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Sample records for manganese ii induces

  1. Thermoluminescence evidence for light-induced oxidation of tyrosine and histidine residues in manganese-depleted photosystem II particles.

    PubMed

    Allakhverdiev, S I; Klimov, V V; Demeter, S

    1992-02-01

    In the thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve of photosystem II, particles depleted of manganese, a tyrosine modifier, 7-chloro-4-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD) abolishes the TL band appearing around -55 degrees C (TL-55). Addition of a histidine modifier, diethylpyrocarbonate results in the disappearance of the band peaking around -30 degrees C (TL-30). NBD treatment also abolishes the EPR signal IIfast of oxidized tyrosine donor, Yz, and inhibits the electron transport from diphenylcarbazide to 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol. It is concluded that the TL-55 and TL-30 bands can be assigned to oxidized tyrosine (Yz+) and histidine (His+) residues, respectively, which participate in electron transfer from manganese to the reaction center of chlorophyll, P680+. PMID:1551436

  2. The Products of Manganese (II) Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, A.

    2004-09-03

    Manganese, the second most abundant transition metal in the earth's crust, exists in a number of oxidation states, among which the II, III, and IV oxidation states are of greatest environmental importance. Produced through microbial activity, manganese oxides help to mediate redox reactions with organic and inorganic compounds and help to sequester a variety of metals. The mechanism by which Manganese (II) is oxidized to Manganese (IV) is a biologically catalyzed process. There are at least three different pathways by which Mn(II) can be bacterially oxidized to Mn(IV); the first in which states that Mn(II) can be oxidized to mixed Mn(III, IV), and Mn(IV) oxides and oxyhydroxides. The second of these pathways is that Mn(II) can be directly oxidized to Mn(IV) and the last of these pathways is that Mn(II) follows an enzymatic bond with a Mn(III) intermediate in which Mn(II) oxidizes to Mn(III) and then to Mn(IV). The pathways of focus for this research are the latter two pathways.

  3. Manganese(II) induces cell division and increases in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in an aging deinococcal culture

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, F.I.; Tan, S.T. )

    1990-04-01

    Addition of Mn(II) at 2.5 microM or higher to stationary-phase cultures of Deinococcus radiodurans IR was found to trigger at least three rounds of cell division. This Mn(II)-induced cell division (Mn-CD) did not occur when the culture was in the exponential or death phase. The Mn-CD effect produced daughter cells proportionally reduced in size, pigmentation, and radioresistance but proportionally increased in activity and amount of the oxygen toxicity defense enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase. In addition, the concentration of an Mn-CD-induced protein was found to remain high throughout the entire Mn-CD phase. It was also found that an untreated culture exhibited a growth curve characterized by a very rapid exponential-stationary transition and that cells which had just reached the early stationary phase were synchronous. Our results suggest the presence of an Mn(II)-sensitive mechanism for controlling cell division. The Mn-CD effect appears to be specific to the cation Mn(II) and the radioresistant bacteria, deinococci.

  4. Acute Toxicity and Gastroprotection Studies of a New Schiff Base Derived Manganese (II) Complex against HCl/Ethanol-Induced Gastric Ulcerations in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohamed Yousif; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Dhiyaaldeen, Summaya M.; Al-Obaidi, Mazen M.Jamil; El-Ferjani, Rashd M.; Adam, Hoyam; Alkotaini, Bassam; Batran, Rami Al; Ali, Hapipah Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Manganese is a crucial element for health. In this study, the gastroprotective efficacy of Mn (II) complex (MDLA) against acidified ethanol (HCl/Ethanol)-induced gastric ulceration in rats was evaluated. The animals were distributed into 5 groups. Groups 1 and 2 received carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), group 3 was pretreated with omeprazole, and groups 4 and 5 were given 10 and 20 mg/kg of MDLA, respectively. After one hour, CMC and HCl/Ethanol were given to groups 2–5 whilst the animals in group 1 were ingested with CMC. After sacrifice, gastric lesions were evaluated by wall mucus, gross appearance, histology, antioxidant enzymes and immunohistochemistry. Group 2 displayed severe gastric damage with a significant reduction in wall mucus. Conversely, gastric lesions were reduced in groups 3–5 by 85.72%, 56.51% and 65.93%, respectively. The rats in groups 3–5 showed up-regulation of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) with down-regulation of Bcl-2-associated protein x (Bax). Pretreatment with omeprazole or MDLA led to an increase in the uptake of Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) stain in the glandular part of the gastric tissue, raised levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and a reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. These results suggested the gastroprotective action of Mn (II) complex. PMID:27229938

  5. Acute Toxicity and Gastroprotection Studies of a New Schiff Base Derived Manganese (II) Complex against HCl/Ethanol-Induced Gastric Ulcerations in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed Yousif; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Dhiyaaldeen, Summaya M; Al-Obaidi, Mazen M Jamil; El-Ferjani, Rashd M; Adam, Hoyam; Alkotaini, Bassam; Batran, Rami Al; Ali, Hapipah Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Manganese is a crucial element for health. In this study, the gastroprotective efficacy of Mn (II) complex (MDLA) against acidified ethanol (HCl/Ethanol)-induced gastric ulceration in rats was evaluated. The animals were distributed into 5 groups. Groups 1 and 2 received carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), group 3 was pretreated with omeprazole, and groups 4 and 5 were given 10 and 20 mg/kg of MDLA, respectively. After one hour, CMC and HCl/Ethanol were given to groups 2-5 whilst the animals in group 1 were ingested with CMC. After sacrifice, gastric lesions were evaluated by wall mucus, gross appearance, histology, antioxidant enzymes and immunohistochemistry. Group 2 displayed severe gastric damage with a significant reduction in wall mucus. Conversely, gastric lesions were reduced in groups 3-5 by 85.72%, 56.51% and 65.93%, respectively. The rats in groups 3-5 showed up-regulation of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) with down-regulation of Bcl-2-associated protein x (Bax). Pretreatment with omeprazole or MDLA led to an increase in the uptake of Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) stain in the glandular part of the gastric tissue, raised levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and a reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. These results suggested the gastroprotective action of Mn (II) complex. PMID:27229938

  6. The characteristic red chemiluminescence from reactions with acidic potassium permanganate: further spectroscopic evidence for a manganese(II) emitter.

    PubMed

    Adcock, Jacqui L; Francis, Paul S; Smith, Trevor A; Barnett, Neil W

    2008-01-01

    A direct comparison of the laser-induced photoluminescence of manganese(ii) with the chemiluminescence from the reaction between acidic potassium permanganate and sodium borohydride was used to confirm that the characteristic red emission from this widely used chemiluminescence reagent emanates from an electronically excited manganese(ii) species. PMID:18087612

  7. The diagnosis of manganese-induced parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Cersosimo, Maria G; Koller, William C

    2006-05-01

    Parkinsonism is a clinical syndrome consisting of tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, gait, balance problems, in addition to various non-motor symptoms. There are many causes of parkinsonism such as neurodegenerative disease, drugs, vascular causes, structural lesions, infections, and toxicants. Parkinson's disease, or idiopathic parkinsonism, is the most common form of parkinsonism observed in the clinic. There is degeneration of the substantia nigra, pars compacta, which results in loss of striatal dopamine. Parkinson's disease is a slowly progressive condition in which there is a dramatic and sustained responsiveness to levodopa therapy. Manganese is an essential trace element that can be associated with neurotoxicity. Hypermanganism can occur in a variety of clinical settings. The clinical symptoms of manganese intoxication include non-specific complaints, neurobehavioral changes, parkinsonism, and dystonia. Although the globus pallidus is the main structure of damage, other basal ganglia areas can also be involved. MRI scans may show globus pallidus changes during (and for a short period after) exposure. Fluorodopa PET scans that assess the integrity of the substantia nigra dopaminergic system are abnormal in Parkinson's disease. However, these scans re-reported to be normal in a few cases studied with manganese-induced parkinsonism. The parkinsonism due to manganese may have some clinical features that occur less commonly in Parkinson's disease, such as kinetic tremor, dystonia, specific gait disturbances, and early mental, balance and speech changes. The clinical signs tend to be bilateral whereas Parkinson's disease begins on one side of the body. Patients with manganese-induced parkinsonism may be younger at the onset of the disease than with Parkinson's disease. Lastly, there appears to be a lack of response to levodopa therapy in manganese-induced parkinsonism. In summary it may be possible to differentiate manganese-induced parkinsonism from Parkinson

  8. Coordination between manganese and nitrogen within the ligands in the manganese complexes facilitates the reconstitution of the water-oxidizing complex in manganese-depleted photosystem II preparations.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuqin; Chen, Guiying; Han, Guangye; Ling, Lin; Huang, Deguang; Khorobrykh, A A; Zharmukhamedov, S K; Liu, Qiutian; Klimov, V V; Kuang, Tingyun

    2006-09-01

    The water-oxidizing complex (WOC) within photosystem II (PSII) can be reconstituted with synthetic manganese complexes by a process called photoactivation; however, the key factors affecting the efficiency of synthetic manganese complexes in reconstitution of electron transport and oxygen evolution activity in manganese-depleted PSII remain unclear. In the present study, four complexes with different manganese coordination environments were used to reconstitute the WOC, and an interesting relationship was found between the coordination environment of the manganese atom in the complexes and their efficiency in restoring electron transport and oxygen evolution. If Mn(II) is coordinated to nitrogen atoms within the ligand, it can restore significant rates of electron transport and oxygen evolution; however, if the manganese atom is coordinated only to oxygen atoms instead of nitrogen atoms, it has no capability to restore electron transport and oxygen evolution. So, our results demonstrate that the capability of manganese complexes to reconstitute the WOC is mainly determined by the coordination between nitrogen atoms from ligands and the manganese atom. It is suggested from our results that the ligation between the nitrogen atom and the manganese atom within the manganese complex facilitates the photoligation of the manganese atom to histidyl residues on the apo-protein in manganese-depleted PSII during photoactivation. PMID:16791637

  9. Manganese

    MedlinePlus

    Manganese is a mineral that is found in several foods including nuts, legumes, seeds, tea, whole grains, and leafy green vegetables. It is ... manganese by mouth along with other vitamins and minerals can promote growth in children who have low ...

  10. Stabilisation of carbonyl free amidinato-manganese(II) hydride complexes: "masked" sources of manganese(I) in organometallic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Fohlmeister, Lea; Jones, Cameron

    2016-01-28

    Reaction of the amidinato-manganese(ii) bromide complex, [{(κ(2)-N,N'-Piso)Mn(μ-Br)}3(THF)2] (Piso = [(DipN)2CBu(t)](-), Dip = 2,6-diisopropylphenyl), with K[BHEt3] affords the first example of a structurally authenticated amidinato-manganese(ii) hydride complex, [{(N-,η(3)-arene-Piso)Mn(μ-H)2}2], via a process which involves a change in the amidinate coordination mode. Treatment of the bulkier precursor complex, [{(Piso'')Mn(μ-Br)}n] (Piso'' = [(Dip''N)2CBu(t)](-), Dip'' = C6H2Pr(i)2(CPh3)-2,6,4), with K[BHEt3] did not lead to an isolable manganese hydride complex, but its reaction with the magnesium(i) complex, [{((Mes)Nacnac)Mg}2] ((Mes)Nacnac = [(MesNCMe)2CH](-), Mes = mesityl), did. This reaction presumably proceeds via a reactive manganese(i) intermediate, which abstracts hydrogen from a reaction component to give [{(κ(2)-N,N'-Piso'')Mn(μ-H)}3]. A comparison of the reactivities of [{(N-,η(3)-arene-Piso)Mn(μ-H)2}2] and the isomorphous manganese(i) complex, [{(N-,η(3)-arene-Piso)Mn}2], toward CO, O2 and N2O was carried out. Reactions with the manganese(i) and manganese(ii) species gave identical results, namely the formation of the manganese(i) carbonyl complex, [(κ(2)-N,N'-Piso)Mn(CO)4] (reactions with CO), and the manganese(iii)-μ-oxo complex, [{(κ(2)-N,N'-Piso)Mn(μ-O)}2] (reactions with O2 and N2O). These results indicate that [{(N-,η(3)-arene-Piso)Mn(μ-H)2}2] can act as a "masked" source of an amidinato-manganese(i) fragment in synthetic transformations. PMID:26674008

  11. Oxidation of manganese(II) during chlorination: role of bromide.

    PubMed

    Allard, S; Fouche, L; Dick, J; Heitz, A; von Gunten, U

    2013-08-01

    The oxidation of dissolved manganese(II) (Mn(II)) during chlorination is a relatively slow process which may lead to residual Mn(II) in treated drinking waters. Chemical Mn(II) oxidation is autocatalytic and consists of a homogeneous and a heterogeneous process; the oxidation of Mn(II) is mainly driven by the latter process. This study demonstrates that Mn(II) oxidation during chlorination is enhanced in bromide-containing waters by the formation of reactive bromine species (e.g., HOBr, BrCl, Br2O) from the oxidation of bromide by chlorine. During oxidation of Mn(II) by chlorine in bromide-containing waters, bromide is recycled and acts as a catalyst. For a chlorine dose of 1 mg/L and a bromide level as low as 10 μg/L, the oxidation of Mn(II) by reactive bromine species becomes the main pathway. It was demonstrated that the kinetics of the reaction are dominated by the adsorbed Mn(OH)2 species for both chlorine and bromine at circumneutral pH. Reactive bromine species such as Br2O and BrCl significantly influence the rate of manganese oxidation and may even outweigh the reactivity of HOBr. Reaction orders in [HOBr]tot were found to be 1.33 (±0.15) at pH 7.8 and increased to 1.97 (±0.17) at pH 8.2 consistent with an important contribution of Br2O which is second order in [HOBr]tot. These findings highlight the need to take bromide, and the subsequent reactive bromine species formed upon chlorination, into account to assess Mn(II) removal during water treatment with chlorine. PMID:23859083

  12. Genetic factors and manganese-induced neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pan; Parmalee, Nancy; Aschner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Manganese (Mn), is a trace metal required for normal physiological processes in humans. Mn levels are tightly regulated, as high levels of Mn result in accumulation in the brain and cause a neurological disease known as manganism. Manganism shares many similarities with Parkinson’s disease (PD), both at the physiological level and the cellular level. Exposure to high Mn-containing environments increases the risk of developing manganism. Mn is absorbed primarily through the intestine and then released in the blood. Excessive Mn is secreted in the bile and excreted in feces. Mn enters and exits cells through a number of non-specific importers localized on the cell membrane. Mutations in one of the Mn exporters, SLC30A10 (solute carrier family 30, member 10), result in Mn induced toxicity with liver impairments and neurological dysfunction. Four PD genes have been identified in connection to regulation of Mn toxicity, shedding new light on potential links between manganism and PD. PMID:25136353

  13. Photoassembly of the photosystem II manganese cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Blubaugh, D.J.; Cheniae, G.M.

    1991-12-31

    Assembly of the photosynthetic water-oxidizing complex (WOC) is believed to involve the sequential oxidation and ligation of individual Mn atoms in a process called photoactivation. The kinetics with which photoactivation occurs has been interpreted to indicate a series mechanism, in which the product of the reaction of Mn{sup 2+} with the first PSII charge separation is unstable until processed by a second PSII charge separation. Because the decay of the unstable intermediate is accelerated in the presence of added reductants of Mn{sup 3+}, it has been hypothesized that the unstable intermediate is Mn{sup 3+} ligated with high affinity and stabilized by ligands supplied by WOC polypeptides. According to this hypothesis, photooxidation of a second Mn{sup 2+} to Mn{sup 3+}, followed by ligation of two more Mn{sup 2+} ions, results in formation of a stable Mn(II)2-Mn(III)2 complex. Several authors have reported a {le}l {mu}M K{sub m} value for a Mn{sup 2+} (or Mn{sup 3+}) binding site in PSII. In most of these determinations, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was present. In another case, the K{sub m} was determined from the inhibition by Mn{sup 2+} of diphenylcarbazide (DPC) photooxidation. On the other hand, the K{sub m} for Mn{sup 2+} oxidation by Y{sub Z+} in the absence of any other additions, is {approximately}10 {mu}M. We have postulated that this 10 {mu}M value is the K{sub m} for Mn{sup 2+} photooxidation by Y{sub Z+} in the second photoact of the photoactivation mechanism, which occurs with low quantum efficiency. According to this view, the Mn{sup {le}}{sup 3+} ligated near Y{sub Z} with high efficiency on the first photoact is responsible for the inhibition of DPC photooxidation in the presence of Mn{sup 2+} and for the low quantum efficiency of steady-state Mn{sup 2+} photooxidation. Here, we provide evidence that this is the case.

  14. Potential Role of Epigenetic Mechanism in Manganese Induced Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Tarale, Prashant; Chakrabarti, Tapan; Sivanesan, Saravanadevi; Naoghare, Pravin; Bafana, Amit; Krishnamurthi, Kannan

    2016-01-01

    Manganese is a vital nutrient and is maintained at an optimal level (2.5–5 mg/day) in human body. Chronic exposure to manganese is associated with neurotoxicity and correlated with the development of various neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. Oxidative stress mediated apoptotic cell death has been well established mechanism in manganese induced toxicity. Oxidative stress has a potential to alter the epigenetic mechanism of gene regulation. Epigenetic insight of manganese neurotoxicity in context of its correlation with the development of parkinsonism is poorly understood. Parkinson's disease is characterized by the α-synuclein aggregation in the form of Lewy bodies in neuronal cells. Recent findings illustrate that manganese can cause overexpression of α-synuclein. α-Synuclein acts epigenetically via interaction with histone proteins in regulating apoptosis. α-Synuclein also causes global DNA hypomethylation through sequestration of DNA methyltransferase in cytoplasm. An individual genetic difference may also have an influence on epigenetic susceptibility to manganese neurotoxicity and the development of Parkinson's disease. This review presents the current state of findings in relation to role of epigenetic mechanism in manganese induced neurotoxicity, with a special emphasis on the development of Parkinson's disease. PMID:27314012

  15. Temperature Dependence of Light-Induced Absorbance Changes Associated with Chlorophyll Photooxidation in Manganese-Depleted Core Complexes of Photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Zabelin, A A; Shkuropatova, V A; Shkuropatov, A Ya; Shuvalov, V A

    2015-10-01

    Mid-infrared (4500-1150 cm(-1)) absorbance changes induced by continuous illumination of Mn-depleted core complexes of photosystem II (PSII) from spinach in the presence of exogenous electron acceptors (potassium ferricyanide and silicomolybdate) were studied by FTIR difference spectroscopy in the temperature range 100-265 K. The FTIR difference spectrum for photooxidation of the chlorophyll dimer P680 was determined from the set of signals associated with oxidation of secondary electron donors (β-carotene, chlorophyll) and reduction of the primary quinone QA. On the basis of analysis of the temperature dependence of the P680(+)/P680 FTIR spectrum, it was concluded that frequencies of 13(1)-keto-C=O stretching modes of neutral chlorophyll molecules PD1 and PD2, which constitute P680, are similar to each other, being located at ~1700 cm(-1). This together with considerable difference between the stretching mode frequencies of keto groups of PD1(+) and PD2(+) cations (1724 and 1709 cm(-1), respectively) is in agreement with a literature model (Okubo et al. (2007) Biochemistry, 46, 4390-4397) suggesting that the positive charge in the P680(+) dimer is mainly localized on one of the two chlorophyll molecules. A partial delocalization of the charge between the PD1 and PD2 molecules in P680(+) is supported by the presence of a characteristic electronic intervalence band at ~3000 cm(-1). It is shown that a bleaching band at 1680 cm(-1) in the P680(+)/P680 FTIR spectrum does not belong to P680. A possible origin of this band is discussed, taking into account the temperature dependence (100-265 K) of light-induced absorbance changes of PSII core complexes in the visible spectral region from 620 to 720 nm. PMID:26567571

  16. Manganese Deficiency in Plants: The Impact on Photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund; Jensen, Poul Erik; Husted, Søren

    2016-07-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential plant micronutrient with an indispensable function as a catalyst in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII). Even so, Mn deficiency frequently occurs without visual leaf symptoms, thereby masking the distribution and dimension of the problem restricting crop productivity in many places of the world. Hence, timely alleviation of latent Mn deficiency is a challenge in promoting plant growth and quality. We describe here the key mechanisms of Mn deficiency in plants by focusing on the impact of Mn on PSII stability and functionality. We also address the mechanisms underlying the differential tolerance towards Mn deficiency observed among plant genotypes, which enable Mn-efficient plants to grow on marginal land with poor Mn availability. PMID:27150384

  17. Manganese(III) binding to a pyoverdine siderophore produced by a manganese(II)-oxidizing bacterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Dorothy L.; Sposito, Garrison; Tebo, Bradley M.

    2004-12-01

    The possible roles of siderophores (high affinity chelators of iron(III)) in the biogeochemistry of manganese remain unknown. Here we investigate the interaction of Mn(III) with a pyoverdine-type siderophore (PVD MnB1) produced by the model Mn(II)-oxidizing bacterium Pseudomonas putida strain MnB1. PVD MnB1 confirmed typical pyoverdine behavior with respect to: (a) its absorption spectrum at 350-600 nm, both in the absence and presence of Fe(III), (b) the quenching of its fluorescence by Fe(III), (c) the formation of a 1:1 complex with Fe(III), and (d) the thermodynamic stability constant of its Fe(III) complex. The Mn(III) complex of PVD MnB1 had a 1:1 Mn:pvd molar ratio, showed fluorescence quenching, and exhibited a light absorption spectrum (A max = 408-410 nm) different from that of either PVD MnB1-Fe(III) or uncomplexed PVD MnB1. Mn(III) competed strongly with Fe(III) for binding by PVD MnB1 in culture filtrates (pH 8, 4°C). Equilibration with citrate, a metal-binding ligand, did not detectably release Mn from its PVD MnB1 complex at a citrate/PVD MnB1 molar ratio of 830 (pH 8, 4°C), whereas pyrophosphate under the same conditions removed 55% of the Mn from its PVD MnB1 complex. Most of the PVD MnB1-complexed Mn was released by reaction with ascorbate, a reducing agent, or with EDTA, a ligand that is also oxidized by Mn(III). Data on the competition for binding to PVD MnB1 by Fe(III) vs. Mn(III) were used to determine a thermodynamic stability constant (nominally at 4°C) for the neutral species MnHPVD MnB1 (log K = 47.5 ± 0.5, infinite dilution reference state). This value was larger than that determined for FeHPVD MnB1 (log K = 44.6 ± 0.5). This result has important implications for the metabolism, solubility, speciation, and redox cycling of manganese, as well as for the biologic uptake of iron.

  18. Manganese

    MedlinePlus

    ... no RDAs for a nutrient, the Adequate Intake (AI) is used as a guide. The AI is the estimated amount of the nutrient that ... assumed to be adequate. The daily Adequate Intake (AI) levels for manganese are: infants birth to 6 ...

  19. Manganese

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Manganese ; CASRN 7439 - 96 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  20. Measurement of trace manganese (II) by the catalytic kinetic spectrophotometric method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Hongwei; Sha, Yuanyuan; Xin, Huizhen; Qi, Yanxia

    2009-06-01

    A new kinetic spectrophotometric method is developed for the measurement of manganese (II) in water. The method is based on the catalytic effect of manganese (II) with the oxidation of weak acid brilliant blue dye (RAWL) by KIO4 using the Nitrilo triacetic acid (NTA) as an activation reagent. The optimum conditions obtained are 40 mgL-1 RAWL, 1×10-4molL-1 KIO4, 2×10-4 molL-1 Nitrilo triacetic acid (NTA), pH = 5.8, the reaction time of 3.00 min and the temperature of 20.0 °C. Under the optimum conditions, the proposed method allows the measurement of manganese (II) in a range of 0-50.0 ng mL-1 and with a detection limit of down to 0.158 ng mL-1. The recovery efficiency in measuring the standard manganese (II) solution is in a range of 98.5%-102%, and the RSD is in a range of 0.76%-1.25%. The new method has been successfully applied to the measurement of manganese (II) in both fresh water and seawater samples with satisfying results. Moreover, few cations and anions interfere with the measurement of manganese (II). Compared with other kinetic catalytic methods and instrumental methods, the proposed method shows fairly good selectivity and sensitivity, low cost, cheapness, low detection limit and rapidity. It can be applied on boats easily.

  1. Catalase-like activity studies of the manganese(II) adsorbed zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćiçek, Ekrem; Dede, Bülent

    2013-12-01

    Preparation of manganese(II) adsorbed on zeolite 3A, 4A, 5A. AW-300, ammonium Y zeolite, organophilic, molecular sieve and catalase-like enzyme activity of manganese(II) adsorbed zeolites are reported herein. Firstly zeolites are activated at 873 K for two hours before contact manganese(II) ions. In order to observe amount of adsorption, filtration process applied for the solution. The pure zeolites and manganese(II) adsorbed zeolites were analysed by FT-IR. As a result according to the FT-IR spectra, the incorporation of manganese(II) cation into the zeolite structure causes changes in the spectra. These changes are expected particularly in the pseudolattice bands connected with the presence of alumino and silicooxygen tetrahedral rings in the zeolite structure. Furthermore, the catalytic activities of the Mn(II) adsorbed zeolites for the disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide were investigated in the presence of imidazole. The Mn(II) adsorbed zeolites display efficiency in the disproportion reactions of hydrogen peroxide, producing water and dioxygen in catalase-like activity.

  2. Manganese(II) complexes of substituted di-2-pyridyl ketone thiosemicarbazones: Structural and spectral studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, Varughese; Suni, V.; Kurup, Maliyeckal R. Prathapachandra; Nethaji, Munirathinam

    2006-05-01

    The reaction between manganese(II) acetate and two substituted thiosemicarbazones derived from di-2-pyridyl ketone (HL) in 1:2 molar ratio produces new complexes of general formula [MnL 2]. The thiosemicarbazone moiety in HL deprotonates and gets coordinated to Mn(II) through the azomethine nitrogen, one of the pyridyl nitrogens, and the thiolate sulfur in both the complexes. The crystal structure of [ MnL21] was established by single crystal X-ray diffraction and the compound crystallizes into a monoclinic lattice with P2 1/ c space group. Manganese(II) exists in a distorted octahedral geometry in the complexes.

  3. Bioelectrochemical Mn(II) leaching from manganese ore by Lactococcus lactis SK071115.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Bo Young; Park, Doo Hyun

    2011-02-01

    L. lactis sk071115 has been shown to grow more actively and generate lower levels of lactate in glucose-defined medium with nitrate than in medium with Mn(IV). By adding Mn(IV) to a L. lactis culture, lactate production was relatively reduced in combination with Mn(II) production, but cell mass production levels did not increase. Both cell-free extract and intact L. lactis cells reacted electrochemically with Mn(IV) but did not react with Mn(II) upon cyclic voltammetry using neutral red (NR) as an electron mediator. A modified graphite felt cathode with NR (NR-cathode) was employed to induce electrochemical reducing equivalence for bacterial metabolism. Cell-free L. lactis extract catalyzed the reduction of Mn(IV) to Mn(II) under both control and electrochemical reduction conditions; however, the levels of Mn(II) generated under electrochemical reduction conditions were approximately 4 times those generated under control conditions. The levels of Mn(II) generated by the catalysis of L. lactis immobilized in the NR-cathode (L-NR-cathode) under electrochemical reduction conditions were more than 4 times that generated under control conditions. Mn(II) production levels were increased by approximately 2.5 and 4.5 times by the addition of citrate to the reactant under control and electrochemical reduction conditions, respectively. The cumulative Mn(II) produced from manganese ore by catalysis of the L-NR-cathode for 30 days reached levels of approximately 3,800 and 16,000 mg/l under control and electrochemical reduction conditions, respectively. In conclusion, the electrochemical reduction reaction generated by the NR-cathode activated the biochemical reduction of Mn(IV) to Mn(II) by L. lactis. PMID:21364297

  4. Manganese-induced Neurotoxicity: From C. elegans to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pan; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Peres, Tanara V.; Bowman, Aaron B.; Aschner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is one of the most abundant metals on the earth. It is required for normal cellular activities, but overexposure leads to toxicity. Neurons are more susceptible to Mn-induced toxicity than other cells, and accumulation of Mn in the brain results in Manganism that presents with Parkinson's disease (PD)-like symptoms. In the last decade, a number of Mn transporters have been identified, which improves our understanding of Mn transport in and out of cells. However, the mechanism of Mn-induced neurotoxicity is only partially uncovered, with further research needed to explore the whole picture of Mn-induced toxicity. In this review, we will address recent progress in Mn-induced neurotoxicity from C. elegans to humans, and explore future directions that will help understand the mechanisms of its neurotoxicity. PMID:25893090

  5. Electrochemical Behavior and Voltammetric Determination of a Manganese(II) Complex at a Carbon Paste Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Karastogianni, Sophia; Girousi, Stella

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of the electrochemical behavior using cyclic voltammetry and detection of [Mn2+(thiophenyl-2-carboxylic acid)2 (triethanolamine)] with adsorptive stripping differential pulse voltammetry. The electrochemical behavior of a manganese(II) complex [Mn2+(thiophenyl-2-carboxylic acid)2(triethanolamine)] (A) was investigated using cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry in an acetate buffer of pH 4.6 at a carbon paste electrode. Further, an oxidation–reduction mechanism was proposed. Meanwhile, an adsorptive stripping differential pulse voltammetric method was developed for the determination of manganese(II) complex. PMID:26819548

  6. The involvement of the mitochondrial pathway in manganese-induced apoptosis of chicken splenic lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yihao; Li, Shu; Teng, Xiaohua

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of excess manganese (Mn)-induced cytotoxicity on apoptosis in chicken splenic lymphocytes. Chicken splenic lymphocytes were cultured in medium in the absence and presence of manganese (II) chloride (MnCl2) (2 × 10(-4), 4 × 10(-4), 6 × 10(-4), 8 × 10(-4), 10 × 10(-4), and 12 × 10(-4) mM), in N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) (1 mM), and the combination of MnCl2 and NAC for 12, 24, 36, and 48 h. Tests were performed on morphologic observation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax), p53, and calmodulin (CaM) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, Caspase-3 mRNA and protein expression, intracellular free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i), and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm). Our research indicated that excess Mn induced ROS and MDA content, inhibited Mn-SOD and GSH-Px activities, induced Bax and p53 mRNA expression, inhibited Bcl-2 and CaM mRNA expression, induced Caspase-3 mRNA and protein expression, upregulated [Ca(2+)]i, inhibited ΔΨm, and induced apoptosis in a dose effect. NAC relieved excess Mn-caused the changes of all above factors. Mn-induced oxidative injuries were alleviated by treatment with NAC, an ROS scavenger. The above results demonstrated that excess Mn caused oxidative stress and apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway in chicken splenic lymphocytes. PMID:27035383

  7. Tetranuclear manganese(II) complexes of sulfonylcalix[4]arene macrocycles: synthesis, structure, spectroscopic and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Lamouchi, Meriem; Jeanneau, Erwann; Pillonnet, Anne; Brioude, Arnaud; Martini, Matteo; Stéphan, Olivier; Meganem, Faouzi; Novitchi, Ghenadie; Luneau, Dominique; Desroches, Cédric

    2012-03-01

    Two tetranuclear manganese(II) complexes {K(+)[Mn(4)(ThiaSO(2))(2)(OH)](-)} (1) and {K(+)[Mn(4)(ThiaSO(2))(2)(F)](-)} (2) have been synthesized under solvothermal conditions in methanol with p-tert-butylsulfonylcalix[4]arene (ThiaSO(2)). For both complexes, the structure has been established from single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The two complexes are best described as manganese squares sandwiched between two thiacalixarene macrocycles. In both complexes, in the center of the square formed by the four manganese(II) atoms, the unexpected presence of μ(4)-OH(-) or μ(4)-F(-) gives a negative charge to the cluster. The two tetranuclear complexes exhibit strong orange luminescence behavior resulting from the symbiosis between the ThiaSO(2) and the Mn(2+). Despite similar chemical formulation, (1) and (2) present difference in emission intensity and lifetime τ. PMID:22266843

  8. Cobalt(II) Oxidation by the Marine Manganese(II)-Oxidizing Bacillus sp. Strain SG-1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoon; Tebo, Bradley M.

    1994-01-01

    The geochemical cycling of cobalt (Co) has often been considered to be controlled by the scavenging and oxidation of Co(II) on the surface of manganese [Mn(III,IV)] oxides or manganates. Because Mn(II) oxidation in the environment is often catalyzed by bacteria, we have investigated the ability of Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria to bind and oxidize Co(II) in the absence of Mn(II) to determine whether some Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria also oxidize Co(II) independently of Mn oxidation. We used the marine Bacillus sp. strain SG-1, which produces mature spores that oxidize Mn(II), apparently due to a protein in their spore coats (R.A. Rosson and K. H. Nealson, J. Bacteriol. 151:1027-1034, 1982; J. P. M. de Vrind et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 52:1096-1100, 1986). A method to measure Co(II) oxidation using radioactive 57Co as a tracer and treatments with nonradioactive (cold) Co(II) and ascorbate to discriminate bound Co from oxidized Co was developed. SG-1 spores were found to oxidize Co(II) over a wide range of pH, temperature, and Co(II) concentration. Leucoberbelin blue, a reagent that reacts with Mn(III,IV) oxides forming a blue color, was found to also react with Co(III) oxides and was used to verify the presence of oxidized Co in the absence of added Mn(II). Co(II) oxidation occurred optimally around pH 8 and between 55 and 65°C. SG-1 spores oxidized Co(II) at all Co(II) concentrations tested from the trace levels found in seawater to 100 mM. Co(II) oxidation was found to follow Michaelis-Menten kinetics. An Eadie-Hofstee plot of the data suggests that SG-1 spores have two oxidation systems, a high-affinity-low-rate system (Km, 3.3 × 10-8 M; Vmax, 1.7 × 10-15 M · spore-1 · h-1) and a low-affinity-high-rate system (Km, 5.2 × 10-6 M; Vmax, 8.9 × 10-15 M · spore-1 · h-1). SG-1 spores did not oxidize Co(II) in the absence of oxygen, also indicating that oxidation was not due to abiological Co(II) oxidation on the surface of preformed Mn(III,IV) oxides. These

  9. Coordination compounds of manganese(II) with polyamines - catalysts of the oxidation of organic dyes by hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Batyr, D.G.; Isak, V.G.; Kirienko, A.A.; Kharitonov, Yu.Ya.

    1987-02-01

    The peroxidase activity of complexes of manganese(II) with polyamines has been characterized. A comparison of the original and literature data has led to the conclusion that the oxidation of organic substrates having some complexing ability with respect to Manganese(II) in Mn(II)-ligand-H/sub 2/O/sub 2/-S systems takes place according to an inner-sphere ion-molecule mechanism. In cases in which the substrate does not have any complexing ability with respect to Manganese(II), the oxidation process takes place according to an outer-sphere mechanism.

  10. Oxidation of manganese(II) with ferrate: Stoichiometry, kinetics, products and impact of organic carbon.

    PubMed

    Goodwill, Joseph E; Mai, Xuyen; Jiang, Yanjun; Reckhow, David A; Tobiason, John E

    2016-09-01

    Manganese is a contaminant of concern for many drinking water utilities, and future regulation may be pending. An analysis of soluble manganese (Mn(II)) oxidation by ferrate (Fe(VI)) was executed at the bench-scale, in a laboratory matrix, both with and without the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) and at two different pH values, 6.2 and 7.5. In the matrix without NOM, the oxidation of Mn(II) by Fe(VI) followed a stoichiometry of 2 mol Fe(VI) to 3 mol Mn(II). The presence of NOM did not significantly affect the stoichiometry of the oxidation reaction, indicating relative selectivity of Fe(VI) for Mn(II). The size distribution of resulting particles included significant amounts of nanoparticles. Resulting manganese oxide particles were confirmed to be MnO2 via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The rate of the Mn(II) oxidation reaction was fast relative to typical time scales in drinking water treatment, with an estimated second order rate constant of approximately 1 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1) at pH 9.2 and > 9 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1) at pH 6.2. In general, ferrate is a potential option for Mn(II) oxidation in water treatment. PMID:27341149

  11. Manganese (II) Chelate Functionalized Copper Sulfide Nanoparticles for Efficient Magnetic Resonance/Photoacoustic Dual-Modal Imaging Guided Photothermal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Renfa; Jing, Lijia; Peng, Dong; Li, Yong; Tian, Jie; Dai, Zhifei

    2015-01-01

    The integration of diagnostic and therapeutic functionalities into one nanoplatform shows great promise in cancer therapy. In this research, manganese (II) chelate functionalized copper sulfide nanoparticles were successfully prepared using a facile hydrothermal method. The obtained ultrasmall nanoparticles exhibit excellent photothermal effect and photoaoustic activity. Besides, the high loading content of Mn(II) chelates makes the nanoparticles attractive T1 contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In vivo photoacoustic imaging (PAI) results showed that the nanoparticles could be efficiently accumulated in tumor site in 24 h after systematic administration, which was further validated by MRI tests. The subsequent photothermal therapy of cancer in vivo was achieved without inducing any observed side effects. Therefore, the copper sulfide nanoparticles functionalized with Mn(II) chelate hold great promise as a theranostic nanomedicine for MR/PA dual-modal imaging guided photothermal therapy of cancer. PMID:26284144

  12. Manganese-induced Parkinsonism in a patient undergoing maintenance hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Ohtake, Takayasu; Negishi, Kousuke; Okamoto, Kouji; Oka, Machiko; Maesato, Kyoko; Moriya, Hidekazu; Kobayashi, Shuzo

    2005-10-01

    We report a rare case of manganese (Mn)-induced parkinsonism in a patient on maintenance hemodialysis therapy who complained of gait disturbance and dysarthria. His symptoms and abnormal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of the brain were thought to be caused, at least in part, by long-term ingestion of a health supplement (Chlorella extract) that contained 1.7 mg of Mn in the usual daily dose. Elevated serum and cerebrospinal fluid Mn levels were detected, and brain MRI showed areas of abnormal intensity in the bilateral basal ganglia (low intensity on T1-weighted images and high intensity on T2-weighted images). Edetic acid infusion therapy dramatically improved the MRI abnormalities, after which his symptoms gradually improved 4 months later. PMID:16183431

  13. Direct electron paramagnetic resonance study of tobacco. 1. Manganese(ii) as a marker.

    PubMed

    Morsy, M A; Khaled, M M

    2001-02-01

    Three categories of tobacco products were studied using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy: Cuban cigar brand name Montecristo, four international trademark cigarettes, and three types of Middle Eastern tobacco blends called Al-Moassal or Jurak. The Montecristo Cuban cigar is used as standard of high-quality tobacco. Mainly two EPR signals from all of the studied samples are observed: a very weak sharp EPR signal superimposed on a broad signal. The broad EPR signal is attributed to a manganese(II) complex. The intensity of the manganese(II) EPR signal is found to be related to the quality of the tobacco content. The sharp signal, which is characteristic of semiquinone radicals, is observed at room temperature, and its intensity increases drastically with temperature. PMID:11262012

  14. ENERGY LEVELS AND SPECTRAL LINES OF SINGLY IONIZED MANGANESE (Mn II)

    SciTech Connect

    Kramida, Alexander; Sansonetti, Jean E.

    2013-04-01

    This compilation revises the previously recommended list of energy levels of singly ionized manganese (Mn II) and provides a comprehensive list of observed spectral lines and transition probabilities in this spectrum. The new level optimization takes into account critically assessed uncertainties of measured wavelengths and includes about a hundred high-precision wavelengths determined by laser spectroscopy and Fourier transform techniques. Uncertainties of 63% of energy levels and 74% of Ritz wavelengths are reduced by a factor of three on average.

  15. Nano-sized manganese-calcium cluster in photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Najafpour, M M; Ghobadi, M Z; Haghighi, B; Eaton-Rye, J J; Tomo, T; Shen, J-R; Allakhverdiev, S I

    2014-04-01

    Cyanobacteria, algae, and plants are the manufacturers that release O2 via water oxidation during photosynthesis. Since fossil resources are running out, researchers are now actively trying to use the natural catalytic center of water oxidation found in the photosystem II (PS II) reaction center of oxygenic photosynthetic organisms to synthesize a biomimetic supercatalyst for water oxidation. Success in this area of research will transcend the current bottleneck for the development of energy-conversion schemes based on sunlight. In this review, we go over the structure and function of the water-oxidizing complex (WOC) found in Nature by focusing on the recent advances made by the international research community dedicated to achieve the goal of artificial water splitting based on the WOC of PS II. PMID:24910206

  16. Oxidative damage and neurodegeneration in manganese-induced neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Milatovic, Dejan; Yu, Yingchun

    2009-10-15

    Exposure to excessive manganese (Mn) levels results in neurotoxicity to the extrapyramidal system and the development of Parkinson's disease (PD)-like movement disorder, referred to as manganism. Although the mechanisms by which Mn induces neuronal damage are not well defined, its neurotoxicity appears to be regulated by a number of factors, including oxidative injury, mitochondrial dysfunction and neuroinflammation. To investigate the mechanisms underlying Mn neurotoxicity, we studied the effects of Mn on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, changes in high-energy phosphates (HEP), neuroinflammation mediators and associated neuronal dysfunctions both in vitro and in vivo. Primary cortical neuronal cultures showed concentration-dependent alterations in biomarkers of oxidative damage, F{sub 2}-isoprostanes (F{sub 2}-IsoPs) and mitochondrial dysfunction (ATP), as early as 2 h following Mn exposure. Treatment of neurons with 500 {mu}M Mn also resulted in time-dependent increases in the levels of the inflammatory biomarker, prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}). In vivo analyses corroborated these findings, establishing that either a single or three (100 mg/kg, s.c.) Mn injections (days 1, 4 and 7) induced significant increases in F{sub 2}-IsoPs and PGE{sub 2} in adult mouse brain 24 h following the last injection. Quantitative morphometric analyses of Golgi-impregnated striatal sections from mice exposed to single or three Mn injections revealed progressive spine degeneration and dendritic damage of medium spiny neurons (MSNs). These findings suggest that oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and neuroinflammation are underlying mechanisms in Mn-induced neurodegeneration.

  17. THE STATE OF MANGANESE IN THE PHOTOSYNTHETIC APPARATUS. II. X-RAY ABSORPTION EDGE STUDIES ON MANGANESE IN PHOTOSYNTHETIC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, J. A.; Goodin, D. B.; Wydrzynski, T.; Robertson, A. S.; Klein, M. P.

    1980-11-01

    X-ray absorption spectra at the Manganese K-edge are presented for spinach chloroplasts, and chloroplasts which have been Tris-treated and hence unable to evolve oxygen. A significant change in the electronic environment of manganese is observed and is attributed to the release of manganese from the thylakoid membranes with a concomitant change in oxidation state. A correlation of the K-edge energy, defined as the energy at the first inflection point, with coordination charge has been established for a number of manganese compounds of known structure and oxidation state. Comparison of the manganese K-edge energies of the chloroplast samples with the reference compounds places the average oxidation state of the chloroplasts between +2 and +3. Using the edge spectra for Tris-treated membranes which were osmotically shocked to remove the released manganese, difference edge spectra were synthesized to approximate the active pool of manganese. Coordination charge predictions for this fraction are consistent with an average resting oxidation state higher than +2. The shape at the edge is also indicative of heterogeneity of the manganese site, of low symmetry, or both.

  18. Photoinhibition of manganese enzymes: insights into the mechanism of photosystem II photoinhibition.

    PubMed

    Hakala, Marja; Rantamäki, Susanne; Puputti, Eeva-Maija; Tyystjärvi, Taina; Tyystjärvi, Esa

    2006-01-01

    Evidence has recently been presented that photoinhibition of photosystem II (PSII) is triggered by absorption of light by the oxygen-evolving manganese cluster. To get insight into the effects of light on enzymes containing manganese or other transition metal cofactors, the photosensitivities of Mn catalase, Mn superoxide dismutase, the haem (Fe)-containing bovine liver catalase, and CuZn superoxide dismutase were investigated. Glucose oxidase was studied as an example of an enzyme that does not have a metal cofactor. Sensitivities of these five enzymes to UVC, UVA, and visible light were compared in anaerobic conditions. The Mn(III)-oxo-Mn(III)-containing Mn catalase was found to be more sensitive to both visible and UV light than bovine liver catalase. Furthermore, the action spectrum of photoinhibition of Mn catalase was found to be fairly similar to that of photoinhibition of PSII. The Mn(II)-containing Mn superoxide dismutase was sensitive to UVC light and somewhat sensitive to UVA light, while only UVC light caused some inhibition of CuZn superoxide dismutase. Glucose oxidase was the least photosensitive of the enzymes studied. The photosensitivity of Mn enzymes supports the hypothesis that the oxygen-evolving manganese complex of PSII can be damaged by UV and visible light absorbed by its Mn(III) or Mn(IV) ions. PMID:16698816

  19. Two coordination polymers of manganese(II) isophthalate and their preparation, structures, and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Jinxi; Wang Jingjing; Ohba, Masaaki

    2012-01-15

    Two manganese coordination polymers, [Mn{sub 2}(ip){sub 2}(dmf)]{center_dot}dmf (1) and [Mn{sub 4}(ip){sub 4}(dmf){sub 6}]{center_dot}2dmf (2) (ip=isophthalate; dmf=N,N-dimethylformamide), have been synthesized and characterized. X-ray crystal structural data reveal that compound 1 crystallizes in triclinic space group P-1, a=9.716(3) A, b=12.193(3) A, c=12.576(3) A, {alpha}=62.19(2) Degree-Sign , {beta}=66.423(17) Degree-Sign , {gamma}=72.72(2) Degree-Sign , Z=2, while compound 2 crystallizes in monoclinic space group Cc, a=19.80(3) A, b=20.20(2) A, c=18.01(3) A, {beta}=108.40(4) Degree-Sign , Z=4. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibilities of compounds 1 and 2 exhibit overall weak antiferromagnetic coupling between the adjacent Mn(II) ions. - Graphical abstract: Three-dimensional porous and two-dimensional layered manganese isophthalates have been prepared. Magnetic susceptibility measurements exhibit overall weak antiferromagnetic interactions between the Mn(II) ions in both compounds. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two manganese isophthalates have been prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compound 1 adopts a three-dimensional porous structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compound 2 adopts a two-dimensional layered structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic properties of both compounds are investigated.

  20. Manganese supplementation protects against diet-induced diabetes in wild type mice by enhancing insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soh-Hyun; Jouihan, Hani A; Cooksey, Robert C; Jones, Deborah; Kim, Hyung J; Winge, Dennis R; McClain, Donald A

    2013-03-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is both a contributing mechanism and complication of diabetes, and oxidative stress contributes to that dysfunction. Mitochondrial manganese-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a metalloenzyme that provides antioxidant protection. We have previously shown in a mouse model of hereditary iron overload that cytosolic iron levels affected mitochondrial manganese availability, MnSOD activity, and insulin secretion. We therefore sought to determine the metallation status of MnSOD in wild-type mice and whether altering that status affected β-cell function. 129/SvEVTac mice given supplemental manganese exhibited a 73% increase in hepatic MnSOD activity and increased metallation of MnSOD. To determine whether manganese supplementation offered glucose homeostasis under a situation of β-cell stress, we challenged C57BL/6J mice, which are more susceptible to diet-induced diabetes, with a high-fat diet for 12 weeks. Manganese was supplemented or not for the final 8 weeks on that diet, after which we examined glucose tolerance and the function of isolated islets. Liver mitochondria from manganese-injected C57BL/6J mice had similar increases in MnSOD activity (81%) and metallation as were seen in 129/SvEVTac mice. The manganese-treated group fed high fat had improved glucose tolerance (24% decrease in fasting glucose and 41% decrease in area under the glucose curve), comparable with mice on normal chow and increased serum insulin levels. Isolated islets from the manganese-treated group exhibited improved insulin secretion, decreased lipid peroxidation, and improved mitochondrial function. In conclusion, MnSOD metallation and activity can be augmented with manganese supplementation in normal mice on normal chow, and manganese treatment can increase insulin secretion to improve glucose tolerance under conditions of dietary stress. PMID:23372018

  1. Flash-induced blocking of the high-affinity manganese-binding site in photosystem II by iron cations: dependence on the dark interval between flashes and binary oscillations of fluorescence yield.

    PubMed

    Semin, Boris K; Seibert, Michael

    2006-12-21

    Incubation of Fe(II) cations with Mn-depleted PSII membranes (PSII(-Mn)) under weak continuous light is accompanied by blocking of the high-affinity, Mn-binding (HAZ) site with ferric cations (Semin, B.K. et al. Biochemistry 2002, 41, 5854-5864). In this study we investigated the blocking yield under single-turnover flash conditions. The flash-probe fluorescence method was used to estimate the blocking efficiency. We found that the yield of blocking increases with flash number and reaches 50% after 7 flashes. When the dark interval between the flashes (Delta t) was varied, we found that the percentage of blocking decreases at Delta t < 100 ms (t 1/2, 4-10 ms). No inhibition of the blocking yield was found at longer time intervals (as with photoactivation). This result shows the necessity of a dark rearrangement during the blocking process (the dual-site hypothesis described in the text) and indicates the formation of a binuclear iron center. During the blocking experiments, we found a binary oscillation of the Fmax elicited during a train of flashes. The oscillations were observed only in the presence of Fe(II) cations or other electron donors (including Mn(II)) but not in the presence of Ca2+. Chelators had no effect on the oscillations. Our results indicate that the oscillations are due to processes on the acceptor side of PSII and to the appearance of "acceptor X" after odd flashes. Acceptor X is reduced by QA- at very high rate (<2 ms), is not sensitive to DCMU, and is rather stable in the dark (t l/2 approximately 2 min). These properties are similar to those of nonheme Fe(III) (Fe(III)NHI). When Fe(II)NHI was oxidized with ferricyanide (Fe(CN)6), the fluorescence decay kinetics and yield of fluorescence were identical to those observed when the sample was exposed to 1 flash prior to the fluorescence measurement. We suggest that acceptor X is Fe(III)NHI, oxidized by the semiquinone form of QB-. This is similar to the mechanism of "reduction-induced oxidation

  2. A novel manganese complex, Mn-(II) N-(2-hydroxy acetophenone) glycinate overcomes multidrug-resistance in cancer.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Ruma Dey; Banerjee, Kaushik; Das, Satyajit; Ganguly, Avishek; Chakraborty, Paramita; Sarkar, Avijit; Chatterjee, Mitali; Choudhuri, Soumitra K

    2013-07-16

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains a significant problem for effective cancer chemotherapy. In spite of considerable advances in drug discovery, most of the cancer cases still stay incurable because of resistance to chemotherapy. We synthesized a novel, Mn (II) complex (chelate), viz., manganese N-(2-hydroxy acetophenone) glycinate (MnNG) that exhibits considerable efficacy to overcome drug resistant cancer. The antiproliferative activity of MnNG was studied on doxorubicin resistant and sensitive human T lymphoblastic leukemia cells (CEM/ADR 5000 and CCRF/CEM). MnNG induced apoptosis significantly in CEM/ADR 5000 cells probably through generation of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, intraperitoneal (i.p.) application of MnNG at non-toxic doses caused significant increase in the life-span of Swiss albino mice bearing sensitive and doxorubicin resistant subline of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells. PMID:23665413

  3. [Study on the bioleaching mechanism of manganse (II) from manganese-electrolytic residue by manganese-resistant strain Fusarium sp].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Xia; Cao, Jian-Bing; Li, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Qi; Huang, Hua-Jun; Liu, Xian; Yang, Hui

    2011-09-01

    The manganse bioleaching mechanism by a manganese-resistant strain Fusarium sp. was investigated, through analyzing the bioleaching rate and manganese-electrolytic residue characterizations with the presence of Fusarium sp. and with the addition of organic acids. Special attention was paid to explore the relationship among the manganese's leaching rate, pH, and organic acid concentration during Fusarium sp. bioleaching process. The research results showed that, with the addition of Fusarium sp., some looser and more porous manganese-electrolytic residues could be obtained. And after 47 hours, the leaching rate reached to 84% which was 2.30 times higher than that leached by individual organic acid even after 130 hours; the leaching rate of manganese and the concentrations of organic acids increased at the initial stage and then decreased, while pH was the reversed. Additionally, the concentration of Succinic acid and L-Malic acid reached their crest value (11.12 g/L and 10.23 g/L) at 57 and 62 hours respectively. Yet the pH reached the lowest (4.09) at 29 h, which implied that, Fusarium sp. and organic acid produced played an important role in the leaching of manganese, leading to a high-efficiency and time-saving process. However, due to the high density of manganese-electrolytic residue and the concurrence of the produce and consumption of organic acid together with the adsorption and complexation, the relationship among the extraction rate for manganese ion, pH, and the concentration of organic acid produced could not be described by simple linear correlation and the leaching rate decreased significantly in the later stage. PMID:22165242

  4. General synthesis of manganese-doped II-VI and III-V semiconductor nanowires.

    PubMed

    Radovanovic, Pavle V; Barrelet, Carl J; Gradecak, Silvija; Qian, Fang; Lieber, Charles M

    2005-07-01

    A general approach for the synthesis of manganese-doped II-VI and III-V nanowires based on metal nanocluster-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition has been developed. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy studies of Mn-doped CdS, ZnS, and GaN nanowires demonstrate that the nanowires are single-crystal structures and homogeneously doped with controllable concentrations of manganese ions. Photoluminescence measurements of individual Mn-doped CdS and ZnS nanowires show characteristic pseudo-tetrahedral Mn2+ ((4)T1-->(6)A1) transitions that match the corresponding transitions in bulk single-crystal materials well. Photoluminescence studies of Mn-doped GaN nanowires suggest that manganese is incorporated as a neutral (Mn3+) dopant that partially quenches the GaN band-edge emission. The general and controlled synthesis of nanowires doped with magnetic metal ions opens up opportunities for fundamental physical studies and could lead to the development of nanoscale spintronic devices. PMID:16178248

  5. Oxidant Selection for the Treatment of Manganese (II), Iron (II), and Arsenic (III) in Groundwaters

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to comply with the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA’s) arsenic standard and the manganese and iron secondary maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) in water (10µg/L, 50µg/L, and 300µg/L, respectively), many Midwestern water utilities must add a strong...

  6. Manganese(II)-Oxidizing Bacillus Spores in Guaymas Basin Hydrothermal Sediments and Plumes

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Gregory J.; Lee, Yifan E.; Tebo, Bradley M.

