojtěch; Kuřitka, Ivo; Kožáková, Zuzana

    2016-02-01

    Nd3+ doped cobalt ferrite nanoparticles have been synthesized by starch-assisted sol-gel auto-combustion method. The significant role played by Nd3+ added to cobalt ferrite in changing cation distribution and further in influencing structural and magnetic properties, was explored and reported. The crystal structure formation and crystallite size were studied from X-ray diffraction studies. The microstructural features were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy that demonstrates the nanocrystalline grain formation with spherical morphology. An infrared spectroscopy study shows the presence of two absorption bands related to tetrahedral and octahedral group complexes within the spinel ferrite lattice system. The change in Raman modes in synthesized ferrite system were observed with Nd3+ substitution, particle size and cation redistribution. The impact of Nd3+ on cation distribution of Co2+ and Fe3+ at octahedral and tetrahedral sites in spinel ferrite cobalt ferrite nanoparticles was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Room temperature magnetization measurements showed that the saturation magnetization and coercivity increase with addition of Nd3+ substitution in cobalt ferrite.

  17. Enhanced Néel temperature in Mn ferrite nanoparticles linked to growth-rate-induced cation inversion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Aria; Chinnasamy, C N; Greneche, J M; Chen, Yajie; Yoon, Soack D; Chen, Zhaohui; Hsu, Kailin; Cai, Zhuhua; Ziemer, Kate; Vittoria, C; Harris, V G

    2009-05-01

    Mn ferrite (MnFe(2)O(4)) nanoparticles, having diameters from 4 to 50 nm, were synthesized using a modified co-precipitation technique in which mixed metal chloride solutions were added to different concentrations of boiling NaOH solutions to control particle growth rate. Thermomagnetization measurements indicated an increase in Néel temperature corresponding to increased particle growth rate and particle size. The Néel temperature is also found to increase inversely proportionally to the cation inversion parameter, delta, appearing in the formula (Mn(1-delta)Fe(delta))(tet)[Mn(delta)Fe(2-delta)](oct)O(4). These results contradict previously published reports of trends between Néel temperature and particle size, and demonstrate the dominance of cation inversion in determining the strength of superexchange interactions and subsequently Néel temperature in ferrite systems. The particle surface chemistry, structure, and magnetic spin configuration play secondary roles. PMID:19420627

  18. Spin-flop transition, magnetic and microwave absorption properties of α-Fe2O4 spinel type ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalçın, Orhan; Bayrakdar, Harun; Özüm, Songül

    2013-10-01

    We have prepared NiFe2O4, CoFe2O4, Ni0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4 and ZnFe2O4 spinel type ferrite nanoparticles by surfactant-assisted hydrothermal process using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The spin-flop transition, magnetic, dielectric and permittivity characterizations have been investigated. The spin-flop transition occurs from antiferromagnetic state to mixed state and then ferromagnetic state for Zn doped samples. The spin-flop transition occurs in the temperature range of 50-250 K. The ionic conduction, dipolar relaxation, atomic polarization and electronic polarization are the main mechanisms that contribute to the permittivity of a dielectric material. The permittivity increases with increasing frequency. This suggests a resonance behavior, which is expected when the ferrite samples are highly conductive and skin effect become significant. These samples will provide great benefits for electromagnetic applications and electromagnetic interference shielding characteristics.

  19. Chitosan-mediated formation of biomimetic silica nanoparticles: an effective method for manganese peroxidase immobilization and stabilization.

    PubMed

    Luan, Pan-Pan; Jiang, Yan-Jun; Zhang, Song-Ping; Gao, Jing; Su, Zhi-Guo; Ma, Guang-Hui; Zhang, Yu-Fei

    2014-11-01

    Our work here, for the first time, reported the use of chitosan-mediated biomimetic silica nanoparticles in enzyme immobilization. In order to make clear the relationship among silicification process, silica nanoparticle structure and immobilized enzyme activity, a mechanism of chitosan-mediated silicification using sodium silicate as the silica source was primarily evaluated. Chitosan was demonstrated effectively to promote the silicification not only in accelerating the aggregation rate of sodium silicate, but also in templating the formation of silica nanoparticles. Although the whole biomimetic silicification process contained polycondensation-aggregation-precipitation three stages, the elemental unit in precipitated silica was confirmed to be nanoparticles with 100nm diameter regardless of the chitosan and silicate concentration used. Furthermore, the effect of enzyme on silicification process was also investigated. The introducing of manganese peroxidase (MnP) to silica precursor solution had no obvious effect on the silicification rate and nanoparticle morphology. The residual activity and embedding rate of immobilized MnP were 64.2% and 36.4% respectively under the optimum conditions. In addition, compared to native MnP, the MnP embedded in chitosan/silica nanoparticles exhibited improved stability against organic solvent and ultrasonic wave. After ultrasonic treatment for 20min, 77% of the initial activity was remained due to the protective effect of chitosan/silica nanoparticles, while native MnP lost almost all of its original activity. PMID:24913823

  20. Positron annihilation and magnetic properties studies of copper substituted nickel ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargar, Z.; Asgarian, S. M.; Mozaffari, M.

    2016-05-01

    Single phase copper substituted nickel ferrite Ni1-xCuxFe2O4 (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5) nanoparticles were synthesized by the sol-gel method. TEM images of the samples confirm formation of nano-sized particles. The Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction patterns showed that lattice constant increase with increase in copper content from 8.331 for x = 0.0 to 8.355 Å in x = 0.5. Cation distribution of samples has been determined by the occupancy factor, using Rietveld refinement. The positron lifetime spectra of the samples were convoluted into three lifetime components. The shortest lifetime is due to the positrons that do not get trapped by the vacancy defects. The second lifetime is ascribed to annihilation of positrons in tetrahedral (A) and octahedral (B) sites in spinel structure. It is seen that for x = 0.1 and 0.3 samples, positron trapped within vacancies in A sites, but for x = 0.0 and 0.5, the positrons trapped and annihilated within occupied B sites. The longest lifetime component attributed to annihilation of positrons in the free volume between nanoparticles. The obtained results from coincidence Doppler broadening spectroscopy (CDBS) confirmed the results of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and also showed that the vacancy clusters concentration for x = 0.3 is more than those in other samples. Average defect density in the samples, determined from mean lifetime of annihilated positrons reflects that the vacancy concentration for x = 0.3 is maximum. The magnetic measurements showed that the saturation magnetization for x = 0.3 is maximum that can be explained by Néel's theory. The coercivity in nanoparticles increased with increase in copper content. This increase is ascribed to the change in anisotropy constant because of increase of the average defect density due to the substitution of Cu2+ cations and magnetocrystalline anisotropy of Cu2+ cations. Curie temperature of the samples reduces with increase in copper content which can be explained based on Néel's theory.

  1. Structure-property relationships in manganese oxide--mesoporous silica nanoparticles used for T1-weighted MRI and simultaneous anti-cancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Chen, Hangrong; Zhang, Shengjian; Chen, Feng; Sun, Shikuan; He, Qianjun; Ma, Ming; Wang, Xia; Wu, Huixia; Zhang, Lingxia; Zhang, Linlin; Shi, Jianlin

    2012-03-01

    The extremely low longitudinal relaxivity (r(1)) of manganese oxide has severely impeded their substitution for cytotoxic gadolinium-based contrast agents for safe clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, we report on a synthetic strategy of chemical oxidation/reduction reaction in-situ in mesopores, followed by hydrogen reduction, for the fabrication of non-toxic manganese oxide/MSNs-based MRI-T(1) contrast agents with highly comparable imaging performance to commercial Gd-based agents. This strategy involves a "soft-templating" process to prepare mesoporous silica nanoparticles, in-situ reduction of MnO(4)(-) by the "soft templates" in mesopores and heat treatment under reducing atmosphere, to disperse manganese oxide nanoparticles within mesopores. This special nanostructure combines the merits of nanopores for maximum manganese paramagnetic center accessibility for water molecules for enhanced MRI performance and encapsulation/sustained release/intracellular delivery of drugs. The synthesized manganese oxide/MSNs were successfully assessed as a high performance contrast agent for MRI-T(1) both in intro and in vivo, and meanwhile, was also demonstrated as an effective anti-cancer drug delivery (doxorubicin) vehicle, therefore, a family of manganese-based theranostics was successfully demonstrated based on the manganese oxide/MSNs composite. PMID:22177841

  2. Tunable T1 and T2 contrast abilities of manganese-engineered iron oxide nanoparticles through size control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Guoming; Li, Hui; Chen, Jiahe; Zhao, Zhenghuan; Yang, Lijiao; Chi, Xiaoqin; Chen, Zhong; Wang, Xiaomin; Gao, Jinhao

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the tunable T1 and T2 contrast abilities of engineered iron oxide nanoparticles with high performance for liver contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in mice. To enhance the diagnostic accuracy of MRI, large numbers of contrast agents with T1 or T2 contrast ability have been widely explored. The comprehensive investigation of high-performance MRI contrast agents with controllable T1 and T2 contrast abilities is of high importance in the field of molecular imaging. In this study, we synthesized uniform manganese-doped iron oxide (MnIO) nanoparticles with controllable size from 5 to 12 nm and comprehensively investigated their MRI contrast abilities. We revealed that the MRI contrast effects of MnIO nanoparticles are highly size-dependent. By controlling the size of MnIO nanoparticles, we can achieve T1-dominated, T2-dominated, and T1-T2 dual-mode MRI contrast agents with much higher contrast enhancement than the corresponding conventional iron oxide nanoparticles.In this paper, we demonstrate the tunable T1 and T2 contrast abilities of engineered iron oxide nanoparticles with high performance for liver contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in mice. To enhance the diagnostic accuracy of MRI, large numbers of contrast agents with T1 or T2 contrast ability have been widely explored. The comprehensive investigation of high-performance MRI contrast agents with controllable T1 and T2 contrast abilities is of high importance in the field of molecular imaging. In this study, we synthesized uniform manganese-doped iron oxide (MnIO) nanoparticles with controllable size from 5 to 12 nm and comprehensively investigated their MRI contrast abilities. We revealed that the MRI contrast effects of MnIO nanoparticles are highly size-dependent. By controlling the size of MnIO nanoparticles, we can achieve T1-dominated, T2-dominated, and T1-T2 dual-mode MRI contrast agents with much higher contrast enhancement than the corresponding conventional iron oxide nanoparticles. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02680b

  3. Observation of magnetic anomalies in one-step solvothermally synthesized nickel-cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datt, Gopal; Sen Bishwas, Mousumi; Manivel Raja, M.; Abhyankar, A. C.

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic anomalies corresponding to the Verwey transition and reorientation of anisotropic vacancies are observed at 151 K and 306 K, respectively, in NiCoFe2O4 nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized by a modified-solvothermal method followed by annealing. Cationic disorder and spherical shape induced non-stoichiometry suppress the Verwey transition in the as-synthesized NPs. On the other hand, reorientation of anisotropic vacancies is quite robust. XRD and electron microscopy investigations confirm a single phase spinel structure and the surface morphology of the as-synthesized NPs changes from spherical to octahedral upon annealing. Rietveld analysis reveals that the Ni2+ ions migrate from tetrahedral (A) to octahedral (B) sites upon annealing. The Mössbauer results show canted spins in both the NPs and the strength of superexchange is stronger in Co-O-Fe than Ni-O-Fe. Magnetic force images show that the as-synthesised NPs are single-domain whereas the annealed NPs are multi-domain octahedral particles. The FMR study reveals that both the NPs have a broad FMR line-width; and resonance properties are consistent with the random anisotropy model. The broad inhomogeneous FMR line-width, observation of the Verwey transition, tuning of the magnetic domain structure as well as the magnetic properties suggest that the NiCoFe2O4 ferrite NPs may be promising for future generation spintronics, magneto-electronics, and ultra-high-density recording media as well as for radar absorbing applications.Magnetic anomalies corresponding to the Verwey transition and reorientation of anisotropic vacancies are observed at 151 K and 306 K, respectively, in NiCoFe2O4 nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized by a modified-solvothermal method followed by annealing. Cationic disorder and spherical shape induced non-stoichiometry suppress the Verwey transition in the as-synthesized NPs. On the other hand, reorientation of anisotropic vacancies is quite robust. XRD and electron microscopy investigations confirm a single phase spinel structure and the surface morphology of the as-synthesized NPs changes from spherical to octahedral upon annealing. Rietveld analysis reveals that the Ni2+ ions migrate from tetrahedral (A) to octahedral (B) sites upon annealing. The Mössbauer results show canted spins in both the NPs and the strength of superexchange is stronger in Co-O-Fe than Ni-O-Fe. Magnetic force images show that the as-synthesised NPs are single-domain whereas the annealed NPs are multi-domain octahedral particles. The FMR study reveals that both the NPs have a broad FMR line-width; and resonance properties are consistent with the random anisotropy model. The broad inhomogeneous FMR line-width, observation of the Verwey transition, tuning of the magnetic domain structure as well as the magnetic properties suggest that the NiCoFe2O4 ferrite NPs may be promising for future generation spintronics, magneto-electronics, and ultra-high-density recording media as well as for radar absorbing applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06791j

  4. Manganese-impregnated mesoporous silica nanoparticles for signal enhancement in MRI cell labelling studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillet-Nicolas, Rémy; Laprise-Pelletier, Myriam; Nair, Mahesh M.; Chevallier, Pascale; Lagueux, Jean; Gossuin, Yves; Laurent, Sophie; Kleitz, Freddy; Fortin, Marc-André

    2013-11-01

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are used in drug delivery and cell tracking applications. As Mn2+ is already implemented as a ``positive'' cell contrast agent in preclinical imaging procedures (in the form of MnCl2 for neurological studies), the introduction of Mn in the porous network of MSNs would allow labelling cells and tracking them using MRI. These particles are in general internalized in endosomes, an acidic environment with high saline concentration. In addition, the available MSN porosity could also serve as a carrier to deliver medical/therapeutic substances through the labelled cells. In the present study, manganese oxide was introduced in the porous network of MCM-48 silica nanoparticles (Mn-M48SNs). The particles exhibit a narrow size distribution (~140 nm diam.) and high porosity (~60% vol.), which was validated after insertion of Mn. The resulting Mn-M48SNs were characterized by TEM, N2 physisorption, and XRD. Evidence was found with H2-TPR, and XPS characterization, that Mn(ii) is the main oxidation state of the paramagnetic species after suspension in water, most probably in the form of Mn-OOH. The colloidal stability as a function of time was confirmed by DLS in water, acetate buffer and cell culture medium. In NMR data, no significant evidence of Mn2+ leaching was found in Mn-M48SNs in acidic water (pH 6), up to 96 hours after suspension. High longitudinal relaxivity values of r1 = 8.4 mM-1 s-1 were measured at 60 MHz and 37 °C, with the lowest relaxometric ratios (r2/r1 = 2) reported to date for a Mn-MSN system. Leukaemia cells (P388) were labelled with Mn-M48SNs and nanoparticle cell internalization was confirmed by TEM. Finally, MRI contrast enhancement provided by cell labelling with escalated incubation concentrations of Mn-M48SNs was quantified at 1 T. This study confirmed the possibility of efficiently confining Mn into M48SNs using incipient wetness, while maintaining an open porosity and relatively high pore volume. Because these Mn-labelled M48SNs express strong ``positive'' contrast media properties at low concentrations, they are potentially applicable for cell tracking and drug delivery methodologies.Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are used in drug delivery and cell tracking applications. As Mn2+ is already implemented as a ``positive'' cell contrast agent in preclinical imaging procedures (in the form of MnCl2 for neurological studies), the introduction of Mn in the porous network of MSNs would allow labelling cells and tracking them using MRI. These particles are in general internalized in endosomes, an acidic environment with high saline concentration. In addition, the available MSN porosity could also serve as a carrier to deliver medical/therapeutic substances through the labelled cells. In the present study, manganese oxide was introduced in the porous network of MCM-48 silica nanoparticles (Mn-M48SNs). The particles exhibit a narrow size distribution (~140 nm diam.) and high porosity (~60% vol.), which was validated after insertion of Mn. The resulting Mn-M48SNs were characterized by TEM, N2 physisorption, and XRD. Evidence was found with H2-TPR, and XPS characterization, that Mn(ii) is the main oxidation state of the paramagnetic species after suspension in water, most probably in the form of Mn-OOH. The colloidal stability as a function of time was confirmed by DLS in water, acetate buffer and cell culture medium. In NMR data, no significant evidence of Mn2+ leaching was found in Mn-M48SNs in acidic water (pH 6), up to 96 hours after suspension. High longitudinal relaxivity values of r1 = 8.4 mM-1 s-1 were measured at 60 MHz and 37 °C, with the lowest relaxometric ratios (r2/r1 = 2) reported to date for a Mn-MSN system. Leukaemia cells (P388) were labelled with Mn-M48SNs and nanoparticle cell internalization was confirmed by TEM. Finally, MRI contrast enhancement provided by cell labelling with escalated incubation concentrations of Mn-M48SNs was quantified at 1 T. This study confirmed the possibility of efficiently confining Mn into M48SNs using incipient wetness, while maintaining an open porosity and relatively high pore volume. Because these Mn-labelled M48SNs express strong ``positive'' contrast media properties at low concentrations, they are potentially applicable for cell tracking and drug delivery methodologies. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TEM images, particle size distributions, XRD, TPR, magnetometric profiles, T1 and T2 measurements at 60 MHz over time, NMRD profiles of materials, P388 cell proliferation assay after 4 h and T1-w. MR images of P388 cells incubated with a solution of M48SNs. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02969g

  5. Observation of magnetic anomalies in one-step solvothermally synthesized nickel-cobalt ferrite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Datt, Gopal; Sen Bishwas, Mousumi; Manivel Raja, M; Abhyankar, A C

    2016-02-25

    Magnetic anomalies corresponding to the Verwey transition and reorientation of anisotropic vacancies are observed at 151 K and 306 K, respectively, in NiCoFe2O4 nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized by a modified-solvothermal method followed by annealing. Cationic disorder and spherical shape induced non-stoichiometry suppress the Verwey transition in the as-synthesized NPs. On the other hand, reorientation of anisotropic vacancies is quite robust. XRD and electron microscopy investigations confirm a single phase spinel structure and the surface morphology of the as-synthesized NPs changes from spherical to octahedral upon annealing. Rietveld analysis reveals that the Ni(2+) ions migrate from tetrahedral (A) to octahedral (B) sites upon annealing. The Mössbauer results show canted spins in both the NPs and the strength of superexchange is stronger in Co-O-Fe than Ni-O-Fe. Magnetic force images show that the as-synthesised NPs are single-domain whereas the annealed NPs are multi-domain octahedral particles. The FMR study reveals that both the NPs have a broad FMR line-width; and resonance properties are consistent with the random anisotropy model. The broad inhomogeneous FMR line-width, observation of the Verwey transition, tuning of the magnetic domain structure as well as the magnetic properties suggest that the NiCoFe2O4 ferrite NPs may be promising for future generation spintronics, magneto-electronics, and ultra-high-density recording media as well as for radar absorbing applications. PMID:26880070

  6. Load partitioning between ferrite/martensite and dispersed nanoparticles of a 9Cr ferritic/martensitic (F/M) ODS steel at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Guangming; Mo, Kun; Miao, Yinbin; Liu, Xiang; Almer, Jonathan; Zhou, Zhangjian; Stubbins, James F.

    2015-06-18

    In this study, a high-energy synchrotron radiation X-ray technique was used to investigate the tensile deformation processes of a 9Cr-ODS ferritic/martensitic (F/M) steel at different temperatures. Two minor phases within the 9Cr-ODS F/M steel matrix were identified as Y2Ti2O7 and TiN by the high-energy X-ray diffraction, and confirmed by the analysis using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) of scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The lattice strains of the matrix and particles were measured through the entire tensile deformation process. During the tensile tests, the lattice strains of the ferrite/martensite and the particles (TiN and Y2Ti2O7) showed a strong temperature dependence, decreasing with increasing temperature. Analysis of the internal stress at three temperatures showed that the load partitioning between the ferrite/martensite and the particles (TiN and Y2Ti2O7) was initiated during sample yielding and reached to a peak during sample necking. At three studied temperatures, the internal stress of minor phases (Y2Ti2O7 and TiN) was about 2 times that of F/M matrix at yielding position, while the internal stress of Y2Ti2O7 and TiN reached about 4.5-6 times and 3-3.5 times that of the F/M matrix at necking position, respectively. It indicates that the strengthening of the matrix is due to minor phases (Y2Ti2O7 and TiN), especially Y2Ti2O7 particles. Although the internal stresses of all phases decreased with increasing temperature from RT to 600 degrees C, the ratio of internal stresses of each phase at necking position stayed in a stable range (internal stresses of Y2Ti2O7 and TiN were about 4.5-6 times and 3-3.5 times of that of F/M matrix, respectively). The difference between internal stress of the F/M matrix and the applied stress at 600 degrees C is slightly lower than those at RI and 300 degrees C, indicating that the nanoparticles still have good strengthening effect at 600 degrees C. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and friction studies of nickel-zinc and manganese-zinc ferrites in contact with metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis and sliding friction experiments were conducted with hot-pressed, polycrystalline Ni-Zn and Mn-Zn ferrites in sliding contact with various transition metals at room temperature in a vacuum of 30 nPa. The results indicate that the coefficients of friction for Ni-Zn and Mn-Zn ferrites in contact with metals are related to the relative chemical activity in these metals: the more active the metal, the higher is the coefficient of friction. The coefficients of friction for the ferrites correlate with the free energy of formation of the lowest metal oxide. The interfacial bond can be regarded as a chemical bond between the metal atoms and the oxygen anions in the ferrite surfaces. The adsorption of oxygen on clean metal and ferrite surfaces increases the coefficients of friction for the Ni-Zn and Mn-Zn ferrite-metal interfaces.

  8. Ferromagnetic resonance behavior of spark plasma sintered Ni-Zn ferrite nanoparticles produced by a chemical route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, R.; Beji, Z.; Herbst, F.; Ammar, S.

    2011-04-01

    Ferrite nanoparticles of composition Zn0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 were prepared by forced hydrolysis in a polyol (polyol process) from the corresponding iron, nickel, and zinc acetates. Synthesis conditions allowed for obtaining polycrystalline epitaxial clusters of about 22 nm in size with an average crystal size of about 5 nm. These powders were subsequently consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique under a pressure of 80 MPa and temperatures in the 350 to 500 °C range for short periods (5 to 10 min). Densities reached 92% to 94% of the theoretical density. Particle size remained smaller than 61 nm, even for the highest temperature. Ferromagnetic resonance experiments at 77 K showed broadened resonance lines. In contrast with powdered nanoparticles, these high-density bodies can be used in many high-frequency applications.

  9. Control of the saturation temperature in magnetic heating by using polyethylene-glycol-coated rod-shaped nickel-ferrite (NiFe2O4) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Yousaf; Bae, Hongsub; Rhee, Ilsu; Hong, Sungwook

    2016-02-01

    Polyethylene-glycol (PEG)-coated nickel-ferrite nanoparticles were prepared for magnetic hyperthermia applications by using the co-precipitation method. The PEG coating occurred during the synthesis of the nanoparticles. The coated nanoparticles were rod-shaped with an average length of 16 nm and an average diameter of 4.5 nm, as observed using transmission electron microscopy. The PEG coating on the surfaces of the nanoparticles was confirmed from the Fourier-transform infrared spectra. The nanoparticles exhibited superparamagnetic characteristics with negligible coercive force. Further, magnetic heating effects were observed in aqueous solutions of the coated nanoparticles. The saturation temperature could be controlled at 42 ℃ by changing the concentration of the nanoparticles in the aqueous solution. Alternately, the saturation temperature could be controlled for a given concentration of nanoparticles by changing the intensity of the magnetic field. The Curie temperature of the nanoparticles was estimated to be 495 ℃. These results for the PEG-coated nickel-ferrite nanoparticles showed the possibility of utilizing them for controlled magnetic hyperthermia at 42 ℃.

  10. Anhydride functionalised calcium ferrite nanoparticles: a new selective magnetic material for enrichment of lead ions from water and food samples.

    PubMed

    Pirouz, Mojgan Jafari; Beyki, Mostafa Hossein; Shemirani, Farzaneh

    2015-03-01

    In this research a sonochemistry route for manufacture of uniform nanocrystalline CaFe2O4 and its anhydride functionalisation were reported. The potential of raw and modified material as a magnetically separable sorbent in selective enrichment of lead ions from water and food samples is outlined. This material was characterised using FT-IR, XRD, SEM and VSM techniques. The SEM and VSM results indicated that the calcium ferrite nanoparticles are sphere-like particles possessing superparamagnetic properties with an average diameter of 40 nm. Various analytical parameters, including pH, contact time, type and concentration of eluent, adsorption capacity, sample volume and interference of ions, were optimised. Following a modification by anhydride, calcium ferrite selectivity toward lead ions was raised more than twofold compared to the unmodified nanoparticles. Finally a pre-concentration procedure was applied for determination of trace Pb(II) in canned tuna fish, canned tomato paste, parsley, milk and well-water samples with satisfactory results. PMID:25306327

  11. Microwave-absorbing characteristics of epoxy resin composites containing nanoparticles of NiZn- and NiCuZn-ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aphesteguy, J. C.; Damiani, Abel; DiGiovanni, Dalmas; Jacobo, S. E.

    2009-10-01

    NiZn- and NiCuZn-ferrite nanoparticles (50-70 nm) with the chemical formula Ni 0.5 Zn 0.5Fe 2O 4 (NiZn) and Ni 0.35Cu 0.15Zn 0.5Fe 2O 4 (NiCuZn) were synthesized by a combustion synthesis method. The nanocrystallite of these materials was characterized by structural and magnetic methods. Saturation magnetization increases from 83 emu/g (NiZn) to 91 emu/g (NiCuZn). Magnetic permeability and dielectric permittivity were measured on sintered samples (pellets and toroids) in the frequency range of 1 MHz-1.8 GHz. Reflection losses ( RL) for both samples were calculated from complex permeability and permittivity. Cu substitution in NiZn-ferrite enhances permeability and RL. In order to explore microwave-absorbing properties in X-band, magnetic nanoparticles were mixed with an epoxy resin to be converted into a microwave-absorbing composite and microwave behaviors of both materials were studied using a microwave vector network analyzer from 7.5 to 13.5 GHz. Cu substitution diminishes absorption intensity in the range 11.5-12.5 GHz.

  12. Low temperature-fired Ni-Cu-Zn ferrite nanoparticles through auto-combustion method for multilayer chip inductor applications

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ferrite nanoparticles of basic composition Ni0.7-xZnxCu0.3Fe2O4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2, x = 0.05) were synthesized through auto-combustion method and were characterized for structural properties using X-ray diffraction [XRD], scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy [FT-IR]. XRD analysis of the powder samples sintered at 600°C for 4 h showed the cubic spinel structure for ferrites with a narrow size distribution from 28 to 32 nm. FT-IR showed two absorption bands (v1 and v2) that are attributed to the stretching vibration of tetrahedral and octahedral sites. The effect of Zn doping on the electrical properties was studied using dielectric and impedance spectroscopy at room temperature. The dielectric parameters (ε', ε″, tanδ, and σac) show their maximum value for 10% Zn doping. The dielectric constant and loss tangent decrease with increasing frequency of the applied field. The results are explained in the light of dielectric polarization which is similar to the conduction phenomenon. The complex impedance shows that the conduction process in grown nanoparticles takes place predominantly through grain boundary volume. PACS: 75.50.Gg; 78.20; 77.22.Gm. PMID:22316055

  13. Electromagnetic characteristics of manganese oxide-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles at 2-18 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, R. B.; Liang, W. F.; Lin, C. K.

    2011-04-01

    The dielectric and magnetic properties of manganese oxide-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) were measured by the transmission/reflection method in 2-18 GHz. MnOx-coated Fe3O4 NPs were prepared by sol-gel method followed by heat-treating at 300, 400, and 500 °C, respectively. The heat-treated powders were then used as magnetic fillers and added to an epoxy resin to prepare MnOx-coated Fe3O4 composites for the complex permittivity (ɛ'-jɛ″) and permeability (μ'-jμ″) measurements. After the sol-gel process, the coating of manganese oxide (mixture of major Mn2O3 and minor Mn3O4) reduced the value of ɛ'. The lower the heat-treating temperature, the larger the decrease in ɛ'. The relative decrease in ɛ', compared with uncoated Fe3O4 nanoparticles, is 28.7, 23.5, and 20.0% for coated MnOx heat-treated at 300, 400, and 500 °C, respectively, while the relative decrease in ɛ″ is 74.1, 68.8, and 65.2%, respectively. In the present study, MnOx-coated Fe3O4 exhibited a significant decrease in dielectric loss tangent of ˜100% compared to that of uncoated NPs and can be of practical use for microwave components.

  14. Effect of zinc concentration on the structural and magnetic properties of mixed Co-Zn ferrites nanoparticles synthesized by sol/gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Ali, M.; El Maalam, K.; El Moussaoui, H.; Mounkachi, O.; Hamedoun, M.; Masrour, R.; Hlil, E. K.; Benyoussef, A.

    2016-01-01

    Synthesization of zinc-substituted cobalt ferrites nano-particles Co1-xZnxFe2O4 (x=0.0-0.3) has been achieved by the sol/gel method. The characterization of the synthesized nano-particles has been done by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FITR). The relation between the composition and magnetic properties has been investigated by Magnetic Properties Measurement System (MPMS). The results revealed that the nanoparticles size is in the range of 11-28 nm. It was found that the zinc substitution in cobalt ferrite increases saturation magnetization from 60.92 emu/g (x=0) to 74.67 emu/g (x=0.3). Nevertheless, zinc concentrations cause a significant decrease in coercivity.

  15. Synthesis and magnetic properties of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel ferrite nanoparticles doped with lanthanide ions

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, Myrtil L.; Zhang, Z. John

    2001-06-04

    Lanthanide ions have been doped into cobalt spinel ferrites using an oil-in-water micellar method to form CoLn{sub 0.12}Fe{sub 1.88}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with Ln=Ce, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, or Er. Doping with lanthanide ions (Ln{sup III}) modulates the magnetic properties of cobalt spinel ferrite nanoparticles. In particular cases of Gd{sup 3+} or Dy{sup 3+} ions, a dramatic increase in the blocking temperature and coercivity is observed. Indeed, the introduction of only 4% of Gd{sup 3+} ions increases the blocking temperature {similar_to}100 K and the coercivity 60%. Initial studies on the magnetic properties of these doped nanoparticles clearly demonstrate that the relationship between the modulation of magnetic properties and the nature of doped Ln{sup III} ions is interesting but very complex. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  16. Studying the effect of Zn-substitution on the magnetic and hyperthermic properties of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mameli, V; Musinu, A; Ardu, A; Ennas, G; Peddis, D; Niznansky, D; Sangregorio, C; Innocenti, C; Thanh, Nguyen T K; Cannas, C

    2016-05-21

    The possibility to finely control nanostructured cubic ferrites (M(II)Fe2O4) paves the way to design materials with the desired magnetic properties for specific applications. However, the strict and complex interrelation among the chemical composition, size, polydispersity, shape and surface coating renders their correlation with the magnetic properties not trivial to predict. In this context, this work aims to discuss the magnetic properties and the heating abilities of Zn-substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with different zinc contents (ZnxCo1-xFe2O4 with 0 < x < 0.6), specifically prepared with similar particle sizes (∼7 nm) and size distributions having the crystallite size (∼6 nm) and capping agent amount of 15%. All samples have high saturation magnetisation (Ms) values at 5 K (>100 emu g(-1)). The increase in the zinc content up to x = 0.46 in the structure has resulted in an increase of the saturation magnetisation (Ms) at 5 K. High Ms values have also been revealed at room temperature (∼90 emu g(-1)) for both CoFe2O4 and Zn0.30Co0.70Fe2O4 samples and their heating ability has been tested. Despite a similar saturation magnetisation, the specific absorption rate value for the cobalt ferrite is three times higher than the Zn-substituted one. DC magnetometry results were not sufficient to justify these data, the experimental conditions of SAR and static measurements being quite different. The synergic combination of DC with AC magnetometry and (57)Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy represents a powerful tool to get new insights into the design of suitable heat mediators for magnetic fluid hyperthermia. PMID:27121263

  17. Effect of heat treatment on structural and Mössbauer spectroscopic properties of coprecipitated Mn0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Ch.; Tirupanyam, B. V.; Meena, S. S.; Babu, Ch. Seshu; Sastry, D. L.

    2015-06-01

    Results obtained in a systamatic study by X-ray diffraction and Mösssbauer spectroscopy on the structural and magnetic properties on Mn0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles heat treated at 200 °C, 500 °C and 800 °C are reported. Average crystallite sizes are estimated to be in the range (2.6nm - 12.8nm). It is observed that crystallite sizes increase with increase in sintering temperature and random variation in lattice parameter was observed. At relatively low sintering temperatures the samples exhibit superparamagnetism and complete ferrite phase was observed at higher heat treatment.

  18. Microwave absorption properties of polymer composites with amorphous Fe-B and Ni-Zn-Co ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimba, Kazuaki; Yuki, Shozo; Tezuka, Nobuki; Sugimoto, Satoshi

    2013-06-01

    Nowadays, many communication devices use GHz-range microwaves, which cause serious issues, such as electromagnetic interference. For the prevention of these problems, microwave absorbers consisting of polymer composites with magnetic particles have received attention. With the current trend being to miniaturize devices, thin microwave absorber are now required. This paper reports that polymer composites with amorphous Fe-B submicrometer particles and Ni-Zn-Co ferrite nanoparticles showed a permeability of µ r ' = 8.0-9.0 at 1.0 GHz and a resonant frequency of f r = 1.8-2.4 GHz. They also exhibited good microwave absorption properties at 0.7-1.4 GHz for thicknesses of 2.5-3.9 mm.

  19. Structural and magnetic properties of magnesium ferrite nanoparticles prepared via EDTA-based sol-gel reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Shaban I.; Elkady, Ashraf S.; Rashad, M. M.; Mostafa, A. G.; Megahid, R. M.

    2015-04-01

    Magnesium ferrite (MgFe2O4) nanoparticles have been prepared, for the first time, by ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)-based sol-gel combustion method. The prepared ferrite system is calcined at 400, 500 and 600 °C. Thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) were applied for elucidating the structural and magnetic properties of the prepared system. XRD patterns revealed that the prepared system have two spinel MgFe2O4 structures, namely cubic and tetragonal phases that are dependent on calcination temperature (Tc). The crystallite sizes varied from 8.933 to 41.583 nm, and from 1.379 to 292.565 nm for the cubic and tetragonal phases respectively depending on Tc. The deduced lattice parameters for the cubic and (tetragonal) systems are a=8.368, 8.365 and 8.377 and (a=7.011, 5.922, 5.908 and c=6.622, 8.456, 8.364) Å at Tc=400, 500 and 600 °C respectively. While the cation distribution of the cubic phase is found to be mixed spinel and Tc-dependent, it is an inverse spinel in the tetragonal phase where the Fe3+ ions occupy both the tetrahedral A- and octahedral B-sites in almost equal amount; the Mg2+ ions are found to occupy only the B-sites. The HRTEM and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) revealed the detailed morphology of the nanoparticles, and confirmed their crystalline spinel structure. VSM indicated the existence of an appreciable fraction of superparamagnetic particles at room temperature, with pure superparamagnetic behavior observed for samples calcined at 400 °C. Besides, the magnetic properties are found to change by thermal treatment as a result of the varied phase concentration, cation distribution and lattice parameters. Thus, the new synthesis route used in this study by applying EDTA as an organic precursor for preparing MgFe2O4 nanoparticles at rather low temperatures proved to be efficient in obtaining nanoparticles with favorable structural and magnetic properties. Such properties would qualify them for several potential applications including e.g. in hyperthermia treatment, as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and in ferroelastomers technology.