    2006-01-01

    Microbial oxidation and precipitation of manganese at deep-sea hydrothermal vents are important oceanic biogeochemical processes, yet nothing is known about the types of microorganisms or mechanisms involved. Here we report isolation of a number of diverse spore-forming Mn(II)-oxidizing Bacillus species from Guaymas Basin, a deep-sea hydrothermal vent environment in the Gulf of California, where rapid microbially mediated Mn(II) oxidation was previously observed. mnxG multicopper oxidase genes involved in Mn(II) oxidation were amplified from all Mn(II)-oxidizing Bacillus spores isolated, suggesting that a copper-mediated mechanism of Mn(II) oxidation could be important at deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and mnxG genes revealed that while many of the deep-sea Mn(II)-oxidizing Bacillus species are very closely related to previously recognized isolates from coastal sediments, other organisms represent novel strains and clusters. The growth and Mn(II) oxidation properties of these Bacillus species suggest that in hydrothermal sediments they are likely present as spores that are active in oxidizing Mn(II) as it emerges from the seafloor. PMID:16672456

  7. Spectroscopic evaluation of manganese(II) complexes derived from semicarbazones and thiosemicarbazones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Sulekh; Gupta, Lokesh Kumar

    2005-09-01

    Manganese(II) complexes having the general composition Mn(L) 2X 2 [where L = isopropyl methyl ketone semicarbazone (LLA), isopropyl methyl ketone thiosemicarbazone (LLB), 4-aminoacetophenone semicarbazone (LLC) and 4-aminoacetophenone thiosemicarbazone (LLD) and X = Cl -, 1/2SO 42-] have been synthesized. All the complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance, magnetic moment susceptibility, EI-mass, 1H NMR, IR, EPR and electronic spectral studies. All the complexes show magnetic moments corresponding to five unpaired electrons. The possible geometries of the complexes were assigned on the basis of EPR, electronic and infrared spectral studies.

  8. Axial Mn-CCN Bonds of Cyano Manganese(II) Porphyrin Complexes: Flexible and Weak?

    PubMed

    He, Mingrui; Li, Xiangjun; Liu, Yanhong; Li, Jianfeng

    2016-06-20

    Three five-coordinate high-spin (cyano)manganese(II) complexes, utilized tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP), tetratolylporphyrin (TTP), and tetramesitylporphyrin (TMP) as ligands, are prepared and studied by single-crystal X-ray, FT-IR, UV-vis, and EPR spectroscopies. The crystal structure studies revealed noteworthy structural features including unexpectedly wide tilting angles of the axial Mn-CCN bonds, which is contrasted to the isoelectronic Fe(III)-CCN bonds. Solid-state EPR measurements (90 K) and simulations are applied to obtain the ZFS parameters (D, E, and E/D (λ)), which are compared to Mn(II) porphyrin analogues of hemes to understand the ligand field of the cyanide. The solution EPR studies gave new insights into the chemical equilibrium of four- and five-coordinate species, which has been monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy. PMID:27228473

  9. Sonochemical synthesis and characterization of new one-dimensional manganese(II) coordination polymer nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Morsali, Ahmad; Hosseini-Monfared, Hassan; Morsali, Ali; Mayer, Peter

    2015-05-01

    A new Mn(II) coordination polymer, [Mn (L1)2(NCS)2]n (1) [L1=3,4-bis(4-pyridyl)-5-(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazole] was synthesized by the reaction of ligand L1 and mixtures of manganese(II) acetate and potassium thiocyanate using the heat gradient method. Compound 1 has been characterized by IR spectroscopy, elemental analyses and X-ray crystallography. The crystal structure of compound 1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and shows a new interesting one-dimensional coordination polymer. Nanostructures of compound 1 have been synthesized by sonochemical method. The products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and IR spectroscopy. The thermal stability of nano particles of compound 1 was studied by thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analyses. PMID:25483353

  10. Manganese(II) octa­uranium(IV) hepta­deca­sulfide

    PubMed Central

    Oh, George N.; Ibers, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Single crystals of manganese(II) octa­uranium(IV) hepta­deca­sulfide, MnU8S17, were grown from the reaction of the elements in a RbCl flux. MnU8S17 crystallizes in the space group C2/m in the CrU8S17 structure type. The asymmetric unit is composed of the following atoms with site symmetries shown: U1 (1), U2 (m), U3 (m), Mn1 (2/m), S1 (1), S2 (1); S3 (m), S4 (m), S5 (m), S6 (m) and S7 (2/m). The three UIV atoms are each coordinated by eight S atoms in a bicapped trigonal–prismatic arrangement. The MnII atom is coordinated by six S atoms in a distorted octa­hedral arrangement. PMID:22058832

  11. Hydrothermal synthesis of silico-manganese nanohybrid for Cu(II) adsorption from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qiufeng; Wang, Liting; An, Zehuan; Ye, Hong; Feng, Xudong

    2016-05-01

    A novel silico-manganese nanohybrid adsorbent (SMNA) was synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method, and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and zeta potential measurement. The adsorption of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution on the SMNA was investigated with variations in contact time, pH and initial Cu(II) concentration. The results showed that hydrothermal method would generate nanowire/nanorod incomplete crystallite (δ-MnO2) adsorbent. The adsorption of Cu(II) onto SMNA increased sharply within 25 min and reached equilibrium gradually. The maximum adsorption capacities of SMNA for Cu(II) were ∼40-88 mg g-1, which was lower than δ-MnO2 (92.42 mg g-1) but had a lower pH dependency. As compared with δ-MnO2, higher adsorption capacities of SMNA (7.5-15 wt% of silica doping amount) for Cu(II) could be observed when pH of the aqueous solution was low (<4). The pseudo-second-order model was the best choice to describe the adsorption behavior of Cu(II) onto SMNA, suggesting that the removal of Cu(II) by the as-prepared adsorbents was dominated by migration of Cu(II). The possibility of Cu(II) recovery was also investigated and it revealed that SMNA was a promising recyclable adsorbent for removal of heavy metal ions in water and wastewater treatment.

  12. Water exchange in manganese-based water-oxidizing catalysts in photosynthetic systems: from the water-oxidizing complex in photosystem II to nano-sized manganese oxides.

    PubMed

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Isaloo, Mohsen Abbasi; Eaton-Rye, Julian J; Tomo, Tatsuya; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Satoh, Kimiyuki; Carpentier, Robert; Shen, Jian-Ren; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I

    2014-09-01

    The water-oxidizing complex (WOC), also known as the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC), of photosystem II in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms efficiently catalyzes water oxidation. It is, therefore, responsible for the presence of oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere. The WOC is a manganese-calcium (Mn₄CaO₅(H₂O)₄) cluster housed in a protein complex. In this review, we focus on water exchange chemistry of metal hydrates and discuss the mechanisms and factors affecting this chemical process. Further, water exchange rates for both the biological cofactor and synthetic manganese water splitting are discussed. The importance of fully unveiling the water exchange mechanism to understand the chemistry of water oxidation is also emphasized here. This article is part of a special issue entitled: photosynthesis research for sustainability: keys to produce clean energy. PMID:24685431

  13. The autophagic- lysosomal pathway determines the fate of glial cells under manganese- induced oxidative stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Gorojod, R M; Alaimo, A; Porte Alcon, S; Pomilio, C; Saravia, F; Kotler, M L

    2015-10-01

    Manganese (Mn) overexposure is frequently associated with the development of a neurodegenerative disorder known as Manganism. The Mn-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) promotes cellular damage, finally leading to apoptotic cell death in rat astrocytoma C6 cells. In this scenario, the autophagic pathway could play an important role in preventing cytotoxicity. In the present study, we found that Mn induced an increase in the amount and total volume of acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs), a process usually related to the activation of the autophagic pathway. Particularly, the generation of enlarged AVOs was a ROS- dependent event. In this report we demonstrated for the first time that Mn induces autophagy in glial cells. This conclusion emerged from the results obtained employing a battery of autophagy markers: a) the increase in LC3-II expression levels, b) the formation of autophagic vesicles labeled with monodansylcadaverine (MDC) or LC3 and, c) the increase in Beclin 1/ Bcl-2 and Beclin 1/ Bcl-X(L) ratio. Autophagy inhibition employing 3-MA and mAtg5(K130R) resulted in decreased cell viability indicating that this event plays a protective role in Mn- induced cell death. In addition, mitophagy was demonstrated by an increase in LC3 and TOM-20 colocalization. On the other hand, we proposed the occurrence of lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) based in the fact that cathepsins B and D activities are essential for cell death. Both cathepsin B inhibitor (Ca-074 Me) or cathepsin D inhibitor (Pepstatin A) completely prevented Mn- induced cytotoxicity. In addition, low dose of Bafilomycin A1 showed a similar effect, a finding that adds evidence about the lysosomal role in Mn cytotoxicity. Finally, in vivo experiments demonstrated that Mn induces injury and alters LC3 expression levels in rat striatal astrocytes. In summary, our results demonstrated that autophagy is activated to counteract the harmful effect caused by Mn. These data is valuable to

  14. Subchronic inhalation of soluble manganese induces expression of hypoxia-associated angiogenic genes in adult mouse lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Bredow, Sebastian . E-mail: sbredow@LRRI.org; Falgout, Melanie M.; March, Thomas H.; Yingling, Christin M.; Malkoski, Stephen P.; Aden, James; Bedrick, Edward J.; Lewis, Johnnye L.; Divine, Kevin K.

    2007-06-01

    Although the lung constitutes the major exposure route for airborne manganese (Mn), little is known about the potential pulmonary effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Transition metals can mimic a hypoxia-like response, activating the hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) transcription factor family. Through binding to the hypoxia-response element (HRE), these factors regulate expression of many genes, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Increases in VEGF, an important biomarker of angiogenesis, have been linked to respiratory diseases, including pulmonary hypertension. The objective of this study was to evaluate pulmonary hypoxia-associated angiogenic gene expression in response to exposure of soluble Mn(II) and to assess the genes' role as intermediaries of potential pulmonary Mn toxicity. In vitro, 0.25 mM Mn(II) altered morphology and slowed the growth of human pulmonary epithelial cell lines. Acute doses between 0.05 and 1 mM stimulated VEGF promoter activity up to 3.7-fold in transient transfection assays. Deletion of the HRE within the promoter had no effect on Mn(II)-induced VEGF expression but decreased cobalt [Co(II)]-induced activity 2-fold, suggesting that HIF-1 may not be involved in Mn(II)-induced VEGF gene transcription. Nose-only inhalation to 2 mg Mn(II)/m{sup 3} for 5 days at 6 h/day produced no significant pulmonary inflammation but induced a 2-fold increase in pulmonary VEGF mRNA levels in adult mice and significantly altered expression of genes associated with murine angiogenesis. These findings suggest that even short-term exposures to soluble, occupationally relevant Mn(II) concentrations may alter pulmonary gene expression in pathways that ultimately could affect the lungs' susceptibility to respiratory disease.

  15. Two-dimensional HYSCORE spectroscopy of superoxidized manganese catalase: a model for the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Coates, Christopher S; Milikisiyants, Sergey; Chatterjee, Ruchira; Whittaker, Mei M; Whittaker, James W; Lakshmi, K V

    2015-04-16

    The solar water-splitting protein complex, photosystem II (PSII), catalyzes one of the most energetically demanding reactions in Nature by using light energy to drive a catalyst capable of oxidizing water. The water oxidation reaction takes place at the tetra-nuclear manganese calcium-oxo (Mn4Ca-oxo) cluster at the heart of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PSII. Previous studies have determined the magnetic interactions between the paramagnetic Mn4Ca-oxo cluster and its environment in the S2 state of the OEC. The assignments for the electron-nuclear magnetic interactions that were observed in these studies were facilitated by the use of synthetic dimanganese di-μ-oxo complexes. However, there is an immense need to understand the effects of the protein environment on the coordination geometry of the Mn4Ca-oxo cluster in the OEC of PSII. In the present study, we use a proteinaceous model system to examine the protein ligands that are coordinated to the dimanganese catalytic center of manganese catalase from Lactobacillus plantarum. We utilize two-dimensional hyperfine sublevel correlation (2D HYSCORE) spectroscopy to detect the weak magnetic interactions of the paramagnetic dinuclear manganese catalytic center of superoxidized manganese catalase with the nitrogen and proton atoms of the surrounding protein environment. We obtain a complete set of hyperfine interaction parameters for the protons of a water molecule that is directly coordinated to the dinuclear manganese center. We also obtain a complete set of hyperfine and quadrupolar interaction parameters for two histidine ligands as well as a coordinated azide ligand, in azide-treated superoxidized manganese catalase. On the basis of the values of the hyperfine interaction parameters of the dimanganese model, manganese catalase, and those of the S2 state of the OEC of PSII, for the first time, we discuss the impact of a proteinaceous environment on the coordination geometry of multinuclear manganese clusters

  16. Small-angle x-ray scattering studies of the manganese stabilizing subunit in photosystem II.

    SciTech Connect

    Svensson, B.; Tiede, D. M.; Barry, B. A.; Univ. of Minnesota

    2002-08-29

    Small-angle X-ray scattering studies (SAXS) were used to determine the size, shape, and oligomeric composition of the manganese stabilizing protein (MSP) of photosystem II. This extrinsic protein subunit plays an important role in photosynthetic oxygen evolution. As its name implies, MSP stabilizes the tetranuclear Mn cluster of the water oxidation complex. Removal of MSP lowers activity and decreases the stability of active-site manganese. Reconstitution of MSP reverses these effects. In this study, MSP was extracted from spinach PSII membranes using CaCl{sub 2} or urea. Through the use of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, the molecular weight of MSP was determined to be 26.53 kDa. X-ray scattering results show that both samples display a monodisperse scattering pattern; this pattern is consistent with a homogeneous protein solution. The CaCl{sub 2} extracted and urea extracted MSP samples have radii of gyration of 25.9 {+-} 0.4 and 27.0 {+-} 0.01 {angstrom}, respectively. MSP is shown to be monomeric in solution. This was determined using a cytochrome c standard and the scattering intensity, extrapolated to zero scattering angle, which is proportional to the molecular weight. This SAXS study suggests that, in solution, MSP is a monomeric, elongated prolate ellipsoid with dimensions, 112 x 23 x 23 {angstrom}{sup 3} and an axial ratio of 4.8.

  17. Nutrient input influences fungal community composition and size and can stimulate manganese (II) oxidation in caves.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Sarah K; Zorn, Bryan T; Santelli, Cara M; Roble, Leigh A; Carmichael, Mary J; Bräuer, Suzanna L

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about the fungal role in biogeochemical cycling in oligotrophic ecosystems. This study compared fungal communities and assessed the role of exogenous carbon on microbial community structure and function in two southern Appalachian caves: an anthropogenically impacted cave and a near-pristine cave. Due to carbon input from shallow soils, the anthropogenically impacted cave had an order of magnitude greater fungal and bacterial quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) gene copy numbers, had significantly greater community diversity, and was dominated by ascomycotal phylotypes common in early phase, labile organic matter decomposition. Fungal assemblages in the near-pristine cave samples were dominated by Basidiomycota typically found in deeper soils (and/or in late phase, recalcitrant organic matter decomposition), suggesting more oligotrophic conditions. In situ carbon and manganese (II) [Mn(II)] addition over 10 weeks resulted in growth of fungal mycelia followed by increased Mn(II) oxidation. A before/after comparison of the fungal communities indicated that this enrichment increased the quantity of fungal and bacterial cells, yet decreased overall fungal diversity. Anthropogenic carbon sources can therefore dramatically influence the diversity and quantity of fungi, impact microbial community function, and stimulate Mn(II) oxidation, resulting in a cascade of changes that can strongly influence nutrient and trace element biogeochemical cycles in karst aquifers. PMID:25865809

  18. Sub-chronic inhalation of high concentrations of manganese sulfate induces lower airway pathology in rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Dorman, David C; Struve, Melanie F; Gross, Elizabeth A; Wong, Brian A; Howroyd, Paul C

    2005-01-01

    Background Neurotoxicity and pulmonary dysfunction are well-recognized problems associated with prolonged human exposure to high concentrations of airborne manganese. Surprisingly, histological characterization of pulmonary responses induced by manganese remains incomplete. The primary objective of this study was to characterize histologic changes in the monkey respiratory tract following manganese inhalation. Methods Subchronic (6 hr/day, 5 days/week) inhalation exposure of young male rhesus monkeys to manganese sulfate was performed. One cohort of monkeys (n = 4–6 animals/exposure concentration) was exposed to air or manganese sulfate at 0.06, 0.3, or 1.5 mg Mn/m3 for 65 exposure days. Another eight monkeys were exposed to manganese sulfate at 1.5 mg Mn/m3 for 65 exposure days and held for 45 or 90 days before evaluation. A second cohort (n = 4 monkeys per time point) was exposed to manganese sulfate at 1.5 mg Mn/m3 and evaluated after 15 or 33 exposure days. Evaluations included measurement of lung manganese concentrations and evaluation of respiratory histologic changes. Tissue manganese concentrations were compared for the exposure and control groups by tests for homogeneity of variance, analysis of variance, followed by Dunnett's multiple comparison. Histopathological findings were evaluated using a Pearson's Chi-Square test. Results Animals exposed to manganese sulfate at ≥0.3 mg Mn/m3 for 65 days had increased lung manganese concentrations. Exposure to manganese sulfate at 1.5 mg Mn/m3 for ≥15 exposure days resulted in increased lung manganese concentrations, mild subacute bronchiolitis, alveolar duct inflammation, and proliferation of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue. Bronchiolitis and alveolar duct inflammatory changes were absent 45 days post-exposure, suggesting that these lesions are reversible upon cessation of subchronic high-dose manganese exposure. Conclusion High-dose subchronic manganese sulfate inhalation is associated with increased

  19. Spectroscopic, Thermal, Electrochemical, and Antimicrobial Studies of Mononuclear Manganese(II) Ditolyldithiophosphates

    PubMed Central

    Khajuria, Ruchi; Kumar, Sandeep; Pandey, Sushil K.

    2013-01-01

    New complexes of manganese(II) corresponding to [{(ArO)2PS2}2Mn] and [{(ArO)2PS2}2Mn.nL] (Ar = o-, m-, p-CH3C6H4 and p-Cl-m-CH3C6H3; n = 1, L = N2C12H8, N2C10H8; n = 2, L = NC5H5, P(C6H5)3) have been synthesized and characterized by microelemental analyses (C, H, and N), magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance, thermogravimetric, cyclic voltammetry, and spectral analyses including ESI mass spectrometry, IR, and UV-visible. The presence of a four-and-six coordinated Mn atoms has been established in the complexes and adducts, respectively. Antimicrobial screening of the complexes against gram negative bacteria E. coli, K. pneumonia, and P. aeruginosa and fungus S. rolfsii has shown potential bioactivity. PMID:23983670

  20. Inhibition of Calpain Prevents Manganese-Induced Cell Injury and Alpha-Synuclein Oligomerization in Organotypic Brain Slice Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bin; Liu, Wei; Deng, Yu; Yang, Tian-Yao; Feng, Shu; Xu, Zhao-Fa

    2015-01-01

    Overexposure to manganese has been known to promote alpha-synuclein oligomerization and enhance cellular toxicity. However, the exact mechanism of Mn-induced alpha-synuclein oligomerization is unclear. To explore whether alpha-synuclein oligomerization was associated with the cleavage of alpha-synuclein by calpain, we made a rat brain slice model of manganism and pretreated slices with calpain inhibitor II, a cell-permeable peptide that restricts the activity of calpain. After slices were treated with 400 μM Mn for 24 h, there were significant increases in the percentage of apoptotic cells, lactate dehydrogenase release, intracellular [Ca2+]i, calpain activity, and the mRNA and protein expression of calpain 1 and alpha-synuclein. Moreover, the number of C- and N-terminal fragments of alpha-synuclein and the amount of alpha-synuclein oligomerization also increased. These results also showed that calpain inhibitor II pretreatment could reduce Mn-induced nerve cell injury and alpha-synuclein oligomerization. Additionally, there was a significant decrease in the number of C- and N-terminal fragments of alpha-synuclein in calpain inhibitor II-pretreated slices. These findings revealed that Mn induced the cleavage of alpha-synuclein protein via overactivation of calpain and subsequent alpha-synuclein oligomerization in cultured slices. Moreover, the cleavage of alpha-synuclein by calpain 1 is an important signaling event in Mn-induced alpha-synuclein oligomerization. PMID:25756858

  1. [Ln(III)-Mn(II)-Ln(III)] heterometallic compounds: rare linear SMMs with divalent manganese ions.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Lei; Min, Fan-Yong; Wang, Chao; Lin, Shuang-Yan; Liu, Zhiliang; Tang, Jinkui

    2015-02-21

    The reaction of Mn(OAc)2·4H2O and Ln(NO3)3·6H2O with N-(2-aminopropyl)-2-hydroxybenzamide and salicylic aldehyde in methanol/methylene dichloride produces yellow crystals of Ln2Mn(C7H5O2)8 (Ln = Gd (), Tb (), Dy (), Ho () and Er ()), in the presence of triethylamine. Three metal ions are connected by six μ2-phenolate oxygen atoms of six salicylic aldehyde ligands, resulting in perfect linear [Ln(III)-Mn(II)-Ln(III)] structures. Magnetic studies of these complexes have been performed and AC susceptibility measurements show the presence of a temperature-dependent out-of-phase ac signal for complexes and indicating single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior. The Dy(III)2Mn(II) compound shows double relaxation pathways which may originate from the single ion behavior of individual Dy(III) ions and the weak coupling between Dy(III) and Mn(II) ions, respectively. The Ueff of 92.4(2) K is a relatively high value among 3d-4f SMMs. Moreover, complexes and represent the first linear Mn-Ln SMMs containing only divalent manganese ions as far as we know. The result suggests the positive effects of magnetic coupling to enhance their SMM behavior, presenting a promising strategy for constructing efficient heterometallic SMMs. PMID:25601415

  2. Quantum entanglement in manganese(II) hexakisimidazole nitrate: on electronic structure imaging - A polarized neutron diffraction and DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Warren A.

    2016-04-01

    Quantum entanglement has been visualized for the first time, in view of the spin density distribution and electronic structure for manganese in manganese(II)hexakisimidazole nitrate. Using polarized neutron diffraction and density functional theory modelling we have found for the complex, which crystallizes in the R3¯ spacegroup, a = b = 12.4898(3) Å, c = 14.5526(4) Å, α = γ = 90°, β = 120°, Z = 3, that spatially antisymmetric and spatially symmetric shaped regions of negative spin density, in the spin density map for manganese, are a result of quantum entanglement of the high spin d5 configuration due to dative imidazole- manganese π- donation and σ-bonding interactions respectively. We have found leakage of the entangled states for manganese observed as regions of positive spin density with spherical (3.758(2) μB) and non-spherical (1.242(3) μB) contributions. Our results, which are supportive of Einstein's theory of general relativity, provide evidence for the existence of a black hole spin density distribution at the origin of an electronic structure and also address the paradoxical views of entanglement and quantum mechanics. We have also found the complex, which is an insulator, to be suitable for spintronic studies.

  3. A Bis-Manganese(II)-DOTA Complex for Pulsed Dipolar Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Demay-Drouhard, Paul; Ching, H Y Vincent; Akhmetzyanov, Dmitry; Guillot, Régis; Tabares, Leandro C; Bertrand, Hélène C; Policar, Clotilde

    2016-07-01

    High-spin gadolinium(III) and manganese(II) complexes have emerged as alternatives to standard nitroxide radical spin labels for measuring nanometric distances by using pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR or DEER) at high fields/frequencies. For certain complexes, particularly those with relatively small zero-field splitting (ZFS) and short distances between the two metal centers, the pseudosecular term of the dipolar coupling Hamiltonian is non-negligible. However, in general, the contribution from this term during conventional data analysis is masked by the flexibility of the molecule of interest and/or the long tethers connecting them to the spin labels. The efficient synthesis of a model system consisting of two [Mn(dota)](2-) (MnDOTA; DOTA(4-) =1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetate) directly connected to the ends of a central rodlike oligo(phenylene-ethynylene) (OPE) spacer is reported. The rigidity of the OPE is confirmed by Q-band PELDOR measurements on a bis-nitroxide analogue. The Mn(II) -Mn(II) distance distribution profile determined by W-band PELDOR is in reasonable agreement with one simulated by using a simple rotamer analysis. The small degree of flexibility arising from the linking MnDOTA arm appears to outweigh the contribution from the pseudosecular term at this interspin distance. This study illustrates the potential of MnDOTA-based spin labels for measuring fairly short nanometer distances, and also presents an interesting candidate for in-depth studies of pulsed dipolar spectroscopy methods on Mn(II) -Mn(II) systems. PMID:27017296

  4. Purification and Characterization of the Manganese(II) Oxidizing Protein from Erythrobacter sp. SD-21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakama, K. R.; Lien, A.; Johnson, H. A.

    2013-12-01

    The manganese(II) oxidizing protein (Mop) found in the alpha-proteobacterium Erythrobacter sp. SD-21 catalyzes the formation of insoluble Mn(III/IV) oxides from soluble Mn(II). These Mn(III/IV) oxides formed are one of the strongest naturally occurring oxides, next to oxygen, and can be used to adsorb and oxidize toxic chemicals from the surrounding environment. Because of the beneficial use in the treatment of contaminated sources, the mechanism and biochemical properties of this novel enzyme are being studied. Due to low expression levels in the native host strain, purification of Mop has been problematic. To overcome this problem the gene encoding Mop, mopA, was cloned from the native host into a C-terminal histidine tag vector and expressed in Escherichia coli cells. Affinity chromatography under denaturing conditions have been applied in attempts to purify an active Mop. Western blots have confirmed that the protein is being expressed and is at the expected size of 250 kDa. Preliminary characterization on crude extract containing Mop has shown a Km and vmax value of 2453 uM and 0.025 uM min-1, respectively. Heme and pyrroloquinoline quinone can stimulate Mn(II) oxidizing activity, but hydrogen peroxide does not affect activity, despite the sequence similarity to animal heme peroxidase proteins. Research has been shown that calcium is essential for Mop activity. Purifying an active Mn(II) oxidizing protein will allow for a better understanding behind the enigmatic process of Mn(II) oxidation.

  5. Structural study of a manganese(II) 'picket-fence' porphyrin complex.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiang; Li, Xiangjun; Liu, Diansheng; Li, Jianfeng

    2015-07-01

    'Picket-fence' porphyrin compounds are used in the investigation of interactions of hemes with dioxygen, carbon monoxide, nitric monoxide and imidazole ligands. (Cryptand-222)potassium chlorido[meso-tetra(α,α,α,α-o-pivalamidophenyl)porphyrinato]manganese tetrahydrofuran monosolvate (cryptand-222 is 4,7,13,16,21,24-hexaoxa-1,10-diazabicyclo[8.8.8]hexacosane), [K(C18H36N2O6)][Mn(C64H64N8O4)Cl]·C4H8O or [K(222)][Mn(TpivPP)Cl]·THF [systematic name for TpivPP: 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(2-tert-butanamidophenyl)porphyrin], is a five-coordinate high-spin manganese(II) picket-fence porphyrin complex. It crystallizes with a potassium cation chelated inside a cryptand-222 molecule; the average K-O and K-N distances are 2.83 (4) and 2.995 (13) Å, respectively. All four protecting tert-butyl pickets of the porphyrin are ordered. The porphyrin plane is nearly planar, as indicated by the atomic displacements and the dihedral angles between the mean planes of the pyrrole rings and the 24-atom mean plane. The axial chloride ligand is located inside the molecular cavity on the hindered porphyrin side and the Mn-Cl bond is tilted slightly off the normal to the porphyrin plane by 3.68 (2)°. The out-of-plane displacement of the metal centre relative to the 24-atom mean plane (Δ24) is 0.7013 (4) Å, indicating a noticeable porphyrin core doming. PMID:26146391

  6. Stability of manganese (II) chloride complexes from 25 to 300°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammons, C. H.; Seward, T. M.

    1996-11-01

    The stability and stoichiometry of the Mn(II) chloride complexes have been experimentally determined in the temperature range 25 to 300°C. The solubility of AgCl(s) was measured in solutions of fixed HCl concentration (0.01-6.0 m) and varying ΣMn/ΣCl molar ratio (0.0-0.5), following a modification of the method of Ruaya and Seward (1986). The results were regressed to obtain the following smoothed values for the first and second cumulative association constants Our study indicates that Mn 2+ is the dominant species at 25°C, whereas the stabilities of MnCl + and MnCl 20 increase rapidly with temperature. In the absence of competing ligands, the neutral MnCl 20 complex should dominate Mn transport for chloride-rich hydrothermal fluids at or < above 300°C. No evidence was found for complexes of higher ligand number (e.g., MnCl 3- MnCl 42-). Our esults indicate that Mn is more strongly complexed than Fe at elevated temperature. The solubilities of some common manganese-bearing minerals have been calculated as a function of pH, a Cl-, ΣCO 3, and temperature. The minerals rhodonite and rhodocrosite are highly soluble in mildly acidic solutions. Most active geothermal systems are, therefore, expected to be undersaturated with respect to these phases, although they may locally precipitate in response to sudden increases in pH (e.g., during boiling). Mn-silicate minerals will tend to dissolve in solutions undergoing cooling, whereas rhodocrosite exhibits either prograde or retrograde solubility, depending on salinity. Manganese mobilized by hydrothermal fluids may travel considerable distances until contact is ultimately made with an oxidized environment, at which point Mn-oxide minerals will precipitate.

  7. Manganese(II) complexes with thiosemicarbazones as potential anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis agents.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Carolina G; da S Maia, Pedro Ivo; Souza, Paula C; Pavan, Fernando R; Leite, Clarice Q F; Viana, Rommel B; Batista, Alzir A; Nascimento, Otaciro R; Deflon, Victor M

    2014-03-01

    Through a systematic variation on the structure of a series of manganese complexes derived from 2-acetylpyridine-N(4)-R-thiosemicarbazones (Hatc-R), structural features have been investigated with the aim of obtaining complexes with potent anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity. The analytical methods used for characterization included FTIR, EPR, UV-visible, elemental analysis, cyclic voltammetry, magnetic susceptibility measurement and single crystal X-ray diffractometry. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed in order to evaluate the contribution of the thiosemicarbazonate ligands on the charge distribution of the complexes by changing the peripheral groups as well as to verify the Mn-donor atoms bond dissociation predisposition. The results obtained are consistent with the monoanionic N,N,S-tridentate coordination of the thiosemicarbazone ligands, resulting in octahedral complexes of the type [Mn(atc-R)2], paramagnetic in the extension of 5 unpaired electrons, whose EPR spectra are consistent for manganese(II). The electrochemical analyses show two nearly reversible processes, which are influenced by the peripheral substituent groups at the N4 position of the atc-R(1-) ligands. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of these compounds against M. tuberculosis as well as their in vitro cytotoxicity on VERO and J774A.1 cells (IC50) was determined in order to find their selectivity index (SI) (SI=IC50/MIC). The results evidenced that the compounds described here can be considered as promising anti-M. tuberculosis agents, with SI values comparable or better than some commercial drugs available for the tuberculosis treatment. PMID:24188534

  8. Diphenyl Diselenide Protects Against Mortality, Locomotor Deficits and Oxidative Stress in Drosophila melanogaster Model of Manganese-Induced Neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Adedara, Isaac A; Abolaji, Amos O; Rocha, Joao B T; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2016-06-01

    Several experimental and epidemiological reports have associated manganese exposure with induction of oxidative stress and locomotor dysfunctions. Diphenyl diselenide (DPDS) is widely reported to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in in vitro and in vivo studies via multiple biochemical mechanisms. The present study investigated the protective effect of DPDS on manganese-induced toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster. The flies were exposed, in a dietary regimen, to manganese alone (30 mmol per kg) or in combination with DPDS (10 and 20 µmol per kg) for 7 consecutive days. Exposure to manganese significantly (p < 0.05) increased flies mortality, whereas the survivors exhibited significant locomotor deficits with increased acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. However, dietary supplementation with DPDS caused a significant decrease in mortality, improvement in locomotor activity and restoration of AChE activity in manganese-exposed flies. Additionally, the significant decreases in the total thiol level, activities of catalase and glutathione-S-transferase were accompanied with significant increases in the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in flies exposed to manganese alone. Dietary supplementation with DPDS significantly augmented the antioxidant status and prevented manganese-induced oxidative stress in the treated flies. Collectively, the present data highlight that DPDS may be a promising chemopreventive drug candidate against neurotoxicity resulting from acute manganese exposure. PMID:26875733

  9. Pathogenesis of Mortalin in Manganese-induced Parkinsonism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Travis J.

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential dietary micronutrient for which excessive exposure has long been known to be neurotoxic. Historically, short-term, high-intensity exposure in occupational settings was recognized to cause acute-onset parkinsonism (PS) termed manganism. Although modern day exposures are typically several orders of magnitude lower than those necessary to cause manganism, chronic, low-level exposures are not uncommon among a number of occupations and communities. Recent epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an association between Mn exposure and risk of PS, and in this regard Mn remains a public health concern. The work described here was designed to provide insight toward questions which remain with respect to Mn exposure and its toxic effect on the brain, and includes studies utilizing Mn exposed human populations and in vitro model systems to address these objectives. Blood plasma samples obtained from a cohort of welders, whose work is recognized as generating appreciable amounts of airborne Mn, and post-mortem brain tissue of Mn mine workers were both found to have discernable alterations related to the mitochondrial chaperone protein mortalin. Furthermore, in vitro studies demonstrated that reduced astroglial expression of mortalin confers neuronal susceptibility to toxicity elicited by low levels of Mn, possibly via mechanisms of endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress mediated by alpha-synuclein. Taken together, the results of these studies indicate that Mn exposures experienced by modern day populations are sufficient to cause biological alterations in humans that are potentially neurotoxic.

  10. Function of PsbO, the photosystem II manganese-stabilizing protein: probing the role of aspartic acid 157.

    PubMed

    Roose, Johnna L; Yocum, Charles F; Popelkova, Hana

    2010-07-27

    The D157N, D157E, and D157K mutations in the psbO gene encoding the photosystem II (PSII) manganese-stabilizing protein from spinach, exhibit near-wild-type PSII binding but are significantly impaired in O(2) evolution activity and Cl(-) retention by PSII [Popelkova et al. (2009) Biochemistry 48, 11920-11928]. To better characterize the role of PsbO-Asp157 in eukaryotic PSII, the effect of mutations in Asp157 on heat-induced changes in PsbO solution structure, O(2) release kinetics, and PSII redox reactions both within and outside the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) have been examined. The data presented here show that Asn, Glu, or Lys mutations in PsbO-Asp157 modify PsbO thermostability in solution, which is consistent with the previously reported perturbation of the functional assembly of PsbO-Asp157 mutants into PSII that caused inefficient Cl(-) retention by PSII. Fluorescence decay signals from PSII reconstituted with Asp157 mutants indicate that that the Q(A)(-) to Q(B) transition on the PSII reducing side is unaffected, but complex alterations are detected on the PSII oxidizing side that affect the recombination of Q(A)(-) with the O(2)-evolving complex. In addition, oxygen yield on the first flash is increased, which indicates an impaired ability of mutant-reconstituted PSII samples to decay back to the S(1) state in the dark. PMID:20568728

  11. Intense photo- and tribo-luminescence of three tetrahedral manganese(II) dihalides with chelating bidentate phosphine oxide ligand.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Zhang, Qing; Zheng, Fa-Kun; Liu, Zhi-Fa; Wang, Shuai-Hua; Wu, A-Qing; Guo, Guo-Cong

    2015-02-21

    Three air-stable tetrahedral manganese(ii) dihalide complexes [MnX2(DPEPO)] (DPEPO = bis[2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl]ether oxide; X = Cl, Br and I) were prepared. All of the obtained compounds were structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, which reveal that they crystallize in centrosymmetric space groups and feature an isolated mononuclear structure with Mn(2+) in a tetrahedral environment. Interestingly, these complexes show excellent photoluminescent performance in neat solid form, with the highest total quantum yield (Φtotal) of up to 70% recorded for the dibromide complex. Intense green flashes of light could be observed by the naked eye when rubbing the manganese(ii) complexes. PMID:25597698

  12. Spectral and magnetic studies on manganese(II), cobalt(II) and nickel(II) complexes with Schiff bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Sulekh; Kumar, Umendra

    2005-01-01

    Mn(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes of 2-methylcyclohexanone thiosemicarbazone(MCHTSC L 1) and 2-methylcyclohexanone - 4N-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (MCHMTSC L 2), general composition [M(L) 2X 2] (where M = Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), L = L 1 or L 2 and X = Cl -, NO 3-, and 1/2SO42-) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility measurements, UV-vis, IR, EPR, and mass spectral studies. Various physico-chemical techniques suggest an octahedral geometry for all the complexes.

  13. Fluorescence quenching and bonding properties of some hydroxamic acid derivatives by iron(III) and manganese(II).

    PubMed

    Senthilnithy, R; De Costa, M D P; Gunawardhana, H D

    2009-01-01

    Spectrophotometric investigations of highly fluorescent metal chelating molecules are of relevance due to their potential application in novel, selective fluorescence-based sensors. Benzene and naphthalene chromophores are highly fluorescent while hydroxamic acids are widely used as ligands for complexation of transition metals. In order to develop fluorescence probes, several phenyl derivatives of N-phenylbenzohydroxamic acid and an aminodihydroxamic acid linked with a naphthalene chromophore were synthesized and their selective ionophoric properties towards iron(III) and manganese(II) ions were investigated using fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy. Both methods confirm the formation of 1:1 and 1:2 complexes for iron(III) and a 1:1 complex for manganese(II). The complex that is formed depends on the concentration of the ligand and pH of the medium. The amino dihydroxamic acid exhibits a prominent selectivity towards iron(III) with a two-step 1:1 and 1:2 quenching mechanism at pH 3 and towards manganese(II) with a 1:1 quenching mechanism at a probe concentration of 1 x 10(-5) mol dm(-3) at pH 9.5 The logarithm of overall formation constants of 1:1 and 1:2 complexes of iron(III) were estimated as 3.30 and 9.05, respectively. PMID:18800360

  14. Local structure of the metal-organic perovskite dimethylammonium manganese(ii) formate.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Helen D; Dove, Martin T; Keen, David A; Phillips, Anthony E

    2016-03-14

    We report total neutron scattering measurements on the metal-organic perovskite analogue dimethylammonium manganese(ii) formate, (CD3)2ND2[Mn(DCO2)3]. Reverse Monte Carlo modelling shows that, in both the disordered high-temperature and ordered low-temperature phases, the ammonium moiety forms substantially shorter hydrogen bonds (N...O = 2.4 Å and 2.6 Å) than are visible in the average crystal structures. These bonds result from a pincer-like motion of two adjacent formate ions about the dimethylammonium ion in such a way that the framework can adjust independently to the positions of nearest-neighbour dimethylammonium ions. At low temperatures the shortest hydrogen bond is less favourable, apparently because it involves a greater distortion of the framework. Furthermore, in the high-temperature phase, in addition to the three disordered nitrogen positions expected from the average crystal structure, there appear to be also smaller probability maxima between these positions, corresponding to orientations in which the dimethylammonium is hydrogen-bonded to the two oxygen atoms of a single formate ion. The spontaneous strain across the phase transition reveals a contraction of the framework about the dimethylammonium cation, continuing as the material is cooled below the transition temperature. These results provide direct evidence of the local atomic structure of the guest-framework hydrogen bonding, and in particular the distortions of the framework responsible for the phase transition in this system. PMID:26763144

  15. Antioxidants and NOS inhibitors selectively targets manganese-induced cell volume via Na-K-Cl cotransporter-1 in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Alahmari, Khalid A; Prabhakaran, Harini; Prabhakaran, Krishnan; Chandramoorthy, Harish C; Ramugounder, Ramakrishnan

    2015-06-12

    Manganese has shown to be involved in astrocyte swelling. Several factors such as transporters, exchangers and ion channels are attributed to astrocyte swelling as a result in the deregulation of cell volume. Products of oxidation and nitration have been implied to be involved in the pathophysiology of swelling; however, the direct link and mechanism of manganese induced astrocyte swelling has not been fully elucidated. In the current study, we used rat primary astrocyte cultures to investigate the activation of Na-K-Cl cotransporter-1 (NKCC1) a downstream mechanism for free radical induced astrocyte swelling as a result of manganese toxicity. Our results showed manganese, oxidants and NO donors as potent inducer of oxidation and nitration of NKCC1. Our results further confirmed that manganese (50 μM) increased the total protein, phosphorylation and activity of NKCC1 as well as cell volume (p < 0.05 vs. control). NKCC1 inhibitor (bumetanide), NKCC1-siRNA, antioxidants; DMTU, MnTBAP, tempol, catalase and Vit-E, NOS inhibitor; L-NAME, peroxinitrite scavenger; uric acid all significantly reversed the effects of NKCC1 activation (p < 0.05). From the current investigation we infer that manganese or oxidants and NO induced activation, oxidation/nitration of NKCC1 play an important role in the astrocyte swelling. PMID:25817889

  16. [Effect of manganese (II), cobalt (II), and nickel (II) ions on the growth and production of coumarins in the suspension culture of Angelica archangelica L].

    PubMed

    Siatka, T; Kasparová, M; Sklenárová, H; Solich, P

    2005-01-01

    The plant cell reacts to an increased concentration of metals in the environment by various mechanisms. They include an increase in the formation of heat-shock proteins, metallothioneins, phytochelatins, amino acids (cysteine, histidine), organic acids (citric, malic), or secondary metabolites. The latter mechanism is being investigated for its possible use in explant cultures for the stimulation of secondary metabolism, which is the source of substances of pharmaceutical importance. The study tested manganese (II) (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 mM in the medium), cobalt (II), and nickel (II) ions (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 200, and 500 microM in the medium) as potential elicitors of coumarin production. At the same time, toxicity of these metals for the culture was examined by evaluating their effect on growth (characterized by fresh and dry weight of biomass at the end of a two-week cultivation). Cultures were cultivated in the dark and in the light. It has been found that the growth of cultures is not influenced by manganese in concentrations ranging from 0 to 2 mM, then it slightly decreases, at a concentration of 50 mM it is lower by 20 % when cultivated in the dark and by 30 % when cultivated in the light in comparison with the control. Cobalt in concentrations of 0 to 50 microM does not significantly influence the growth of the culture, higher concentrations decrease the biomass yields, more markedly when cultivated in the light (at 500 microM Co by 60 %, in the dark only by 30 % in comparison with the controls). Nickel in concentrations of 0.1 to 200 microM does not influence growth, and in a concentration of 500 microM decreases it by approximately 30 % in comparison with the control both in the light and dark. Production of coumarins was not stimulated by any metal in comparison with the control cultures, only the removal of manganese from the medium in the culture cultivated in the dark increased production by about 15 % versus the

  17. Multifrequency pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance study of the S2 state of the photosystem II manganese cluster.

    PubMed

    Yeagle, Gregory J; Gilchrist, M Lane; McCarrick, Robert M; Britt, R David

    2008-03-17

    Multifrequency electron spin-echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy is employed to measure the strength of the hyperfine coupling of magnetic nuclei to the paramagnetic (S = 1/2) S2 form of photosystem II (PSII). Previous X-band-frequency ESEEM studies indicated that one or more histidine nitrogens are electronically coupled to the tetranuclear manganese cluster in the S2 state of PSII. However, the spectral resolution was relatively poor at the approximately 9 GHz excitation frequency, precluding any in-depth analysis of the corresponding bonding interaction between the detected histidine and the manganese cluster. Here we report ESEEM experiments using higher X-, P-, and Ka-band microwave frequencies to target PSII membranes isolated from spinach. The X- to P-band ESEEM spectra suffer from the same poor resolution as that observed in previous experiments, while the Ka-band spectra show remarkably well-resolved features that allow for the direct determination of the nuclear quadrupolar couplings for a single I = 1(14)N nucleus. The Ka-band results demonstrate that at an applied field of 1.1 T we are much closer to the exact cancellation limit (alpha iso = 2nu(14)N) that optimizes ESEEM spectra. These results reveal hyperfine (alpha iso = 7.3 +/- 0.20 MHz and alpha dip = 0.50 +/- 0.10 MHz) and nuclear quadrupolar (e(2)qQ = 1.98 +/- 0.05 MHz and eta = 0.84 +/- 0.06) couplings for a single (14)N nucleus magnetically coupled to the manganese cluster in the S 2 state of PSII. These values are compared to the histidine imidazole nitrogen hyperfine and nuclear quadrupolar couplings found in superoxidized manganese catalase as well as (14)N couplings in relevant manganese model complexes. PMID:18330971

  18. New manganese(II) and nickel(II) coordination compounds with N,O-polydentate ligands obtained from pyridoxal and tripodal units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebani, Patrícia Regina; Fontana, Liniquer Andre; Campos, Patrick Teixeira; Rosso, Eduardo F.; Piquini, Paulo C.; Iglesias, Bernardo Almeida; Back, Davi Fernando

    2016-09-01

    We have reported the synthesis involving the condensation of pyridoxal with tris(2-aminoethyl)amine obtained a tripodal ligand, as well as its subsequent complexation with the manganese(II) and nickel(II) ions. The structural analysis revealed, in the case of complex 1, the formation of a monomeric complex with Mn(II) species. In the complex 2, with Ni(II) metal ion, we describe the probable mechanism for the formation of hemiacetal in these complexes. Only the complex 1 catalyze the dismutation of superoxide efficiently with IC50 equal to 3.38 μM, evaluated through the nitro blue tetrazolium photoreduction inhibition superoxide dismutase assay, in aqueous solution of pH 7.8. Density functional theory calculations are done to characterize and compare the molecular frontier orbitals of the Mn(II) and Ni(II) complexes.

  19. Excess manganese differentially inhibits photosystem I versus II in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Alberdi, M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of exposure to increasing manganese concentrations (50–1500 µM) from the start of the experiment on the functional performance of photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) and photosynthetic apparatus composition of Arabidopsis thaliana were compared. In agreement with earlier studies, excess Mn caused minimal changes in the PSII photochemical efficiency measured as Fv/Fm, although the characteristic peak temperature of the S2/3QB – charge recombinations was shifted to lower temperatures at the highest Mn concentration. SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analyses also did not exhibit any significant change in the relative abundance of PSII-associated polypeptides: PSII reaction centre protein D1, Lhcb1 (major light-harvesting protein of LHCII complex), and PsbO (OEC33, a 33kDa protein of the oxygen-evolving complex). In addition, the abundance of Rubisco also did not change with Mn treatments. However, plants grown under excess Mn exhibited increased susceptibility to PSII photoinhibition. In contrast, in vivo measurements of the redox transients of PSI reaction centre (P700) showed a considerable gradual decrease in the extent of P700 photooxidation (P700+) under increased Mn concentrations compared to control. This was accompanied by a slower rate of P700+ re-reduction indicating a downregulation of the PSI-dependent cyclic electron flow. The abundance of PSI reaction centre polypeptides (PsaA and PsaB) in plants under the highest Mn concentration was also significantly lower compared to the control. The results demonstrate for the first time that PSI is the major target of Mn toxicity within the photosynthetic apparatus of Arabidopsis plants. The possible involvement mechanisms of Mn toxicity targeting specifically PSI are discussed. PMID:23183256

  20. Excess manganese differentially inhibits photosystem I versus II in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Millaleo, R; Reyes-Díaz, M; Alberdi, M; Ivanov, A G; Krol, M; Hüner, N P A

    2013-01-01

    The effects of exposure to increasing manganese concentrations (50-1500 µM) from the start of the experiment on the functional performance of photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) and photosynthetic apparatus composition of Arabidopsis thaliana were compared. In agreement with earlier studies, excess Mn caused minimal changes in the PSII photochemical efficiency measured as F(v)/F(m), although the characteristic peak temperature of the S(2/3)Q(B) (-) charge recombinations was shifted to lower temperatures at the highest Mn concentration. SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analyses also did not exhibit any significant change in the relative abundance of PSII-associated polypeptides: PSII reaction centre protein D1, Lhcb1 (major light-harvesting protein of LHCII complex), and PsbO (OEC33, a 33 kDa protein of the oxygen-evolving complex). In addition, the abundance of Rubisco also did not change with Mn treatments. However, plants grown under excess Mn exhibited increased susceptibility to PSII photoinhibition. In contrast, in vivo measurements of the redox transients of PSI reaction centre (P700) showed a considerable gradual decrease in the extent of P700 photooxidation (P700(+)) under increased Mn concentrations compared to control. This was accompanied by a slower rate of P700(+) re-reduction indicating a downregulation of the PSI-dependent cyclic electron flow. The abundance of PSI reaction centre polypeptides (PsaA and PsaB) in plants under the highest Mn concentration was also significantly lower compared to the control. The results demonstrate for the first time that PSI is the major target of Mn toxicity within the photosynthetic apparatus of Arabidopsis plants. The possible involvement mechanisms of Mn toxicity targeting specifically PSI are discussed. PMID:23183256

  1. Complex of manganese (II) with curcumin: Spectroscopic characterization, DFT study, model-based analysis and antiradical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorgannezhad, Lena; Dehghan, Gholamreza; Ebrahimipour, S. Yousef; Naseri, Abdolhossein; Nazhad Dolatabadi, Jafar Ezzati

    2016-04-01

    The complex formation between curcumin (Cur) and Manganese (II) chloride tetrahydrate (MnCl2.4H2O) was studied by UV-Vis and IR spectroscopy. Spectroscopic data suggest that Cur can chelate Manganese cations. A simple multi-wavelength model-based method was used to define stability constant for complexation reaction regardless of the spectra overlapping of components. Also, pure spectra and concentration profiles of all components were extracted using this method. Density functional theory (DFT) was also used to view insight into complexation mechanism. Antioxidant activity of Cur and Cur-Mn(II) complex was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging method. Bond dissociation energy (BDE), the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and Molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) of Cur and the complex also were calculated at PW91/TZ2P level of theory using ADF 2009.01 package. The experimental results show that Cur has a higher DPPH radical scavenging activity than Cur-Mn(II). This observation is theoretically justified by means of lower BDE and higher HOMO and LUMO energy values of Cur ligand as compared with those of Cur-Mn(II) complex.

  2. Manganese(II,III) Oxyborate, Mn 2OBO 3: A Distorted Homometallic Warwickite—Synthesis, Crystal Structure, Band Calculations, and Magnetic Susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norrestam, R.; Kritikos, M.; Sjödin, A.

    1995-02-01

    The manganese(II,III) oxyborate with the composition Mn2OBO3 has been synthesized by high-temperature techniques. X-ray studies show that crystals of the specimen, grown with borax as flux, are monoclinic, with space group P21/n, = 9.2866(7), b = 9.5333(10), c = 3.2438(3) Å, and β = 90.757(7)°. A model of the crystal structure has been refined with the 2064 most significant (l ≥ 5 · σ1) X-ray reflections with sin(θ)/λ ≤ 1.08 Å-1 to R = 0.40. The structure of Mn2OBO3 can be considered to be a distorted modification of the orthorhombic warwickite structure. The distortions, apparently caused by Jahn-Teller effects induced by the Mn3+ ions, remove the mirror symmetry of the parent undistorted warwickite. As a consequence, the space group symmetry is lowered from Pnam to one of its subgroups, P21/n. The structural results as well as the measured magnetic susceptibilities indicate high-spin manganese ions. The magnetic susceptibilities in the temperature region 110-300 K follow the Curie-Weiss law. The Weiss constant of -132(1) K indicates an antiferromagnetic ordering at low temperature. The bond distances and calculated bond valence sums indicate that the trivalent manganese ions are located in the two inner columns of the four-octahedra-wide walls. This metal charge distribution is supported by extended Hückel band calculations on some homometallic warwickites. The difference in metal coordination around one of the borate oxygen atoms is reflected by a significant deviation of the borate group geometry from the ideal trigonal symmetry.

  3. Removal of Cd(II) and Pb(II) from wastewater by using triethylenetetramine functionalized grafted cellulose acetate-manganese dioxide composite.

    PubMed

    Yakout, Amr A; El-Sokkary, Ramadan H; Shreadah, Mohamed A; Abdel Hamid, Omnia G

    2016-09-01

    In this manuscript, we have studied the removal of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution by using triethylenetetramine functionalized cellulose acetate grafted with the copolymer-manganese dioxide composite. The novel sorbent cellulose was extracted from the mangrove trees (Avicennia marina) and it was then acetylated and grafted with acrylamide. The sorbent composite was designed to interact simultaneously with higher metal loading by complexation-adsorption process. FT-IR, SEM, EDAX and TGA techniques were employed to characterize the cellulose modified composite. Sorption equilibria were established after 30min and their data were described by Langmuir and Freundlich models. The functionalized hybrid cellulose composite showed maximum adsorption capacity 82.06 and 196.84mgg(-1) for Cd(II) and Pb(II), respectively. The studied metal ions were successfully recovered from real wastewater samples of different matrices. PMID:27185155

  4. Manganese ferrite-based nanoparticles induce ex vivo, but not in vivo, cardiovascular effects

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Allancer DC; Ramalho, Laylla S; Souza, Álvaro PS; Mendes, Elizabeth P; Colugnati, Diego B; Zufelato, Nícholas; Sousa, Marcelo H; Bakuzis, Andris F; Castro, Carlos H

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been used for various biomedical applications. Importantly, manganese ferrite-based nanoparticles have useful magnetic resonance imaging characteristics and potential for hyperthermia treatment, but their effects in the cardiovascular system are poorly reported. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the cardiovascular effects of three different types of manganese ferrite-based magnetic nanoparticles: citrate-coated (CiMNPs); tripolyphosphate-coated (PhMNPs); and bare magnetic nanoparticles (BaMNPs). The samples were characterized by vibrating sample magnetometer, X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. The direct effects of the MNPs on cardiac contractility were evaluated in isolated perfused rat hearts. The CiMNPs, but not PhMNPs and BaMNPs, induced a transient decrease in the left ventricular end-systolic pressure. The PhMNPs and BaMNPs, but not CiMNPs, induced an increase in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, which resulted in a decrease in a left ventricular end developed pressure. Indeed, PhMNPs and BaMNPs also caused a decrease in the maximal rate of left ventricular pressure rise (+dP/dt) and maximal rate of left ventricular pressure decline (−dP/dt). The three MNPs studied induced an increase in the perfusion pressure of isolated hearts. BaMNPs, but not PhMNPs or CiMNPs, induced a slight vasorelaxant effect in the isolated aortic rings. None of the MNPs were able to change heart rate or arterial blood pressure in conscious rats. In summary, although the MNPs were able to induce effects ex vivo, no significant changes were observed in vivo. Thus, given the proper dosages, these MNPs should be considered for possible therapeutic applications. PMID:25031535

  5. Structure and magnetic behavior of a new two-dimensional antiferromagnetic manganese(II)-{mu}-1,3-azido system

    SciTech Connect

    Escuer, A.; Vicente, R.; Mautner, F.A.

    1995-11-08

    In this work we present the synthesis, X-ray crystal structure determination, and magnetic behavior of the two-dimensional compound [Mn(4acpy){sub 2}(N{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub n}, (4acpy = 4-acetylpyridine) in which the coordination mode of the azido ligand is end-to-end. The susceptibility measurements for [Mn(4acpy){sub 2}(N{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub n} are indicative of a moderate antiferromagnetic coupling. EPR and susceptibility data are indicative of magnetic ordering below 28 K. It is relevant to note that these magnetic measurements are the first ones for the manganese-azido(end-to-end) system. From the point of view of the design of new magnetic systems, the bridging azido ligand shows two key properties: it is a good superexchange pathway (ferromagnetic systems for the end-on coordination and antiferromagnetic for end-to-end coordination) and it frequently leads to nontrivial systems with nuclearity greater than 2. At the present, magnetic studies on the manganese-azido-bridged systems have been performed only for the dinuclear compound ({mu}-1,1-N{sub 3})[Mn(terpy)]{sub 2}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O, which shows ferromagnetic coupling (J/k = + 3.5 K), following the general trends found for analogous Cu(II) and Ni(II) 1,1-azido systems. The structure of the title compound shows that each manganese atom is octahedrally coordinated to four azido ligands and two molecules of 4-acetylpyridine in trans arrangement. Antiferromagnetic interactions were evident from susceptibility data.

  6. Manganese-Induced Parkinsonism and Parkinson’s Disease: Shared and Distinguishable Features

    PubMed Central

    Kwakye, Gunnar F.; Paoliello, Monica M.B.; Mukhopadhyay, Somshuvra; Bowman, Aaron B.; Aschner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element necessary for physiological processes that support development, growth and neuronal function. Secondary to elevated exposure or decreased excretion, Mn accumulates in the basal ganglia region of the brain and may cause a parkinsonian-like syndrome, referred to as manganism. The present review discusses the advances made in understanding the essentiality and neurotoxicity of Mn. We review occupational Mn-induced parkinsonism and the dynamic modes of Mn transport in biological systems, as well as the detection and pharmacokinetic modeling of Mn trafficking. In addition, we review some of the shared similarities, pathologic and clinical distinctions between Mn-induced parkinsonism and Parkinson’s disease. Where possible, we review the influence of Mn toxicity on dopamine, gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glutamate neurotransmitter levels and function. We conclude with a survey of the preventive and treatment strategies for manganism and idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD). PMID:26154659

  7. Manganese-Induced Parkinsonism and Parkinson's Disease: Shared and Distinguishable Features.

    PubMed

    Kwakye, Gunnar F; Paoliello, Monica M B; Mukhopadhyay, Somshuvra; Bowman, Aaron B; Aschner, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element necessary for physiological processes that support development, growth and neuronal function. Secondary to elevated exposure or decreased excretion, Mn accumulates in the basal ganglia region of the brain and may cause a parkinsonian-like syndrome, referred to as manganism. The present review discusses the advances made in understanding the essentiality and neurotoxicity of Mn. We review occupational Mn-induced parkinsonism and the dynamic modes of Mn transport in biological systems, as well as the detection and pharmacokinetic modeling of Mn trafficking. In addition, we review some of the shared similarities, pathologic and clinical distinctions between Mn-induced parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease. Where possible, we review the influence of Mn toxicity on dopamine, gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glutamate neurotransmitter levels and function. We conclude with a survey of the preventive and treatment strategies for manganism and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). PMID:26154659

  8. Microglia enhance manganese chloride-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration: role of free radical generation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Wong, Tamika A; Lokuta, Kyle M; Turner, Deanne E; Vujisic, Kristina; Liu, Bin

    2009-05-01

    Exposure to elevated levels of manganese has been shown to cause neuronal damage in the midbrain and the development of Parkinsonian symptoms. Activation of microglia and release of neurotoxic factors in particular free radicals are known to contribute to neurodegeneration. We have recently reported that manganese chloride (MnCl(2)) stimulates microglia to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of this study is to determine the role of microglia in the MnCl(2)-induced degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons that are particularly vulnerable to oxidative insult. MnCl(2) (10-300 microM; 7 days) was markedly more effective in damaging DA neurons in the rat mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures than the neuron-enriched (microglia-depleted) cultures. In addition, the microglia-enhanced MnCl(2) toxicity was found to be preferential to DA neurons. The microglial enhancement of DA neurotoxicity was further supported by the observation that replenishment of microglia to the neuron-enriched cultures significantly increased the susceptibility of DA neurons to the MnCl(2)-induced damage. Analysis of the temporal relationship between microglial activation and DA neurodegeneration revealed that MnCl(2)-stimulated microglial activation preceded DA neurodegeneration. Mechanistically, MnCl(2) (10-300 microM) stimulated a concentration- and time-dependent robust production of ROS and moderate production of nitric oxide but no detectable release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1beta. Application of free radical scavengers including superoxide dismutase/catalase, glutathione, N-acetyl cysteine and an inhibitor of nitric oxide biosynthesis significantly protected DA neurons against the MnCl(2)-induced degeneration. These results demonstrate that microglial activation and the production of reactive nitrogen and oxygen free radicals promote the MnCl(2)-induced DA neurodegeneration. PMID:19268665

  9. Preparation of polyacrylnitrile (PAN)/ Manganese oxide based activated carbon nanofibers (ACNFs) for adsorption of Cadmium (II) from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, N.; Yusof, N.; Jaafar, J.; Ismail, AF; Che Othman, F. E.; Hasbullah, H.; Salleh, W. N. W.; Misdan, N.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, activated carbon nanofibers (ACNFs) from precursor polyacrylnitrile (PAN) and manganese oxide (MnO2) were prepared via electrospinning process. The electrospun PAN/MnO2-based ACNFs were characterised in term of its morphological structure and specific surface area using SEM and BET analysis respectively. The comparative adsorption study of cadmium (II) ions from aqueous solution between the neat ACNFs, composite ACNFs and commercial granular activated carbon was also conducted. SEM analysis illustrated that composite ACNFs have more compact fibers with presence of MnO2 beads with smaller fiber diameter of 437.2 nm as compared to the neat ACNFs which is 575.5 nm. BET analysis elucidated specific surface area of ACNFs/MnO2 to be 67 m2/g. Under adsorption study, it was found out that Cd (II) removal by ACNFs/MnO2 was the highest (97%) followed by neat ACNFs (96%) and GAC (74%).

  10. Degradation of the solid electrolyte interphase induced by the deposition of manganese ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hosop; Park, Jonghyun; Sastry, Ann Marie; Lu, Wei

    2015-06-01

    The deposition of manganese ions dissolved from the cathode onto the interface between the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) and graphite causes severe capacity fading in manganese oxide-based cells. The evolution of the SEI layer containing these Mn compounds and the corresponding instability of the layer are thoroughly investigated by artificially introducing soluble Mn ions into a 1 mol L-1 LiPF6 electrolyte solution. Deposition of dissolved Mn ions induces an oxygen-rich SEI layer that results from increased electrolyte decomposition, accelerating SEI growth. The spatial distribution of Mn shows that dissolved Mn ions diffuse through the porous layer and are deposited mostly at the inorganic layer/graphite interface. The Mn compound deposited on the anode, identified as MnF2, originates from a metathesis reaction between LiF and dissolved Mn ion. It is confirmed that ion-exchange reaction occurs in the inorganic layer, converting SEI species to Mn compounds. Some of the Mn is observed inside the graphite; this may cause surface structural disordering in the graphite, limiting lithium-ion intercalation. The continuous reaction that occurs at the inorganic layer/graphite interfacial regions and the modification of the original SEI layer in the presence of Mn ions are critically related to capacity fade and impedance rise currently plaguing Li-ion cells.

  11. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF MANGANESE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biological effects of manganese were studied in a town on the coast of Dalmatia in which a ferromanganese plant has been operating since before World War II. The study focused on the question of whether the exposure to manganese can cause a higher incidence of respiratory dis...

  12. EFFECTS OF MANGANESE, CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM, AND ZINC ON NICKEL-INDUCED SUPPRESSION OF MURINE NATURAL KILLER CELL ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects that divalent metals have on nickel-induced suppression of natural killer (NK) cell activity were studied in mice. Male CBA/J mice were given a single intramuscular injection of nickel chloride (4.5-36 micrograms NiCl2/g), manganese chloride (20-80 micrograms MnCl2/g)...

  13. Magnetic and Photochromic Properties of a Manganese(II) Metal-Zwitterionic Coordination Polymer.

    PubMed

    Gong, Teng; Yang, Xiao; Sui, Qi; Qi, Yan; Xi, Fu-Gui; Gao, En-Qing

    2016-01-01

    The solvothermal reaction of Mn(ClO4)2, NaN3, and a rigid viologen-tethered tetracarboxylic acid (1,1'-bis(3,5-dicarboxyphenyl)-4,4'-bipyridinium chloride, [H4L]Cl2) led to a coordination polymer of formula [Mn4(L)(N3)6(H2O)2]n. X-ray analysis revealed a 3D coordination structure. The Mn(II) ions are connected by mixed azide and carboxylate bridges to give 2D layers, which are pillared by the viologen tether of the zwitterionic ligand. Magnetic analyses suggested that the compound features antiferromagnetism and field-induced metamagnetism. The compound also shows photochromic and photomagnetic properties. The long-range magnetic ordering is owed to the spin-canting structure of the Mn(II)-azide-carboxylate layer; the photochromism involves the formation of viologen radicals via photoinduced electron transfer, and the photomagnetism is related to the interactions between the metal ion and the photogenerated radicals. The study demonstrates a strategy for the design of new multifunctional materials with photoresponsive properties. PMID:26671046

  14. Proton Matrix ENDOR Studies on Ca2+-depleted and Sr2+-substituted Manganese Cluster in Photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Hiroki; Nakajima, Yoshiki; Shen, Jian-Ren; Mino, Hiroyuki

    2015-11-20

    Proton matrix ENDOR spectra were measured for Ca(2+)-depleted and Sr(2+)-substituted photosystem II (PSII) membrane samples from spinach and core complexes from Thermosynechococcus vulcanus in the S2 state. The ENDOR spectra obtained were similar for untreated PSII from T. vulcanus and spinach, as well as for Ca(2+)-containing and Sr(2+)-substituted PSII, indicating that the proton arrangements around the manganese cluster in cyanobacterial and higher plant PSII and Ca(2+)-containing and Sr(2+)-substituted PSII are similar in the S2 state, in agreement with the similarity of the crystal structure of both Ca(2+)-containing and Sr(2+)-substituted PSII in the S1 state. Nevertheless, slightly different hyperfine separations were found between Ca(2+)-containing and Sr(2+)-substituted PSII because of modifications of the water protons ligating to the Sr(2+) ion. Importantly, Ca(2+) depletion caused the loss of ENDOR signals with a 1.36-MHz separation because of the loss of the water proton W4 connecting Ca(2+) and YZ directly. With respect to the crystal structure and the functions of Ca(2+) in oxygen evolution, it was concluded that the roles of Ca(2+) and Sr(2+) involve the maintenance of the hydrogen bond network near the Ca(2+) site and electron transfer pathway to the manganese cluster. PMID:26438823

  15. N-acetylcysteineamide protects against manganese-induced toxicity in SHSY5Y cell line.

    PubMed

    Maddirala, Yasaswi; Tobwala, Shakila; Ercal, Nuran

    2015-05-22

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element required for normal cellular functioning. However, overexposure of Mn can be neurotoxic resulting in the development of manganism, a syndrome that resembles Parkinson׳s disease. Although the pathogenetic basis of this disorder is unclear, several studies indicate that it is mainly associated with oxidative stress and mitochondrial energy failure. Therefore, this study is focused on (1) investigating the oxidative effects of Mn on neuroblastoma cells (SHSY5Y) and (2) elucidating whether a novel thiol antioxidant, N-acetylcysteineamide (NACA), provides any protection against Mn-induced neurotoxicity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were highly elevated after the exposure, indicating that mechanisms that induce oxidative stress were involved. Measures of oxidative stress parameters, such as glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and activities of glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were altered in the Mn-treated groups. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, as assessed by flow cytometry and decreased levels of ATP, indicated that cytotoxicity was mediated through mitochondrial dysfunction. However, pretreatment with NACA protected against Mn-induced toxicity by inhibiting lipid peroxidation, scavenging ROS, and preserving intracellular GSH and mitochondrial membrane potential. NACA can potentially be developed into a promising therapeutic option for Mn-induced neurotoxicity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Metals in neurodegeneration. PMID:25681547

  16. Mononuclear and Dinuclear Manganese(II) Complexes from the Use of Methyl(2-pyridyl)ketone Oxime

    PubMed Central

    Efthymiou, Constantinos G.; Nastopoulos, Vassilios; Raptopoulou, Catherine; Tasiopoulos, Anastasios; Perlepes, Spyros P.; Papatriantafyllopoulou, Constantina

    2010-01-01

    The reactions of methyl(2-pyridyl)ketone oxime, (py)C(Me)NOH, with manganese(II) sulfate monohydrate have been investigated. The reaction between equimolar quantities of MnSO4 · H2O and (py)C(Me)NOH in H2O lead to the dinuclear complex [Mn2(SO4)2{(py)C(Me)NOH}4] · (py)C(Me)NOH, 1 · (py)C(Me)NOH, while employment of NaOMe as base affords the compound [Mn(HCO2)2{(py)C(Me)NOH}2] (2). The structures of both compounds have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. In both complexes, the organic ligand chelates through its nitrogen atoms. The IR data are discussed in terms of the nature of bonding and the structures of the two complexes. PMID:20671965

  17. Structure-Triggered High Quantum Yield Luminescence and Switchable Dielectric Properties in Manganese(II) Based Hybrid Compounds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhong-Xia; Li, Peng-Fei; Liao, Wei-Qiang; Tang, Yuanyuan; Ye, Heng-Yun; Zhang, Yi

    2016-04-01

    Two new manganese(II) based organic-inorganic hybrid compounds, C11 H21 Cl3 MnN2 (1) and C11 H22 Cl4 MnN2 (2), with prominent photoluminescence and dielectric properties were synthesized by solvent modulation. Compound 1 with novel trigonal bipyramidal geometry exhibits bright red luminescence with a lifetime of 2.47 ms and high quantum yield of 35.8 %. Compound 2 with tetrahedral geometry displays intense long-lived (1.54 ms) green light emission with higher quantum yield of 92.3 %, accompanied by reversible solid-state phase transition at 170 K and a distinct switchable dielectric property. The better performance of 2 results from the structure, including a discrete organic cation moiety and inorganic metal anion framework, which gives the cations large freedom of motion. PMID:26864910

  18. Manganese-Induced Parkinsonism Is Not Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease: Environmental and Genetic Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Guilarte, Tomás R.; Gonzales, Kalynda K.

    2015-01-01

    Movement abnormalities caused by chronic manganese (Mn) intoxication clinically resemble but are not identical to those in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. In fact, the most successful parkinsonian drug treatment, the dopamine precursor levodopa, is ineffective in alleviating Mn-induced motor symptoms, implying that parkinsonism in Mn-exposed individuals may not be linked to midbrain dopaminergic neuron cell loss. Over the last decade, supporting evidence from human and nonhuman primates has emerged that Mn-induced parkinsonism partially results from damage to basal ganglia nuclei of the striatal “direct pathway” (ie, the caudate/putamen, internal globus pallidus, and substantia nigra pars reticulata) and a marked inhibition of striatal dopamine release in the absence of nigrostriatal dopamine terminal degeneration. Recent neuroimaging studies have revealed similar findings in a particular group of young drug users intravenously injecting the Mn-containing psychostimulant ephedron and in individuals with inherited mutations of the Mn transporter gene SLC30A10. This review will provide a detailed discussion about the aforementioned studies, followed by a comparison with their rodent analogs and idiopathic parkinsonism. Together, these findings in combination with a limited knowledge about the underlying neuropathology of Mn-induced parkinsonism strongly support the need for a more complete understanding of the neurotoxic effects of Mn on basal ganglia function to uncover the appropriate cellular and molecular therapeutic targets for this disorder. PMID:26220508

  19. Mechanistic insight into chromium(VI) reduction by oxalic acid in the presence of manganese(II).

    PubMed

    Wrobel, Katarzyna; Corrales Escobosa, Alma Rosa; Gonzalez Ibarra, Alan Alexander; Mendez Garcia, Manuel; Yanez Barrientos, Eunice; Wrobel, Kazimierz

    2015-12-30

    Over the past few decades, reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) has been studied in many physicochemical contexts. In this research, we reveal the mechanism underlying the favorable effect of Mn(II) observed during Cr(VI) reduction by oxalic acid using liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric diode array detector (HPLC-DAD), nitrogen microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometry (HPLC-MP-AES), and high resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOFMS). Both reaction mixtures contained potassium dichromate (0.67 mM Cr(VI)) and oxalic acid (13.3mM), pH 3, one reaction mixture contained manganese sulfate (0.33 mM Mn(II)). In the absence of Mn(II) only trace amounts of reaction intermediates were generated, most likely in the following pathways: (1) Cr(VI)→ Cr(IV) and (2) Cr(VI)+Cr(IV)→ 2Cr(V). In the presence of Mn(II), the active reducing species appeared to be Mn(II) bis-oxalato complex (J); the proposed reaction mechanism involves a one-electron transfer from J to any chromium compound containing CrO bond, which is reduced to CrOH, and the generation of Mn(III) bis-oxalato complex (K). Conversion of K to J was observed, confirming the catalytic role of Mn(II). Since no additional acidification was required, the results obtained in this study may be helpful in designing a new, environmentally friendly strategy for the remediation of environments contaminated with Cr(VI). PMID:26177490

  20. Normal Cellular Prion Protein Protects against Manganese-induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptotic Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Christopher J.; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Saetveit, Nathan J.; Houk, Robert. S.; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2012-01-01

    The normal prion protein is abundantly expressed in the CNS, but its biological function remains unclear. The prion protein has octapeptide repeat regions that bind to several divalent metals, suggesting that the prion proteins may alter the toxic effect of environmental neurotoxic metals. In the present study, we systematically examined whether prion protein modifies the neurotoxicity of manganese (Mn) by comparing the effect of Mn on mouse neural cells expressing prion protein (PrPC -cells) and prion-knockout (PrPKO -cells). Exposure to Mn (10 μM-1 mM) for 24 hr produced a dose-dependent cytotoxic response in both PrPC -cells and PrPKO -cells. Interestingly, PrPC -cells (EC50 117.6μM) were more resistant to Mn-induced cytotoxicity, as compared to PrPKO -cells (EC50 59.9μM), suggesting a protective role for PrPC against Mn neurotoxicity. Analysis of intracellular Mn levels showed less Mn accumulation in PrPC -cells as compared to PrPKO -cells. Furthermore, Mn-induced mitochondrial depolarization and ROS generation were significantly attenuated in PrPC -cells as compared to PrPKO -cells. Measurement of antioxidant status revealed similar basal levels of glutathione (GSH) in PrPC -cells and PrPKO -cells; however, Mn treatment caused greater depletion of GSH in PrPKO -cells. Mn-induced mitochondrial depolarization and ROS production were followed by time- and dose-dependent activation of the apoptotic cell death cascade involving caspase-9 and -3. Notably, DNA fragmentation induced by both Mn treatment and oxidative stress-inducer hydrogen peroxide (100μM) was significantly suppressed in PrPC -cells as compared to PrPKO -cells. Together, these results demonstrate that prion protein interferes with divalent metal Mn uptake and protects against Mn-induced oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death. PMID:17483122

  1. Interaction of manganese(II) complex with apotransferrin and the apotransferrin enhanced anticancer activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Ling; Chen, Qiu-Yun; Xu, Xiao-Lei; Li, Zan; Wang, Xue-Ming

    2013-03-01

    Apotransferrin could bind a number of metal ions besides Fe, which makes it an attractive delivery vehicle for metal-based medicines. In order to evaluate whether anticancer Mn(II) complex of [(Adpa)Mn(Cl)(H2O)] Adpa = bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amino-2-propionic acid) (AdpaMn) could be transported by apotransferrin, we investigated its interaction with human apotransferrin by fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD). The association dynamics show that AdpaMn could bind to apotransferrin spontaneously in Hepes buffer. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and CD spectroscopy show that the conjugation of AdpaMn and apotransferrin by hydrophobic interactions induces the change of the microenvironment and conformation of apotransferrin. The reversible binding and release of AdpaMn was studied with fluorescence titration method. The AdpaMn complex can be released from the AdpaMn-apotransferrin entity in weak acid environments. MTT assay in vitro confirms that apotransferrin can enhance the inhibition rate of AdpaMn on the proliferation of HepG-2 cells, so we deduce that AdpaMn could be transported by apotransferrin in vivo.

  2. Electrocatalytic oxidation of 2-mercaptoethanol using modified glassy carbon electrode by MWCNT in combination with unsymmetrical manganese (II) Schiff base complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Mohebbi, Sajjad Eslami, Saadat

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • High electocatalytic efficiency and stability of modified hybrid electrode GC/MWCNTs/MnSaloph. • Direct reflection of catalytic activity of manganese complexes on electrocatalytic oxidation of 2-ME. • Decreasing overpotential and increasing catalytic peak current toward oxidation of 2-ME. • Deposition of range of novel substituted N{sub 2}O{sub 2} Saloph complexes of manganese(II) on GCE/MWCNT. • Enhancement of electrocatalytic oxidation activity upon electron donating substitutions on the Saloph. - Abstract: The performance of modified hybrid glassy carbon electrode with composite of carbon nanotubes and manganese complexes for the electrocatalytic oxidation of 2-mercaptoethanol is developed. GC electrode was modified using MWCNT and new N{sub 2}O{sub 2} unsymmetrical tetradentate Schiff base complexes of manganese namely Manganese Saloph complexes 1-5, with general formula Mn[(5-x-4-y-Sal)(5-x′-4-y′-Sal) Ph], where x, x′ = H, Br, NO{sub 2} and y, y′ = H, MeO. Direct immobilization of CNT on the surface of GCE is performed by abrasive immobilization, and then modified by manganese(II) complexes via direct deposition method. These novel modified electrodes clearly demonstrate the necessity of modifying bare carbon electrodes to endow them with the desired behavior and were identified by HRTEM. Also complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, MS, UV–vis and IR spectroscopy. Modified hybrid GC/MWCNT/MnSaloph electrode exhibits strong and stable electrocatalytic activity towards the electrooxidation of 2-mercaptoethanol molecules in comparison with bare glassy carbon electrode with advantages of very low over potential and high catalytic current. Such ability promotes the thiol’s electron transfer reaction. Also, electron withdrawing substituent on the Saloph was enhanced electrocatalytic oxidation activity.

  3. Magnetic multi-wall carbon nanotube nanocomposite as an adsorbent for preconcentration and determination of lead (II) and manganese (II) in various matrices.

    PubMed

    Daneshvar Tarigh, Ghazale; Shemirani, Farzaneh

    2013-10-15

    Magnetic multi-wall carbon nanotube (MMWCNT) nanocomposite was synthesized and used as an adsorbent for preconcentration and determination of lead (II) and manganese (II). The properties of MMWCNT were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR). This adsorbent was found to be advantageous over conventional solid phase extraction (SPE) in terms of operational simplicity and low time-consuming. MMWCNT, carrying target metals, was easily separated from the aqueous solutions with the help of an external magnet; so, no filtration or centrifugation was necessary. After extraction and collection of MMWCNT, the adsorbed analytes were eluted and analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of different sorption/desorption parameters. Under the optimized conditions, detection limits and enhancement factors of the proposed method for Pb and Mn were 1.0 and 0.6 µg L(-1), 390 and 697 respectively. The presented procedure was successfully applied for determination of Pb(II) and Mn (II) contents in lipstick, rice samples and accuracy was evaluated analyzing a certified reference material Seronorm(™) Urine LOT NO2525. PMID:24054657

  4. A novel manganese complex selectively induces malignant glioma cell death by targeting mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Ji; Li, Jing; Huang, Tao; Zhao, Kaidi; Chen, Qiuyun; Guo, Wenjie; Gao, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Despite advances in treatment, malignant glioma commonly exhibits recurrence, subsequently leading to a poor prognosis. As manganese (Mn) compounds can be transported by the transferrin-transferrin receptor system, the present study synthesized and examined the potential use of Adpa-Mn as a novel antitumor agent. Adpa-Mn time and dose-dependently inhibited U251 and C6 cell proliferation; however, it had little effect on normal astrocytes. Apoptosis was significantly elevated following treatment with Adpa-Mn, as detected by chromatin condensation, Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytoplasm, and the activation of caspases-9, -7 and -3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. In addition, Adpa-Mn enhanced fluorescence intensity of monodansylcadaverine and elevated the expression levels of the autophagy-related protein microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3. Pretreatment with the autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine and chloroquine enhanced Adpa-Mn-induced cell inhibition, thus indicating that autophagy has an essential role in this process. Furthermore, evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction was detected in the Adpa-Mn-treated group, including disrupted membrane potential, elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depleted adenosine triphosphate. Conversely, treatment with the mitochondrial permeability transition inhibitor cyclosporin A reversed Adpa-Mn-induced ROS production, mitochondrial damage and cell apoptosis, thus suggesting that Adpa-Mn may target the mitochondria. Taken together, these data suggested that Adpa-Mn may be considered for use as a novel anti-glioma therapeutic option. PMID:27432745

  5. Conditional Radioresistance of tet-Inducible Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Epperly, Michael W.; Chaillet, J. Richard; Kalash, Ronny; Shaffer, Ben; Goff, Julie; Franicola, Darcy; Zhang, Xichen; Dixon, Tracy; Houghton, Frank; Wang, Hong; Berhane, Hebist; Romero, Cynthia; Kim, Jee-Hong; Greenberger, Joel S.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial targeted manganese superoxide dismutase is a major antioxidant enzyme, the levels of which modulate the response of cells, tissues and organs to ionizing irradiation. We developed a Tet-regulated MnSOD mouse (MnSODtet) to examine the detailed relationship between cellular MnSOD concentration and radioresistance and carried out in vitro studies using bone marrow culture derived stromal cell lines (mesenchymal stem cells). Homozygous MnSODtet/tet cells had low levels of MnSOD, reduced viability and proliferation, increased radiosensitivity, elevated overall antioxidant stores, and defects in cell proliferation and DNA strand-break repair. Doxycycline (doxy) treatment of MnSODtet/tet cells increased MnSOD levels and radioresistance from ñ of 2.79 ± 1.04 to 8.69 ± 1.09 (P = 0.0060) and normalized other biologic parameters. In contrast, MnSODtet/tet cells showed minimal difference in baseline and radiation induced mRNA and protein levels of TGF-β, Nrf2 and NF-κB and radiation induced cell cycle arrest was not dependent upon MnSOD level. These novel MnSODtet/tet mouse derived cells should be valuable for elucidating several parameters of the oxidative stress response to ionizing radiation. PMID:23862693

  6. Conditional radioresistance of Tet-inducible manganese superoxide dismutase bone marrow stromal cell lines.

    PubMed

    Epperly, Michael W; Chaillet, J Richard; Kalash, Ronny; Shaffer, Ben; Goff, Julie; Franicola, Darcy; Zhang, Xichen; Dixon, Tracy; Houghton, Frank; Wang, Hong; Berhane, Hebist; Romero, Cynthia; Kim, Jee-Hong; Greenberger, Joel S

    2013-08-01

    Mitochondrial targeted manganese superoxide dismutase is a major antioxidant enzyme, the levels of which modulate the response of cells, tissues and organs to ionizing irradiation. We developed a Tet-regulated MnSOD mouse (MnSOD(tet)) to examine the detailed relationship between cellular MnSOD concentration and radioresistance and carried out in vitro studies using bone marrow culture derived stromal cell lines (mesenchymal stem cells). Homozygous MnSOD(tet/tet) cells had low levels of MnSOD, reduced viability and proliferation, increased radiosensitivity, elevated overall antioxidant stores, and defects in cell proliferation and DNA strand-break repair. Doxycycline (doxy) treatment of MnSOD(tet/tet) cells increased MnSOD levels and radioresistance from ñ of 2.79 ± 1.04 to 8.69 ± 1.09 (P = 0.0060) and normalized other biologic parameters. In contrast, MnSOD(tet/tet) cells showed minimal difference in baseline and radiation induced mRNA and protein levels of TGF-β, Nrf2 and NF-κB and radiation induced cell cycle arrest was not dependent upon MnSOD level. These novel MnSOD(tet/tet) mouse derived cells should be valuable for elucidating several parameters of the oxidative stress response to ionizing radiation. PMID:23862693

  7. Recombinant Mitochondrial Manganese Containing Superoxide Dismutase Protects Against Ochratoxin A-Induced Nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Ciarcia, Roberto; Damiano, Sara; Squillacioti, Caterina; Mirabella, Nicola; Pagnini, Ugo; Florio, Alessia; Severino, Lorella; Capasso, Giovambattista; Borrelli, Antonella; Mancini, Aldo; Boffo, Silvia; Romano, Gaetano; Giordano, Antonio; Florio, Salvatore

    2016-06-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a natural mycotoxin, involved in the development of important human and animal diseases. In this work we have studied the role of oxidative stress in the development of OTA nephrotoxicity and the effect of a new recombinant mitochondrial manganese containing superoxide dismutase (rMnSOD) to prevent kidney damage induced by OTA. Blood pressure, glomerular filtration rate and renal histology were analyzed in control rats and in OTA treated rats. In addition, lipid peroxidation, catalase and superoxide dismutase productions were measured. Our data showed that animals treated with OTA presented hypertension and reduction of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). These effects are most probably related to an increase in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) productions. In fact, we have shown that treatment with rMnSOD restored the levels of blood pressure and GFR simultaneously. Moreover, we have noted that OTA induced alteration on glomerular and tubular degeneration and interstitial infiltrates and that use of rMnSOD combined with OTA prevent this renal histological damage confirming the potential therapeutic role in the treatment of rMnSOD OTA nephrotoxicity. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1352-1358, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26529273

  8. Inducible nitric oxide synthase gene methylation and parkinsonism in manganese-exposed welders

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Susan Searles; Checkoway, Harvey; Criswell, Susan R.; Farin, Federico M.; Stapleton, Patricia L.; Sheppard, Lianne; Racette, Brad A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Neurologist-assessed parkinsonism signs are prevalent among workers exposed to manganese (Mn)-containing welding fume. Neuroinflammation may possibly play a role. Inducible nitric oxide synthase, coded by NOS2, is involved in inflammation, and particulate exposure increases the gene’s expression through methylation of CpG sites in the 5′ region. Methods We assessed DNA methylation at three CpG sites in the NOS2 exon 1 from blood from 201 welders. All were non-Hispanic Caucasian men 25–65 years old who were examined by a neurologist specializing in movement disorders. We categorized the workers according to their Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale motor subsection 3 (UPDRS3) scores as parkinsonism cases (UPDRS3 ≥ 15; n = 49), controls (UPDRS3 < 6; n = 103), or intermediate (UPDRS3 ≥6 to <15; n = 49). Results While accounting for age, examiner and experimental plate, parkinsonism cases had lower mean NOS2 methylation than controls (p-value for trend = 0.04), specifically at CpG site 8329 located in an exonic splicing enhancer of NOS2 (p-value for trend = 0.07). These associations were not observed for the intermediate UPDRS3 group (both p-value for trend ≥ 0.59). Conclusions Inflammation mediated by inducible nitric oxide synthase may possibly contribute to the association between welding fume and parkinsonism, but requires verification in a longitudinal study. PMID:25634431

  9. Gene Deletion of nos2 Protects Against Manganese-Induced Neurological Dysfunction in Juvenile Mice

    PubMed Central

    Streifel, Karin M.; Moreno, Julie A.; Hanneman, William H.; Legare, Marie E.; Tjalkens, Ronald B.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying cognitive and neurobehavioral abnormalities associated with childhood exposure to manganese (Mn) are not well understood but may be influenced by neuroinflammatory activation of microglia and astrocytes that results in nitrosative stress due to expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS/NOS2). We therefore postulated that gene deletion of NOS2 would protect against the neurotoxic effects of Mn in vivo and in vitro. Juvenile NOS2 knockout (NOS2−/−) mice were orally exposed to 50 mg/kg of MnCl2 by intragastric gavage from days 21 to 34 postnatal. Results indicate that NOS2−/− mice exposed to Mn were protected against neurobehavioral alterations, despite histopathological activation of astrocytes and microglia in Mn-treated mice in both genotypes. NOS2−/− mice had decreased Mn-induced formation of 3-nitrotyrosine protein adducts within neurons in the basal ganglia that correlated with protection against Mn-induced neurobehavioral defects. Primary striatal astrocytes from wildtype mice caused apoptosis in cocultured striatal neurons following treatment with MnCl2 and tumor necrosis factor-α, whereas NOS2−/− astrocytes failed to cause any increase in markers of apoptosis in striatal neurons. Additionally, scavenging nitric oxide (NO) with 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO) prevented the ability of Mn- and cytokine-treated wildtype astrocytes to cause apoptosis in cocultured striatal neurons. These data demonstrate that NO plays a crucial role in Mn-induced neurological dysfunction in juvenile mice and that NOS2 expression in activated glia is an important mediator of neuroinflammatory injury during Mn exposure. PMID:22174044

  10. Enzymatic Manganese(II) Oxidation by a Marine α-Proteobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Chris A.; Co, Edgie-Mark; Tebo, Bradley M.

    2001-01-01

    A yellow-pigmented marine bacterium, designated strain SD-21, was isolated from surface sediments of San Diego Bay, San Diego, Calif., based on its ability to oxidize soluble Mn(II) to insoluble Mn(III, IV) oxides. 16S rRNA analysis revealed that this organism was most closely related to members of the genus Erythrobacter, aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria within the α-4 subgroup of the Proteobacteria (α-4 Proteobacteria). SD-21, however, has a number of distinguishing phenotypic features relative to Erythrobacter species, including the ability to oxidize Mn(II). During the logarithmic phase of growth, this organism produces Mn(II)-oxidizing factors of ≈250 and 150 kDa that are heat labile and inhibited by both azide and o-phenanthroline, suggesting the involvement of a metalloenzyme. Although the expression of the Mn(II) oxidase was not dependent on the presence of Mn(II), higher overall growth yields were reached in cultures incubated with Mn(II) in the culture medium. In addition, the rate of Mn(II) oxidation appeared to be slower in cultures grown in the light. This is the first report of Mn(II) oxidation within the α-4 Proteobacteria as well as the first Mn(II)-oxidizing proteins identified in a marine gram-negative bacterium. PMID:11526000

  11. Determining the Role of Multicopper Oxidases in Manganese(II) Oxidation by Marine Bacillus Spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, G. J.; Tebo, B. M.

    2005-12-01

    Bacteria play an important role in the environmental cycling of Mn by oxidizing soluble Mn(II) and forming insoluble Mn(III/IV) oxides. These biogenic Mn oxides are renowned for their strong sorptive and oxidative properties, which control the speciation and availability of many metals and organic compounds. A wide variety of bacteria are known to catalyze the oxidation of Mn(II); one of the most frequently isolated types are Bacillus species that oxidize Mn(II) only as metabolically dormant spores. We are using genetic and biochemical methods to study the molecular mechanisms of this process in these organisms. mnxG, a gene related to the multicopper oxidase (MCO) family of enzymes, is required for Mn(II) oxidation in the model organism, Bacillus sp. strain SG-1. Mn(II)-oxidizing activity can be detected in crude protein extracts of the exosporium and as a discrete band in SDS-PAGE gels, however previous attempts to purify or identify this Mn(II)-oxidizing enzyme have failed. A direct link between the Mn(II)-oxidizing enzyme and the MCO gene suspected to encode it has never been made. We used genetic and biochemical methods to investigate the role of the MCO in the mechanism of Mn(II) oxidation. Comparative analysis of the mnx operon from several diverse Mn(II)-oxidizing Bacillus spores revealed that mnxG is the most highly conserved gene in the operon, and that copper binding sites are highly conserved. As with Mn(II) oxidases from other organisms, heterologous expression of the Bacillus mnxG in E. coli did not yield an active Mn(II) oxidase. Purifying sufficient quantities of the native Mn(II) oxidase from Bacillus species for biochemical characterization has proven difficult because the enzyme does not appear to be abundant, and it is highly insoluble. We were able to partially purify the Mn(II) oxidase, and to analyze the active band by in-gel trypsin digestion followed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). MS/MS spectra provided a conclusive match to mnx

  12. The Vacuolar Manganese Transporter MTP8 Determines Tolerance to Iron Deficiency-Induced Chlorosis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Seckin; Meier, Bastian; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Peiter, Edgar

    2016-02-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is a widespread nutritional disorder on calcareous soils. To identify genes involved in the Fe deficiency response, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) transfer DNA insertion lines were screened on a high-pH medium with low Fe availability. This approach identified METAL TOLERANCE PROTEIN8 (MTP8), a member of the Cation Diffusion Facilitator family, as a critical determinant for the tolerance to Fe deficiency-induced chlorosis, also on soil substrate. Subcellular localization to the tonoplast, complementation of a manganese (Mn)-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain, and Mn sensitivity of mtp8 knockout mutants characterized the protein as a vacuolar Mn transporter suitable to prevent plant cells from Mn toxicity. MTP8 expression was strongly induced on low-Fe as well as high-Mn medium, which were both strictly dependent on the transcription factor FIT, indicating that high-Mn stress induces Fe deficiency. mtp8 mutants were only hypersensitive to Fe deficiency when Mn was present in the medium, which further suggested an Mn-specific role of MTP8 during Fe limitation. Under those conditions, mtp8 mutants not only translocated more Mn to the shoot than did wild-type plants but suffered in particular from critically low Fe concentrations and, hence, Fe chlorosis, although the transcriptional Fe deficiency response was up-regulated more strongly in mtp8. The diminished uptake of Fe from Mn-containing low-Fe medium by mtp8 mutants was caused by an impaired ability to boost the ferric chelate reductase activity, which is an essential process in Fe acquisition. These findings provide a mechanistic explanation for the long-known interference of Mn in Fe nutrition and define the molecular processes by which plants alleviate this antagonism. PMID:26668333

  13. Deregulation of Mitochondria-Shaping Proteins Opa-1 and Drp-1 in Manganese-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Alaimo, Agustina; Gorojod, Roxana M.; Beauquis, Juan; Muñoz, Manuel J.; Saravia, Flavia; Kotler, Mónica L.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo fusion and fission processes. These events are regulated by mitochondria-shaping proteins. Changes in the expression and/or localization of these proteins lead to a mitochondrial dynamics impairment and may promote apoptosis. Increasing evidence correlates the mitochondrial dynamics disruption with the occurrence of neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, we focused on this topic in Manganese (Mn)-induced Parkinsonism, a disorder associated with Mn accumulation preferentially in the basal ganglia where mitochondria from astrocytes represent an early target. Using MitoTracker Red staining we observed increased mitochondrial network fission in Mn-exposed rat astrocytoma C6 cells. Moreover, Mn induced a marked decrease in fusion protein Opa-1 levels as well as a dramatic increase in the expression of fission protein Drp-1. Additionally, Mn provoked a significant release of high MW Opa-1 isoforms from the mitochondria to the cytosol as well as an increased Drp-1 translocation to the mitochondria. Both Mdivi-1, a pharmacological Drp-1 inhibitor, and rat Drp-1 siRNA reduced the number of apoptotic nuclei, preserved the mitochondrial network integrity and prevented cell death. CsA, an MPTP opening inhibitor, prevented mitochondrial Δψm disruption, Opa-1 processing and Drp-1 translocation to the mitochondria therefore protecting Mn-exposed cells from mitochondrial disruption and apoptosis. The histological analysis and Hoechst 33258 staining of brain sections of Mn-injected rats in the striatum showed a decrease in cellular mass paralleled with an increase in the occurrence of apoptotic nuclei. Opa-1 and Drp-1 expression levels were also changed by Mn-treatment. Our results demonstrate for the first time that abnormal mitochondrial dynamics is implicated in both in vitro and in vivo Mn toxicity. In addition we show that the imbalance in fusion/fission equilibrium might be involved in Mn-induced apoptosis. This knowledge may

  14. Deregulation of mitochondria-shaping proteins Opa-1 and Drp-1 in manganese-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Alaimo, Agustina; Gorojod, Roxana M; Beauquis, Juan; Muñoz, Manuel J; Saravia, Flavia; Kotler, Mónica L

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo fusion and fission processes. These events are regulated by mitochondria-shaping proteins. Changes in the expression and/or localization of these proteins lead to a mitochondrial dynamics impairment and may promote apoptosis. Increasing evidence correlates the mitochondrial dynamics disruption with the occurrence of neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, we focused on this topic in Manganese (Mn)-induced Parkinsonism, a disorder associated with Mn accumulation preferentially in the basal ganglia where mitochondria from astrocytes represent an early target. Using MitoTracker Red staining we observed increased mitochondrial network fission in Mn-exposed rat astrocytoma C6 cells. Moreover, Mn induced a marked decrease in fusion protein Opa-1 levels as well as a dramatic increase in the expression of fission protein Drp-1. Additionally, Mn provoked a significant release of high MW Opa-1 isoforms from the mitochondria to the cytosol as well as an increased Drp-1 translocation to the mitochondria. Both Mdivi-1, a pharmacological Drp-1 inhibitor, and rat Drp-1 siRNA reduced the number of apoptotic nuclei, preserved the mitochondrial network integrity and prevented cell death. CsA, an MPTP opening inhibitor, prevented mitochondrial Δψm disruption, Opa-1 processing and Drp-1 translocation to the mitochondria therefore protecting Mn-exposed cells from mitochondrial disruption and apoptosis. The histological analysis and Hoechst 33258 staining of brain sections of Mn-injected rats in the striatum showed a decrease in cellular mass paralleled with an increase in the occurrence of apoptotic nuclei. Opa-1 and Drp-1 expression levels were also changed by Mn-treatment. Our results demonstrate for the first time that abnormal mitochondrial dynamics is implicated in both in vitro and in vivo Mn toxicity. In addition we show that the imbalance in fusion/fission equilibrium might be involved in Mn-induced apoptosis. This knowledge may

  15. Manganese induces mitochondrial dynamics impairment and apoptotic cell death: a study in human Gli36 cells.

    PubMed

    Alaimo, Agustina; Gorojod, Roxana M; Miglietta, Esteban A; Villarreal, Alejandro; Ramos, Alberto J; Kotler, Mónica L

    2013-10-25

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element due to its participation in many physiological processes. However, overexposure to this metal leads to a neurological disorder known as Manganism whose clinical manifestations and molecular mechanisms resemble Parkinson's disease. Several lines of evidence implicate astrocytes as an early target of Mn neurotoxicity being the mitochondria the most affected organelles. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible mitochondrial dynamics alterations in Mn-exposed human astrocytes. Therefore, we employed Gli36 cells which express the astrocytic markers GFAP and S100B. We demonstrated that Mn triggers the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway revealed by increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and by caspase-9 activation. This apoptotic program may be in turn responsible of caspase-3/7 activation, PARP-1 cleavage, chromatin condensation and fragmentation. In addition, we determined that Mn induces deregulation in mitochondria-shaping proteins (Opa-1, Mfn-2 and Drp-1) expression levels in parallel with the disruption of the mitochondrial network toward to an exacerbated fragmentation. Since mitochondrial dynamics is altered in several neurodegenerative diseases, these proteins could become future targets to be considered in Manganism treatment. PMID:24021799

  16. Changes in Lipid Composition During Manganese-Induced Apoptosis in PC12 Cells.

    PubMed

    Corsetto, P A; Ferrara, G; Buratta, S; Urbanelli, L; Montorfano, G; Gambelunghe, A; Chiaradia, E; Magini, A; Roderi, P; Colombo, I; Rizzo, A M; Emiliani, C

    2016-02-01

    Lipid composition of membranes is fundamental to modulate signaling pathways relying on lipid metabolites and/or membrane proteins, thus resulting in the regulation of important cell processes such as apoptosis. In this case, membrane remodeling is an early event important for the activation of signaling leading to cell death and removal of apoptotic cells. In the present study, we analyzed phospholipid, cholesterol and fatty acid content during apoptosis induced by manganese in PC12 cells. Lipid analysis of whole cells and detergent-resistant membranes was carried out by HPLC/GC. Results showed that apoptosis is associated with changes in lipid composition detectable in whole cell extracts, namely cholesterol, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine decreases. Noteworthy, phosphatidylserine level reduction was detectable before to the detection of apoptosis, in correlation with our previous study carried out by radioactive labelling. By contrast, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine changes were not detected in detergent resistant membranes, which instead showed an altered composition in phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin in apoptotic cells. PMID:26671766

  17. Manganese exposure induces microglia activation and dystrophy in the substantia nigra of non-human primates

    PubMed Central

    Verina, Tatyana; Kiihl, Samara F; Schneider, Jay S; Guilarte, Tomás R

    2011-01-01

    Chronic manganese (Mn) exposure produces neurological deficits including a form of parkinsonism that is different from Parkinson's disease (PD). In chronic Mn exposure, dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) do not degenerate but they appear to be dysfunctional. Further, previous studies have suggested that the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is affected by Mn. In the present study, we investigated whether chronic Mn exposure induces microglia activation in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and SNr in Cynomolgus macaques. Animals were exposed to different weekly doses of Mn (3.3–5.0, 5.0-6.7, 8.3-10 mg Mn/kg body weight) and microglia were examined in the substantia nigra using LN3 immunohistochemistry. We observed that in control animals, LN3 labeled microglia were characterized by a resting phenotype. However, in Mn-treated animals, microglia increased in number and displayed reactive changes with increasing Mn exposure. This effect was more prominent in the SNr than in the SNc. In the SNr of animals administered the highest Mn dose, microglia activation was the most advanced and included dystrophic changes. Reactive microglia expressed increased iNOS, L-ferritin, and intracellular ferric iron which were particularly prominent in dystrophic compartments. Our observations indicate that moderate Mn exposure produces structural changes on microglia, which may have significant consequences on their function. PMID:21112353

  18. Structural oxidation state studies of the manganese cluster in the oxygen evolving complex of photosystem II

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, W.

    1994-11-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was performed on Photosystem II (PSII)-enriched membranes prepared from spinach to explore: (1) the correlation between structure and magnetic spin state of the Mn cluster in the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) in the S{sub 2} state; and (2) the oxidation state changes of the Mn cluster in the flash-induced S-states. The structure of the Mn cluster in the S{sub 2} state with the g{approx}4 electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal (S{sub 2}-g4 state) was compared with that in the S{sub 2} state with multiline signal (S{sub 2}-MLS state) and the S{sub 1} state. The S{sub 2}-g4 state has a higher XAS inflection point energy than that of the S{sub 1} state, indicating the oxidation of Mn in the advance from the S{sub 1} to the S{sub 2}-g4 state. Differences in the edge shape and in the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) show that the structure of the Mn cluster in the S{sub 2}-g4 state is different from that in the S{sub 2}-MLS or the S{sub 1} state. In the S{sub 2}-g4 state, the second shell of backscatterers from the Mn absorber contains two Mn-Mn distances of 2.73 {angstrom} and 2.85 {angstrom}. Very little distance disorder exists in the second shell of the S{sub 1} or S{sub 2}-MLS states. The third shell of the S{sub 2}-g4 state at about 3.3 {angstrom} also contains increased heterogeneity relative to that of the S{sub 2}-MLS or the S{sub 1} state. Various S-states were prepared at room-temperature by saturating, single-turnover flashes. The flash-dependent oscillation in the amplitude of the MLS was used to characterize the S-state composition and to construct {open_quotes}pure{close_quotes} S-state Mn K-edge spectra. The edge position shifts to higher energy by 1.8 eV upon the S{sub 1} {yields} S{sub 2} transition.

  19. Manganese carbonates as possible biogenic relics in Archean settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rincón-Tomás, Blanca; Khonsari, Bahar; Mühlen, Dominik; Wickbold, Christian; Schäfer, Nadine; Hause-Reitner, Dorothea; Hoppert, Michael; Reitner, Joachim

    2016-07-01

    Carbonate minerals such as dolomite, kutnahorite or rhodochrosite are frequently, but not exclusively generated by microbial processes. In recent anoxic sediments, Mn(II)carbonate minerals (e.g. rhodochrosite, kutnahorite) derive mainly from the reduction of Mn(IV) compounds by anaerobic respiration. The formation of huge manganese-rich (carbonate) deposits requires effective manganese redox cycling in an oxygenated atmosphere. However, putative anaerobic pathways such as microbial nitrate-dependent manganese oxidation, anoxygenic photosynthesis and oxidation in ultraviolet light may facilitate manganese cycling even in an early Archean environment, without the availability of oxygen. In addition, manganese carbonates precipitate by microbially induced processes without change of the oxidation state, e.g. by pH shift. Hence, there are several ways how these minerals could have been formed biogenically and deposited in Precambrian sediments. We will summarize microbially induced manganese carbonate deposition in the presence and absence of atmospheric oxygen and we will make some considerations about the biogenic deposition of manganese carbonates in early Archean settings.

  20. Vacancy-induced manganese vanadates and their potential application to Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Dufficy, Martin K; Luo, Lan; Fedkiw, Peter S; Maggard, Paul A

    2016-06-14

    We report on the synthesis and characterization of a novel manganese vanadate, Mn1.5(H2O)(NH4)V4O12, with rare in situ disorder of Mn(H2O)2(2+)/2NH4(+). We show that vacancies created by ammonium ions and coordinating water molecules within the manganese vanadate crystal structure yield high-charge capacity, favorable rate capability, and long cycle life in Li-ion half-cells. PMID:27210595

  1. Chemiluminescence accompanied by the reaction of acridinium ester and manganese (II).

    PubMed

    Ren, Lingling; Cui, Hua

    2014-11-01

    An acridinium ester (AE) alkaline solution can react with Mn(II) to generate a strong chemiluminescence (CL) centered at 435 nm. The effects of reaction conditions such as pH and Mn(II) concentration on CL intensity were examined. In order to explore the CL mechanism, the effect of oxygen on the CL reaction was examined and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of the reaction precipitate was carried out. The results indicated that oxygen participated in the CL reaction and Mn(IV) was the primary product in the system. A possible mechanism was proposed that involved two pathways: (1) dissolved oxygen was reduced to reactive oxygen radicals by Mn(II), these reactive intermediates then reacted with AE to produce excited state acridone; (2) Mn(II) could reduce AE to partly reduced AE, which then reacted with oxygen to form excited state acridone. The reactions of other metal ions with AE were also tested, and only Mn(II) was shown to trigger strong CL emission of AE, which indicated that the system had good selectivity for Mn(II). PMID:24677387

  2. A novel manganese complex selectively induces malignant glioma cell death by targeting mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Geng, Ji; Li, Jing; Huang, Tao; Zhao, Kaidi; Chen, Qiuyun; Guo, Wenjie; Gao, Jing

    2016-09-01

    Despite advances in treatment, malignant glioma commonly exhibits recurrence, subsequently leading to a poor prognosis. As manganese (Mn) compounds can be transported by the transferrin‑transferrin receptor system, the present study synthesized and examined the potential use of Adpa‑Mn as a novel antitumor agent. Adpa‑Mn time and dose‑dependently inhibited U251 and C6 cell proliferation; however, it had little effect on normal astrocytes. Apoptosis was significantly elevated following treatment with Adpa‑Mn, as detected by chromatin condensation, Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytoplasm, and the activation of caspases‑9, ‑7 and ‑3 and poly (ADP‑ribose) polymerase. In addition, Adpa‑Mn enhanced fluorescence intensity of monodansylcadaverine and elevated the expression levels of the autophagy‑related protein microtubule‑associated protein 1 light chain 3. Pretreatment with the autophagy inhibitors 3‑methyladenine and chloroquine enhanced Adpa‑Mn‑induced cell inhibition, thus indicating that autophagy has an essential role in this process. Furthermore, evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction was detected in the Adpa‑Mn‑treated group, including disrupted membrane potential, elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depleted adenosine triphosphate. Conversely, treatment with the mitochondrial permeability transition inhibitor cyclosporin A reversed Adpa‑Mn‑induced ROS production, mitochondrial damage and cell apoptosis, thus suggesting that Adpa‑Mn may target the mitochondria. Taken together, these data suggested that Adpa‑Mn may be considered for use as a novel anti‑glioma therapeutic option. PMID:27432745

  3. Attenuation of Combined Nickel(II) Oxide and Manganese(II, III) Oxide Nanoparticles' Adverse Effects with a Complex of Bioprotectors.

    PubMed

    Minigalieva, Ilzira A; Katsnelson, Boris A; Privalova, Larisa I; Sutunkova, Marina P; Gurvich, Vladimir B; Shur, Vladimir Y; Shishkina, Ekaterina V; Valamina, Irene E; Makeyev, Oleg H; Panov, Vladimir G; Varaksin, Anatoly N; Grigoryeva, Ekaterina V; Meshtcheryakova, Ekaterina Y

    2015-01-01

    Stable suspensions of NiO and Mn₃O₄ nanoparticles (NPs) with a mean (±s.d.) diameter of 16.7±8.2 and 18.4±5.4 nm, respectively, purposefully prepared by laser ablation of 99.99% pure nickel or manganese in de-ionized water, were repeatedly injected intraperitoneally (IP) to rats at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg 3 times a week up to 18 injections, either alone or in combination. A group of rats was injected with this combination with the background oral administration of a "bio-protective complex" (BPC) comprising pectin, vitamins A, C, E, glutamate, glycine, N-acetylcysteine, selenium, iodide and omega-3 PUFA, this composition having been chosen based on mechanistic considerations and previous experience. After the termination of injections, many functional and biochemical indices and histopathological features (with morphometric assessment) of the liver, spleen, kidneys and brain were evaluated for signs of toxicity. The Ni and Mn content of these organs was measured with the help of the atomic emission and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies. We obtained blood leukocytes for performing the RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) test. Although both metallic NPs proved adversely bio-active in many respects considered in this study, Mn₃O₄-NPs were somewhat more noxious than NiO-NPs as concerns most of the non-specific toxicity manifestations and they induced more marked damage to neurons in the striatum and the hippocampus, which may be considered an experimental correlate of the manganese-induced Parkinsonism. The comparative solubility of the Mn₃O₄-NPs and NiO-NPs in a biological medium is discussed as one of the factors underlying the difference in their toxicokinetics and toxicities. The BPC has attenuated both the organ-systemic toxicity and the genotoxicity of Mn₃O₄-NPs in combination with NiO-NPs. PMID:26393577

  4. Attenuation of Combined Nickel(II) Oxide and Manganese(II, III) Oxide Nanoparticles’ Adverse Effects with a Complex of Bioprotectors

    PubMed Central

    Minigalieva, Ilzira A.; Katsnelson, Boris A.; Privalova, Larisa I.; Sutunkova, Marina P.; Gurvich, Vladimir B.; Shur, Vladimir Y.; Shishkina, Ekaterina V.; Valamina, Irene E.; Makeyev, Oleg H.; Panov, Vladimir G.; Varaksin, Anatoly N.; Grigoryeva, Ekaterina V.; Meshtcheryakova, Ekaterina Y.