  20. Manganese oxide-based multifunctionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles for pH-responsive MRI, ultrasonography and circumvention of MDR in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Yin, Qi; Ji, Xiufeng; Zhang, Shengjian; Chen, Hangrong; Zheng, Yuanyi; Sun, Yang; Qu, Haiyun; Wang, Zheng; Li, Yaping; Wang, Xia; Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Linlin; Shi, Jianlin

    2012-10-01

    Nano-biotechnology has been introduced into cancer theranostics by engineering a new generation of highly versatile hybrid mesoporous composite nanocapsules (HMCNs) for manganese-based pH-responsive dynamic T(1)-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to efficiently respond and detect the tumor acidic microenvironment, which was further integrated with ultrasonographic function based on the intrinsic unique hollow nanostructures of HMCNs for potentially in vitro and in vivo dual-modality cancer imaging. The manganese oxide-based multifunctionalization of hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles was achieved by an in situ redox reaction using mesopores as the nanoreactors. Due to the dissolution nature of manganese oxide nanoparticles under weak acidic conditions, the relaxation rate r(1) of manganese-based mesoporous MRI-T(1) contrast agents (CAs) could reach 8.81 mM(-1)s(-1), which is a 11-fold magnitude increase compared to the neutral condition, and is almost two times higher than commercial Gd(III)-based complex agents. This is also the highest r(1) value ever reported for manganese oxide nanoparticles-based MRI-T(1) CAs. In addition, the hollow interiors and thin mesoporous silica shells endow HMCNs with the functions of CAs for efficient in vitro and in vivo ultrasonography under both harmonic- and B-modes. Importantly, the well-defined mesopores and large hollow interiors of HMCNs could encapsulate and deliver anticancer agents (doxorubicin) intracellularly to circumvent the multidrug resistance (MDR) of cancer cells and restore the anti-proliferative effect of drugs by nanoparticle-mediated endocytosis process, intracellular drug release and P-gp inhibition/ATP depletion in cancer cells. PMID:22789722

  1. Structural and magnetic studies of the nickel doped CoFe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by the chemical co-precipitation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashok; Yadav, Nisha; Rana, Dinesh S.; Kumar, Parmod; Arora, Manju; Pant, R. P.

    2015-11-01

    The physical properties of nickel doped cobalt ferrite nanoparticles NixCo1-xFe2O4 (x=0.5, 0.75, 0.9) derived by the chemical co-precipitation route are characterized by XRD, FTIR, TEM, EPR, search coil and ac susceptibility techniques to develop stable kerosene based ferrofluid. XRD patterns and TEM images confirm the single phase formation of NixCo1-xFe2O4 nanoparticles whose crystallite size increases and lattice parameters decreases with the increase in Ni content. EPR resonance signal peak-to-peak line width and resonance field value decreases with the increase in Ni concentration in these samples. The broad nature of resonance signal is attributed to the ferromagnetic nature of the as-prepared nanoparticles and the increase in super exchange interaction among Ni2+-O-Co2+ facilitate the shifting of resonance value to lower field. The hysteresis loops of these nickel doped cobalt ferrite analogs exhibits highly magnetic nature of these nanoparticles at ambient temperature whose saturation magnetization, coerecivity and remanence magnetization decreases linearly with the increase in Ni-concentration in cobalt ferrite. The magnetic susceptibility with temperature curve shows increasing trend of blocking temperature with rise in nickel ion concentration.

  2. An integrated study of thermal treatment effects on the microstructure and magnetic properties of Zn-ferrite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Antic, Bratislav; Perovic, Marija; Kremenovic, Aleksandar; Blanusa, Jovan; Spasojevic, Vojislav; Vulic, Predrag; Bessais, Lotfi; Bozin, Emil S

    2015-09-30

    The evolution of the magnetic state, crystal structure and microstructure parameters of nanocrystalline zinc–ferrite, tuned by thermal annealing of ~4 nm nanoparticles, was systematically studied by complementary characterization methods. Structural analysis of neutron and synchrotron x-ray radiation data revealed a mixed cation distribution in the nanoparticle samples, with the degree of inversion systematically decreasing from 0.25 in an as-prepared nanocrystalline sample to a non-inverted spinel structure with a normal cation distribution in the bulk counterpart. The results of DC magnetization and Mossbauer spectroscopy experiments indicated a superparamagnetic relaxation in ~4 nm nanoparticles, albeit with different freezing temperatures Tf of 27.5 K and 46 K, respectively. The quadrupole splitting parameter decreases with the annealing temperature due to cation redistribution between the tetrahedral and octahedral sites of the spinel structure and the associated defects. DC magnetization measurements indicated the existence of significant interparticle interactions among nanoparticles (‘superspins’). Additional confirmation for the presence of interparticle interactions was found from the fit of the Tf(H) dependence to the AT line, from which a value of the anisotropy constant of Keff = 5.6 × 105 erg cm-3 was deduced. Further evidence for strong interparticle interactions was found from AC susceptibility measurements, where the frequency dependence of the freezing temperature Tf(ƒ) was satisfactory described by both Vogel–Fulcher and dynamic scaling theory, both applicable for interacting systems. The parameters obtained from these fits suggest collective freezing of magnetic moments at Tf .

  3. Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with improved aqueous colloidal stability and electrophoretic mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munjal, Sandeep; Khare, Neeraj

    2016-04-01

    We have synthesized CoFe2O4 (CFO) nanoparticles of size ˜ 12.2 nm by hydrothermal synthesis method. To control the size of these CFO nanoparticles, oleic acid was used as a surfactant. The inverse spinel phase of the synthesized nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction method. As synthesized oleic acid coated CFO (OA@CFO) nanoparticles has very less electrophoretic mobility in the water and are not water dispersible. These OA@CFO nanoparticles were successfully turned into water soluble phase with a better colloidal aqueous stability, through a chemical treatment using citric acid. The modified citric acid coated CFO (CA@CFO) nanoparticles were dispersible in water and form a stable aqueous solution with high electrophoretic mobility.

  4. Manganese nanoparticles: impact on non-nodulated plant as a potent enhancer in nitrogen metabolism and toxicity study both in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Saheli; Patra, Prasun; Mitra, Shouvik; Dey, Kushal Kumar; Jain, Sneha; Sarkar, Samapd; Roy, Shuvrodeb; Palit, Pratip; Goswami, Arunava

    2014-09-01

    Mung bean plants were grown under controlled conditions and supplemented with macro- and micronutrients. The objective of this study was to determine the response of manganese nanoparticles (MnNP) in nitrate uptake, assimilation, and metabolism compared with the commercially used manganese salt, manganese sulfate (MS). MnNP was modulated to affect the assimilatory process by enhancing the net flux of nitrogen assimilation through NR-NiR and GS-GOGAT pathways. This study was associated with toxicological investigation on in vitro and in vivo systems to promote MnNP as nanofertilizer and can be used as an alternative to MS. MnNP did not impart any toxicity to the mice brain mitochondria except in the partial inhibition of complex II-III activity in ETC. Therefore, mitochondrial dysfunction and neurotoxicity, which were noted by excess usage of elemental manganese, were prevented. This is the first attempt to highlight the nitrogen uptake, assimilation, and metabolism in a plant system using a nanoparticle to promote a biosafe nanomicronutrient-based crop management. PMID:25126671

  5. Degradation of aqueous and soil-sorbed estradiol using a new class of stabilized manganese oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Han, Bing; Zhang, Man; Zhao, Dongye; Feng, Yucheng

    2015-03-01

    Manganese oxide (MnO₂) was reported to be effective for degrading aqueous pharmaceutical chemicals. However, little is known about its potential use for degrading soil-sorbed contaminants. To bridge this knowledge gap, we synthesized, for the first time, a class of stabilized MnO₂ nanoparticles using carboxymethyl celluloses (CMC) as a stabilizer, and tested their effectiveness for degrading aqueous and soil-sorbed estradiol. The most desired particles (highest reactivity and soil deliverability) were obtained at a CMC/MnO₂ molar ratio of 1.39 × 10(-3), which yielded a mean hydrodynamic size of 39.5 nm and a narrow size distribution (SD = 0.8 nm). While non-stabilized MnO₂ particles rapidly aggregated and were not transportable through a soil column, CMC-stabilized nanoparticles remained fully dispersed in water and were soil deliverable. At typical aquatic pH (6-7), CMC-stabilized MnO₂ exhibited faster degradation kinetics for oxidation of 17β-estradiol than non-stabilized MnO₂. The reactivity advantage becomes more evident when used for treating soil-sorbed estradiol owing to the ability of CMC to complex with metal ions and prevent the reactive sites from binding with inhibitive soil components. A retarded first-order rate model was able to interpret the oxidation kinetics for CMC-stabilized MnO₂. When used for degrading soil-sorbed estradiol, several factors may inhibit the oxidation effectiveness, including desorption rate, soil-MnO₂ interactions, and soil-released metals and reductants. CMC-stabilized MnO₂ nanoparticles hold the potential for facilitating in situ oxidative degradation of various emerging contaminants in soil and groundwater. PMID:25543239

  6. Synthesis and photoluminescent and nonlinear optical properties of manganese doped ZnS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazerdeylami, Somayeh; Saievar-Iranizad, Esmaiel; Dehghani, Zahra; Molaei, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    In this work we synthesized ZnS:Mn 2+ nanoparticles by chemical method using PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) as a capping agent in aqueous solution. The structure and optical properties of the resultant product were characterized using UV-vis optical spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) and z-scan techniques. UV-vis spectra for all samples showed an excitonic peak at around 292 nm, indicating that concentration of Mn 2+ ions does not alter the band gap of nanoparticles. XRD patterns showed that the ZnS:Mn 2+ nanoparticles have zinc blende structure with the average crystalline sizes of about 2 nm. The room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of ZnS:Mn 2+ exhibited an orange-red emission at 594 nm due to the 4T 1- 6A 1 transition in Mn 2+. The PL intensity increased with increase in the Mn 2+ ion concentration. The second-order nonlinear optical properties of nanoparticles were studied using a continuous-wave (CW) He-Ne laser by z-scan technique. The nonlinear refractive indices of nanoparticles were in the order of 10 -8 cm 2/W with negative sign and the nonlinear absorption indices of these nanoparticles were obtained to be about 10 -3 cm/W with positive sign.

  7. Nickel-doped cobalt ferrite nanoparticles: efficient catalysts for the reduction of nitroaromatic compounds and photo-oxidative degradation of toxic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Charanjit; Goyal, Ankita; Singhal, Sonal

    2014-06-01

    This study deals with the exploration of NixCo1-xFe2O4 (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0) ferrite nanoparticles as catalysts for reduction of 4-nitrophenol and photo-oxidative degradation of Rhodamine B. The ferrite samples with uniform size distribution were synthesized using the reverse micelle technique. The structural investigation was performed using powder X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray and scanning tunneling microscopy. The spherical particles with ordered cubic spinel structure were found to have the crystallite size of 4-6 nm. Diffused UV-visible reflectance spectroscopy was employed to investigate the optical properties of the synthesized ferrite nanoparticles. The surface area calculated using BET method was found to be highest for Co0.4Ni0.6Fe2O4 (154.02 m2 g-1). Co0.4Ni0.6Fe2O4 showed the best catalytic activity for reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of NaBH4 as reducing agent, whereas CoFe2O4 was found to be catalytically inactive. The reduction reaction followed pseudo-first order kinetics. The effect of varying the concentration of catalyst and NaBH4 on the reaction rates was also scrutinized. The photo-oxidative degradation of Rhodamine B, enhanced oxidation efficacy was observed with the introduction of Ni2+ in to the cobalt ferrite lattice due to octahedral site preference of Ni2+. Almost 99% degradation was achieved in 20 min using NiFe2O4 nanoparticles as catalyst.

  8. Nickel-doped cobalt ferrite nanoparticles: efficient catalysts for the reduction of nitroaromatic compounds and photo-oxidative degradation of toxic dyes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Charanjit; Goyal, Ankita; Singhal, Sonal

    2014-07-21

    This study deals with the exploration of NixCo₁-xFe₂O₄ (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0) ferrite nanoparticles as catalysts for reduction of 4-nitrophenol and photo-oxidative degradation of Rhodamine B. The ferrite samples with uniform size distribution were synthesized using the reverse micelle technique. The structural investigation was performed using powder X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray and scanning tunneling microscopy. The spherical particles with ordered cubic spinel structure were found to have the crystallite size of 4-6 nm. Diffused UV-visible reflectance spectroscopy was employed to investigate the optical properties of the synthesized ferrite nanoparticles. The surface area calculated using BET method was found to be highest for Co₀.₄Ni₀.₆Fe₂O₄ (154.02 m(2) g(-1)). Co₀.₄Ni₀.₆Fe₂O₄ showed the best catalytic activity for reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of NaBH4 as reducing agent, whereas CoFe₂O₄ was found to be catalytically inactive. The reduction reaction followed pseudo-first order kinetics. The effect of varying the concentration of catalyst and NaBH₄ on the reaction rates was also scrutinized. The photo-oxidative degradation of Rhodamine B, enhanced oxidation efficacy was observed with the introduction of Ni(2+) in to the cobalt ferrite lattice due to octahedral site preference of Ni(2+). Almost 99% degradation was achieved in 20 min using NiFe₂O₄ nanoparticles as catalyst. PMID:24902783

  9. Silica-F127 nanohybrid-encapsulated manganese oxide nanoparticles for optimized T1 magnetic resonance relaxivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei Hsu, Benedict You; Wang, Miao; Zhang, Yu; Vijayaragavan, Vimalan; Wong, Siew Yee; Yuang-Chi Chang, Alex; Bhakoo, Kishore Kumar; Li, Xu; Wang, John

    2013-12-01

    To properly engineer MnO nanoparticles (MONPs) of high r1 relaxivity, a nanohybrid coating consisting of silica and F127 (PEO106PPO70PEO106) is designed to encapsulate MONPs. Achieved by an interfacial templating scheme, the nanohybrid encapsulating layer is highly permeable and hydrophilic to allow for an optimal access of water molecules to the encapsulated manganese oxide core. Hence, the efficacy of MONPs as MRI contrast agents is significantly improved, as demonstrated by an enhancement of the MR signal measured with a pre-clinical 7.0 T MRI scanner. The nanohybrid encapsulation strategy also confers high colloidal stability to the hydrophobic MONPs by the surface decoration of PEO chains and a small overall diameter (<100 nm) of the PEO-SiO2 nanohybrid-encapsulated MONPs (PEOMSNs). The PEOMSNs are not susceptible to Mn-ion leaching, and their biocompatibility is affirmed by a low toxicity profile. Moreover, these hybrid nanocapsules exhibit a nano-rattle structure, which would favor the facile loading of various therapeutic reagents for theranostic applications.To properly engineer MnO nanoparticles (MONPs) of high r1 relaxivity, a nanohybrid coating consisting of silica and F127 (PEO106PPO70PEO106) is designed to encapsulate MONPs. Achieved by an interfacial templating scheme, the nanohybrid encapsulating layer is highly permeable and hydrophilic to allow for an optimal access of water molecules to the encapsulated manganese oxide core. Hence, the efficacy of MONPs as MRI contrast agents is significantly improved, as demonstrated by an enhancement of the MR signal measured with a pre-clinical 7.0 T MRI scanner. The nanohybrid encapsulation strategy also confers high colloidal stability to the hydrophobic MONPs by the surface decoration of PEO chains and a small overall diameter (<100 nm) of the PEO-SiO2 nanohybrid-encapsulated MONPs (PEOMSNs). The PEOMSNs are not susceptible to Mn-ion leaching, and their biocompatibility is affirmed by a low toxicity profile. Moreover, these hybrid nanocapsules exhibit a nano-rattle structure, which would favor the facile loading of various therapeutic reagents for theranostic applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1-S6. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr04378a

  10. Mineral of the month: manganese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corathers, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Manganese is one of the most important ferrous metals and one of the few for which the United States is totally dependent on imports. It is a black, brittle element predominantly used in metallurgical applications as an alloying addition, particularly in steel and cast iron production, which together provide the largest market for manganese (about 83 percent). It is also used as an alloy with nonferrous metals such as aluminum and copper. Nonmetallurgical applications of manganese include battery cathodes, soft ferrite magnets used in electronics, micronutrients found in fertilizers and animal feed, water treatment chemicals, and a colorant for bricks and ceramics.

  11. Correlating size and composition-dependent effects with magnetic, Mössbauer, and pair distribution function measurements in a family of catalytically active ferrite nanoparticles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wong, Stanislaus; Papaefthymiou, Georgia C.; Lewis, Crystal S.; Han, Jinkyu; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Qiang; Shi, Chenyang; Abeykoon, A. M.Milinda; Billinge, Simon J.L.; Stach, Eric; et al

    2015-05-06

    The magnetic spinel ferrites, MFe₂O₄ (wherein 'M' = a divalent metal ion such as but not limited to Mn, Co, Zn, and Ni), represent a unique class of magnetic materials in which the rational introduction of different 'M's can yield correspondingly unique and interesting magnetic behaviors. Herein we present a generalized hydrothermal method for the synthesis of single-crystalline ferrite nanoparticles with 'M' = Mg, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn, respectively, which can be systematically and efficaciously produced simply by changing the metal precursor. Our protocol can moreover lead to reproducible size control by judicious selection of various surfactants. Asmore » such, we have probed the effects of both (i) size and (ii) chemical composition upon the magnetic properties of these nanomaterials using complementary magnetometry and Mössbauer spectroscopy techniques. The structure of the samples was confirmed by atomic PDF analysis of X-ray and electron powder diffraction data as a function of particle size. These materials retain the bulk spinel structure to the smallest size (i.e., 3 nm). In addition, we have explored the catalytic potential of our ferrites as both (a) magnetically recoverable photocatalysts and (b) biological catalysts, and noted that many of our as-prepared ferrite systems evinced intrinsically higher activities as compared with their iron oxide analogues.« less

  12. Correlating size and composition-dependent effects with magnetic, Mössbauer, and pair distribution function measurements in a family of catalytically active ferrite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Stanislaus; Papaefthymiou, Georgia C.; Lewis, Crystal S.; Han, Jinkyu; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Qiang; Shi, Chenyang; Abeykoon, A. M.Milinda; Billinge, Simon J.L.; Stach, Eric; Thomas, Justin; Guerrero, Kevin; Munayco, Pablo; Munayco, Jimmy; Scorzelli, Rosa B.; Burnham, Philip; Viescas, Arthur J; Tiano, Amanda L.

    2015-05-06

    The magnetic spinel ferrites, MFe₂O₄ (wherein 'M' = a divalent metal ion such as but not limited to Mn, Co, Zn, and Ni), represent a unique class of magnetic materials in which the rational introduction of different 'M's can yield correspondingly unique and interesting magnetic behaviors. Herein we present a generalized hydrothermal method for the synthesis of single-crystalline ferrite nanoparticles with 'M' = Mg, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn, respectively, which can be systematically and efficaciously produced simply by changing the metal precursor. Our protocol can moreover lead to reproducible size control by judicious selection of various surfactants. As such, we have probed the effects of both (i) size and (ii) chemical composition upon the magnetic properties of these nanomaterials using complementary magnetometry and Mössbauer spectroscopy techniques. The structure of the samples was confirmed by atomic PDF analysis of X-ray and electron powder diffraction data as a function of particle size. These materials retain the bulk spinel structure to the smallest size (i.e., 3 nm). In addition, we have explored the catalytic potential of our ferrites as both (a) magnetically recoverable photocatalysts and (b) biological catalysts, and noted that many of our as-prepared ferrite systems evinced intrinsically higher activities as compared with their iron oxide analogues.

  13. Correlating size and composition-dependent effects with magnetic, Mssbauer, and pair distribution function measurements in a family of catalytically active ferrite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Stanislaus; Papaefthymiou, Georgia C.; Lewis, Crystal S.; Han, Jinkyu; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Qiang; Shi, Chenyang; Abeykoon, A. M.Milinda; Billinge, Simon J.L.; Stach, Eric; Thomas, Justin; Guerrero, Kevin; Munayco, Pablo; Munayco, Jimmy; Scorzelli, Rosa B.; Burnham, Philip; Viescas, Arthur J; Tiano, Amanda L.

    2015-05-06

    The magnetic spinel ferrites, MFe?O? (wherein 'M' = a divalent metal ion such as but not limited to Mn, Co, Zn, and Ni), represent a unique class of magnetic materials in which the rational introduction of different 'M's can yield correspondingly unique and interesting magnetic behaviors. Herein we present a generalized hydrothermal method for the synthesis of single-crystalline ferrite nanoparticles with 'M' = Mg, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn, respectively, which can be systematically and efficaciously produced simply by changing the metal precursor. Our protocol can moreover lead to reproducible size control by judicious selection of various surfactants. As such, we have probed the effects of both (i) size and (ii) chemical composition upon the magnetic properties of these nanomaterials using complementary magnetometry and Mssbauer spectroscopy techniques. The structure of the samples was confirmed by atomic PDF analysis of X-ray and electron powder diffraction data as a function of particle size. These materials retain the bulk spinel structure to the smallest size (i.e., 3 nm). In addition, we have explored the catalytic potential of our ferrites as both (a) magnetically recoverable photocatalysts and (b) biological catalysts, and noted that many of our as-prepared ferrite systems evinced intrinsically higher activities as compared with their iron oxide analogues.

  14. Mssbauer and magnetization studies of nickel ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by the microwave-combustion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, M. H.; Elshahawy, A. M.; Makhlouf, Salah A.; Hamdeh, H. H.

    2013-10-01

    Nanocrystalline nickel ferrite was synthesized from its stoichiometric metal nitrates and urea mixtures, using a microwave assisted combustion method. The process was a convenient, inexpensive and an efficient method for formation of NiFe2O4 nanomaterials. Effect of urea/metal nitrates ratio on the obtained phases, particle size and magnetic properties has been investigated by various techniques. Saturation magnetization of 50 emu/g was observed at room temperature for larger particles, and it decreases with decreasing particle size. The coercivity attains a maximum value of 170 Oe when the particle size was ~20 nm, and decreases with increasing particle size. Mssbauer spectra measured at RT for some representative samples show a combination of ordered and superparamagnetic behavior, whereas those collected at 20 K elucidate the nature of the obtained phases and cation distribution.

  15. Structural and magnetic properties of manganese zinc ferrite nanoparticles prepared by solution combustion method using mixture of fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angadi, V. Jagadeesha; Rudraswamy, B.; Sadhana, K.; Praveena, K.

    2016-07-01

    The structural analysis and magnetic investigation Mn1-xZnxFe2O4 with stoichiometry (x=0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9 and 1.0) were synthesized by solution combustion method using mixture of fuel this is first of its kind. As synthesized Mn-Zn nanoferrites were characterized by X-ray Diffractometer (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) at room temperature. The magnetic domain relaxation was investigated by inductance spectroscopy (IS) and the observed magnetic domain relaxation frequency (fr) was increased with the increase in grain size. The Room temperature magnetic properties were studied using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). It was observed that the real and imaginary part of permeability (μ‧ and μ″), saturation magnetization (Ms), remanance magnetization (Mr) and magneton number (Mr/Ms) were decreases gradually with increasing Zn2+ concentration. The decrease in the saturation magnetization may be explained as, the Zn2+ concentration increases the relative number of ferric ions on the A sites diminishes and this reduces the A-B interaction. Hence synthesized materials are good for high frequency applications.

  16. χ(3) Measurement and optical power limiting behavior of manganese doped lithium tetraborate nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mohandoss, R; Dhanuskodi, S; Vinitha, G

    2015-02-01

    Manganese doped Li2B4O7 nano crystallites were prepared by chemical method and characterized by XRD, FTIR, UV and fluorescence spectra. FESEM reveals that the particles are coagulated and the particle size is in the range of 50-107 nm. Bands appear at 682-769 cm(-1) corresponds to the bending of B-O linkage in borate network. Nonradiative energy transfer process is observed from fluorescence spectrum. UV-Vis studies show the samples are completely transparent in the visible region and having absorption peaks (234 and 276 nm) in UV regime. The measured second harmonic generation values are 0.9 times KDP. The nonlinear optical parameters such as nonlinear refractive index, n2 (10(-8) cm(2)/W), nonlinear absorption, β (10(-2) cm/W) and nonlinear optical susceptibility, χ(3) (10(-5) esu) are estimated using a Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 50 mW). PMID:25459619

  17. χ(3) measurement and optical power limiting behavior of manganese doped lithium tetraborate nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohandoss, R.; Dhanuskodi, S.; Vinitha, G.

    2015-02-01

    Manganese doped Li2B4O7 nano crystallites were prepared by chemical method and characterized by XRD, FTIR, UV and fluorescence spectra. FESEM reveals that the particles are coagulated and the particle size is in the range of 50-107 nm. Bands appear at 682-769 cm-1corresponds to the bending of B-O linkage in borate network. Nonradiative energy transfer process is observed from fluorescence spectrum. UV-Vis studies show the samples are completely transparent in the visible region and having absorption peaks (234 and 276 nm) in UV regime. The measured second harmonic generation values are 0.9 times KDP. The nonlinear optical parameters such as nonlinear refractive index, n2 (10-8 cm2/W), nonlinear absorption, β (10-2 cm/W) and nonlinear optical susceptibility, χ(3) (10-5 esu) are estimated using a Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 50 mW).

  18. Solvothermal synthesis of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles loaded on multiwalled carbon nanotubes for magnetic resonance imaging and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huixia; Liu, Gang; Wang, Xue; Zhang, Jiamin; Chen, Yu; Shi, Jianlin; Yang, Hong; Hu, He; Yang, Shiping

    2011-09-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/cobalt ferrite (CoFe(2)O(4)) magnetic hybrids were synthesized by a solvothermal method. The reaction temperature significantly affected the structure of the resultant MWCNT/CoFe(2)O(4) hybrids, which varied from 6nm CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles uniformly coated on the nanotubes at 180°C to agglomerated CoFe(2)O(4) spherical particles threaded by MWCNTs and forming necklace-like nanostructures at 240°C. Based on the superparamagnetic property at room temperature and high hydrophilicity, the MWCNT/CoFe(2)O(4) hybrids prepared at 180°C (MWCNT/CoFe(2)O(4)-180) were further investigated for biomedical applications, which showed a high T(2) relaxivity of 152.8 Fe mM(-1)s(-1) in aqueous solutions, a significant negative contrast enhancement effect on cancer cells and, more importantly, low cytotoxicity and negligible hemolytic activity. The anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) can be loaded onto the hybrids and subsequently released in a sustained and pH-responsive way. The DOX-loaded hybrids exhibited notable cytotoxicity to HeLa cancer cells due to the intracellular release of DOX. These results suggest that MWCNT/CoFe(2)O(4)-180 hybrids may be used as both effective magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents and anticancer drug delivery systems for simultaneous cancer diagnosis and chemotherapy. PMID:21664499

  19. Luminol-silver nitrate chemiluminescence enhancement induced by cobalt ferrite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wenbing; Wang, Hui; Huang, Yuming

    2011-01-01

    CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles (NPs) could stimulate the weak chemiluminescence (CL) system of luminol and AgNO(3), resulting in a strong CL emission. The UV-visible spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectra and TEM images of the investigated system revealed that AgNO(3) was reduced by luminol to Ag in the presence of CoFe(2)O(4) NPs and the formed Ag covered the surface of CoFe(2)O(4) NPs, resulting in CoFe(2)O(4)-Ag core-shell nanoparticles. Investigation of the CL reaction kinetics demonstrated that the reaction among luminol, AgNO(3) and CoFe(2)O(4) NPs was fast at the beginning and slowed down later. The CL spectra of the luminol - AgNO(3) - CoFe(2)O(4) NPs system indicated that the luminophor was still an electronically excited 3-aminophthalate anion. A CL mechanism has been postulated. When the CoFe(2)O(4) NPs were injected into the mixture of luminol and AgNO(3), they catalyzed the reduction of AgNO(3) by luminol to produce luminol radicals and Ag, which immediately covered the CoFe(2)O(4) NPs to form CoFe(2)O(4)-Ag core-shell nanoparticles, and the luminol radicals reacted with the dissolved oxygen, leading to a strong CL emission. With the continuous deposition of Ag on the surface of CoFe(2)O(4) NPs, the catalytic activity of the core-shell nanoparticles was inhibited and a decrease in CL intensity was observed and also a slow growth of shell on the nanoparticles. PMID:21400653

  20. Effect of annealing in a reductive environment on the magnetic properties of barium ferrite nanoparticles doped with Ti4+ and Co2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petinov, V. I.

    2011-10-01

    It was found experimentally that the annealing of BaFe10.6Co0.7Ti0.7O19 and BaFe10.2Co0.9Ti0.9O19 complex magnetic oxide nanoparticles in paraffin vapor irreversibly increases their coercive force H c and saturation magnetization M s to the H c and M s values for barium ferrite BaFe12O19. The annealing of these nanoparticles, and of particles of magnetic oxides CrO2, γ-Fe2O3, and BaFe12O19 in air and in paraffin vapor, has not been shown to affect their H c and M s values. An explanation in terms of diffusion self-purification of nanoparticles from ion impurities activated by chemical processes on their surface is offered.

  1. Effect of Mo substitution on structural and magnetic properties of Zinc ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiba, Zein K.; Mohamed, Mohamed Bakr; Wahba, Adel Maher

    2016-03-01

    Nano ferrite ZnFe2-xMoxO4 (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3) samples were synthesized by using citrate method. The phase purity and the structure parameters were studied using X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, and magnetic measurements. Rietveld analysis of X-ray diffraction data revealed that Mo doping ZnFe2O4 changes the degree of inversion of Zn2+ cations. The oxidation state of Mo was studied by using FTIR analysis. Mo doped ZnFe2O4 has a ferromagnetic properties. The magnetization decreases by the replacement of Fe3+ ions by non-magnetic Mo3+ ions. Mo doped ZnFe2O4 samples have a very small coercive field (Hc), which changes depending on the amount of Mo in the sample and reach its maximum value for ZnFe1.7Mo0.3O4. Cation distribution is proposed in an attempt to explain the experimental results of XRD, IR, and VSM data. The direct proportion between the coercive field and the Fe2+ content in the samples was studied in detailed.

  2. Regioselective oxyalkylation of vinylarenes catalyzed by diatomite-supported manganese oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huayin; Zhang, Yonghui; Guo, Fengfeng; Zha, Zhenggen; Wang, Zhiyong

    2012-04-01

    A regioselective oxyalkylation reaction of vinylarenes with cyclic ethers was developed under the catalysis of a new heterogeneous catalyst, the diatomite-supported Mn(3)O(4) nanoparticles (SMONP-1). The use of this heterogeneous catalyst provided a novel approach for the synthesis of α-carbonyled β-alkylated aryl derivatives via a sp(3) C-H bond functionalization under mild aerobic conditions. PMID:22390283

  3. Phase and composition controllable synthesis of cobalt manganese spinel nanoparticles towards efficient oxygen electrocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun; Han, Xiaopeng; Cheng, Fangyi; Hu, Yuxiang; Chen, Chengcheng; Chen, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Spinel-type oxides are technologically important in many fields, including electronics, magnetism, catalysis and electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Typically, these materials are prepared by conventional ceramic routes that are energy consuming and offer limited control over shape and size. Moreover, for mixed-metal oxide spinels (for example, CoxMn3−xO4), the crystallographic phase sensitively correlates with the metal ratio, posing great challenges to synthesize active product with simultaneously tuned phase and composition. Here we report a general synthesis of ultrasmall cobalt manganese spinels with tailored structural symmetry and composition through facile solution-based oxidation–precipitation and insertion–crystallization process at modest condition. As an example application, the nanocrystalline spinels catalyse the oxygen reduction/evolution reactions, showing phase and composition co-dependent performance. Furthermore, the mild synthetic strategy allows the formation of homogeneous and strongly coupled spinel/carbon nanocomposites, which exhibit comparable activity but superior durability to Pt/C and serve as efficient catalysts to build rechargeable Zn–air and Li–air batteries. PMID:26040417

  4. Phase and composition controllable synthesis of cobalt manganese spinel nanoparticles towards efficient oxygen electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun; Han, Xiaopeng; Cheng, Fangyi; Hu, Yuxiang; Chen, Chengcheng; Chen, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Spinel-type oxides are technologically important in many fields, including electronics, magnetism, catalysis and electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Typically, these materials are prepared by conventional ceramic routes that are energy consuming and offer limited control over shape and size. Moreover, for mixed-metal oxide spinels (for example, Co(x)Mn(3-x)O4), the crystallographic phase sensitively correlates with the metal ratio, posing great challenges to synthesize active product with simultaneously tuned phase and composition. Here we report a general synthesis of ultrasmall cobalt manganese spinels with tailored structural symmetry and composition through facile solution-based oxidation-precipitation and insertion-crystallization process at modest condition. As an example application, the nanocrystalline spinels catalyse the oxygen reduction/evolution reactions, showing phase and composition co-dependent performance. Furthermore, the mild synthetic strategy allows the formation of homogeneous and strongly coupled spinel/carbon nanocomposites, which exhibit comparable activity but superior durability to Pt/C and serve as efficient catalysts to build rechargeable Zn-air and Li-air batteries. PMID:26040417

  5. Phase and composition controllable synthesis of cobalt manganese spinel nanoparticles towards efficient oxygen electrocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun; Han, Xiaopeng; Cheng, Fangyi; Hu, Yuxiang; Chen, Chengcheng; Chen, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Spinel-type oxides are technologically important in many fields, including electronics, magnetism, catalysis and electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Typically, these materials are prepared by conventional ceramic routes that are energy consuming and offer limited control over shape and size. Moreover, for mixed-metal oxide spinels (for example, CoxMn3-xO4), the crystallographic phase sensitively correlates with the metal ratio, posing great challenges to synthesize active product with simultaneously tuned phase and composition. Here we report a general synthesis of ultrasmall cobalt manganese spinels with tailored structural symmetry and composition through facile solution-based oxidation-precipitation and insertion-crystallization process at modest condition. As an example application, the nanocrystalline spinels catalyse the oxygen reduction/evolution reactions, showing phase and composition co-dependent performance. Furthermore, the mild synthetic strategy allows the formation of homogeneous and strongly coupled spinel/carbon nanocomposites, which exhibit comparable activity but superior durability to Pt/C and serve as efficient catalysts to build rechargeable Zn-air and Li-air batteries.