    2015-01-01

    Stable suspensions of NiO and Mn3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) with a mean (±s.d.) diameter of 16.7 ± 8.2 and 18.4 ± 5.4 nm, respectively, purposefully prepared by laser ablation of 99.99% pure nickel or manganese in de-ionized water, were repeatedly injected intraperitoneally (IP) to rats at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg 3 times a week up to 18 injections, either alone or in combination. A group of rats was injected with this combination with the background oral administration of a “bio-protective complex” (BPC) comprising pectin, vitamins A, C, E, glutamate, glycine, N-acetylcysteine, selenium, iodide and omega-3 PUFA, this composition having been chosen based on mechanistic considerations and previous experience. After the termination of injections, many functional and biochemical indices and histopathological features (with morphometric assessment) of the liver, spleen, kidneys and brain were evaluated for signs of toxicity. The Ni and Mn content of these organs was measured with the help of the atomic emission and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies. We obtained blood leukocytes for performing the RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) test. Although both metallic NPs proved adversely bio-active in many respects considered in this study, Mn3O4-NPs were somewhat more noxious than NiO-NPs as concerns most of the non-specific toxicity manifestations and they induced more marked damage to neurons in the striatum and the hippocampus, which may be considered an experimental correlate of the manganese-induced Parkinsonism. The comparative solubility of the Mn3O4-NPs and NiO-NPs in a biological medium is discussed as one of the factors underlying the difference in their toxicokinetics and toxicities. The BPC has attenuated both the organ-systemic toxicity and the genotoxicity of Mn3O4-NPs in combination with NiO-NPs. PMID:26393577

  5. Description of the first fungal dye-decolorizing peroxidase oxidizing manganese(II).

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fueyo, Elena; Linde, Dolores; Almendral, David; López-Lucendo, María F; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J; Martínez, Angel T

    2015-11-01

    Two phylogenetically divergent genes of the new family of dye-decolorizing peroxidases (DyPs) were found during comparison of the four DyP genes identified in the Pleurotus ostreatus genome with over 200 DyP genes from other basidiomycete genomes. The heterologously expressed enzymes (Pleos-DyP1 and Pleos-DyP4, following the genome nomenclature) efficiently oxidize anthraquinoid dyes (such as Reactive Blue 19), which are characteristic DyP substrates, as well as low redox-potential dyes (such as 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) and substituted phenols. However, only Pleos-DyP4 oxidizes the high redox-potential dye Reactive Black 5, at the same time that it displays high thermal and pH stability. Unexpectedly, both enzymes also oxidize Mn(2+) to Mn(3+), albeit with very different catalytic efficiencies. Pleos-DyP4 presents a Mn(2+) turnover (56 s(-1)) nearly in the same order of the two other Mn(2+)-oxidizing peroxidase families identified in the P. ostreatus genome: manganese peroxidases (100 s(-1) average turnover) and versatile peroxidases (145 s(-1) average turnover), whose genes were also heterologously expressed. Oxidation of Mn(2+) has been reported for an Amycolatopsis DyP (24 s(-1)) and claimed for other bacterial DyPs, albeit with lower activities, but this is the first time that Mn(2+) oxidation is reported for a fungal DyP. Interestingly, Pleos-DyP4 (together with ligninolytic peroxidases) is detected in the secretome of P. ostreatus grown on different lignocellulosic substrates. It is suggested that generation of Mn(3+) oxidizers plays a role in the P. ostreatus white-rot lifestyle since three different families of Mn(2+)-oxidizing peroxidase genes are present in its genome being expressed during lignocellulose degradation. PMID:25967658

  6. Manganese Dioxide nanosheet suspension: A novel absorbent for Cadmium(II) contamination in waterbody.

    PubMed

    Peng, Liang; Zeng, Qingru; Tie, Boqing; Lei, Ming; Yang, Jiao; Luo, Si; Song, Zhengguo

    2015-10-15

    A MnO2 nanosheet (MnO2-NS) suspension was prepared from tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMA⋅OH), H2O2, and MnCl2⋅4H2O, and its efficiency for Cd(II) removal from aqueous solutions was investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity of the MnO2-NS for Cd(II) was evaluated to be about 348 mg/g, which is thus far the highest value reported for MnO2 at pH 6.0. This high adsorption capacity is attributed to efficient ion exchange. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that Cd(II) was adsorbed on MnO2 as CdO and Cd(OH)2. After Cd(II) adsorption, the suspended MnO2-NS aggregated and precipitated within 5.0 min from solution. Therefore, dispersive MnO2-NS can be used to remove Cd(II) from wastewater rapidly and with high efficiency. PMID:26111516

  7. Induced gravity II: grand unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einhorn, Martin B.; Jones, D. R. Timothy

    2016-05-01

    As an illustration of a renormalizable, asymptotically-free model of induced gravity, we consider an SO(10) gauge theory interacting with a real scalar multiplet in the adjoint representation. We show that dimensional transmutation can occur, spontaneously breaking SO(10) to SU(5)⊗U(1), while inducing the Planck mass and a positive cosmological constant, all proportional to the same scale v. All mass ratios are functions of the values of coupling constants at that scale. Below this scale (at which the Big Bang may occur), the model takes the usual form of Einstein-Hilbert gravity in de Sitter space plus calculable corrections. We show that there exist regions of parameter space in which the breaking results in a local minimum of the effective action giving a positive dilaton (mass)2 from two-loop corrections associated with the conformal anomaly. Furthermore, unlike the singlet case we considered previously, some minima lie within the basin of attraction of the ultraviolet fixed point. Moreover, the asymptotic behavior of the coupling constants also lie within the range of convergence of the Euclidean path integral, so there is hope that there will be candidates for sensible vacua. Although open questions remain concerning unitarity of all such renormalizable models of gravity, it is not obvious that, in curved backgrounds such as those considered here, unitarity is violated. In any case, any violation that may remain will be suppressed by inverse powers of the reduced Planck mass.

  8. Intrinsic optical properties and divergent doping effects of manganese(II) on luminescence for tin(II) phosphite grown from a deep-eutectic solvent.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Lin; Lai, Yei-Chen; Chiang, Yun-Wei; Wang, Sue-Lein

    2012-02-20

    This is the first study on the ionothermal synthesis, intrinsic photoluminescence (PL), and dopant effects for tin(II) phosphite, a stereochemically active 5s(2) lone-pair-electron-containing compound, the fundamental properties of which have rarely been explored before. In a new deep-eutectic solvent, single-phased products of SnHPO(3) (1) and Sn(1-x)Mn(x)HPO(3) (2) have been achieved in high yield. The crystalline powder of 1 is nonenantiomorphic, with an intense second-harmonic generation comparable to that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate. Under UV excitation, it unexpectedly emits white PL, an important intrinsic property never discovered in tin(II) oxysalts. Electron paramagnetic resonance hyperfine splitting characteristic of manganese has been detected on 2 and a three-pulse electron-spin-echo envelope modulation technique implemented to locate its corresponding location in the inorganic host. On the basis of temperature-dependent PL and lifetime measurements, the incorporated Mn(2+) uncommonly acts as a sensitizer in enhancing white emission until extremely low temperatures, in which it would resume its normal role as an activator to give out characteristic orange light. PMID:22288432

  9. Structural And Physical Characterization of Tetranuclear [Mn**II(3)Mn**IV] And [Mn**II(2)Mn**III(2)] Valence-Isomer Manganese Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Zaleski, C.M.; Weng, T.-C.; Dendrinou-Samara, C.; Alexiou, M.; Kanakaraki, P.; Hsieh, W.-Y.; Kampf, J.; Penner-Hahn, J.E.; Pecoraro, V.L.; Kessissoglou, D.P.

    2009-05-28

    Two tetranuclear Mn complexes with an average Mn oxidation state of +2.5 have been prepared. These valence isomers have been characterized by a combination of X-ray crystallography, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and magnetic susceptibility. The Mn{sup II}{sub 3}Mn{sup IV} tetramer has the Mn ions arranged in a distorted tetrahedron, with an S = 6 ground spin state, dominated by ferromagnetic exchange among the manganese ions. The Mn{sup II}{sub 2}Mn{sup III}{sub 2} tetramer also has a distorted tetrahedral arrangement of Mn ions but shows magnetic behavior, suggesting that it is a single-molecule magnet. The X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra for the two complexes are similar, suggesting that, while Mn XANES has sufficient sensitivity to distinguish between trinuclear valence isomers (Alexiou et al. Inorg. Chem. 2003, 42, 2185), similar distinctions are difficult for tetranuclear complexes such as that found in the photosynthetic oxygen-evolving complex.

  10. Enzymatic Manganese(II) Oxidation by Metabolically Dormant Spores of Diverse Bacillus Species

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Chris A.; Tebo, Bradley M.

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial spores are renowned for their longevity, ubiquity, and resistance to environmental insults, but virtually nothing is known regarding whether these metabolically dormant structures impact their surrounding chemical environments. In the present study, a number of spore-forming bacteria that produce dormant spores which enzymatically oxidize soluble Mn(II) to insoluble Mn(IV) oxides were isolated from coastal marine sediments. The highly charged and reactive surfaces of biogenic metal oxides dramatically influence the oxidation and sorption of both trace metals and organics in the environment. Prior to this study, the only known Mn(II)-oxidizing sporeformer was the marine Bacillus sp. strain SG-1, an extensively studied bacterium in which Mn(II) oxidation is believed to be catalyzed by a multicopper oxidase, MnxG. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and mnxG sequences obtained from 15 different Mn(II)-oxidizing sporeformers (including SG-1) revealed extensive diversity within the genus Bacillus, with organisms falling into several distinct clusters and lineages. In addition, active Mn(II)-oxidizing proteins of various sizes, as observed in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis gels, were recovered from the outer layers of purified dormant spores of the isolates. These are the first active Mn(II)-oxidizing enzymes identified in spores or gram-positive bacteria. Although extremely resistant to denaturation, the activities of these enzymes were inhibited by azide and o-phenanthroline, consistent with the involvement of multicopper oxidases. Overall, these studies suggest that the commonly held view that bacterial spores are merely inactive structures in the environment should be revised. PMID:11823231

  11. Manganese(II) Complexes with Schiff Bases Immobilized on Nanosilica as Catalysts of the Reaction of Ozone Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakytska, Tetyana; Truba, Alla; Radchenko, Evgen; Golub, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we submit the description of synthesis and identification of manganese(II) complexes with pyrogenic nanosilica-immobilized ( d av = 10 nm; S sp = 290 m2/g) hydroxyaldimine ligands (Mn{(L)}_2/overline{Si}) : salicilaldiminopropyl (L1); 5-bromosalicilaldiminopropyl (L2); 2-hydroxynaphtaldiminopropyl (L3); 2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldiminopropyl (L4); 2-hydroxy-3,5-dichloroacetophenoniminopropyl (L5); and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldiminopropyl (L6). The ligands and complexes were characterized by UV-VIS and IR spectrometry. Nanocomposites consisting of complexes Mn{(L)}_2/overline{Si} showed a high catalytic activity in low-temperature ozone decomposition in the range of concentrations between 2.1 × 10-6 and 8.4 × 10-6 mol/l. The number of catalytic cycles increased for isostructural pseudotetrahedral complexes Mn{(L)}_2/overline{Si} (L1-L5) in the following order: Mn(L3)2 >> Mn(L4)2 > Mn(L1)2 > Mn(L2)2 > Mn(L5)2. In the case of pseudooctahedral complexes with L6, the change of coordination polyhedral does not influence the kinetics and stoichiometric parameters of the reaction.

  12. Manganese(II) Complexes with Schiff Bases Immobilized on Nanosilica as Catalysts of the Reaction of Ozone Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Rakytska, Tetyana; Truba, Alla; Radchenko, Evgen; Golub, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we submit the description of synthesis and identification of manganese(II) complexes with pyrogenic nanosilica-immobilized (d av = 10 nm; S sp = 290 m(2)/g) hydroxyaldimine ligands [Formula: see text]: salicilaldiminopropyl (L1); 5-bromosalicilaldiminopropyl (L2); 2-hydroxynaphtaldiminopropyl (L3); 2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldiminopropyl (L4); 2-hydroxy-3,5-dichloroacetophenoniminopropyl (L5); and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldiminopropyl (L6). The ligands and complexes were characterized by UV-VIS and IR spectrometry. Nanocomposites consisting of complexes [Formula: see text] showed a high catalytic activity in low-temperature ozone decomposition in the range of concentrations between 2.1 × 10(-6) and 8.4 × 10(-6) mol/l. The number of catalytic cycles increased for isostructural pseudotetrahedral complexes [Formula: see text] (L1-L5) in the following order: Mn(L3)2 > Mn(L4)2 > Mn(L1)2 > Mn(L2)2 > Mn(L5)2. In the case of pseudooctahedral complexes with L6, the change of coordination polyhedral does not influence the kinetics and stoichiometric parameters of the reaction. PMID:26643653

  13. Multifrequency Pulsed EPR Studies of Biologically Relevant Manganese(II) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Stich, T. A.; Lahiri, S.; Yeagle, G.; Dicus, M.; Brynda, M.; Gunn, A.; Aznar, C.; DeRose, V. J.; Britt, R. D.

    2011-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance studies at multiple frequencies (MF EPR) can provide detailed electronic structure descriptions of unpaired electrons in organic radicals, inorganic complexes, and metalloenzymes. Analysis of these properties aids in the assignment of the chemical environment surrounding the paramagnet and provides mechanistic insight into the chemical reactions in which these systems take part. Herein, we present results from pulsed EPR studies performed at three different frequencies (9, 31, and 130 GHz) on [Mn(II)(H2O)6]2+, Mn(II) adducts with the nucleotides ATP and GMP, and the Mn(II)-bound form of the hammerhead ribozyme (MnHH). Through line shape analysis and interpretation of the zero-field splitting values derived from successful simulations of the corresponding continuous-wave and field-swept echo-detected spectra, these data are used to exemplify the ability of the MF EPR approach in distinguishing the nature of the first ligand sphere. A survey of recent results from pulsed EPR, as well as pulsed electron-nuclear double resonance and electron spin echo envelope modulation spectroscopic studies applied to Mn(II)-dependent systems, is also presented. PMID:22190766

  14. Surfactant-controlled composition and crystal structure of manganese(II) sulfide nanocrystals prepared by solvothermal synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Capetti, Elena; Ferretti, Anna M; Dal Santo, Vladimiro

    2015-01-01

    Summary We investigated how the outcome of the solvothermal synthesis of manganese(II) sulfide (MnS) nanocrystals (NCs) is affected by the type and amount of long chain surfactant present in the reaction mixture. Prompted by a previous observation that a larger than stoichiometric amount of sulfur is required [Puglisi, A.; Mondini, S.; Cenedese, S.; Ferretti, A. M.; Santo, N.; Ponti A. Chem. Mater. 2010, 22, 2804–2813], we carried out a wide set of reactions using Mn(II) carboxylates and Mn2(CO)10 as precursors with varying amounts of sulfur and carboxylic acid. MnS NCs were obtained provided that the S/Mn ratio was larger than the L/Mn ratio, otherwise MnO NCs were produced. Since MnS can crystallize in three distinct phases (rock salt α-MnS, zincblende β-MnS, and wurtzite γ-MnS), we also investigated whether the surfactant affected the NC polymorphism. We found that MnS polymorphism can be controlled by appropriate selection of the surfactant. γ-MnS nanocrystals formed when a 1:2 mixture of long chain carboxylic acid and amine was used, irrespective of the presence of carboxylic acid as a free surfactant or ligand in the metal precursor. When we used a single surfactant (carboxylic acid, alcohol, thiol, amine), α-MnS nanocrystals were obtained. The peculiar role of the amine seems to be related to its basicity. The nanocrystals were characterized by TEM and electron diffraction; ATR-FTIR spectroscopy provided information about the surfactants adsorbed on the NCs. PMID:26734522

  15. Unsymmetrical diimine complexes of iron(II) and manganese(II): synthesis, structure and photoluminescence of an isomer.

    PubMed

    Roy, Amit Saha; Biswas, Manas Kumar; Weyhermüller, Thomas; Ghosh, Prasanta

    2011-01-01

    Two bis(unsymmetrical diimine) complexes of (L(NO(2))(ϕ1))(L(NO(2))(ϕ2))M(II)Cl(2) family with M = Fe and Mn, are reported (L(NO(2))(ϕ) = (E)-3-nitro-N-(pyridine-2-ylmethylene)aniline; ϕ = dihedral angle between the diimine unit including pyridine ring and the phenyl ring planes). Pure tcc-(L(NO2)(33.6))(L(NO2)(79.3))Fe(II)Cl(2)·0.5H(2)O (1) and tcc-(L(NO2)(32.0))(L(NO2)(79.4))Mn(II)Cl(2)·0.5H(2)O (2) isomers have been successfully isolated in high yields and characterized by elemental analyses, variable temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, mass, UV-vis and Mössbauer spectra including the single-crystal X-ray structure determinations that identified strong intermolecular non-bonding interactions in lattice (tcc refers to trans-cis-cis positions with respect to pyridine N-imine N-Cl donors). Geometries optimizations of all possible tcc, ttt, ctc, ccc and cct isomers of iron at the B3LYP/DFT level in gas-phase have shown that the tcc-isomer incorporating two non-equivalent ligands as in (L(NO(2))(42))(L(NO(2))(61))Fe(II)Cl(2), 1 (g), is stabilized by 6-20 kJ mol(-1) compared to other isomers where two ligands are equivalent. The frozen methanol glasses of 1 and 2 are luminescent at 77 K (1: λ(ext) = 370, λ(em) = 521 nm, χ(2) = 1.3, τ(avg) = 0.57 ns; 2: λ(ext) = 368, λ(em) = 524 nm, χ(2) = 1.1, τ(avg) = 0.90 ns). The DFT calculations have identified four closely spaced localized π(*) orbitals comprising of two non-equivalent ligands as UPMOs. The features contrast the tcc-isomer of (L(ϕ))(2)Fe(II)Cl(2) (3), congener of 1 without -NO(2) substitution and non-emissive (bpy)(2)Fe(II)Cl(2) (4) where two ligands are equivalent. TD-DFT calculations have assigned intra-ligand (IL) and ligand to ligand charge transfer (LLCT) dominated excited states as the origin of luminescence of 1 and 2. PMID:21072397

  16. The binding of manganese(II) and zinc(II) to the synthetic oligonucleotide d(C-G-C-G-A-A-T-T-C-G-C-G)2. A 1H NMR study.

    PubMed

    Frøystein, N A; Sletten, E

    1991-03-01

    The interaction of the synthetic oligonucleotide d(C-G-C-G-A-A-T-T-C-G-C-G)2 with two different transition-metal ions has been investigated in aqueous solution by means of 1H NMR spectroscopy. The effects on the DNA due to the presence of manganese(II) or zinc(II) have been monitored by observing the paramagnetic broadening and diamagnetic shifts of the non-exchangeable proton resonance lines, respectively. The 1H NMR spectra acquired during the course of the manganese(II) titration show very distinct broadening effects on certain DNA resonance lines. Primarily, the H8 resonance of G4 is affected, but also the H5 and H6 resonances of C3 are clearly affected by the metal. The results imply that the binding of manganese(II) to DNA is sequence specific. The 1H spectra obtained during the zinc(II) titration reveal diamagnetic shift effects which largely conform with the paramagnetic broadening effects due to the presence of manganese(II), although this picture is somewhat more complex. The H8 resonance of G4 displays a clearly visible high-field shift, while for the other guanosine H8 protons this effect is absent. The H1' and H2' protons of C3 show an effect of similar strength, although in the opposite direction, while H5 and H6 of C3 are only slightly affected. Local differences in the structure of the DNA and the basicities of potential binding sites on different base steps in the sequence might account for the observed sequence selectivity. PMID:2039665

  17. Synthesis, crystal structure, spectroscopic characterization and nonlinear optical properties of manganese (II) complex of picolinate: A combined experimental and computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamer, Ömer; Avcı, Davut; Atalay, Yusuf; Çoşut, Bünyemin; Zorlu, Yunus; Erkovan, Mustafa; Yerli, Yusuf

    2016-02-01

    A novel manganese (II) complex with picolinic acid (pyridine 2-carboxylic acid, Hpic), namely, [Mn(pic)2(H2O)2] was prepared and its crystal structure was fully characterized by using single crystal X-ray diffraction. Picolinate (pic) ligands were coordinated to the central manganese(II) ion as bidentate N,O-donors through the nitrogen atoms of pyridine rings and the oxygen atoms of carboxylate groups forming five-membered chelate rings. The spectroscopic characterization of Mn(II) complex was performed by the applications of FT-IR, Raman, UV-vis and EPR techniques. In order to support these studies, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out by using B3LYP level. IR and Raman spectra were simulated at B3LYP level, and obtained results indicated that DFT calculations generally give compatible results to the experimental ones. The electronic structure of the Mn(II) complex was predicted using time dependent DFT (TD-DFT) method with polarizable continuum model (PCM). Molecular stability, hyperconjugative interactions, intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and bond strength were investigated by applying natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Nonlinear optical properties of Mn(II) complex were investigated by the determining of molecular polarizability (α) and hyperpolarizability (β) parameters.

  18. Hyperfine structure constants for singly ionized manganese (Mn II) using Fourier transform spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townley-Smith, Keeley; Nave, Gillian; Pickering, Juliet C.; Blackwell-Whitehead, Richard J.

    2016-09-01

    We expand on the comprehensive study of hyperfine structure (HFS) in Mn II conducted by Holt et al. (1999) by verifying hyperfine magnetic dipole constants (A) for 20 levels previously measured by Holt et al. (1999) and deriving A constants for 47 previously unstudied levels. The HFS patterns were measured in archival spectra from Fourier transform (FT) spectrometers at Imperial College London and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Analysis of the FT spectra was carried out in XGREMLIN. Our A constant for the ground level has a lower uncertainty by a factor of 6 than that of Blackwell-Whitehead et al.

  19. Crystal structure of hexa-kis-(dimethyl sulfoxide-κO)manganese(II) diiodide.

    PubMed

    Glatz, Mathias; Schroffenegger, Martina; Weil, Matthias; Kirchner, Karl

    2016-07-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title salt, [Mn(C2H6OS)6]I2, consists of one Mn(II) ion, six O-bound dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) ligands and two I(-) counter-anions. The isolated complex cations have an octa-hedral configuration and are grouped in hexa-gonally arranged rows extending parallel to [100]. The two I(-) anions are located between the rows and are linked to the cations through two weak C-H⋯I inter-actions. PMID:27555928

  20. Crystal structure of hexa­kis­(dimethyl sulfoxide-κO)manganese(II) diiodide

    PubMed Central

    Glatz, Mathias; Schroffenegger, Martina; Weil, Matthias; Kirchner, Karl

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title salt, [Mn(C2H6OS)6]I2, consists of one MnII ion, six O-bound dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) ligands and two I− counter-anions. The isolated complex cations have an octa­hedral configuration and are grouped in hexa­gonally arranged rows extending parallel to [100]. The two I− anions are located between the rows and are linked to the cations through two weak C—H⋯I inter­actions. PMID:27555928

  1. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging reveals increased DOI-induced brain activity in a mouse model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Malkova, Natalia V; Gallagher, Joseph J; Yu, Collin Z; Jacobs, Russell E; Patterson, Paul H

    2014-06-17

    Maternal infection during pregnancy increases the risk for schizophrenia in offspring. In rodent models, maternal immune activation (MIA) yields offspring with schizophrenia-like behaviors. None of these behaviors are, however, specific to schizophrenia. The presence of hallucinations is a key diagnostic symptom of schizophrenia. In mice, this symptom can be defined as brain activation in the absence of external stimuli, which can be mimicked by administration of hallucinogens. We find that, compared with controls, adult MIA offspring display an increased stereotypical behavioral response to the hallucinogen 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI), an agonist for serotonin receptor 2A (5-HT2AR). This may be explained by increased levels of 5-HT2AR and downstream signaling molecules in unstimulated MIA prefrontal cortex (PFC). Using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to identify neuronal activation elicited by DOI administration, we find that, compared with controls, MIA offspring exhibit a greater manganese (Mn(2+)) accumulation in several brain areas, including the PFC, thalamus, and striatum. The parafascicular thalamic nucleus, which plays the role in the pathogenesis of hallucinations, is activated by DOI in MIA offspring only. Additionally, compared with controls, MIA offspring demonstrate higher DOI-induced expression of early growth response protein 1, cyclooxygenase-2, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the PFC. Chronic treatment with the 5-HT2AR antagonist ketanserin reduces DOI-induced head twitching in MIA offspring. Thus, the MIA mouse model can be successfully used to investigate activity induced by DOI in awake, behaving mice. Moreover, manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is a useful, noninvasive method for accurately measuring this type of activity. PMID:24889602

  2. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging reveals increased DOI-induced brain activity in a mouse model of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Malkova, Natalia V.; Gallagher, Joseph J.; Yu, Collin Z.; Jacobs, Russell E.; Patterson, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal infection during pregnancy increases the risk for schizophrenia in offspring. In rodent models, maternal immune activation (MIA) yields offspring with schizophrenia-like behaviors. None of these behaviors are, however, specific to schizophrenia. The presence of hallucinations is a key diagnostic symptom of schizophrenia. In mice, this symptom can be defined as brain activation in the absence of external stimuli, which can be mimicked by administration of hallucinogens. We find that, compared with controls, adult MIA offspring display an increased stereotypical behavioral response to the hallucinogen 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI), an agonist for serotonin receptor 2A (5-HT2AR). This may be explained by increased levels of 5-HT2AR and downstream signaling molecules in unstimulated MIA prefrontal cortex (PFC). Using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to identify neuronal activation elicited by DOI administration, we find that, compared with controls, MIA offspring exhibit a greater manganese (Mn2+) accumulation in several brain areas, including the PFC, thalamus, and striatum. The parafascicular thalamic nucleus, which plays the role in the pathogenesis of hallucinations, is activated by DOI in MIA offspring only. Additionally, compared with controls, MIA offspring demonstrate higher DOI-induced expression of early growth response protein 1, cyclooxygenase-2, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the PFC. Chronic treatment with the 5-HT2AR antagonist ketanserin reduces DOI-induced head twitching in MIA offspring. Thus, the MIA mouse model can be successfully used to investigate activity induced by DOI in awake, behaving mice. Moreover, manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is a useful, noninvasive method for accurately measuring this type of activity. PMID:24889602

  3. Update on a Pharmacokinetic-Centric Alternative Tier II Program for MMT—Part II: Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Manganese Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Michael D.; Clewell, Harvey J.; Andersen, Melvin E.; Schroeter, Jeffry D.; Yoon, Miyoung; Keene, Athena M.; Dorman, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a variety of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have been developed for the essential element manganese. This paper reviews the development of PBPK models (e.g., adult, pregnant, lactating, and neonatal rats, nonhuman primates, and adult, pregnant, lactating, and neonatal humans) and relevant risk assessment applications. Each PBPK model incorporates critical features including dose-dependent saturable tissue capacities and asymmetrical diffusional flux of manganese into brain and other tissues. Varied influx and efflux diffusion rate and binding constants for different brain regions account for the differential increases in regional brain manganese concentrations observed experimentally. We also present novel PBPK simulations to predict manganese tissue concentrations in fetal, neonatal, pregnant, or aged individuals, as well as individuals with liver disease or chronic manganese inhalation. The results of these simulations could help guide risk assessors in the application of uncertainty factors as they establish exposure guidelines for the general public or workers. PMID:22645610

  4. Cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization in rats correlates with nucleus accumbens activity on manganese-enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Perrine, Shane A; Ghoddoussi, Farhad; Desai, Kirtan; Kohler, Robert J; Eapen, Ajay T; Lisieski, Michael J; Angoa-Perez, Mariana; Kuhn, Donald M; Bosse, Kelly E; Conti, Alana C; Bissig, David; Berkowitz, Bruce A

    2015-11-01

    A long-standing goal of substance abuse research has been to link drug-induced behavioral outcomes with the activity of specific brain regions to understand the neurobiology of addiction behaviors and to search for drug-able targets. Here, we tested the hypothesis that cocaine produces locomotor (behavioral) sensitization that correlates with increased calcium channel-mediated neuroactivity in brain regions linked with drug addiction, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAC), anterior striatum (AST) and hippocampus, as measured using manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI). Rats were treated with cocaine for 5 days, followed by a 2-day drug-free period. The following day, locomotor sensitization was quantified as a metric of cocaine-induced neuroplasticity in the presence of manganese. Immediately following behavioral testing, rats were examined for changes in calcium channel-mediated neuronal activity in the NAC, AST, hippocampus and temporalis muscle, which was associated with behavioral sensitization using MEMRI. Cocaine significantly increased locomotor activity and produced behavioral sensitization compared with saline treatment of control rats. A significant increase in MEMRI signal intensity was determined in the NAC, but not AST or hippocampus, of cocaine-treated rats compared with saline-treated control rats. Cocaine did not increase signal intensity in the temporalis muscle. Notably, in support of our hypothesis, behavior was significantly and positively correlated with MEMRI signal intensity in the NAC. As neuronal uptake of manganese is regulated by calcium channels, these results indicate that MEMRI is a powerful research tool to study neuronal activity in freely behaving animals and to guide new calcium channel-based therapies for the treatment of cocaine abuse and dependence. PMID:26411897

  5. Comparative Analysis of Secretome Profiles of Manganese(II)-Oxidizing Ascomycete Fungi.

    PubMed

    Zeiner, Carolyn A; Purvine, Samuel O; Zink, Erika M; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Chaput, Dominique L; Haridas, Sajeet; Wu, Si; LaButti, Kurt; Grigoriev, Igor V; Henrissat, Bernard; Santelli, Cara M; Hansel, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    Fungal secretomes contain a wide range of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes, including cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinases, and lignin-degrading accessory enzymes, that synergistically drive litter decomposition in the environment. While secretome studies of model organisms such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Aspergillus species have greatly expanded our knowledge of these enzymes, few have extended secretome characterization to environmental isolates or conducted side-by-side comparisons of diverse species. Thus, the mechanisms of carbon degradation by many ubiquitous soil fungi remain poorly understood. Here we use a combination of LC-MS/MS, genomic, and bioinformatic analyses to characterize and compare the protein composition of the secretomes of four recently isolated, cosmopolitan, Mn(II)-oxidizing Ascomycetes (Alternaria alternata SRC1lrK2f, Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a, Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a, and Paraconiothyrium sporulosum AP3s5-JAC2a). We demonstrate that the organisms produce a rich yet functionally similar suite of extracellular enzymes, with species-specific differences in secretome composition arising from unique amino acid sequences rather than overall protein function. Furthermore, we identify not only a wide range of carbohydrate-active enzymes that can directly oxidize recalcitrant carbon, but also an impressive suite of redox-active accessory enzymes that suggests a role for Fenton-based hydroxyl radical formation in indirect, non-specific lignocellulose attack. Our findings highlight the diverse oxidative capacity of these environmental isolates and enhance our understanding of the role of filamentous Ascomycetes in carbon turnover in the environment. PMID:27434633

  6. Comparative Analysis of Secretome Profiles of Manganese(II)-Oxidizing Ascomycete Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Zeiner, Carolyn A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Zink, Erika M.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Chaput, Dominique L.; Haridas, Sajeet; Wu, Si; LaButti, Kurt; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Henrissat, Bernard; Santelli, Cara M.; Hansel, Colleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal secretomes contain a wide range of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes, including cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinases, and lignin-degrading accessory enzymes, that synergistically drive litter decomposition in the environment. While secretome studies of model organisms such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Aspergillus species have greatly expanded our knowledge of these enzymes, few have extended secretome characterization to environmental isolates or conducted side-by-side comparisons of diverse species. Thus, the mechanisms of carbon degradation by many ubiquitous soil fungi remain poorly understood. Here we use a combination of LC-MS/MS, genomic, and bioinformatic analyses to characterize and compare the protein composition of the secretomes of four recently isolated, cosmopolitan, Mn(II)-oxidizing Ascomycetes (Alternaria alternata SRC1lrK2f, Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a, Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a, and Paraconiothyrium sporulosum AP3s5-JAC2a). We demonstrate that the organisms produce a rich yet functionally similar suite of extracellular enzymes, with species-specific differences in secretome composition arising from unique amino acid sequences rather than overall protein function. Furthermore, we identify not only a wide range of carbohydrate-active enzymes that can directly oxidize recalcitrant carbon, but also an impressive suite of redox-active accessory enzymes that suggests a role for Fenton-based hydroxyl radical formation in indirect, non-specific lignocellulose attack. Our findings highlight the diverse oxidative capacity of these environmental isolates and enhance our understanding of the role of filamentous Ascomycetes in carbon turnover in the environment. PMID:27434633

  7. Iron(III) and manganese(II) substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: Characterization and cytotoxicity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Teck Nam, Chai; Ooi, Chui Ping

    2009-09-01

    Calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) is the main inorganic component of natural bones and can bond to bone directly in vivo. Thus HA is widely used as coating material on bone implants due to its good osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity. Metal ions doped HA have been used as catalyst or absorbents since the ion exchange method has introduced new properties in HA which are inherent to the metal ions. For example, Mn2+ ions have the potential to increase cell adhesion while Fe3+ ions have magnetic properties. Here, Fe(III) substituted hydroxyapatite (Fe-HA) and Mn(II) substituted hydroxyapatite (Mn-HA) were produced by wet chemical method coupled with ion exchange mechanism. Compared with pure HA, the colour of both Fe-HA and Mn-HA nanoparticles changed from white to brown and pink respectively. The intensity of the colours increased with increasing substitution concentrations. XRD patterns showed that all samples were single phased HA while the FTIR spectra revealed all samples possessed the characteristic phosphate and hydroxyl adsorption bands of HA. However, undesired adsorption bands of carbonate substitution (B-type carbonated HA) and H2O were also detected, which was reasonable since the wet chemical method was used in the synthesis of these nanoparticles. FESEM images showed all samples were elongated spheroids with small size distribution and of around 70 nm, regardless of metal ion substitution concentrations. EDX spectra showed the presence of Fe and Mn and ICP-AES results revealed all metal ion substituted HA were non-stoichiometric (Ca/P atomic ratio deviates from 1.67). Fe-HA nanoparticles were paramagnetic and the magnetic susceptibility increased with the increase of Fe content. Based on the extraction assay for cytotoxicity test, both Fe-HA and Mn-HA displayed non-cytotoxicity to osteoblast.

  8. Mobilization of manganese by basalt associated Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria from the Indian Ridge System.

    PubMed

    Sujith, P P; Mourya, B S; Krishnamurthi, S; Meena, R M; Loka Bharathi, P A

    2014-01-01

    The Indian Ridge System basalt bearing Mn-oxide coatings had todorokite as the major and birnesite as the minor mineral. We posit that microorganisms associated with these basalts participate in the oxidation of Mn and contribute to mineral deposition. We also hypothesized that, the Mn-oxidizing microbes may respond reversibly to pulses of fresh organic carbon introduced into the water column by mobilizing the Mn in Mn-oxides. To test these two hypotheses, we enumerated the number of Mn-oxidizers and -reducers and carried out studies on the mobilization of Mn by microbial communities associated with basalt. In medium containing 100 μM Mn(2+), 10(3) colony forming units (CFU) were recovered with undetectable number of reducers on Mn-oxide amended medium, suggesting that the community was more oxidative. Experiments were then conducted with basalt fragments at 4±2 °C in the presence 'G(+)' and absence 'G(-)' of glucose (0.1%). Controls included set-ups, some of which were poisoned with 15 mM azide and the others of which were heat-killed. The mobilization of Mn in the presence of glucose was 1.76 μg g(-1) d(-1) and in the absence, it was 0.17 μg g(-1) d(-1) after 150 d. Mn mobilization with and without added glucose was 13 and 4 times greater than the corresponding azide treated controls. However, rates in 'G(+)' were 16 times and 'G(-)' 24 times more than the respective heat killed controls. The corresponding total counts in the presence of added glucose increased from 1.63×10(6) to 6.71×10(7) cells g(-1) and from 1.41×10(7) to 3.52×10(7) cells g(-1) in its absence. Thus, the addition of glucose as a proxy for organic carbon changed the community's response from Mn(II)-oxidizing to Mn(IV)-reducing activity. The results confirm the participation of Mn oxidizing bacteria in the mobilization of Mn. Identification of culturable bacteria by 16S rRNA gene analysis showed taxonomic affiliations to Bacillus, Exiguobacterium, Staphylococcus, Brevibacterium and

  9. Elimination of Manganese(II,III) Oxidation in Pseudomonas putida GB-1 by a Double Knockout of Two Putative Multicopper Oxidase Genes

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, James K.; Tebo, Bradley M.

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial manganese(II) oxidation impacts the redox cycling of Mn, other elements, and compounds in the environment; therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms of and enzymes responsible for Mn(II) oxidation. In several Mn(II)-oxidizing organisms, the identified Mn(II) oxidase belongs to either the multicopper oxidase (MCO) or the heme peroxidase family of proteins. However, the identity of the oxidase in Pseudomonas putida GB-1 has long remained unknown. To identify the P. putida GB-1 oxidase, we searched its genome and found several homologues of known or suspected Mn(II) oxidase-encoding genes (mnxG, mofA, moxA, and mopA). To narrow this list, we assumed that the Mn(II) oxidase gene would be conserved among Mn(II)-oxidizing pseudomonads but not in nonoxidizers and performed a genome comparison to 11 Pseudomonas species. We further assumed that the oxidase gene would be regulated by MnxR, a transcription factor required for Mn(II) oxidation. Two loci met all these criteria: PputGB1_2447, which encodes an MCO homologous to MnxG, and PputGB1_2665, which encodes an MCO with very low homology to MofA. In-frame deletions of each locus resulted in strains that retained some ability to oxidize Mn(II) or Mn(III); loss of oxidation was attained only upon deletion of both genes. These results suggest that PputGB1_2447 and PputGB1_2665 encode two MCOs that are independently capable of oxidizing both Mn(II) and Mn(III). The purpose of this redundancy is unclear; however, differences in oxidation phenotype for the single mutants suggest specialization in function for the two enzymes. PMID:23124227

  10. Synthesis, characterization, biological evaluation and docking studies of macrocyclic binuclear manganese(II) complexes containing 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl pendant arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthi, P.; Shobana, S.; Srinivasan, P.; Mitu, L.; Kalilur Rahiman, A.

    2015-05-01

    A series of bis(phenoxo) bridged binuclear manganese(II) complexes of the type [Mn2L1-3](ClO4)2 (1-3) containing 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl pendant-arms have been synthesized by cyclocondensation of 2,6-diformyl-4-R-phenols (where R = sbnd CH3, sbnd C(CH3)3 or sbnd Br) with 2,2‧-3,5-dinitrobenzoyliminodi(ethylamine) trihydrochloride in the presence of manganese(II) perchlorate. The IR spectra of complexes indicate the presence of uncoordinated perchlorate anions. The UV-Vis spectra of complexes suggest the distorted octahedral geometry around manganese(II) nuclei. The EPR spectra of Mn(II) complexes show a broad signal with g value 2.03-2.04, which is characteristic for octahedral high spin Mn2+ complex. The observed room temperature magnetic moment values of the Mn(II) complexes (5.60-5.62 B.M.) are less than the normal value (5.92 B.M.), indicating weak antiferromagnetic coupling interaction between the two metal ions. Electrochemical studies of the complexes show two distinct quasi-reversible one electron transfer processes in the cathodic (E1pc = -0.73 to -0.76 V, E2pc = -1.30 to -1.36 V), and anodic (E1pa = 1.02-1.11 V, E2pa = 1.32-1.79 V) potential regions. Antibacterial efficacy of complexes have been screened against four Gram (-ve) and two Gram (+ve) bacterial strains. The DNA interaction studies suggest that these complexes bind with CT-DNA by intercalation, giving the binding affinity in the order 1 > 2 > 3. All the complexes display significant cleavage activity against circular plasmid pBR322 DNA. Docking simulation was performed to insert complexes into the crystal structure of EGFR tyrosine kinase and B-DNA at active site to determine the probable binding mode.

  11. Electrochemically-induced reversible transition from the tunneled to layered polymorphs of manganese dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Boeun; Yoon, Chong Seung; Lee, Hae Ri; Chung, Kyung Yoon; Cho, Byung Won; Oh, Si Hyoung

    2014-08-01

    Zn-ion batteries are emerging energy storage systems eligible for large-scale applications, such as electric vehicles. These batteries consist of totally environmentally-benign electrode materials and potentially manufactured very economically. Although Zn/α-MnO2 systems produce high energy densities of 225 Wh kg-1, larger than those of conventional Mg-ion batteries, they show significant capacity fading during long-term cycling and suffer from poor performance at high current rates. To solve these problems, the concrete reaction mechanism between α-MnO2 and zinc ions that occur on the cathode must be elucidated. Here, we report the intercalation mechanism of zinc ions into α-MnO2 during discharge, which involves a reversible phase transition of MnO2 from tunneled to layered polymorphs by electrochemical reactions. This transition is initiated by the dissolution of manganese from α-MnO2 during discharge process to form layered Zn-birnessite. The original tunneled structure is recovered by the incorporation of manganese ions back into the layers of Zn-birnessite during charge process.

  12. Follow-up of patients affected by manganese-induced Parkinsonism after treatment with CaNa2EDTA.

    PubMed

    Herrero Hernandez, Elena; Discalzi, Gianluigi; Valentini, Consuelo; Venturi, Fabrizio; Chiò, Adriano; Carmellino, Caterina; Rossi, Luigi; Sacchetti, Anna; Pira, Enrico

    2006-05-01

    In the period of 1998-2004, seven workers affected by manganese-induced Parkinsonism were diagnosed, studied and treated with CaNa2EDTA at our Occupational Health Ward. Biological markers, as well as magnetic resonance imaging and clinical examinations, were used to assess the disease trend. Those workers still employed were immediately removed from exposure. Our results seem to confirm that very good clinical, biological and neuroradiological results can be obtained by timely removal from exposure and chelating treatment, and that amelioration can persist in time. Manganism is, however, a severe condition that can also progress independent of further exposure. Therefore, chelating treatment can be a great aid in overt manganism, but particular attention must be paid to primary prevention, as this disease should now be totally preventable and definitely merits eradication. PMID:16271769

  13. [Increased manganese superoxide dismutase and cyclin B1 expression in carnosine-induced inhibition of glioblastoma cell proliferation].

    PubMed

    Rybakova, Yu S; Kalen, A L; Eckers, J C; Fedorova, T N; Goswami, P C; Sarsour, E H

    2015-01-01

    Carnosine is an endogenous dipeptide with antiproliferative properties. Here we show that carnosine selectively inhibits proliferation of human glioblastoma cells (U-118-MG) compared to breast (MB231) and oral (Cal27 and FaDu) cancer cells. Carnosine-induced inhibition of U-118-MG proliferation is associated with a significant: decrease in cellular reactive oxygen species levels, increase in manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and increase in cyclin B1 expression resulting in G2-block. We conclude that the antiproliferative property of carnosine is due to its ability to enhance MnSOD and cyclin B1 expression. These results will be of significance to the potential application of carnosine in brain cancer therapy. PMID:26350743

  14. Pivotal roles of p53 transcription-dependent and -independent pathways in manganese-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chunhua; Ma, Xa; Shi, Shangshi; Zhao, Jianya; Nie, Xiaoke; Han, Jingling; Xiao, Jing; Wang, Xiaoke; Jiang, Shengyang; Jiang, Junkang

    2014-12-15

    Chronic exposure to excessive manganese (Mn) has been known to lead to neuronal loss and a clinical syndrome resembling idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). p53 plays an integral role in the development of various human diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders. However, the role of p53 in Mn-induced neuronal apoptosis and neurological deficits remains obscure. In the present study, we showed that p53 was critically involved in Mn-induced neuronal apoptosis in rat striatum through both transcription-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Western blot and immunohistochemistrical analyses revealed that p53 was remarkably upregulated in the striatum of rats following Mn exposure. Coincidentally, increased level of cleaved PARP, a hallmark of apoptosis, was observed. Furthermore, using nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated PC12 cells as a neuronal cell model, we showed that Mn exposure decreased cell viability and induced apparent apoptosis. Importantly, p53 was progressively upregulated, and accumulated in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The cytoplasmic p53 had a remarkable distribution in mitochondria, suggesting an involvement of p53 mitochondrial translocation in Mn-induced neuronal apoptosis. In addition, Mn-induced impairment of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) could be partially rescued by pretreatment with inhibitors of p53 transcriptional activity and p53 mitochondrial translocation, Pifithrin-α (PFT-α) and Pifithrin-μ (PFT-μ), respectively. Moreover, blockage of p53 activities with PFT-α and PFT-μ significantly attenuated Mn-induced reactive oxidative stress (ROS) generation and mitochondrial H₂O₂ production. Finally, we observed that pretreatment with PFT-α and PFT-μ ameliorated Mn-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. Collectively, these findings implicate that p53 transcription-dependent and -independent pathways may play crucial roles in the regulation of Mn-induced neuronal death. PMID:25448048

  15. Protective effects of ebselen (Ebs) and para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) against manganese (Mn)-induced neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Marreilha dos Santos, A.P.; Lucas, Rui L.; Andrade, Vanda; Mateus, M. Luísa; Milatovic, Dejan; Aschner, Michael; Batoreu, M. Camila

    2012-02-01

    Chronic, excessive exposure to manganese (Mn) may induce neurotoxicity and cause an irreversible brain disease, referred to as manganism. Efficacious therapies for the treatment of Mn are lacking, mandating the development of new interventions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of ebselen (Ebs) and para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) in attenuating the neurotoxic effects of Mn in an in vivo rat model. Exposure biomarkers, inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers, as well as behavioral parameters were evaluated. Co-treatment with Mn plus Ebs or Mn plus PAS caused a significant decrease in blood and brain Mn concentrations (compared to rats treated with Mn alone), concomitant with reduced brain E{sub 2} prostaglandin (PGE{sub 2}) and enhanced brain glutathione (GSH) levels, decreased serum prolactin (PRL) levels, and increased ambulation and rearing activities. Taken together, these results establish that both PAS and Ebs are efficacious in reducing Mn body burden, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and locomotor activity impairments in a rat model of Mn-induced toxicity. -- Highlights: ► The manuscript is unique in its approach to the neurotoxicity of Mn. ► The manuscript incorporates molecular, cellular and functional (behavioral) analyses. ► Both PAS and Ebs are effective in restoring Mn behavioral function. ► Both PAS and Ebs are effective in reducing Mn-induced oxidative stress. ► Both PAS and Ebs led to a decrease in Mn-induced neuro-inflammation.

  16. Silica encapsulated manganese perovskite nanoparticles for magnetically induced hyperthermia without the risk of overheating.

    PubMed

    Kaman, O; Pollert, E; Veverka, P; Veverka, M; Hadová, E; Knízek, K; Marysko, M; Kaspar, P; Klementová, M; Grünwaldová, V; Vasseur, S; Epherre, R; Mornet, S; Goglio, G; Duguet, E

    2009-07-01

    Nanoparticles of manganese perovskite of the composition La(0.75)Sr(0.25)MnO(3) uniformly coated with silica were prepared by encapsulation of the magnetic cores (mean crystallite size 24 nm) using tetraethoxysilane followed by fractionation. The resulting hybrid particles form a stable suspension in an aqueous environment at physiological pH and possess a narrow hydrodynamic size distribution. Both calorimetric heating experiments and direct measurements of hysteresis loops in the alternating field revealed high specific power losses, further enhanced by the encapsulation procedure in the case of the coated particles. The corresponding results are discussed on the basis of complex characterization of the particles and especially detailed magnetic measurements. Moreover, the Curie temperature (335 K) of the selected magnetic cores resolves the risk of local overheating during hyperthermia treatment. PMID:19531865

  17. Polymorphism and Formation Mechanism of Nanobipods in Manganese Sulfide Nanocrystals Induced by Temperature or Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xinyi; Wang, Yingnan; Wang, Kai; Sui, Yongming; Zhang, Meiguang; Li, Bing; Ma, Yanming; Liu, Bingbing; Zou, Guangtian; Zou, Bo

    2012-03-15

    Manganese sulfide (MnS) nanocrystals (NCs) with three different phases were synthesized by one-pot solvent thermal approach. The crystal structures and morphologies were investigated using powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. We found that the crystal structure and morphology of MnS NCs could be controlled by simply varying the reaction temperature. The detailed growth process of MnS nanobipods, including the zinc blende (ZB)-core formation and wurtzite (WZ)-arms growth, provides direct experimental evidence for the polymorphism model. Furthermore, we have studied the stability of metastable ZB- and WZ-MnS NCs under high pressure and found that ZB-nanoparticles and ZB/WZ-nanobipods are stable below their critical pressure, 5.3 and 2.9 GPa, respectively. When pressures exceed the critical point, all these metastable MnS NCs directly convert to the stable rock salt MnS.

  18. Field-Induced Slow Magnetic Relaxation in a Mononuclear Manganese(III)-Porphyrin Complex.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Álvarez, Alejandro; Vallejo, Julia; Pardo, Emilio; Julve, Miguel; Lloret, Francesc; Krzystek, J; Armentano, Donatella; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Cano, Joan

    2015-11-23

    We report on a novel manganese(III)-porphyrin complex with the formula [Mn(III) (TPP)(3,5-Me2 pyNO)2 ]ClO4 ⋅CH3 CN (2; 3,5-Me2 pyNO=3,5-dimethylpyridine N-oxide, H2 TPP=5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin), in which the Mn(III) ion is six-coordinate with two monodentate 3,5-Me2 pyNO molecules and a tetradentate TPP ligand to build a tetragonally elongated octahedral geometry. The environment in 2 is responsible for the large and negative axial zero-field splitting (D=-3.8 cm(-1) ), low rhombicity (E/|D|=0.04) of the high-spin Mn(III) ion, and, ultimately, for the observation of slow magnetic-relaxation effects (Ea =15.5 cm(-1) at H=1000 G) in this rare example of a manganese-based single-ion magnet (SIM). Structural, magnetic, and electronic characterizations were carried out by means of single-crystal diffraction studies, variable-temperature direct- and alternating-current measurements and high-frequency and -field EPR spectroscopic analysis followed by quantum-chemical calculations. Slow magnetic-relaxation effects were also observed in the already known analogous compound [Mn(III) (TPP)Cl] (1; Ea =10.5 cm(-1) at H=1000 G). The results obtained for 1 and 2 are compared and discussed herein. PMID:26481722

  19. Comparison of the manganese oxygen-evolving complex in photosystem II of spinach and Synechococcus sp. with multinuclear manganese model compounds by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    DeRose, V.J.; Mukerji, I.; Latimer, M.J. ); Yachandra, V.K.; Klein, M.P. ); Sauer, K. Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1994-06-15

    The evaluation of Mn X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) studies on the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) from photosystem II is described for preparations from both spinach and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. poised in the S[sub 1] and S[sub 2] states. In addition to reproducing previous results suggesting the presence of bis([mu]-oxo)-bridged Mn centers in the OEC, a Fourier transform peak due to scatterers at an average distance of > 3 [angstrom] is detected in both types of preparation. In addition, subtle but reproducible changes are found in the relative amplitudes of the Fourier transform peaks due to mainly O ([approximately]1.8 [angstrom]) and Mn ([approximately] 2.7 [angstrom]) neighbors upon cryogenic advance from the S[sub 1] to the S[sub 2] state. Analysis of the peak due to scatterers at [approximately] 3 [angstrom] favors assignment to (per 4 Mn in the OEC) 1-2 heavy atom (Mn, Ca) scatterers at an average distance of 3.3-3.4 [angstrom]. The EXAFS data of several multinuclear Mn model compounds containing such scattering interactions are analyzed and compared with the data for the OEC. Structural models for the OEC are evaluated on the basis of these results. 40 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. A new indirect spectrofluorimetric determination of sub-micromolar concentrations of manganese(II) in bovine liver by means of 2-hydroxyquinoline.

    PubMed

    Ragos, G C; Demertzis, M A; Issopoulos, P B

    1997-03-01

    A new high-sensitive and at the same time accurate and well documented indirect spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of sub-micromolar concentrations of manganese(II) being as a normal trace element in the bovine liver, was described. The purpose of the experimental work is performed by means of two fluorescence intensity measurements; the measurement of the fluorescence (F1) of a 2.0 x 10(-5) mol/l solution of pure 2-hydroxyquinoline (2-HQ) (lambda ex: 320 nm: lambda em: 375 nm), and that of the fluorescence of the above solution after the addition of Mn(II) to be analyzed (F2). The observed difference of the fluorescence intensities measured (F1-F2) = delta F, is exclusively owed to the quenching of the Mn(II) on the free 2-HQ. The presence of various metal ions considerably interferes with the above described determination of Mn(II). For this reason, the separation and/or masking of these undesirable metal ions it is advisable to apply before any analytical praxis. PMID:9212455

  1. Manganese limitation induces changes in the activity and in the organization of photosynthetic complexes in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Salomon, Eitan; Keren, Nir

    2011-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) ions are essential for oxygen evolution activity in photoautotrophs. In this paper, we demonstrate the dynamic response of the photosynthetic apparatus to changes in Mn bioavailability in cyanobacteria. Cultures of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 could grow on Mn concentrations as low as 100 nm without any observable effect on their physiology. Below this threshold, a decline in the photochemical activity of photosystem II (PSII) occurred, as evident by lower oxygen evolution rates, lower maximal photosynthetic yield of PSII values, and faster Q(A) reoxidation rates. In 77 K chlorophyll fluorescence spectroscopy, a peak at 682 nm was observed. After ruling out the contribution of phycobilisome and iron stress-induced IsiA proteins, this band was attributed to the accumulation of partially assembled PSII. Surprisingly, the increase in the 682-nm peak was paralleled by a decrease in the 720-nm peak, dominated by PSI fluorescence. The effect on PSI was confirmed by measurements of the P(700) photochemical activity. The loss of activity was the result of two processes: loss of PSI core proteins and changes in the organization of PSI complexes. Blue native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis revealed a Mn limitation-dependent dissociation of PSI trimers into monomers. The sensitive range for changes in the organization of the photosynthetic apparatus overlaps with the range of Mn concentrations measured in natural environments. We suggest that the ability to manipulate PSI content and organization allows cyanobacteria to balance electron transport rates between the photosystems. At naturally occurring Mn concentrations, such a mechanism will provide important protection against light-induced damage. PMID:21088228

  2. Manganese deficiency in Chlamydomonas results in loss of photosystem II and MnSOD function, sensitivity to peroxides, and secondary phosphorus and iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Allen, Michael D; Kropat, Janette; Tottey, Stephen; Del Campo, José A; Merchant, Sabeeha S

    2007-01-01

    For photoheterotrophic growth, a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cell requires at least 1.7 x 10(7) manganese ions in the medium. At lower manganese ion concentrations (typically <0.5 microm), cells divide more slowly, accumulate less chlorophyll, and the culture reaches stationary phase at lower cell density. Below 0.1 microm supplemental manganese ion in the medium, the cells are photosynthetically defective. This is accompanied by decreased abundance of D1, which binds the Mn(4)Ca cluster, and release of the OEE proteins from the membrane. Assay of Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) indicates loss of activity of two isozymes in proportion to the Mn deficiency. The expression of MSD3 through MSD5, encoding various isoforms of the MnSODs, is up-regulated severalfold in Mn-deficient cells, but neither expression nor activity of the plastid Fe-containing superoxide dismutase is changed, which contrasts with the dramatically increased MSD3 expression and plastid MnSOD activity in Fe-deficient cells. Mn-deficient cells are selectively sensitive to peroxide but not methyl viologen or Rose Bengal, and GPXs, APX, and MSRA2 genes (encoding glutathione peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, and methionine sulfoxide reductase 2) are slightly up-regulated. Elemental analysis indicates that the Mn, Fe, and P contents of cells in the Mn-deficient cultures were reduced in proportion to the deficiency. A natural resistance-associated macrophage protein homolog and one of five metal tolerance proteins were induced in Mn-deficient cells but not in Fe-deficient cells, suggesting that the corresponding gene products may be components of a Mn(2+)-selective assimilation pathway. PMID:17085511

  3. Manganese Deficiency in Chlamydomonas Results in Loss of Photosystem II and MnSOD Function, Sensitivity to Peroxides, and Secondary Phosphorus and Iron Deficiency1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Michael D.; Kropat, Janette; Tottey, Stephen; Del Campo, José A.; Merchant, Sabeeha S.

    2007-01-01

    For photoheterotrophic growth, a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cell requires at least 1.7 × 107 manganese ions in the medium. At lower manganese ion concentrations (typically <0.5 μm), cells divide more slowly, accumulate less chlorophyll, and the culture reaches stationary phase at lower cell density. Below 0.1 μm supplemental manganese ion in the medium, the cells are photosynthetically defective. This is accompanied by decreased abundance of D1, which binds the Mn4Ca cluster, and release of the OEE proteins from the membrane. Assay of Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) indicates loss of activity of two isozymes in proportion to the Mn deficiency. The expression of MSD3 through MSD5, encoding various isoforms of the MnSODs, is up-regulated severalfold in Mn-deficient cells, but neither expression nor activity of the plastid Fe-containing superoxide dismutase is changed, which contrasts with the dramatically increased MSD3 expression and plastid MnSOD activity in Fe-deficient cells. Mn-deficient cells are selectively sensitive to peroxide but not methyl viologen or Rose Bengal, and GPXs, APX, and MSRA2 genes (encoding glutathione peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, and methionine sulfoxide reductase 2) are slightly up-regulated. Elemental analysis indicates that the Mn, Fe, and P contents of cells in the Mn-deficient cultures were reduced in proportion to the deficiency. A natural resistance-associated macrophage protein homolog and one of five metal tolerance proteins were induced in Mn-deficient cells but not in Fe-deficient cells, suggesting that the corresponding gene products may be components of a Mn2+-selective assimilation pathway. PMID:17085511

  4. Synthesis, characterization and magnetic properties of a manganese (II) silicate containing frustrated S=5/2 zig–zag ladders

    SciTech Connect

    Brandão, P.; Paixão, L.S.; Reis, M.S.

    2014-03-15

    The hydrothermal synthesis, structural characterization and magnetic properties of a manganese silicate with ideal formula of NaMn{sub 2}Si{sub 3}O{sub 8}(OH) is reported. This compound is a synthetic analog to the naturally occurring mineral Serandite. The crystal structure comprises MnO{sub 6} octahedra and SiO{sub 4} tetrahedra. The MnO{sub 6} share four edges with neighboring octahedra forming double chains. These chains are connected by silicate chains Si{sub 3}O{sub 8}(OH) resulting in an open framework structure with six-member ring channels where sodium ions are located. From the magnetic point of view, the intra-chain exchange between neighboring S=5/2 manganese ions is weak, partly due to the distortion observed in the octahedra, but also due to the frustrated topology of the chain. A successful fitting of the magnetic susceptibility was obtained by considering a double chain numerical model with Monte Carlo derived empirical parameters. -- Graphical abstract: A manganese silicate prepared hydrothermally with formula NaMn{sub 2}Si{sub 3}O{sub 8}(OH) possessing the structure of the mineral Serandite contains doubled chains of edge-sharing MnO{sub 6} octahedra. The magnetic susceptibility was measured and shows an antiferromagnetic behavior. Highlights: • Characterization of a synthetic analog to the mineral Serandite: NaMn{sub 2}Si{sub 3}O{sub 8}(OH). • Fitting of the magnetic susceptibility considering a classical regular chain. • Weak metal–oxygen–metal super-exchange interactions; antiferromagnetic in nature. • Elevated degree of frustration along the chain, without sign of interchain ordering.

  5. Gender Differences in Protection Against Angiotensin II-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction by MnSOD in the Cerebral Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Chrissobolis, Sophocles; Faraci, Frank M.

    2010-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) produces oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in blood vessels. The vasculature from females may be protected against deleterious effects of Ang II. We tested the hypothesis that manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) protects against Ang II-induced endothelial dysfunction. Experiments were performed in C57Bl/6, wild-type (MnSOD+/+) and MnSOD deficient (MnSOD+/−) mice treated systemically with vehicle or Ang II. Basilar arteries were isolated from C57Bl/6 mice treated for one week with a non-pressor dose of Ang II (0.28 mg/kg × day). Ang II treatment produced superoxide-mediated impairment of responses to the endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine (Ach)(P<0.05). In male, but not female MnSOD+/+ mice, Ang II modestly inhibited responses to ACh (P<0.05). In contrast, Ang II selectively impaired these responses by up to 70% in male MnSOD+/− mice (P<0.05) and this effect was reversed by tempol (P<0.05). Ang II had no effect on ACh responses in MnSOD+/− female mice. Vascular superoxide levels following treatment with an inhibitor of CuZn- and extracellular-SOD, were higher in Ang II-treated vs vehicle-treated MnSOD+/− mice. Thus, a non-pressor dose of Ang II produces endothelial dysfunction in male mice only, suggesting that the female vasculature is protected from Ang II. In male, but not female mice, MnSOD deficiency enhanced endothelial dysfunction, suggesting that MnSOD normally protects the vasculature during disease states in which Ang II contributes to vascular dysfunction. PMID:20194298

  6. DNA-binding and cleavage studies of a novel two-dimensional manganese(II) azide complex with N-methylimidazole.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fengjuan; Xu, Zhihong; Xi, Pinxian; Liu, Xiaohui; Zeng, Zhengzhi

    2009-03-01

    A new complex, manganese(II) azide complex with N-methylimidazole, has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra and single crystal X-ray studies. Absorption spectroscopy, emission spectroscopy, viscosity measurements and CD spectroscopy have been used to investigate the binding of the complex with calf thymus DNA (CTDNA). The intrinsic binding constant K(b) of the complex with DNA was obtained by electronic absorption titration; the value is consistent with the result by fluorescence titration method. The spectroscopic studies together with viscosity measurements support the claim that the title complex bonds to CT-DNA by a groove mode. Control cleavage experiments using pBR 322 plasmid DNA which suggest minor groove binding for the complex. PMID:19276591

  7. Radiation-induced defects in manganese-doped lithium tetraborate phosphor.

    PubMed

    Annalakshmi, O; Jose, M T; Madhusoodanan, U; Sridevi, J; Venkatraman, B; Amarendra, G; Mandal, A B

    2015-01-01

    Lithium tetraborate doped with manganese synthesised by solid-state sintering technique exhibits a dosimetric peak at 280°C. The high-temperature glow curve results in no fading for three months. The sensitivity of Li2B4O7:Mn is determined to be 0.9 times that of TLD-100. The infrared spectrum of this phosphor indicates the presence of bond vibrations corresponding to BO4 tetrahedral and BO3 triangles. The mechanism for thermoluminescence in this phosphor was proposed based on the thermoluminescence (TL) emission spectra, kinetic analysis of TL glow curves and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements on non-irradiated and gamma-irradiated phosphors. It was identified that oxygen vacancies and Boron oxygen hole centre (BOHC) are the electron and hole trap centres for TL in this phosphor. When the phosphor is heated, the electrons are released from the electron trap and recombine with the trapped holes. The excitation energy during the recombination is transferred to the nearby Mn(2+) ions, which emit light at 580 nm. PMID:24743763

  8. Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Gene Expression Is Induced by Nanog and Oct4, Essential Pluripotent Stem Cells' Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Solari, Claudia; Vázquez Echegaray, Camila; Cosentino, María Soledad; Petrone, María Victoria; Waisman, Ariel; Luzzani, Carlos; Francia, Marcos; Villodre, Emilly; Lenz, Guido; Miriuka, Santiago; Barañao, Lino; Guberman, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells possess complex systems that protect them from oxidative stress and ensure genomic stability, vital for their role in development. Even though it has been reported that antioxidant activity diminishes along stem cell differentiation, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of the involved genes. The reported modulation of some of these genes led us to hypothesize that some of them could be regulated by the transcription factors critical for self-renewal and pluripotency in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In this work, we studied the expression profile of multiple genes involved in antioxidant defense systems in both ESCs and iPSCs. We found that Manganese superoxide dismutase gene (Mn-Sod/Sod2) was repressed during diverse differentiation protocols showing an expression pattern similar to Nanog gene. Moreover, Sod2 promoter activity was induced by Oct4 and Nanog when we performed a transactivation assay using two different reporter constructions. Finally, we studied Sod2 gene regulation by modulating the expression of Oct4 and Nanog in ESCs by shRNAs and found that downregulation of any of them reduced Sod2 expression. Our results indicate that pluripotency transcription factors positively modulate Sod2 gene transcription. PMID:26642061

  9. Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Gene Expression Is Induced by Nanog and Oct4, Essential Pluripotent Stem Cells’ Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Solari, Claudia; Vázquez Echegaray, Camila; Cosentino, María Soledad; Petrone, María Victoria; Waisman, Ariel; Luzzani, Carlos; Francia, Marcos; Villodre, Emilly; Lenz, Guido; Miriuka, Santiago; Barañao, Lino; Guberman, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells possess complex systems that protect them from oxidative stress and ensure genomic stability, vital for their role in development. Even though it has been reported that antioxidant activity diminishes along stem cell differentiation, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of the involved genes. The reported modulation of some of these genes led us to hypothesize that some of them could be regulated by the transcription factors critical for self-renewal and pluripotency in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In this work, we studied the expression profile of multiple genes involved in antioxidant defense systems in both ESCs and iPSCs. We found that Manganese superoxide dismutase gene (Mn-Sod/Sod2) was repressed during diverse differentiation protocols showing an expression pattern similar to Nanog gene. Moreover, Sod2 promoter activity was induced by Oct4 and Nanog when we performed a transactivation assay using two different reporter constructions. Finally, we studied Sod2 gene regulation by modulating the expression of Oct4 and Nanog in ESCs by shRNAs and found that downregulation of any of them reduced Sod2 expression. Our results indicate that pluripotency transcription factors positively modulate Sod2 gene transcription. PMID:26642061

  10. Pivotal roles of p53 transcription-dependent and -independent pathways in manganese-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Chunhua; Ma, Xa; Shi, Shangshi; Zhao, Jianya; Nie, Xiaoke; Han, Jingling; Xiao, Jing; Wang, Xiaoke; Jiang, Shengyang; Jiang, Junkang

    2014-12-15

    Chronic exposure to excessive manganese (Mn) has been known to lead to neuronal loss and a clinical syndrome resembling idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). p53 plays an integral role in the development of various human diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders. However, the role of p53 in Mn-induced neuronal apoptosis and neurological deficits remains obscure. In the present study, we showed that p53 was critically involved in Mn-induced neuronal apoptosis in rat striatum through both transcription-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Western blot and immunohistochemistrical analyses revealed that p53 was remarkably upregulated in the striatum of rats following Mn exposure. Coincidentally, increased level of cleaved PARP, a hallmark of apoptosis, was observed. Furthermore, using nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated PC12 cells as a neuronal cell model, we showed that Mn exposure decreased cell viability and induced apparent apoptosis. Importantly, p53 was progressively upregulated, and accumulated in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The cytoplasmic p53 had a remarkable distribution in mitochondria, suggesting an involvement of p53 mitochondrial translocation in Mn-induced neuronal apoptosis. In addition, Mn-induced impairment of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) could be partially rescued by pretreatment with inhibitors of p53 transcriptional activity and p53 mitochondrial translocation, Pifithrin-α (PFT-α) and Pifithrin-μ (PFT-μ), respectively. Moreover, blockage of p53 activities with PFT-α and PFT-μ significantly attenuated Mn-induced reactive oxidative stress (ROS) generation and mitochondrial H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production. Finally, we observed that pretreatment with PFT-α and PFT-μ ameliorated Mn-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. Collectively, these findings implicate that p53 transcription-dependent and -independent pathways may play crucial roles in the regulation of Mn-induced neuronal death. - Highlights: • p53 is robustly

  11. Csk regulates angiotensin II-induced podocyte apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Ren, Zhilong; Yang, Qian; Ding, Guohua

    2016-07-01

    Increasing data have shown that angiotensin II (Ang II) perpetuates podocyte injury and promotes progression to end-stage kidney disease. The mechanism underlying Ang II-induced podocyte apoptosis has not been established. C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) is a cytoplasmic kinase that interacts with scaffolding proteins involved in cell growth, adhesion, and polarization, and the role of Csk in regulating cellular apoptosis has gradually attracted attention. This study evaluates the role of Csk in Ang II-induced podocyte apoptosis. In vivo, Wistar rats were randomly subjected to a normal saline or Ang II infusion. In vitro, we exposed differentiated mouse podocytes to Ang II. Ang II increased Csk expression and induced podocyte apoptosis, stimulated Csk translocation and binding to Caveolin-1, and stimulated decreased Fyn pY416, increased Fyn pY529, and nephrin dephosphorylation. Csk knockdown prevented Ang II-induced podocyte apoptosis, reduced Fyn kinase inactivation, and increased the interaction between nephrin and the activated form of Fyn, accompanied by a reduced interaction between Csk and Caveolin-1. These findings indicate that Ang II induces podocyte injury via a Csk-dependent pathway. PMID:27225249

  12. Unveiling the Origin of Work Hardening Behavior in an Ultrafine-Grained Manganese Transformation-Induced Plasticity Steel by Hydrogen Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xu; Li, Wei; Zhao, Hongshan; Han, Qihang; Wang, Li; Jiao, Huisheng; Jin, Xuejun

    2016-09-01

    To reveal the origin of work hardening behavior in an ultrafine-grained manganese transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel, specific experiments were designed with the assistance of hydrogen. Although the effect of hydrogen on the austenite transformation was negligible, the work hardening rate ( Θ) was apparently reduced for hydrogenated samples, indicating that TRIP effect cannot account for the high Θ alone. The collaborative effect of dislocation accumulation in ferrite and austenite transformation is proposed to explain the responsible mechanism.

  13. Unveiling the Origin of Work Hardening Behavior in an Ultrafine-Grained Manganese Transformation-Induced Plasticity Steel by Hydrogen Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xu; Li, Wei; Zhao, Hongshan; Han, Qihang; Wang, Li; Jiao, Huisheng; Jin, Xuejun

    2016-07-01

    To reveal the origin of work hardening behavior in an ultrafine-grained manganese transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel, specific experiments were designed with the assistance of hydrogen. Although the effect of hydrogen on the austenite transformation was negligible, the work hardening rate (Θ) was apparently reduced for hydrogenated samples, indicating that TRIP effect cannot account for the high Θ alone. The collaborative effect of dislocation accumulation in ferrite and austenite transformation is proposed to explain the responsible mechanism.

  14. Manganese mineralogy and diagenesis in the sedimentary rock record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jena E.; Webb, Samuel M.; Ma, Chi; Fischer, Woodward W.

    2016-01-01

    Oxidation of manganese (II) to manganese (III,IV) demands oxidants with very high redox potentials; consequently, manganese oxides are both excellent proxies for molecular oxygen and highly favorable electron acceptors when oxygen is absent. The first of these features results in manganese-enriched sedimentary rocks (manganese deposits, commonly Mn ore deposits), which generally correspond to the availability of molecular oxygen in Earth surface environments. And yet because manganese reduction is promoted by a variety of chemical species, these ancient manganese deposits are often significantly more reduced than modern environmental manganese-rich sediments. We document the impacts of manganese reduction and the mineral phases that form stable manganese deposits from seven sedimentary examples spanning from modern surface environments to rocks over 2 billion years old. Integrating redox and coordination information from synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray microprobe imaging with scanning electron microscopy and energy and wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy, we find that unlike the Mn(IV)-dominated modern manganese deposits, three manganese minerals dominate these representative ancient deposits: kutnohorite (CaMn(CO3)2), rhodochrosite (MnCO3), and braunite (Mn(III)6Mn(II)O8SiO4). Pairing these mineral and textural observations with previous studies of manganese geochemistry, we develop a paragenetic model of post-depositional manganese mineralization with kutnohorite and calcian rhodochrosite as the earliest diagenetic mineral phases, rhodochrosite and braunite forming secondarily, and later alteration forming Mn-silicates.

  15. Adipocyte-Specific Deletion of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Protects From Diet-Induced Obesity Through Increased Mitochondrial Uncoupling and Biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong Hwan; Buffolo, Márcio; Pires, Karla Maria; Pei, Shaobo; Scherer, Philipp E; Boudina, Sihem

    2016-09-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with oxidative stress (OS). The causal role of adipose OS in the pathogenesis of these conditions is unknown. To address this issue, we generated mice with an adipocyte-selective deletion of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). When fed a high-fat diet (HFD), the AdSod2 knockout (KO) mice exhibited less adiposity, reduced adipocyte hypertrophy, and decreased circulating leptin. The resistance to diet-induced adiposity was the result of an increased metabolic rate and energy expenditure. Furthermore, palmitate oxidation was elevated in the white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue of AdSod2 KO mice fed an HFD, and the expression of key fatty acid oxidation genes was increased. To gain mechanistic insight into the increased fat oxidation in HFD-fed AdSod2 KO mice, we quantified the mitochondrial function and mitochondrial content in WAT and found that MnSOD deletion increased mitochondrial oxygen consumption and induced mitochondrial biogenesis. This effect was preserved in cultured adipocytes from AdSod2 KO mice in vitro. As expected from the enhanced fat oxidation, circulating levels of free fatty acids were reduced in the HFD-fed AdSod2 KO mice. Finally, HFD-fed AdSod2 KO mice were protected from hepatic steatosis, adipose tissue inflammation, and glucose and insulin intolerance. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MnSOD deletion in adipocytes triggered an adaptive stress response that activated mitochondrial biogenesis and enhanced mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, thereby preventing diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:27284109

  16. The Vacuolar Manganese Transporter MTP8 Determines Tolerance to Iron Deficiency-Induced Chlorosis in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is a widespread nutritional disorder on calcareous soils. To identify genes involved in the Fe deficiency response, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) transfer DNA insertion lines were screened on a high-pH medium with low Fe availability. This approach identified METAL TOLERANCE PROTEIN8 (MTP8), a member of the Cation Diffusion Facilitator family, as a critical determinant for the tolerance to Fe deficiency-induced chlorosis, also on soil substrate. Subcellular localization to the tonoplast, complementation of a manganese (Mn)-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain, and Mn sensitivity of mtp8 knockout mutants characterized the protein as a vacuolar Mn transporter suitable to prevent plant cells from Mn toxicity. MTP8 expression was strongly induced on low-Fe as well as high-Mn medium, which were both strictly dependent on the transcription factor FIT, indicating that high-Mn stress induces Fe deficiency. mtp8 mutants were only hypersensitive to Fe deficiency when Mn was present in the medium, which further suggested an Mn-specific role of MTP8 during Fe limitation. Under those conditions, mtp8 mutants not only translocated more Mn to the shoot than did wild-type plants but suffered in particular from critically low Fe concentrations and, hence, Fe chlorosis, although the transcriptional Fe deficiency response was up-regulated more strongly in mtp8. The diminished uptake of Fe from Mn-containing low-Fe medium by mtp8 mutants was caused by an impaired ability to boost the ferric chelate reductase activity, which is an essential process in Fe acquisition. These findings provide a mechanistic explanation for the long-known interference of Mn in Fe nutrition and define the molecular processes by which plants alleviate this antagonism. PMID:26668333

  17. Cilostazol suppresses angiotensin II-induced apoptosis in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    SHI, MIAO-QIAN; SU, FEI-FEI; XU, XUAN; LIU, XIONG-TAO; WANG, HONG-TAO; ZHANG, WEI; LI, XUE; LIAN, CHENG; ZHENG, QIANG-SUN; FENG, ZHI-CHUN

    2016-01-01

    Patients with essential hypertension undergo endothelial dysfunction, particularly in the conduit arteries. Cilostazol, a type III phosphodiesterase inhibitor, serves a role in the inhibition of platelet aggregation and it is widely used in the treatment of peripheral vascular diseases. Previous studies have suggested that cilostazol suppresses endothelial dysfunction; however, it remains unknown whether cilostazol protects the endothelial function in essential hypertension. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether, and how, cilostazol suppresses angiotensin II (angII)-induced endothelial dysfunction. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to angII and treated with cilostazol. Endothelial cell apoptosis and function, nitric oxide and superoxide production, phosphorylation (p) of Akt, and caspase-3 protein expression levels were investigated. AngII exposure resulted in the apoptosis of endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, cilostazol significantly suppressed the angII-induced apoptosis of HUVECs; however, this effect was reduced in the presence of LY294002, a phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor. Furthermore, cilostazol suppressed the angII-induced p-Akt downregulation and cleaved caspase-3 upregulation. These effects were also alleviated by LY294002. In vivo, cilostazol suppressed the angII-induced endothelial cell apoptosis and dysfunction. Cilostazol was also demonstrated to partially reduced the angII-induced increase in superoxide production. The results of the present study suggested that cilostazol suppresses endothelial apoptosis and dysfunction by modulating the PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:26862035

  18. [Clinical cases of occupational chronic manganese intoxication].

    PubMed

    Konstantinova, T N; Lakhman, O L; Katamanova, E V; Kartapol'tseva, N V; Meshcheriagin, V A; Rusanova, D V; Andreeva, O K

    2009-01-01

    Classic symptoms of manganese intoxication are very rarely seen nowadays. Clinic in Angarsk Research Institute for Occupational medicine and Human ecology registered two cases of stage I and II chronic manganese intoxication over 10 years among electric welders. The cases were diagnosed with consideration of long length of exposure to manganese with the ambient air level exceeding the MAC 1.5 times, the disease manifestation at middle age, high manganese level in serum and urine, characteristic neurologic symptoms in association with organic psychopathologic defects and polyneuropathy of limbs. PMID:19278189

  19. Combined effect of demagnetizing field and induced magnetic anisotropy on the magnetic properties of manganese-zinc ferrite composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babayan, V.; Kazantseva, N. E.; Moučka, R.; Sapurina, I.; Spivak, Yu. M.; Moshnikov, V. A.

    2012-01-01

    This work is devoted to the analysis of factors responsible for the high-frequency shift of the complex permeability (μ*) dispersion region in polymer composites of manganese-zinc (MnZn) ferrite, as well as to the increase in their thermomagnetic stability. The magnetic spectra of the ferrite and its composites with polyurethane (MnZn-PU) and polyaniline (MnZn-PANI) are measured in the frequency range from 1 MHz to 3 GHz in a longitudinal magnetization field of up to 700 Ое and in the temperature interval from -20 °С to +150 °С. The approximation of the magnetic spectra by a model, which takes into account the role of domain wall motion and magnetization rotation, allows one to determine the specific contribution of resonance processes associated with domain wall motion and the natural ferromagnetic resonance to the μ*. It is established that, at high frequencies, the μ* of the MnZn ferrite is determined solely by magnetization rotation, which occurs in the region of natural ferromagnetic resonance when the ferrite is in the “single domain” state. In the polymer composites of the MnZn ferrite, the high-frequency permeability is also determined mainly by the magnetization rotation; however, up to high values of magnetizing fields, there is a contribution of domain wall motion, thus the “single domain” state in ferrite is not reached. The frequency and temperature dependence of μ* in polymer composites are governed by demagnetizing field and the induced magnetic anisotropy. The contribution of the induced magnetic anisotropy is crucial for MnZn-PANI. It is attributed to the elastic stresses that arise due to the domain wall pinning by a polyaniline film adsorbed on the surface of the ferrite during in-situ polymerization.

  20. Bladder function in mice with inducible smooth muscle-specific deletion of the manganese superoxide dismutase gene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guiming; Elrashidy, Rania A; Xiao, Nan; Kavran, Michael; Huang, Yexiang; Tao, Mingfang; Powell, C Thomas; Kim, Edward; Sadeghi, Ghazal; Mohamed, Hoda E; Daneshgari, Firouz

    2015-08-01

    Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is considered a critical component of the antioxidant systems that protect against oxidative damage. We are interested in the role of oxidative stress in bladder detrusor smooth muscle (SM) in different disease states. In this study, we generated an inducible, SM-specific Sod2(-/-) mouse model to investigate the effects of MnSOD depletion on the function of the bladder. We crossbred floxed Sod2 (Sod2(lox/lox)) mice with mice containing heterozygous knock-in of a gene encoding a tamoxifen-activated Cre recombinase in the SM22α promoter locus [SM-CreER(T2)(ki)(Cre/+)]. We obtained Sod2(lox/lox),SM-CreER(T2)(ki)(Cre/+) mice and injected 8-wk-old males with 4-hydroxytamoxifen to induce Cre-mediated excision of the floxed Sod2 allele. Twelve weeks later, SM-specific deletion of Sod2 and depletion of MnSOD were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry. SM-specific Sod2(-/-) mice exhibited normal growth with no gross abnormalities. A significant increase in nitrotyrosine concentration was found in bladder SM tissue of SM-specific Sod2(-/-) mice compared with both wild-type mice and Sod2(+/+), SM-CreER(T2)(ki)(Cre/+) mice treated with 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Assessment of 24-h micturition in SM-specific Sod2(-/-) mice revealed significantly higher voiding frequency compared with both wild-type and SM-specific Cre controls. Conscious cystometry revealed significantly shorter intercontraction intervals and lower functional bladder capacity in SM-specific Sod2(-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice. This novel model can be used for exploring the mechanistic role of oxidative stress in organs rich in SM in different pathological conditions. PMID:25948732

  1. MECHANISMS OF MANGANESE-INDUCED RAT PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA (PC12) CELL DEATH AND CELL DIFFERENTIATION. (R826248)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mn is a neurotoxin that leads to a syndrome resembling Parkinson's disease after prolonged exposure to high concentrations. Our laboratory has been investigating the mechanism by which Mn induces neuronal cell death. To accomplish this, we have utilized rat pheochromocytom...

  2. Binding of manganese(II) to a tertiary stabilized hammerhead ribozyme as studied by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    KISSELEVA, NATALIA; KHVOROVA, ANASTASIA; WESTHOF, ERIC; SCHIEMANN, OLAV

    2005-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is used to study the binding of MnII ions to a tertiary stabilized hammer-head ribozyme (tsHHRz) and to compare it with the binding to the minimal hammerhead ribozyme (mHHRz). Continuous wave EPR measurements show that the tsHHRz possesses a single high-affinity MnII binding site with a KD of ≤10 nM at an NaCl concentration of 0.1 M. This dissociation constant is at least two orders of magnitude smaller than the KD determined previously for the single high-affinity MnII site in the mHHRz. In addition, whereas the high-affinity MnII is displaced from the mHHRz upon binding of the aminoglycoside antibiotic neomycin B, it is not from the tsHHRz. Despite these pronounced differences in binding, a comparison between the electron spin echo envelope modulation and hyperfine sublevel correlation spectra of the minimal and tertiary stabilized HHRz demonstrates that the structure of both binding sites is very similar. This suggests that the MnII is located in both ribozymes between the bases A9 and G10.1 of the sheared G · A tandem base pair, as shown previously and in detail for the mHHRz. Thus, the much stronger MnII binding in the tsHHRz is attributed to the interaction between the two external loops, which locks in the RNA fold, trapping the MnII in the tightly bound conformation, whereas the absence of long-range loop–loop interactions in the mHHRz leads to more dynamical and open conformations, decreasing MnII binding. PMID:15611296

  3. Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice Occurs with Inhibition of Activity and Nitration of Mitochondrial Manganese Superoxide Dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Rakhee; MacMillan-Crow, Lee Ann; Rafferty, Tonya M.; Saba, Hamida; Roberts, Dean W.; Fifer, E. Kim; James, Laura P.

    2011-01-01

    In overdose the analgesic/antipyretic acetaminophen (APAP) is hepatotoxic. Toxicity is mediated by initial hepatic metabolism to N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI). After low doses NAPQI is efficiently detoxified by GSH. However, in overdose GSH is depleted, NAPQI covalently binds to proteins as APAP adducts, and oxygen/nitrogen stress occurs. Toxicity is believed to occur by mitochondrial dysfunction. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) inactivation by protein nitration has been reported to occur during other oxidant stress-mediated diseases. MnSOD is a critical mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme that prevents peroxynitrite formation within the mitochondria. To examine the role of MnSOD in APAP toxicity, mice were treated with 300 mg/kg APAP. GSH was significantly reduced by 65% at 0.5 h and remained reduced from 1 to 4 h. Serum alanine aminotransferase did not significantly increase until 4 h and was 2290 IU/liter at 6 h. MnSOD activity was significantly reduced by 50% at 1 and 2 h. At 1 h, GSH was significantly depleted by 62 and 80% at nontoxic doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg, respectively. No further GSH depletion occurred with hepatotoxic doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg APAP. A dose response decrease in MnSOD activity was observed for APAP at 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg. Immunoprecipitation of MnSOD from livers of APAP-treated mice followed by Western blot analysis revealed nitrated MnSOD. APAP-MnSOD adducts were not detected. Treatment of recombinant MnSOD with NAPQI did not produce APAP protein adducts. The data indicate that MnSOD inactivation by nitration is an early event in APAP-induced hepatic toxicity. PMID:21205919

  4. Quantitative activity-induced manganese-dependent MRI for characterizing cortical layers in the primary somatosensory cortex of the rat.

    PubMed

    Auffret, Matthieu; Samim, Idrees; Lepore, Mario; Gruetter, Rolf; Just, Nathalie

    2016-03-01

    The ability of Mn(2+) to follow Ca(2+) pathways upon stimulation transform them into remarkable surrogate markers of neuronal activity using activity-induced manganese-dependent MRI (AIM-MRI). In the present study, a precise follow-up of physiological parameters during MnCl2 and mannitol infusions improved the reproducibility of AIM-MRI allowing in-depth evaluation of the technique. Pixel-by-pixel T1 data were investigated using histogram distributions in the barrel cortex (BC) and the thalamus before and after Mn(2+) infusion, after blood brain barrier opening and after BC activation. Mean BC T1 values dropped significantly upon trigeminal nerve (TGN) stimulation (-38 %, P = 0.02) in accordance with previous literature findings. T1 histogram distributions showed that 34 % of T1s in the range 600-1500 ms after Mn(2+ )+ mannitol infusions shifted to 50-350 ms after TGN stimulation corresponding to a twofold increase of the percentage of pixels with the lowest T1s in BC. Moreover, T1 changes in response to stimulation increased significantly from superficial cortical layers (I-III) to deeper layers (V-VI). Cortical cytoarchitecture detection during a functional paradigm was performed extending the potential of AIM-MRI. Quantitative AIM-MRI could thus offer a means to interpret local neural activity across cortical layers while identification of the role of calcium dynamics in vivo during brain activation could play a key role in resolving neurovascular coupling mechanisms. PMID:25366973

  5. Activity-induced manganese-dependent MRI (AIM-MRI) and functional MRI in awake rabbits during somatosensory stimulation.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Matthew P; Weiss, Craig; Procissi, Daniel; Wang, Lei; Disterhoft, John F

    2016-02-01

    Activity-induced manganese-dependent MRI (AIM-MRI) is a powerful tool to track system-wide neural activity using high resolution, quantitative T1-weighted MRI in animal models and has significant advantages for investigating neural activity over other modalities including BOLD fMRI. With AIM-MRI, Mn(2+) ions enter neurons via voltage-gated calcium channels preferentially active during the time of experimental exposure. A broad range of AIM-MRI studies using different species studying different phenomena have been performed, but few of these studies provide a systematic evaluation of the factors influencing the detection of Mn(2+) such as dosage and the temporal characteristics of Mn(2+) uptake. We identified an optimal dose of Mn(2+) (25 mg/kg, s.c.) in order to characterize the time-course of Mn(2+) accumulation in active neural regions in the rabbit. T1-weighted MRI and functional MRI were collected 0-3, 6-9, and 24-27 h post-Mn(2+) injection while the vibrissae on the right side were vibrated. Significant BOLD activation in the left somatosensory (SS) cortex and left ventral posteromedial (VPM) thalamic nucleus was detected during whisker vibration. T1-weighted signal intensities were extracted from these regions, their corresponding contralateral regions and the visual cortex (to serve as controls). A significant elevation in T1-weighted signal intensity in the left SS cortex (relative to right) was evident 6-9 and 24-27 h post-Mn(2+) injection while the left VPM thalamus showed a significant enhancement (relative to the right) only during the 24-27 h session. Visual cortex showed no hemispheric difference at any timepoint. Our results suggest that studies employing AIM-MRI would benefit by conducting experimental manipulations 6-24 h after subcutaneous MnCl2 injections to optimize the concentration of contrast agent in the regions active during the exposure. PMID:26589332

  6. Protective effects of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents against manganese-induced oxidative damage and neuronal injury

    SciTech Connect

    Milatovic, Dejan; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Yu, Yingchun; Zaja-Milatovic, Snjezana; Aschner, Michael

    2011-11-15

    Exposure to excessive manganese (Mn) levels leads to neurotoxicity, referred to as manganism, which resembles Parkinson's disease (PD). Manganism is caused by neuronal injury in both cortical and subcortical regions, particularly in the basal ganglia. The basis for the selective neurotoxicity of Mn is not yet fully understood. However, several studies suggest that oxidative damage and inflammatory processes play prominent roles in the degeneration of dopamine-containing neurons. In the present study, we assessed the effects of Mn on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, changes in high-energy phosphates and associated neuronal dysfunctions both in vitro and in vivo. Results from our in vitro study showed a significant (p < 0.01) increase in biomarkers of oxidative damage, F{sub 2}-isoprostanes (F{sub 2}-IsoPs), as well as the depletion of ATP in primary rat cortical neurons following exposure to Mn (500 {mu}M) for 2 h. These effects were protected when neurons were pretreated for 30 min with 100 of an antioxidant, the hydrophilic vitamin E analog, trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid), or an anti-inflammatory agent, indomethacin. Results from our in vivo study confirmed a significant increase in F{sub 2}-IsoPs levels in conjunction with the progressive spine degeneration and dendritic damage of the striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of mice exposed to Mn (100 mg/kg, s.c.) 24 h. Additionally, pretreatment with vitamin E (100 mg/kg, i.p.) or ibuprofen (140 {mu}g/ml in the drinking water for two weeks) attenuated the Mn-induced increase in cerebral F{sub 2}-IsoPs? and protected the MSNs from dendritic atrophy and dendritic spine loss. Our findings suggest that the mediation of oxidative stress/mitochondrial dysfunction and the control of alterations in biomarkers of oxidative injury, neuroinflammation and synaptodendritic degeneration may provide an effective, multi-pronged therapeutic strategy for protecting dysfunctional dopaminergic

  7. Biological low pH Mn(II) oxidation in a manganese deposit influenced by metal-rich groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohu, Tsing; Akob, Denise M.; Abratis, Michael; Lazar, Cassandre S.; Küsel, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms, key organisms, and geochemical significance of biological low-pH Mn(II) oxidation are largely unexplored. Here, we investigated the structure of indigenous Mn(II)-oxidizing microbial communities in a secondary subsurface Mn oxide deposit influenced by acidic (pH 4.8) metal-rich groundwater in a former uranium mining area. Microbial diversity was highest in the Mn deposit compared to the adjacent soil layers and included the majority of known Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) and two genera of known Mn(II)-oxidizing fungi (MOF). Electron X-ray microanalysis showed that romanechite [(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10] was conspicuously enriched in the deposit. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that certain fungal, bacterial, and archaeal groups were firmly associated with the autochthonous Mn oxides. Eight MOB within the Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes and one MOF strain belonging to Ascomycota were isolated at pH 5.5 or 7.2 from the acidic Mn deposit. Soil-groundwater microcosms demonstrated 2.5-fold-faster Mn(II) depletion in the Mn deposit than adjacent soil layers. No depletion was observed in the abiotic controls, suggesting that biological contribution is the main driver for Mn(II) oxidation at low pH. The composition and species specificity of the native low-pH Mn(II) oxidizers were highly adapted to in situ conditions, and these organisms may play a central role in the fundamental biogeochemical processes (e.g., metal natural attenuation) occurring in the acidic, oligotrophic, and metalliferous subsoil ecosystems.

  8. Manganese(IV) Oxide Production by Acremonium sp. Strain KR21-2 and Extracellular Mn(II) Oxidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Naoyuki; Tani, Yukinori; Maruo, Kanako; Tsuno, Hiroshi; Sakata, Masahiro; Iwahori, Keisuke

    2006-01-01

    Ascomycetes that can deposit Mn(III, IV) oxides are widespread in aquatic and soil environments, yet the mechanism(s) involved in Mn oxide deposition remains unclear. A Mn(II)-oxidizing ascomycete, Acremonium sp. strain KR21-2, produced a Mn oxide phase with filamentous nanostructures. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy showed that the Mn phase was primarily Mn(IV). We purified to homogeneity a laccase-like enzyme with Mn(II) oxidase activity from cultures of strain KR21-2. The purified enzyme oxidized Mn(II) to yield suspended Mn particles; XANES spectra indicated that Mn(II) had been converted to Mn(IV). The pH optimum for Mn(II) oxidation was 7.0, and the apparent half-saturation constant was 0.20 mM. The enzyme oxidized ABTS [2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] (pH optimum, 5.5; Km, 1.2 mM) and contained two copper atoms per molecule. Moreover, the N-terminal amino acid sequence (residues 3 to 25) was 61% identical with the corresponding sequence of an Acremonium polyphenol oxidase and 57% identical with that of a Myrothecium bilirubin oxidase. These results provide the first evidence that a fungal multicopper oxidase can convert Mn(II) to Mn(IV) oxide. The present study reinforces the notion of the contribution of multicopper oxidase to microbially mediated precipitation of Mn oxides and suggests that Acremonium sp. strain KR21-2 is a good model for understanding the oxidation of Mn in diverse ascomycetes. PMID:17021194

  9. Baicalin attenuates angiotensin II-induced endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiling; Zhu, Xingyu; Hu, Nan; Zhang, Xiuqin; Sun, Tianjiao; Xu, Jiyang; Bian, Xiaohong

    2015-09-11

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) has been shown to activate multiple downstream pathways resulting in endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Baicalin, a natural flavone, exerts anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic effects in cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, we hypothesized that baicalin has beneficial effects in Ang II-induced endothelial cells injury. Here, we shown that baicalin improved endothelial fuction impaired by Ang II through promoting endothelial-dependent vasodilation and suppressing the apoptosis of HUVECs in which baicalin decreased the expression of bax and cleaved caspase-3, and increased bcl-2 expression. Additionally, baicalin significantly conversed Ang II to angiotensin-1-7 [Ang-(1-7)] by activating angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and Mas receptor mRNA expression and protein expression. Moreover, treatment with baicalin significantly reduced cell oxidative damage induced by Ang II through MDA/ROS decrease and NO/T-AOC increase. This antioxidant capacity was related to the increases of PI3K, phosphor-AKT (Ser-473) and phosphor-eNOS (Ser-1177). In conclusion, our results implicate that baicalin could protect endothelial cells from Ang II-induced endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress via modulating the expression of bax, bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3, activating ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis and up-regulating PI3K/AKT/eNOS pathway. PMID:26239661

  10. Elemental abundance analyses with coadded Dominion Astrophysical Observatory spectrograms. II - The mercury-manganese stars 53 Tauri, Mu Leporis and Kappa Cancri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Saul J.

    1987-01-01

    Elemental abundance analyses based on the coaddition of at least 10 2.4 A/mm Ila-O Dominion Astrophysical Observatory spectrograms have been performed for three mercury-manganese stars, 53 Tauri, Mu Leporis, and Kappa Cancri. These fine analyses show a greater degree of internal consistency than previous studies based on lower signal-to-noise data. Lines as weak as of order 3 mA are employed in these studies, and lines of atomic species not previously identified have been discovered. The status of 53 Tau as an anomalous member of this class is confirmed in that it lacks a Hg II 3984 A line even at the 2 mA level. Further, its surface gravity indicates it is less evolved than Mu Lep and Chi Cnc. Violations of the odd-even effect in the photospheric abundances of all three stars suggest that nonnuclear processes have operated in their atmospheres. Some of the values are substantially changed from their presumably initial solar values.

  11. Crystal structure of bis-(acetato-κO)di-aqua-(2,2'-bi-pyridine-κ(2) N,N')manganese(II).

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Natarajan; Selvam, Parasuraman

    2014-09-01

    In the title monomeric manganese(II) complex, [Mn(CH3COO)2(C10H8N2)(H2O)2], the metal ion is coordinated by a bidentate 2,2'-bi-pyridine (bpy) ligand, two water mol-ecules and two axial acetate anions, resulting in a highly distorted octa-hedral environment. The aqua ligands are stabilized by the formation of strong intra-molecular hydrogen bonds with the uncoordinated acetate O atoms, giving rise to pseudo-bridging arrangement of the terminal acetate groups. In the crystal, the mol-ecules form [010] zigzag chains via O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving the aqua ligands and acetate O atoms. Further, the water and bpy ligands are trans to each other, and are arranged in an off-set fashion showing inter-molecular π-π stacking between nearly parallel bi-py rings, the centroid-centroid separations being 3.8147 (12) and 3.9305 (13) Å. PMID:25309183

  12. Effect of complete extraction and re-addition of manganese on thermoluminescence of pea Photosystem II preparations.

    PubMed

    Klimov, V V; Allakhverdiev, S I; Shafiev, M A; Demeter, S

    1985-10-01

    Thermoluminescence of Photosystem II particles isolated from pea chloroplasts using digitonin and Triton X-100 was measured after 1 min illumination at a certain temperature (T(ex)) followed by illumination during cooling (40 Cdeg/min) to a lower temperature. Glow curves of the particles are characteristic of the photosynthetic oxygen-evolving material studied earlier. Complete (more than 95%) removal of Mn from the Photosystem II particles abolishes thermoluminescence bands around 0° C, related to the oxygen-evolving system, but the thermoluminescence bands peaking around -30°C (TL(-30)), -55°C (TL_ (-55)) and between-68 and -85° C, depending on Tex(TLv), remain unaltered. The bands are characterized by different dependence on T,x. The TL(-30), TL(-55) and TL v bands can also be observed in the glow curve of isolated pea and spinach chloroplasts. Re-addition of MnCI (2) (2 μM, corresponding to nearly 4 Mn atoms per reaction center of Photosystem II) to the Mn-depleted particles does not reactivate the thermoluminescence bands around 0° C. However, it does lead to suppression of TL(-30) accompanied by parallel activation of TL(-55), revealing competition of the TL (-30) and TL(-55) for charges generated by the reaction center. These data, as well as the results on the effect of inhibitors and electron donors to Photosystem II, show that positive charges contributing to the TL(-30), TL (-55) and TL v thermoluminescence bands are located on secondary electron donors of Photosystem II which do not require Mn and are located closer to the reaction center than the Mn-containing, water-oxidizing enzyme. PMID:22860268

  13. Synthesis, and characterization of low- and high-spin manganese(II) complexes of polyfunctional adipoyldihydrazone: Effect of coordination of N-donor ligands on stereo-redox chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basumatary, Debajani; Lal, Ram Ashray; Kumar, Arvind

    2015-07-01

    Manganese(II) complexes [MnII(npahH2)] (1), [MnII(npahH2)(A)2] and [MnII(npahH2)(NN)] (where A = pyridine, (2); 2-picoline, (3); 3-picoline, (4); 4-picoline, (5) and NN = 2,2‧ bipyridine, (6); 1,10-phenanthroline, (7)) have been synthesized from bis(2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde)adipoyldihydrazone (npahH4) in methanol. The composition of metal complexes has been established by elemental analyses. Complexes (1) and (3) have been characterized by mass spectral data also. Structural assessments of the complexes have been based on data obtained from molar conductance, magnetic moment, electronic, electron paramagnetic resonance and infrared spectral studies. Conductivity measurements in DMSO suggest that they are non-electrolyte. Electronic spectral studies suggest a six-coordinate octahedral geometry around the manganese center in complexes (2) to (7) and square-planar geometry in complex (1). IR spectral studies reveal that the dihydrazone coordinates to the metal in keto form with an anti-cis configuration. Magnetic moment, and EPR studies suggest manganese in +2 oxidation state in all complexes with high-spin distorted octahedral stereochemistry in complexes (2-7) while low-spin square-planar stereochemistry is involved with significant metal-metal interactions in the solid state in complex (1). Cyclic voltammetric studies reveal that the metal center cycles among the MnII → MnI → Mn0 in complexes (2) to (7) and among MnII → MnI oxidation states in complex (1).

  14. Ab initio study of pressure-induced magnetic transition in manganese pnictides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prathiba, G.; Naanci, B. Anto; Rajagopalan, M.

    2007-02-01

    We report a density functional calculation on the NiAs-type Mn-based pnictides. The total energy as a function of volume is obtained by means of self-consistent tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital method by performing spin and non-spin polarized calculation. From the present study, we predict a magnetic-phase transition from ferromagnetic (FM) to non-magnetic (NM) around 49 and 35.7 GPa for MnAs and MnSb, respectively. The pressure-induced transition is found to be a second-order transition. The band structure and density of states (DOS) are plotted for FM and NM states. Apart from this the ground-state properties like magnetic moment, lattice parameter and bulk modulus are calculated and are compared with the available results. Under large volume expansion these compounds exist in zinc-blende (ZB) structure, which shows half metallicity. The magnetic moment and equilibrium lattice constants for ZB structure are obtained as well as band structure and DOS are presented.

  15. Central Nervous Activity upon Systemic Salicylate Application in Animals with Kanamycin-Induced Hearing Loss--A Manganese-Enhanced MRI (MEMRI) Study.

    PubMed

    Gröschel, Moritz; Götze, Romy; Müller, Susanne; Ernst, Arne; Basta, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of systemic salicylate on central auditory and non-auditory structures in mice. Since cochlear hair cells are known to be one major target of salicylate, cochlear effects were reduced by using kanamycin to remove or impair hair cells. Neuronal brain activity was measured using the non-invasive manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging technique. For all brain structures investigated, calcium-related neuronal activity was increased following systemic application of a sodium salicylate solution: probably due to neuronal hyperactivity. In addition, it was shown that the central effect of salicylate was not limited to the auditory system. A general alteration of calcium-related activity was indicated by an increase in manganese accumulation in the preoptic area of the anterior hypothalamus, as well as in the amygdala. The present data suggest that salicylate-induced activity changes in the auditory system differ from those shown in studies of noise trauma. Since salicylate action is reversible, central pharmacological effects of salicylate compared to those of (permanent) noise-induced hearing impairment and tinnitus might induce different pathophysiologies. These should therefore, be treated as different causes with the same symptoms. PMID:27078034

  16. Central Nervous Activity upon Systemic Salicylate Application in Animals with Kanamycin-Induced Hearing Loss - A Manganese-Enhanced MRI (MEMRI) Study

    PubMed Central

    Gröschel, Moritz; Götze, Romy; Müller, Susanne; Ernst, Arne; Basta, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of systemic salicylate on central auditory and non-auditory structures in mice. Since cochlear hair cells are known to be one major target of salicylate, cochlear effects were reduced by using kanamycin to remove or impair hair cells. Neuronal brain activity was measured using the non-invasive manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging technique. For all brain structures investigated, calcium-related neuronal activity was increased following systemic application of a sodium salicylate solution: probably due to neuronal hyperactivity. In addition, it was shown that the central effect of salicylate was not limited to the auditory system. A general alteration of calcium-related activity was indicated by an increase in manganese accumulation in the preoptic area of the anterior hypothalamus, as well as in the amygdala. The present data suggest that salicylate-induced activity changes in the auditory system differ from those shown in studies of noise trauma. Since salicylate action is reversible, central pharmacological effects of salicylate compared to those of (permanent) noise-induced hearing impairment and tinnitus might induce different pathophysiologies. These should therefore, be treated as different causes with the same symptoms. PMID:27078034

  17. Superoxide contributes to the rapid inactivation of specific secondary donors of the photosystem II reaction center during photodamage of manganese-depleted photosystem II membranes.

    PubMed

    Chen, G X; Blubaugh, D J; Homann, P H; Golbeck, J H; Cheniae, G M

    1995-02-21

    The role of superoxide in the mechanism of photoinactivation of the secondary donors of the reaction center of photosystem II membranes depleted of Mn by extraction with NH2OH plus EDTA (NH2OH/EDTA-PSII) was assessed. EPR analyses (g = 2 region) in continuous light, optical kinetic spectrophotometric analyses of P680+ and Car+, and AT-band emission measurements were made after various durations of weak and strong light treatment of NH2OH/EDTA-PSII in the presence and absence of superoxide dismutase, or of PSII electron acceptors to suppress superoxide formation. Additionally, flash-induced variable fluorescence of chlorophyll a and the capabilities of the membranes of photooxidize Mn2+ (in the presence of H2O2) via a high-affinity site (Km approximately 180 nM) and to carry out the photoactivation of the Mn-cluster were determined. In the absence of any additions to the NH2OH/EDTA-PSII membranes which were highly depleted of Mn, weak light treatment caused rapid (t1/2 approximately 20 s) and parallel losses of (a) the approximately 10 microseconds phase of P680+ reduction, which reflects the TyrZ-->P680+ reaction, (b) the amplitude of chlorophyll a variable fluorescence, (c) the capability to accumulate the TyrZ(+)-radical in continuous light, and (d) the capability to photooxidize Mn2+/H2O2 in continuous light. As reported previously [Blubaugh et al. (1991) Biochemistry 30, 7586-7597], a dark-stable 12-G-wide featureless EPR signal centered at g = 2.004 was formed rapidly during illumination. This signal previously was tentatively identified as a Car+ radical and was suggested to contribute to the quenching of chlorophyll a variable fluorescence and to the slowing of the TyrZ-->P680+ reaction. However, we failed to detect Car+ formation by sensitive optical spectrophotometry and obtained no definable evidence for either a quencher of fluorescence other than P680+ itself or a slowing of the TyrZ-->P680+ reaction. Addition of a saturating concentration (96 units

  18. Effect of terminal ligands on assembly of manganese(II) complexes with pyrazine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng-Qin; Zheng, Xiang-Jun; Wan, Yong-Hong; Wang, Ke-Zhi; Jin, Lin-Pei

    2006-10-01

    Three complexes [Mn(pzda)(H 2O) 2] n ( 1), [Mn(pzda)(bpy)] n ( 2) and [Mn(pzda)(phen)(H 2O) 2] ( 3) (H 2pzda = pyrazine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) were synthesized by the hydro(solvo)thermal reaction and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, IR spectrum. Complex 1 is a 2D bilayer structure in which each Mn(II) ion is coordinated to two oxygen atoms and two nitrogen atoms from three pzda ligands and two oxygen atoms of two water molecules. Complex 2 is a 3D metal-organic framework structure. Mn(II) is seven-coordinated: four oxygen atoms and one nitrogen atom from three pzda ligands and other two nitrogen atoms from one bpy molecule, displaying a distorted pentagonal bipyramid geometry. While complex 3 is a mononuclear structure in which Mn(II) ion is seven-coordinated to one pzda, one phen, and two water molecules. The complex is connected into a 3D supramolecular network via hydrogen-bonding and π-π stacking interactions. In each of complexes 1- 3, pzda ligands adopt different coordination mode.

  19. The influence of curcumin and manganese complex of curcumin on cadmium-induced oxidative damage and trace elements status in tissues of mice.

    PubMed

    Eybl, Vladislav; Kotyzová, Dana; Lesetický, Ladislav; Bludovská, Monika; Koutenský, Jaroslav

    2006-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuoyl methane) from turmeric is a well-known biologically active compound. It has been shown to ameliorate oxidative stress and it is considered to be a potent cancer chemopreventive agent. In our previous study the antioxidative effects of curcumin in cadmium exposed animals were demonstrated. Also manganese exerts protective effects in experimental cadmium intoxication. The present study examined the ability of the manganese complex of curcumin (Mn-curcumin) and curcumin to protect against oxidative damage and changes in trace element status in cadmium-intoxicated male mice. Curcumin or Mn-curcumin were administered at equimolar doses (0.14 mmol/kg b.w.) for 3 days, by gastric gavages, dispersed in methylcellulose. One hour after the last dose of antioxidants, cadmium chloride (33 micromol/kg) was administered subcutaneously. Both curcumin and Mn-curcumin prevented the increase of hepatic lipid peroxidation -- expressed as MDA level, induced by cadmium intoxication and attenuated the Cd-induced decrease of hepatic GSH level. No change in hepatic glutathione peroxidase or catalase activities was found in Cd-exposed mice. A decreased GSH-Px activity was measured in curcumin and Mn-curcumin alone treated mice. Neither curcumin nor Mn-curcumin treatment influenced cadmium distribution in the tissues and did not correct the changes in the balance of essential elements caused by Cd-treatment. The treatment with Mn-curcumin increased the Fe and Mn content in the kidneys of both control and Cd-treated mice and Fe and Cu content in the brain of control mice. In conclusion, regarding the antioxidative action, introducing manganese into the curcumin molecule does not potentiate the studied effects of curcumin. PMID:16345010

  20. NMR investigation of field-induced magnetic order in barium manganese oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Steve

    As early as 1956, Matsubara and Matsuda found an exact correspondence between a lattice gas model and a quantum antiferromagnet model[1]. They paved the way for the language of integer spin boson particles to be used interchangeably with quantum magnetic insulator systems in a general manner. For example, an analogy of density of bosons is found in magnetization, and analogy of chemical potential is found in external field. Just as there exist corresponding parameters between these two seemingly unrelated systems, quantum magnets can also exhibit consequences of Boson particle systems. In particular, spin-ordering transition in quantum magnets can be interpreted as Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) transition in Boson particle framework. Direct observation of BEC in Boson particles has been realized in 4He's superfluid transition and in dilute atomic gas clouds cooled to very low temperatures[2]. In this thesis, we try to realize and analyze BEC transition through field-induced spin-ordering transition in the S = 1 antiferromagnetic dimer system, Ba3Mn2O8. We perform NMR measurements with 135,137Ba nucleus as a local probe. Although S = 1 spin properties of Ba 3Mn2O8 come from electronic spins on Mn atoms, hyperfine coupling between Mn electronic spins and Ba nuclear spins allow us to infer Mn electrons' spin information. Since there are 2 inequivalent Ba sites, Ba(1) and Ba(2), in Ba3Mn2O8, we essentially have two probes that provide a detailed picture of structure and nature of magnetism in this material. There are many antiferromagnetic BEC candidates, but there is a significant advantage of studying Ba3Mn 2O8. Unlike the other popular antiferromagnetic BEC candidates such as TlCuCl3[3] or BaCuSi2O6[4], we find no evidence of lattice deformation in Ba3Mn2O8 . This allows us an unprecedented clean look at magnetic properties. Aside from the aforementioned simple technical advantage, there are new physics that we can learn from Ba3Mn2O 8. The geometric frustration of

  1. Research on the Adsorption of O2 in Metal-Organic Frameworks with Open Manganese(ii) Coordination Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weike; Yang, Jiangfeng; Li, Libo; Li, Jinping

    2013-02-01

    Three different metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), specifically Mn2(dobdc)(DMF)4 (H2dobdc=[2,5-dihydroxyterephthalic acid]; compound (1), Mn5(btac)4(μ3-OH)2(EtOH)2...DMF...3EtOH...3H2O (H2btac=[benzotriaole-5-carboxylicacid]; compound (2), and Mn3(2,6-ndc)3...4DMF (H2ndc=[2,6-naphthalenedicarbo-xylic acid]; compound (3), have been synthesized, the channels of which are lined with coordinatively unsaturated MnII centers. The adsorption of O2 in these MOFs has been measured using a gravimetric method at different temperatures (-78°C, -5°C, and 25°C) at a pressure of 1 bar. Gas adsorption isotherms of compounds 1 and 2 at 298 K indicated that they bind O2 by chemisorption at low pressure, with capacities of 1.2 wt.% and 2.14 wt.%, respectively, for the first cycle, with reversible oxygen binding for compound 1 and partially irreversible oxidation for compound 2. However, compound 3 binds O2 by physisorption, with a capacity of just 0.21 wt.%. This difference between the three compounds stems from the different coordination environments of the respective MnII centers, which give rise to differences in electron density. The results suggest that there must be an optimal electron density around the exposed MnII center for partial charge transfer from this center to the bound O2 molecule; if the electron density is too high or too low, reversible chemisorption of O2 is not favored.