  6. Iron(III) and manganese(II) substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: Characterization and cytotoxicity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Teck Nam, Chai; Ooi, Chui Ping

    2009-09-01

    Calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) is the main inorganic component of natural bones and can bond to bone directly in vivo. Thus HA is widely used as coating material on bone implants due to its good osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity. Metal ions doped HA have been used as catalyst or absorbents since the ion exchange method has introduced new properties in HA which are inherent to the metal ions. For example, Mn2+ ions have the potential to increase cell adhesion while Fe3+ ions have magnetic properties. Here, Fe(III) substituted hydroxyapatite (Fe-HA) and Mn(II) substituted hydroxyapatite (Mn-HA) were produced by wet chemical method coupled with ion exchange mechanism. Compared with pure HA, the colour of both Fe-HA and Mn-HA nanoparticles changed from white to brown and pink respectively. The intensity of the colours increased with increasing substitution concentrations. XRD patterns showed that all samples were single phased HA while the FTIR spectra revealed all samples possessed the characteristic phosphate and hydroxyl adsorption bands of HA. However, undesired adsorption bands of carbonate substitution (B-type carbonated HA) and H2O were also detected, which was reasonable since the wet chemical method was used in the synthesis of these nanoparticles. FESEM images showed all samples were elongated spheroids with small size distribution and of around 70 nm, regardless of metal ion substitution concentrations. EDX spectra showed the presence of Fe and Mn and ICP-AES results revealed all metal ion substituted HA were non-stoichiometric (Ca/P atomic ratio deviates from 1.67). Fe-HA nanoparticles were paramagnetic and the magnetic susceptibility increased with the increase of Fe content. Based on the extraction assay for cytotoxicity test, both Fe-HA and Mn-HA displayed non-cytotoxicity to osteoblast.

  7. Size-Dependent Toxicity Differences of Intratracheally Instilled Manganese Oxide Nanoparticles: Conclusions of a Subacute Animal Experiment.

    PubMed

    Máté, Zsuzsanna; Horváth, Edina; Kozma, Gábor; Simon, Tímea; Kónya, Zoltán; Paulik, Edit; Papp, András; Szabó, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Incomplete information on toxicological differences of micro- and nanometer-sized particles raised concerns about the effects of the latter on health and environment. Besides chemical composition, size and surface-to-volume ratio of nanoparticles (NPs) can affect toxicity. To investigate size-dependent toxicity differences, we used particles made of dioxide of the neurotoxic heavy metal manganese (Mn), typically found in inhaled metal fumes, in three size ranges (size A, 9.14 ± 1.98 nm; size B, 42.36 ± 8.06 nm; size C, 118.31 ± 25.37 nm). For modeling the most frequent route of exposure to Mn, NPs were given to rats for 6 weeks by intratracheal instillation. Of each NP size, 3 or 6 mg/kg body weight was given while control animals were vehicle treated. Neurotoxicity was assessed by measuring spontaneous locomotor activity in an open field and by recording spontaneous and evoked electrical activity from the somatosensory cortical area. Mn content of brain, lung, and blood, measured by ICP-MS, were correlated to the observed functional alterations to see the relationship between Mn load and toxic effects. Body weight gain and organ weights were measured as general toxicological indices. The toxicity of size A and size B NPs proved to be stronger compared to size C NPs, seen most clearly in decreased body weight gain and altered spontaneous cortical activity, which were also well correlated to the internal Mn dose. Our results showed strong effect of size on NP toxicity, thus, beyond inappropriateness of toxicity data of micrometer-sized particles in evaluation of NP exposure, differentiation within the nano range may be necessary. PMID:26384687

  8. Artificial neural network modelling of photodegradation in suspension of manganese doped zinc oxide nanoparticles under visible-light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, Yadollah; Zakaria, Azmi; Sairi, Nor Asrina; Matori, Khamirul Amin; Masoumi, Hamid Reza Fard; Sadrolhosseini, Amir Reza; Jahangirian, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    The artificial neural network (ANN) modeling of m-cresol photodegradation was carried out for determination of the optimum and importance values of the effective variables to achieve the maximum efficiency. The photodegradation was carried out in the suspension of synthesized manganese doped ZnO nanoparticles under visible-light irradiation. The input considered effective variables of the photodegradation were irradiation time, pH, photocatalyst amount, and concentration of m-cresol while the efficiency was the only response as output. The performed experiments were designed into three data sets such as training, testing, and validation that were randomly splitted by the software's option. To obtain the optimum topologies, ANN was trained by quick propagation (QP), Incremental Back Propagation (IBP), Batch Back Propagation (BBP), and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithms for testing data set. The topologies were determined by the indicator of minimized root mean squared error (RMSE) for each algorithm. According to the indicator, the QP-4-8-1, IBP-4-15-1, BBP-4-6-1, and LM-4-10-1 were selected as the optimized topologies. Among the topologies, QP-4-8-1 has presented the minimum RMSE and absolute average deviation as well as maximum R-squared. Therefore, QP-4-8-1 was selected as final model for validation test and navigation of the process. The model was used for determination of the optimum values of the effective variables by a few three-dimensional plots. The optimum points of the variables were confirmed by further validated experiments. Moreover, the model predicted the relative importance of the variables which showed none of them was neglectable in this work. PMID:25538962

  9. Manganese oxide and docetaxel co-loaded fluorescent polymer nanoparticles for dual modal imaging and chemotherapy of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Azhar Z; Prasad, Preethy; Cai, Ping; He, Chunsheng; Foltz, Warren D; Amini, Mohammad Ali; Gordijo, Claudia R; Rauth, Andrew M; Wu, Xiao Yu

    2015-07-10

    Multifunctional nanoparticles (NPs) have found important applications in diagnosis, chemotherapy, and image-guided surgery of tumors. In this work, we have developed polymeric theranostic NPs (PTNPs) containing the anticancer drug docetaxel (DTX), a fluorescent dye, and magnetic manganese oxide (MnO) NPs for dual modal imaging and chemotherapy. PTNPs ~150 nm in diameter were synthesized by co-loading hydrophobic DTX and MnO NPs ~5 nm in diameter, into the matrix of a fluorescent dye-labeled amphiphilic polymer. The PTNPs enabled high loading efficiency and sustained in vitro release of DTX. Energy-dependent cellular uptake and extended cytoplasmic retention of the PTNPs in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells were observed by fluorescence microscopy examination. DTX-loaded PTNPs exhibited higher cytotoxicity than free DTX with a 3 to 4.4-fold decrease in drug dose required for 50% cell growth inhibition. The hydrophilic backbone of the amphiphilic polymer improved the fluidity of PTNPs which enhanced the longitudinal relaxivity (r1) of loaded MnO NPs by 2.7-fold with r1=2.4mM(-1)s(-1). Whole body fluorescence imaging (FI) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed significant accumulation and prolonged retention of PTNPs in orthotopic MDA-MB-231 breast tumors. These results suggest that the new amphiphilic polymer-based PTNP system, able to simultaneously deliver a poorly soluble anticancer drug, enhance MRI contrast, and stain tumor tissue by fluorescence, is a good candidate for cancer theranostic applications. PMID:25908171

  10. Artificial Neural Network Modelling of Photodegradation in Suspension of Manganese Doped Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles under Visible-Light Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahi, Yadollah; Sairi, Nor Asrina; Amin Matori, Khamirul; Fard Masoumi, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    The artificial neural network (ANN) modeling of m-cresol photodegradation was carried out for determination of the optimum and importance values of the effective variables to achieve the maximum efficiency. The photodegradation was carried out in the suspension of synthesized manganese doped ZnO nanoparticles under visible-light irradiation. The input considered effective variables of the photodegradation were irradiation time, pH, photocatalyst amount, and concentration of m-cresol while the efficiency was the only response as output. The performed experiments were designed into three data sets such as training, testing, and validation that were randomly splitted by the software's option. To obtain the optimum topologies, ANN was trained by quick propagation (QP), Incremental Back Propagation (IBP), Batch Back Propagation (BBP), and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithms for testing data set. The topologies were determined by the indicator of minimized root mean squared error (RMSE) for each algorithm. According to the indicator, the QP-4-8-1, IBP-4-15-1, BBP-4-6-1, and LM-4-10-1 were selected as the optimized topologies. Among the topologies, QP-4-8-1 has presented the minimum RMSE and absolute average deviation as well as maximum R-squared. Therefore, QP-4-8-1 was selected as final model for validation test and navigation of the process. The model was used for determination of the optimum values of the effective variables by a few three-dimensional plots. The optimum points of the variables were confirmed by further validated experiments. Moreover, the model predicted the relative importance of the variables which showed none of them was neglectable in this work. PMID:25538962

  11. Plasmonically enhanced Faraday effect in metal and ferrite nanoparticles composite precipitated inside glass.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Seisuke; Sugioka, Koji; Tanaka, Katsuhisa; Shimizu, Masahiro; Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Miura, Kiyotaka; Midorikawa, Katsumi; Mukai, Kohki

    2012-12-17

    Using femtosecond laser irradiation and subsequent annealing, nanocomposite structures composed of spinel-type ferrimagnetic nanoparticles (NPs) and plasmonic metallic NPs have been formed space-selectively within glass doped with both α-Fe(2)O(3) and Al. The Faraday rotation spectra exhibit a distinct negative peak at around 400 nm, suggesting that the ferrimagnetic Faraday response is enhanced by the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) due to metallic Al NPs. At the interfaces in the nanocomposites, the ferrimagnetism of magnetite NPs is directly coupled with the plasmon in the Al NPs. The control of the resonance wavelength of the magneto-optical peaks, namely, the size of plasmonic NPs has been demonstrated by changing the irradiation or annealing conditions. PMID:23263053

  12. Ligand-induced evolution of intrinsic fluorescence and catalytic activity from cobalt ferrite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pal, Monalisa; Kundu, Anirban; Rakshit, Rupali; Mandal, Kalyan

    2015-06-01

    To develop CoFe(2)O(4) as magneto-fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs) for biomedical applications, it would be advantageous to identify any intrinsic fluorescence of this important magnetic material by simply adjusting the surface chemistry of the NPs themselves. Herein, we demonstrate that intrinsic multicolor fluorescence, covering the whole visible region, can be induced by facile functionalization of CoFe(2)O(4) NPs with Na-tartrate. Moreover, the functionalized CoFe(2)O(4) NPs also show unprecedented catalytic efficiency in the degradation of both biologically and environmentally harmful dyes, pioneering the potential application of these NPs in therapeutics and wastewater treatment. Detailed investigation through various spectroscopic tools unveils the story behind the emergence of this unique optical property of CoFe(2)O(4) NPs upon functionalization with tartrate ligands. We believe our developed multifunctional CoFe(2)O(4) NPs hold great promise for advanced biomedical and technological applications. PMID:25867626

  13. Synthesis of magnetic cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with controlled morphology, monodispersity and composition: the influence of solvent, surfactant, reductant and synthetic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Le T.; Dung, Ngo T.; Tung, Le D.; Thanh, Cao T.; Quy, Ong K.; Chuc, Nguyen V.; Maenosono, Shinya; Thanh, Nguyen T. K.

    2015-11-01

    In our present work, magnetic cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles have been successfully synthesised by thermal decomposition of Fe(iii) and Co(ii) acetylacetonate compounds in organic solvents in the presence of oleic acid (OA)/ oleylamine (OLA) as surfactants and 1,2-hexadecanediol (HDD) or octadecanol (OCD-ol) as an accelerating agent. As a result, CoFe2O4 nanoparticles of different shapes were tightly controlled in size (range of 4-30 nm) and monodispersity (standard deviation only at ca. 5%). Experimental parameters, such as reaction time, temperature, surfactant concentration, solvent, precursor ratio, and accelerating agent, in particular, the role of HDD, OCD-ol, and OA/OLA have been intensively investigated in detail to discover the best conditions for the synthesis of the above magnetic nanoparticles. The obtained nanoparticles have been successfully applied for producing oriented carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and they have potential to be used in biomedical applications.In our present work, magnetic cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles have been successfully synthesised by thermal decomposition of Fe(iii) and Co(ii) acetylacetonate compounds in organic solvents in the presence of oleic acid (OA)/ oleylamine (OLA) as surfactants and 1,2-hexadecanediol (HDD) or octadecanol (OCD-ol) as an accelerating agent. As a result, CoFe2O4 nanoparticles of different shapes were tightly controlled in size (range of 4-30 nm) and monodispersity (standard deviation only at ca. 5%). Experimental parameters, such as reaction time, temperature, surfactant concentration, solvent, precursor ratio, and accelerating agent, in particular, the role of HDD, OCD-ol, and OA/OLA have been intensively investigated in detail to discover the best conditions for the synthesis of the above magnetic nanoparticles. The obtained nanoparticles have been successfully applied for producing oriented carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and they have potential to be used in biomedical applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04266f

  14. Development of phosphonate modified Fe 1-x MnxFe2O4 mixed ferrite nanoparticles: novel peroxidase mimetics in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Dipsikha; Baksi, Ananya; Banerjee, Indranil; Ananthakrishnan, Rajakumar; Maiti, Tapas K; Pramanik, Panchanan

    2011-10-30

    A highly facile and feasible strategy on the fabrication of advanced intrinsic peroxidase mimetics based on Mn(2+) doped mixed ferrite (Mn(II)(x)Fe(II)(1-x)Fe(III)(2)O(4)) nanoparticles was demonstrated for the quantitative and sensitive detection of mouse IgG (as a model analyte). Mn(2+) doped Fe(1-x)Mn(x)Fe(2)O(4) nanoparticles were synthesized using varying ratios of Mn(2+):Fe(2+) ions and characterized by the well known complementary techniques. The increase of Mn(2+) proportion had remarkably enhanced the peroxidase activity and magnetism. The catalytic activity of mixed ferrites was found to follow Michaelis-Menten kinetics and was noticeably higher than native Fe(3)O(4). The calculated K(m) and K(cat) exhibited strong affinity with substrates which were remarkably higher than similar sized native magnetite nanoparticles and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). These findings stimulated us to develop carboxyl modified Fe(1-x)Mn(x)Fe(2)O(4) nanoparticles using phosphonomethyl immunodiacetic acid (PMIDA) to engineer PMIDA-Fe(1-x)Mn(x)Fe(2)O(4) fabricated enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results of both PMIDA-Fe(1-x)Mn(x)Fe(2)O(4) linked ELISA revealed that the enhancements in absorbance during the catalysis of enzyme substrate were linearly proportional to the concentration of mouse IgG within the range between 0.1 μg/ml and 2.5 μg/ml. Further, this detection was ten times lower than previous reports and the detection limit of mouse IgG was 0.1 μg/ml. The advantages of our fabricated artificial peroxidase mimetics are combined of low cost, easy to prepare, better stability and tunable catalytic activity. Moreover, this method provides a new horizon for the development of promising analytical tools in the application of biocatalysis, bioassays, and bioseparation. PMID:22063549

  15. Visualization of internalization of functionalized cobalt ferrite nanoparticles and their intracellular fate.

    PubMed

    Bregar, Vladimir B; Lojk, Jasna; Suštar, Vid; Veranič, Peter; Pavlin, Mojca

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, nanoparticles (NPs) and related applications have become an intensive area of research, especially in the biotechnological and biomedical fields, with magnetic NPs being one of the promising tools for tumor treatment and as MRI-contrast enhancers. Several internalization and cytotoxicity studies have been performed, but there are still many unanswered questions concerning NP interactions with cells and NP stability. In this study, we prepared functionalized magnetic NPs coated with polyacrylic acid, which were stable in physiological conditions and which were also nontoxic short-term. Using fluorescence, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy, we were able to observe and determine the internalization pathways of polyacrylic acid-coated NPs in Chinese hamster ovary cells. With scanning electron microscopy we captured what might be the first step of NPs internalization - an endocytic vesicle in the process of formation enclosing NPs bound to the membrane. With fluorescence microscopy we observed that NP aggregates were rapidly internalized, in a time-dependent manner, via macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Inside the cytoplasm, aggregated NPs were found enclosed in acidified vesicles accumulated in the perinuclear region 1 hour after exposure, where they stayed for up to 24 hours. High intracellular loading of NPs in the Chinese hamster ovary cells was obtained after 24 hours, with no observable toxic effects. Thus polyacrylic acid-coated NPs have potential for use in biotechnological and biomedical applications. PMID:23486857

  16. Ultrahigh relaxivity and safe probes of manganese oxide nanoparticles for in vivo imaging

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, J.; Tian, X. M.; Yang, C.; Liu, P.; Luo, N. Q.; Liang, Y.; Li, H. B.; Chen, D. H.; Wang, C. X.; Li, L.; Yang, G. W.

    2013-01-01

    Mn-based nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as new class of probes for magnetic resonance imaging due to the impressive contrast ability. However, the reported Mn-based NPs possess low relaxivity and there are no immunotoxicity data regarding Mn-based NPs as contrast agents. Here, we demonstrate the ultrahigh relaxivity of water protons of 8.26 mM−1s−1 from the Mn3O4 NPs synthesized by a simple and green technique, which is twice higher than that of commercial gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents (4.11 mM−1s−1) and the highest value reported to date for Mn-based NPs. We for the first time demonstrate these Mn3O4 NPs biocompatibilities both in vitro and in vivo are satisfactory based on systematical studies of the intrinsic toxicity including cell viability of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells, normal nasopharyngeal epithelium, apoptosis in cells and in vivo immunotoxicity. These findings pave the way for the practical clinical diagnosis of Mn based NPs as safe probes for in vivo imaging. PMID:24305731

  17. Synthesis of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles from thermolysis of prospective metal-nitrosonaphthol complexes and their photochemical application in removing methylene blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavana, Jalal; Edrisi, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    In this study, cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles were synthesized by two novel methods. The first method is based on the thermolysis of metal-NN complexes. In the second method, a template free sonochemical treatment of mixed cobalt and iron chelates of α-nitroso-β-naphthol (NN) was applied. Products prepared through method 1 were spherical, with high specific surface area (54.39 m2 g-1) and small average crystalline size of 13 nm. However, CoFe2O4 nanoparticles prepared by method 2 were in random shapes, a broad range of crystalline sizes and a low specific surface area of 25.46 m2 g-1 though highly pure. A Taguchi experimental design was implemented in method 1 to determine and obtain the optimum catalyst. The structural and morphological properties of products were investigated by x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller and dynamic laser light scattering. The crystalline size calculations were performed using Williamson-Hall method on XRD spectrum. The photocatalytic activity of the optimum nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite was investigated for degradation of a representative pollutant, methylene blue (MB), and visible light as energy source. The results showed that some 92% degradation of MB could be achieved for 7 h of visible light irradiation.

  18. Synthesis of magnetic cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with controlled morphology, monodispersity and composition: the influence of solvent, surfactant, reductant and synthetic conditions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Le T; Dung, Ngo T; Tung, Le D; Thanh, Cao T; Quy, Ong K; Chuc, Nguyen V; Maenosono, Shinya; Thanh, Nguyen T K

    2015-12-14

    In our present work, magnetic cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles have been successfully synthesised by thermal decomposition of Fe(III) and Co(II) acetylacetonate compounds in organic solvents in the presence of oleic acid (OA)/ oleylamine (OLA) as surfactants and 1,2-hexadecanediol (HDD) or octadecanol (OCD-ol) as an accelerating agent. As a result, CoFe2O4 nanoparticles of different shapes were tightly controlled in size (range of 4-30 nm) and monodispersity (standard deviation only at ca. 5%). Experimental parameters, such as reaction time, temperature, surfactant concentration, solvent, precursor ratio, and accelerating agent, in particular, the role of HDD, OCD-ol, and OA/OLA have been intensively investigated in detail to discover the best conditions for the synthesis of the above magnetic nanoparticles. The obtained nanoparticles have been successfully applied for producing oriented carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and they have potential to be used in biomedical applications. PMID:26542630

  19. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, D.; Hepworth, M.T.

    1993-09-01

    The focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization is primarily in the use of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies at the US Steel Fundamental Research Laboratories in Monroeville, PA, by E.T. Turkdogan indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt % ore + 25 wt % Al{sub 2}/O{sub 3}) may be a viable alternative to zinc-based sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc hence it is not as likely to undergo depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron hence the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This presentation gives the thermodynamic background for consideration of manganese-based sorbents as an alternative to zinc ferrite. To date the work which has been in progress for nine months is limited at this stage to thermogravimetric testing of four formulations of manganese-alumina sorbents to determine the optimum conditions of pelletization and induration to produce reactive pellets.

  20. Synthesis of waste cooking oil based biodiesel via ferric-manganese promoted molybdenum oxide / zirconia nanoparticle solid acid catalyst: influence of ferric and manganese dopants.

    PubMed

    Alhassan, Fatah H; Rashid, Umer; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of ferric-manganese promoted molybdenum oxide/zirconia (Fe-Mn- MoO3/ZrO2) (FMMZ) solid acid catalyst for production of biodiesel was demonstrated. FMMZ is produced through impregnation reaction followed by calcination at 600°C for 3 h. The characterization of FMMZ had been done using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), temperature programmed desorption of NH3 (TPD-NH3), transmission electron microscopy(TEM) and Brunner-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurement. The effect of waste cooking oil methyl esters (WCOME's) yield on the reactions variables such as reaction temperature, catalyst loading, molar ratio of methanol/oil and reusability were also assessed. The catalyst was used to convert the waste cooking oil into corresponding methyl esters (95.6%±0.15) within 5 h at 200℃ reaction temperature, 600 rpm stirring speed, 1:25 molar ratio of oil to alcohol and 4% w/w catalyst loading. The reported catalyst was successfully recycled in six connective experiments without loss in activity. Moreover, the fuel properties of WCOME's were also reported using ASTM D 6751 methods. PMID:25843280

  1. Control of Particle Size and Morphology of Cobalt-Ferrite Nanoparticles by Salt-Matrix during Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizi, A.; Sadrnezhaad, S. K.; Mostafavi, M.

    Salt-matrix annealing of mechanically alloyed Co-ferrite nanopowder was used to modify its particle size and morphology. Efficiency improvement due to suppression of sintering and growth resulted in reduction of average particle size from 100nm for salt-less to 40nm for salt-full annealing procedure. Nanosized single-phase cobalt-ferrite particles were observed after 2h annealing at 750°C in the samples milled for 20 hours both with and without NaCl. NaCl:CoFe2O4 ratio of 10:1 resulted in cabbage-like clusters containing particles smaller than 50 nm.

  2. Magnetic properties of Co1-xZnxFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by starch-assisted sol-gel autocombustion method and its ball milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Raghvendra Singh; Havlica, Jaromir; Hnatko, Miroslav; Šajgalík, Pavol; Alexander, Cigáň; Palou, Martin; Bartoníčková, Eva; Boháč, Martin; Frajkorová, Františka; Masilko, Jiri; Zmrzlý, Martin; Kalina, Lukas; Hajdúchová, Miroslava; Enev, Vojtěch

    2015-03-01

    In this article, Co1-xZnxFe2O4 (x=0.0 and 0.5) spinel ferrite nanoparticles were achieved at 800 °C by starch-assisted sol-gel autocombustion method. To further reduce the particle size, these synthesized ferrite nanoparticles were ball-milled for 2 h. X-ray diffraction patterns demonstrated single phase formation of Co1-xZnxFe2O4 (x=0.0 and 0.5) spinel ferrite nanoparticles. FE-SEM analysis indicated the nanosized spherical particles formation with spherical morphology. The change in Raman modes and relative intensity were observed due to ball milling and consequently decrease of particle size and cationic redistribution. An X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) result indicated that Co2+, Zn2+ and Fe3+ exist in octahedral and tetrahedral sites. The cationic redistribution of Zn2+ and consequently Fe3+ occurred between octahedral and tetrahedral sites after ball-milling. The change in saturation magnetization (Ms) and coercivity (Hc) with decrease of nanocrystalline size and distribution of cations in spinel ferrite were observed.

  3. Nanoparticles of Molybdenum Chlorophyllin Photosensitizer and Magnetic Citrate-Coated Cobalt Ferrite Complex Available to Hyperthermia and Photodynamic Therapy Clinical Trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primo, Fernando L.; Cordo, Paloma L. A. G.; Neto, Alberto F.; Morais, Paulo C.; Tedesco, Antonio C.

    2010-12-01

    This study report on the synthesis and characterization of molybdenum chlorophyllin (Mo-Chl) compounds associated in a complex with magnetic nanoparticles (citrate-coated cobalt ferrite), the latter prepared as a biocompatible magnetic fluid (MF). The complex material was developed for application as a synergic drug for cancer treatment using Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) and Hyperthermia (HPT). Chlorophyllin was obtained from alkaline extraction of Ilex paraguariensis following molybdenum insertion from hydrolysis with molybdate sodium. Fluorescence quantum yield (Φf) of Mo-Chl/dimethyl-sulphoxide (DMSO) was lower than 0.1, with a lifetime of 5.0 ns, as obtained from time-correlated single-photon counting technique. The oxygen quantum yield of Mo-Chl was carried out using laser flash-photolysis studies in homogeneous medium saturated with O2(g) (ΦΔ = 0.50). Cellular viability was also evaluated via the classical MTT assay using gingival fibroblasts cells as a biological model. Studies performed with the complex Mo-Chl (5.0 μmol.L-1)/MF at different magnetic nanoparticle concentrations (ranging from 1012 to 1015 particle.mL-1) revealed a cellular viability of approximately 95% for the ideal magnetic material concentration of 1×10 particle.mL-1. The present study shows that natural photosensitizers molecules Mo-Chl used in association with magnetic nanoparticles represent a promising generation of drug developed to work synergistically in the treatment of neoplastic tissues using PDT and HPT.

  4. Temperature Dependence of Saturation Magnetization and Coercivity in Mn0.5Zn0.5Gd0.02Fe1.98O4 Ferrite Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obaidat, I. M.; Issa, B.; Albiss, B. A.; Haik, Y.

    2015-10-01

    The influence of temperature on coercivity, Hc and saturation magnetization, Ms were investigated experimentally in Mn0.5Zn0.5Gd0.02Fe1.98O4 ferrite nanoparticles (average size 35 nm). Isothermal magnetization curves M (H) were obtained in the field range from -5 kOe to +5 kOe at different temperatures after the zero field cooling (ZFC) process. The temperature dependence of the coercivity, Hc(T) deviated slightly from the classical Kneller's law. The temperature dependence of saturation magnetization, Ms(T) was found to have an excellent agreement with the Bloch's law. These results are discussed in terms of several factors such as the size and size distribution of the particles, inter-particle interactions and the surface spin.

  5. Experimental demonstration of all-optical weak magnetic field detection using beam-deflection of single-mode fiber coated with cobalt-doped nickel ferrite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Somarpita; Chaudhuri, Partha Roy

    2015-07-10

    We experimentally demonstrate single-mode optical-fiber-beam-deflection configuration for weak magnetic-field-detection using an optimized (low coercive-field) composition of cobalt-doped nickel ferrite nanoparticles. Devising a fiber-double-slit type experiment, we measure the surrounding magnetic field through precisely measuring interference-fringe yielding a minimum detectable field ∼100  mT and we procure magnetization data of the sample that fairly predicts SQUID measurement. To improve sensitivity, we incorporate etched single-mode fiber in double-slit arrangement and recorded a minimum detectable field, ∼30  mT. To further improve, we redefine the experiment as modulating fiber-to-fiber light-transmission and demonstrate the minimum field as 2.0 mT. The device will be uniquely suited for electrical or otherwise hazardous environments. PMID:26193403

  6. A facile and practical biosensor for choline based on manganese dioxide nanoparticles synthesized in-situ at the surface of electrode by one-step electrodeposition.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guangxia; Zhao, Qiang; Wu, Weixiang; Wei, Xiaoyun; Lu, Qing

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a facile and sensitive biocompatible biosensor based on Nafion/choline oxidase/manganese dioxide composite film was developed for the determination of choline chloride. Manganese dioxide (MnO2) nanoparticles, possessing the advantages of large specific surface areas, good hydrophilicity, great permeability as well as excellent biocompatibility, were synthesized in-situ at the surface of the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by one-step electrodeposition. And then, choline oxidase (ChOx) was immobilized on the MnO2 modified GCE with coating a Nafion film to hold the ChOx/MnO2 film on the electrode surface firmly. Upon optimized conditions, a linear range of 8.0-1.0mM was obtained for the sensor in a cyclic voltammetry method, with a detection limit as low as 5.0M. Besides, the biosensor was successfully employed to detect choline in milk, milk powder and feedstuff samples, providing a promising alternative for the practical application. PMID:26695320

  7. Manganese intoxication.

    PubMed

    Hine, C H; Pasi, A

    1975-08-01

    We have reported two cases of chronic manganese poisoning. Case 1 followed exposure to manganese fumes in cutting and burning manganese steel. Case 2 resulted from exposure to dusts of manganese dioxide, an ingredient used in glazing of ceramics. There were initial difficulties in establishing the correct diagnosis. Prominent clinical features were severe and persistent chronic depressive psychosis (Case 1), transient acute brain syndrome (Case 2) and the presence of various extrapyramidal symptoms in both cases. Manganese intoxication has not previously been reported as occurring in California. With increasing use of the metal, the disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of neurologic and psychiatric disease. Our observations were made in the period 1964 through 1968. Recently the prognosis of victims of manganese poisoning has been improved dramatically by the introduction of levodopa as a therapeutic agent. PMID:1179714

  8. Removing selected steroid hormones, biocides and pharmaceuticals from water by means of biogenic manganese oxide nanoparticles in situ at ppb levels.

    PubMed

    Furgal, Karolina M; Meyer, Rikke L; Bester, Kai

    2015-10-01

    The oxidation of organic micro-pollutants by biogenic manganese oxide nanoparticles (BioMnOx) has been studied with respect to possible implementation of BioMnOx in wastewater treatment. For this it would be prerequisite that microbial Mn(2+) oxidation and BioMnOx-driven pollutant removal can occur in situ, i.e. in the same reactor as the removal. Here we present the in situ reactivity of BioMnOx produced by Pseudomonas putida towards a range of micro-pollutants at environmentally relevant concentrations (10 μg L(-1)). We found that in situ formed BioMnOx completely removed the steroid hormones estrone and 17-α ethinylestradiol, while only 26% removal of diclofenac was achieved. Ibuprofen, tebuconazole, carbamazepine, carbendazim, and terbutryn were not removed under in situ conditions. PMID:25532770

  9. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.; Ben-Slimane, R.

    1994-12-01

    The focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center is primarily in the use of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt % ore + 25 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) may be a viable alternative to zinc-based sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc hence it is not as likely to undergo depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron hence the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese at higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This annual topical report documents progress in pelletizing and testing via thermo-gravimetric analysis of individual pellet formulations of manganese ore/alumina combinations and also manganese carbonate/alumina with two binders, dextrin and bentonite.

  10. Load partitioning between ferrite/martensite and dispersed nanoparticles of a 9Cr ferritic/martensitic (F/M) ODS steel at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Guangming; Mo, Kun; Miao, Yinbin; Liu, Xiang; Almer, Jonathan; Zhou, Zhangjian; Stubbins, James F.

    2015-06-18

    In thisstudy,ahigh-energysynchrotronradiationX-raytechniquewasusedtoinvestigatethetensile deformation processesofa9Cr-ODSferritic/martensitic(F/M)steelatdifferenttemperatures.Twominor phases withinthe9Cr-ODSF/Msteelmatrixwereidentified asY2Ti2O7 and TiNbythehigh-energyX-ray diffraction, andconfirmed bytheanalysisusingenergydispersiveX-rayspectroscopy(EDS)ofscanning transmission electronmicroscope(STEM).Thelatticestrainsofthematrixandparticlesweremeasured through theentiretensiledeformationprocess.Duringthetensiletests,thelatticestrainsoftheferrite/ martensiteandtheparticles(TiNandY2Ti2O7) showedastrongtemperaturedependence,decreasing with increasingtemperature.Analysisoftheinternalstressatthreetemperaturesshowedthattheload partitioning betweentheferrite/martensiteandtheparticles(TiNandY2Ti2O7) wasinitiatedduring sample yieldingandreachedtoapeakduringsamplenecking.Atthreestudiedtemperatures,the internal stressofminorphases(Y2Ti2O7 and TiN)wasabout2timesthatofF/Mmatrixatyielding position, whiletheinternalstressofY2Ti2O7 and TiNreachedabout4.5–6 timesand3–3.5 timesthatof the F/Mmatrixatneckingposition,respectively.Itindicatesthatthestrengtheningofthematrixisdueto minor phases(Y2Ti2O7 and TiN),especiallyY2Ti2O7 particles. Althoughtheinternalstressesofallphases decreased withincreasingtemperaturefromRTto600 °C, theratioofinternalstressesofeachphaseat necking positionstayedinastablerange(internalstressesofY2Ti2O7 and TiNwereabout4.5–6 times and 3–3.5 timesofthatofF/Mmatrix,respectively).ThedifferencebetweeninternalstressoftheF/M matrix andtheappliedstressat600 °C isslightlylowerthanthoseatRTand300 °C, indicatingthatthe nanoparticles stillhavegoodstrengtheningeffectat600 °C.

  11. Dietary supplementation of green synthesized manganese-oxide nanoparticles and its effect on growth performance, muscle composition and digestive enzyme activities of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Asaikkutti, Annamalai; Bhavan, Periyakali Saravana; Vimala, Karuppaiya; Karthik, Madhayan; Cheruparambath, Praseeja

    2016-05-01

    The green synthesized Mn3O4 nanoparticles (manganese-oxide nanoparticles) using Ananas comosus (L.) peel extract was characterized by various techniques. HR-SEM photograph showed that manganese-oxide nanoparticles (Mn-oxide NPs) were spherical in shape, with an average size of 40-50nm. The Zeta potential revealed the surface charge of Mn-oxide NPs to be negative. Further, the Mn-oxide NPs were dietary supplemented for freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The experimental basal diets were supplemented with Mn-oxide NPs at the rates of 0 (control), 3.0, 6.0, 9.0, 12, 15 and 18mg/kg dry feed weight. The as-supplemented Mn-oxide NPs were fed in M. rosenbergii for a period of 90 days. The experimental study demonstrated that prawns fed with diet supplemented with 3-18mg Mn-oxide NPs/kg shows enhanced (P<0.05) growth performance, including final weight and weight gain (WG). Significant differences (P<0.05) in feed conversion ratio (FCR) were observed in prawn fed with different diets. Additionally, prawns fed with 3.0-18mg/kg Mn-oxide NPs supplemented diets achieved significant (P<0.05) improvement in growth performance, digestive enzyme activities and muscle biochemical compositions, while, the prawns fed with 16mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs showed enhanced performance. Prawns fed on diet supplemented with 16mg/kg Mn-oxide NPs showed significantly (P<0.05) higher total protein level. The antioxidants enzymatic activity (SOD and CAT) metabolic enzymes status in muscle and hepatopancreas showed no significant (P>0.05) alterations in prawns fed with 3.0-18mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs supplemented diets. Consequently, the present work proposed that 16mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs could be supplemented for flexible enhanced survival, growth and production of M. rosenbergii. Therefore, the data of the present study recommend the addition of 16mg/kg of Mn-oxide NPs diet to developed prawn growth and antioxidant defense system. PMID:27049122

  12. Crystal structures and magnetic properties of polyethylene glycol (PEG-4000) and silica-encapsulated nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shofiah, Siti; Muflihatun, Suharyadi, Edi

    2016-04-01

    Crystal structures and magnetic properties of polyethylene glycol (PEG-4000) and silica encapsulated nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) nanoparticles comparable sizes have been studied in detail. NiFe2O4 were prepared by co-precipitation methods. Crystalline size is 4.8 ± 0.2 nm became 1.6 ± 0.1 nm and 10.6 ± 0.3 nm after encapsulated PEG-4000 and silica, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that encapsulated PEG-4000 and silica decreased agglomeration, controlled shape of nanoparticles more spherical and dispersed. Coercivity of NiFe2O4 was 46.2 Oe and then increased after encapsulated PEG-4000 to 47.8 Oe can be related to the multi-domains of NiFe2O4 as influence the crystalline size was decreased. Meanwhile, after encapsulated silica, coercivity of NiFe2O4 became 93 Oe as influence the crystalline size was increased at single-domains due to its strong shape anisotropy. Magnetization value decreased from 5.7 emu/g to 5.3 emu/g and 3.6 emu/g after encapsulated PEG-4000 and silica, respectively. The remanent magnetization showed decreasing when saturation magnetization decreased, and conversely. However, it also depends on presence of α-Fe2O3 phases and their material non magnetic of encapsulating. Based on the result, The magnetic properties exhibit a strong dependence on the crystalline size as influence PEG-4000 and silica encapsulated NiFe2O4 nanoparticles.

  13. Attenuation of Combined Nickel(II) Oxide and Manganese(II, III) Oxide Nanoparticles' Adverse Effects with a Complex of Bioprotectors.

    PubMed

    Minigalieva, Ilzira A; Katsnelson, Boris A; Privalova, Larisa I; Sutunkova, Marina P; Gurvich, Vladimir B; Shur, Vladimir Y; Shishkina, Ekaterina V; Valamina, Irene E; Makeyev, Oleg H; Panov, Vladimir G; Varaksin, Anatoly N; Grigoryeva, Ekaterina V; Meshtcheryakova, Ekaterina Y

    2015-01-01

    Stable suspensions of NiO and Mn₃O₄ nanoparticles (NPs) with a mean (±s.d.) diameter of 16.7±8.2 and 18.4±5.4 nm, respectively, purposefully prepared by laser ablation of 99.99% pure nickel or manganese in de-ionized water, were repeatedly injected intraperitoneally (IP) to rats at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg 3 times a week up to 18 injections, either alone or in combination. A group of rats was injected with this combination with the background oral administration of a "bio-protective complex" (BPC) comprising pectin, vitamins A, C, E, glutamate, glycine, N-acetylcysteine, selenium, iodide and omega-3 PUFA, this composition having been chosen based on mechanistic considerations and previous experience. After the termination of injections, many functional and biochemical indices and histopathological features (with morphometric assessment) of the liver, spleen, kidneys and brain were evaluated for signs of toxicity. The Ni and Mn content of these organs was measured with the help of the atomic emission and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies. We obtained blood leukocytes for performing the RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) test. Although both metallic NPs proved adversely bio-active in many respects considered in this study, Mn₃O₄-NPs were somewhat more noxious than NiO-NPs as concerns most of the non-specific toxicity manifestations and they induced more marked damage to neurons in the striatum and the hippocampus, which may be considered an experimental correlate of the manganese-induced Parkinsonism. The comparative solubility of the Mn₃O₄-NPs and NiO-NPs in a biological medium is discussed as one of the factors underlying the difference in their toxicokinetics and toxicities. The BPC has attenuated both the organ-systemic toxicity and the genotoxicity of Mn₃O₄-NPs in combination with NiO-NPs. PMID:26393577

  14. High strength ferritic alloy

    DOEpatents

    Hagel, William C.; Smidt, Frederick A.; Korenko, Michael K.

    1977-01-01

    A high-strength ferritic alloy useful for fast reactor duct and cladding applications where an iron base contains from about 9% to about 13% by weight chromium, from about 4% to about 8% by weight molybdenum, from about 0.2% to about 0.8% by weight niobium, from about 0.1% to about 0.3% by weight vanadium, from about 0.2% to about 0.8% by weight silicon, from about 0.2% to about 0.8% by weight manganese, a maximum of about 0.05% by weight nitrogen, a maximum of about 0.02% by weight sulfur, a maximum of about 0.02% by weight phosphorous, and from about 0.04% to about 0.12% by weight carbon.

  15. Anomalous magnetic behaviour of zinc and chromium ferrites without any hyperfine splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, B.; Verma, H. C.

    2008-04-01

    Two groups of ferrite namely zinc ferrite and chromium ferrite were synthesized by citrate precursor route in the size range of 8 to 35 nm. We have studied the structural and magnetic behaviour of these ferrites using X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and Mössbauer spectroscopic techniques. Our studies show that the nanocrystalline ferrites interact with the hand magnet strongly and give large magnetization in the VSM measurement. The maximum magnetization in the samples sensitively depends on the particle size of synthesized ferrites. We observed as large as 28 Am2/kg of magnetization in the zinc ferrite nanoparticles while that in chromium ferrite is around 11 Am2/kg. In spite of the large magnetization in the zinc ferrite nanoparticles we did not observe any hyperfine splitting even down to 12 K of temperature. Similar behaviour is also observed for chromium ferrite down to 16 K.

  16. MANGANESE IN NARRAGANSETT BAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrations of dissolved manganese and particulate manganese and aluminum were determined in samples from Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, and its surrounding rivers. Total manganese is approximately conservative, but dissolved and particulate manganese are not. Desorption may ...

  17. NMR-D study of the local spin dynamics and magnetic anisotropy in different nearly monodispersed ferrite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bordonali, L; Kalaivani, T; Sabareesh, K P V; Innocenti, C; Fantechi, E; Sangregorio, C; Casula, M F; Lartigue, L; Larionova, J; Guari, Y; Corti, M; Arosio, P; Lascialfari, A

    2013-02-13

    We present a systematic experimental comparison of the superparamagnetic relaxation time constants obtained by means of dynamic magnetic measurements and (1)H-NMR relaxometry, on ferrite-based nanosystems with different composition, various core sizes and dispersed in different solvents. The application of a heuristic model for the relaxivity allowed a comparison between the reversal time of magnetization as seen by NMR and the results from the AC susceptibility experiments, and an estimation of fundamental microscopic properties. A good agreement between the NMR and AC results was found when fitting the AC data to a Vogel-Fulcher law. Key parameters obtained from the model have been exploited to evaluate the impact of the contribution from magnetic anisotropy to the relaxivity curves and estimate the minimum approach distance of the bulk solvent. PMID:23315450

  18. Copper(0) nanoparticles supported on silica-coated cobalt ferrite magnetic particles: cost effective catalyst in the hydrolysis of ammonia-borane with an exceptional reusability performance.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Murat; Zahmakiran, Mehmet; Ozkar, Saim; Volkan, Mürvet

    2012-08-01

    Herein we report the development of a new and cost-effective nanocomposite catalyst for the hydrolysis of ammonia-borane (NH(3)BH(3)), which is considered to be one of the most promising solid hydrogen carriers because of its high gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity (19.6% wt) and low molecular weight. The new catalyst system consisting of copper nanoparticles supported on magnetic SiO(2)/CoFe(2)O(4) particles was reproducibly prepared by wet-impregnation of Cu(II) ions on SiO(2)/CoFe(2)O(4) followed by in situ reduction of the Cu(II) ions on the surface of magnetic support during the hydrolysis of NH(3)BH(3) and characterized by ICP-MS, XRD, XPS, TEM, HR-TEM and N(2) adsorption-desorption technique. Copper nanoparticles supported on silica coated cobalt(II) ferrite SiO(2)/CoFe(2)O(4) (CuNPs@SCF) act as highly active catalyst in the hydrolysis of ammonia-borane, providing an initial turnover frequency of TOF = 2400 h(-1) at room temperature, which is not only higher than all the non-noble metal catalysts but also higher than the majority of the noble metal based homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts employed in the same reaction. More importantly, they were easily recovered by using a permanent magnet in the reactor wall and reused for up to 10 recycles without losing their inherent catalytic activity significantly, which demonstrates the exceptional reusability of the CuNPs@SCF catalyst. PMID:22856878

  19. Role of interparticle interactions on the magnetic behavior of Mg0.95Mn0.05Fe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S. K.; Kumar, Ravi; Kumar, Shalendra; Knobel, M.; Meneses, C. T.; Siva Kumar, V. V.; Reddy, V. R.; Singh, M.; Lee, C. G.

    2008-06-01

    We present here a detailed investigation of the static and dynamic magnetic behavior of a Mg0.95Mn0.05Fe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticle system synthesized by high-energy ball milling of almost identical particle size distributions (\\langle D\\rangle=4.7 , 5.1 and 6.0 ± 0.6 nm). The samples were characterized by using x-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, dc magnetization and frequency dependent real χ'(T) and imaginary χ''(T) parts of ac susceptibility measurements. The zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) magnetization have been recorded in a low field and show a behavior typical of superparamagnetic particles above a temperature of 185 ± 5 K, which is further supported from the temperature dependent Mössbauer measurements. The fact that the blocking temperature calculated from the ZFC magnetization and Mössbauer data are almost similar gives a clear indication of the interparticle interactions among these nanoparticle systems. This is further supported from the FC magnetization curves, which are almost flat below a certain temperature (less than the blocking temperature), as compared with the monotonically increasing behavior characteristics of non-interacting superparamagnetic particles. A shift of the blocking temperature with increasing frequency was observed in the real χ'(T) and imaginary χ''(T) parts of the ac susceptibility measurements. The analysis of the results shows that the data fit well with the Vogel-Fulcher law, whereas trials using the Neel-Brown and power law are unproductive. The role of magnetic interparticle interactions on the magnetic behavior, namely superparamagnetic relaxation time and magnetic anisotropy, are discussed.

  20. 2-Amino-2-deoxy-glucose conjugated cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticle (2DG-MNP) as a targeting agent for breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Aşık, Elif; Aslan, Tuğba Nur; Volkan, Mürvet; Güray, N Tülin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, 2-amino-2-deoxy-glucose (2DG) was conjugated to COOH modified cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles (COOH-MNPs), which were designed to target tumor cells as a potential targetable drug/gene delivery agent for cancer treatment. According to our results, it is apparent that, 2DG labeled MNPs were internalized more efficiently than COOH-MNPs under the same conditions in all cell types (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cancer and MCF-10A normal breast cells) (p<0.001). Moreover, the highest amount of uptake was observed in MDA-MB-231, followed by MCF-7 and normal MCF-10A cells for both MNPs. The apoptotic effects of 2DG-MNPs were further evaluated, and it was found that apoptosis was not induced at low concentrations of 2DG-MNPs in all cell types, whereas dramatic cell death was observed at higher concentrations. In addition, the gene expression levels of four drug-metabolizing enzymes, two Phase I (CYP1A1, CYP1B1) and two Phase II (GSTM3, GSTZ1) were also increased with the high concentrations of 2DG-MNPs. PMID:26761626

  1. Dextrin-coated zinc substituted cobalt-ferrite nanoparticles as an MRI contrast agent: In vitro and in vivo imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Sattarahmady, N; Zare, T; Mehdizadeh, A R; Azarpira, N; Heidari, M; Lotfi, M; Heli, H

    2015-05-01

    Application of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) as a negative contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been of widespread interest. These particles can enhance contrast of images by altering the relaxation times of the water protons. In this study, dextrin-coated zinc substituted cobalt-ferrite (Zn0.5Co0.5Fe2O4) NPs were synthesized by a co-precipitation method, and the morphology, size, structure and magnetic properties of the NPs were investigated. These NPs had superparamagnetic behavior with an average size of 3.9 (±0.9, n=200)nm measured by transmission electron microscopy. Measurements on the relaxivities (r2 and r2(*)) of the NPs were performed in vitro by agarose phantom. In addition, after subcutaneous injection of the NPs into C540 cell line in C-57 inbred mice, the relaxivities were measured in vivo by a 1.5T MRI system. These NPs could effectively increase the image contrast in both T2-and T2(*)-weighted samples. PMID:25819361

  2. Investigation of structural and magnetic properties of co-precipitated Mn-Ni ferrite nanoparticles in the presence of α-Fe2O3 phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirupanyam, B. V.; Srinivas, Ch.; Meena, S. S.; Yusuf, S. M.; Satish Kumar, A.; Sastry, D. L.; Seshubai, V.

    2015-10-01

    A systematic study on structural and magnetic properties of co-precipitated MnxNi1-xFe2O4 (x=0.5, 0.6, 0.7) ferrite nanoparticles annealed at 800 °C was carried out using XRD, FE-SEM, VSM and MÖSSBAUER techniques. Anti-ferromagnetic α-Fe2O3 phase was observed along with the magnetic spinel phase in the XRD patterns. It is observed that both lattice parameter and crystallite size of spinel phase increase with increase in concentration of Mn2+ along with the amount of α-Fe2O3 phase. The saturation magnetization (Ms) decreases while coercivity (Hc) increases with increase of Mn2+ ion concentration. Mössbauer spectra indicate that iron ions present in A and B sites are in the Fe3+ state and Fe2+ is absent. The results are interpreted in terms of observed anti-ferromagnetic α-Fe2O3 phase, core-shell interactions and cation redistribution.

  3. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy of manganese oxides: Application to Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Laffont, L.; Gibot, P.

    2010-11-15

    Manganese oxides particularly Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} Hausmannite are currently used in many industrial applications such as catalysis, magnetism, electrochemistry or air contamination. The downsizing of the particle size of such material permits an improvement of its intrinsic properties and a consequent increase in its performances compared to a classical micron-sized material. Here, we report a novel synthesis of hydrophilic nano-sized Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}, a bivalent oxide, for which a precise characterization is necessary and for which the determination of the valency proves to be essential. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and particularly High Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (HREELS) allow us to perform these measurements on the nanometer scale. Well crystallized 10-20 nm sized Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles with sphere-shaped morphology were thus successfully synthesized. Meticulous EELS investigations allowed the determination of a Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 2+} ratio of 1.5, i.e. slightly lower than the theoretical value of 2 for the bulk Hausmannite manganese oxide. This result emphasizes the presence of vacancies on the tetrahedral sites in the structure of the as-synthesized nanomaterial. - Research Highlights: {yields}Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} bulk and nano were studied by XRD, TEM and EELS. {yields}XRD and TEM determine the degree of crystallinity and the narrow grain size. {yields}HREELS gave access to the Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 2+} ratio. {yields}Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} nano have vacancies on the tetrahedral sites.

  4. Lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4) nanoparticles synthesized by hydrothermal method as adsorbent of lithium recovery process from geothermal fluid of Lumpur Sidoarjo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noerochim, Lukman; Sapputra, Gede Panca Ady; Widodo, Amien

    2016-04-01

    Lumpur Sidoarjo is one of geothermal fluid types which has a great potential as source of lithium. Adsorption method with Lithium Manganese Oxide (LiMn2O4) as an adsorbent has been chosen for lithium recovery process due to low production cost and environmental friendly. LiMn2O4 was synthesized by hydrothermal method at 200 °C for 24 hrs, 48 hrs, and 72 hrs. As prepared LiMn2O4 powder is treated by acid treatment with 0.5 M HCl solution for 24 hrs. XRD test result reveals that all of as-prepared samples are indexed as spinel structure of LiMn2O4 (JCPDS card no 35-0782) with no impurity peaks detected. SEM images show that LiMn2O4 has nanoparticles morphology with particle size around 25 nm. The highest adsorption efficiency of adsorbent is obtained by sample hydrothermal for 72 hrs with 42.76%.

  5. l-cysteine induced manganese porphyrin electrocatalytic amplification with 3D DNA-Au@Pt nanoparticles as nanocarriers for sensitive electrochemical aptasensor.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yingning; Yuan, Yali; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo

    2016-05-15

    We successfully applied the novel l-cysteine (RSH) induced manganese porphyrin (MnTPP) electrocatalytic amplification in electrochemical aptasensor for detection of thrombin (TB) with the 3D DNA-Au@Pt nanoparticles (DNA-Au@Pt NPs) as nanocarrier. A further discussion for the suggested mechanism of the reaction involved the MnTPP-catalyzed oxidation of thiols (RSH) to disulfides l-cystine (RSSR) was also discussed in detail in this work. In comparison with traditional H2O2 mediated MnTPP electrocatalytic amplification, the novel reaction with more stable catalytic substrate RSH possessed high catalytic amplification efficiency. In addition, the 3D DNA-Au@Pt NPs could provide abundant binding sites for immobilizing signal tags and enzymes. As a result, the electrochemical signal can be greatly enhanced by the RSH mediated MnTPP electrocatalytic reaction and 3D DNA-Au@Pt NPs. Under optimal conditions, the proposed aptasensor exhibited a wider linear range of 0.1pM-100nM with a more sensitive detection limit of 29fM for TB detection. PMID:26700580

  6. Novel silver nanoparticle-manganese oxyhydroxide-graphene oxide nanocomposite prepared by modified silver mirror reaction and its application for electrochemical sensing.

    PubMed

    Bai, Wushuang; Nie, Fei; Zheng, Jianbin; Sheng, Qinglin

    2014-04-23

    A gas/liquid interface will be formed when the free volatilized methyl aldehyde gas begins to dissolve in to solution. On the basis of the traditional silver mirror reaction, silver nanoparticle-manganese oxyhydroxide-graphene oxide (Ag-MnOOH-GO) nanocomposite was synthesized at the gas/liquid interface without any protection of inert gas at room temprature. The morphology of the nanocomposites could be controlled by adjusting the reaction temperature and time. The morphology and composition of the nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The composites were then applied for electrochemical sensing. The electrochemical investigation for the sensor indicates that it has excellent property to catalyze H2O2, and could detect H2O2 with a low detection limit of 0.2?M and wide linear range of 0.5 ?M to 17.8 mM. The present study provides a general platform for the controlled synthesis of nanomaterials and can be extended to other optical, electronic, and magnetic nanocompounds. PMID:24660983

  7. Cobalt ferrite based magnetostrictive materials for magnetic stress sensor and actuator applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiles, David C. (Inventor); Paulsen, Jason A. (Inventor); Snyder, John E. (Inventor); Lo, Chester C. H. (Inventor); Ring, Andrew P. (Inventor); Bormann, Keith A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Magnetostrictive material based on cobalt ferrite is described. The cobalt ferrite is substituted with transition metals (such manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) or mixtures thereof) by substituting the transition metals for iron or cobalt to form substituted cobalt ferrite that provides mechanical properties that make the substituted cobalt ferrite material effective for use as sensors and actuators. The substitution of transition metals lowers the Curie temperature of the material (as compared to cobalt ferrite) while maintaining a suitable magnetostriction for stress sensing applications.

  8. Effect of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles on the growth and development of Lycopersicon lycopersicum (tomato plants).

    PubMed

    López-Moreno, Martha L; Avilés, Leany Lugo; Pérez, Nitza Guzmán; Irizarry, Bianca Álamo; Perales, Oscar; Cedeno-Mattei, Yarilyn; Román, Félix

    2016-04-15

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthetized and studied to be incorporated in many industrial and medical applications in recent decades. Due to their different physical and chemical properties compared with bulk materials, researchers are focused to understand their interactions with the surroundings. Living organisms such as plants are exposed to these materials and they are able to tolerate different concentrations and types of NPs. Cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) NPs are being studied for their application in medical sciences because of their high coercivity, anisotropy, and large magnetostriction. These properties are desirable in magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery, and cell labeling. This study is aimed to explore the tolerance of Solanum lycopersicum L. (tomato) plants to CoFe2O4 NPs. Tomato plants were grown in hydroponic media amended with CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in a range from 0 to 1000mgL(-1). Exposure to CoFe2O4 NPs did not affect germination and growth of plants. Uptake of Fe and Co inside plant tissues increased as CoFe2O4 nanoparticle concentration was increased in the media. Mg uptake in plant leaves reached its maximum level of 4.9mgg(-1) DW (dry weight) at 125mgL(-1) of CoFe2O4 NPs exposure and decreased at high CoFe2O4 NPs concentrations. Similar pattern was observed for Ca uptake in leaves where the maximum concentration found was 10mgg(-1) DW at 125mgL(-1) of CoFe2O4 NPs exposure. Mn uptake in plant leaves was higher at 62.5mgL(-1) of CoFe2O4 NPs compared with 125 and 250mgL(-1) treatments. Catalase activity in tomato roots and leaves decreased in plants exposed to CoFe2O4 NPs. Tomato plants were able to tolerate CoFe2O4 NPs concentrations up to 1000mgL(-1) without visible toxicity symptoms. Macronutrient uptake in plants was affected when plants were exposed to 250, 500 and 1000mgL(-1) of CoFe2O4 NPs. PMID:26803683

  9. Comparison study of the magnetic permeability and dc conductivity of Co-Ni-Li ferrite nanoparticles and their bulk counterparts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assar, S. T.; Abosheiasha, H. F.; El Nimr, M. K.

    2014-03-01

    The temperature dependence of relative permeability and dc electrical conductivity of nanosamples and their bulk counterparts of Co0.5Ni0.5-2xLixFe2+xO4 (from x=0.00 to 0.25 in step of 0.05) was investigated. The values of the relative permeability of the nano-samples are lower than their bulk counterparts as a result of porous and nano-grained structure besides the effect of the larger volume of grain boundaries in the nanosamples. Moreover, the dc conductivity of the nanosamples is higher than their bulk counterparts. This is probable explained according to the shorter metal-oxygen bonding length and higher lattice vibrations of the nanosamples. Also, the values of the relative permeability of both nano and bulk samples exhibit stability over a considerable range of temperatures. This may make them useful in practical applications that require stability. All the nanosamples show high rising Curie temperature values with increasing the Li content up to the sample of x=0.15 thereafter a decrease of the Curie temperature occurs while the inverse behavior was observed in their bulk counterparts. The interpretation of these findings is explained in the discussion. Moreover, in general doping Co-Ni ferrites with Li ions improves their electrical and magnetic properties and this is clearly observed in the nanosample of x=0.15 which can be regarded as the most promising sample for microwave applications.

  10. Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles decorated on exfoliated graphene oxide, application for amperometric determination of NADH and H2O2.

    PubMed

    Ensafi, Ali A; Alinajafi, Hossein A; Jafari-Asl, M; Rezaei, B; Ghazaei, F

    2016-03-01

    Here, cobalt ferrite nanohybrid decorated on exfoliated graphene oxide (CoFe2O4/EGO) was synthesized. The nanohybrid was characterized by different methods such as X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray diffraction microanalysis, transmission electron microscopy, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical methods. The CoFe2O4/EGO nanohybrid was used to modify glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The voltammetric investigations showed that CoFe2O4/EGO nanohybrid has synergetic effect towards the electro-reduction of H2O2 and electro-oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). Rotating disk chronoamperometry was used for their quantitative analysis. The calibration curves were observed in the range of 0.50 to 100.0 μmol L(-1) NADH and 0.9 to 900.0 μmol L(-1) H2O2 with detections limit of 0.38 and 0.54 μmol L(-1), respectively. The repeatability, reproducibility and selectivity of the electrochemical sensor for analysis of the analytes were studied. The new electrochemical sensor was successfully applied for the determination of NADH and H2O2 in real samples with satisfactory results. PMID:26706531

  11. Enrichment of magnetic alignment stimulated by γ-radiation in core-shell type nanoparticle Mn-Zn ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, P. P.; Tangsali, R. B.; Sonaye, B.; Sugur, S.

    2013-02-01

    Core shell type nanoparticle MnxZn1-xFe2O4 systems with x=0.55, 0.65 & 0.75 were prepared using autocombustion method. The systems were characterized using tools like XRD and IR for structure confirmation. Magnetic parameter measurements like Saturation magnetization and coercivity were obtained from hysteresis loop which exhibited a symmetry shift due to core shell nature of the nanoparticles. Nanoparticles of particle size between 21.2nm to 25.7nm were found to show 20 percent shrinkage after being radiated by the γ-radiation. This is due to variation in the cation distribution which also affects the cell volume of the cubic cell. Lattice constant reduction observed is reflected in the magnetic properties of the samples. A considerable hike in the saturation magnetization of the samples was observed due to enrichment of magnetic alignment in the magnetic core of the particles. Samples under investigation were irradiated with gamma radiation from Co60 source for different time intervals.

  12. Enrichment of magnetic alignment stimulated by {gamma}-radiation in core-shell type nanoparticle Mn-Zn ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Naik, P. P.; Tangsali, R. B.; Sonaye, B.; Sugur, S.

    2013-02-05

    Core shell type nanoparticle Mn{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} systems with x=0.55, 0.65 and 0.75 were prepared using autocombustion method. The systems were characterized using tools like XRD and IR for structure confirmation. Magnetic parameter measurements like Saturation magnetization and coercivity were obtained from hysteresis loop which exhibited a symmetry shift due to core shell nature of the nanoparticles. Nanoparticles of particle size between 21.2nm to 25.7nm were found to show 20 percent shrinkage after being radiated by the {gamma}-radiation. This is due to variation in the cation distribution which also affects the cell volume of the cubic cell. Lattice constant reduction observed is reflected in the magnetic properties of the samples. A considerable hike in the saturation magnetization of the samples was observed due to enrichment of magnetic alignment in the magnetic core of the particles. Samples under investigation were irradiated with gamma radiation from Co{sup 60} source for different time intervals.

  13. Silver-doped manganese dioxide and trioxide nanoparticles inhibit both gram positive and gram negative pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kunkalekar, R K; Prabhu, M S; Naik, M M; Salker, A V

    2014-01-01

    Palladium, ruthenium and silver-doped MnO2 and silver doped Mn2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized by simple co-precipitation technique. SEM-TEM analysis revealed the nano-size of these synthesized samples. XPS data illustrates that Mn is present in 4+ and 3+ oxidation states in MnO2 and Mn2O3 respectively. Thermal analysis gave significant evidence for the phase changes with increasing temperature. Antibacterial activity of these synthesized nanoparticles on three Gram positive bacterial cultures (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Streptococcus epidermis ATCC 12228, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633) and three Gram negative cultures (Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Salmonella abony NCTC 6017 and Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 1003) was investigated using a disc diffusion method and live/dead assay. Only Ag-doped MnO2 and Ag-doped Mn2O3 nanoparticles showed antibacterial property against all six-test bacteria but Ag-doped MnO2 was found to be more effective than Ag-doped Mn2O3. PMID:24140741

  14. Nanoparticles and 3D sponge-like porous networks of manganese oxides and their microwave absorption properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, D.; Cheng, S.; Zhuo, R. F.; Chen, J. T.; Feng, J. J.; Feng, H. T.; Li, H. J.; Wu, Z. G.; Wang, J.; Yan, P. X.

    2009-03-01

    Hydrohausmannite nanoparticles (~10 nm) were prepared by the hydrothermal method at 100 °C for 72 h. Subsequent annealing was done in air at 400 °C and 800 °C for 10 h, Mn3O4 nanoparticles (~25 nm) and 3D Mn2O3 porous networks were obtained, respectively. The products were characterized by XRD, TEM, SAED and FESEM. Time-dependent experiments were carried out to exhibit the formation process of the Mn2O3 networks. Their microwave absorption properties were investigated by mixing the product and paraffin wax with 50 vol%. The Mn3O4 nanoparticles possess excellent microwave absorbing properties with the minimum reflection loss of -27.1 dB at 3.1 GHz. In contrast, the Mn2O3 networks show the weakest absorption of all samples. The absorption becomes weaker with the annealing time increasing at 800 °C. The attenuation of microwave can be attributed to dielectric loss and their absorption mechanism was discussed in detail. Corrections were made to figure 9 of this article on 17 February 2009. The corrected electronic version is identical to the print version.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Magnetite/Zinc Oxide and Magnetite/Zinc Manganese Sulfide Core-Shell Heterostructured Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltran Huarac, Juan Carlos

    Currently, core-shell heterostructured nanosystems are emerging as next-generation materials due to their potential multifunctionalities in contrast with the more limited single-component counterparts. Systematic investigation of core-shell nanostructures of ZnO and bare-and-doped-Mn2+ ZnS nanocrystals on the surface of magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O 4) was performed. The magnetite cores were prepared via the co-precipitation method and were next treated with an appropriate surfactant. The Fe3 O4/(S) (S=ZnO and ZnMnS) core-shell nanoparticles were obtained by an aqueous solution method at room temperature. The structural tests were carried out using an x-ray diffractometer (XRD) which showed the development of crystalline phases of cubic Fe3O4, hexagonal ZnO wurtzite and cubic ZnS. These patterns also established the matching between bare and doped-Mn2+ ZnS diffraction peaks. Broadness of the diffraction peaks evidenced the formation of nanosize phases. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the deposition of a semiconductor shell on the surface of superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The UV-Vis spectra showed the presence of a strong absorption peak and photoluminescence (PL) spectra displayed the emission peak due to excitonic recombination and a very weak defect-related emission peak suggesting the rearrangement of electronic configuration in the core-shell structures when ZnO is surrounding the core. These spectra also displayed the strong emission peak attributed to paramagnetic ion Mn2+ when acted as dopant in the host ZnS structure. The study of the magnetic properties was carried out using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) which evidenced considerable drop in the saturation magnetization of the Fe3O4/ZnO nanoparticles in comparison to individual Fe3O4 ones. For the Fe3O4/ZnMnS system a slight ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature was observed. The chemical composition of these nanomaterials was performed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). This elemental analysis demonstrated the presence of Zn on the surface of the magnetic seed at an appropriate shell thickness. These core-shell heterostructured nanoparticles are receiving great potential applications in biomedical areas such as photodynamic therapy.

  16. Mn-Zn Ferrite Powder Preparation by Hydrothermal Process from Used Dry Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chung‑Wen; Lin, Cheng‑Hsiung; Fu, Yen‑Pei

    2006-05-01

    In this study, we propose a new process to synthesize Mn-Zn ferrite, using oxides of manganese and zinc extracted from used dry batteries, and ferrous chloride waste solution from iron plants or electronic plants recycled as starting raw materials. It is found that Mn-Zn ferrite powder prepared by the hydrothermal process from used dry batteries revealed the formation of cubic ferrite with a saturation magnetization (MS) of 58.8 emu/g.

  17. The impact of silica encapsulated cobalt zinc ferrite nanoparticles on DNA, lipids and proteins of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Novotna, Bozena; Turnovcova, Karolina; Veverka, Pavel; Rössner, Pavel; Bagryantseva, Yana; Herynek, Vit; Zvatora, Pavel; Vosmanska, Magda; Klementova, Mariana; Sykova, Eva; Jendelova, Pavla

    2016-08-01

    Nanomaterials are currently the subject of intense research due to their wide variety of potential applications in the biomedical, optical and electronic fields. We prepared and tested cobalt zinc ferrite nanoparticles (Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4+γ [CZF-NPs]) encapsulated by amorphous silica in order to find a safe contrast agent and magnetic label for tracking transplanted cells within an organism using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) were labeled for 48 h with a low, medium or high dose of CZF-NPs (0.05; 0.11 or 0.55 mM); silica NPs (Si-NPs; 0.11 mM) served as a positive control. The internalization of NPs into cells was verified by transmission electron microscopy. Biological effects were analyzed at the end of exposure and after an additional 72 h of cell growth without NPs. Compared to untreated cells, Annexin V/Propidium Iodide labeling revealed no significant cytotoxicity for any group of treated cells and only a high dose of CZF-NPs slowed down cell proliferation and induced DNA damage, manifested as a significant increase of DNA-strand breaks and oxidized DNA bases. This was accompanied by high concentrations of 15-F2t-isoprostane and carbonyl groups, demonstrating oxidative injury to lipids and proteins, respectively. No harmful effects were detected in cells exposed to the low dose of CZF-NPs. Nevertheless, the labeled cells still exhibited an adequate relaxation rate for MRI in repeated experiments and ICP-MS confirmed sufficient magnetic label concentrations inside the cells. The results suggest that the silica-coated CZF-NPs, when applied at a non-toxic dose, represent a promising contrast agent for cell labeling. PMID:26581309

  18. Bioconjugated Manganese Dioxide Nanoparticles Enhance Chemotherapy Response by Priming Tumor-Associated Macrophages toward M1-like Phenotype and Attenuating Tumor Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Song, Manli; Liu, Ting; Shi, Changrong; Zhang, Xiangzhong; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2016-01-26

    Hypoxia promotes not only the invasiveness of tumor cells, but also chemoresistance in cancer. Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) residing at the site of hypoxic region of tumors have been known to cooperate with tumor cells, and promote proliferation and chemoresistance. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new strategies to alleviate tumor hypoxia and enhance chemotherapy response in solid tumors. Herein, we have taken advantage of high accumulation of TAMs in hypoxic regions of tumor and high reactivity of manganese dioxide nanoparticles (MnO2 NPs) toward hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for the simultaneous production of O2 and regulation of pH to effectively alleviate tumor hypoxia by targeted delivery of MnO2 NPs to the hypoxic area. Furthermore, we also utilized the ability of hyaluronic acid (HA) modification in reprogramming anti-inflammatory, pro-tumoral M2 TAMs to pro-inflammatory, antitumor M1 macrophages to further enhance the ability of MnO2 NPs to lessen tumor hypoxia and modulate chemoresistance. The HA-coated, mannan-conjugated MnO2 particle (Man-HA-MnO2) treatment significantly increased tumor oxygenation and down-regulated hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the tumor. Combination treatment of the tumors with Man-HA-MnO2 NPs and doxorubicin significantly increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of breast tumor, inhibited tumor growth and tumor cell proliferation as compared with chemotherapy alone. In addition, the reaction of Man-HA-MnO2 NPs toward endogenous H2O2 highly enhanced T1- and T2-MRI performance for tumor imaging and detection. PMID:26650065

  19. Synthesis and characterization of carboxymethyl dextran-coated Mn/Zn ferrite for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latorre-Esteves, Magda; Cortés, Angel; Torres-Lugo, Madeline; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2009-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that magnetic nanoparticles possess great potential for various in vivo applications such as magnetic resonance imaging contrast enhancement, tissue repair, cancer treatment agents, and controlled drug delivery. Many of these applications require that magnetic nanoparticles be colloidally stable in biological media. The goal of this study was to obtain a magnetic fluid produced by the colloidal suspension of manganese/zinc ferrite (MZF) nanoparticles that could be stably dispersed in aqueous solution throughout the range of physiological pH and ionic strength. These superparamagnetic nanoparticles were stabilized through steric repulsion by coating with biologically compatible carboxymethyl dextran (CMDx). Samples of the resultant magnetic fluid were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES), X-ray diffraction (XRD), zeta potential measurements, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and SQUID magnetometry. Results show that we obtained superparamagnetic metal-oxide crystals with composition of Mn 0.24Zn 0.76Fe 2O 4. Cell viability measurements show the material is non-toxic to MCF-7 and CaCo-2 cell lines at concentrations of up to 7.5 mg/mL of particle fraction for contact time of up to 48 h.

  20. Solvothermally Driven Mn Doping and Clustering of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Heat Delivery Applications.