  2. Extraction of manganese(II) with dithizone and potassium thiocyanate on foam sorbents for spectrophotometric determination in silicates.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, N; Roy, S K

    1993-10-01

    A method for selective extraction of Mn(II) with dithizone and potassium thiocyanate has been described. The method involves formation of a Mn(II)-thiocyanate-dithizone complex in a hexamine medium containing potassium thiocyanate (2.8M), dithizone (5.5-6.5 x 10(-5)M) and hydroxylamine hydrochloride (0.25%) at pH approximately 6 followed by extraction of the complex on polyurethane foam using batch squeezing mode within 1 hr. The sorbed Mn-thiocyanate-dithizone complex is eluted with acetone and made alkaline with 0.5 ml of a stabilizer solution (19 ml 2M NH(3) solution + 1 ml 5% hydroxylamine hydrochloride). The absorbance of the solution is measured at 506 nm. The adverse effect due to Pb may be obviated by separating the Pb as the sulphate during decomposition of sample and that due to iron may be removed before extraction of Mn by any suitable method. The other interfering elements (Cd, Zn, Ni, Co, Cu, etc.) are masked with KCN (6 x 10(-3)M optimum) solution. The method obeys Beer's Law from 0.1 to 2.0 mug Mn/ml. The method has been applied to various silicates, carbonates and glasses. PMID:18965811

  3. Biogeochemical cycling of manganese in Oneida Lake, New York: whole lake studies of manganese

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguilar, C.; Nealson, K. H.

    1998-01-01

    Oneida Lake, New York is a eutrophic freshwater lake known for its abundant manganese nodules and a dynamic manganese cycle. Temporal and spatial distribution of soluble and particulate manganese in the water column of the lake were analyzed over a 3-year period and correlated with other variables such as oxygen, pH, and temperature. Only data from 1988 are shown. Manganese is removed from the water column in the spring via conversion to particulate form and deposited in the bottom sediments. This removal is due to biological factors, as the lake Eh/pH conditions alone can not account for the oxidation of the soluble manganese Mn(II). During the summer months the manganese from microbial reduction moves from the sediments to the water column. In periods of stratification the soluble Mn(II) builds up to concentrations of 20 micromoles or more in the bottom waters. When mixing occurs, the soluble Mn(II) is rapidly removed via oxidation. This cycle occurs more than once during the summer, with each manganese atom probably being used several times for the oxidation of organic carbon. At the end of the fall, whole lake concentrations of manganese stabilize, and remain at about 1 micromole until the following summer, when the cycle begins again. Inputs and outflows from the lake indicate that the active Mn cycle is primarily internal, with a small accumulation each year into ferromanganese nodules located in the oxic zones of the lake.

  4. Immunosuppressive treatment protects against angiotensin II-induced renal damage.

    PubMed

    Muller, Dominik N; Shagdarsuren, Erdenechimeg; Park, Joon-Keun; Dechend, Ralf; Mervaala, Eero; Hampich, Franziska; Fiebeler, Anette; Ju, Xinsheng; Finckenberg, Piet; Theuer, Jürgen; Viedt, Christiane; Kreuzer, Joerg; Heidecke, Harald; Haller, Hermann; Zenke, Martin; Luft, Friedrich C

    2002-11-01

    Angiotensin (Ang) II promotes renal infiltration by immunocompetent cells in double-transgenic rats (dTGRs) harboring both human renin and angiotensinogen genes. To elucidate disease mechanisms, we investigated whether or not dexamethasone (DEXA) immunosuppression ameliorates renal damage. Untreated dTGRs developed hypertension, renal damage, and 50% mortality at 7 weeks. DEXA reduced albuminuria, renal fibrosis, vascular reactive oxygen stress, and prevented mortality, independent of blood pressure. In dTGR kidneys, p22phox immunostaining co-localized with macrophages and partially with T cells. dTGR dendritic cells expressed major histocompatibility complex II and CD86, indicating maturation. DEXA suppressed major histocompatibility complex II+, CD86+, dendritic, and T-cell infiltration. In additional experiments, we treated dTGRs with mycophenolate mofetil to inhibit T- and B-cell proliferation. Reno-protective actions of mycophenolate mofetil and its effect on dendritic and T cells were similar to those obtained with DEXA. We next investigated whether or not Ang II directly promotes dendritic cell maturation in vitro. Ang II did not alter CD80, CD83, and MHC II expression, but increased CCR7 expression and cell migration. To explore the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha on dendritic cell maturation in vivo, we treated dTGRs with the soluble TNF-alpha receptor etanercept. This treatment had no effect on blood pressure, but decreased albuminuria, nuclear factor-kappaB activation, and infiltration of all immunocompetent cells. These data suggest that immunosuppression prevents dendritic cell maturation and T-cell infiltration in a nonimmune model of Ang II-induced renal damage. Ang II induces dendritic migration directly, whereas in vivo TNF-alpha is involved in dendritic cell infiltration and maturation. Thus, Ang II may initiate events leading to innate and acquired immune response. PMID:12414515

  5. Immunosuppressive Treatment Protects Against Angiotensin II-Induced Renal Damage

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Dominik N.; Shagdarsuren, Erdenechimeg; Park, Joon-Keun; Dechend, Ralf; Mervaala, Eero; Hampich, Franziska; Fiebeler, Anette; Ju, Xinsheng; Finckenberg, Piet; Theuer, Jürgen; Viedt, Christiane; Kreuzer, Joerg; Heidecke, Harald; Haller, Hermann; Zenke, Martin; Luft, Friedrich C.

    2002-01-01

    Angiotensin (Ang) II promotes renal infiltration by immunocompetent cells in double-transgenic rats (dTGRs) harboring both human renin and angiotensinogen genes. To elucidate disease mechanisms, we investigated whether or not dexamethasone (DEXA) immunosuppression ameliorates renal damage. Untreated dTGRs developed hypertension, renal damage, and 50% mortality at 7 weeks. DEXA reduced albuminuria, renal fibrosis, vascular reactive oxygen stress, and prevented mortality, independent of blood pressure. In dTGR kidneys, p22phox immunostaining co-localized with macrophages and partially with T cells. dTGR dendritic cells expressed major histocompatibility complex II and CD86, indicating maturation. DEXA suppressed major histocompatibility complex II+, CD86+, dendritic, and T-cell infiltration. In additional experiments, we treated dTGRs with mycophenolate mofetil to inhibit T- and B-cell proliferation. Reno-protective actions of mycophenolate mofetil and its effect on dendritic and T cells were similar to those obtained with DEXA. We next investigated whether or not Ang II directly promotes dendritic cell maturation in vitro. Ang II did not alter CD80, CD83, and MHC II expression, but increased CCR7 expression and cell migration. To explore the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α on dendritic cell maturation in vivo, we treated dTGRs with the soluble TNF-α receptor etanercept. This treatment had no effect on blood pressure, but decreased albuminuria, nuclear factor-κB activation, and infiltration of all immunocompetent cells. These data suggest that immunosuppression prevents dendritic cell maturation and T-cell infiltration in a nonimmune model of Ang II-induced renal damage. Ang II induces dendritic migration directly, whereas in vivo TNF-α is involved in dendritic cell infiltration and maturation. Thus, Ang II may initiate events leading to innate and acquired immune response. PMID:12414515

  6. Angiotensin II Induced Cardiac Dysfunction on a Chip

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Renita E.; Yadid, Moran; McCain, Megan L.; Sheehy, Sean P.; Pasqualini, Francesco S.; Park, Sung-Jin; Cho, Alexander; Campbell, Patrick; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2016-01-01

    In vitro disease models offer the ability to study specific systemic features in isolation to better understand underlying mechanisms that lead to dysfunction. Here, we present a cardiac dysfunction model using angiotensin II (ANG II) to elicit pathological responses in a heart-on-a-chip platform that recapitulates native laminar cardiac tissue structure. Our platform, composed of arrays of muscular thin films (MTF), allows for functional comparisons of healthy and diseased tissues by tracking film deflections resulting from contracting tissues. To test our model, we measured gene expression profiles, morphological remodeling, calcium transients, and contractile stress generation in response to ANG II exposure and compared against previous experimental and clinical results. We found that ANG II induced pathological gene expression profiles including over-expression of natriuretic peptide B, Rho GTPase 1, and T-type calcium channels. ANG II exposure also increased proarrhythmic early after depolarization events and significantly reduced peak systolic stresses. Although ANG II has been shown to induce structural remodeling, we control tissue architecture via microcontact printing, and show pathological genetic profiles and functional impairment precede significant morphological changes. We assert that our in vitro model is a useful tool for evaluating tissue health and can serve as a platform for studying disease mechanisms and identifying novel therapeutics. PMID:26808388

  7. Poly[[tris­(μ3-2-oxidopyridinium-3-carboxyl­ato)manganese(II)sodium(I)] monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bing-Yu; Nie, Jing-Jing; Xu, Duan-Jun

    2010-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, {[MnNa(C6H4NO3)3]·H2O}n, the MnII cation is located on a threefold rotation axis and is chelated by three 2-oxidopyridinium-3-carboxyl­ate (opc) anions in an octa­hedal coordination. The NaI cation is located on a threefold rotation axis and is surrounded by six O atoms from three opc anions. The opc anions link the Mn and Na cations, forming a three-dimensional polymeric structure. The uncoordinated water mol­ecule, located on a threefold rotation axis, is equally disordered over two sites. The three-dimensional network is consolidated by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:21579675

  8. trans-Bis(nitrato-κO)bis­(1,10-phenanthroline-κ2 N,N′)manganese(II)

    PubMed Central

    Saphu, Watcharin; Chanthee, Songwuit; Chainok, Kittipong; Harding, David J.; Pakawatchai, Chaveng

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, [Mn(NO3)2(C12H8N2)2], the MnII atom lies on a twofold rotation axis, and is six-coordinated in a distorted trans-N4O2 octa­hedral environment by four N atoms from two 1,10-phenanthroline ligands and two O atoms from two nitrate anions. The nitrate anion is disordered about a twofold rotation axis with fixed occupancy factors of 0.5. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and π–π stacking inter­actions [centroid–centroid distance = 4.088 (5) Å] into a three-dimensional supra­molecular network. PMID:22904708

  9. Diaqua-bis-(1H-imidazole-4-carboxyl-ato-κ(2) N (3),O (4))manganese(II).

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zhi-Yong; Li, Lin; Zhao, Xiang-Jie; Chen, Hai-Ming

    2013-03-01

    In the title compound, [Mn(C4H3N2O2)2(H2O)2], the Mn(II) ion is located on a twofold rotation axis and displays a distorted octa-hedral coordination environment, defined by two N,O-bidentate 1H-imidazole-4-carboxyl-ate ligands in the equatorial plane and two water mol-ecules in axial positions. In the crystal, O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol-ecules into a three-dimensional supra-molecular network. π-π stacking inter-actions between the imidazole rings [centroid-centroid distances = 3.5188 (15) and 3.6687 (15) Å] further stabilize the structure. PMID:23476512

  10. Multifrequency electron spin-echo envelope modulation studies of nitrogen ligation to the manganese cluster of photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Yeagle, Gregory J; Gilchrist, M Lane; Walker, Lee M; Debus, Richard J; Britt, R David

    2008-03-27

    The CalEPR Center at UC-Davis (http://brittepr.ucdavis.edu) is equipped with five research grade electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) instruments operating at various excitation frequencies between 8 and 130GHz. Of particular note for this RSC meeting are two pulsed EPR spectrometers working at the intermediate microwave frequencies of 31 and 35GHz. Previous lower frequency electron spin-echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) studies indicated that histidine nitrogen is electronically coupled to the Mn cluster in the S2 state of photosystem II (PSII). However, the amplitude and resolution of the spectra were relatively poor at these low frequencies, precluding any in-depth analysis of the electronic structure properties of this closely associated nitrogen nucleus. With the intermediate frequency instruments, we are much closer to the 'exact cancellation' limit, which optimizes ESEEM spectra for hyperfine-coupled nuclei such as 14N and 15N. Herein, we report the results from ESEEM studies of both 14N- and 15N-labelled PSII at these two frequencies. Spectral simulations were constrained by both isotope datasets at both frequencies, with a focus on high-resolution spectral examination of the histidine ligation to the Mn cluster in the S2 state. PMID:17954435

  11. A Density Functional Theory Study of the Magnetic Exchange Coupling in Dinuclear Manganese(II) Inverse Crown Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vélez, Ederley; Alberola, Antonio; Polo, Víctor

    2009-10-01

    The magnetic exchange coupling constants between two Mn(II) centers for a set of five inverse crown structures have been investigated by means of a methodology based on broken-symmetry unrestricted density functional theory. These novel and highly unstable compounds present superexchange interactions between two Mn centers, each one with S = 5/2 through anionic "guests" such as oxygen, benzene, or hydrides or through the cationic ring formed by amide ligands and alkali metals (Na, Li). Magnetic exchange couplings calculated at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level yield strong antiferromagnetic couplings for compounds linked via an oxygen atom or hydride and very small antiferromagnetic couplings for those linked via a benzene molecule, deprotonated in either 1,4- or 1,3- positions. Analysis of the magnetic orbitals and spin polarization maps provide an understanding of the exchange mechanism between the Mn centers. The dependence of J with respect to 10 different density functional theory potentials employed and the basis set has been analyzed.

  12. Preparation of manganese(II), chromium(III) and ferric(III) oxides nanoparticles in situ metal citraconate complexes frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refat, Moamen S.

    2014-12-01

    The new reactions of some divalent and trivalent transition metal ions (Mn(II), Cr(III), and Fe(III)) with citraconic acid has been studied. The obtained results indicate the formation of citraconic acid compounds with molar ratio of metal to citraconic acid of 2:2 or 2:3 with general formulas Mn2(C5H4O4)2 or M2(C5H4O4)3ṡnH2O where n = 6 for Cr, and Fe(III). The thermal decomposition of the crystalline solid complexes was investigated. The IR spectra of citraconate suggested that the carboxylic groups are bidentatically bridging and chelating. In the course of decomposition the complexes are dehydrated and then decompose either directly to oxides in only one step or with intermediate formation of oxocarbonates. This proposal dealing the preparation of MnO2, Fe2O3 and Cr2O3 nanoparticles. The crystalline structure of oxide products were checked by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and the morphology of particles by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  13. Preparation of manganese(II), chromium(III) and ferric(III) oxides nanoparticles in situ metal citraconate complexes frameworks.

    PubMed

    Refat, Moamen S

    2014-12-10

    The new reactions of some divalent and trivalent transition metal ions (Mn(II), Cr(III), and Fe(III)) with citraconic acid has been studied. The obtained results indicate the formation of citraconic acid compounds with molar ratio of metal to citraconic acid of 2:2 or 2:3 with general formulas Mn2(C5H4O4)2 or M2(C5H4O4)3⋅nH2O where n=6 for Cr, and Fe(III). The thermal decomposition of the crystalline solid complexes was investigated. The IR spectra of citraconate suggested that the carboxylic groups are bidentatically bridging and chelating. In the course of decomposition the complexes are dehydrated and then decompose either directly to oxides in only one step or with intermediate formation of oxocarbonates. This proposal dealing the preparation of MnO2, Fe2O3 and Cr2O3 nanoparticles. The crystalline structure of oxide products were checked by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and the morphology of particles by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PMID:24952090

  14. Modulation of flash-induced photosystem II fluorescence by events occurring at the water oxidizing complex.

    PubMed

    Putrenko, I I; Vasil'ev, S; Bruce, D

    1999-08-17

    The mechanism of flash-induced changes with a periodicity of four in photosystem II (PSII) fluorescence was investigated with the aim of further using fluorescence measurements as an approach to studying the structural and functional organization of the water-oxidizing complex (WOC). The decay of the flash-induced high fluorescence state of PSII was measured with pulse amplitude modulated fluorometry in thylakoids and PSII enriched membrane fragments. Calculated QA- decay was well described by three exponential decay components, reflecting QA- reoxidation with halftimes of 450 and 860 micros, 2 and 7.6 ms, and 111 and 135 ms in thylakoids and PSII membranes, respectively. The effect of modification of the PSII donor side by changing pH or by removal of the extrinsic 17 and 24 kDa proteins on period four oscillations in both maximum fluorescence yield and the relative contribution of QA- reoxidation reactions was compared to flash-induced oxygen yield. The four-step oxidation of the manganese cluster of the WOC was found to be necessary but not sufficient to produce modulation of PSII fluorescence. The capacity of the WOC to generate molecular oxygen was also required to observe a period four in the fluorescence; however, direct quenching by oxygen was not responsible for the modulation. Potential mechanisms responsible for the periodicity of four in both maximum fluorescence yield pattern and flash-dependent changes in proportion of centers with different QA- reoxidation rates are discussed with respect to intrinsic deprotonation events occurring at the WOC. PMID:10451357

  15. Role of Spin States in Nitric Oxide Binding to Cobalt(II) and Manganese(II) Porphyrins. Is Tighter Binding Always Stronger?

    PubMed

    Radoń, Mariusz

    2015-06-15

    Binding of nitric oxide (NO) to metalloporphyrins and heme groups is important in biochemistry while challenging to describe accurately by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Here, the structural and thermochemical aspect of NO binding to Co(II) and Mn(II) porphyrins is investigated by DFT and DFT-D (dispersion-corrected) calculations, supported by reliable coupled-cluster methodology (CCSD(T)), and critically correlated with the experimental data. It is argued that whereas the bonding of NO to Co(II) porphyrin is a simple radical recombination, the bonding of NO to Mn(II) porphyrin is accompanied by a crossing of spin states. For this reason, the spin-state conversion energy contributes to the Mn-NO bond energy, and the paradigmatic correlation between bond length and bond energy is violated for the considered nitrosyl complexes: the Mn-NO bond is (structurally) shorter by ∼0.2 Å, albeit (energetically) weaker by a few kcal/mol, compared with the Co-NO bond. Moreover, none of the many tested DFT methods can reproduce the Co-NO and Mn-NO bond energies simultaneously, except for calculations with B3LYP*-D3, TPSSh-D3, and M06-D3 methods supplemented with the proposed spin-state energy correction (to compensate for an error on the calculated spin-state conversion energy). The results of this study are important to appreciate the role of spin-state changes in ligand binding properties of heme-related models. They also highlight the need for accurate calculations for correct interpretation of experimental data, including the qualitative structure-energy relationship. PMID:26000802

  16. Angiotensin II induced release of prostaglandins from rat uterus.

    PubMed

    Campos, G A; Guerra, F A; Israel, E J

    1983-08-01

    The effect of Angiotensin II (A-II) on 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 (6-keto-PGF1 alpha) and prostaglandin F (PGF) production by the rat uterus was studied using a novel superfusion technique. The method of superfusion used allows prostaglandin synthesis in the myometrium and endometrium to be measured independently while their anatomical relationship is undisturbed. Prostaglandins were measured by radioimmunoassay. In uterine horns from castrated, estrogen treated rats, A-II (10(-6)M) stimulated the production rate of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha in the myometrium nd PGF in the endometrium. Sterile horns and pregnant horns coexisting in the same animals showed different responses when superfused with culture medium containing A-II (10(-6)M). In the sterile horns A-II failed to stimulate prostaglandin synthesis whereas in the pregnant horns there was a significant increase in the production rate of both 6-keto-PGF1 alpha and PGF in the decidua (endometrium) and of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha in the myometrium. Our results suggests that the effect of A-II on prostaglandin synthesis by the rat uterus appears to be dependent of the hormonal milieu of the experimental animal. Estrogen stimulated A-II induced PG synthesis. Progesterone inhibited the synthesis of PGs caused by A-II in non-decidualized uterus but stimulated the release of PG in the decidualized uterus. The apparent differential effect of A-II in stimulating prostaglandin synthesis in the whole uterus indicates that there are different pathways for prostaglandin production in both the endometrium and myometrium. PMID:6689628

  17. Syntheses, crystal structure, spectroscopic and photoluminescence studies of mononuclear copper(II), manganese(II), cadmium(II), and a 1D polymeric Cu(II) complexes with a pyrimidine derived Schiff base ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Sangita; Konar, Saugata; Jana, Atanu; Das, Kinsuk; Dhara, Anamika; Chatterjee, Sudipta; Kar, Susanta Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The complexation behaviour of Schiff base ligand 2-((2-(4,6-dimethylpyrimidin-2-yl)hydrazono)methyl)phenol [HL] towards different metal centres is reported by the syntheses and characterization of three mononuclear Cu(II), Mn(II) and Cd(II) complexes, [Cu(L)(H2O)2](NO3)(H2O) (1), [Mn(L)2](CH3OH) (2), [Cd(L)2](CH3OH) (3) and a 1D polymeric Cu(II) complex, [Cu(L)(ClO4)(C2N2O2H)]n(CH3OH) (4) respectively. In the complexes 1-4 the deprotonated uninegative tridentate ligand serves as NNO donor where one pyrimidine ring N, the azomethine N and the salicyl hydroxyl oxygen atoms are coordinatively active. The complex 1 has almost square pyramidal geometry [τ = 0.2081] whereas the metal centres maintain distorted octahedral geometry in the remaining three complexes 2-4. All the complexes are characterized by X-ray crystallography. The Cd(II) complex has considerable fluorescence while the rest of the complexes and the ligand molecule are fluorescent silent.

  18. Focused electron beam induced deposition of pure SIO II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perentes, Alexandre; Hoffmann, Patrik; Munnik, Frans

    2007-02-01

    Focused electron beam induced processing (FEBID) equipments are the "all in one" tools for high resolution investigation, and modification of nano-devices. Focused electron beam induced deposition from a gaseous precursor usually results in a nano-composite sub-structured material, in which the interesting material is embedded in an amorphous carbonaceous matrix. Using the Hydrogen free tetraisocyanatosilane Si(NCO) 4 molecule as Si source, we show how a controlled oxygen flux, simultaneously injected with the precursor vapors, causes contaminants to vanish from the FEB deposits obtained and leads to the deposition of pure SiO II. The chemical composition of the FEBID material could be controlled from SiC IINO 3 to SiO II, the latter containing undetectable foreign element contamination. The [O II] / [TICS] ratio needed to obtain SiO II in our FEB deposition equipment is larger than 300. The evolution of the FEBID material chemical composition is presented as function of the [O II] / [TICS] molecular flux ratios. A hypothetical decomposition pathway of this silane under these conditions is discussed based on the different species formed under electron bombardment of TICS. Transmission electron microscopy investigations demonstrated that the deposited oxide is smooth (roughness sub 2nm) and amorphous. Infrared spectroscopy confirmed the low concentration of hydroxyl groups. The Hydrogen content of the deposited oxide, measured by elastic recoil detection analysis, is as low as 1 at%. 193nm wavelength AIMS investigations of 125nm thick SiO II pads (obtained with [O II] / [TICS] = 325) showed an undetectable light absorption.

  19. Homogeneity testing and quantitative analysis of manganese (Mn) in vitrified Mn-doped glasses by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    SciTech Connect

    Unnikrishnan, V. K.; Nayak, Rajesh; Kartha, V. B.; Santhosh, C. E-mail: unnikrishnan.vk@manipal.edu; Sonavane, M. S.; Yeotikar, R. G.; Shah, M. L.; Gupta, G. P.; Suri, B. M.

    2014-09-15

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), an atomic emission spectroscopy method, has rapidly grown as one of the best elemental analysis techniques over the past two decades. Homogeneity testing and quantitative analysis of manganese (Mn) in manganese-doped glasses have been carried out using an optimized LIBS system employing a nanosecond ultraviolet Nd:YAG laser as the source of excitation. The glass samples have been prepared using conventional vitrification methods. The laser pulse irradiance on the surface of the glass samples placed in air at atmospheric pressure was about 1.7×10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2}. The spatially integrated plasma emission was collected and imaged on to the spectrograph slit using an optical-fiber-based collection system. Homogeneity was checked by recording LIBS spectra from different sites on the sample surface and analyzing the elemental emission intensities for concentration determination. Validation of the observed LIBS results was done by comparison with scanning electron microscope- energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) surface elemental mapping. The analytical performance of the LIBS system has been evaluated through the correlation of the LIBS determined concentrations of Mn with its certified values. The results are found to be in very good agreement with the certified concentrations.

  20. ADP-Ribose Pyrophosphatase Reaction in Crystalline State Conducted by Consecutive Binding of Two Manganese(II) Ions as Cofactors.

    PubMed

    Furuike, Yoshihiko; Akita, Yuka; Miyahara, Ikuko; Kamiya, Nobuo

    2016-03-29

    Adenosine diphosphate ribose pyrophosphatase (ADPRase), a member of the Nudix family proteins, catalyzes the metal-induced and concerted general acid-base hydrolysis of ADP ribose (ADPR) into AMP and ribose-5'-phosphate (R5P). The ADPR-hydrolysis reaction of ADPRase from Thermus thermophilus HB8 (TtADPRase) requires divalent metal cations such as Mn(2+), Zn(2+), or Mg(2+) as cofactors. Here, we report the reaction pathway observed in the catalytic center of TtADPRase, based on cryo-trapping X-ray crystallography at atomic resolutions around 1.0 Å using Mn(2+) as the reaction trigger, which was soaked into TtADPRase-ADPR binary complex crystals. Integrating 11 structures along the reaction timeline, five reaction states of TtADPRase were assigned, which were ADPRase alone (E), the ADPRase-ADPR binary complex (ES), two ADPRase-ADPR-Mn(2+) reaction intermediates (ESM, ESMM), and the postreaction state (E'). Two Mn(2+) ions were inserted consecutively into the catalytic center of the ES-state and ligated by Glu86 and Glu82, which are highly conserved among the Nudix family, in the ESM- and ESMM-states. The ADPR-hydrolysis reaction was characterized by electrostatic, proximity, and orientation effects, and by preferential binding for the transition state. A new reaction mechanism is proposed, which differs from previous ones suggested from structure analyses with nonhydrolyzable substrate analogues or point-mutated ADPRases. PMID:26979298

  1. PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy play a protective role in manganese induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Tao; Mi, Lan; Wang, Ting; Yuan, Lan; Li, Xue-Hui; Dong, Li-Sha; Zhao, Peng; Fu, Juan-Ling; Yao, Bi-Yun; Zhou, Zong-Can

    2016-08-01

    Manganese (Mn) as an environmental risk factor of Parkinson's disease (PD) is considered to cause manganism. Mitophagy is thought to play a key role in elimination the injured mitochondria. The goal of this paper was to explore whether the PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy is activated and its role in Mn-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in SH-SY5Y cells. Here, we investigated effects of MnCl2 on ROS generation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP/ΔΨm) and apoptosis by FACS and examined PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy by western-blotting and the co-localization of mitochondria and acidic lysosomes. Further, we explore the role of mitophagy in Mn-induced apoptosis by inhibition the mitophagy by knockdown Parkin level. Results show that MnCl2 dose-dependently caused ΔΨm decrease, ROS generation and apoptosis of dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, Mn could induce mitophagy and PINK1/Parkin-mediated pathway was activated in SH-SY5Y cells. Transient transfection of Parkin siRNA knockdown the expressing level of parkin inhibited Mn-induced mitophagy and aggravated apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that Mn may induce PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy, which may exert significant neuro-protective effect against Mn-induced dopaminergic neuronal cells apoptosis. PMID:27091500

  2. Synthesis, X-ray structure, spectroscopic characterization and nonlinear optical properties of triaqua(1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxylato)manganese(II) dihydrate: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamer, Ömer; Avcı, Davut; Atalay, Yusuf; Çoşut, Bünyemin; Zorlu, Yunus; Erkovan, Mustafa; Yerli, Yusuf

    2015-11-01

    The triaqua(1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxylato)manganese(II) dihydrate complex was prepared and its crystal structure was determined by using single crystal X-ray diffraction. Its structure was also characterized by the applying of FT-IR, Raman and UV-vis spectroscopies. The manganese(II) ion was located to center of distorted pentagonal-bipyramidal geometry. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurement was carried out on the Mn(II) complex. In order to support experimental results, density functional theory calculations were performed at HSEH1PBE level and LanL2DZ basis set. Obtained results indicated that theoretical results can replace the experimental ones. The relatively active ν(CO) ν(CC) and ν(CN) stretching vibration peaks appeared in IR and Raman spectra of complex 1 which are indicators of charge transfer within complex 1 suggest that complex 1 is a good candidate for nonlinear optical materials. The HOMO and LUMO energies determined that complex 1 is stable and the charge transfer occurs within complex 1.

  3. Beneficial effects of astragaloside IV against angiotensin II-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yao; Li, Su; Wu, Hengfang; Bian, Zhiping; Xu, Jindan; Gu, Chunrong; Chen, Xiangjian; Yang, Di

    2015-11-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent characteristic of the majority of cardiovascular diseases. Astragaloside IV (As-IV), the major active ingredient of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. (a traditional Chinese herbal medicine), possesses antioxidant properties. The present study was carried out to examine whether As-IV can reverse Ang II-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Cultured rat aortic VSMCs treated with Ang II (1 µM) for 24 h exhibited mitochondrial dysfunction, including a decrease in mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates (OCRs), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) levels, as well as the disruption of mitochondrial structural integrity. Following treatment with Ang II, As-IV (50 µg/ml) was added to the culture medium followed by incubation for a further 24 h. The administration of As-IV significantly increased the mitochondrial OCRs, ATP production and the mtDNA levels, and reversed the mitochondrial morphological changes which occurred in the VSMCs. Treatment with As-IV also reversed the Ang II-induced increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the increase in NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase activity, as well as the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activity. Furthermore, treatment with As-IV led to an increase in the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam), and in the protein expression of PGC-1α, parkin and dynamin 1-like protein 1 (Drp1) in the VSMCs. These results indicate that As-IV exerts beneficial effects on Ang II-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in rat VSMCs and that these effects are mediated through the inhibition of ROS overproduction, as well as the promotion of mitochondrial autophagy and

  4. Beneficial effects of astragaloside IV against angiotensin II-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in rat vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    LU, YAO; LI, SU; WU, HENGFANG; BIAN, ZHIPING; XU, JINDAN; GU, CHUNRONG; CHEN, XIANGJIAN; YANG, DI

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent characteristic of the majority of cardiovascular diseases. Astragaloside IV (As-IV), the major active ingredient of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. (a traditional Chinese herbal medicine), possesses antioxidant properties. The present study was carried out to examine whether As-IV can reverse Ang II-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Cultured rat aortic VSMCs treated with Ang II (1 µM) for 24 h exhibited mitochondrial dysfunction, including a decrease in mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates (OCRs), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) levels, as well as the disruption of mitochondrial structural integrity. Following treatment with Ang II, As-IV (50 µg/ml) was added to the culture medium followed by incubation for a further 24 h. The administration of As-IV significantly increased the mitochondrial OCRs, ATP production and the mtDNA levels, and reversed the mitochondrial morphological changes which occurred in the VSMCs. Treatment with As-IV also reversed the Ang II-induced increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the increase in NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase activity, as well as the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activity. Furthermore, treatment with As-IV led to an increase in the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam), and in the protein expression of PGC-1α, parkin and dynamin 1-like protein 1 (Drp1) in the VSMCs. These results indicate that As-IV exerts beneficial effects on Ang II-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in rat VSMCs and that these effects are mediated through the inhibition of ROS overproduction, as well as the promotion of mitochondrial autophagy and

  5. Manganese-electrolysed slag treatment: bioleaching of manganese by Fusarium sp.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jian-Bing; Li, Xiao-Ming; Ouyang, Yu-Zhu; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Dong-Bo; Shen, Ting-Ting; Yue, Xiu; Yang, Qia

    2012-06-01

    A fungi strain named Fusarium sp. was isolated from manganese-electrolysed slag by using a gradient dilution spread plate method, identified by 26S RNA sequence analysis and phylogenetic tree analysis, and explored for the bioleaching capacity to manganese (II) from manganese-electrolysed slag in liquid mineral medium under different environmental conditions, including system temperature, incubator rotation speed and initial pH value. DNA sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicated the name of this fungi strain, that is, Fusarium sp., and higher bioleaching efficiencies (71.6%) of manganese by this fungi were observed when the bioleaching was carried out under the optimized conditions as follows: contact time: 72 h; system temperature: 28 degrees C; inoculums concentration: 2% (v/v); incubator rotation speed: 150 rpm; pH 4.0. Because of its low cost, environment friendliness and better efficiency, the bioleaching technique will have a significant impact on manganese-electrolysed slag pollution mitigation. PMID:22856303

  6. Organ weight changes in mice after long-term inhalation exposure to manganese oxides nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeman, T.; Buchtová, M.; Dočekal, B.; Míšek, I.; Navrátil, J.; Mikuška, P.; Šerý, O.; Večeřa, Z.

    2015-05-01

    Recently, it has been proven that manganese from inhaled particles of manganese compounds can accumulate in the internal organs of laboratory animals. Nevertheless, there were only a few researches dealing with changes in body morphology induced by inhalation of these particles, even though results of some studies indicate existence of such changes. The aim of our research was to assess the effect of inhaled manganese oxides nanoparticles on weight of internal organs. For this purpose a long-term inhalation experiment on laboratory mice was performed, during which the mice were exposed to MnO.Mn2O3 nanoparticles in concentration 2 × 106 particles/cm3 for 17 weeks, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Manganese oxides nanoparticles were synthesized continuously via aerosol route in a hot wall tube flow reactor using thermal decomposition of metal organic precursor manganese(II)acetylacetonate in the flow tube reactor at temperature 750 °C in the presence of 30 vol% of oxygen. It was proven that inhaled nanoparticles can influence the weight of internal organs of mice. Moreover, it was discovered that the resulting change in weight of selected organs is disproportional. The mice from the experimental group had statistically significantly lighter kidneys, liver and spleen and heavier pancreas compared to the mice from the control group.

  7. Real-Time Manganese Phase Dynamics during Biological and Abiotic Manganese Oxide Reduction.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jena E; Savalia, Pratixa; Davis, Ryan; Kocar, Benjamin D; Webb, Samuel M; Nealson, Kenneth H; Fischer, Woodward W

    2016-04-19

    Manganese oxides are often highly reactive and easily reduced, both abiotically, by a variety of inorganic chemical species, and biologically during anaerobic respiration by microbes. To evaluate the reaction mechanisms of these different reduction routes and their potential lasting products, we measured the sequence progression of microbial manganese(IV) oxide reduction mediated by chemical species (sulfide and ferrous iron) and the common metal-reducing microbe Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under several endmember conditions, using synchrotron X-ray spectroscopic measurements complemented by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy on precipitates collected throughout the reaction. Crystalline or potentially long-lived phases produced in these experiments included manganese(II)-phosphate, manganese(II)-carbonate, and manganese(III)-oxyhydroxides. Major controls on the formation of these discrete phases were alkalinity production and solution conditions such as inorganic carbon and phosphate availability. The formation of a long-lived Mn(III) oxide appears to depend on aqueous Mn(2+) production and the relative proportion of electron donors and electron acceptors in the system. These real-time measurements identify mineralogical products during Mn(IV) oxide reduction, contribute to understanding the mechanism of various Mn(IV) oxide reduction pathways, and assist in interpreting the processes occurring actively in manganese-rich environments and recorded in the geologic record of manganese-rich strata. PMID:27018915

  8. Pressure-Induced Renal Injury in Angiotensin II Versus Norepinephrine-Induced Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Polichnowski, Aaron J.; Cowley, Allen W.

    2010-01-01

    The susceptibility to renal perfusion pressure (RPP)-induced renal injury was investigated in angiotensin II (AngII) versus norepinephrine (NE)-infused hypertensive rats. To determine the magnitude of RPP-induced injury, Sprague-Dawley rats fed a 4% salt diet were instrumented with a servocontrolled aortic balloon occluder positioned between the renal arteries to maintain RPP to the left kidney at baseline levels while the right kidney was exposed to elevated RPP during a 2 week infusion of: 1) AngII i.v. (25 ng/kg/min), 2) NE i.v. (0.5, 1, and 2 ug/kg/min on Days 1, 2, and 3-14, respectively), or saline i.v. (sham rats). Over the 14 days of AngII infusion, RPP averaged 161.5 ± 8 mmHg to uncontrolled kidneys and 121.9 ± 2 mmHg to servocontrolled kidneys. In NE-infused rats, RPP averaged 156.3 ± 3 mmHg to uncontrolled kidneys and 116.9 ± 2 mmHg to servocontrolled kidneys. RPP averaged 111.1 ± 1 mmHg to kidneys of sham rats. Interlobular arterial injury and juxtamedullary glomerulosclerosis were largely RPP-dependent in both models of hypertension. Superficial cortical glomerulosclerosis was greater and RPP-dependent in NE versus AngII-infused rats, which was primarily independent of RPP. Outer medullary tubular necrosis and interstitial fibrosis was also primarily RPP-dependent in both models of hypertension; however, the magnitude of injury was exacerbated in AngII-infused rats. We conclude that elevated RPP is the dominant cause of renal injury in both NE and AngII-induced hypertensive rats and that underlying neurohumoral factors in these models of hypertension alter the pattern and magnitude of RPP-induced renal injury. PMID:19858406

  9. Deposition of manganese in a drinking water distribution system.

    PubMed Central

    Sly, L I; Hodgkinson, M C; Arunpairojana, V

    1990-01-01

    The deposition of manganese in a water distribution system with manganese-related "dirty water" problems was studied over a 1-year period. Four monitoring laboratories with Robbins biofilm sampling devices fitted to the water mains were used to correlate the relationship among manganese deposition, the level of manganese in the water, and the chlorination conditions. Manganese deposition occurred by both chemical and microbial processes. Chemical deposition occurred when Mn(II) not removed during water treatment penetrated the filters and entered the distribution system, where it was oxidized by chlorine and chlorine dioxide used for disinfection. Microbial deposition occurred in areas with insufficient chlorination to control the growth of manganese-depositing biofilm. At 0.05 mg of Mn(II) per liter, the chemical deposition rate was much greater than microbial deposition. Significant deposition occurred at 0.03 mg of manganese per liter, and dirty water complaints were not eliminated until manganese levels were continuously less than 0.02 mg/liter and chlorination levels were greater than 0.2 mg/liter. A guideline level of 0.01 mg of manganese per liter is recommended. Images PMID:2317040

  10. Transcriptional up-regulation of antioxidant genes by PPAR{delta} inhibits angiotensin II-induced premature senescence in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyo Jung; Ham, Sun Ah; Paek, Kyung Shin; Hwang, Jung Seok; Jung, Si Young; Kim, Min Young; Jin, Hanna; Kang, Eun Sil; Woo, Im Sun; Kim, Hye Jung; Lee, Jae Heun; Chang, Ki Churl; Han, Chang Woo; Seo, Han Geuk

    2011-03-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Activation of PPAR{delta} by GW501516 significantly inhibited Ang II-induced premature senescence in hVSMCs. {yields} Agonist-activated PPAR{delta} suppressed generation of Ang II-triggered ROS with a concomitant reduction in DNA damage. {yields} GW501516 up-regulated expression of antioxidant genes, such as GPx1, Trx1, Mn-SOD and HO-1. {yields} Knock-down of these antioxidant genes abolished the effects of GW501516 on ROS production and premature senescence. -- Abstract: This study evaluated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) {delta} as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in Ang II-induced senescence in human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMCs). Activation of PPAR{delta} by GW501516, a specific agonist of PPAR{delta}, significantly inhibited the Ang II-induced premature senescence of hVSMCs. Agonist-activated PPAR{delta} suppressed the generation of Ang II-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) with a concomitant reduction in DNA damage. Notably, GW501516 up-regulated the expression of antioxidant genes, such as glutathione peroxidase 1, thioredoxin 1, manganese superoxide dismutase and heme oxygenase 1. siRNA-mediated down-regulation of these antioxidant genes almost completely abolished the effects of GW501516 on ROS production and premature senescence in hVSMCs treated with Ang II. Taken together, the enhanced transcription of antioxidant genes is responsible for the PPAR{delta}-mediated inhibition of premature senescence through sequestration of ROS in hVSMCs treated with Ang II.

  11. Angiotensin II receptors and peritoneal dialysis-induced peritoneal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Morinelli, Thomas A; Luttrell, Louis M; Strungs, Erik G; Ullian, Michael E

    2016-08-01

    The vasoactive hormone angiotensin II initiates its major hemodynamic effects through interaction with AT1 receptors, a member of the class of G protein-coupled receptors. Acting through its AT1R, angiotensin II regulates blood pressure and renal salt and water balance. Recent evidence points to additional pathological influences of activation of AT1R, in particular inflammation, fibrosis and atherosclerosis. The transcription factor nuclear factor κB, a key mediator in inflammation and atherosclerosis, can be activated by angiotensin II through a mechanism that may involve arrestin-dependent AT1 receptor internalization. Peritoneal dialysis is a therapeutic modality for treating patients with end-stage kidney disease. The effectiveness of peritoneal dialysis at removing waste from the circulation is compromised over time as a consequence of peritoneal dialysis-induced peritoneal fibrosis. The non-physiological dialysis solution used in peritoneal dialysis, i.e. highly concentrated, hyperosmotic glucose, acidic pH as well as large volumes infused into the peritoneal cavity, contributes to the development of fibrosis. Numerous trials have been conducted altering certain components of the peritoneal dialysis fluid in hopes of preventing or delaying the fibrotic response with limited success. We hypothesize that structural activation of AT1R by hyperosmotic peritoneal dialysis fluid activates the internalization process and subsequent signaling through the transcription factor nuclear factor κB, resulting in the generation of pro-fibrotic/pro-inflammatory mediators producing peritoneal fibrosis. PMID:27167177

  12. Acute adriamycin-induced cardiotoxicity is exacerbated by angiotension II.

    PubMed

    Taskin, Eylem; Kindap, Elvan Kunduz; Ozdogan, Kalender; Aycan, Mukerrem Betul Yerer; Dursun, Nurcan

    2016-01-01

    Adriamycin (ADR) increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which diminishes mitochondrial function. Angiotensin-II stimulates mitochondrial ROS generation. The aim of the study was to examine whether angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) or renin inhibitors protect against ADR-induced mitochondrial function impairment. Rats were divided into five groups as control, ADR, co-treatment ADR with captopril, co-treatment ADR with aliskiren, co-treatment ADR with both captopril and aliskiren. Left ventricular function and blood pressures were assessed at the end of treatment period. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and ATP levels were determined. ADR treatment decreased the left ventricular pressure and increased the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. ADR decreased MMP and ATP levels in myocyte mitochondria due to increasing oxidative stress. ADR decreased MMP and ATP levels due to increased oxidative stress in the heart. Inhibitors of ACE and renin caused the elevation of the decreased of MMP and ATP levels. The pathologic changes in electrocardiogram, blood pressure and left ventricular function were decreased by inhibition of Ang-II production. We concluded that inhibitors of angiotensin II are effective against ADR cardiotoxicity via the restoration of MMP and ATP production and prevention of mitochondrial damage in vivo. PMID:25023137

  13. Kr II laser-induced fluorescence for measuring plasma acceleration.

    PubMed

    Hargus, W A; Azarnia, G M; Nakles, M R

    2012-10-01

    We present the application of laser-induced fluorescence of singly ionized krypton as a diagnostic technique for quantifying the electrostatic acceleration within the discharge of a laboratory cross-field plasma accelerator also known as a Hall effect thruster, which has heritage as spacecraft propulsion. The 728.98 nm Kr II transition from the metastable 5d(4)D(7/2) to the 5p(4)P(5/2)(∘) state was used for the measurement of laser-induced fluorescence within the plasma discharge. From these measurements, it is possible to measure velocity as krypton ions are accelerated from near rest to approximately 21 km/s (190 eV). Ion temperature and the ion velocity distributions may also be extracted from the fluorescence data since available hyperfine splitting data allow for the Kr II 5d(4)D(7/2)-5p(4)P(5/2)(∘) transition lineshape to be modeled. From the analysis, the fluorescence lineshape appears to be a reasonable estimate for the relatively broad ion velocity distributions. However, due to an apparent overlap of the ion creation and acceleration regions within the discharge, the distributed velocity distributions increase ion temperature determination uncertainty significantly. Using the most probable ion velocity as a representative, or characteristic, measure of the ion acceleration, overall propellant energy deposition, and effective electric fields may be calculated. With this diagnostic technique, it is possible to nonintrusively characterize the ion acceleration both within the discharge and in the plume. PMID:23126755

  14. Manganese laser using manganese chloride as lasant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. J.

    1974-01-01

    A manganese vapor laser utilizing manganese chloride as a lasant has been observed and investigated. Lasing is attained by means of two consecutive electrical discharges. The maximum laser output is obtained at a vapor pressure of about 3 torr, a temperature of 680 C, and a time delay between electrical discharges of 150 microsec. The maximum energy density is 1.3 microjoule per cu cm.

  15. Mechanisms underlying angiotensin II-induced calcium oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Aurélie; Pallone, Thomas L.

    2008-01-01

    To gain insight into the mechanisms that underlie angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca]cyt) oscillations in medullary pericytes, we expanded a prior model of ion fluxes. ANG II stimulation was simulated by doubling maximal inositol trisphosphate (IP3) production and imposing a 90% blockade of K+ channels. We investigated two configurations, one in which ryanodine receptors (RyR) and IP3 receptors (IP3R) occupy a common store and a second in which they reside on separate stores. Our results suggest that Ca2+ release from stores and import from the extracellular space are key determinants of oscillations because both raise [Ca] in subplasmalemmal spaces near RyR. When the Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) threshold of RyR is exceeded, the ensuing Ca2+ release is limited by Ca2+ reuptake into stores and export across the plasmalemma. If sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) pumps do not remain saturated and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ stores are replenished, that phase is followed by a resumption of leak from internal stores that leads either to [Ca]cyt elevation below the CICR threshold (no oscillations) or to elevation above it (oscillations). Our model predicts that oscillations are more prone to occur when IP3R and RyR stores are separate because, in that case, Ca2+ released by RyR during CICR can enhance filling of adjacent IP3 stores to favor a high subsequent leak that generates further CICR events. Moreover, the existence or absence of oscillations depends on the set points of several parameters, so that biological variation might well explain the presence or absence of oscillations in individual pericytes. PMID:18562632

  16. Manganese uptake of imprinted polymers

    DOE Data Explorer

    Susanna Ventura

    2015-09-30

    Batch tests of manganese imprinted polymers of variable composition to assess their ability to extract lithium and manganese from synthetic brines at T=45C . Data on manganese uptake for two consecutive cycles are included.

  17. Selective inhibition of the hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase PHD3 by Zn(II).

    PubMed

    Na, Yu-Ran; Woo, Dustin J; Choo, Hyunah; Chung, Hak Suk; Yang, Eun Gyeong

    2015-07-01

    We report herein that Zn(II) selectively inhibits the hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase PHD3 over PHD2, and does not compete with Fe(II). Independent of the oligomer formation induced by Zn(II), inhibition of the activity of PHD3 by Zn(II) involves Cys42 and Cys52 residues distantly located from the active site. PMID:26051901

  18. Oxidative-stress-induced afterdepolarizations and calmodulin kinase II signaling.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lai-Hua; Chen, Fuhua; Karagueuzian, Hrayr S; Weiss, James N

    2009-01-01

    In the heart, oxidative stress caused by exogenous H(2)O(2) has been shown to induce early afterdepolarizations (EADs) and triggered activity by impairing Na current (I(Na)) inactivation. Because H(2)O(2) activates Ca(2+)/calmodulin kinase (CaMK)II, which also impairs I(Na) inactivation and promotes EADs, we hypothesized that CaMKII activation may be an important factor in EADs caused by oxidative stress. Using the patch-clamp and intracellular Ca (Ca(i)) imaging in Fluo-4 AM-loaded rabbit ventricular myocytes, we found that exposure to H(2)O(2) (0.2 to 1 mmol/L) for 5 to 15 minutes consistently induced EADs that were suppressed by the I(Na) blocker tetrodotoxin (10 micromol/L), as well as the I(Ca,L) blocker nifedipine. H(2)O(2) enhanced both peak and late I(Ca,L), consistent with CaMKII-mediated facilitation. By prolonging the action potential plateau and increasing Ca influx via I(Ca,L), H(2)O(2)-induced EADs were also frequently followed by DADs in response to spontaneous (ie, non-I(Ca,L)-gated) sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca release after repolarization. The CaMKII inhibitor KN-93 (1 micromol/L; n=4), but not its inactive analog KN-92 (1 micromol/L, n=5), prevented H(2)O(2)-induced EADs and DADs, and the selective CaMKII peptide inhibitor AIP (autocamtide-2-related inhibitory peptide) (2 micromol/L) significantly delayed their onset. In conclusion, H(2)O(2)-induced afterdepolarizations depend on both impaired I(Na) inactivation to reduce repolarization reserve and enhancement of I(Ca,L) to reverse repolarization, which are both facilitated by CaMKII activation. Our observations support a link between increased oxidative stress, CaMKII activation, and afterdepolarizations as triggers of lethal ventricular arrhythmias in diseased hearts. PMID:19038865

  19. Regional specificity of manganese accumulation and clearance in the mouse brain: implications for manganese-enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Grünecker, B; Kaltwasser, S F; Zappe, A C; Bedenk, B T; Bicker, Y; Spoormaker, V I; Wotjak, C T; Czisch, M

    2013-05-01

    Manganese-enhanced MRI has recently become a valuable tool for the assessment of in vivo functional cerebral activity in animal models. As a result of the toxicity of manganese at higher dosages, fractionated application schemes have been proposed to reduce the toxic side effects by using lower concentrations per injection. Here, we present data on regional-specific manganese accumulation during a fractionated application scheme over 8 days of 30 mg/kg MnCl2 , as well as on the clearance of manganese chloride over the course of several weeks after the termination of the whole application protocol supplying an accumulative dose of 240 mg/kg MnCl2 . Our data show most rapid accumulation in the superior and inferior colliculi, amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, cornu ammonis of the hippocampus and globus pallidus. The data suggest that no ceiling effects occur in any region using the proposed application protocol. Therefore, a comparison of basal neuronal activity differences in different animal groups based on locally specific manganese accumulation is possible using fractionated application. Half-life times of manganese clearance varied between 5 and 7 days, and were longest in the periaqueductal gray, amygdala and entorhinal cortex. As the hippocampal formation shows one of the highest T1 -weighted signal intensities after manganese application, and manganese-induced memory impairment has been suggested, we assessed hippocampus-dependent learning as well as possible manganese-induced atrophy of the hippocampal volume. No interference of manganese application on learning was detected after 4 days of Mn(2+) application or 2 weeks after the application protocol. In addition, no volumetric changes induced by manganese application were found for the hippocampus at any of the measured time points. For longitudinal measurements (i.e. repeated manganese applications), a minimum of at least 8 weeks should be considered using the proposed protocol to allow for

  20. Manganese regulation of manganese peroxidase expression and lignin degradation by the white rot fungus Dichomitus squalens

    SciTech Connect

    Perie, F.; Gold, M.H. )

    1991-08-01

    Extracellular manganese peroxidase and laccase activities were detected in cultures of Dichomitus squalens (Polyporus anceps) under conditions favoring lignin degradation. In contrast, neither extracellular lignin peroxidase nor aryl alcohol oxidase activity was detected in cultures grown under a wide variety of conditions. The mineralization of {sup 14}C-ring-, -side chain-, and -methoxy-labeled synthetic guaiacyl lignins by D. squalens and the expression of extracellular manganese peroxidase were dependent on the presence of Mn(II), suggesting that manganese peroxidase is an important component of this organism's lignin degradation system. The expression of laccase activity was independent of manganese. In contrast to previous findings with Phanero-chaete chrysosporium, lignin degradation by D. squalens proceeded in the cultures containing excess carbon and nitrogen.

  1. Free Fatty Acids, Lipopolysaccharide and IL-1α Induce Adipocyte Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Which Is Increased in Visceral Adipose Tissues of Obese Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Krautbauer, Sabrina; Eisinger, Kristina; Neumeier, Markus; Hader, Yvonne; Buettner, Roland; Schmid, Peter M.; Aslanidis, Charalampos; Buechler, Christa

    2014-01-01

    Excess fat storage in adipocytes is associated with increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and impaired activity of antioxidant mechanisms. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a mitochondrial enzyme involved in detoxification of ROS, and objective of the current study is to analyze expression and regulation of MnSOD in obesity. MnSOD is increased in visceral but not subcutaneous fat depots of rodents kept on high fat diets (HFD) and ob/ob mice. MnSOD is elevated in visceral adipocytes of fat fed mice and exposure of differentiating 3T3-L1 cells to lipopolysaccharide, IL-1α, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated free fatty acids (FFA) upregulates its level. FFA do not alter cytochrome oxidase 4 arguing against overall induction of mitochondrial enzymes. Upregulation of MnSOD in fat loaded cells is not mediated by IL-6, TNF or sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 which are induced in these cells. MnSOD is similarly abundant in perirenal fat of Zucker diabetic rats and non-diabetic animals with similar body weight and glucose has no effect on MnSOD in 3T3-L1 cells. To evaluate whether MnSOD affects adipocyte fat storage, MnSOD was knocked-down in adipocytes for the last three days of differentiation and in mature adipocytes. Knock-down of MnSOD does neither alter lipid storage nor viability of these cells. Heme oxygenase-1 which is induced upon oxidative stress is not altered while antioxidative capacity of the cells is modestly reduced. Current data show that inflammation and excess triglyceride storage raise adipocyte MnSOD which is induced in epididymal adipocytes in obesity. PMID:24475187

  2. Anthocyanin-rich açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) extract attenuates manganese-induced oxidative stress in rat primary astrocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    da Silva Santos, Vivian; Bisen-Hersh, Emily; Yu, Yingchun; Cabral, Ingridy Simone Ribeiro; Nardini, Viviani; Culbreth, Megan; Teixeira da Rocha, João Batista; Barbosa, Fernando; Aschner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element for human health. However, at high concentrations Mn may be neurotoxic. Mn accumulates in astrocytes, affecting their redox status. In view of the high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the exotic Brazilian fruit açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), its methanolic extract was obtained by solid-phase extraction (SPE). This açaí extract showed considerable anthocyanins content and direct antioxidant capacity. The açaí extract scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH•) with an EC₅₀ of 19.1 ppm, showing higher antioxidant activity compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), but lower than ascorbic acid and quercetin. This obtained açaí extract also attenuated Mn-induced oxidative stress in primary cultured astrocytes. Specifically, the açaí extract at an optimal and nutritionally relevant concentration of 0.1 μg/ml prevented Mn-induced oxidative stress by (1) restoring GSH/GSSG ratio and net glutamate uptake, (2) protecting astrocytic membranes from lipid peroxidation, and (3) decreasing Mn-induced expression of erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) protein. A larger quantity of açaí extract exacerbated the effects of Mn on these parameters except with respect to lipid peroxidation assessed by means of F₂-isoprostanes. These studies indicate that at nutritionally relevant concentration, anthocyanins obtained from açaí protect astrocytes against Mn neurotoxicity, but at high concentrations, the "pro-oxidant" effects of its constituents likely prevail. Future studies may be profitably directed at potential protective effects of açaí anthocyanins in nutraceutical formulations. PMID:24617543

  3. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance microscopy of mineralization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chesnick, I.E.; Todorov, T.I.; Centeno, J.A.; Newbury, D.E.; Small, J.A.; Potter, K.