    PubMed

    Otero-Lorenzo, Ruth; Fantechi, Elvira; Sangregorio, Claudio; Salgueiriño, Verónica

    2016-05-01

    Direct interactions between nanoparticles of Mn-doped magnetite or maghemite (clearly differentiated by Raman spectroscopy) grouped in spherical clusters minimize the effect related to their characteristic magnetic dead layer at the surface. Hence, the clustering process jointly with the manganese doping renders these ferrite nanostructures very attractive as displaying increased saturation magnetization, offering, consequently, outstanding values of the specific absorption rate (SAR) for heat delivery. The whole picture for bio-related applications has been considered, with issues related to magnetic manipulation, colloidal stability, and biocompatibility. PMID:27009887

  1. A smart platform for hyperthermia application in cancer treatment: cobalt-doped ferrite nanoparticles mineralized in human ferritin cages.

    PubMed

    Fantechi, Elvira; Innocenti, Claudia; Zanardelli, Matteo; Fittipaldi, Maria; Falvo, Elisabetta; Carbo, Miriam; Shullani, Valbona; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Ghelardini, Carla; Ferretti, Anna Maria; Ponti, Alessandro; Sangregorio, Claudio; Ceci, Pierpaolo

    2014-05-27

    Magnetic nanoparticles, MNPs, mineralized within a human ferritin protein cage, HFt, can represent an appealing platform to realize smart therapeutic agents for cancer treatment by drug delivery and magnetic fluid hyperthermia, MFH. However, the constraint imposed by the inner diameter of the protein shell (ca. 8 nm) prevents its use as heat mediator in MFH when the MNPs comprise pure iron oxide. In this contribution, we demonstrate how this limitation can be overcome through the controlled doping of the core with small amount of Co(II). Highly monodisperse doped iron oxide NPs with average size of 7 nm are mineralized inside a genetically modified variant of HFt, carrying several copies of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone peptide, which has already been demonstrated to have excellent targeting properties toward melanoma cells. HFt is also conjugated to poly(ethylene glycol) molecules to increase its in vivo stability. The investigation of hyperthermic properties of HFt-NPs shows that a Co doping of 5% is enough to strongly enhance the magnetic anisotropy and thus the hyperthermic efficiency with respect to the undoped sample. In vitro tests performed on B16 melanoma cell line demonstrate a strong reduction of the cell viability after treatment with Co doped HFt-NPs and exposure to the alternating magnetic field. Clear indications of an advanced stage of apoptotic process is also observed from immunocytochemistry analysis. The obtained data suggest this system represents a promising candidate for the development of a protein-based theranostic nanoplatform. PMID:24689973

  2. Synthesis, characterization, in vitro and in vivo studies of dextrin-coated zinc-iron ferrite nanoparticles (Zn0.5Fe0.5Fe2O4) as contrast agent in MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, T.; Lotfi, M.; Heli, H.; Azarpira, N.; Mehdizadeh, A. R.; Sattarahmady, N.; Abdollah-dizavandi, M. R.; Heidari, M.

    2015-09-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles, such as ferrites, offer some attractive possibilities in biomedicine, especially in MRI applications. The objective of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of dextrin-coated zinc-iron ferrite nanoparticles (IFNPs) as an MRI contrast agent in in vivo and in vitro media. IFNPs were synthesized by an aqueous precipitation method in the presence of dextrin. An agarose phantom with different concentrations of dextrin-coated IFNPs was performed on a 1.5-T MRI. For in vivo MRI studies, implanted melanoma tumors in mice were immediately scanned after intra-tumoral injection of dextrin-coated IFNPs. Microscopic studies showed that the average diameter of dextrin-coated IFNPs was 12 ± 2.4 nm and the saturation magnetization for IFNPs was 31.5 emu g-1; r 1 and r 2 relaxivities of these ultrasmall superparamagnetic IFNPs in agarose phantom were obtained as 0.99 and 17.4 mmol L-1 s-1, respectively. The relaxivity measurements revealed that the dextrin-coated IFNPs can serve as a negative contrast agent. In vivo MRI showed that the dextrin-coated IFNPs can be used for tumor detection. The dextrin-coated IFNPs were suggested to be applied for lymph node and targeted imaging.

  3. Ferritic Fe-Mn alloy for cryogenic applications

    DOEpatents

    Hwang, Sun-Keun; Morris, Jr., John W.

    1979-01-01

    A ferritic, nickel-free alloy steel composition, suitable for cryogenic applications, which consists essentially of about 10-13% manganese, 0.002-0.01% boron, 0.1-0.5% titanium, 0-0.05% aluminum, and the remainder iron and incidental impurities normally associated therewith.

  4. Contaminant Transformation by a Biogenic Manganese Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toner, B. M.; Sposito, G.

    2001-12-01

    Biomineralization of manganese by Pseudomonas putida strain MnB1 produces tetravalent manganese oxides that surround the exterior of the bacterial cell. The manganese oxides produced by P. putida transform the herbicide atrazine, a widespread environmental contaminant, by dechlorination, dealkylation and deamination reactions. The transformation reactions catalyzed by biogenic manganese oxide surfaces create a suite of transformation intermediates whose properties, such as aqueous solubility, toxicity and biodegradability, differ dramatically from those of the parent compound. The rates and products of atrazine transformation by biogenic manganese oxide surfaces were examined as functions of temperature and water potential. Air-dry samples of hydrous manganese oxide (δ -MnO2) and biogenic manganese oxide were isopiestically equilibrated to -3.10, -0.50 and -0.04 MPa at 40 degrees Celsius and to -0.04 MPa at 20 and 30 degrees Celcius. The concentrations of atrazine and eight transformation intermediates were determined by HPLC. Our results suggest that biogenic manganese oxides may contribute greatly to the detoxification and immobilization of organic contaminants in the environment because of their nanoparticle size, large surface area and high chemical reactivity.

  5. Sustainable synthesis of monodispersed spinel nano-ferrites

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sustainable approach for the synthesis of various monodispersed spinel ferrite nanoparticles has been developed that occurs at water-toluene interface under both conventional and microwave hydrothermal conditions. This general synthesis procedure utilizes readily available and ...

  6. Predictive Toxicology of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles: comparative in-vitro study of different cellular models using methods of knowledge discovery from data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cobalt-ferrite nanoparticles (Co-Fe NPs) are attractive for nanotechnology-based therapies. Thus, exploring their effect on viability of seven different cell lines representing different organs of the human body is highly important. Methods The toxicological effects of Co-Fe NPs were studied by in-vitro exposure of A549 and NCIH441 cell-lines (lung), precision-cut lung slices from rat, HepG2 cell-line (liver), MDCK cell-line (kidney), Caco-2 TC7 cell-line (intestine), TK6 (lymphoblasts) and primary mouse dendritic-cells. Toxicity was examined following exposure to Co-Fe NPs in the concentration range of 0.05 -1.2 mM for 24 and 72 h, using Alamar blue, MTT and neutral red assays. Changes in oxidative stress were determined by a dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate based assay. Data analysis and predictive modeling of the obtained data sets were executed by employing methods of Knowledge Discovery from Data with emphasis on a decision tree model (J48). Results Different dose–response curves of cell viability were obtained for each of the seven cell lines upon exposure to Co-Fe NPs. Increase of oxidative stress was induced by Co-Fe NPs and found to be dependent on the cell type. A high linear correlation (R2=0.97) was found between the toxicity of Co-Fe NPs and the extent of ROS generation following their exposure to Co-Fe NPs. The algorithm we applied to model the observed toxicity belongs to a type of supervised classifier. The decision tree model yielded the following order with decrease of the ranking parameter: NP concentrations (as the most influencing parameter), cell type (possessing the following hierarchy of cell sensitivity towards viability decrease: TK6 > Lung slices > NCIH441 > Caco-2 = MDCK > A549 > HepG2 = Dendritic) and time of exposure, where the highest-ranking parameter (NP concentration) provides the highest information gain with respect to toxicity. The validity of the chosen decision tree model J48 was established by yielding a higher accuracy than that of the well-known “naive bayes” classifier. Conclusions The observed correlation between the oxidative stress, caused by the presence of the Co-Fe NPs, with the hierarchy of sensitivity of the different cell types towards toxicity, suggests that oxidative stress is one possible mechanism for the toxicity of Co-Fe NPs. PMID:23895432

  7. Magnetic field directed assembly of superstructures of ferrite-ferroelectric core-shell nanoparticles and studies on magneto-electric interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, G. Sreenivasulu, G.; Benoit, Crystal; Petrov, V. M.; Chavez, F.

    2015-05-07

    Composites of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric are of interest for studies on mechanical strain mediated magneto-electric (ME) interactions and for useful technologies. Here, we report on magnetic-field-assisted-assembly of barium titanate (BTO)-nickel ferrite (NFO) core-shell particles into linear chains and 2D/3D arrays and measurements of ME effects in such assemblies. First, we synthesized the core-shell nano-particles with 50–600 nm BTO and 10–200 nm NFO by chemical self-assembly by coating the ferroic particles with complementary coupling groups and allowing them to self-assemble in the presence of a catalyst via the “click” reaction. The core-shell structure was confirmed with electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy. We obtained superstructure of the core-shell particles by subjecting them to a magnetic field gradient that exerts an attractive force on the particles and align them toward the regions of high field strengths. At low particle concentration, linear chains were formed and they evolved into 2D and 3D arrays at high particle concentrations. Magnetoelectric characterization on unassembled films and assembled arrays has been performed through measurements of low-frequency ME voltage coefficient (MEVC) by subjecting the sample to a bias magnetic field and an ac magnetic field. The MEVC is higher for field-assembled samples than for unassembled films and is found to be sensitive to field orientation with a higher MEVC for magnetic fields parallel to the array direction than for magnetic fields perpendicular to the array. A maximum MEVC of 20 mV/cm Oe, one of the highest reported for any bulk nanocomposite, is measured across the array thickness. A model is provided for ME coupling in the superstructures of BTO-NFO particulate composites. First, we estimated the MEVC for a free-standing BTO-NFO core-shell particle and then extended the model to include an array of linear chains of the particles. The theoretical estimates are in qualitative agreement with the data.

  8. Rapid magnetic solid-phase extraction based on monodisperse magnetic single-crystal ferrite nanoparticles for the determination of free fatty acid content in edible oils.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fang; Zhao, Qin; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xu-Yan; Feng, Yu-Qi; Chen, Hong

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes a rapid magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) based on monodisperse magnetic single-crystal ferrite (Fe(3)O(4)) nanoparticles (NPs) for determining the quantities of eight free fatty acids (FFAs), including palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (C18:3), arachidic acid (C20:0), eicosenoic acid (C20:1), and behenic acid (C22:0) in oil. The amine-functionalized mesoporous Fe(3)O(4) magnetic NPs were applied as a sorbent for MSPE of FFAs from oil samples in a process that is based on hydrophilic interaction. The extraction can be completed rapidly in a dispersive mode with the aid of vigorous vortex. Additional tedious processing steps such as centrifugation and evaporation of organic solvent were not necessary with this procedure. Furthermore, esterification of FFAs can be accomplished during the desorption procedure by using methanol/sulfuric acid (99:1, v/v) as the desorption solvent. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated, including the matrix solvent for extraction, the desorption solvent and desorption time, and the amount of sorbent and extraction time. The pretreatment process was rapid under optimal conditions, being accomplished within 15 min. When coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID), a rapid, simple, and convenient MSPE-GC-FID method for the determination of FFAs in oil samples was established with a total analysis time within 25 min. The limits of detection for the target FFAs were found to be 7.22-26.26 ng/mL. Recoveries in oil samples were in the range of 81.33-117.75%, with RSDs of <6.4% (intraday) and <6.9% (interday). This method was applied successfully to the analysis of dynamic FFA formation in four types of edible oils subjected to an accelerated storage test. The simple, rapid, and cost-effective method developed in the current study offers a potential application for the extraction and preconcentration of FFAs from hydrophobic sample matrices, including edible fats and oils, fatty foods, and biological samples with high amounts of lipid. PMID:23230865

  9. Magnetic field directed assembly of superstructures of ferrite-ferroelectric core-shell nanoparticles and studies on magneto-electric interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, G.; Sreenivasulu, G.; Benoit, Crystal; Petrov, V. M.; Chavez, F.

    2015-05-01

    Composites of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric are of interest for studies on mechanical strain mediated magneto-electric (ME) interactions and for useful technologies. Here, we report on magnetic-field-assisted-assembly of barium titanate (BTO)-nickel ferrite (NFO) core-shell particles into linear chains and 2D/3D arrays and measurements of ME effects in such assemblies. First, we synthesized the core-shell nano-particles with 50-600 nm BTO and 10-200 nm NFO by chemical self-assembly by coating the ferroic particles with complementary coupling groups and allowing them to self-assemble in the presence of a catalyst via the "click" reaction. The core-shell structure was confirmed with electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy. We obtained superstructure of the core-shell particles by subjecting them to a magnetic field gradient that exerts an attractive force on the particles and align them toward the regions of high field strengths. At low particle concentration, linear chains were formed and they evolved into 2D and 3D arrays at high particle concentrations. Magnetoelectric characterization on unassembled films and assembled arrays has been performed through measurements of low-frequency ME voltage coefficient (MEVC) by subjecting the sample to a bias magnetic field and an ac magnetic field. The MEVC is higher for field-assembled samples than for unassembled films and is found to be sensitive to field orientation with a higher MEVC for magnetic fields parallel to the array direction than for magnetic fields perpendicular to the array. A maximum MEVC of 20 mV/cm Oe, one of the highest reported for any bulk nanocomposite, is measured across the array thickness. A model is provided for ME coupling in the superstructures of BTO-NFO particulate composites. First, we estimated the MEVC for a free-standing BTO-NFO core-shell particle and then extended the model to include an array of linear chains of the particles. The theoretical estimates are in qualitative agreement with the data.

  10. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese based sorbents. Quarterly report, June--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.; Slimane, R.B.

    1994-11-01

    The focus of work being performed on hot coal gas desulfurization at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center is primarily in the use of zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt% ore + 25 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) appears to be a strong contender to zinc-based sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc; hence, it is not as likely to undergo zinc-depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron; hence, the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Also manganese chlorides are much less stable and volatile than zinc chlorides. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese at higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This Eighth Quarterly Report documents progress in pelletizing and testing via thermo-gravimetric analysis of individual pellet formulations of manganese ore/alumina combinations and also manganese carbonate/alumina with two binders, dextrin and bentonite.

  11. Influence of Carbide Precipitation and Dissolution on the Microstructure of Ultra-Fine-Grained Intercritically Annealed Medium Manganese Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangwon; De Cooman, Bruno C.

    2016-04-01

    The influence of cementite precipitation and dissolution on the formation of the carbide-free, ultra-fine-grained, ferrite + austenite microstructure of medium manganese steel was analyzed. During heating to the intercritical temperature, cementite nucleates at low-angle lath martensite boundaries, austenite subsequently nucleates at ferrite/cementite boundaries, and the cementite is gradually replaced by the growing austenite grains. The intercritical austenite carbon is therefore due to cementite dissolution, rather than carbon partitioning between ferrite and austenite.

  12. Mn substituted cobalt ferrites (CoMnxFe2-xO4 (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0)): As magnetically separable heterogeneous nanocatalyst for the reduction of nitrophenols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Ankita; Bansal, S.; Kumar, V.; Singh, Jagdish; Singhal, Sonal

    2015-01-01

    Manganese substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with composition CoMnxFe2-xO4 (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0) were synthesized using sol-gel technology and characterized using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques to confirm their formation. The prepared ferrite samples were explored as catalysts for the reduction of nitrophenols in the presence of NaBH4 as reducing agent. Pure cobalt ferrite was found to be inactive. However, catalytic efficiency enhanced dramatically with the introduction of Mn ions into the catalytically active surface sites (octahedral sites) of the cobalt ferrite lattice. This could be due to the presence of synergistic effect between the Co3+, Mn3+ and Fe3+ ions present in the octahedral sites. CoMn02Fe1.8O4 ferrite was observed to have the best catalytic activity for the reduction of nitrophenols because of the highest Fe3+/Mn3+ and Co3+/Mn3+ ionic ratio at the catalytically active octahedral sites. The kinetics of reduction was studied and the reduction reaction followed pseudo first order kinetics. The rates of reduction of the three isomers of nitrophenols followed the order - 2-nitrophenol > 4-nitrophenol > 3-nitrophenol.

  13. Thermodynamic Calculation Study on Effect of Manganese on Stability of Austenite in High Nitrogen Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qingchuan; Zhang, Bingchun; Yang, Ke

    2016-05-01

    A series of high nitrogen steels were studied by using thermodynamic calculations to investigate the effect of manganese on the stability of austenite. Surprisingly, it was found that the austenite stabilizing ability of manganese was strongly weakened by chromium, but it was strengthened by molybdenum. In addition, with an increase of manganese content, the ferrite stabilizing ability of chromium significantly increased, but that of molybdenum decreased. Therefore, strong interactions exist between manganese and the other alloying elements, which should be the main reason for the difference among different constituent diagrams.

  14. Effects of Mg substitution on the structural and magnetic properties of Co0.5Ni0.5‑x Mg x Fe2O4 nanoparticle ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    R, M. Rosnan; Z, Othaman; R, Hussin; Ali, A. Ati; Alireza, Samavati; Shadab, Dabagh; Samad, Zare

    2016-04-01

    In this study, nanocrystalline Co–Ni–Mg ferrite powders with composition Co0.5Ni0.5‑x Mg x Fe2O4 are successfully synthesized by the co-precipitation method. A systematic investigation on the structural, morphological and magnetic properties of un-doped and Mg-doped Co–Ni ferrite nanoparticles is carried out. The prepared samples are characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The XRD analyses of the synthesized samples confirm the formation of single-phase cubic spinel structures with crystallite sizes in a range of ∼ 32 nm to ∼ 36 nm. The lattice constant increases with increasing Mg content. FESEM images show that the synthesized samples are homogeneous with a uniformly distributed grain. The results of IR spectroscopy analysis indicate the formation of functional groups of spinel ferrite in the co-precipitation process. By increasing Mg2+ substitution, room temperature magnetic measurement shows that maximum magnetization and coercivity increase from ∼ 57.35 emu/g to ∼ 61.49 emu/g and ∼ 603.26 Oe to ∼ 684.11 Oe (1 Oe = 79.5775 A·m‑1), respectively. The higher values of magnetization M s and M r suggest that the optimum composition is Co0.5Ni0.4Mg0.1Fe2O4 that can be applied to high-density recording media and microwave devices. Project supported by the Ibnu Sina Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research, Physics Department of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia and the Ministry of Education Malaysia (Grant Nos. Q.J130000.2526.04H65).

  15. Thermal plasma synthesis of nanocrystalline ferrite particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Suk-Joon

    Highly functional soft magnetic materials have received a dramatically growing interest in the last two decades, along with amazing technological advances in electronics and telecommunications. Among soft magnetic materials ferrites are important and promising candidates for use at high frequencies because of their high resistivities. There has been another important development towards better soft magnetic materials, which is nanostructured materials technology. As a result of an ultrafine grain size and consequent large volume fraction of atoms occupying the interfacial regions, nanocrystalline materials show interesting properties that are often different from those of conventional bulk materials. Nanocrystalline ferrite materials are novel candidates for high-frequency soft magnetic applications because of their higher resistivities than metallic counterparts and of grain size dependent magnetic properties. For the first time, RF plasma torch synthesis of a series of ferrite nanoparticles using metallic precursor powders was carried out in this study. Microstructural and magnetic properties of the as-synthesized powders were examined. The viability of plasma torch synthesis for production of ferrite nanoparticles has been demonstrated over the results. Magnetite, Ni-, NiZn-, Mn-, and MnZn-ferrite have been successfully synthesized. The only oxygen source for oxide formation is the compressed air flowing through the reactor. The average grain sizes of the plasma-torched powders are in the range of 10--30 nm, with a standard deviation of ˜10 nm. Their stoichiometries are slightly off from the desired ones. These ferrite nanoparticles had well-defined polygonal growth shapes showing (100) and (111) faceting. Most of them are truncated octahedral or truncated cubic shapes. Some theoretical calculations based on the cuboctahedron model revealed that the surface energy ratio of (100) to (111) planes, gamma100/gamma111, must have a value between 0.577 and 1.732 under the assumption of the same edge length. EXAFS analysis was helpful to determine the interstitial site occupation by the metallic cations in the ferrites and to reveal that there is a surface truncation of the lattice. Mossbauer analysis of the ferrite nanoparticles showed that Zn addition to the ferrite structure decreases the hyperfine magnetic fields of both sublattices and increases in the fraction of superparamagnetic particles.

  16. Zinc ferrite nanoparticles activate IL-1b, NFKB1, CCL21 and NOS2 signaling to induce mitochondrial dependent intrinsic apoptotic pathway in WISH cells

    SciTech Connect

    Saquib, Quaiser; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.; Ahmad, Javed; Siddiqui, Maqsood A.; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Khan, Shams T.; Musarrat, Javed

    2013-12-01

    The present study has demonstrated the translocation of zinc ferrite nanoparticles (ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-NPs) into the cytoplasm of human amnion epithelial (WISH) cells, and the ensuing cytotoxicity and genetic damage. The results suggested that in situ NPs induced oxidative stress, alterations in cellular membrane and DNA strand breaks. The [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] (MTT) and neutral red uptake (NRU) cytotoxicity assays indicated 64.48 ± 1.6% and 50.73 ± 2.1% reduction in cell viability with 100 μg/ml of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-NPs exposure. The treated WISH cells exhibited 1.2-fold higher ROS level with 0.9-fold decline in membrane potential (ΔΨm) and 7.4-fold higher DNA damage after 48 h of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-NPs treatment. Real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis of p53, CASP 3 (caspase-3), and bax genes revealed 5.3, 1.6, and 14.9-fold upregulation, and 0.18-fold down regulation of bcl 2 gene vis-à-vis untreated control. RT{sup 2} Profiler™ PCR array data elucidated differential up-regulation of mRNA transcripts of IL-1b, NFKB1, NOS2 and CCL21 genes in the range of 1.5 to 3.7-folds. The flow cytometry based cell cycle analysis suggested the transfer of 15.2 ± 2.1% (p < 0.01) population of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-NPs (100 μg/ml) treated cells into apoptotic phase through intrinsic pathway. Over all, the data revealed the potential of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-NPs to induce cellular and genetic toxicity in cells of placental origin. Thus, the significant ROS production, reduction in ΔΨm, DNA damage, and activation of genes linked to inflammation, oxidative stress, proliferation, DNA damage and repair could serve as the predictive toxicity and stress markers for ecotoxicological assessment of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-NPs induced cellular and genetic damage. - Highlights: • First report on the molecular toxicity of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-NPs in cells of placental origin • WISH cells treated with ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-NPs exhibited cytoplasmic localization of NPs. • ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-NPs induce DNA damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in WISH cells. • ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-NPs activate inflammatory and oxidative stress signaling in WISH cells. • Elevation of p53, CASP 3, bax and bcl 2 genes affirms intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

  17. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents. Progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1993-07-15

    Focus of work is primarily in use of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents; however, an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt % ore + 25 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) may be a viable alternative to zinc-based sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc, hence it is not as likely to undergo depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron hence the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. Thermodynamic analysis of the system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or titanate. This report gives the thermodynamic background for consideration of manganese-based sorbents as an alternative to zinc ferrite. To date the work is limited to thermogravimetric testing of four formulations of manganese-alumina sorbents to determine the optimum conditions of pelletization and enduration to produce reactive pellets.

  18. Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization with manganese based sorbents. Quarterly report, August 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1993-10-01

    The focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center is primarily in the use of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies at the US Steel Fundamental Research Laboratories in Monroeville, PA, by E. T. Turkdogan indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt % ore + 25 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) may be a viable alternative to zinc-based sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc hence it is not as likely to undergo depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron hence the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese at higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This report documents progress in pelletizing and testing via thermogravimetric analysis of individual pellet formulations of manganese ore/alumina combinations and also manganese carbonate/alumina with two binders, dextrin and bentonite. Preliminary results indicate that the manganese carbonate material, being of higher purity than the manganese ore, has a higher degree of sulfur capacity and more rapid absorption kinetics. A 2-inch fixed-bed reactor has been fabricated and is now ready for subjecting pellets to cyclic loading and regeneration.

  19. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents. Annual report, September 1992--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1993-12-01

    The focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center is primarily in the use of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies at the US Steel Fundamental Research Laboratories in Monroeville, PA, by E. T. Turkdogan indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt % ore + 25 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) may be a viable alternative to zinc-based sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc hence it is not as likely to undergo depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron hence the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese at higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This Annual Topical Report documents progress in pelletizing and testing via thermo-gravimetric analysis of individual pellet formulations of manganese ore/ alumina combinations and also manganese carbonate/alumina with two binders, dextrin and bentonite. It includes the prior Quarterly Technical Reports which indicate that the manganese carbonate material, being of higher purity than the manganese ore, has a higher degree of sulfur capacity and more rapid absorption kinetics. A 2-inch fixed-bed reactor has been fabricated and is now ready for subjecting pellets to cyclic loading and regeneration.

  20. Solvothermal synthesis of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles: The role of polymer coating on morphology and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslibeiki, B.; Kameli, P.; Ehsani, M. H.; Salamati, H.; Muscas, G.; Agostinelli, E.; Foglietti, V.; Casciardi, S.; Peddis, D.

    2016-02-01

    Manganese spinel ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by a solvothermal route based on high temperature decomposition of metal nitrates in the presence of different contents of Triethylene glycol. This simple and low cost method can be applied to prepare large quantities of nanoparticles (tens of grams). Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) confirmed that nanoparticles with a good crystalline quality were obtained. A good agreement between the average particle size calculated by PXRD and TEM was observed. Fourier-transform infrared spectra showed that polymer molecules have the tendency to form bonds with the surface of ferrite nanoparticles reducing the surface spin disorder, and then enhancing the saturation magnetization (MS). Therefore, much higher MS value (up to ∼91 emu/g at 5 K) was observed compared with that of bare nanoparticles without surfactant. The blocking temperature showed a remarkable shift to lower values with increasing the polymer starting amount. In addition, by increasing the polymer initial content, a more homogeneous size distribution was obtained and the initial strongly interacting superspin glass behavior changed to a weakly interacting superparamagnetic state.

  1. Structural, Dielectric, Microstructural Properties of Ni0.7Zn0.3Fe2-xAlxO4 Ferrite Nanoparticles Through Citrate-Gel Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Mohd.; Alimuddin, Kumar, Shalendra; Ali, Sikander; Kumar, R.

    2011-07-01

    Study of structural and electrical properties of Al3+ doped Ni0.7Zn0.3Fe2-xAlxO4 (0.0≤x≤0.5) ferrite synthesized through citrate-gel method has been carried out. The samples were characterized by using XRD and dielectric technique in the frequency range 42 Hz-5 MHz at room temperature. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed that all the samples exhibit single phase cubic spinel structure. The variation in ɛ', and tanδ with frequency reveals that the dispersion is due to Maxwell-Wagner type of interfacial polarization in accordance with Koop's phenomenological theory.

  2. Manganese Oxidation State Assignment for Manganese Catalase.

    PubMed

    Beal, Nathan J; O'Malley, Patrick J

    2016-04-01

    The oxidation state assignment of the manganese ions present in the superoxidized manganese (III/IV) catalase active site is determined by comparing experimental and broken symmetry density functional theory calculated (14)N, (17)O, and (1)H hyperfine couplings. Experimental results have been interpreted to indicate that the substrate water is coordinated to the Mn(III) ion. However, by calculating hyperfine couplings for both scenarios we show that water is coordinated to the Mn(IV) ion and that the assigned oxidation states of the two manganese ions present in the site are the opposite of that previously proposed based on experimental measurements alone. PMID:27007277

  3. Preparation and magnetic properties of Zn-Cu-Cr-La ferrite and its nanocomposites with polyaniline.

    PubMed

    Li, Liangchao; Liu, Hui; Wang, Yuping; Jiang, Jing; Xu, Feng

    2008-05-15

    Nanosized Zn(0.6)Cu(0.4)Cr(0.5)Fe(1.5-x)La(x)O(4) (x=0 - 0.06) ferrites doped with La are synthesized by a rheological phase reaction method. Polyaniline (PANI)/ferrite nanocomposites are prepared by in situ polymerization method. The structure, morphology and ferromagnetic property of ferrite powders and nanocomposites are characterized by X-ray powder diffractometer (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), UV-visible spectroscopy (UV), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results indicate that the PANI and nanosized ferrite powders can be combined effectively. The polymers can reduce the agglomeration of nanosized ferrite particles to some extent, which is good for the dispersedness and stabilization of nanoparticles. The PANI/ferrite nanocomposites under applied magnetic field exhibit the hysteretic loops of the ferromagnetic nature. The magnetic properties of nanocomposites are tailored by controlling the ferrite content. PMID:18313067

  4. Manganese laser using manganese chloride as lasant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. J.

    1974-01-01

    A manganese vapor laser utilizing manganese chloride as a lasant has been observed and investigated. Lasing is attained by means of two consecutive electrical discharges. The maximum laser output is obtained at a vapor pressure of about 3 torr, a temperature of 680 C, and a time delay between electrical discharges of 150 microsec. The maximum energy density is 1.3 microjoule per cu cm.

  5. Microstructure Evolution of a Medium Manganese Steel During Thermomechanical Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Binhan; Aydin, Huseyin; Fazeli, Fateh; Yue, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    An as-cast Fe-0.2C-10Mn-3Si-3Al medium manganese steel with a ferrite plus austenite duplex microstructure was subjected to hot compression tests at deformation temperatures within two-phase ( α + γ) range and various strain rates. The microstructure evolution of the experimental steel during hot deformation was investigated. The flow curves were characterized by a discontinuous yielding at the beginning of plastic deformation, followed by a weak work hardening to a peak and a subsequent mild softening stage. Two restoration processes took place during hot deformation, namely dynamic recrystallization (DRX) of austenite and continuous dynamic recrystallization of ferrite. The DRX of austenite was believed to dominate the softening stage of the flow curves. The discontinuous yielding stemmed from the existing Kurdjumov-Sachs (K-S) orientation relationship between ferrite and austenite in the initial undeformed microstructure, which gradually weakened during subsequent deformation.

  6. Structural and surface changes of copper modified manganese oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gac, Wojciech; Słowik, Grzegorz; Zawadzki, Witold

    2016-05-01

    The structural and surface properties of manganese and copper-manganese oxides were investigated. The oxides were prepared by the redox-precipitation method. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy studies evidenced transformation of cryptomelane-type nanoparticles with 1-D channel structure into the large MnO crystallites with regular rippled-like surface patterns under reduction conditions. The development of Cu/CuO nanorods from strongly dispersed species was evidenced. Coper-modified manganese oxides showed good catalytic performance in methanol steam reforming reaction for hydrogen production. Low selectivity to CO was observed in the wide range of temperatures.

  7. Investigation of structural, dielectric, and magnetic properties of hard and soft mixed ferrite composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotnala, R. K.; Ahmad, Shahab; Ahmed, Arham S.; Shah, Jyoti; Azam, Ameer

    2012-09-01

    Barium ferrite (hard ferrite) and manganese nickel zinc ferrite (soft ferrite) were successfully synthesized by citrate gel combustion technique. They were used to form the composites by mixing them properly in required compositions (x)BaFe12O19-(1-x)Mn0.2Ni0.4Zn0.4Fe2O4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were utilized to investigate the different structural and morphological parameters of pure and mixed ferrite composites. XRD and SEM results confirmed the coexistence of both phases in the composite material. Moreover, it has been observed that the composites were constituted by nanosized particles. Structure of pure soft ferrite was found to be cubic and that of pure hard ferrite was hexagonal. Dielectric constant (ɛ' and ɛ″) and dielectric loss (tan δ) were analyzed as a function of frequency and composition and the behaviour is explained on the basis of Maxwell-Wagner model. It was observed that the dielectric loss decreases with the increase of hard ferrite content in the composite material. Magnetic measurements suggest the exchange coupling between the magnetizations of soft and hard ferrite grains. It has been observed that the coercivity increases with the increase of the volume of the hard phase in the composite material after an optimal value.

  8. Manganese uptake of imprinted polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Susanna Ventura

    2015-09-30

    Batch tests of manganese imprinted polymers of variable composition to assess their ability to extract lithium and manganese from synthetic brines at T=45C . Data on manganese uptake for two consecutive cycles are included.

  9. Superparamagnetic state by linear and non-linear AC magnetic susceptibility in Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 ferrites nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Suneetha, T; Kundu, S; Kashyap, Subhash C; Gupta, H C; Nath, T K

    2013-01-01

    The Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles has been synthesized using citrate-gel-precursor method. The direct mixing of nitrates and acetates yields homogeneous nanoparticles. Phase formation and crystal structure of the synthesized powder were examined through the X-ray diffraction (XRD). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the sample confirm the spinel structure. The average particle size was determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The average particle size is found to be about 13 nm. Superparamagnetic-like nature of the nanoparticles of Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 has been revealed through various dc and linear and non-linear ac magnetization measurements. However, the nanoparticles do not behave like ideal non-interacting superparamagnets. The magnetic particle size is found to be about 8 nm with saturation magnetization about 18.1 emu/g. The blocking temperature (T(B)) of the nanoparticle assembly is found to be about 150 K as observed from dc and ac magnetization measurements. The frequency dependence of the blocking temperature (T(B)) is found to follow Vogel-Fulcher law. The associated characteristic time tau0 is found to be 10(-5) s. This value is different from that generally found for non-interacting superparamagnetic (SPM) systems (tau0 = 10(-9)-10(-10) s). PMID:23646726

  10. Synthesis and characterization of PVP-coated Co0.3 Zn0.7 Fe2 O4 ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaberolansar, E.; Kameli, P.; Ahmadvand, H.; Salamati, H.

    2016-04-01

    Co0.3 Zn0.7 Fe2 O4 nanoparticles coated with polyvinylpirrolydone (PVP) were synthesized using the two-step chemical method. The structural and magnetic properties of uncoated and PVP -coated nanoparticles were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ac susceptibility, and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The XRD patterns revealed a single phase cubic spinel structure in both types of nanoparticles. Average crystallite size of the samples decreased from 35 to 16 nm after PVP coating. VSM results indicated no hysteresis in any of the samples, which suggested their supreparamagnetic behaviour at room temperature. Ac susceptibility measurements showed that strong inter-particle magnetic interactions led to a superspin glass-like behaviour at low temperatures. Moreover, inter-particle interactions were found to decrease with increasing PVP content as a result of surface coating of the magnetic nanoparticles. The same measurements showed that the relative sensitivity of the samples to applied frequency increased with increasing PVP content to reach its maximum for a PVP to Co0.3 Zn0.7 Fe2O4 nanoparticle ratio of 0.75.

  11. Magnetic properties of barium ferrite nanoparticles: Quantitative test of the Stoner-Wohlfarth theory for uniaxial single-domain magnetic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Hong-yan; Wang, Jun; Li, Le; Aguilar, Victor; Zhao, Guo-meng

    2013-11-01

    We have successfully synthesized single-domain barium ferrite particles with uniaxial anisotropy. We have coated them with amorphous silica to reduce interparticle interactions so that the assembly of these particles behaves like a noninteracting randomly oriented uniaxial single-domain particle system, a prototype for the Stoner-Wohlfarth model. From the magnetic hysteresis loops of the particle system in a wide temperature range (10-700 K), we simultaneously determine the magnetic anisotropic field HK, the reduced remanence Mr/Ms, and the coercive field HC in the whole temperature range below the Curie temperature. These complete sets of data allow us to quantitatively test the Stoner-Wohlfarth theory and the agreement between experiment and theory is good.

  12. Synthesis, magnetic and optical properties of core/shell Co1-xZnxFe2O4/SiO2 nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The optical properties of multi-functionalized cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4), cobalt zinc ferrite (Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4), and zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) nanoparticles have been enhanced by coating them with silica shell using a modified Stber method. The ferrites nanoparticles were prepared by a modified citrate gel technique. These core/shell ferrites nanoparticles have been fired at temperatures: 400C, 600C and 800C, respectively, for 2 h. The composition, phase, and morphology of the prepared core/shell ferrites nanoparticles were determined by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The diffuse reflectance and magnetic properties of the core/shell ferrites nanoparticles at room temperature were investigated using UV/VIS double-beam spectrophotometer and vibrating sample magnetometer, respectively. It was found that, by increasing the firing temperature from 400C to 800C, the average crystallite size of the core/shell ferrites nanoparticles increases. The cobalt ferrite nanoparticles fired at temperature 800C; show the highest saturation magnetization while the zinc ferrite nanoparticles coated with silica shell shows the highest diffuse reflectance. On the other hand, core/shell zinc ferrite/silica nanoparticles fired at 400C show a ferromagnetic behavior and high diffuse reflectance when compared with all the uncoated or coated ferrites nanoparticles. These characteristics of core/shell zinc ferrite/silica nanostructures make them promising candidates for magneto-optical nanodevice applications. PMID:21774807

  13. Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel

    DOEpatents

    Bauer, Roger E.; Straalsund, Jerry L.; Chin, Bryan A.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

  14. Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents. Quarterly report, April--June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.; Slimane, R.B.

    1994-06-01

    The focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center is primarily in the use of zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt% ore + 25 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) appears to be a strong contender to zincbased sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc; hence, it is not as likely to undergo zinc-depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron; hence, the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Also manganese chlorides are much less stable and volatile than zinc chlorides. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese at higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This Seventh Quarterly Report documents progress in bench-scale testing of a leading manganese-based sorbent pellets (FORM4-A). This formulation is a high-purity manganese carbonate-based material. This formulation was subjected to 20 consecutive cycles of sulfidation and regeneration at 900{degrees}C in a 2-inch fixed bed reactor. The sulfidation gas was a simulated Tampella U-gas with an increased hydrogen sulfide content of 3% by volume to accelerate the rate of breakthrough, arbitrarily taken as 500 ppmv. Consistent with thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) on individual pellets, the fixed bed tests show small improvement in capacity and kinetics with the sulfur-loading capacity being about 22% by weight of the original pellet, which corresponds to approximately 90% bed utilization!

  15. XXIst Century Ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazaleyrat, F.; Zehani, K.; Pasko, A.; Loyau, V.; LoBue, M.

    2012-05-01

    Ferrites have always been a subject of great interest from point of view of magnetic application, since the fist compass to present date. In contrast, the scientific interest for iron based magnetic oxides decreased after Ørsted discovery as they where replaced by coil as magnetizing sources. Neel discovery of ferrimagnetism boosted again interest and leads to strong developments during two decades before being of less interest. Recently, the evolution of power electronics toward higher frequency, the downsizing of ceramics microstucture to nanometer scale, the increasing price of rare-earth elements and the development of magnetocaloric materials put light again on ferrites. A review on three ferrite families is given herein: harder nanostructured Ba2+Fe12O19 magnet processed by spark plasma sintering, magnetocaloric effect associated to the spin transition reorientation of W-ferrite and low temperature spark plasma sintered Ni-Zn-Cu ferrites for high frequency power applications.

  16. Bulk Synthesis of Monodisperse Ferrite Nanoparticles at Water-Organic Interfaces under Conventional and Microwave Hydrothermal Treatment and Their Surface Functionalization

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthesis of monodisperse MFe2O4 (M=, Ni, Co, Mn) and γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles at a water-toluene interface under conventional as well as microwave hydrothermal conditions using readily available nitrate or chloride salts and oleic acid as the dispersing agent is described. The ens...

  17. Bulk Synthesis of Monodisperse Ferrite Nanoparticles at Water-Organic Interfaces under Conventional and Microwave Hydrothermal Treatment and Their Surface Functionalization

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthesis of monodisperse MFe2O4 (M=, Ni, Co, Mn) and ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles at a water-toluene interface under conventional as well as microwave hydrothermal conditions using readily available nitrate or chloride salts and oleic acid as the dispersing agent is described. The ens...

  18. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF MANGANESE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biological effects of manganese were studied in a town on the coast of Dalmatia in which a ferromanganese plant has been operating since before World War II. The study focused on the question of whether the exposure to manganese can cause a higher incidence of respiratory dis...

  19. The influence of PEG-4000 and silica on crystal structure and magnetic properties of magnesium ferrite (MgFe2O4) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puspitarum, Deska Lismawenning; Hermawan, Agung; Suharyadi, Edi

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, reports the influence of polyethylene glycol (PEG-4000) and silica on crystal structure and magnetic properties of MgFe2O4 nanoparticles which is synthesized by the co-precipitation method. The particle size of before coated MgFe2O4 was around 10.5 nm, and became 5.2 nm after PEG-4000 coating and 18.8 nm after silica coating. After coating, there were appeared new phases, α-Fe2O3 (antiferromagnetic), SiO2 and γ-FeO(OH) which are paramagnetics. The second phase sample decreased responses to the external field. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) morphology analysis on nanoparticles which was coated with PEG 4000 showed that the particles become more spherical, more dispersive, and less aglomerated. The magnetic hysteresis loops which was investigated with Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) indicated that coercivity of MgFe2O4 was 120.7 Oe, and then decreased to 40.9 Oe after coating and 34.7 Oe for coating with PEG-4000 and silica, respectively. At 15 kOe, the magnetization value decreased from 2.69 emu/g to 0.96 emu/g after coating with PEG-4000 and increased 2.82 emu/g after silica coating. The result revealed the coating with both PEG-4000 and silica influence the magnetic properties of MgFe2O4 nanoparticles.

  20. Fabrication of silver-coated cobalt ferrite nanocomposite and the study of its antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooti, M.; Saiahi, S.; Motamedi, H.

    2013-05-01

    A new silver coated cobalt ferrite nanocomposite, Ag@CoFe2O4, was prepared by a two-step procedure. In the first step, cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by a combustion method using glycine as a fuel. This ferrite was then coated with nanosilver via chemical reduction of Ag+ solution. The as-synthesized Ag@CoFe2O4 was characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The antibacterial activity of this composite was investigated against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and compared with those of silver nanoparticles and some standard antibacterial drugs.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of intravenously injected Tc-99m labeled ferrite nanobeads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Chao-Ming; Wang, Yuh-Feng; Guo, Yu-Feng; Wang, Li-Shin; Chuang, May-Haw; Cham, Thau-Ming

    2009-04-01

    We study the time varying biodistribution of ferrite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles upon in vivo injection. For this purpose, a novel process of directly labeling radioactive Tc-99m with ferrite nanoparticles was developed. The radiobeads serve as a tracer to provide information on the uptake of injected particles by organs. In the course of our study, Tc-99m labeled ferrite beads were intravenously injected into the tail vein of rats. The time course of changes in the radio-intensity of heart, lung, and liver could be achieved by real-time scintigraphic images. It was observed that the particle uptake by organs is very fast and completed within the first few minutes after intravenous injection. The pharmacokinetic behavior of the radiobead uptake was quantitatively described by a two-compartment model.

  2. A comparison between magnetic and reflection loss characteristics of substituted strontium ferrite and nanocomposites of ferrite/carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, Ali; Shirsath, Sagar E.; Liu, Xiaoxi; Morisako, Akimitsu

    2012-04-01

    Large-scale carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/substituted strontium ferrite nanocomposites have been fabricated by hetero-coagulation. The structure and morphology of nanoparticles and nanocomposites were evaluated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). HRTEM confirmed that strontium ferrite was successfully attached to carbon nanotubes. The vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) confirmed the relatively strong dependence of saturation magnetization with the volume percentage of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Reflection loss of nanocomposites at 12-18 GHz was evidently enhanced, as compared to that of strontium ferrite nanoparticles. The maximum reflection loss increased significantly with an increase in volume percentage of MWCNTs. It was proved that the microwave absorbing bandwidth was modulated simply by manipulating the thickness of nanocomposites. Reflection loss evaluations indicate that the nanocomposites display a great potential application as wide-band electromagnetic wave absorbers.

  3. Z Ferrite Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qifan; Feng, Zekun; Yan, Shuoqing; Nie, Yan; Wang, Xian

    2014-09-01

    Fe-Si-Al/Co2Z ferrite composites were prepared by ball-milling. The microstructure, microwave electromagnetic properties, and impedance-matching performance of a series of composites were determined and the results are discussed. Experimental results indicated that, in frequency range 1-18 GHz, the permittivity and permeability of the complexes can be adjusted by changing the Fe-Si-Al-to-Co2Z weight ratio. Calculated reflection losses indicate that the absorption performance of Fe-Si-Al/Co2Z ferrite composites is superior to that of the pure Fe-Si-Al and Co2Z ferrites. It was found that the impedance-matching performance of the materials, which contributes to perfect absorption, can be improved by use of an appropriate weight ratio for the Fe-Si-Al/Co2Z ferrite composite.

  4. Monodisperse cobalt ferrite nanomagnets with uniform silica coatings.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qiu; Lam, Michelle; Swanson, Sally; Yu, Rui-Hui Rachel; Milliron, Delia J; Topuria, Teya; Jubert, Pierre-Olivier; Nelson, Alshakim

    2010-11-16

    Ferro- and ferrimagnetic nanoparticles are difficult to manipulate in solution as a consequence of the formation of magnetically induced nanoparticle aggregates, which hamper the utility of these particles for applications ranging from data storage to bionanotechnology. Nonmagnetic shells that encapsulate these magnetic particles can reduce the interparticle magnetic interactions and improve the dispersibility of the nanoparticles in solution. A route to create uniform silica shells around individual cobalt ferrite nanoparticles--which uses poly(acrylic acid) to bind to the nanoparticle surface and inhibit nanoparticle aggregation prior to the addition of a silica precursor--was developed. In the absence of the poly(acrylic acid) the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles irreversibly aggregated during the silica shell formation. The thickness of the silica shell around the core-shell nanoparticles could be controlled in order to tune the interparticle magnetic coupling as well as inhibit magnetically induced nanoparticle aggregation. These ferrimagnetic core-silica shell structures form stable dispersion in polar solvents such as EtOH and water, which is critical for enabling technologies that require the assembly or derivatization of ferrimagnetic particles in solution. PMID:20961061

  5. Evolution of Microstructures During Austempering of Ductile Irons Alloyed with Manganese and Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Ranjan Kumar; Mondal, Dipak Kumar; Chakrabarti, Ajit Kumar

    2013-03-01

    The influences of relatively high manganese (0.45 through 1.0 wt pct) and copper (0.56 through 1.13 wt pct) contents on microstructure development and phase transformation in three austempered ductile irons have been studied. The experimental ductile irons alloyed with copper and manganese are found to be practically free from intercellular manganese segregation. This suggests that the positive segregation of manganese is largely neutralized by the negative segregation of copper when these alloying elements are added in appropriate proportions. The drop in unreacted austenite volume (UAV) with increasing austempering temperature and time is quite significant in irons alloyed with copper and manganese. The ausferrite morphology also undergoes a transition from lenticular to feathery appearance of increasing coarseness with the increasing austempering temperature and time. SEM micrographs of the austempered samples from the base alloy containing manganese only, as well as copper plus manganese-alloyed irons, clearly reveal the presence of some martensite along with retained austenite and ferrite. X-ray diffraction analysis also confirms the presence of these phases. SEM examination further reveals the presence of twinned martensite in the copper plus manganese-alloyed samples. The possibility of strain-induced transformation of austenite to martensite during austempering heat treatment is suggested.

  6. High strength ferritic alloy-D53

    DOEpatents

    Hagel, William C.; Smidt, Frederick A.; Korenko, Michael K.

    1977-01-01

    A high strength ferritic alloy is described having from about 0.2% to about 0.8% by weight nickel, from about 2.5% to about 3.6% by weight chromium, from about 2.5% to about 3.5% by weight molybdenum, from about 0.1% to about 0.5% by weight vanadium, from about 0.1% to about 0.5% by weight silicon, from about 0.1% to about 0.6% by weight manganese, from about 0.12% to about 0.20% by weight carbon, from about 0.02% to about 0.1% by weight boron, a maximum of about 0.05% by weight nitrogen, a maximum of about 0.02% by weight phosphorous, a maximum of about 0.02% by weight sulfur, and the balance iron.

  7. Impedance calculation for ferrite inserts

    SciTech Connect

    Breitzmann, S.C.; Lee, S.Y.; Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    Passive ferrite inserts were used to compensate the space charge impedance in high intensity space charge dominated accelerators. They study the narrowband longitudinal impedance of these ferrite inserts. they find that the shunt impedance and the quality factor for ferrite inserts are inversely proportional to the imaginary part of the permeability of ferrite materials. They also provide a recipe for attaining a truly passive space charge impedance compensation and avoiding narrowband microwave instabilities.

  8. Stress Sensing Characteristics of Non-Contact Magnetoelastic Sensors Based on Substituted Cobalt Ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Chester C. H.

    2007-03-01

    We have investigated the stress sensing characteristics of magnetoelastic sensors based on magnetostrictive cobalt ferrite composites, which hold promise for non-contact stress sensing applications due to their high stress sensitivity and low cost. The sensors operate by the fact that applied stresses induce changes in magnetization, which can be detected by measuring the changes in surface magnetic field or permeability. In our previous studies the magnetic and magnetomechanical properties of cobalt ferrite have been improved by chemical substitution and magnetic annealing. In this work, we compared the stress sensing characteristics of the improved cobalt ferrite materials with respect to their sensitivity and linearity. Magnetomechanical tests were performed on selected cobalt ferrite samples bonded to aluminum alloy bars in either tensile or three point bending configurations. Results show that cobalt ferrite substituted with a small amount of manganese or chromium for iron exhibit higher stress sensitivities than the pure cobalt ferrite. This can be interpreted by the results of our recent studies showing that the magnetocrystalline anisotropy, which works against stress-induced changes in magnetization, is lower for the substituted cobalt ferrite.

  9. Manganese As a Metal Accumulator

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese deposits in water distribution systems accumulate metals, radionuclides and oxyanions by a combination of surface complexation, adsorption and solid substitution, as well as a combination of oxidation followed by manganese reduction and sorption of the oxidized constitu...

  10. Microwave absorbing materials using Ag-NiZn ferrite core-shell nanopowders as fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Cheng-Hsiung; Wang, Hong-Wen; Kan, Shih-Wei; Shen, Ming-Zong; Wei, Yu-Min; Chen, San-Yuan

    2004-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles coated with Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 spinel ferrites, forming a core-shell structure, were synthesized by utilizing hydrothermal method at different ferrite/silver ratio (ferrite/silver=6/1, 4/1, 2/1, 1/1, 1/6) and introduced into polyurethane matrix to be a microwave absorber. The complex permittivity (ε ' , ε ' ') and permeability (μ ' , μ ' ') of absorbing composite materials consisted of ferrite/silver core-shell nanopowders and polyurethane were measured in the frequency range of 2-15 GHz. The reflection loss and matching frequency were calculated from measured data using theory of the absorbing wall for different ferrite/silver ratios. It was found that the matching frequency for reflection loss exceeded a satisfactory -25 dB at 9.0 GHz for using NiZn ferrite as a filler shifts to higher frequencies (10.9-13.7 GHz) as the ferrite/silver ratio of core-shell nano-filler decreased from 6/1 to 2/1. The present result demonstrates that microwave absorbers using ferrite/silver core-shell filler can be fabricated for the applications over 9 GHz, with reflection loss more than-25 dB for specific frequencies, by controlling the ferrite/silver ratio of the core-shell nano-fillers in the composites.

  11. Ferrite logic reliability study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, J. A.; Clark, C. B.

    1973-01-01

    Development and use of digital circuits called all-magnetic logic are reported. In these circuits the magnetic elements and their windings comprise the active circuit devices in the logic portion of a system. The ferrite logic device belongs to the all-magnetic class of logic circuits. The FLO device is novel in that it makes use of a dual or bimaterial ferrite composition in one physical ceramic body. This bimaterial feature, coupled with its potential for relatively high speed operation, makes it attractive for high reliability applications. (Maximum speed of operation approximately 50 kHz.)

  12. An in vivo evaluation of acute toxicity of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles in larval-embryo Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Farooq; Liu, Xiaoyi; Zhou, Ying; Yao, Hongzhou

    2015-09-01

    The broad spectrum applications of CoFe2O4 NPs have attracted much interest in medicine, environment and industry, resulting in exceedingly higher exposures to humans and environmental systems in succeeding days. Their health effects and potential biological impacts need to be determined for risk assessment. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of nano-CoFe2O4 (mean diameter of 40nm) with a concentration range of 10-500μM for 96h. Acute toxic end points were evaluated by survival rate, malformation, hatching delay, heart dysfunction and tail flexure of larvae. Dose and time dependent developmental toxicity with severe cardiac edema, down regulation of metabolism, hatching delay and tail/spinal cord flexure and apoptosis was observed. The biochemical changes were evaluated by ROS, Catalase (CAT), Lipid peroxidation (LPO), Acid phophatase (AP) and Glutatione s- transferase (GST). An Agglomeration of NPs and dissolution of ions induces severe mechanical damage to membranes and oxidative stress. Severe apoptosis of cells in the head, heart and tail region with inhibition of catalase confirms ROS induced acute toxicity with increasing concentration. Increased activity of GST and AP at lower concentrations of CoFe2O4 NPs demonstrates the severe oxidative stress. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra indicated the weak interactions of NPs with BSA and slight changes in α-helix structure. In addition, CoFe2O4 NPs at lower concentrations do not show any considerable interference with assay components and analytical instruments. The results are possible elucidation of pathways of toxicity induced by these particles, as well as contributing in defining the protocols for risk assessment of these nanoparticles. PMID:26197244

  13. Preferential spin canting in nanosize zinc ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Brajesh; Litterst, F. J.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E. M.

    2015-07-01

    Zinc ferrite nanoparticles powder with average size of 10.0±0.5 nm was synthesized by the citrate precursor route. We studied the structural and magnetic properties using X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometry and Mössbauer spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction patterns show that the synthesized zinc ferrite possesses good spinel structure. Both Mössbauer and magnetization data indicate superparamagnetic ferrimagnetic particles at room temperature. The magnetic behavior is determined by a considerable degree of cation inversion with FeIII in tetrahedral A-sites. Mössbauer spectroscopy at low temperature and in high applied magnetic field reveals that A-site spins are aligned antiparallel to the applied field with some possible angular scatter whereas practically all octahedral B-site spins are canted contrasting some earlier reported partial B-site spin canting in nanosize zinc ferrite. Deviations from the antiferromagnetic arrangement of B-site spins are supposed to be caused by magnetic frustration effects.

  14. Manganese biomining: A review.

    PubMed

    Das, A P; Sukla, L B; Pradhan, N; Nayak, S

    2011-08-01

    Biomining comprises of processing and extraction of metal from their ores and concentrates using microbial techniques. Currently this is used by the mining industry to extract copper, uranium and gold from low grade ores but not for low grade manganese ore in industrial scale. The study of microbial genomes, metabolites and regulatory pathways provide novel insights to the metabolism of bioleaching microorganisms and their synergistic action during bioleaching operations. This will promote understanding of the universal regulatory responses that the biomining microbial community uses to adapt to their changing environment leading to high metal recovery. Possibility exists of findings ways to imitate the entire process during industrial manganese biomining endeavor. This paper reviews the current status of manganese biomining research operations around the world, identifies factors that drive the selection of biomining as a processing technology, describes challenges in exploiting these innovations, and concludes with a discussion of Mn biomining's future. PMID:21632238

  15. Fabrication and electromagnetic properties of flake ferrite particles based on diatomite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Deyuan; Zhang, Wenqiang; Cai, Jun

    2011-09-01

    Hexagonal ferrite BaZn 1.1Co 0.9Fe 16O 27 coated surfaces of diatomite flakes of low density were synthesized by a sol-gel method. The phase structures, morphologies, particle size and chemical compositions of the composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results show that hexagonal ferrite coated diatomite flakes can be achieved, and that the coating consisted of BaZn 1.1Co 0.9Fe 16O 27 nanoparticles. The vibranting sample magnetometer results reveal that the flake ferrite particles have static magnetic properties. The complex permeability and permittivity of the composites were measured in the frequency range of 1-18 GHz. The microwave absorption properties of these ferrite particles are discussed. The results indicate that the flake ferrites have the potential to be used as a lightweight broad band microwave absorber.

  16. nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreu-Cabedo, Patricia; Mondragon, Rosa; Hernandez, Leonor; Martinez-Cuenca, Raul; Cabedo, Luis; Julia, J. Enrique

    2014-10-01

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is extremely important in concentrated solar power (CSP) plants since it represents the main difference and advantage of CSP plants with respect to other renewable energy sources such as wind, photovoltaic, etc. CSP represents a low-carbon emission renewable source of energy, and TES allows CSP plants to have energy availability and dispatchability using available industrial technologies. Molten salts are used in CSP plants as a TES material because of their high operational temperature and stability of up to 500°C. Their main drawbacks are their relative poor thermal properties and energy storage density. A simple cost-effective way to improve thermal properties of fluids is to dope them with nanoparticles, thus obtaining the so-called salt-based nanofluids. In this work, solar salt used in CSP plants (60% NaNO3 + 40% KNO3) was doped with silica nanoparticles at different solid mass concentrations (from 0.5% to 2%). Specific heat was measured by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A maximum increase of 25.03% was found at an optimal concentration of 1 wt.% of nanoparticles. The size distribution of nanoparticle clusters present in the salt at each concentration was evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image processing, as well as by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS). The cluster size and the specific surface available depended on the solid content, and a relationship between the specific heat increment and the available particle surface area was obtained. It was proved that the mechanism involved in the specific heat increment is based on a surface phenomenon. Stability of samples was tested for several thermal cycles and thermogravimetric analysis at high temperature was carried out, the samples being stable.

  17. Manganese, Metallogenium, and Martian Microfossils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, L. Y.; Nealson, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    Manganese could easily be considered an abundant element in the Martian regolith, assuming that the composition of martian meteorites reflects the composition of the planet. Mineralogical analyses of 5 SNC meteorites have revealed an average manganese oxide concentration of 0.48%, relative to the 0.1% concentration of manganese found in the Earth's crust. On the Earth, the accumulation of manganese oxides in oceans, soils, rocks, sedimentary ores, fresh water systems, and hydrothermal vents can be largely attributed to microbial activity. Manganese is also a required trace nutrient for most life forms and participates in many critical enzymatic reactions such as photosynthesis. The wide-spread process of bacterial manganese cycling on Earth suggests that manganese is an important element to both geology and biology. Furthermore, there is evidence that bacteria can be fossilized within manganese ores, implying that manganese beds may be good repositories for preserved biomarkers. A particular genus of bacteria, known historically as Metallogenium, can form star-shaped manganese oxide minerals (called metallogenium) through the action of manganese oxide precipitation along its surface. Fossilized structures that resemble metallogenium have been found in Precambrian sedimentary formations and in Cretaceous-Paleogene cherts. The Cretaceous-Paleogene formations are highly enriched in manganese and have concentrations of trace elements (Fe, Zn, Cu, and Co) similar to modern-day manganese oxide deposits in marine environments. The appearance of metallogenium-like fossils associated with manganese deposits suggests that bacteria may be preserved within the minerals that they form. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. Effect of filler loading of nickel zinc ferrite on the tensile properties of PLA nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahdan, Dalila; Ahmad, Sahrim Hj

    2013-05-01

    The mechanical strength of magnetic polymer nanocomposite (MPNC) of nickel zinc (NiZn) ferrite nanoparticles incorporated with polylactic acid (PLA) and liquid natural rubber (LNR) as compatibilizer is reported. The matrix was prepared from PLA and LNR in the ratio of 90:10. The MPNC were prepared at constant mixing temperature at 180°C, mixing time of 15 min. and mixing speed of 100 rpm. In order to achieve a good dispersion of NiZn ferrite in the matrix, firstly an ultrasonic treatment had been employed to mix the LNR and NiZn ferrite for 1 hour. The MPNC of PLA/LNR/NiZn ferrite then were prepared via Thermo Haake internal mixer using melt-blending method from different filler loading from 1-5 wt% NiZn ferrite. The result of tensile tests showed that as the filler loading increases the tensile strength also increases until an optimum value of filler loading was reached. The Young's modulus, tensile strength and elongation at break have also increased. The study proves that NiZn ferrite is excellent reinforcement filler in PLA matrix. Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were meant to show the homogeneity dispersion of nanoparticles within the matrix and to confirm the elemental composition of NiZn ferrites-PLA/LNR nanocomposites respectively.

  19. Oleate Coated Magnetic Cores Based on Magnetite, Zn Ferrite and Co Ferrite Nanoparticles—Preparation, Physical Characterization and Biological Impact on Helianthus Annuus Photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursache-Oprisan, Manuela; Foca-nici, Ecaterina; Cirlescu, Aurelian; Caltun, Ovidiu; Creanga, Dorina

    2010-12-01

    Sodium oleate was used as coating shell for magnetite, Zn ferrite and Co ferrite powders to stabilize them in the form of aqueous magnetic suspensions. The physical characterization was carried out by applying X-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements. Both crystallite size and magnetic core diameter ranged between 7 and 11 nm. The influence of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions (corresponding to magnetic nanoparticle levels of 10-14-10-15/cm3) on sunflower seedlings was studied considering the changes in the photosynthesis pigment levels. Similar responses were obtained for magnetite and cobalt ferrite nanoparticle treatment consisting in the apparent inhibition of chlorophyll biosynthesis while for zinc ferrite nanoparticles some concentrations seemed to have stimulatory effects on the chlorophylls as well as on the carotene levels. But the chlorophyll ratio was diminished in the case of all three types of magnetic nanoparticles meaning their slight negative effect on the light harvesting complex II (LHC II) from the chloroplast membranes and consequently on the photosynthesis efficiency.

  20. Influence of pH on the structural and magnetic behavior of cobalt ferrite synthesized by sol-gel auto-combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakade, S. G.; Kambale, R. C.; Kolekar, Y. D.

    2015-06-01

    Cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) shown to be promising candidate for applications such as high-density magnetic recording, enhanced memory storage, magnetic fluids and catalysts. Utility of ferrite nanoparticles depends on its size, dispersibility in solutions, and magnetic properties. We have investigated the structural properties of synthesized cobalt ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by sol gel auto combustion for uncontrolled, acidic, neutral and basic pH values. X-ray diffraction (XRD) study confirms the cubic spinel phase formation with lattice constant 8.38 Å. In this study, we have optimized the pH value to synthesize homogenous cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with enhanced magnetic behavior. The surface morphology has been investigated by employing SEM images and the confirmation of spinel ferrite was also supported by using IR spectroscopy. Magnetic measurements for CoFe2O4 compositions (with pH <1, pH = 3, 7, 10) were investigated using VSM measurements.

  1. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.; Ben-Slimane, R.

    1995-11-01

    The primary major deposit of manganese in the US which can be readily mined by an in situ process is located in the Emily district of Minnesota. The US Bureau of Mines Research Centers at both the Twin Cities and Salt Lake City have developed a process for extracting and refining manganese in the form of a high-purity carbonate product. This product has been formulated into pellets by a multi-step process of drying, calcination, and induration to produce relatively high-strength formulations which are capable of being used for hot fuel gas desulfurization. These pellets, which have been developed at the University of Minnesota under joint sponsorship of the US Department of Energy and the US Bureau of Mines, appear superior to other, more expensive, formulations of zinc titanate and zinc ferrite which have previously been studied for multi-cycle loading (desulfurization) and regeneration (evolution of high-strength SO{sub 2} and restoration of pellet reactivity). Although these other formulations have been under development for the past twelve years, their prices still exceed $7 per pound. If manganese pellets perform as predicted in fixed bed testing, and if a significant number of utilities which burn high-sulfur coals incorporate combined-cycle gasification with hot coal gas desulfurization as a viable means of increasing conversion efficiencies, then the potential market for manganese pellets may be as high as 200,000 tons per year at a price not less than $3 per pound. This paper discusses the role of manganese pellets in the desulfurization process with respect to the integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) for power generation.

  2. Low activation ferritic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Gelles, D.S.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Powell, R.W.

    1985-02-07

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  3. Low activation ferritic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Gelles, David S.; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Powell, Roger W.

    1986-01-01

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  4. CONVERSATION OF DISSOLVED MANGANESE TO PARTICULATE MANGANESE DURING DIATOM BLOOM: EFFECTS ON THE MANGANESE CYCLE IN THE MERL MICROCOSMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conversion of dissolved manganese to particulate manganese occurred during a minor diatom bloom during August and September 1978 in the MERL microcosms. Correlations between chlorophyll a and particulate manganese suggest that 29 moles Mn were transferred to the particulate phase...

  5. Antimicrobial Lemongrass Essential Oil-Copper Ferrite Cellulose Acetate Nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Liakos, Ioannis L; Abdellatif, Mohamed H; Innocenti, Claudia; Scarpellini, Alice; Carzino, Riccardo; Brunetti, Virgilio; Marras, Sergio; Brescia, Rosaria; Drago, Filippo; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose acetate (CA) nanoparticles were combined with two antimicrobial agents, namely lemongrass (LG) essential oil and Cu-ferrite nanoparticles. The preparation method of CA nanocapsules (NCs), with the two antimicrobial agents, was based on the nanoprecipitation method using the solvent/anti-solvent technique. Several physical and chemical analyses were performed to characterize the resulting NCs and to study their formation mechanism. The size of the combined antimicrobial NCs was found to be ca. 220 nm. The presence of Cu-ferrites enhanced the attachment of LG essential oil into the CA matrix. The magnetic properties of the combined construct were weak, due to the shielding of Cu-ferrites from the polymeric matrix, making them available for drug delivery applications where spontaneous magnetization effects should be avoided. The antimicrobial properties of the NCs were significantly enhanced with respect to CA/LG only. This work opens novel routes for the development of organic/inorganic nanoparticles with exceptional antimicrobial activities. PMID:27104514

  6. Synthesis of nanocrystalline Ni ferrite as a superparamagnetic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Joong-Hee; Kim, Won Ki; Park, Sang Jin

    2004-06-01

    Nickel ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by the coprecipitation process. The particle size was in the range 2-13 nm, and with aging time showed superparamagnetism for the sample designated NF0 and paramagnetism and ferrimagnetism for samples NF3, NF6, NF9, and NF12. The NF0 nanoparticles with a spherical shape exhibited superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature with TB = 60 K. The samples NF3 and NF9 after aging treatment displayed superparamagnetic and ferrimagnetic properties with TB = 160 K, which means the superparamagnetic phase decreased with increasing particle size.

  7. Effect of Ti-containing inclusions on the nucleation of acicular ferrite and mechanical properties of multipass weld metals.

    PubMed

    Fattahi, M; Nabhani, N; Hosseini, M; Arabian, N; Rahimi, E

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, the influence of Ti-containing inclusions on the development of acicular ferrite microstructure and mechanical properties in the multipass weld metals has been studied. Shielded metal arc weld deposits were prepared by varying titanium content in the range of 0.003-0.021%. The variation in the titanium content was obtained by the addition of different amounts of titanium oxide nanoparticles to the electrode coating. The dispersion of titanium oxide nanoparticles, composition of inclusions, microstructural analysis, tensile properties and Charpy impact toughness were evaluated. As the amount of Ti-containing inclusions in the weld metal was increased, the microstructure of the weld metal was changed from the grain boundary allotriomorphic ferrite structure to acicular ferrite with the intragranular nucleation of ferrite on the Ti-containing inclusions, and the mechanical properties were improved. This improvement is attributable to the increased percentage of acicular ferrite due to the uniform dispersion of Ti-containing inclusions and the pinning force of oxide nanoparticles against the growth of allotriomorphic ferrite and Widmanstätten ferrite from the austenite grain boundaries. PMID:23238108

  8. Reducing the inversion degree of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles through synthesis to enhance magnetization: evaluation of their (1)H NMR relaxation and heating efficiency.

    PubMed

    Vamvakidis, K; Katsikini, M; Sakellari, D; Paloura, E C; Kalogirou, O; Dendrinou-Samara, C

    2014-09-01

    Manganese ferrite (MnFe2O4) nanoparticles of identical size (9 nm) and with different inversion degrees were synthesized under solvothermal conditions as a candidate theranostic system. In this facile approach, a long-chain amine, oleylamine, was utilized as a reducing and surface-functionalizing agent. The synthesized nanoparticles were shown to have a cubic-spinel structure as characterized by TEM and XRD patterns. Control over their inversion degree was achieved by a simple change of manganese precursor from Mn(acac)2 to Mn(acac)3. The variation in the inversion degree is ascribed to the partial oxidation of Mn(2+) to Mn(3+), as was evidenced by X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy at both the Fe and Mn K-edges. The reduction of the inversion degree from 0.42 to 0.22 is close to the corresponding bulk value of 0.20 and led to elevated magnetization (65.7 emu g(-1)), in contrast to the Néel temperature, which was decreased owing to the weaker superexchange interactions between the tetrahedral and octahedral sites within the spinel structure. In order to evaluate the performance of these nanoprobes as a possible bifunctional targeting system, the (1)H NMR relaxation of the samples was tested together with their specific loss power under an alternating magnetic field as a function of concentration. The hydrophobic as prepared MnFe2O4 nanoparticles converted to hydrophilic nanoparticles with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The MnFe2O4 nanoparticles, well-dispersed in aqueous media, were shown to have r2 relaxivity of up to 345.5 mM(-1) s(-1) and heat release of up to 286 W g(-1), demonstrating their potential use for bioapplications. PMID:25014470

  9. Wear-resistant and electromagnetic absorbing behaviors of oleic acid post-modified ferrite-filled epoxy resin composite coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenjie; Zang, Chongguang; Jiao, Qingjie

    2015-03-01

    The post-modified Mn-Zn ferrite was prepared by grafting oleic acid on the surface of Mn-Zn ferrite to inhibit magnetic nanoparticle aggregation. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to characterize the particle surfaces. The friction and electromagnetic absorbing properties of a thin coating fabricated by dispersing ferrite into epoxy resin (EP) were investigated. The roughness of the coating and water contact angle were measured using the VEECO and water contact angle meter. Friction tests were conducted using a stainless-steel bearing ball and a Rockwell diamond tip, respectively. The complex permittivity and complex permeability of the composite coating were studied in the low frequency (10 MHz-1.5 GHz). Surface modified ferrites are found to improve magnetic particles dispersion in EP resulting in significant compatibility between inorganic and organic materials. Results also indicate that modified ferrite/EP coatings have a lower roughness average value and higher water contact angle than original ferrite/EP coatings. The enhanced tribological properties of the modified ferrite/EP coatings can be seen from the increased coefficient value. The composite coatings with modified ferrite are observed to exhibit better reflection loss compared with the coatings with original ferrite.