    2007-01-01

    Paramagnetic manganese (II) can be employed as a calcium surrogate to sensitize magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) to the processing of calcium during bone formation. At high doses, osteoblasts can take up sufficient quantities of manganese, resulting in marked changes in water proton T1, T2 and magnetization transfer ratio values compared to those for untreated cells. Accordingly, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) results confirm that the manganese content of treated cell pellets was 10-fold higher than that for untreated cell pellets. To establish that manganese is processed like calcium and deposited as bone, calvaria from the skull of embryonic chicks were grown in culture medium supplemented with 1 mM MnCl2 and 3 mM CaCl2. A banding pattern of high and low T2 values, consistent with mineral deposits with high and low levels of manganese, was observed radiating from the calvarial ridge. The results of ICP-MS studies confirm that manganese-treated calvaria take up increasing amounts of manganese with time in culture. Finally, elemental mapping studies with electron probe microanalysis confirmed local variations in the manganese content of bone newly deposited on the calvarial surface. This is the first reported use of manganese-enhanced MRM to study the process whereby calcium is taken up by osteoblasts cells and deposited as bone. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effective Treatment of Manganese-Induced Occupational Parkinsonism With p-Aminosalicylic Acid: A Case of 17-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yue-Ming; Mo, Xue-An; Du, Feng-Qi; Fu, Xue; Zhu, Xia-Yan; Gao, Hong-Yu; Xie, Jin-Lan; Liao, Feng-Ling; Pira, Enrico; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Objective Chronic manganese (Mn) intoxication induces syndromes resembling Parkinson disease. The clinical intervention has largely been unsuccessful. We report a 17-year follow-up study of effective treatment of occupational Mn parkinsonism with sodium para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS). Methods The patient, female and aged 50 at the time of treatment, was exposed to airborne Mn for 21 years (1963–1984). The patient had palpitations, hand tremor, lower limb myalgia, hypermyotonia, and a distinct festinating gait. She received 6 g PAS per day through an intravenous drip infusion for 4 days and rested for 3 days as one therapeutic course. Fifteen such courses were carried out between March and June 1987. Results At the end of PAS treatment, her symptoms were significantly alleviated, and handwriting recovered to normal. Recent follow-up examination at age 67 years (in 2004) showed a general normal presentation in clinical, neurologic, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and handwriting examinations with a minor yet passable gait. Conclusions This case study suggests that PAS appears to be an effective drug for treatment of severe chronic Mn poisoning with a promising prognosis. PMID:16766929

  5. Spatial memory training induces morphological changes detected by manganese-enhanced MRI in the hippocampal CA3 mossy fiber terminal zone.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Binbin; Chuang, Kai-Hsiang; Tjio, Ci'en; Chen, Way Cherng; Sheu, Fwu-Shan; Routtenberg, Aryeh

    2016-03-01

    Hippocampal mossy fibers (MFs) can show plasticity of their axon terminal arbor consequent to learning a spatial memory task. Such plasticity is seen as translaminar sprouting from the stratum lucidum (SL) of CA3 into the stratum pyramidale (SP) and the stratum oriens (SO). However, the functional role of this presynaptic remodeling is still obscure. In vivo imaging that allows longitudinal observation of such remodeling could provide a deeper understanding of this presynaptic growth phenomenon as it occurs over time. Here we used manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI), which shows a high-contrast area that co-localizes with the MFs. This technique was applied in the detection of learning-induced MF plasticity in two strains of rats. Quantitative analysis of a series of sections in the rostral dorsal hippocampus showed increases in the CA3a' area in MEMRI of trained Wistar rats consistent with the increased SO+SP area seen in the Timm's staining. MF plasticity was not seen in the trained Lister-Hooded rats in either MEMRI or in Timm's staining. This indicates the potential of MEMRI for revealing neuro-architectures and plasticity of the hippocampal MF system in vivo in longitudinal studies. PMID:26254115

  6. Kr II laser-induced fluorescence for measuring plasma acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Hargus, W. A. Jr.

    2012-10-15

    We present the application of laser-induced fluorescence of singly ionized krypton as a diagnostic technique for quantifying the electrostatic acceleration within the discharge of a laboratory cross-field plasma accelerator also known as a Hall effect thruster, which has heritage as spacecraft propulsion. The 728.98 nm Kr II transition from the metastable 5d{sup 4}D{sub 7/2} to the 5p{sup 4}P{sub 5/2}{sup Ring-Operator} state was used for the measurement of laser-induced fluorescence within the plasma discharge. From these measurements, it is possible to measure velocity as krypton ions are accelerated from near rest to approximately 21 km/s (190 eV). Ion temperature and the ion velocity distributions may also be extracted from the fluorescence data since available hyperfine splitting data allow for the Kr II 5d{sup 4}D{sub 7/2}-5p{sup 4}P{sub 5/2}{sup Ring-Operator} transition lineshape to be modeled. From the analysis, the fluorescence lineshape appears to be a reasonable estimate for the relatively broad ion velocity distributions. However, due to an apparent overlap of the ion creation and acceleration regions within the discharge, the distributed velocity distributions increase ion temperature determination uncertainty significantly. Using the most probable ion velocity as a representative, or characteristic, measure of the ion acceleration, overall propellant energy deposition, and effective electric fields may be calculated. With this diagnostic technique, it is possible to nonintrusively characterize the ion acceleration both within the discharge and in the plume.

  7. Relative contribution of CTR1 and DMT1 in copper transport by the blood–CSF barrier: Implication in manganese-induced neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Gang; Chen, Jingyuan; Zheng, Wei

    2012-05-01

    The homeostasis of copper (Cu) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is partially regulated by the Cu transporter-1 (CTR1) and divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) at the blood–CSF barrier (BCB) in the choroid plexus. Data from human and animal studies suggest an increased Cu concentration in blood, CSF, and brains following in vivo manganese (Mn) exposure. This study was designed to investigate the relative role of CTR1 and DMT1 in Cu transport under normal or Mn-exposed conditions using an immortalized choroidal Z310 cell line. Mn exposure in vitro resulted in an increased cellular {sup 64}Cu uptake and the up-regulation of both CTR1 and DMT1. Knocking down CTR1 by siRNA counteracted the Mn-induced increase of {sup 64}Cu uptake, while knocking down DMT1 siRNA resulted in an increased cellular {sup 64}Cu uptake in Mn-exposed cells. To distinguish the roles of CTR1 and DMT1 in Cu transport, the Z310 cell-based tetracycline (Tet)-inducible CTR1 and DMT1 expression cell lines were developed, namely iZCTR1 and iZDMT1 cells, respectively. In iZCTR1 cells, Tet induction led to a robust increase (25 fold) of {sup 64}Cu uptake with the time course corresponding to the increased CTR1. Induction of DMT1 by Tet in iZDMT1 cells, however, resulted in only a slight increase of {sup 64}Cu uptake in contrast to a substantial increase in DMT1 mRNA and protein expression. These data indicate that CTR1, but not DMT1, plays an essential role in transporting Cu by the BCB in the choroid plexus. Mn-induced cellular overload of Cu at the BCB is due, primarily, to Mn-induced over-expression of CTR1. -- Highlights: ► This study compares the relative role of CTR1 and DMT1 in Cu transport by the BCB. ► Two novel tetracycline-inducible CTR1 and DMT1 expression cell lines are created. ► CTR1, but not DMT1, plays an essential role in transporting Cu by the BCB. ► Mn-induced cellular Cu overload is due to its induction of CTR1 rather than DMT1. ► Induction of CTR1 by Mn in the BCB

  8. Manganese Porphyrin, MnTE-2-PyP5+, Acts as a Pro-Oxidant to Potentiate Glucocorticoid-Induced Apoptosis in Lymphoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Melba C.; Briehl, Margaret M.; Crapo, James D.; Haberle, Ines Batinic; Tome, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    Using current chemotherapy protocols, over 55% of lymphoma patients fail treatment. Novel agents are needed to improve lymphoma survival. The manganese porphyrin, MnTE-2-PyP5+, augments glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis in WEHI7.2 murine thymic lymphoma cells, suggesting that it may have potential as a lymphoma therapeutic. However, the mechanism by which MnTE-2-PyP5+ potentiates glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis is unknown. Previously, we showed that glucocorticoid treatment increases the steady state levels of hydrogen peroxide ([H2O2]ss) and oxidizes the redox environment in WEHI7.2 cells. In the current study, we found that when MnTE-2-PyP5+ is combined with glucocorticoids, it augments dexamethasone-induced oxidative stress however, it does not augment the [H2O2]ss levels. The combined treatment depletes GSH, oxidizes the 2GSH:GSSG ratio, and causes protein glutathionylation to a greater extent than glucocorticoid treatment alone. Removal of the glucocorticoid-generated H2O2 or depletion of glutathione by BSO prevents MnTE-2-PyP5+ from augmenting glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis. In combination with glucocorticoids, MnTE-2-PyP5+ glutathionylates p65 NF-κB and inhibits NF-κB activity. Inhibition of NF-κB with SN50, an NF-κB inhibitor, enhances glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis to the same extent as MnTE-2-PyP5+. Taken together, these findings indicate that: 1) H2O2 is important for MnTE-2-PyP5+ activity; 2) Mn-TE-2-PyP5+ cycles with GSH; and 3) MnTE-2-PyP5+ potentiates glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis by glutathionylating and inhibiting critical survival proteins, including NF-κB. In the clinic, over-expression of NF-κB is associated with a poor prognosis in lymphoma. MnTE-2-PyP5+ may therefore, synergize with glucocorticoids to inhibit NF-κB and improve current treatment. PMID:22330065

  9. Manganese-Induced Atypical Parkinsonism Is Associated with Altered Basal Ganglia Activity and Changes in Tissue Levels of Monoamines in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Bouabid, Safa; Delaville, Claire; De Deurwaerdère, Philippe; Lakhdar-Ghazal, Nouria; Benazzouz, Abdelhamid

    2014-01-01

    Manganese neurotoxicity is associated with motor and cognitive disturbances known as Manganism. However, the mechanisms underlying these deficits remain unknown. Here we investigated the effects of manganese intoxication on motor and non-motor parkinsonian-like deficits such as locomotor activity, motor coordination, anxiety and “depressive-like” behaviors. Then, we studied the impact of this intoxication on the neuronal activity, the globus pallidus (GP) and subthalamic nucleus (STN). At the end of experiments, post-mortem tissue level of the three monoamines (dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin) has been determined. The experiments were carried out in adult Sprague-Dawley rats, daily treated with MnCl2 (10 mg/kg/, i.p.) for 5 weeks. We show that manganese progressively reduced locomotor activity as well as motor coordination in parallel with the manifestation of anxiety and “depressive-like” behaviors. Electrophysiological results show that, while majority of GP and STN neurons discharged regularly in controls, manganese increased the number of GP and STN neurons discharging irregularly and/or with bursts. Biochemical results show that manganese significantly decreased tissue levels of norepinephrine and serotonin with increased metabolism of dopamine in the striatum. Our data provide evidence that manganese intoxication is associated with impaired neurotransmission of monoaminergic systems, which is at the origin of changes in basal ganglia neuronal activity and the manifestation of motor and non-motor deficits similar to those observed in atypical Parkinsonism. PMID:24896650

  10. Manganese-induced atypical parkinsonism is associated with altered Basal Ganglia activity and changes in tissue levels of monoamines in the rat.

    PubMed

    Bouabid, Safa; Delaville, Claire; De Deurwaerdère, Philippe; Lakhdar-Ghazal, Nouria; Benazzouz, Abdelhamid

    2014-01-01

    Manganese neurotoxicity is associated with motor and cognitive disturbances known as Manganism. However, the mechanisms underlying these deficits remain unknown. Here we investigated the effects of manganese intoxication on motor and non-motor parkinsonian-like deficits such as locomotor activity, motor coordination, anxiety and "depressive-like" behaviors. Then, we studied the impact of this intoxication on the neuronal activity, the globus pallidus (GP) and subthalamic nucleus (STN). At the end of experiments, post-mortem tissue level of the three monoamines (dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin) has been determined. The experiments were carried out in adult Sprague-Dawley rats, daily treated with MnCl2 (10 mg/kg/, i.p.) for 5 weeks. We show that manganese progressively reduced locomotor activity as well as motor coordination in parallel with the manifestation of anxiety and "depressive-like" behaviors. Electrophysiological results show that, while majority of GP and STN neurons discharged regularly in controls, manganese increased the number of GP and STN neurons discharging irregularly and/or with bursts. Biochemical results show that manganese significantly decreased tissue levels of norepinephrine and serotonin with increased metabolism of dopamine in the striatum. Our data provide evidence that manganese intoxication is associated with impaired neurotransmission of monoaminergic systems, which is at the origin of changes in basal ganglia neuronal activity and the manifestation of motor and non-motor deficits similar to those observed in atypical Parkinsonism. PMID:24896650

  11. A light-dependent mechanism for massive accumulation of manganese in the photosynthetic bacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Keren, Nir; Kidd, Matthew J; Penner-Hahn, James E; Pakrasi, Himadri B

    2002-12-17

    Manganese is an essential micronutrient for many organisms. Because of its unique role in the water oxidizing activity of photosystem II, manganese is required for photosynthetic growth in plants and cyanobacteria. Here we report on the mechanism of manganese uptake in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Cells grown in 9 microM manganese-containing medium accumulate up to 1 x 10(8) manganese atoms/cell, bound to the outer membrane (pool A). This pool could be released by EDTA treatment. Accumulation of manganese in pool A was energized by photosynthetic electron flow. Moreover, collapsing the membrane potential resulted in the immediate release of this manganese pool. The manganese in this pool is mainly Mn(II) in a six-coordinate distorted environment. A distinctly different pool of manganese, pool B ( approximately 1.5 x 10(6) atoms/cell), could not be extracted by EDTA. Transport into pool B was light-independent and could be detected only under limiting manganese concentrations (1 nM). Evidently, manganese uptake in Synechocystis 6803 cells occurs in two steps. First, manganese accumulates in the outer membrane (pool A) in a membrane potential-dependent process. Next, manganese is transported through the inner membrane into pool B. We propose that pool A serves as a store that allows the cells to overcome transient limitations in manganese in the environment. PMID:12475258

  12. Sorption behavior of the Pt(II) complex anion on manganese dioxide (δ-MnO2): a model reaction to elucidate the mechanism by which Pt is concentrated into a marine ferromanganese crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeno, Mamiko Yamashita; Ohashi, Hironori; Yonezu, Kotaro; Miyazaki, Akane; Okaue, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Koichiro; Ishida, Tamao; Tokunaga, Makoto; Yokoyama, Takushi

    2016-02-01

    It is difficult to directly investigate the chemical state of Pt in marine ferromanganese crusts (a mixture of hydrous iron(III) oxide and manganese dioxide (δ-MnO2)) because it is present at extremely low concentration levels. This paper attempts to elucidate the mechanism by which Pt is concentrated into marine ferromanganese crust from the Earth's continental crust through ocean water. In this investigation, the sorption behavior of the Pt(II) complex ions on the surface of the δ-MnO2 that is a host of Pt was examined as a model reaction. The δ-MnO2 sorbing Pt was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) to determine the chemical state of the Pt. Hydrolytic Pt(II) complex ions were specifically sorbed above pH 6 by the formation of a Mn-O-Pt bond. XPS spectra and XANES spectra for δ-MnO2 sorbing Pt showed that the sorbed Pt(II) was oxidized to Pt(IV) on δ-MnO2. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis showed that the coordination structure of Pt sorbed on δ-MnO2 is almost the same as that of the [Pt(OH)6]2- complex ion used as a standard. Therefore, the mechanism for the concentration of Pt in marine ferromanganese crust may be an oxidative substitution (penetration of Pt(IV) into structure of δ-MnO2) by a reduction-oxidation reaction between Pt(II) in [PtCl4-n(OH)n]2- and Mn(IV) in δ-MnO2 through a Mn-O-Pt bond.

  13. Pulmonary irradiation-induced expression of VCAM-I and ICAM-I is decreased by manganese superoxide dismutase-plasmid/liposome (MnSOD-PL) gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Epperly, Michael W; Sikora, Christine A; DeFilippi, Stacy J; Gretton, Joan E; Bar-Sagi, Dafna; Archer, Herbert; Carlos, Timothy; Guo, HongLiang; Greenberger, Joel S

    2002-01-01

    Pulmonary toxicity is a major complication of total body irradiation used in preparation of patients for bone marrow transplantation. The mechanism of the late pulmonary damage manifested by fibrosis is unknown. In C57BL/6NHsd mice, manganese superoxide dismutase-plasmid/liposome (MnSOD-PL) intratracheal injection 24 hours prior to 20 Gy single-fraction irradiation to both lungs significantly reduced late irradiation damage. Single intratracheal injections of MnSOD-PL, at concentrations as low as 250 microg of plasmid DNA, in a constant volume of 78 microL of liposomes, reduced late damage. To determine whether a slowly proliferating population of cells in the lung was responsible for initiation of fibrosis and was altered by MnSOD-PL therapy, 20 Gy total lung-irradiated mice were examined at serial time points for bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake in sites of cell division. There was low-level, but nonsignificant, increased cell proliferation detected at 80 days, with a significant increase at 100 days, 120 days, and at the time of death. Immunohistochemical assay for up-regulation of adhesion molecules associated with recruitment, transendothelial migration, and proliferation of bronchoalveolar macrophages revealed significant up-regulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) at 100 days with further increases up to the time of death. Increases were first detected in endothelin-positive endothelial cells. MnSOD-PL administration prior to irradiation decreased both BrdU incorporation and delayed expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. The data indicate that the appearance of late irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis is associated with the up-regulation of adhesion molecules and suggest that potential targets for intervention may focus on the pulmonary vascular endothelium. PMID:12014807

  14. Manganese-induced regulations in growth, yield formation, quality characters, rice aroma and enzyme involved in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline biosynthesis in fragrant rice.

    PubMed

    Li, Meijuan; Ashraf, Umair; Tian, Hua; Mo, Zhaowen; Pan, Shenggang; Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Duan, Meiyang; Tang, Xiangru

    2016-06-01

    Micro-nutrient application is essential for normal plant growth while a little is known about manganese (Mn)-induced regulations in morpho-physiological attributes, aroma formation and enzyme involved in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP) biosynthesis in aromatic rice. Present study aimed to examine the influence of four levels of Mn i.e., Mn1 (100 mg MnSO4 pot(-1)), Mn2 (150 mg MnSO4 pot(-1)), Mn3 (200 mg MnSO4 pot(-1)), and Mn4 (250 mg MnSO4 pot(-1)) on the growth, yield formation, quality characters, rice aroma and enzyme involved in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline biosynthesis in two fragrant rice cultivars i.e., Meixiangzhan and Nongxiang 18. Pots without Mn application were served as control (Ck). Each pot contained 15 kg of soil. Effects on agronomic characters, quality attributes, 2-AP contents and enzymes involved in 2-AP biosynthesis have been studied in early and late season rice. Results depicted that Mn improved rice growth, yield and related characters, and some quality attributes significantly. It further up-regulated proline, pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid (P5C) (precursors of 2-AP), soluble proteins and activities of proline dehydrogenase (ProDH), Δ(1) pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid synthetase (P5CS) ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) that led to enhanced 2-AP production in rice grains. Moreover, higher Mn levels resulted in increased grain Mn contents in both rice cultivars. Along with growth and yield improvement, Mn application significantly improved rice aromatic contents. Overall, Nongxiang 18 accumulated more 2-AP contents than Meixiangzhan in both seasons under Mn application. This study further explored the importance of Mn in rice aroma formation and signifies that micro-nutrients can play significant roles in rice aroma synthesis; however, intensive studies at molecular levels are still needed to understand the exact mechanisms of Mn to improve rice aroma formation. PMID:26995311

  15. Surface Mn(II) oxidation actuated by a multicopper oxidase in a soil bacterium leads to the formation of manganese oxide minerals

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Zhongming; Chen, Hong; Liu, Jin; Liu, Chang; Ni, Hong; Zhao, Changsong; Ali, Muhammad; Liu, Fan; Li, Lin

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, we report that a bacterial multicopper oxidase (MCO266) catalyzes Mn(II) oxidation on the cell surface, resulting in the surface deposition of Mn(III) and Mn(IV) oxides and the gradual formation of bulky oxide aggregates. These aggregates serve as nucleation centers for the formation of Mn oxide micronodules and Mn-rich sediments. A soil-borne Escherichia coli with high Mn(II)-oxidizing activity formed Mn(III)/Mn(IV) oxide deposit layers and aggregates under laboratory culture conditions. We engineered MCO266 onto the cell surfaces of both an activity-negative recipient and wild-type strains. The results confirmed that MCO266 governs Mn(II) oxidation and initiates the formation of deposits and aggregates. By contrast, a cell-free substrate, heat-killed strains, and intracellularly expressed or purified MCO266 failed to catalyze Mn(II) oxidation. However, purified MCO266 exhibited Mn(II)-oxidizing activity when combined with cell outer membrane component (COMC) fractions in vitro. We demonstrated that Mn(II) oxidation and aggregate formation occurred through an oxygen-dependent biotic transformation process that requires a certain minimum Mn(II) concentration. We propose an approximate electron transfer pathway in which MCO266 transfers only one electron to convert Mn(II) to Mn(III) and then cooperates with other COMC electron transporters to transfer the other electron required to oxidize Mn(III) to Mn(IV). PMID:26039669

  16. Three manganese oxide-rich marine sediments harbor similar communities of acetate-oxidizing manganese-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Vandieken, Verona; Pester, Michael; Finke, Niko; Hyun, Jung-Ho; Friedrich, Michael W; Loy, Alexander; Thamdrup, Bo

    2012-11-01

    Dissimilatory manganese reduction dominates anaerobic carbon oxidation in marine sediments with high manganese oxide concentrations, but the microorganisms responsible for this process are largely unknown. In this study, the acetate-utilizing manganese-reducing microbiota in geographically well-separated, manganese oxide-rich sediments from Gullmar Fjord (Sweden), Skagerrak (Norway) and Ulleung Basin (Korea) were analyzed by 16S rRNA-stable isotope probing (SIP). Manganese reduction was the prevailing terminal electron-accepting process in anoxic incubations of surface sediments, and even the addition of acetate stimulated neither iron nor sulfate reduction. The three geographically distinct sediments harbored surprisingly similar communities of acetate-utilizing manganese-reducing bacteria: 16S rRNA of members of the genera Colwellia and Arcobacter and of novel genera within the Oceanospirillaceae and Alteromonadales were detected in heavy RNA-SIP fractions from these three sediments. Most probable number (MPN) analysis yielded up to 10(6) acetate-utilizing manganese-reducing cells cm(-3) in Gullmar Fjord sediment. A 16S rRNA gene clone library that was established from the highest MPN dilutions was dominated by sequences of Colwellia and Arcobacter species and members of the Oceanospirillaceae, supporting the obtained RNA-SIP results. In conclusion, these findings strongly suggest that (i) acetate-dependent manganese reduction in manganese oxide-rich sediments is catalyzed by members of taxa (Arcobacter, Colwellia and Oceanospirillaceae) previously not known to possess this physiological function, (ii) similar acetate-utilizing manganese reducers thrive in geographically distinct regions and (iii) the identified manganese reducers differ greatly from the extensively explored iron reducers in marine sediments. PMID:22572639

  17. Manganese(II) catalyzes the bicarbonate-dependent oxidation of amino acids by hydrogen peroxide and the amino acid-facilitated dismutation of hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Berlett, B S; Chock, P B; Yim, M B; Stadtman, E R

    1990-01-01

    In bicarbonate/CO2 buffer, Mn(II) and Fe(II) catalyze the oxidation of amino acids by H2O2 and the dismutation of H2O2. As the Mn(II)/Fe(II) ratio is increased, the yield of carbonyl compounds per mole of leucine oxidized is essentially constant, but the ratio of alpha-ketoisocaproate to isovaleraldehyde formed increases, and the fraction of H2O2 converted to O2 increases. In the absence of Fe(II), the rate of Mn(II)-catalyzed leucine oxidation is directly proportional to the H2O2, Mn(II), and amino acid concentrations and is proportional to the square of the HCO3- concentration. The rate of Mn(II)-catalyzed O2 production in the presence of 50 mM alanine or leucine is about 4-fold the rate observed in the absence of amino acids and accounts for about half of the H2O2 consumed; the other half of the H2O2 is consumed in the oxidation of the amino acids. In contrast, O2 production is increased nearly 18-fold by the presence of alpha-methylalanine and accounts for about 90% of the H2O2 consumed. The data are consistent with the view that H2O2 decomposition is an inner sphere (cage-like) process catalyzed by a Mn coordination complex of the composition Mn(II), amino acid, (HCO3-)2. Oxidation of the amino acid in this complex most likely proceeds by a free radical mechanism involving hydrogen abstraction from the alpha-carbon as a critical step. The results demonstrate that at physiological concentrations of HCO3- and CO2, Mn(II) is able to facilitate Fenton-type reactions. PMID:2296594

  18. Manganese oxide-induced strategy to high-performance iron/nitrogen/carbon electrocatalysts with highly exposed active sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tao; Wu, Qiang; Zhuo, Ou; Jiang, Yufei; Bu, Yongfeng; Yang, Lijun; Wang, Xizhang; Hu, Zheng

    2016-04-01

    Iron/nitrogen/carbon (Fe/N/C) catalyst is so far the most promising non-precious metal electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in acidic medium, whose performance depends closely on the synthesis chemistry. Herein, we report a MnOx-induced strategy to construct the Fe/N/C with highly exposed Fe-Nx active sites, which involves the uniform spreading of polyaniline on hierarchical N-doped carbon nanocages by a reactive-template polymerization, followed by the successive iron incorporation and polyaniline pyrolysis. The resulting Fe/N/C demonstrates an excellent ORR performance, including an onset potential of 0.92 V (vs. RHE), four electron selectivity, superb stability and immunity to methanol crossover. The excellent performance is well correlated with the greatly enhanced surface active sites of the catalyst stemming from the unique MnOx-induced strategy. This study provides an efficient approach for exploring the advanced ORR electrocatalysts by increasing the exposed active sites.Iron/nitrogen/carbon (Fe/N/C) catalyst is so far the most promising non-precious metal electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in acidic medium, whose performance depends closely on the synthesis chemistry. Herein, we report a MnOx-induced strategy to construct the Fe/N/C with highly exposed Fe-Nx active sites, which involves the uniform spreading of polyaniline on hierarchical N-doped carbon nanocages by a reactive-template polymerization, followed by the successive iron incorporation and polyaniline pyrolysis. The resulting Fe/N/C demonstrates an excellent ORR performance, including an onset potential of 0.92 V (vs. RHE), four electron selectivity, superb stability and immunity to methanol crossover. The excellent performance is well correlated with the greatly enhanced surface active sites of the catalyst stemming from the unique MnOx-induced strategy. This study provides an efficient approach for exploring the advanced ORR electrocatalysts by increasing the

  19. Adsorption of antimony(V) onto Mn(II)-enriched surfaces of manganese-oxide and FeMn binary oxide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruiping; Xu, Wei; He, Zan; Lan, Huachun; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui; Prasai, Tista

    2015-11-01

    Manganese(IV) oxide [Mn(IV)] potentially oxidizes antimony(III) [Sb(III)] to antimony(V) [Sb(V)] and improves Sb removal by FeMn binary oxide (FMBO) through an oxidation-adsorption mechanism. This study focused on the effect of Mn(IV) reductive dissolution by potassium sulfite (K2SO3) on Sb(V) adsorption onto manganese oxide (Mn-oxide) and FMBO. The maximum Sb(V) adsorption (Qmax,Sb(V)) increased from 1.0 to 1.1 mmol g(-1) for FMBO and from 0.4 to 0.6 mmol g(-1) for Mn-oxide after pretreatment with 10 mmol L(-1) K2SO3. The addition of 2.5 mmol L(-1) Mn(2+) also significantly improved Sb(V) adsorption, and the observed Qmax,Sb(V) increased to 1.4 and 1.0 mmol g(-1) for FMBO and Mn-oxide, respectively, with pre-adsorbed Mn(2+). Neither K2SO3 nor Mn(2+) addition had any effect on Sb(V) adsorption onto iron oxide (Fe-oxide). Mn(2+) introduced by either Mn(IV) dissolution or addition tended to form outer-sphere surface complexes with hydroxyl groups on Mn-oxide surfaces (MnOOH). Mn(2+) at 2.5 mmol L(-1) shifted the isoelectric point (pHiep) from 7.5 to 10.2 for FMBO and from 4.8 to 9.2 for Mn-oxide and hence benefited Sb(V) adsorption. The adsorption of Sb(V) onto Mn(2+)-enriched surfaces contributed to the release of Mn(2+), and the X-ray photoelectron spectra also indicated increased binding energy of Mn 2p3/2 after the adsorption of Sb(V) onto K2SO3-pretreated FMBO and Mn-oxide. Sb(V) adsorption involved the formation of inner-sphere complexes and contributed to the release of Mn(2+). In the removal of Sb(III) by Mn-based oxides, the oxidation of Sb(III) to Sb(V) by Mn(IV) oxides had an effect; however, Mn(IV) dissolution and Mn(2+)-enrichment also played an important role. PMID:26218341

  20. Calcium modulates the photoassembly of photosystem II (Mn){sub 4}-clusters by preventing ligation of nonfunctional high-valency states of manganese

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.; Kazimir, J.; Cheniae, G.M.

    1995-10-17

    The requirement for Ca{sup 2+} in the Mn{sup 2+}-dependent photoactivation of oxygen evolution was re-evaluated using 17 kDa/24 kDa-less photosystem II (PSII) membranes depleted of (Mn){sub 4}-clusters by NH{sub 2}OH extraction. At optimum conditions (1 mM Mn{sup 2+}/10 {mu}M 2,6-dichlorphenolindophenol (DCIP)/20 mM Ca{sup 2+}), the light-induced increase of oxygen-evolution activity, the increase of membrane-bound Mn, and the B-band thermoluminescence emission intensity occurred in parallel. The extent of recovery of the oxygen-evolution activity was equivalent to 88% and 66% of the activity shown by parent NaCl-extracted PSII membranes and by PSII membranes, respectively. Analyses of the Ca{sup 2+} concentration dependence for the maximum recovery of oxygen evolution activity gave evidence for Ca{sup 2+}-binding site(s) having K{sub m} values of {approximately}38 and {approximately}1300 {mu}M. Illumination of membranes in the strict absence of Ca{sup 2+} resulted in large increases (up to 18 Mn/200 chlorophyll) of EDTA nonextractable, EPR silent, nonfunctional membrane-bound Mn{sup {ge}3+} and small increases of oxygen-evolution capability, dependent on pH and concentrations of Mn{sup 2+} and DCIP. In the strict absence of Ca{sup 2+}, significant recovery of oxygen-evolution activity was obtained under a limited set of conditions permitting photoligation of a limited abundance of the nonfunctional Mn{sup {ge}3+}. Simple addition of Ca{sup 2+} to membranes containing nonfunctional Mn{sup {ge}3+} followed by reillumination resulted in the conversion of Mn{sup {ge}3+} to (Mn){sub 4}-clusters. It is argued that Ca{sup 2+} promotes the conformational change involved in the conversion of the Mn{sup 2+} mononuclear intermediate to the Mn{sup 3+}-Mn{sup 2+} binuclear intermediate in the photoactivation mechanism, thereby permitting photoassembly of (Mn){sub 4}-clusters and preventing photo-inactivation by Mn{sup {ge}3+} ions. 68 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Manganese oxidation state mediates toxicity in PC12 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Reaney, S.H. . E-mail: stevereaney@hotmail.com; Smith, D.R.

    2005-06-15

    The role of the manganese (Mn) oxidation state on cellular Mn uptake and toxicity is not well understood. Therefore, undifferentiated PC12 cells were exposed to 0-200 {mu}M Mn(II)-chloride or Mn(III)-pyrophosphate for 24 h, after which cellular manganese levels were measured along with measures of cell viability, function, and cytotoxicity (trypan blue exclusion, medium lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), 8-isoprostanes, cellular ATP, dopamine, serotonin, H-ferritin, transferrin receptor (TfR), Mn-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) protein levels). Exposures to Mn(III) >10 {mu}M produced 2- to 5-fold higher cellular manganese levels than equimolar exposures to Mn(II). Cell viability and ATP levels both decreased at the highest Mn(II) and Mn(III) exposures (150-200 {mu}M), while Mn(III) exposures produced increases in LDH activity at lower exposures ({>=}50 {mu}M) than did Mn(II) (200 {mu}M only). Mn(II) reduced cellular dopamine levels more than Mn(III), especially at the highest exposures (50% reduced at 200 {mu}M Mn(II)). In contrast, Mn(III) produced a >70% reduction in cellular serotonin at all exposures compared to Mn(II). Different cellular responses to Mn(II) exposures compared to Mn(III) were also observed for H-ferritin, TfR, and MnSOD protein levels. Notably, these differential effects of Mn(II) versus Mn(III) exposures on cellular toxicity could not simply be accounted for by the different cellular levels of manganese. These results suggest that the oxidation state of manganese exposures plays an important role in mediating manganese cytotoxicity.

  2. Manganese-induced oxidative DNA damage in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells: attenuation of thymine base lesions by glutathione and N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Adrienne P; Schneider, Jeffrey A; Nelson, Bryant C; Atha, Donald H; Jain, Ashok; Soliman, Karam F A; Aschner, Michael; Mazzio, Elizabeth; Renee Reams, R

    2013-04-26

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element required for normal function and development. However, exposure to this metal at elevated levels may cause manganism, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with neurological symptoms similar to idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). Elevated body burdens of Mn from exposure to parental nutrition, vapors in mines and smelters and welding fumes have been associated with neurological health concerns. The underlying mechanism of Mn neurotoxicity remains unclear. Accordingly, the present study was designed to investigate the toxic effects of Mn(2+) in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Mn(2+) caused a concentration dependent decrease in SH-SY5Y cellular viability compared to controls. The LD50 value was 12.98 μM Mn(2+) (p<0.001 for control vs. 24h Mn treatment). Both TUNEL and annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) apoptosis assays confirmed the induction of apoptosis in the cells following exposure to Mn(2+) (2 μM, 62 μM or 125 μM). In addition, Mn(2+) induced both the formation and accumulation of DNA single strand breaks (via alkaline comet assay analysis) and oxidatively modified thymine bases (via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis). Pre-incubation of the cells with characteristic antioxidants, either 1mM N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or 1mM glutathione (GSH) reduced the level of DNA strand breaks and the formation of thymine base lesions, suggesting protection against oxidative cellular damage. Our findings indicate that (1) exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to Mn promotes both the formation and accumulation of oxidative DNA damage, (2) SH-SY5Y cells with accumulated DNA damage are more likely to die via an apoptotic pathway and (3) the accumulated levels of DNA damage can be abrogated by the addition of exogenous chemical antioxidants. This is the first known report of Mn(2+)-induction and antioxidant protection of thymine lesions in this SH-SY5Y cell line and contributes new information to the potential use of antioxidants

  3. [Function and disease in manganese].

    PubMed

    Kimura, Mieko

    2016-07-01

    Manganese is a metal that has been known named a Greek word "Magnesia" meaning magnesia nigra from Roman Empire. Manganese provide the wide range of metablic function and the multiple abnomalities from its deficiency or toxicity. In 1931, the essentiality of manganese was demonstrated with the authoritative poor growth and declined reproduction in its deficiency. Manganese deficiency has been recognized in a number of species and its signs are impaired growth, impaired reproduction, ataxia, skeletal abnormalities and disorders in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Manganese toxicity is also acknowledged as health hazard for animals and humans. Here manganese nutrition, metabolism and metabolic function are summarized. PMID:27455810

  4. ACE2 Decreases Formation and Severity of Angiotensin II-induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Thatcher, Sean E.; Zhang, Xuan; Howatt, Deborah A.; Yiannikouris, Frederique; Gurley, Susan B.; Ennis, Terri; Curci, John A.; Daugherty, Alan; Cassis, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) cleaves angiotensin II (AngII) to form angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)), which generally opposes effects of AngII. AngII infusion into hypercholesterolemic male mice induces formation of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). This study tests the hypothesis that deficiency of ACE2 promotes AngII-induced AAAs, while ACE2 activation suppresses aneurysm formation. Approach and Results ACE2 protein was detectable by immunostaining in mice and human AAAs. Whole body deficiency of ACE2 significantly increased aortic lumen diameters and external diameters of suprarenal aortas from AngII-infused mice. Conversely, ACE2 deficiency in bone marrow-derived cells had no effect on AngII-induced AAAs. In contrast to AngII-induced AAAs, ACE2 deficiency had no significant effect on external aortic diameters of elastase-induced AAAs. Since ACE2 deficiency promoted AAA formation in AngII-infused mice, we determined if ACE2 activation suppressed AAAs. ACE2 activation by administration of diminazine aceturate (DIZE, 30 mg/kg/day) to Ldlr−/− mice increased kidney ACE2 mRNA abundance and activity and elevated plasma Ang-(1-7) concentrations. Unexpectedly, administration of DIZE significantly reduced total sera cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol concentrations. Notably, DIZE significantly decreased aortic lumen diameters and aortic external diameters of AngII-infused mice resulting in a marked reduction in AAA incidence (from 73 to 29%). None of these effects of DIZE were observed in the Ace2−/y mice. Conclusions These results demonstrate that ACE2 exerts a modulatory role in AngII-induced AAA formation, and that therapeutic stimulation of ACE2 could be a benefit to reduce AAA expansion and rupture in patients with an activated renin-angiotensin system. PMID:25301841

  5. Nickel(II)-induced nasal epithelial toxicity and oxidative mitochondrial damage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoon-Jin; Lim, Soo-Sung; Baek, Byoung Joon; An, Je-Min; Nam, Hae-Seon; Woo, Kee-Min; Cho, Moon-Kyun; Kim, Sung-Ho; Lee, Sang-Han

    2016-03-01

    In probing the underlying mechanisms of nickel(II)-induced cytotoxicity on nasal epithelium, we investigated the effects of nickel(II) acetate on nasal epithelial RPMI-2650 cells. Nickel(II) elicited apoptosis, as signified by pyknotic and fragmented nuclei, increased caspase-3/7 activity, and an increase in annexin V binding, hypodiploid DNA, and Bax/Bcl-2 protein ratio. Nickel(II)-induced G2/M arrest was associated with up-regulation of p21(WAF1/CIP1) expression, decrease in phosphorylation at Thr(161) of Cdc2, and down-regulation of cyclin B1. Associated with these responses, ROS generation and mitochondrial depolarization increased in a nickel(II) concentration-dependent fashion. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) attenuated these changes. p53 reporter gene assay and analyses of p53, Puma, Bax, and Bcl-2 protein levels indicated that NAC inhibited nickel(II)-induced activation of p53-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Collectively, our study provides evidences that nickel(II) may induce oxidative damage on nasal epithelium in which antioxidant NAC protects cells against nickel(II)-induced apoptosis through the prevention of oxidative stress-mediated mitochondrial damage. PMID:26809061

  6. TRIF promotes angiotensin II-induced cross-talk between fibroblasts and macrophages in atrial fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Dao-Liang; Zhang, Ming-Jian; Guo, Meng; Zhan, Yang-Yang; Liu, Fang; Jiang, Wei-Feng; Zhou, Li; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Quan-Xing; Liu, Xu

    2015-08-14

    Aims: Atrial fibroblasts and macrophages have long been thought to participate in atrial fibrillation (AF). However, which specific mediator may regulate the interaction between them remains unclear. Methods and results: We provided the evidence for the involvement of Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β (TRIF), an important inflammation-related molecule, in the pathophysiology of AF. Patients with AF showed higher levels of angiotensin II (AngII) and TRIF expression and larger number of macrophages infiltration in left atria appendage than individuals with sinus rhythm (SR). In the cell study, AngII induced chemokines expressions in mouse atrial fibroblasts and AngII-stimulated atrial fibroblasts induced the chemotaxis of macrophages, which were reduced by losartan and TRIF siRNA. Meanwhile, AngII-stimulated atrial fibroblasts proliferation was enhanced by macrophages. Conclusions: Our data demonstrated that TRIF may be a crucial factor promoting the interaction between atrial fibroblasts and macrophages, leading to atrial fibrosis. - Highlights: • Compared with SR, AF showed higher TRIF expression in left atrial appendage. • TRIF siRNA reversed macrophage chemotaxis induced by AngII-treated fibroblast. • TRIF siRNA reversed chemokines expressions induced by AngII in fibroblast. • AngII-stimulated atrial fibroblast proliferation was enhanced by macrophage.

  7. Angiotensin II (AT(1)) receptor blockade reduces vascular tissue factor in angiotensin II-induced cardiac vasculopathy.

    PubMed

    Müller, D N; Mervaala, E M; Dechend, R; Fiebeler, A; Park, J K; Schmidt, F; Theuer, J; Breu, V; Mackman, N; Luther, T; Schneider, W; Gulba, D; Ganten, D; Haller, H; Luft, F C

    2000-07-01

    Tissue factor (TF), a main initiator of clotting, is up-regulated in vasculopathy. We tested the hypothesis that chronic in vivo angiotensin (ANG) II receptor AT(1) receptor blockade inhibits TF expression in a model of ANG II-induced cardiac vasculopathy. Furthermore, we explored the mechanisms by examining transcription factor activation and analyzing the TF promoter. Untreated transgenic rats overexpressing the human renin and angiotensinogen genes (dTGR) feature hypertension and severe left ventricular hypertrophy with focal areas of necrosis, and die at age 7 weeks. Plasma and cardiac ANG II was three- to fivefold increased compared to Sprague-Dawley rats. Chronic treatment with valsartan normalized blood pressure and coronary resistance completely, and ameliorated cardiac hypertrophy (P < 0.001). Valsartan prevented monocyte/macrophage infiltration, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation, and c-fos expression in dTGR hearts. NF-kappaB subunit p65 and TF expression was increased in the endothelium and media of cardiac vessels and markedly reduced by valsartan treatment. To analyze the mechanism of TF transcription, we then transfected human coronary artery smooth muscle cells and Chinese hamster ovary cells overexpressing the AT(1) receptor with plasmids containing the human TF promoter and the luciferase reporter gene. ANG II induced the full-length TF promoter in both transfected cell lines. TF transcription was abolished by AT(1) receptor blockade. Deletion of both AP-1 and NF-kappaB sites reduced ANG II-induced TF gene transcription completely, whereas the deletion of AP-1 sites reduced transcription. Thus, the present study clearly shows an aberrant TF expression in the endothelium and media in rats with ANG II-induced vasculopathy. The beneficial effects of AT(1) receptor blockade in this model are mediated via the inhibition of NF-kappaB and AP-1 activation, thereby preventing TF expression, cardiac vasculopathy, and

  8. Angiotensin II (AT1) Receptor Blockade Reduces Vascular Tissue Factor in Angiotensin II-Induced Cardiac Vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Dominik N.; Mervaala, Eero M. A.; Dechend, Ralf; Fiebeler, Anette; Park, Joon-Keun; Schmidt, Folke; Theuer, Jürgen; Breu, Volker; Mackman, Nigel; Luther, Thomas; Schneider, Wolfgang; Gulba, Dietrich; Ganten, Detlev; Haller, Hermann; Luft, Friedrich C.

    2000-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF), a main initiator of clotting, is up-regulated in vasculopathy. We tested the hypothesis that chronic in vivo angiotensin (ANG) II receptor AT1 receptor blockade inhibits TF expression in a model of ANG II-induced cardiac vasculopathy. Furthermore, we explored the mechanisms by examining transcription factor activation and analyzing the TF promoter. Untreated transgenic rats overexpressing the human renin and angiotensinogen genes (dTGR) feature hypertension and severe left ventricular hypertrophy with focal areas of necrosis, and die at age 7 weeks. Plasma and cardiac ANG II was three- to fivefold increased compared to Sprague-Dawley rats. Chronic treatment with valsartan normalized blood pressure and coronary resistance completely, and ameliorated cardiac hypertrophy (P < 0.001). Valsartan prevented monocyte/macrophage infiltration, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation, and c-fos expression in dTGR hearts. NF-κB subunit p65 and TF expression was increased in the endothelium and media of cardiac vessels and markedly reduced by valsartan treatment. To analyze the mechanism of TF transcription, we then transfected human coronary artery smooth muscle cells and Chinese hamster ovary cells overexpressing the AT1 receptor with plasmids containing the human TF promoter and the luciferase reporter gene. ANG II induced the full-length TF promoter in both transfected cell lines. TF transcription was abolished by AT1 receptor blockade. Deletion of both AP-1 and NF-κB sites reduced ANG II-induced TF gene transcription completely, whereas the deletion of AP-1 sites reduced transcription. Thus, the present study clearly shows an aberrant TF expression in the endothelium and media in rats with ANG II-induced vasculopathy. The beneficial effects of AT1 receptor blockade in this model are mediated via the inhibition of NF-κB and AP-1 activation, thereby preventing TF expression, cardiac vasculopathy, and microinfarctions. PMID

  9. V-shaped ligand 1,3-bis(1-ethylbenzimidazol-2-yl)-2-thiapropane and manganese(II), cobalt(II) and copper(II) complexes: Synthesis, crystal structure, DNA-binding properties and antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huilu; Yang, Zaihui; Wang, Fei; Peng, Hongping; Zhang, Han; Wang, Cuiping; Wang, Kaitong

    2015-07-01

    A V-shaped ligand 1,3-bis(1-ethylbenzimidazol-2-yl)-2-thiapropane (bebt) and its transition metal complexes, [Mn(bebt)(pic)2]·CH3OH (pic=picrate) 1, [Co(bebt)2](pic)22 and [Cu(bebt)2](pic)2·2DMF 3, have been synthesized and characterized. The coordinate forms of complexes 1 and 2 are basically alike, which can be described as six-coordinated distorted octahedron. The geometric structure around Cu(II) atom can be described as distorted tetrahedral in complex 3. The DNA-binding properties of the ligand bebt and complexes have been investigated by electronic absorption, fluorescence, and viscosity measurements. The results suggest that bebt and complexes bind to DNA via an intercalative binding mode and the order of the binding affinity is 1<2<3

  10. Use of boron phosphate in the solid-state preparation of crystalline iron(III) phosphate and manganese(II) diphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Vasovic, D.D.; Stojakovic, D.R. . Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy)

    1994-05-01

    A growing interest has been noticed lately in the preparation of metal phosphates with specific structural properties for use as catalysts in various organic reactions, for phosphate-type molecular sieves, and as materials for long-term storage of nuclear wastes. The possibility of using BPO[sub 4] for the solid-state preparation of crystalline phosphates of trivalent iron, manganese, and chromium has been investigated. If BPO[sub 4] and Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] are heated at 900 C, a complete conversion of BPO[sub 4] to the quartz form of FePO[sub 4] results after 9 h. If FeCl[sub 3][center dot]6H[sub 2]O is used instead of Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3], a multiphase crystalline product is obtained in which the dominant phase is the quartz form of FePO[sub 4]. The reaction of BPO[sub 4] with Mn[sub 2]O[sub 3] or MnO[sub 2] at 830 C yields Mn[sub 2]P[sub 2]O[sub 7]; the amount of conversion of BPO[sub 4] to Mn[sub 2]P[sub 2]O[sub 7] after 4 h is 80% (if Mn[sub 2]O[sub 3] is used) and 75% (if MnO[sub 2] is used). However, the method is not successful in the preparation of phosphates of chromium: the reaction of BPO[sub 4] and some chromium compounds yields [alpha]-Cr[sub 2]O[sub 3] as the only chromium-containing product.

  11. Direct Identification of a Bacterial Manganese(II) Oxidase, the Multicopper Oxidase MnxG, from Spores of Several Different Marine Bacillus Species▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Gregory J.; Torpey, Justin W.; Beveridge, Terry J.; Tebo, Bradley M.

    2008-01-01

    Microorganisms catalyze the formation of naturally occurring Mn oxides, but little is known about the biochemical mechanisms of this important biogeochemical process. We used tandem mass spectrometry to directly analyze the Mn(II)-oxidizing enzyme from marine Bacillus spores, identified as an Mn oxide band with an in-gel activity assay. Nine distinct peptides recovered from the Mn oxide band of two Bacillus species were unique to the multicopper oxidase MnxG, and one peptide was from the small hydrophobic protein MnxF. No other proteins were detected in the Mn oxide band, indicating that MnxG (or a MnxF/G complex) directly catalyzes biogenic Mn oxide formation. The Mn(II) oxidase was partially purified and found to be resistant to many proteases and active even at high concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Comparative analysis of the genes involved in Mn(II) oxidation from three diverse Bacillus species revealed a complement of conserved Cu-binding regions not present in well-characterized multicopper oxidases. Our results provide the first direct identification of a bacterial enzyme that catalyzes Mn(II) oxidation and suggest that MnxG catalyzes two sequential one-electron oxidations from Mn(II) to Mn(III) and from Mn(III) to Mn(IV), a novel type of reaction for a multicopper oxidase. PMID:18165363

  12. Amlodipine Reduces AngII-Induced Aortic Aneurysms and Atherosclerosis in Hypercholesterolemic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaofeng; Rateri, Debra L.; Howatt, Deborah A.; Balakrishnan, Anju; Moorleghen, Jessica J.; Morris, Andrew J.; Charnigo, Richard; Cassis, Lisa A.; Daugherty, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine effects of amlodipine, a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, on development of angiotensin II (AngII)-induced vascular pathologies. Methods and Results Male LDL receptor -/- mice were infused with vehicle, amlodipine (5 mg/kg/d), AngII (1,000 ng/kg/min), or AngII + amlodipine for 4 weeks through osmotic pumps (n=10/group). Mice were fed a saturated fat-enriched diet for 1 week prior to pump implantation and during 4 weeks of infusion. Infusion of amlodipine resulted in plasma concentrations of 32 ± 2 ng/ml and 27 ± 2 ng/ml for mice in saline + amlodipine and AngII + amlodipine groups, respectively. This infusion rate of amlodipine did not affect AngII-induced increases in systolic blood pressure. Three of 10 (30%) mice infused with AngII died of aortic rupture, while aortic rupture did not occur in mice co-infused with AngII + amlodipine. Suprarenal aortic width and intimal area of ascending aortas were measured to define aortic aneurysms. In the absence of AngII infusion, amlodipine did not change suprarenal aortic width and ascending aortic area. Infusion of AngII led to profound increases of suprarenal aortic width (saline + vehicle versus AngII + vehicle: 0.86 ± 0.02 versus 1.72 ± 0.26 mm; P=0.0006), whereas co-infusion of AngII and amlodipine diminished abdominal dilation (1.02 ± 0.14 mm; P=0.003). As expected, AngII infusion increased mean intimal area of ascending aortas (saline + vehicle versus AngII + vehicle: 8.5 ± 0.3 versus 12.5 ± 1.1 mm2; P=0.001), while co-infusion of AngII and amlodipine ablated dilation of the ascending aorta (8.6 ± 0.2 mm2; P=0.03). Co-administration of amlodipine also significantly attenuated AngII-induced atherosclerosis in the thoracic region as quantified by percent lesion area (AngII + vehicle versus AngII + amlodipine: 5.8 ± 2.1 % versus 0.3 ± 0.1%; P=0.05). Conclusions Amlodipine inhibited AngII-induced aortic aneurysms in both the abdominal and ascending

  13. Cytoplasmic translocation of HuR contributes to angiotensin II induced cardiac fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bai, Danna; Ge, Lan; Gao, Yan; Lu, Xiaozhao; Wang, Haichang; Yang, Guodong

    2015-08-01

    Cardiac fibrosis is one of the key structural changes of the hypertrophied left ventricle in hypertensive heart disease. Increased angiotensin II was found to be important in the hypertension related fibrosis, while the underlying mechanism is unknown. In this study, we found that angiotensin II dose-dependently increased the expression of Col1a1, Col3a1 and α-smooth muscle actin, which were blocked by ROS (reactive oxygen species) scavenger N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). Mechanistically, angiotensin II induced robust ROS generation, which in turn induced cytoplasmic translocation of RNA binding protein HuR. Cytoplasmic translocated HuR increased TGFβ pathway activity and subsequent collagen synthesis. In contrast, knockdown of HuR nearly blocked angiotensin II induced TGFβ activation and collagen synthesis. Taken together, we here identified that angiotensin II promotes collagen synthesis in cardiac fibroblast through ROS-HuR-TGFβ pathway. PMID:26093296

  14. Caveolin-1 prevents sustained angiotensin II-induced resistance artery constriction and obesity-induced high blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Czikora, Istvan; Feher, Attila; Lucas, Rudolf; Fulton, David J. R.

    2014-01-01

    The type 1 angiotensin II (ANG II) receptor (AT1R) undergoes internalization following stimulation by ANG II. Internalization reduces cell surface AT1Rs, and it is required for AT1R resensitization. In this process AT1R may interact with caveolin-1 (Cav1), the main scaffolding protein of caveolae. We hypothesized that the interaction between Cav1 and AT1R delays AT1R resensitization and thereby prevents sustained ANG II-induced resistance artery (RA) constriction under normal conditions and in experimental obesity. In rat and mouse skeletal muscle RA (diameter: ∼90–120 μm) ANG II-induced constrictions were reduced upon repeated (30-min apart) administrations. Upon disruption of caveolae with methyl-β-cyclodextrin or in RA of Cav1 knockout mice, repeated ANG II applications resulted in essentially maintained constrictions. In vascular smooth muscle cells, AT1R interacted with Cav1, and the degree of cell surface interactions was reduced by long-term (15-min), but not short-term (2-min), exposure to ANG II. When Cav1 was silenced, the amount of membrane-associated AT1R was significantly reduced by a short-term ANG II exposure. Moreover, Cav1 knockout mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited augmented and sustained RA constriction to ANG II and had elevated systemic blood pressure, when compared with normal or high-fat fed wild-type mice. Thus, Cav1, through a direct interaction, delays internalization and subsequent resensitization of AT1R. We suggest that this mechanism prevents sustained ANG II-induced RA constriction and elevated systemic blood pressure in diet-induced obesity. PMID:25527780

  15. [Effect of safflor yellow B on vascular endothelial cells injury induced by angiotensin-II].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao-Yun; Zhang, Shu-Ping; Xu, Yong; Yang, Ming; Jiang, Wen-Guo; Luan, Hai-Yun

    2012-06-01

    This study is to investigate protective effect of safflor yellow B (SYB) against vascular endothelial cells (VECs) injury induced by angiotensin-II (Ang-II). VECs were cultured and divided into six groups: control group, Ang-II group, Ang-II + SYB (1 micromolL(-1)) group, Ang-II + SYB (10 micromolL(-1)) group, Ang-II + SYB (100 micromolL(-1)) group and Ang- II + verapamil (10 micromolL(-1)) group. Except control group, all of VECs in other groups were treated with Ang- II at the final concentration of 0.1 micromolL(-1). Mitochondria membrane potential (MMP) and free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) were measured by laser scanning confocal microscopy, and mitochondria complex IV activity was detected by BCA method. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in VECs were analyzed by fluorescence detector and apoptosis of VECs was observed by flow cytometer. Caspase 3 was determined by Western blotting method. Comparing with control group, Ang-II was able to increase [Ca2+]i and ROS level, decrease MMP level, inhibit complex IV activity and enhance caspase 3 activity in VECs, as a result, enhance apoptosis of VECs. But SYB could significantly reduce the result induced by Ang- II relying on different dosages (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). SYB was able to eliminate the effect of Ang-II on VECs via regulating [Ca2+]i, mitochondrial structure and function and inhibiting apoptosis. PMID:22919732

  16. Electrochemical deposition of the new manganese(II) Schiff-base complex on a gold template and its application for dopamine sensing in the presence of interfering biogenic compounds.