  10. Ferrous sulfate based low temperature synthesis and magnetic properties of nickel ferrite nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Tejabhiram, Y.; Pradeep, R.; Helen, A.T.; Gopalakrishnan, C.; Ramasamy, C.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Novel low temperature synthesis of nickel ferrite nanoparticles. • Comparison with two conventional synthesis techniques including hydrothermal method. • XRD results confirm the formation of crystalline nickel ferrites at 110 °C. • Superparamagnetic particles with applications in drug delivery and hyperthermia. • Magnetic properties superior to conventional methods found in new process. - Abstract: We report a simple, low temperature and surfactant free co-precipitation method for the preparation of nickel ferrite nanostructures using ferrous sulfate as the iron precursor. The products obtained from this method were compared for their physical properties with nickel ferrites produced through conventional co-precipitation and hydrothermal methods which used ferric nitrate as the iron precursor. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the synthesis of single phase inverse spinel nanocrystalline nickel ferrites at temperature as low as 110 °C in the low temperature method. Electron microscopy analysis on the samples revealed the formation of nearly spherical nanostructures in the size range of 20–30 nm which are comparable to other conventional methods. Vibrating sample magnetometer measurements showed the formation of superparamagnetic particles with high magnetic saturation 41.3 emu/g which corresponds well with conventional synthesis methods. The spontaneous synthesis of the nickel ferrite nanoparticles by the low temperature synthesis method was attributed to the presence of 0.808 kJ mol{sup −1} of excess Gibbs free energy due to ferrous sulfate precursor.

  11. Synthesis, magnetic and optical properties of core/shell Co1- x Zn x Fe2O4/SiO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girgis, Emad; Wahsh, Mohamed Ms; Othman, Atef Gm; Bandhu, Lokeshwar; Rao, Kv

    2011-07-01

    The optical properties of multi-functionalized cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4), cobalt zinc ferrite (Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4), and zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) nanoparticles have been enhanced by coating them with silica shell using a modified Stöber method. The ferrites nanoparticles were prepared by a modified citrate gel technique. These core/shell ferrites nanoparticles have been fired at temperatures: 400°C, 600°C and 800°C, respectively, for 2 h. The composition, phase, and morphology of the prepared core/shell ferrites nanoparticles were determined by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The diffuse reflectance and magnetic properties of the core/shell ferrites nanoparticles at room temperature were investigated using UV/VIS double-beam spectrophotometer and vibrating sample magnetometer, respectively. It was found that, by increasing the firing temperature from 400°C to 800°C, the average crystallite size of the core/shell ferrites nanoparticles increases. The cobalt ferrite nanoparticles fired at temperature 800°C; show the highest saturation magnetization while the zinc ferrite nanoparticles coated with silica shell shows the highest diffuse reflectance. On the other hand, core/shell zinc ferrite/silica nanoparticles fired at 400°C show a ferromagnetic behavior and high diffuse reflectance when compared with all the uncoated or coated ferrites nanoparticles. These characteristics of core/shell zinc ferrite/silica nanostructures make them promising candidates for magneto-optical nanodevice applications.

  12. Wideband and enhanced microwave absorption performance of doped barium ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Pingyuan; Xiong, Kun; Ju, Kui; Li, Shengnan; Xu, Guangliang

    2015-07-01

    To achieve stronger microwave attenuation and larger bandwidth in electromagnetic absorber, the nickel ions (Ni2+) and manganese ions (Mn2+) were employed to partially replace the cobalt ions (Co2+) in BaCoTiFe10O19, and the doped barium hexaferrite (Ba(MnNi)0.2Co0.6TiFe10O19 and Ba(MnNi)0.25Co0.5TiFe10O19) powders were synthesized via the sol-gel combustion method. Subsequently, the microwave absorbing composites were prepared by mixing the ferrite powders with the paraffin. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the doped ferrites confirmed the formation of the M-type barium ferrite, and no other types of barium ferrite could be found. Based on the electromagnetic parameters measured by the vector net-analyzer, it was found that the composite (Ba(MnNi)0.2Co0.6TiFe10O19) possessed a minimum reflection loss of -52.8 dB at 13.4 GHz with a matching thickness of 1.8 mm and the bandwidth below -15 dB was 5.8 GHz. Moreover, the maximum attenuation of Ba(MnNi)0.25Co0.5TiFe10O19 could reach -69 dB when its thickness was 1.8 mm, and also the bandwidth less than -20 dB was ranging from 13.2 GHz to 18 GHz. Thus, Ba(MnNi)0.2Co0.6TiFe10O19 and Ba(MnNi)0.25Co0.5TiFe10O19 could be the good microwave absorbers, which have great potentials to be applied in the high frequency fields of the microwave absorbing materials.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1452 - Manganese gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese gluconate. 184.1452 Section 184.1452 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1452 Manganese gluconate. (a) Manganese gluconate (C12H22MnO14... manganese carbonate with gluconic acid in aqueous medium and then crystallizing the product. (b)...

  14. Magnetic and magnetostrictive properties of Cu substituted Co-ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra Sekhar, B.; Rao, G. S. N.; Caltun, O. F.; Dhana Lakshmi, B.; Parvatheeswara Rao, B.; Subba Rao, P. S. V.

    2016-01-01

    Copper substituted cobalt ferrite, Co1-xCuxFe2O4 (x=0.00-0.25), nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel autocombustion method. X-ray diffraction analysis on the samples was done to confirm the cubic spinel structures and Scherrer equation was used to estimate the mean crystallite size as 40 nm. Using the obtained nanoparticles, fabrication of the sintered pellets was done by standard ceramic technique. Magnetic and magnetostrictive measurements on the samples were made by strain gauge and vibrating sample magnetometer techniques, respectively. Maximum magnetostriction and strain derivative values were deduced from the field dependent magnetostriction curves while the magnetic parameters such as saturation magnetization (51.7-61.9 emu/g) and coercivity (1045-1629 Oe) on the samples were estimated from the obtained magnetic hysteresis loops. Curie temperature values (457-315 °C) were measured by a built in laboratory set-up. Copper substituted cobalt ferrites have shown improved strain derivative values as compared to the pure cobalt ferrite and thus making them suitable for stress sensing applications. The results have been explained on the basis of cationic distributions, strength of exchange interactions and net decreased anisotropic contributions due to the increased presence of Co2+ ions in B-sites as a result of Cu substitutions.

  15. Magnetic nanoparticle assembly arrays prepared by hierarchical self-assembly on a patterned surface.

    PubMed

    Wen, Tianlong; Zhang, Dainan; Wen, Qiye; Zhang, Huaiwu; Liao, Yulong; Li, Qiang; Yang, Qinghui; Bai, Feiming; Zhong, Zhiyong

    2015-03-21

    Inverted pyramid hole arrays were fabricated by photolithography and used as templates to direct the growth of colloidal nanoparticle assemblies. Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles deposit in the holes to yield high quality pyramid magnetic nanoparticle assembly arrays by carefully controlling the evaporation of the carrier fluid. Magnetic measurements indicate that the pyramid magnetic nanoparticle assembly arrays preferentially magnetize perpendicular to the substrate. PMID:25712606

  16. Facile synthesis of cobalt ferrite nanotubes using bacterial nanocellulose as template.

    PubMed

    Menchaca-Nal, S; Londoño-Calderón, C L; Cerrutti, P; Foresti, M L; Pampillo, L; Bilovol, V; Candal, R; Martínez-García, R

    2016-02-10

    A facile method for the preparation of cobalt ferrite nanotubes by use of bacterial cellulose nanoribbons as a template is described. The proposed method relays on a simple coprecipitation operation, which is a technique extensively used for the synthesis of nanoparticles (either isolated or as aggregates) but not for the synthesis of nanotubes. The precursors employed in the synthesis are chlorides, and the procedure is carried out at low temperature (90 °C). By the method proposed a homogeneous distribution of cobalt ferrite nanotubes with an average diameter of 217 nm in the bacterial nanocellulose (BC) aerogel (3%) was obtained. The obtained nanotubes are formed by 26-102 nm cobalt ferrite clusters of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with diameters in the 9-13 nm interval. The nanoparticles that form the nanotubes showed to have a certain crystalline disorder, which could be attributed in a greater extent to the small crystallite size, and, in a lesser extent, to microstrains existing in the crystalline lattice. The BC-templated-CoFe2O4 nanotubes exhibited magnetic behavior at room temperature. The magnetic properties showed to be influenced by a fraction of nanoparticles in superparamagnetic state. PMID:26686185

  17. Probing the Chemical Stability of Mixed Ferrites: Implications for MR Contrast Agent Design.

    PubMed

    Schultz-Sikma, Elise A; Joshi, Hrushikesh M; Ma, Qing; Macrenaris, Keith W; Eckermann, Amanda L; Dravid, Vinayak P; Meade, Thomas J

    2011-05-24

    Nanomaterials with mixed composition, in particular magnetic spinel ferrites, are emerging as efficient contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Many factors, including size, composition, atomic structure, and surface properties are crucial in the design of such nanoparticle-based probes due to their influence on the magnetic properties. Silica-coated iron oxide (IO-SiO(2)) and cobalt ferrite (CoIO-SiO(2)) nanoparticles were synthesized using standard high temperature thermal decomposition and base-catalyzed water-in-oil microemulsion techniques. Under neutral aqueous conditions, it was found that 50-75% of the cobalt content in the CoIO-SiO(2) nanoparticles leached out of the core structure. Leaching caused a 7.2-fold increase in longitudinal relaxivity and an increase in the saturation magnetization from ~48 emu/g core to ~65 emu/g core. X-ray absorption fine structure studies confirmed that the atomic structure of the ferrite core was altered following leaching, while TEM and DLS confirmed that the morphology and size of the nanoparticle remained unchanged. The CoIO-SiO(2) nanoparticles converted from a partially inverted spinel cation arrangement (unleached state) to an inverse spinel arrangement (leached state). The control IO-SiO(2) nanoparticles remained stable with no change in structure and negligible changes in magnetic behavior. This detailed analysis highlights how important understanding the properties of nanomaterials is in the development of reliable agents for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:21603070

  18. Rapidly reversible redox transformation in nanophase manganese oxides at room temperature triggered by changes in hydration

    PubMed Central

    Birkner, Nancy; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Chemisorption of water onto anhydrous nanophase manganese oxide surfaces promotes rapidly reversible redox phase changes as confirmed by calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and titration for manganese average oxidation state. Surface reduction of bixbyite (Mn2O3) to hausmannite (Mn3O4) occurs in nanoparticles under conditions where no such reactions are seen or expected on grounds of bulk thermodynamics in coarse-grained materials. Additionally, transformation does not occur on nanosurfaces passivated by at least 2% coverage of what is likely an amorphous manganese oxide layer. The transformation is due to thermodynamic control arising from differences in surface energies of the two phases (Mn2O3 and Mn3O4) under wet and dry conditions. Such reversible and rapid transformation near room temperature may affect the behavior of manganese oxides in technological applications and in geologic and environmental settings. PMID:24733903

  19. Tellurium content of marine manganese oxides and other manganese oxides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lakin, H.W.; Thompson, C.E.; Davidson, D.F.

    1963-01-01

    Tellurium in amounts ranging from 5 to 125 parts per million was present in all of 12 samples of manganese oxide nodules from the floor of the Pacific and Indian oceans. These samples represent the first recognized points of high tellurium concentration in a sedimentary cycle. The analyses may lend support to the theory that the minor-element content of seafloor manganese nodules is derived from volcanic emanations.

  20. Inclusion phases and the nucleation of acicular ferrite in submerged arc welds in high strength low alloy steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, J. M.; Corbett, J. M.; Kerr, H. W.

    1986-09-01

    Series of submerged arc welds of HSLA steel made with three different fluxes and metallic additions of Ti, Mo, and Cr have been examined to study the inclusions and their role in the nucleation of acicular ferrite. Inclusion phases and compositions have been analyzed by electron diffraction and X-ray microanalysis. These analyses have shown that the inclusions contained many different compounds, the proportions of each depending upon both the flux and metallic additions. Six inclusion phases have been identified: galaxite (Al2O3 ? MnO), a titanium-rich compound (probably TiO), a copper sulfide, a manganese sulfide, a silica, and an aluminum-rich phase. No correlation was found between the amount of acicular ferrite in the weld metal and either average inclusion composition or individual inclusion phases. No epitaxial relationships between inclusions and adjacent ferrite grains could be identified. It has been concluded that inclusions nucleate acicular ferrite by acting as inert substrates according to the classical theory of heterogeneous nucleation. Because most inclusions are multi-phase and are touched by several ferrite grains, it has also been concluded that each inclusion can nucleate several ferrite grains, due to local regions of high surface energy on the inclusion.

  1. Solute Segregation During Ferrite Growth: Solute/Interphase and Substitutional/Interstitial Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Landeghem, H. P.; Langelier, B.; Panahi, D.; Purdy, G. R.; Hutchinson, C. R.; Botton, G. A.; Zurob, H. S.

    2016-05-01

    The segregation of solutes to austenite/ferrite transformation interfaces during decarburization/denitriding of Fe-Mn-C, Fe-Mn-N, and Fe-Si-C ternary alloys was studied by using atom probe tomography. Manganese was found to segregate noticeably to the transformation interface in the presence of carbon, while no segregation could be detected in the presence of nitrogen. This result might indicate that manganese interacts little with the interface itself and that its interaction with the interstitial controls its segregation behavior. In the case of Fe-Si-C, the experiments were complicated by interface motion during quenching. Preliminary results suggest that silicon was depleted at the interface in contrast to the commonly observed segregation behavior of silicon at grain boundaries of ferrite and austenite. This observation could be explained by taking into account the repulsive interaction between silicon and carbon along with the intense segregation of carbon to the interface. This would lead to a net repulsive interaction of silicon with the interface even when considering the intrinsic tendency of silicon to segregate to the boundary in the absence of carbon. The results presented here emphasize the need to account for the interaction of all solutes present at the interface in ferrite growth models.

  2. Solute Segregation During Ferrite Growth: Solute/Interphase and Substitutional/Interstitial Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Landeghem, H. P.; Langelier, B.; Panahi, D.; Purdy, G. R.; Hutchinson, C. R.; Botton, G. A.; Zurob, H. S.

    2016-03-01

    The segregation of solutes to austenite/ferrite transformation interfaces during decarburization/denitriding of Fe-Mn-C, Fe-Mn-N, and Fe-Si-C ternary alloys was studied by using atom probe tomography. Manganese was found to segregate noticeably to the transformation interface in the presence of carbon, while no segregation could be detected in the presence of nitrogen. This result might indicate that manganese interacts little with the interface itself and that its interaction with the interstitial controls its segregation behavior. In the case of Fe-Si-C, the experiments were complicated by interface motion during quenching. Preliminary results suggest that silicon was depleted at the interface in contrast to the commonly observed segregation behavior of silicon at grain boundaries of ferrite and austenite. This observation could be explained by taking into account the repulsive interaction between silicon and carbon along with the intense segregation of carbon to the interface. This would lead to a net repulsive interaction of silicon with the interface even when considering the intrinsic tendency of silicon to segregate to the boundary in the absence of carbon. The results presented here emphasize the need to account for the interaction of all solutes present at the interface in ferrite growth models.

  3. Manganese oxidation model for rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Glen W.; Kim, Byung R.; Roberts, Philip J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The presence of manganese in natural waters (>0.05 mg/L) degrades water-supply quality. A model was devised to predict the variation of manganese concentrations in river water released from an impoundment with the distance downstream. The model is one-dimensional and was calibrated using dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, pH, manganese, and hydraulic data collected in the Duck River, Tennessee. The results indicated that the model can predict manganese levels under various conditions. The model was then applied to the Chattahoochee River, Georgia. Discrepancies between observed and predicted may be due to inadequate pH data, precipitation of sediment particles, unsteady flow conditions in the Chattahoochee River, inaccurate rate expressions for the low pH conditions, or their combinations.

  4. Ferrite attenuator modulation improves antenna performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooks, J. C.; Larson, S. G.; Shorkley, F. H.; Williams, B. T.

    1970-01-01

    Ferrite attenuator inserted into appropriate waveguide reduces the gain of the antenna element which is causing interference. Modulating the ferrite attenuator to change the antenna gain at the receive frequency permits ground tracking until the antenna is no longer needed.

  5. Extraction of manganese from electrolytic manganese residue by bioleaching.

    PubMed

    Xin, Baoping; Chen, Bing; Duan, Ning; Zhou, Changbo

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of manganese from electrolytic manganese residues using bioleaching was investigated in this paper. The maximum extraction efficiency of Mn was 93% by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria at 4.0 g/l sulfur after bioleaching of 9days, while the maximum extraction efficiency of Mn was 81% by pyrite-leaching bacteria at 4.0 g/l pyrite. The series bioleaching first by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and followed by pyrite-leaching bacteria evidently promoted the extraction of manganese, witnessing the maximum extraction efficiency of 98.1%. In the case of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, the strong dissolution of bio-generated sulfuric acid resulted in extraction of soluble Mn2+, while both the Fe2+ catalyzed reduction of Mn4+ and weak acidic dissolution of Mn2+ accounted for the extraction of manganese with pyrite-leaching bacteria. The chemical simulation of bioleaching process further confirmed that the acid dissolution of Mn2+ and Fe2+ catalyzed reduction of Mn4+ were the bioleaching mechanisms involved for Mn extraction from electrolytic manganese residues. PMID:21050747

  6. Bog Manganese Ore: A Resource for High Manganese Steel Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, Swatirupa; Singh, Saroj K.; Mohapatra, Birendra K.

    2016-05-01

    Bog manganese ore, associated with the banded iron formation of the Iron Ore Group (IOG), occurs in large volume in northern Odisha, India. The ore is powdery, fine-grained and soft in nature with varying specific gravity (2.8-3.9 g/cm3) and high thermo-gravimetric loss, It consists of manganese (δ-MnO2, manganite, cryptomelane/romanechite with minor pyrolusite) and iron (goethite/limonite and hematite) minerals with sub-ordinate kaolinite and quartz. It shows oolitic/pisolitic to globular morphology nucleating small detritus of quartz, pyrolusite/romanechite and hematite. The ore contains around 23% Mn and 28% Fe with around 7% of combined alumina and silica. Such Mn ore has not found any use because of its sub-grade nature and high iron content, and is hence considered as waste. The ore does not respond to any physical beneficiation techniques because of the combined state of the manganese and iron phases. Attempts have been made to recover manganese and iron value from such ore through smelting. A sample along with an appropriate charge mix when processed through a plasma reactor, produced high-manganese steel alloy having 25% Mn within a very short time (<10 min). Minor Mn content from the slag was recovered through acid leaching. The aim of this study has been to recover a value-added product from the waste.

  7. Size dependence of magnetorheological properties of cobalt ferrite ferrofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhika, B.; Sahoo, Rasmita; Srinath, S.

    2015-06-01

    Cobalt Ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized using co-precipitation method at reaction temperatures of 40°C and 80°C. X-Ray diffraction studies confirm cubic phase formation. The average crystallite sizes were found to be ˜30nm and ˜48nm for 40°C sample and 80°C sample respectively. Magnetic properties measured using vibrating sample magnetometer show higher coercivety and magnetization for sample prepared at 80°C. Magnetorheological properties of CoFe2O4 ferrofluids were measured and studied.

  8. Magnetic and Structural Properties of Nanosized Magnesium Doped Zinc Ferrite Synthesized by Citrate Precursor Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, A. K.; Bansal, Shweta Dikshu; Singh, Simranjit

    2011-12-01

    Nanoparticles of MgxZn1-xFe2O4 ferrite (where x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.5,) are synthesized via citrate precursor method and then all the samples are sintered at 600 °C for 1 hour. The prepared samples are characterized through XRD (X-ray diffraction), FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), TEM (transmission electron microscope) and VSM (vibrating sample magnetometer). The M-H curves show evidence of a superparamagnetic (SPM) regime in the synthesized ferrites.

  9. Controlling of optical energy gap of Co-ferrite quantum dots in poly (methyl methacrylate) matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sayed, H. M.; Agami, W. R.

    2015-07-01

    Different crystallite sizes of Co-ferrite nanoparticles were prepared and dispersed in the matrix of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polymer. The effect of crystallite size on the structure and optical energy gap of Co-nanoferrite/PMMA composite has been studied. The optical energy gap of Co-ferrite was greatly affected by the crystallite size. This result was discussed in terms of the formation of electron-hole exciton using particle in a box model. The effective mass and the Bohr radius of the formed exciton have been calculated from the spectroscopic measurements.

  10. High power ferrite microwave switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardash, I.; Roschak, N. K.

    1975-01-01

    A high power ferrite microwave switch was developed along with associated electronic driver circuits for operation in a spaceborne high power microwave transmitter in geostationary orbit. Three units were built and tested in a space environment to demonstrate conformance to the required performance characteristics. Each unit consisted of an input magic-tee hybrid, two non-reciprocal latching ferrite phase shifters, an out short-slot 3 db quadrature coupler, a dual driver electronic circuit, and input logic interface circuitry. The basic mode of operation of the high power ferrite microwave switch is identical to that of a four-port, differential phase shift, switchable circulator. By appropriately designing the phase shifters and electronic driver circuits to operate in the flux-transfer magnetization mode, power and temperature insensitive operation was achieved. A list of the realized characteristics of the developed units is given.

  11. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  12. 21 CFR 582.5458 - Manganese hypophosphite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 582.5458 Manganese hypophosphite. (a) Product. Manganese hypophosphite. (b) Conditions of...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 582.5449 Manganese citrate. (a) Product. Manganese citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  14. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 582.5449 Manganese citrate. (a) Product. Manganese citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  17. 21 CFR 582.5458 - Manganese hypophosphite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 582.5458 Manganese hypophosphite. (a) Product. Manganese hypophosphite. (b) Conditions of...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5452 - Manganese gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 582.5452 Manganese gluconate. (a) Product. Manganese gluconate. (b) Conditions of use....

  19. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 582.5449 Manganese citrate. (a) Product. Manganese citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. 21 CFR 582.5452 - Manganese gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 582.5452 Manganese gluconate. (a) Product. Manganese gluconate. (b) Conditions of use....

  1. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  2. 21 CFR 582.5458 - Manganese hypophosphite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 582.5458 Manganese hypophosphite. (a) Product. Manganese hypophosphite. (b) Conditions of...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 582.5452 - Manganese gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 582.5452 Manganese gluconate. (a) Product. Manganese gluconate. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  6. Microwave properties of Al and Mn doped nickel ferrites at Ku band frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, K.; Balaji, C. G.; Venugopal Reddy, P.

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the influence of aluminum and manganese doping on structural, electrical, magnetic and microwave behavior of nickel ferrites, the samples were prepared by citrate sol-gel method. Samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometer using Rietveld refinement technique and are found to have cubic structure with space group Fd3¯m. A systematic investigation of magnetization, permeability, permittivity and microwave properties such as isolation, insertion loss and return loss was undertaken at Ku band (12-18 GHz) frequencies. A qualitative explanation for the various observed phenomena was given.

  7. The role of manganese and copper in the eutectoid transformation of spheroidal graphite cast iron

    SciTech Connect

    Lacaze, J.; Boudot, A.; Gerval, V.; Oquab, D.; Santos, H.

    1997-10-01

    The decomposition of austenite to ferrite plus graphite or to pearlite in spheroidal graphite (SG) cast iron is known to depend on a number of factors among which are the nodule count, the cooling rate, and the alloying additions (Si, Mn, Cu, etc.). This study was undertaken in order to deepen the understanding of the effect of alloying with Mn and/or Cu on the eutectoid reaction. For this purpose, differential thermal analyses (DTAs) were carried out in which samples were subjected to a short homogenization treatment designed to smooth out the microsegregations originating from the solidification step. The effect of various additions of copper and manganese and of the cooling rate on the temperature of the onset of the stable and metastable eutectoid reactions was investigated. The experimental results can be explained if the appropriate reference temperature is used. The cooling rate affects the temperature of the onset of the ferrite plus graphite growth in the same way as for the eutectic reaction, with a measured undercooling that can be extrapolated to a zero value when the cooling rate is zero. The growth undercooling of pearlite had values that were in agreement with similar data obtained on silicon steels. The detrimental effect of Mn on the growth kinetics of ferrite during the decomposition of austenite in the stable system is explained in terms of the driving force for diffusion of carbon through the ferrite ring around the graphite nodules. Finally, it is found that copper can have a pearlite promoter role only when combined with a low addition of manganese.

  8. Manganese depresses rat heart muscle respiration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has previously been reported that moderately high dietary manganese (Mn) in combination with marginal magnesium (Mg) resulted in ultrastructural damage to heart mitochondria. Manganese may replace Mg in biological functions, including the role of enzyme cofactor. Manganese may accumulate and subs...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 582.5449 Section 582.5449 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5449 Manganese citrate. (a) Product. Manganese citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  10. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 582.5461 Section 582.5461 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 582.5455 - Manganese glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese glycerophosphate. 582.5455 Section 582.5455 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5455 Manganese glycerophosphate. (a) Product. Manganese glycerophosphate....

  12. 21 CFR 582.5458 - Manganese hypophosphite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese hypophosphite. 582.5458 Section 582.5458 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5458 Manganese hypophosphite. (a) Product. Manganese hypophosphite. (b) Conditions of...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5452 - Manganese gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese gluconate. 582.5452 Section 582.5452 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5452 Manganese gluconate. (a) Product. Manganese gluconate. (b) Conditions of use....

  14. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. SEPARATING PROTOACTINIUM WITH MANGANESE DIOXIDE

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Gofman, J.W.; Stoughton, R.W.

    1958-04-22

    The preparation of U/sup 235/ and an improved method for isolating Pa/ sup 233/ from foreign products present in neutronirradiated thorium is described. The method comprises forming a solution of neutron-irradiated thorium together with a manganous salt, then adding potassium permanganate to precipitate the manganese as manganese dioxide whereby protoactinium is carried down with the nnanganese dioxide dissolving the precipitate, adding a soluble zirconium salt, and adding phosphate ion to precipitate zirconium phosphate whereby protoactinium is then carried down with the zirconium phosphate to effect a further concentration.

  16. Application of copper nanoparticles as additions to a grinding fluid to increase the quality of grinding of magnetic ceramic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krevchik, V. D.; Skryabin, V. A.; Sokolov, A. V.; Men'shova, S. B.; Artemov, I. I.; Prokof'ev, M. V.; Karasev, N. Ya.

    2015-12-01

    The influence of copper nanoparticles in a grinding fluid (GF) used for grinding on the characteristics of the surface layer of ferrite parts and their service properties is studied. Profilograms of the ground surfaces and their roughness are measured. The electromagnetic losses of 10000NN ferrite parts ground in an GF medium with copper nanoparticles are estimated. The use of metal nanoparticles as additions to a grinding fluid is shown to be useful for processing of brittle nonmetallic materials.

  17. A STUDY OF FERRITE CAVITY.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHAO, Y.

    2002-04-19

    This note addresses the general concerns for the design of a ferrite cavity. The parameters are specified for the RCMS, for which the frequency ramp is in the range of 1.27 MHz to 6.44 MHz, or a ratio of 1:5.

  18. Magnetic behavior of nanocrystalline nickel ferrite synthesized by the reverse micelle technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kale, A.; Gubbala, S.; Misra, R. D. K.

    2004-06-01

    Nanocrystalline nickel ferrite of crystallite size 5-8 nm, synthesized by the reverse micelle technique were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques, and the magnetic behavior studied by superconducting quantum interference device. Nanocrystalline nickel ferrite exhibit a blocking temperature of 16 K. They do not attain saturation magnetization even at a high field of 50 kOe. The lack of saturation in high field occurs in association with high field irreversibility and open loop at 50 kOe. The saturation magnetization at 300 K is 25.4 emu/g and at 2 K is 35.5 emu/g, which is significantly lower than that reported for the multidomain bulk nickel ferrite (55 emu/g). This is discussed in terms of a two-component nanoparticle system consisting of a spin glass-like surface layer of a few atomic layers thick and ferrimagnetically aligned core spins.

  19. Influence of essential elements on manganese intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Khandelwal, S.; Ashquin, M.; Tandon, S.K.

    1984-01-01

    With a view to explore the influence of essential metals in manganese intoxication, the effect of calcium, iron or zinc supplementation on the uptake of manganese and on the activity of manganese sensitive enzymes, succinic dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase in brain and liver of rat was investigated. The choice of the two mitochondrial enzymes was based on the fact that the mitochondria are the chief site of manganese accumulation and their activity in brain, liver and blood of rats is significantly influenced by manganese.

  20. Electrical and optical properties of nickel ferrite/polyaniline nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Khairy, M; Gouda, M E

    2015-07-01

    Polyaniline-NiFe2O4 nanocomposites (PANI-NiFe2O4) with different contents of NiFe2O4 (2.5, 5 and 50 wt%) were prepared via in situ chemical oxidation polymerization, while the nanoparticles nickel ferrite were synthesized by sol-gel method. The prepared samples were characterized using some techniques such as Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Moreover, the electrical conductivity and optical properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. Pure (PANI) and the composites containing 2.5 and 5 wt% NiFe2O4 showed amorphous structures, while the one with 50 wt% NiFe2O4 showed a spinel crystalline structure. The SEM images of the composites showed different aggregations for the different nickel ferrite contents. FTIR spectra revealed to the formation of some interactions between the PANI macromolecule and the NiFe2O4 nanoparticles, while the thermal analyses indicated an increase in the composites stability for samples with higher NiFe2O4 nanoparticles contents. The electrical conductivity of PANI-NiFe2O4 nanocomposite was found to increase with the rise in NiFe2O4 nanoparticle content, probably due to the polaron/bipolaron formation. The optical absorption experiments illustrate direct transition with an energy band gap of Eg  = 1.0 for PANI-NiFe2O4 nanocomposite. PMID:26199745

  1. Electrical and optical properties of nickel ferrite/polyaniline nanocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Khairy, M.; Gouda, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Polyaniline–NiFe2O4 nanocomposites (PANI–NiFe2O4) with different contents of NiFe2O4 (2.5, 5 and 50 wt%) were prepared via in situ chemical oxidation polymerization, while the nanoparticles nickel ferrite were synthesized by sol–gel method. The prepared samples were characterized using some techniques such as Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Moreover, the electrical conductivity and optical properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. Pure (PANI) and the composites containing 2.5 and 5 wt% NiFe2O4 showed amorphous structures, while the one with 50 wt% NiFe2O4 showed a spinel crystalline structure. The SEM images of the composites showed different aggregations for the different nickel ferrite contents. FTIR spectra revealed to the formation of some interactions between the PANI macromolecule and the NiFe2O4 nanoparticles, while the thermal analyses indicated an increase in the composites stability for samples with higher NiFe2O4 nanoparticles contents. The electrical conductivity of PANI–NiFe2O4 nanocomposite was found to increase with the rise in NiFe2O4 nanoparticle content, probably due to the polaron/bipolaron formation. The optical absorption experiments illustrate direct transition with an energy band gap of Eg = 1.0 for PANI–NiFe2O4 nanocomposite. PMID:26199745

  2. Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents. Second [quarterly] technical report, December 1, 1992--March 1, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1993-03-01

    At present, the focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization is primarily in the use of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents; however studies at the US Steel Fundamental Research Laboratories in Monroeville, PA, by E. T. Turkdogan indicate that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt % ore + 25 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) may be a preferable alternative to zinc-based sorbents. A significant domestic source of manganese in Minnesota is being explored for an in situ leach process which has potential for producing large tonnages of solutions which may be ideal for precipitation and recovery of pure manganese as a carbonate in a reactive form. In the current program the following studies will be addressed: Preparation of manganese sorbent pellets and characterization tests on pellets for strength and surface area; analysis of the thermodynamics and kinetics of sulfur removal from hot fuel gases by individual sorbent pellets (loading tests) by thermogravimetric testing; regeneration tests via TGA on individual sorbent pellets by oxidation; and bench-scale testing on sorbent beds in a two-inch diameter reactor. The developed information will be of value to METC in its determination of whether or not a manganese-based regenerable sorbent holds real promise for sulfur cleanup of hot fuel gases. This information is necessary prior to pilot-scale testing leading to commercial development is undertaken.

  3. Effects of Manganese Content on Solidification Structures, Thermal Properties, and Phase Transformation Characteristics in Fe-Mn-Al-C Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jian; Wang, Yu-Nan; Ruan, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Rui-Zhi; Zhu, Kai; Fan, Zheng-Jie; Wang, Ying-Chun; Li, Cheng-Bin; Jiang, Xiao-Fang

    2015-04-01

    To assist developments of the continuous-casting technology of Fe-Mn-Al-C steels, the solidification structures and the thermal properties of Fe-Mn-Al-C steel ingots with different manganese contents have been investigated and the phase transformation characteristics have been revealed by FactSage (CRCT-ThermFact Inc., Montréal, Canada). The results show that the thermal conductivity of the 0Mn steel is the highest, whereas the thermal conductivity of the 8Mn steel is slightly higher than that of the 17Mn steel. Increasing the manganese content promotes a columnar solidification structure and coarse grains in steel. With the increase of manganese content, the mass fraction of austenite phase is increased. Finally, a single austenite phase is formed in the 17Mn steel. The mean thermal expansion coefficients of the steels are in the range from 1.3 × 10-5 to 2.3 × 10-5 K-1, and these values increase with the increase of manganese content. The ductility of the 17Mn steel and the 8Mn steel are higher than 40 pct in the temperature range from 873 K to 1473 K (600 °C to 1200 °C), and the cracking during the straightening operation should be avoided. However, the ductility of the 0Mn steel is lower than 40 pct at 973 K and 1123 K (700 °C and 850 °C), which indicates that the temperature of the straightening operation during the continuous-casting process should be above 1173 K (900 °C). Manganese has the effect of enlarging the austenite phase region and reducing the δ-ferrite phase region and α-ferrite phase region. At the 2.1 mass pct aluminum level, the precipitate temperature of AlN is high. Thus, the formed AlN is too coarse to deteriorate the hot ductility of steel.

  4. Magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Ni-Zn, Zn-Mn, and Ni-Mn ferrites synthesized by reverse micelle technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubbala, S.; Nathani, H.; Koizol, K.; Misra, R. D. K.

    2004-05-01

    Nanocrystalline nickel-zinc, zinc-manganese, and nickel-manganese ferrites synthesized by reverse micelle synthesis technique were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction, and the magnetic behavior studied by Superconducting Quantum Interference Device. The mixed (Ni-Zn, Zn-Mn, and Ni-Mn) ferrites exhibit blocking temperatures of 11, 20, and 15 K, respectively. The small differences in the blocking temperatures are attributed to the magnetocrystalline anisotropy and L-S coupling. The saturation magnetization of nanocrystalline Ni-Zn, Zn-Mn, and Ni-Mn at 300 K was 4.5, 9, and 7 emu/g, respectively, and at 2 K was 15, 19, and 14 emu/g, respectively. The lower saturation magnetization of the nanocrystalline ferrites compared to their bulk counterparts is attributed to the core-shell morphology of the particles consisting of ferromagnetically aligned core spins and a spin-glass-like surface layer.

  5. Structural studies with the use of XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy of new high Manganese steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonska, Magdalena Barbara

    2014-04-01

    New high-strength austenitic and austenitic-ferritic manganese steels represent a significant potential in applications for structural components in the automotive and railway industry due to the excellent combination of high mechanical properties and good plasticity. They belong to the group of steels called AHSS (Advanced High Strength Steels) and UHSS (Ultra High Strength Steels). Application of this combination of properties allows a reduction in the weight of vehicles by the use of reduced cross-section components, and thus to reduce fuel consumption. The development and implementation of industrial production of such interesting and promising steel and its use as construction material requires an improvement of their casting properties and susceptibility to deformation in plastic working conditions. In this work, XRD, Transmission Mössbauer Spectroscopy and Conversion Electron Mössbauer Spectroscopy were employed in a study of the new high-manganese steels with a austenite and austenite-ferrite structure. The influence of the plastic deformation parameters on the changes in the structure, distribution of ferrite and disclosure of the presence of carbides was determined. The analysis of phase transformations in various times using CEMS method made possible to reveal their fine details.

  6. Static Strain Aging Behavior of a Manganese-Silicon Steel After Single and Multi-stage Straining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seraj, P.; Serajzadeh, S.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, static strain aging behavior of an alloy steel containing high amounts of silicon and manganese was examined while the influences of initial microstructure and pre-strain on the aging kinetics were evaluated as well. The rate of strain aging in a low carbon steel was also determined and compared with that occurred in the alloy steel. The rates of static strain aging in the steels were defined at room temperature and at 95 °C by means of double-hit tensile testing and hardness measurements. In addition, three-stage aging experiments at 80 °C were carried out to estimate aging behavior under multi-pass deformation processing. The results showed that in-solution manganese and silicon atoms could significantly affect the aging behavior of the steel and reduce the kinetics of static strain aging as compared to the low carbon steel. The initial microstructure also played an important role on the aging behavior. The rapidly cooled steel having mean ferrite grain size of 9.7 μm showed the least aging susceptibility index during the aging experiments. Accordingly, the activation energies for static strain aging were calculated as 93.2 and 85.7 kJ/mole for the alloy steel having fine and coarse ferrite-pearlite structures, respectively while it was computed as 79.1 kJ/mole for the low carbon steel with ferrite mean grain size of about 16.2 μm.

  7. Static Strain Aging Behavior of a Manganese-Silicon Steel After Single and Multi-stage Straining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seraj, P.; Serajzadeh, S.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, static strain aging behavior of an alloy steel containing high amounts of silicon and manganese was examined while the influences of initial microstructure and pre-strain on the aging kinetics were evaluated as well. The rate of strain aging in a low carbon steel was also determined and compared with that occurred in the alloy steel. The rates of static strain aging in the steels were defined at room temperature and at 95 °C by means of double-hit tensile testing and hardness measurements. In addition, three-stage aging experiments at 80 °C were carried out to estimate aging behavior under multi-pass deformation processing. The results showed that in-solution manganese and silicon atoms could significantly affect the aging behavior of the steel and reduce the kinetics of static strain aging as compared to the low carbon steel. The initial microstructure also played an important role on the aging behavior. The rapidly cooled steel having mean ferrite grain size of 9.7 μm showed the least aging susceptibility index during the aging experiments. Accordingly, the activation energies for static strain aging were calculated as 93.2 and 85.7 kJ/mole for the alloy steel having fine and coarse ferrite-pearlite structures, respectively while it was computed as 79.1 kJ/mole for the low carbon steel with ferrite mean grain size of about 16.2 μm.

  8. Development of a monolithic ferrite memory array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckler, C. H., Jr.; Bhiwandker, N. C.

    1972-01-01

    The results of the development and testing of ferrite monolithic memory arrays are presented. This development required the synthesis of ferrite materials having special magnetic and physical characteristics and the development of special processes; (1) for making flexible sheets (laminae) of the ferrite composition, (2) for embedding conductors in ferrite, and (3) bonding ferrite laminae together to form a monolithic structure. Major problems encountered in each of these areas and their solutions are discussed. Twenty-two full-size arrays were fabricated and fired during the development of these processes. The majority of these arrays were tested for their memory characteristics as well as for their physical characteristics and the results are presented. The arrays produced during this program meet the essential goals and demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating monolithic ferrite memory arrays by the processes developed.

  9. Exsolution of Fe and SrO Nanorods and Nanoparticles from Lanthanum Strontium Ferrite La0.6Sr0.4FeO3−δ Materials by Hydrogen Reduction

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Formation of uniform Fe and SrO rods as well as nanoparticles following controlled reduction of La0.6Sr0.4FeO3−δ (LSF) and Ni-LSF samples in dry and moist hydrogen is studied by aberration-corrected electron microscopy. Metallic Fe and SrO precipitate from the perovskite lattice as rods of several tenths of nm and thicknesses up to 20 nm. Based on a model of Fe whisker growth following reduction of pure iron oxides, Fe rod exsolution from LSF proceeds via rate-limiting lattice oxygen removal. This favors the formation of single iron metal nuclei at the perovskite surface, subsequently growing as isolated rods. The latter is only possible upon efficient removal of reduction-induced water and, subsequently, reduction of Fe +III/+IV to Fe(0). If water remains in the system, no reduction or rod formation occurs. In contrast, formation of SrO rods following reduction in dry hydrogen is a catalytic process aided by Ni particles. It bears significant resemblance to surface diffusion-controlled carbon whisker growth on Ni, leading to similar extrusion rods and filaments. In addition to SrO rod growth, the exsolution of Fe nanoparticles and, subsequently, Ni–Fe alloy particles is observed. The latter have also been observed under static hydrogen reduction. Under strict control of the experimental parameters, the presented data therefore open an attractive chemically driven pathway to metal nanoarchitectures beyond the formation of “simple” nanoparticles. PMID:26435764

  10. Role of copper on structural, magnetic and dielectric properties of nickel ferrite nano particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balavijayalakshmi, J.; Suriyanarayanan, N.; Jayaprakash, R.

    2015-07-01

    Copper doped nickel ferrites Ni(1-x)CuxFe2O4 (where x=0.2, 0.4, 0.6) nanoparticles are prepared by co-precipitation method and sintered at 600 °C. The XRD study confirms the formation of single-phase cubic spinel Ni-Cu ferrites. The particle size increases with Cu substitution. FT-IR spectra confirm the absorption bands around 554-547 cm-1 for the tetrahedral sites and around 448-450 cm-1 for the octahedral sites. The inclusion of copper shifts the tetrahedral band to lower values. The saturation magnetization (Ms) and remanent magnetization (Mr) decrease with increase in copper concentration and the coercivity (Hc) is found to increase for all the compositions sintered at 600 °C. The dielectric constant decreases drastically for all the compositions and reaches a constant value. These nanoparticles can be tested for humidity sensing applications.

  11. Facile synthetic route to nanosized ferrites by using mesoporous silica as a hard template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valds-Sols, T.; Tartaj, P.; Marbn, G.; Fuertes, A. B.

    2007-04-01

    Spinel ferrite nanoparticles (AFe2O4; A = Mn, Ni, Cu, Co) of around 10-20 nm have been successfully synthesized via a simple nanocasting route using metal nitrates as precursors and mesoporous silica gel as a hard template. Spinel nanoparticles were formed under a nitrogen atmosphere by the high-temperature decomposition of a mixture of metal nitrates that fill the silica pores. The decomposition reactions occurred in the confined space provided by the mesopores of the silica template. Under these conditions, the silica walls restricted the growth of the oxide particles formed and so nanosized particles were obtained. The incorporation of different cations into the spinel ferrite enabled us to easily modulate the magnetic properties of the nanomaterials prepared by the template method. Depending on the chemical composition and temperature, we were able to obtain samples that display reversible magnetic behaviour (zero coercivity field) and samples with coercivity values as high as 1.3 T (13 000 Oe).

  12. Nickel and manganese transfer from soil to plant in lateritic mining soils from New Caledonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouschat, P.; Rose, J.; Alliot, I.; Dominici, C.; Keller, C.; Laffont-Schwob, I.; Olivi, L.; Ambrosi, J.-P.

    2009-04-01

    New Caledonian ferritic soils (more than 50 % of iron) are naturally rich in metals (chromium, nickel, cobalt, and manganese), deficient in major nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium), and unbalanced for the calcium/magnesium ratio. Under these particular ecological conditions, New Caledonia, recognized as a hot-spot of biodiversity, is a natural laboratory to study and understand the adaptation strategies of plants to metalliferous soils, and particularly the tolerance and (hyper)accumulation of metals by plants. Moreover, understanding such mechanisms is essential to develop rehabilitation or phytoremediation techniques for polluted soils, as well as phytomining techniques. Thus, in order to understand the soil - plant relationship and metal mobility along a toposequence in a future nickel mining massif, field experiments were conducted in an isolated ultramafic massif of New Caledonia. Several plant species of two endemic and frequent plant genera were chosen: Tristaniopsis guillainii and T. calobuxus (Myrtaceae), and Phyllanthus serpentinus and P. favieri (Euphorbiaceae), because of their nickel and/or manganese accumulating or hyperaccumulating nature. Leaves, twigs, and roots of all plants were collected along the soil sequence and their associated rhizospheric and bulk soils were sampled. Next, a series of characterization techniques were adapted and then coupled to cryogenics. The combined use of those multiple techniques (cryo-microtomy, cryo-SEM, µXRF, cryo-XAS, and soil characterization) allowed to study co-location and speciation of nickel and manganese in the different plant organs and soils (rhizospheric and bulk). Bioaccumulated nickel and manganese had different distribution patterns. In leaves, Ni accumulated in non photosynthetic tissues (e.g. epidermis) whereas Mn preferentially accumulated in mesophyll whatever the plant species. Nevertheless, in spite of a different speciation in soils, nickel and manganese were both found as similar divalent organometallic complexes in the different plant parts.

  13. Irradiation effects in ferritic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechtenberg, Thomas

    1985-08-01

    Since 1979 the Alloy Development for Irradiation Performance (ADIP) task funded by the US Department of Energy has been studying the 2-12Cr class of ferritic steels to establish the feasibility of using them in fusion reactor first wall/breeding blanket (FW/B) applications. The advantages of ferritic steels include superior swelling resistance, low thermal stresses compared to austenitic stainless steels, attractive mechanical properties up to 600°C. and service histories exceeding 100 000 h. These steels are commonly used in a range of microstructural conditions which include ferritic, martensitic. tempered martensitic, bainitic etc. Throughout this paper where the term "ferritic" is used it should be taken to mean any of these microstructures. The ADIP task is studying several candidate alloy systems including 12Cr-1MoWV (HT-9), modified 9Cr-1MoVNb, and dual-phased steels such as EM-12 and 2 {1}/{4}Cr-Mo. These materials are ferromagnetic (FM), body centered cubic (bcc), and contain chromium additions between 2 and 12 wt% and molybdenum additions usually below 2%. The perceived issues associated with the application of this class of steel to fusion reactors are the increase in the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) with neutron damage, the compatibility of these steels with liquid metals and solid breeding materials, and their weldability. The ferromagnetic character of these steels can also be important in reactor design. It is the purpose of this paper to review the current understanding of these bcc steels and the effects of irradiation. The major points of discussion will be irradiation-induced or -enhanced dimensional changes such as swelling and creep, mechanical properties such as tensile strength and various measurements of toughness, and activation by neutron interactions with structural materials.

  14. Ferrite-guided cyclotron-resonance maser.

    PubMed

    Jerby, Eli; Kesar, A; Aharony, A; Breitmeier, G

    2002-06-01

    The concept of a cyclotron-resonance maser (CRM) with a ferrite loading incorporated in its waveguide is proposed. The CRM interaction occurs between the rotating electron beam and the em wave propagating along a longitudinally magnetized ferrite medium. The ferrite anisotropic permeability resembles the CRM susceptibility in many aspects, and particularly in their similar response to the axial magnetic field (the ferrite susceptibility can be regarded as a passive analog of the active CRM interaction). The ferrite loading slows down the phase velocity of the em wave and thus the axial (Weibel) mechanism of the CRM interaction dominates. The ferrite loading enables also a mechanism of spectral tunability for CRM's. The ferrite loading is proposed, therefore, as a useful ingredient for high-power CRM devices. A linear model of the combined ferrite-guided CRM interaction reveals its useful features. Future schemes may also incorporate ferrite sections functioning as isolators, gyrators, or phase shifters within the CRM device itself for selective suppression of backward waves and spurious oscillations, and for gain and efficiency enhancement. PMID:12188841

  15. Multifunctionality of nanocrystalline lanthanum ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Atma; Thakur, Awalendra K.

    2016-05-01

    Nanocrystalline lanthanum ferrite has been synthesized by adopting modified Pechini route. No evidence of impurity or secondary phase has been detected up to the detection of error limit of X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction pattern reveals orthorhombic crystal system with space group Pnma (62).Crystallite size and lattice strain was found to be ˜42.8nm and 0.306% respectively. Optical band gap was found to be 2.109 eV, by UV-Visible diffused reflectance spectrum (DRS). Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) surface area was found to be ˜3.45 m2/g. Magnetization-hysteresis (M-H) loop was recorded at room temperature (300K) reveals weak ferromagnetism in Nanocrystalline lanthanum ferrite. The weak ferromagnetism in lanthanum ferrite is due to the uncompensated antiferromagnetic spin ordering. Ferroelectric loop hysteresis observed at room temperature at 100Hz depicts the presence of ferroelectric ordering in LaFeO3.Simultanious presence of magnetic and ferroelectric ordering at room temperature makes it suitable candidate of Multiferroic family.

  16. Probing the Chemical Stability of Mixed Ferrites: Implications for Magnetic Resonance Contrast Agent Design

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz-Sikma, Elise A.; Joshi, Hrushikesh M.; Ma, Qing; MacRenaris, Keith W.; Eckermann, Amanda L.; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Meade, Thomas J.

    2011-09-16

    Nanomaterials with mixed composition, in particular magnetic spinel ferrites, are emerging as efficient contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. Many factors, including size, composition, atomic structure, and surface properties, are crucial in the design of such nanoparticle-based probes because of their influence on the magnetic properties. Silica-coated iron oxide (IO-SiO{sub 2}) and cobalt ferrite (CoIO-SiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were synthesized using standard high-temperature thermal decomposition and base-catalyzed water-in-oil microemulsion techniques. Under neutral aqueous conditions, it was found that 50-75% of the cobalt content in the CoIO-SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles leached out of the core structure. Leaching caused a 7.2-fold increase in the longitudinal relaxivity and an increase in the saturation magnetization from {approx}48 to {approx}65 emu/g of the core. X-ray absorption fine structure studies confirmed that the atomic structure of the ferrite core was altered following leaching, while transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering confirmed that the morphology and size of the nanoparticle remained unchanged. The CoIO-SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles converted from a partially inverted spinel cation arrangement (unleached state) to an inverse spinel arrangement (leached state). The control IO-SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles remained stable with no change in the structure and negligible changes in the magnetic behavior. This detailed analysis highlights how important understanding the properties of nanomaterials is in the development of reliable agents for diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  17. The determination of manganese in urine.

    PubMed

    Pantůcek, M B

    1982-01-01

    A simple and quite sensitive methods of manganese determination in urine is proposed. The manganese level as well as the fluoride level are directly proportional to the level of these substances in plasma and it doesn't depend substantially on the diuresis. In not exposed population the manganese level of 24 +/- 4 nmol.l-1 (mean +/- +/- 2 SEM) was found, in population exposed to the manganese containing aerosole as much as 3500 nmol.l-1 without any signs of health damage. The level of 400 nmol.l-1 is suggested to be a safe biological limit. During the shift, the manganese level in urine evidently raises. The simultaneous inhalation of manganese and fluoride results in their interaction. PMID:6818011

  18. Manganese sulfide formation via concomitant microbial manganese oxide and thiosulfate reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ji-Hoon; Kennedy, David W.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Moore, Dean A.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Reed, Samantha B.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2011-12-13

    The dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 produced {gamma}-MnS (rambergite) nanoparticles during the concurrent reduction of MnO{sub 2} and thiosulfate coupled to H{sub 2} oxidation. To investigate effect of direct microbial reduction of MnO{sub 2} on MnS formation, two MR-1 mutants defective in outer membrane c-type cytochromes ({Delta}mtrC/{Delta}omcA and {Delta}mtrC/{Delta}omcA/{Delta}mtrF) were also used and it was determined that direct reduction of MnO{sub 2} was dominant relative to chemical reduction by biogenic sulfide generated from thiosulfate reduction. Although bicarbonate was excluded from the medium, incubations of strain MR-1 with lactate as the electron donor produced MnCO{sub 3} (rhodochrosite) as well as MnS in nearly equivalent amounts as estimated by micro X-ray diffraction (micro-XRD) analysis. It was concluded that carbonate released from lactate metabolism promoted MnCO{sub 3} formation and that Mn(II) mineralogy was strongly affected by carbonate ions even in the presence of abundant sulfide and weakly alkaline conditions expected to favor the precipitation of MnS. Formation of MnS, as determined by a combination of micro-XRD, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and selected area electron diffraction analyses was consistent with equilibrium speciation modeling predictions. Biogenic manganese sulfide may be a manganese sink in the Mn biogeochemical cycle in select environments such as deep anoxic marine basins within the Baltic Sea.

  19. Microbial Formation of Manganese Oxides

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Anthony C.; Madgwick, John C.

    1991-01-01

    Microbial manganese oxidation was demonstrated at high Mn2+ concentrations (5 g/liter) in bacterial cultures in the presence of a microalga. The structure of the oxide produced varied depending on the bacterial strain and mode of culture. A nonaxenic, acid-tolerant microalga, a Chlamydomonas sp., was found to mediate formation of manganite (γ-MnOOH). Bacteria isolated from associations with crude cultures of this alga grown in aerated bioreactors formed disordered γ-MnO2 from Mn2+ at concentrations of 5 g/liter over 1 month, yielding 3.3 g of a semipure oxide per liter. All algal-bacterial cultures removed Mn2+ from solution, but only those with the highest removal rates formed an insoluble oxide. While the alga was an essential component of the reaction, a Pseudomonas sp. was found to be primarily responsible for the formation of a manganese precipitate. Medium components—algal biomass and urea—showed optima at 5.7 and 10 g/liters, respectively. The scaled-up culture (50 times) gave a yield of 22.3 g (53 mg/liter/day from a 15-liter culture) of semipure disordered γ-MnO2, identified by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and had a manganese oxide O/Mn ratio of 1.92. The Mn(IV) content in the oxide was low (30.5%) compared with that of mined or chemically formed γ-MnO2 (ca. 50%). The shortfall in the bacterial oxide manganese content was due to biological and inorganic contaminants. FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electron diffraction studies have identified manganite as a likely intermediate product in the formation of disordered γ-MnO2. PMID:16348459

  20. 21 CFR 184.1449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sufficient citric acid solution to form manganous citrate and then with sodium citrate to complete the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 184.1449 Section 184.1449 Food... GRAS § 184.1449 Manganese citrate. (a) Manganese citrate (Mn3(C6H5O7)2, CAS Reg. No. 10024-66-5) is...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2·4H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7773-01-5) is a pink, translucent, crystalline product. It is also known as...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1452 - Manganese gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE... manganese carbonate with gluconic acid in aqueous medium and then crystallizing the product. (b)...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1452 - Manganese gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE... manganese carbonate with gluconic acid in aqueous medium and then crystallizing the product. (b)...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1452 - Manganese gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE... manganese carbonate with gluconic acid in aqueous medium and then crystallizing the product. (b)...

  5. Water-Soluble Spinel Ferrites by a Modified Polyol Process as Contrast Agents in MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Basina, Georgia; Tzitzios, Vasilis; Niarchos, Dimitris; Li Wanfeng; Khurshid, Hafsa; Hadjipanayis, George; Mao Hui; Hadjipanayis, Costas

    2010-12-02

    Magnetic nanoparticles have recently been very attractive for biomedical applications. In this study, we have synthesized ferrite nanoparticles for application as contrast agents in MRI experiments. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel ferrites with a mean size of 11-12 nm, were prepared by a modified polyol route in commercially available polyethylene glycol with molecular weight 600 (PEG-600). The reaction takes place in the presence of water soluble and non-toxic tri-block copolymer known as Pluronic registered F-127 (PEO{sub 100}-PPO{sub 65}-PEO{sub 100}). The nanoparticles have saturation magnetization values of 52 and 68 emu/g for MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, respectively. Both the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles make stable solutions in water known as ferrofluids. Preliminary data demonstrated the capability of these nanoparticles to induce imaging contrast in T{sub 2} weighted MRI experiments, making these materials suitable for biomedical applications such as medical MRI.

  6. Optimized Mn-doped iron oxide nanoparticles entrapped in dendrimer for dual contrasting role in MRI.

    PubMed

    Haribabu, Viswanathan; Farook, Abubacker Sulaiman; Goswami, Nirmalya; Murugesan, Ramachandran; Girigoswami, Agnishwar

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has acquired importance as a major tool for diagnosis and staging of cancers in humans. Injection of certain imaging agents have proved to improve contrast between normal and cancer cells on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Using the principles of MR contrast imaging, we have designed a dual mode (T1 and T2) contrast agent based on folic acid functionalized manganese ferrite nanoparticles (MNP) entrapped in 3G polyamidoamide (PAMAM) dendrimers. The ratio of Mn:Fe was tuned to achieve optimal performance. This multifunctional nanocarrier system was developed for targeting cancer cells to produce both T1 and T2 contrast which in turn helps in better diagnosis and staging of cancer. FTIR spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction, atomic absorption spectroscopy, UV-Visible spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering measurements were employed to characterize the multifunctional system at different stages of engineering. The ratio of relaxivities r2 /r1 is 4.6 at 1.5 T for the MNP prepared with 0.5 molar ratio of Mn/Fe based on MR images obtained from phantom and tumor bearing mouse. The value of r2 /r1 shows that the 0.5 molar ratio of Mn/Fe can be used to prepare MNP for the production of dual mode contrast in MR imaging. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 817-824, 2016. PMID:26460478

  7. Synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles for use as sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calero Diaz Del Castillo, Victoria L.

    A comprehensive study of physical and magnetic properties of cobalt substituted ferrite and magnetite nanoparticles synthesized by thermal-decomposition was carried out. Initially, a systematic study of the effect of synthesis conditions on final size, crystalline structure, and composition of cobalt substituted ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by thermal-decomposition was carried out. Using a statistical design of experiments, the impact of the temperature and time during nucleation and growth stages on final particle size, lattice parameter, and Fe/Co ratio was determined. Based on DC and AC susceptibility measurements, the effect of sample preparation on determination of the anisotropy constant of magnetite nanoparticles was studied. Magnetite nanoparticles synthesized by the thermal-decomposition method were fixed in a poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) matrix at 0.1%, 1%, and 6%(w/w). ZFC curves and the out-of-phase component of the dynamic susceptibility were obtained for each of sample and using Neel and Vogel-Fulcher models, the anisotropy constant was determined. The effect of particle size on the anisotropy constant of magnetite nanoparticles was also studied. In this case, magnetite with different diameter were synthesized by vary the synthesis conditions during thermal-decomposition method. Magnetite nanoparticles were fixed in poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) at 0.1% (w/w) and ZFC curves and AC susceptibility measurements were carried out. Finally, cobalt ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by the thermal-decomposition method were tested as possible sensors. Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were functionalized with biotin using a COO--silane coupling agent. Using AC measurements, avidin molecules at a concentration of 1 microM in aqueous solution could be detected by monitoring the change in Brownian relaxation time after the attachment of avidin molecule to biotinylized cobalt ferrite nanoparticle. This analysis required a sample volume of 100 microl and on 8 microg of the protein to be detected.

  8. Ferrite thin films for microwave applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zaquine, I.; Benazizi, H.; Mage, J.C.

    1988-11-15

    Production of ferrite thin films is the key to integration of microwave ferrite devices (circulators for phased array antennas, for instance). The interesting materials are the usual microwave ferrites: garnets, lithium ferrites, barium hexaferrites. The required thicknesses are a few tens of micrometers, and it will be important to achieve high deposition rates. Different substrates can be used: silicon and alumina both with and without metallization. The films were deposited by rf sputtering from a single target. The as-deposited films are amorphous and therefore require careful annealing in oxygen atmosphere. The sputtered films are a few micrometers thick on 4 in. substrates. The optimum annealing temperature was found by trying to obtain the highest possible magnetization for each ferrite. The precision on the value of magnetization is limited by the precision on the thickness of the film. We obtain magnetization values slightly lower than the target's. The ferromagnetic resonance linewidth was measured on toroids from 5 to 18 GHz.

  9. Preparation of ferrite-coated MFM cantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koblischka, M. R.; Kirsch, M.; Wei, J.; Sulzbach, T.; Hartmann, U.

    2007-09-01

    Ferrite-coated magnetic force microscopy (MFM) cantilevers were prepared for the use with a high-frequency MFM (HF-MFM) setup. The ferrite coatings were fabricated by means of radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering directly on the Si surface. Two types of ferrites were employed in this study: NiZnFe 2O 4 spinel and Co 2Z-type hexaferrite (Ba 3Co 2Fe 24O 41, BCFO). The typical thickness of the coatings was 50 nm. For comparison, ferrite samples on (1 0 0) and (1 1 1)-oriented Si substrates (analogous to the surfaces of the cantilevers) were prepared. Successful HF-MFM imaging was performed with both types of cantilevers using harddisk writer poles as samples. The HF-MFM images obtained by ferrite-coated cantilevers evidently reveal more details of the magnetic field distribution of the writer poles up to the GHz range than conventional CoCr-coated MFM cantilevers.

  10. 21 CFR 73.2775 - Manganese violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2775 Manganese violet. (a) Identity. The color additive... less than 93 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions. Manganese violet is safe for use in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics applied to the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with good...

  11. 21 CFR 73.2775 - Manganese violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2775 Manganese violet. (a) Identity. The color additive... less than 93 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions. Manganese violet is safe for use in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics applied to the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with good...

  12. 21 CFR 73.2775 - Manganese violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2775 Manganese violet. (a) Identity. The color additive... less than 93 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions. Manganese violet is safe for use in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics applied to the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with good...

  13. Manganese nodules: thorium-230: protactinium-231 ratios.

    PubMed

    Sackett, W M

    1966-11-01

    The Th(230): Pa(231) activity ratio in 7 of 11 manganese nodules is less than 10.8, the theoretical production ratio of activities in the ocean. This finding indicates difierential accumulation of these nuclides in authigenic deposits of manganese-iron oxide. PMID:17778807

  14. 21 CFR 184.1449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... manganese carbonate from manganese sulfate and sodium carbonate solutions. The filtered and washed... sodium citrate to complete the reaction. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for its intended... § 170.3(n)(29) of this chapter; milk products as defined in § 170.3(n)(31) of this chapter; and...

  15. Lanthana-bearing nanostructured ferritic steels via spark plasma sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasebani, Somayeh; Charit, Indrajit; Wu, Yaqiao; Burns, Jatuporn; Allahar, Kerry N.; Butt, Darryl P.; Cole, James I.; Alsagabi, Sultan F.

    2016-03-01

    A lanthana-containing nanostructured ferritic steel (NFS) was processed via mechanical alloying (MA) of Fe-14Cr-1Ti-0.3Mo-0.5La2O3 (wt.%) and consolidated via spark plasma sintering (SPS). In order to study the consolidation behavior via SPS, sintering temperature and dwell time were correlated with microstructure, density, microhardness and shear yield strength of the sintered specimens. A bimodal grain size distribution including both micron-sized and nano-sized grains was observed in the microstructure of specimens sintered at 850, 950 and1050 °C for 45 min. Significant densification occurred at temperatures greater than 950 °C with a relative density higher than 98%. A variety of nanoparticles, some enriched in Fe and Cr oxides and copious nanoparticles smaller than 10 nm with faceted morphology and enriched in La and Ti oxides were observed. After SPS at 950 °C, the number density of Cr-Ti-La-O-enriched nanoclusters with an average radius of 1.5 nm was estimated to be 1.2 × 1024 m-3. The La + Ti:O ratio was close to 1 after SPS at 950 and 1050 °C; however, the number density of nanoclusters decreased at 1050 °C. With SPS above 950 °C, the density improved but the microhardness and shear yield strength decreased due to partial coarsening of the grains and nanoparticles.

  16. Manganese borohydride; synthesis and characterization.

    PubMed

    Richter, Bo; Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B; Tumanov, Nikolay; Filinchuk, Yaroslav; Jensen, Torben R

    2015-03-01

    Solvent-based synthesis and characterization of α-Mn(BH4)2 and a new nanoporous polymorph of manganese borohydride, γ-Mn(BH4)2, via a new solvate precursor, Mn(BH4)2·1/2S(CH3)2, is presented. Manganese chloride is reacted with lithium borohydride in a toluene/dimethylsulfide mixture at room temperature, which yields halide and solvent-free manganese borohydride after extraction with dimethylsulfide (DMS) and subsequent removal of residual solvent. This work constitutes the first example of establishing a successful, reproducible solvent-based synthesis route for a pure, crystalline, stable transition metal borohydride. The new polymorph, γ-Mn(BH4)2, is shown to be the manganese counterpart of the zeolite-like compound, γ-Mg(BH4)2 (cubic, a = 16.209(1) Å, space group Id3̄a). It is verified that large pores (diameter > 6.0 Å) exist in this structure. The solvate, Mn(BH4)2·1/2S(CH3)2, is subsequently shown to be the analogue of Mg(BH4)2·1/2S(CH3)2. As the structural analogies between Mg(BH4)2 and Mn(BH4)2 became evident a new polymorph of Mg(BH4)2 was identified and termed ζ-Mg(BH4)2. ζ-Mg(BH4)2 is the structural counterpart of α-Mn(BH4)2. All synthesis products are characterized employing synchrotron radiation-powder X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis in combination with mass spectroscopy. Thermal analysis reveals the decomposition of Mn(BH4)2 to occur at 160 °C, accompanied by a mass loss of 14.8 wt%. A small quantity of the desorbed gaseous species is identified as diborane (ρ(m)(Mn(BH4)2) = 9.5 wt% H2), while the remaining majority is found to be hydrogen. PMID:25611294

  17. RNASeq in C. elegans Following Manganese Exposure.

    PubMed

    Parmalee, Nancy L; Maqbool, Shahina B; Ye, Bin; Calder, Brent; Bowman, Aaron B; Aschner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Manganese is a metal that is required for optimal biological functioning of organisms. Absorption, cellular import and export, and excretion of manganese are all tightly regulated. While some genes involved in regulation, such as DMT-1 and ferroportin, are known, it is presumed that many more are involved and as yet unknown. Excessive exposure to manganese, usually in industrial settings such as mining or welding, can lead to neurotoxicity and a condition known as manganism that closely resembles Parkinson's disease. Elucidating transcriptional changes following manganese exposure could lead to the development of biomarkers for exposure. This unit presents a protocol for RNA sequencing in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans to assay for transcriptional changes following exposure to manganese. This protocol is adaptable to any environmental exposure in C. elegans. The protocol results in counts of gene transcripts in control versus exposed conditions and a ranked list of differentially expressed genes for further study. PMID:26250396

  18. Influence of pH on the structural and magnetic behavior of cobalt ferrite synthesized by sol-gel auto-combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Kakade, S. G. E-mail: ydk@physics.unipune.ac.in; Kambale, R. C.; Kolekar, Y. D. E-mail: ydk@physics.unipune.ac.in

    2015-06-24

    Cobalt ferrite (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) shown to be promising candidate for applications such as high-density magnetic recording, enhanced memory storage, magnetic fluids and catalysts. Utility of ferrite nanoparticles depends on its size, dispersibility in solutions, and magnetic properties. We have investigated the structural properties of synthesized cobalt ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by sol gel auto combustion for uncontrolled, acidic, neutral and basic pH values. X-ray diffraction (XRD) study confirms the cubic spinel phase formation with lattice constant 8.38 Å. In this study, we have optimized the pH value to synthesize homogenous cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with enhanced magnetic behavior. The surface morphology has been investigated by employing SEM images and the confirmation of spinel ferrite was also supported by using IR spectroscopy. Magnetic measurements for CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} compositions (with pH <1, pH = 3, 7, 10) were investigated using VSM measurements.

  19. The effect of dipole-dipole interactions on coercivity, anisotropy constant, and blocking temperature of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslibeiki, B.; Kameli, P.; Salamati, H.

    2016-02-01

    Superparamagnetic manganese ferrite nanoparticles with mean size of = 6.5(±1.5) nm were synthesized through a solvothermal method using Tri-ethylene glycol as a solvent. The peak temperature of zero field cooled measurements of magnetization and AC magnetic susceptibility curves shifted toward higher temperatures by applying different pressures from 0 to 1 kbar and increasing the powders compaction. The frequency dependence of AC susceptibility measurements indicated the presence of weak dipole-dipole interactions between nanoparticles. By increasing the powders compaction and interactions strength, the coercive field (Hc) increased and squareness (Mr/Ms) decreased. The obtained effective anisotropy constant (Keff), by susceptibility measurements, was from 1.72 × 106 to 2.36 × 106 ergs/cm3 for pressure of 0 to 1 kbar. These values are larger than those obtained from hysteresis loops at 5 K (0.14 × 106 to 0.34 × 106 erg/cm3). Also, the Keff was two orders of magnitude greater than that of bulk MnFe2O4. Size, surface effects, and total energy barrier between equilibrium states were reported as the main causes of large anisotropy. Below 75 K, a signature of weak surface spin glass was observed. However, memory effect experiment indicated that there is no collective superspin glass state in the samples. This study suggests the role of powders compaction on properties of a magnetic nanoparticles system. Furthermore, the coercivity, the anisotropy constant, and the blocking temperature are affected by changing nanoparticles compaction.

  20. Magnetic and ultrasonic studies on stable cobalt ferrite magnetic nanofluid.

    PubMed

    Nabeel Rashin, M; Hemalatha, J

    2014-03-01

    Stable cobalt ferrite nanofluids of various concentrations have been prepared through co-precipitation method. Structural and morphological studies of nanoparticles are made with the help of X-ray diffraction technique and Transmission Electron Microscope respectively and it is found that the particles exhibit face centered cubic structure with an average size of 14 nm. The magnetic properties of the nanofluids have been analyzed at room temperature which revealed ferromagnetic behavior and also the very low value of coupling constant which ensures the negligible interparticle interaction in the absence of magnetic field. Ultrasonic investigations have been made for the nanofluids at different temperatures and magnetic fields. The temperature effects are explained with the help of open and close-packed water structure. The inter particle interactions of surface modified CoFe2O4 particles and the cluster formation at higher concentrations are realized through the variations in ultrasonic parameters. PMID:24188514