    PubMed

    Gorczyński, Adam; Pakulski, Dawid; Szymańska, Martyna; Kubicki, Maciej; Bułat, Kornela; Łuczak, Teresa; Patroniak, Violetta

    2016-03-01

    Facile and efficient template synthesis of new manganese(II) complex [Mn2(H2L)2](ClO4)2 (1) and its crystal structure are reported. Self-assembly leads to the formation of dinuclear, phenoxo-bridged closed species via exploitation of both binding subunits of the in situ formed new Schiff-base ligand. Gold electrode modified with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) composed of synthesized complex 1 was applied as a voltammetric sensor for quantitative determination of dopamine (DA) in the presence of ascorbic (AA) and uric acids (UA). The linear relationship between the current response of dopamine at the potential of peak maximum and the concentration was found over a wide analyte concentration range (R(2)≥0.993, 1×10(-10)-8.5×10(-4)M) with a very good sensitivity (4.11Acm(-2)M(-1) at dE/dt=0.1Vs(-1)), high detection limit (6.8×10(-9)M) and excellent reproducibility. It has been proven that current peaks of dopamine, ascorbic and uric acids were clearly separated from each other, thus enabling selective detection of these compounds coexisting in a mixture. PMID:26717851

  17. Pitavastatin Regulates Ang II Induced Proliferation and Migration via IGFBP-5 in VSMC

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Yu Mi; Nam, Ju-Ock

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II), a key mediator of hypertensive, causes structural changes in the arteries (vascular remodeling), which involve alterations in cell growth, vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) hypertrophy. Ang II promotes fibrotic factor like IGFBP5, which mediates the profibrotic effects of Ang II in the heart and kidneys, lung and so on. The purpose of this study was to identify the signaling pathway of IGFBP5 on cell proliferation and migration of Ang II-stimulated VSMC. We have been interested in Ang II-induced IGFBP5 and were curious to determine whether a Pitavastatin would ameliorate the effects. Herein, we investigated the question of whether Ang II induced the levels of IGFBP5 protein followed by proliferation and migration in VSMC. Pretreatment with the specific Angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1) inhibitor (Losartan), Angiotensin receptor type 2 (AT2) inhibitor (PD123319), MAPK inhibitor (U0126), ERK1/2 inhibitor (PD98059), P38 inhibitor (SB600125) and PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) resulted in significantly inhibited IGFBP5 production, proliferation, and migration in Ang II-stimulated VSMC. In addition, IGFBP5 knockdown resulted in modulation of Ang II induced proliferation and migration via IGFBP5 induction. In addition, Pitavastatin modulated Ang II induced proliferation and migration in VSMC. Taken together, our results indicated that Ang II induces IGFBP5 through AT1, ERK1/2, P38, and PI3K signaling pathways, which were inhibited by Pitavastatin. These findings may suggest that Pitavastatin has an effect on vascular disease including hypertension. PMID:26557016

  18. Effect of boldine, secoboldine, and boldine methine on angiotensin II-induced neutrophil recruitment in vivo.

    PubMed

    Estellés, Rossana; Milian, Lara; Nabah, Yafa Naim Abu; Mateo, Teresa; Cerdá-Nicolás, Miguel; Losada, Mercedes; Ivorra, María Dolores; Issekutz, Andrew C; Cortijo, Julio; Morcillo, Esteban J; Blázquez, María Amparo; Sanz, María-Jesús

    2005-09-01

    Angiotensin-II (Ang-II) has inflammatory activity and is involved in different diseases associated with the cardiovascular system. This study has evaluated the effect of boldine (B), and two phenanthrene alkaloids semisynthesized by us, secoboldine (SB) and boldine methine (BM), on Ang-II-induced neutrophil recruitment. Intraperitoneal administration of 1 nM Ang-II induced significant neutrophil accumulation, which was maximal at 4-8 h. BM inhibited neutrophil infiltration into the peritoneal cavity at 4 h and 8 h by 73% and 77%, respectively, SB at 8 h by 55%, and B had no effect on this response. Although BM inhibited the release of cytokine-inducible neutrophil chemoattractant/keratinocyte-derived chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), and platelet-activating factor (PAF) elicited by Ang-II, SB only reduced the release of MIP-2 after 4 h of its administration. Sixty-minute superfusion of the rat mesentery with 1 nM Ang-II induced a significant increase in the leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions and P-selectin up-regulation, which were inhibited by 1 microM BM and SB. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in endothelial cells stimulated with Ang-II was inhibited significantly by the three alkaloids tested. BM also diminished Ang-II-induced interleukin-8 release from endothelial cells and blocked the PAF receptor on human neutrophils (concentration of the compound needed to produce 50% inhibition value: 28.2 microM). Therefore, BM is a potent inhibitor of Ang-II-induced neutrophil accumulation in vivo. This effect appears to be mediated through inhibition of CXC chemokine and PAF release, ROS scavenging activity, and blockade of the PAF receptor. Thus, it may have potential therapeutic interest for the control of neutrophil recruitment that occurs in inflammation associated with elevated levels of Ang-II. PMID:15944212

  19. Manganese reduction by microbes from oxic regions of the Lake Vanda (Antarctica) water column

    SciTech Connect

    Bratina, B.J.; Stevenson, B.S.; Schmidt, T.M.; Green, W.J.

    1998-10-01

    Depth profiles of metals in Lake Vanda, a permanently ice-covered, stratified Antarctic lake, suggest the importance of particulate manganese oxides in the scavenging, transport, and release of metals. Since manganese oxides can be solubilized by manganese-reducing bacteria, microbially mediated manganese reduction was investigated in Lake Vanda. Microbes concentrated from oxic regions of the water column, encompassing a peak of soluble manganese [Mn(II)], reduced synthetic manganese oxides (MnO{sub 2}) when incubated aerobically, Pure cultures of manganese-reducing bacteria were readily isolated from waters collected near the oxic Mn(II) peak. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence, most of the isolated manganese reducers belong to the genus Carnobacterium. Cultures of a phylogenetically representative strain of Carnobacterium reduced synthetic MnO{sub 2} in the presence of sodium azide, as was seen in field assays. Unlike anaerobes that utilize manganese oxides as terminal electron acceptors in respiration, isolates of the genus Carnobacterium reduced Mn(IV) via a diffusible compound under oxic conditions. The release of adsorbed trace metals accompanying the solubilization of manganese oxides may provide populations of Carnobacterium with a source of nutrients in this extremely oligotrophic environment.

  20. Manganese Reduction by Microbes from Oxic Regions of the Lake Vanda (Antarctica) Water Column

    PubMed Central

    Bratina, Bonnie Jo; Stevenson, Bradley S.; Green, William J.; Schmidt, Thomas M.

    1998-01-01

    Depth profiles of metals in Lake Vanda, a permanently ice-covered, stratified Antarctic lake, suggest the importance of particulate manganese oxides in the scavenging, transport, and release of metals. Since manganese oxides can be solubilized by manganese-reducing bacteria, microbially mediated manganese reduction was investigated in Lake Vanda. Microbes concentrated from oxic regions of the water column, encompassing a peak of soluble manganese [Mn(II)], reduced synthetic manganese oxides (MnO2) when incubated aerobically. Pure cultures of manganese-reducing bacteria were readily isolated from waters collected near the oxic Mn(II) peak. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence, most of the isolated manganese reducers belong to the genus Carnobacterium. Cultures of a phylogenetically representative strain of Carnobacterium reduced synthetic MnO2 in the presence of sodium azide, as was seen in field assays. Unlike anaerobes that utilize manganese oxides as terminal electron acceptors in respiration, isolates of the genus Carnobacterium reduced Mn(IV) via a diffusible compound under oxic conditions. The release of adsorbed trace metals accompanying the solubilization of manganese oxides may provide populations of Carnobacterium with a source of nutrients in this extremely oligotrophic environment. PMID:9758801

  1. Manganese As a Metal Accumulator

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese deposits in water distribution systems accumulate metals, radionuclides and oxyanions by a combination of surface complexation, adsorption and solid substitution, as well as a combination of oxidation followed by manganese reduction and sorption of the oxidized constitu...

  2. Manganese biomining: A review.

    PubMed

    Das, A P; Sukla, L B; Pradhan, N; Nayak, S

    2011-08-01

    Biomining comprises of processing and extraction of metal from their ores and concentrates using microbial techniques. Currently this is used by the mining industry to extract copper, uranium and gold from low grade ores but not for low grade manganese ore in industrial scale. The study of microbial genomes, metabolites and regulatory pathways provide novel insights to the metabolism of bioleaching microorganisms and their synergistic action during bioleaching operations. This will promote understanding of the universal regulatory responses that the biomining microbial community uses to adapt to their changing environment leading to high metal recovery. Possibility exists of findings ways to imitate the entire process during industrial manganese biomining endeavor. This paper reviews the current status of manganese biomining research operations around the world, identifies factors that drive the selection of biomining as a processing technology, describes challenges in exploiting these innovations, and concludes with a discussion of Mn biomining's future. PMID:21632238

  3. Distributions of Manganese, Iron, and Manganese-Oxidizing Bacteria In Lake Superior Sediments of Different Organic Carbon Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Laurie L.; Nealson, Kenneth H.

    1989-01-01

    Profiles of oxygen, soluble and particulate manganese and iron, organic carbon and nitrogen were examined in Lake Superior sediment cores, along with the distribution and abundance of heterotrophic and manganese oxidizing bacteria. Analyses were performed using cores collected with the submersible Johnson Sea Link II. Three cores, exhibiting a range of organic carbon content, were collected from the deepest basin in Lake Superior and the north and south ends of the Caribou trough, and brought to the surface for immediate analysis. Minielectrode profiles of oxygen concentration of the three cores were carried out using a commercially available minielectrode apparatus. Oxygen depletion to less than 1% occurred within 4 cm of the surface for two of the cores, but not until approximately 15 cm for the core from the south basin of the Caribou trough. The three cores exhibited very different profiles of soluble, as well as leachable, manganese and iron, suggesting different degrees of remobilization of these metals in the sediments. Vertical profiles of viable bacteria and Mn oxidizing bacteria, determined by plating and counting, showed that aerobic (and facultatively aerobic) heterotrophic bacteria were present at the highest concentrations near the surface and decreased steadily with depth, while Mn oxidizing bacteria were concentrations primarily at and above the oxic/anoxic interface. Soluble manganese in the pore waters, along with abundant organic carbon, appeared to enhance the presence of manganese oxidizing bacteria, even below the oxic/anoxic interface. Profiles of solid-phase leachable manganese suggested a microbial role in manganese reprecipitation in these sediments.

  4. Subcutaneous Angiotensin II Infusion using Osmotic Pumps Induces Aortic Aneurysms in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hong; Howatt, Deborah A.; Balakrishnan, Anju; Moorleghen, Jessica J.; Rateri, Debra L.; Cassis, Lisa A.; Daugherty, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Osmotic pumps continuously deliver compounds at a constant rate into small animals. This article introduces a standard protocol used to induce aortic aneurysms via subcutaneous infusion of angiotensin II (AngII) from implanted osmotic pumps. This protocol includes calculation of AngII amount and dissolution, osmotic pump filling, implantation of osmotic pumps subcutaneously, observation after pump implantation, and harvest of aortas to visualize aortic aneurysms in mice. Subcutaneous infusion of AngII through osmotic pumps following this protocol is a reliable and reproducible technique to induce both abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysms in mice. Infusion durations range from a few days to several months based on the purpose of the study. AngII 1,000 ng/kg/min is sufficient to provide maximal effects on abdominal aortic aneurysmal formation in male hypercholesterolemic mouse models such as apolipoprotein E deficient or low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient mice. Incidence of abdominal aortic aneurysms induced by AngII infusion via osmotic pumps is 5 - 10 times lower in female hypercholesterolemic mice and also lower in both genders of normocholesterolemic mice. In contrast, AngII-induced thoracic aortic aneurysms in mice are not hypercholesterolemia or gender-dependent. Importantly, multiple features of this mouse model recapitulate those of human aortic aneurysms. PMID:26436287

  5. Subcutaneous Angiotensin II Infusion using Osmotic Pumps Induces Aortic Aneurysms in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hong; Howatt, Deborah A; Balakrishnan, Anju; Moorleghen, Jessica J; Rateri, Debra L; Cassis, Lisa A; Daugherty, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Osmotic pumps continuously deliver compounds at a constant rate into small animals. This article introduces a standard protocol used to induce aortic aneurysms via subcutaneous infusion of angiotensin II (AngII) from implanted osmotic pumps. This protocol includes calculation of AngII amount and dissolution, osmotic pump filling, implantation of osmotic pumps subcutaneously, observation after pump implantation, and harvest of aortas to visualize aortic aneurysms in mice. Subcutaneous infusion of AngII through osmotic pumps following this protocol is a reliable and reproducible technique to induce both abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysms in mice. Infusion durations range from a few days to several months based on the purpose of the study. AngII 1,000 ng/kg/min is sufficient to provide maximal effects on abdominal aortic aneurysmal formation in male hypercholesterolemic mouse models such as apolipoprotein E deficient or low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient mice. Incidence of abdominal aortic aneurysms induced by AngII infusion via osmotic pumps is 5-10 times lower in female hypercholesterolemic mice and also lower in both genders of normocholesterolemic mice. In contrast, AngII-induced thoracic aortic aneurysms in mice are not hypercholesterolemia or gender-dependent. Importantly, multiple features of this mouse model recapitulate those of human aortic aneurysms. PMID:26436287

  6. Cytogenetic evidence that DNA topoisomerase II is not involved in radiation induced chromsome-type aberrations.

    PubMed

    Mosesso, P; Pepe, G; Ottavianelli, A; Schinoppi, A; Cinelli, S

    2015-11-01

    ICRF-187 (Cardioxane™, Chiron) is a catalytic inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase II (Topo II), proposed to act by blocking Topo II-mediated DNA cleavage without stabilizing DNA-Topo II-"cleavable complexes". In this study ICRF-187 was used to evaluate the potential involvement of DNA topoisomerase II in the formation of the radiation-induced chromosome-type aberrations in the G0 phase of the cell cycle in human lymphocytes from three healthy male donors. This is based on many evidences that DNA topoisomerases are involved in DNA recombination, mainly of illegitimate type (non-homologous) both in vitro and in vivo. The results obtained clearly indicated that ICRF-187 did not induce per se any chromosomal damage. When challenged with the non-catalytic Topo II poison VP-16 (etoposide), which acts by stabilizing the "cleavable complex" generating "protein concealed" DSB's and thus chromosomal aberrations, it completely abolished the significant induction of chromosome-type aberrations and formation of dicentric chromosomes. This indicates that ICRF-187 acts effectively as catalytic inhibitor of Topo II. On the other hand, when X-ray treatments were challenged with ICRF-187 using experimental conditions as for VP-16 treatments, no modification of the incidence of chromosome-type aberrations and dicentric chromosomes was observed. On this basis, we conclude that Topo II is not involved in the formation of X-ray-induced chromosome-type aberrations and dicentric chromosomes in human lymphocytes in the G0 phase of the cell cycle. PMID:26520368

  7. The Lantibiotic Nisin Induces Lipid II Aggregation, Causing Membrane Instability and Vesicle Budding

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Katharina M.; Spille, Jan-Hendrik; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Grein, Fabian; Kubitscheck, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    The antimicrobial peptide nisin exerts its activity by a unique dual mechanism. It permeates the cell membranes of Gram-positive bacteria by binding to the cell wall precursor Lipid II and inhibits cell wall synthesis. Binding of nisin to Lipid II induces the formation of large nisin-Lipid II aggregates in the membrane of bacteria as well as in Lipid II-doped model membranes. Mechanistic details of the aggregation process and its impact on membrane permeation are still unresolved. In our experiments, we found that fluorescently labeled nisin bound very inhomogeneously to bacterial membranes as a consequence of the strong aggregation due to Lipid II binding. A correlation between cell membrane damage and nisin aggregation was observed in vivo. To further investigate the aggregation process of Lipid II and nisin, we assessed its dynamics by single-molecule microscopy of fluorescently labeled Lipid II molecules in giant unilamellar vesicles using light-sheet illumination. We observed a continuous reduction of Lipid II mobility due to a steady growth of nisin-Lipid II aggregates as a function of time and nisin concentration. From the measured diffusion constants of Lipid II, we estimated that the largest aggregates contained tens of thousands of Lipid II molecules. Furthermore, we observed that the formation of large nisin-Lipid II aggregates induced vesicle budding in giant unilamellar vesicles. Thus, we propose a membrane permeation mechanism that is dependent on the continuous growth of nisin-Lipid II aggregation and probably involves curvature effects on the membrane. PMID:25762323

  8. The lantibiotic nisin induces lipid II aggregation, causing membrane instability and vesicle budding.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Katharina M; Spille, Jan-Hendrik; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Grein, Fabian; Kubitscheck, Ulrich

    2015-03-10

    The antimicrobial peptide nisin exerts its activity by a unique dual mechanism. It permeates the cell membranes of Gram-positive bacteria by binding to the cell wall precursor Lipid II and inhibits cell wall synthesis. Binding of nisin to Lipid II induces the formation of large nisin-Lipid II aggregates in the membrane of bacteria as well as in Lipid II-doped model membranes. Mechanistic details of the aggregation process and its impact on membrane permeation are still unresolved. In our experiments, we found that fluorescently labeled nisin bound very inhomogeneously to bacterial membranes as a consequence of the strong aggregation due to Lipid II binding. A correlation between cell membrane damage and nisin aggregation was observed in vivo. To further investigate the aggregation process of Lipid II and nisin, we assessed its dynamics by single-molecule microscopy of fluorescently labeled Lipid II molecules in giant unilamellar vesicles using light-sheet illumination. We observed a continuous reduction of Lipid II mobility due to a steady growth of nisin-Lipid II aggregates as a function of time and nisin concentration. From the measured diffusion constants of Lipid II, we estimated that the largest aggregates contained tens of thousands of Lipid II molecules. Furthermore, we observed that the formation of large nisin-Lipid II aggregates induced vesicle budding in giant unilamellar vesicles. Thus, we propose a membrane permeation mechanism that is dependent on the continuous growth of nisin-Lipid II aggregation and probably involves curvature effects on the membrane. PMID:25762323

  9. Thymosin β4 Prevents Angiotensin II-Induced Cardiomyocyte Growth by Regulating Wnt/WISP Signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Guleria, Rakeshwar S; Thakur, Suresh; Zhang, Cheng-Lin; Pan, Jing; Baker, Kenneth M; Gupta, Sudhiranjan

    2016-08-01

    Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) is a ubiquitous protein with many properties relating to cell proliferation and differentiation that promotes wound healing and modulates inflammatory mediators. However, the role of Tβ4 in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is currently unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the cardio-protective effect of Tβ4 in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiomyocyte growth. Neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVM) were pretreated with Tβ4 followed by Ang II stimulation. Cell size, hypertrophy marker gene expression and Wnt signaling components, β-catenin, and Wnt-induced secreted protein-1 (WISP-1) were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting and fluorescent microscopy. Pre-treatment of Tβ4 resulted in reduction of cell size, hypertrophy marker genes and Wnt-associated gene expression, and protein levels; induced by Ang II in cardiomyocyte. WISP-1 was overexpressed in NRVM and, the effect of Tβ4 in Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte growth was evaluated. WISP-1 overexpression promoted cardiomyocytes growth and was reversed by pretreatment with Tβ4. This is the first report which demonstrates that Tβ4 targets Wnt/WISP-1 to protect Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte growth. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1737-1744, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26627308

  10. GCP II inhibition rescues neurons from gp120IIIB-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Ajit G; Bodner, Amos; Ghadge, Ghanashyam; Roos, Raymond P; Slusher, Barbara S

    2009-09-01

    Excessive glutamate neurotransmission has been implicated in neuronal injury in many disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated dementia. Gp120IIIB is a strain of a HIV glycoprotein with specificity for the CXCR4 receptor that induces neuronal apoptosis in in vitro models of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-induced neurodegeneration. Since the catabolism of the neuropeptide N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) by glutamate carboxypeptidase (GCP) II increases cellular glutamate, an event associated with excitotoxicity, we hypothesized that inhibition of GCP II may prevent gp120IIIB-induced cell death. Furthermore, through GCP II inhibition, increased NAAG may be neuroprotective via its agonist effects at the mGlu(3) receptor. To ascertain the therapeutic potential of GCP II inhibitors, embryonic day 17 hippocampal cultures were exposed to gp120IIIB in the presence of a potent and highly selective GCP II inhibitor, 2-(phosphonomethyl)-pentanedioic acid (2-PMPA). 2-PMPA was found to abrogate gp120IIIB-induced toxicity in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, 2-PMPA was neuroprotective when applied up to 2 h after the application of gp120IIIB. The abrogation of apoptosis by 2-PMPA was reversed with administration of mGlu(3) receptor antagonists and with antibodies to transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta. Further, consistent with the localization of GCP II, 2-PMPA failed to provide neuroprotection in the absence of glia. GCP II activity and its inhibition by 2-PMPA were confirmed in the hippocampal cultures using radiolabeled NAAG and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Taken together, these data suggest that GCP II is involved in mediating gp120-induced apoptosis in hippocampal neurons and GCP II inhibitors may have potential in the treatment of neuronal injury related to AIDS. PMID:19995130

  11. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate-zinc(II) and -copper(II) complexes induce apoptosis in tumor cells by inhibiting the proteasomal activity

    SciTech Connect

    Milacic, Vesna; Chen Di; Giovagnini, Lorena; Diez, Alejandro; Fregona, Dolores; Dou, Q. Ping

    2008-08-15

    Zinc and copper are trace elements essential for proper folding, stabilization and catalytic activity of many metalloenzymes in living organisms. However, disturbed zinc and copper homeostasis is reported in many types of cancer. We have previously demonstrated that copper complexes induced proteasome inhibition and apoptosis in cultured human cancer cells. In the current study we hypothesized that zinc complexes could also inhibit the proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity responsible for subsequent apoptosis induction. We first showed that zinc(II) chloride was able to inhibit the chymotrypsin-like activity of a purified 20S proteasome with an IC{sub 50} value of 13.8 {mu}M, which was less potent than copper(II) chloride (IC{sub 50} 5.3 {mu}M). We then compared the potencies of a pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PyDT)-zinc(II) complex and a PyDT-copper(II) complex to inhibit cellular proteasomal activity, suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis in various human breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Consistently, zinc complex was less potent than copper complex in inhibiting the proteasome and inducing apoptosis. Additionally, zinc and copper complexes appear to use somewhat different mechanisms to kill tumor cells. Zinc complexes were able to activate calpain-, but not caspase-3-dependent pathway, while copper complexes were able to induce activation of both proteases. Furthermore, the potencies of these PyDT-metal complexes depend on the nature of metals and also on the ratio of PyDT to the metal ion within the complex, which probably affects their stability and availability for interacting with and inhibiting the proteasome in tumor cells.

  12. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate-zinc(II) and -copper(II) complexes induce apoptosis in tumor cells by inhibiting the proteasomal activity☆

    PubMed Central

    Milacic, Vesna; Chen, Di; Giovagnini, Lorena; Diez, Alejandro; Fregona, Dolores; Dou, Q. Ping

    2013-01-01

    Zinc and copper are trace elements essential for proper folding, stabilization and catalytic activity of many metalloenzymes in living organisms. However, disturbed zinc and copper homeostasis is reported in many types of cancer. We have previously demonstrated that copper complexes induced proteasome inhibition and apoptosis in cultured human cancer cells. In the current study we hypothesized that zinc complexes could also inhibit the proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity responsible for subsequent apoptosis induction. We first showed that zinc(II) chloride was able to inhibit the chymotrypsin-like activity of a purified 20S proteasome with an IC50 value of 13.8 μM, which was less potent than copper(II) chloride (IC50 5.3 μM). We then compared the potencies of a pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PyDT)-zinc(II) complex and a PyDT-copper(II) complex to inhibit cellular proteasomal activity, suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis in various human breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Consistently, zinc complex was less potent than copper complex in inhibiting the proteasome and inducing apoptosis. Additionally, zinc and copper complexes appear to use somewhat different mechanisms to kill tumor cells. Zinc complexes were able to activate calpain-, but not caspase-3-dependent pathway, while copper complexes were able to induce activation of both proteases. Furthermore, the potencies of these PyDT-metal complexes depend on the nature of metals and also on the ratio of PyDT to the metal ion within the complex, which probably affects their stability and availability for interacting with and inhibiting the proteasome in tumor cells. PMID:18501397

  13. TNF receptor 1 signaling is critically involved in mediating angiotensin-II-induced cardiac fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Duerrschmid, Clemens; Crawford, Jeffrey R; Reineke, Erin; Taffet, George E; Trial, Joann; Entman, Mark L; Haudek, Sandra B

    2013-04-01

    Angiotensin-II (Ang-II) is associated with many conditions involving heart failure and pathologic hypertrophy. Ang-II induces the synthesis of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 that mediates the uptake of CD34(+)CD45(+) monocytic cells into the heart. These precursor cells differentiate into collagen-producing fibroblasts and are responsible for the Ang-II-induced development of non-adaptive cardiac fibrosis. In this study, we demonstrate that in vitro, using a human monocyte-to-fibroblast differentiation model, Ang-II required the presence of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) to induce fibroblast maturation from monocytes. In vivo, mice deficient in both TNF receptors did not develop cardiac fibrosis in response to 1week Ang-II infusion. We then subjected mice deficient in either TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1-KO) or TNF receptor 2 (TNFR2-KO) to continuous Ang-II infusion. Compared to wild-type, in TNFR1-KO, but not in TNFR2-KO hearts, collagen deposition was greatly attenuated, and markedly fewer CD34(+)CD45(+) cells were present. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated a striking reduction of key fibrosis-related, as well as inflammation-related mRNA expression in Ang-II-treated TNFR1-KO hearts. TNFR1-KO animals also developed less cardiac remodeling, cardiac hypertrophy, and hypertension compared to wild-type and TNFR2-KO in response to Ang-II. Our data suggest that TNF induced Ang-II-dependent cardiac fibrosis by signaling through TNFR1, which enhances the generation of monocytic fibroblast precursors in the heart. PMID:23337087

  14. Role of α1D -adrenoceptors in vascular wall hypertrophy during angiotensin II-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Ortíz, I A; Rodríguez-Hernández, S N; López-Guerrero, J J; Del Valle-Mondragón, L; López-Sánchez, P; Touyz, R M; Villalobos-Molina, R

    2015-09-01

    The in vivo effect of continuous angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion on arterial blood pressure, vascular hypertrophy and α1 -adrenoceptors (α1 -ARs) expression was explored. Alzet(®) minipumps filled with Ang II (200 ng kg(-1)  min(-1) ) were subcutaneously implanted in male Wistar rats (3 months-old). Groups of rats were also treated with losartan, an AT1 R antagonist, or with BMY 7378, a selective α1D -AR antagonist. Blood pressure was measured by tail-cuff; after 2 or 4 weeks of treatment, vessels were isolated for functional and structural analyses. Angiotensin II increased systolic blood pressure. Phenylephrine-induced contraction in aorta was greater (40% higher) in Ang II-treated rats than in the controls, and similar effect occurred with KCl 80 mm. Responses in tail arteries were not significantly different among the different groups. Angiotensin II decreased α1D -ARs without modifying the other α1 -ARs and induced an increase in media thickness (hypertrophy) in aorta, while no structural change occurred in tail artery. Losartan prevented and reversed hypertension and hypertrophy, while BMY 7378 prevented and reversed the aorta's hypertrophic response, without preventing or reversing hypertension. Findings indicate that Ang II-induced aortic hypertrophic response involves Ang II-AT1 Rs and α1D -ARs. Angiotensin II-induced α1D -AR-mediated vascular remodeling occurs independently of hypertension. Findings identify a α1D -AR-mediated process whereby Ang II influences aortic hypertrophy independently of blood pressure elevation. PMID:26845248

  15. Role of Nox isoforms in angiotensin II-induced oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in brain

    PubMed Central

    Chrissobolis, Sophocles; Banfi, Botond; Sobey, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) promotes vascular disease through several mechanisms including by producing oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. Although multiple potential sources of reactive oxygen species exist, the relative importance of each is unclear, particularly in individual vascular beds. In these experiments, we examined the role of NADPH oxidase (Nox1 and Nox2) in Ang II-induced endothelial dysfunction in the cerebral circulation. Treatment with Ang II (1.4 mg·kg−1·day−1 for 7 days), but not vehicle, increased blood pressure in all groups. In wild-type (WT; C57Bl/6) mice, Ang II reduced dilation of the basilar artery to the endothelium-dependent agonist acetylcholine compared with vehicle but had no effect on responses in Nox2-deficient (Nox2−/y) mice. Ang II impaired responses to acetylcholine in Nox1 WT (Nox1+/y) and caused a small reduction in responses to acetylcholine in Nox1-deficient (Nox1−/y) mice. Ang II did not impair responses to the endothelium-independent agonists nitroprusside or papaverine in either group. In WT mice, Ang II increased basal and phorbol-dibutyrate-stimulated superoxide production in the cerebrovasculature, and these increases were abolished in Nox2−/y mice. Overall, these data suggest that Nox2 plays a relatively prominent role in mediating Ang II-induced oxidative stress and cerebral endothelial dysfunction, with a minor role for Nox1. PMID:22628375

  16. Giant negative magnetoresistance in Manganese-substituted Zinc Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X. L.; Shao, Q.; Zhuravlyova, A.; He, M.; Yi, Y.; Lortz, R.; Wang, J. N.; Ruotolo, A.

    2015-01-01

    We report a large negative magnetoresistance in Manganese-substituted Zinc Oxide thin films. This anomalous effect was found to appear in oxygen-deficient films and to increase with the concentration of Manganese. By combining magnetoresistive measurements with magneto-photoluminescence, we demonstrate that the effect can be explained as the result of a magnetically induced transition from hopping to band conduction where the activation energy is caused by the sp-d exchange interaction. PMID:25783664

  17. Effect of Lysyl Oxidase Inhibition on Angiotensin II-Induced Arterial Hypertension, Remodeling, and Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Eberson, Lance S.; Sanchez, Pablo A.; Majeed, Beenish A.; Tawinwung, Supannikar; Secomb, Timothy W.; Larson, Douglas F.

    2015-01-01

    It is well accepted that angiotensin II (Ang II) induces altered vascular stiffness through responses including both structural and material remodeling. Concurrent with remodeling is the induction of the enzyme lysyl oxidase (LOX) through which ECM proteins are cross-linked. The study objective was to determine the effect of LOX mediated cross-linking on vascular mechanical properties. Three-month old mice were chronically treated with Ang II with or without the LOX blocker, β -aminopropionitrile (BAPN), for 14 days. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) from Doppler measurements of the aortic flow wave was used to quantify in vivo vascular stiffness in terms of an effective Young’s modulus. The increase in effective Young’s modulus with Ang II administration was abolished with the addition of BAPN, suggesting that the material properties are a major controlling element in vascular stiffness. BAPN inhibited the Ang II induced collagen cross-link formation by 2-fold and PWV by 44% (P<0.05). Consistent with this observation, morphometric analysis showed that BAPN did not affect the Ang II mediated increase in medial thickness but significantly reduced the adventitial thickness. Since the hypertensive state contributes to the measured in vivo PWV stiffness, we removed the Ang II infusion pumps on Day 14 and achieved normal arterial blood pressures. With pump removal we observed a decrease of the PWV in the Ang II group to 25% above that of the control values (P=0.002), with a complete return to control values in the Ang II plus BAPN group. In conclusion, we have shown that the increase in vascular stiffness with 14 day Ang II administration results from a combination of hypertension-induced wall strain, adventitial wall thickening and Ang II mediated LOX ECM cross-linking, which is a major material source of vascular stiffening, and that the increased PWV was significantly inhibited with co-administration of BAPN. PMID:25875748

  18. Structural specifics of light-induced metastable states in copper(II)-nitroxide molecular magnets.

    PubMed

    Barskaya, I Yu; Veber, S L; Fokin, S V; Tretyakov, E V; Bagryanskaya, E G; Ovcharenko, V I; Fedin, M V

    2015-12-28

    Although light-induced magnetostructural switching in copper(II)-nitroxide molecular magnets Cu(hfac)2L(R) has been known for several years, structural characterization of metastable photoinduced states has not yet been accomplished due to significant technical demands. In this work we apply, for the first time, variable-temperature FTIR spectroscopy with photoexcitation to investigate the structural specifics of light-induced states in the Cu(hfac)2L(R) family represented by (i) Cu(hfac)2L(Me) comprising two-spin copper(II)-nitroxide clusters, and (ii) Cu(hfac)2L(Pr) comprising three-spin nitroxide-copper(II)-nitroxide clusters. The light-induced state of Cu(hfac)2L(Me) manifests the same set of vibrational bands as the corresponding thermally-induced state, implying their similar structures. For the second compound Cu(hfac)2L(Pr), the coordination environment of copper(II) is similar in light- and thermally-induced states, but distinct differences are found for packing of the peripheral n-propyl substituent of nitroxide. Thus, generally the structures of the corresponding thermally- and light-induced states in molecular magnets Cu(hfac)2L(R) might differ, and FTIR spectroscopy provides a useful approach for revealing and elucidating such differences. PMID:26571045

  19. Crystal structure of trans-di­aqua­bis­(nicotinamide-κN 1)bis­(4-nitro­benzoato-κO)manganese(II)

    PubMed Central

    Aşkın, Gülçin Şefiye; Necefoğlu, Hacali; Tonbul, Ali Murat; Dilek, Nefise; Hökelek, Tuncer

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Mn(C7H4NO4)2(C6H6N2O)2(H2O)2], contains one MnII atom, one 4-nitro­benzoate (NB) anion, one nicotinamide (NA) ligand and one water mol­ecule; NA and NB each act as a monodentate ligand. The MnII atom, lying on an inversion centre, is coordinated by four O atoms and two pyridine N atoms in a distorted octa­hedral geometry. The water mol­ecules are hydrogen bonded to the carboxyl­ate O atoms. The dihedral angle between the carboxyl­ate group and the adjacent benzene ring is 24.4 (3)°, while the benzene and pyridine rings are oriented at a dihedral angle of 86.63 (11)°. In the crystal, O—H⋯O and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules, forming a layer parallel to the ab plane. The layers are further linked via weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, a π–π stacking inter­action [centroid–centroid distance = 3.868 (2) Å] and a weak C—H⋯π inter­action, resulting in a three-dimensional network. PMID:27308012

  20. Angiotensin II-induced angiotensin II type I receptor lysosomal degradation studied by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hewang; Yu, Peiying; Felder, Robin A.; Periasamy, Ammasi; Jose, Pedro A.

    2009-02-01

    Upon activation, the angiotensin (Ang) II type 1 receptor (AT1Rs) rapidly undergoes endocytosis. After a series of intracellular processes, the internalized AT1Rs recycle back to the plasma membrane or are trafficked to proteasomes or lysosomes for degradation. We recently reported that AT1Rs degrades in proteasomes upon stimulation of the D5 dopamine receptor (D5R) in human renal proximal tubule and HEK-293 cells. This is in contrast to the degradation of AT1R in lysosomes upon binding Ang II. However, the dynamic regulation of the AT1Rs in lysosomes is not well understood. Here we investigated the AT1Rs lysosomal degradation using FRET-FLIM in HEK 293 cells heterologously expressing the human AT1R tagged with EGFP as the donor fluorophore. Compared to its basal state, the lifetime of AT1Rs decreased after a 5-minute treatment with Ang II treatment and colocalized with Rab5 but not Rab7 and LAMP1. With longer Ang II treatment (30 min), the AT1Rs lifetime decreased and co-localized with Rab5, as well as Rab7 and LAMP1. The FLIM data are corroborated with morphological and biochemical co-immunoprecipitation studies. These data demonstrate that Ang II induces the internalization of AT1Rs into early sorting endosomes prior to trafficking to late endosomes and subsequent degradation in lysosomes.

  1. Manganese, Metallogenium, and Martian Microfossils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, L. Y.; Nealson, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    Manganese could easily be considered an abundant element in the Martian regolith, assuming that the composition of martian meteorites reflects the composition of the planet. Mineralogical analyses of 5 SNC meteorites have revealed an average manganese oxide concentration of 0.48%, relative to the 0.1% concentration of manganese found in the Earth's crust. On the Earth, the accumulation of manganese oxides in oceans, soils, rocks, sedimentary ores, fresh water systems, and hydrothermal vents can be largely attributed to microbial activity. Manganese is also a required trace nutrient for most life forms and participates in many critical enzymatic reactions such as photosynthesis. The wide-spread process of bacterial manganese cycling on Earth suggests that manganese is an important element to both geology and biology. Furthermore, there is evidence that bacteria can be fossilized within manganese ores, implying that manganese beds may be good repositories for preserved biomarkers. A particular genus of bacteria, known historically as Metallogenium, can form star-shaped manganese oxide minerals (called metallogenium) through the action of manganese oxide precipitation along its surface. Fossilized structures that resemble metallogenium have been found in Precambrian sedimentary formations and in Cretaceous-Paleogene cherts. The Cretaceous-Paleogene formations are highly enriched in manganese and have concentrations of trace elements (Fe, Zn, Cu, and Co) similar to modern-day manganese oxide deposits in marine environments. The appearance of metallogenium-like fossils associated with manganese deposits suggests that bacteria may be preserved within the minerals that they form. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  2. Role of nickel and manganese in recovery of resistivity in iron-based alloys after low-temperature proton irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, K.; Iwai, T.; Abe, H.; Sekimura, N.; Katano, Y.; Iwata, T.; Onitsuka, T.

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates the recovery of electric resistivity in pure iron, Fe-0.6Ni and Fe-1.5Mn as related to isochronal annealing following 1 MeV proton irradiation at lower temperature than 70 K, focusing on the relationship between solute atoms and irradiation defects. Both nickel and manganese prevent stage ID recovery, which corresponds to correlated recombination. Stage II recovery is also changed by the addition of a solute, which corresponds to the migration of small interstitial clusters. In both pure iron and Fe-0.6Ni, no evident difference was observed in the stage III region, which corresponds to the migration of vacancies. In contrast, two substages appeared in the Fe-1.5Mn at a higher temperature than stage IIIB appeared in pure iron. These substages are considered to represent the release of irradiation-induced defects, which was trapped by manganese.

  3. Manganese homeostasis in the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pan; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Mukhopadhyay, Somshuvra; Lee, Eunsook; Paoliello, Monica M B; Bowman, Aaron B; Aschner, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential heavy metal that is naturally found in the environment. Daily intake through dietary sources provides the necessary amount required for several key physiological processes, including antioxidant defense, energy metabolism, immune function and others. However, overexposure from environmental sources can result in a condition known as manganism that features symptomatology similar to Parkinson's disease (PD). This disorder presents with debilitating motor and cognitive deficits that arise from a neurodegenerative process. In order to maintain a balance between its essentiality and neurotoxicity, several mechanisms exist to properly buffer cellular Mn levels. These include transporters involved in Mn uptake, and newly discovered Mn efflux mechanisms. This review will focus on current studies related to mechanisms underlying Mn import and export, primarily the Mn transporters, and their function and roles in Mn-induced neurotoxicity. Though and essential metal, overexposure to manganese may result in neurodegenerative disease analogous to Parkinson's disease. Manganese homeostasis is tightly regulated by transporters, including transmembrane importers (divalent metal transporter 1, transferrin and its receptor, zinc transporters ZIP8 and Zip14, dopamine transporter, calcium channels, choline transporters and citrate transporters) and exporters (ferroportin and SLC30A10), as well as the intracellular trafficking proteins (SPCA1 and ATP12A2). A manganese-specific sensor, GPP130, has been identified, which affords means for monitoring intracellular levels of this metal. PMID:25982296

  4. Synthesis, characterization, biological activity, molecular modeling and docking studies of complexes 4-(4-hydroxy)-3-(2-pyrazine-2-carbonyl)hydrazonomethylphenyl-diazen-yl-benzenesulfonamide with manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), zinc(II) and cadmium(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaghaz, Abdel-Nasser M. A.; Zayed, Mohamed E.; Alharbi, Suliman A.; Ammar, Reda A. A.; Elhenawy, Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    A new series of complexes of 4-(4-hydroxy)-3-(2-pyrazine-2-carbonyl)hydrazonomethylphenyl-diazen-yl-benzenesulfonamide (HL) with Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) have been prepared and characterized by different physical techniques. The IR spectra of the prepared complexes were suggested that the ligand behaves as a tri-dentate ligand through the carbonyl oxygen, azomethine nitrogen and phenolic oxygen atoms (ONO). Electronic spectra and magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal octahedral geometry for all complexes. The elemental analyses and mass spectral data have justified the ML2 composition of complexes. The EPR spectra of Mn(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes support the mononuclear structure. The crystal field splitting, Racah repulsion and nephelauxetic parameters and determined from the electronic spectra of the complexes. Thermal properties and decomposition kinetics of all complexes are investigated. The geometry of the metal complexes has been optimized with the help of molecular modeling. The biological activity of these compounds against various fungi has been investigated.

  5. Angiotensin-(1-7) regulates Angiotensin II-induced VCAM-1 expression on vascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Feng; Ren, Jingyi; Chan, Kenneth; Chen, Hong

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We for the first time found that Ang-(1-7) inhibits Ang II-induced VCAM-1 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The inhibitory effect of Ang-(1-7) on VCAM-1 is mediated by MAS receptor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of Ang-(1-7) is due to the suppression of NF-kappaB translocation. -- Abstract: Angiotensin II (Ang II) and Angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)) are key effector peptides in the renin-angiotensin system. Increased circulatory Ang II level is associated with the development of hypertension and atherosclerosis, whereas Ang-(1-7) is a counter-regulatory mediator of Ang II which appears to be protective against cardiovascular disease. However, whether Ang-(1-7) regulates the action of Ang II on vascular endothelial cells (EC) remains unclear. We investigated the effects of Ang II and Ang-(1-7) in the context of atherogenesis, specifically endothelial cell VCAM-1 expression that is implicated in early plaque formation. The results show that Ang II increased VCAM-1 mRNA expression and protein displayed on EC surface, while Ang-(1-7) alone exerted no effects. However, Ang-(1-7) significantly suppressed Ang II-induced VCAM-1 expression. Ang-(1-7) also inhibited the Ang II-induced VCAM-1 promoter activity driven by transcription factor NF-KappaB. Furthermore, immunofluorescence assay and ELISA showed that Ang II facilitated the nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB in ECs, and this was attenuated by the presence of Ang-(1-7). The inhibitory effects of Ang-(1-7) on Ang II-induced VCAM-1 promoter activity and NF-kappaB nuclear translocation were all reversed by the competitive antagonist of Ang-(1-7) at the Mas receptor. Our results suggest that Ang-(1-7) mediates its affects on ECs through the Mas receptor, and negatively regulates Ang II-induced VCAM-1 expression by attenuating nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB.

  6. Bis(1H-benzimidazole-2-carboxyl­ato-κ2 N 3,O)bis­(ethanol-κO)manganese(II)

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Jian-Hua; Lin, Yue-Hua; Xu, Chun-Tao

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, [Mn(C8H5N2O2)2(C2H5OH)2], the MnII atom is six-coordinated by two N and two O atoms from two 1H-benzimidazole-2-carboxyl­ate (L) ligands and by two O atoms from two ethanol mol­ecules in a distorted octa­hedral geometry. The mean planes of the two L ligands are inclined to each other at 7.6 (1)°. In the crystal, N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into layers parallel to the ab plane. PMID:23125606

  7. A new nano-scale manganese (II) coordination polymer constructed from semicarbazone Schiff base and dicyanamide ligands: Synthesis, crystal structure and DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhadi, Saeed; Mahmoudi, Farzaneh; Simpson, Jim

    2016-03-01

    A new nano-structured Mn(II) coordination polymer [Mn(HL)(dca)(Cl)]n(1), [HL= Pyridine-2-carbaldehyde semicarbazone, dca= dicyanamide] has been synthesized by a sonochemical method and has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction elemental analysis and IR spectroscopy. Single crystals of compound 1 was synthesized by slow evaporation method and was structurally characterised by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The single crystal structure shows one dimensional zig-zag chains with end-to-end dicyanamide-bridged ligand. A distorted octahedral geometry around the Mn2+centers was achieved by NNO atoms from HL, two nitrogen atoms of dicyanamide and one chlorine atom. Also for more details, the structure of 1, has been optimized by density functional theory (DFT calculations).

  8. Nanostructured manganese oxides as highly active water oxidation catalysts: a boost from manganese precursor chemistry.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Prashanth W; Indra, Arindam; Littlewood, Patrick; Schwarze, Michael; Göbel, Caren; Schomäcker, Reinhard; Driess, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    We present a facile synthesis of bioinspired manganese oxides for chemical and photocatalytic water oxidation, starting from a reliable and versatile manganese(II) oxalate single-source precursor (SSP) accessible through an inverse micellar molecular approach. Strikingly, thermal decomposition of the latter precursor in various environments (air, nitrogen, and vacuum) led to the three different mineral phases of bixbyite (Mn2 O3 ), hausmannite (Mn3 O4 ), and manganosite (MnO). Initial chemical water oxidation experiments using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) gave the maximum catalytic activity for Mn2 O3 and MnO whereas Mn3 O4 had a limited activity. The substantial increase in the catalytic activity of MnO in chemical water oxidation was demonstrated by the fact that a phase transformation occurs at the surface from nanocrystalline MnO into an amorphous MnOx (1manganese oxides including the newly formed amorphous MnOx . Both Mn2 O3 and the amorphous MnOx exhibit tremendous enhancement in oxygen evolution during photocatalysis and are much higher in comparison to so far known bioinspired manganese oxides and calcium-manganese oxides. Also, for the first time, a new approach for the representation of activities of water oxidation catalysts has been proposed by determining the amount of accessible manganese centers. PMID:25044528

  9. ANG II is required for optimal overload-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, S. E.; Davis, B. S.; Carlson, C. J.; Booth, F. W.

    2001-01-01

    ANG II mediates the hypertrophic response of overloaded cardiac muscle, likely via the ANG II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor. To examine the potential role of ANG II in overload-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy, plantaris and/or soleus muscle overload was produced in female Sprague-Dawley rats (225-250 g) by the bilateral surgical ablation of either the synergistic gastrocnemius muscle (experiment 1) or both the gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles (experiment 2). In experiment 1 (n = 10/group), inhibiting endogenous ANG II production by oral administration of an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor during a 28-day overloading protocol attenuated plantaris and soleus muscle hypertrophy by 57 and 96%, respectively (as measured by total muscle protein content). ACE inhibition had no effect on nonoverloaded (sham-operated) muscles. With the use of new animals (experiment 2; n = 8/group), locally perfusing overloaded soleus muscles with exogenous ANG II (via osmotic pump) rescued the lost hypertrophic response in ACE-inhibited animals by 71%. Furthermore, orally administering an AT(1) receptor antagonist instead of an ACE inhibitor produced a 48% attenuation of overload-induced hypertrophy that could not be rescued by ANG II perfusion. Thus ANG II may be necessary for optimal overload-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy, acting at least in part via an AT(1) receptor-dependent pathway.

  10. Reactive oxygen species mediate angiotensin II-induced leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in vivo.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, A; Sanz, M J

    2001-08-01

    Chronically elevated angiotensin II (Ang-II)-induced hypertension is partly mediated by superoxide production. In this study, we have investigated whether the leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions elicited by Ang-II involve reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Intravital microscopy within the rat mesenteric microvessels was used. Superfusion (60 min) with Ang-II (1 nM) induced significant increases in leukocyte rolling flux, adhesion, and emigration, which were inhibited by pretreatment with superoxide dismutase or catalase. Dihydrorhodamine-123 oxidation indicated that ROS are primarily produced by the vessel wall. Administration of dimethylthiourea, desferrioxamine, or N-acetylcysteine provoked significant reductions in Ang-II-induced leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions. In addition, a blockade of platelet-activating factor or leukotrienes also attenuated such responses significantly. The results presented indicate that in vivo Ang-II-induced leukocyte recruitment is dependent on the generation of intra- and extracellular ROS. Therefore, the use of anti-oxidants might constitute an alternative therapy for the control of the subendothelial leukocyte infiltration associated with hypertension and atherosclerosis. PMID:11493611

  11. GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE-1 PLAYS A MAJOR ROLE IN PROTECTING AGAINST ANGIOTENSIN II-INDUCED VASCULAR DYSFUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Chrissobolis, Sophocles; Didion, Sean P.; Kinzenbaw, Dale A.; Schrader, Laura I.; Dayal, Sanjana; Lentz, Steven R.; Faraci, Frank M.

    2011-01-01

    Levels of reactive oxygen species, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), increase in blood vessels during hypertension and in response to angiotensin II (Ang II). Although glutathione peroxidases (GPx) are known to metabolize H2O2, the role of GPx during hypertension is poorly defined. We tested the hypothesis that GPx-1 protects against Ang II-induced endothelial dysfunction. Responses of carotid arteries from Gpx1-deficient (Gpx1 +/− and Gpx1 −/−) and Gpx1 transgenic (Tg) mice, and their respective littermate controls, were examined in vitro following overnight incubation with either vehicle or Ang II. Under control conditions, relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh, an endothelium-dependent agonist) was similar in control, Gpx1 +/−, and Gpx1 Tg mice, whereas in Gpx1 −/− mice, responses to ACh were impaired. In control mice, ACh-induced vasorelaxation was not affected by 1 nmol/L Ang II. In contrast, relaxation to ACh in arteries from Gpx1 +/− mice was inhibited by ~60% following treatment with 1 nmol/L Ang II, indicating Gpx1 haploinsufficiency markedly enhances Ang II-induced endothelial dysfunction. A higher concentration of Ang II (10 nmol/L) selectively impaired relaxation to ACh in arteries from control mice, and this effect was prevented in arteries from Gpx1 Tg mice, or arteries from control mice treated with PEG-catalase (which degrades H2O2). Thus, genetic and pharmacological evidence suggests a major role for GPx-1 and H2O2 in Ang II-induced effects on vascular function. PMID:18299484

  12. Dietary manganese requirement of P. Vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fa-Yi; Lawrence, A. L.

    1997-06-01

    Graded levels of manganese were supplemented to a semi-purified diet containing 45% crude protein, to provide six levels of manganese (i. e. containing 5, 25, 50, 70, 140 and 210×10-6, respectively) for two experiments with these experimental diets. The initial weight of shrimp used in the 35 day experiment I was 0.30±0.04 g, and that in the 70 day Experiment II was more than one gram. The results showed that optimum content in the semi-purified diet for the more than 1 gram shrimp ranged from 70 ×10-6, to 140×10-6, but supplementation of Mn was not necessary for the small shrimp.

  13. DNA breakage induced by piceatannol and copper(II): Mechanism and anticancer properties

    PubMed Central

    LI, ZHENSHENG; YANG, XIAOZHAN; DONG, SHIWU; LI, XIAOHUI

    2012-01-01

    Piceatannol (3,3′,4,5′-tetrahydroxy-trans-stilbene; Pice), found in a variety of plant sources including grapes, red wine, peanuts and rhubarb, is known as a metabolite and analog of Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene; Res) and has higher bioactivity than Res. To explore the mechanism of DNA damage induced by Pice in the presence of copper (Cu)(II), gel electrophoresis, UV-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used. The results of gel electrophoresis demonstrated that the hydroxyl radical played a critical role in DNA cleavage. Spectroscopy confirmed that the mechanism of DNA cleavage induced by Pice-Cu(II) involves the Haber Weiss and Fenton reactions. Pice chelates with Cu(II) as a bidentate ligand, and the Pice-Cu(II) complex undergoes intramolecular electron transfer to form the semiquinone radical anion and Cu(I), which may be reoxidated by O2 to form Cu(II) with hydroxyl radical generation. In brief, the formation of the hydroxyl radical and the Cu(II)/Cu(I) redox cycle play a key role in inducing DNA damage. In this process, Pice demonstrated pro-oxidant properties. Oxidative product(s) of Pice, semiquinone, was formed and Cu(I) was reoxidized to Cu(II). The redox cycling of copper generated reactive oxygen species, which induced DNA cleavage, the hallmark of cell apoptosis. The mechanism of DNA breakage induced by Pice-Cu(II) may be a significant pathway through which cancer cells are killed. PMID:22783397

  14. Class A scavenger receptor deficiency augments angiotensin II-induced vascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Qian, Lingling; Li, Xiaoyu; Fang, Ru; Wang, Zhuoyun; Xu, Yiming; Zhang, Hanwen; Bai, Hui; Yang, Qing; Zhu, Xudong; Ben, Jingjing; Xu, Yong; Chen, Qi

    2014-08-01

    Class A scavenger receptor (SR-A) is a multifunctional molecule that participates in macrophage-mediated inflammation. Here we evaluated the role of SR-A in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertensive vascular remodeling. Chronic infusion of Ang II leads to an increased systolic blood pressure both in SR-A knockout (SR-A(-/-)) and wild type (SR-A(+/+)) mice with no significant difference between these two groups. SR-A(-/-) hypertensive mice, however, exhibited a marked augmentation of arterial wall thickening and vascular cell proliferation compared with SR-A(+/+) hypertensive mice. M1 macrophage markers were increased whereas M2 macrophage markers were decreased in vascular tissues of SR-A(-/-) mice. Co-culture experiments revealed that more pro-inflammatory cytokines like TNF-α were produced by SR-A(-/-) peritoneal macrophages leading to a stronger proliferation of primary vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro. In addition, SR-A(-/-) macrophages were more prone to lipopolysaccharide-induced M1 differentiation while resisting interleukin-4-induced M2 differentiation. Importantly, transplantation of SR-A(-/-) bone marrow into SR-A(+/+) mice significantly augmented Ang II-induced vascular remodeling. These results show that SR-A is critical for Ang II-induced vascular remodeling by regulating macrophage polarization. Therefore, SR-A may be a useful therapeutic target for the intervention of hypertensive vascular remodeling. PMID:24875449

  15. Monocytic fibroblast precursors mediate fibrosis in angiotensin-II-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Haudek, Sandra B; Cheng, Jizhong; Du, Jie; Wang, Yanlin; Hermosillo-Rodriguez, Jesus; Trial, JoAnn; Taffet, George E; Entman, Mark L

    2010-09-01

    Angiotensin-II (Ang-II) is an autacoid generated as part of the pathophysiology of cardiac hypertrophy and failure. In addition to its role in cardiac and smooth muscle contraction and salt retention, it was shown to play a major role in the cardiac interstitial inflammatory response and fibrosis accompanying cardiac failure. In this study, we examined a model of Ang-II infusion to clarify the early cellular mechanisms linking interstitial fibrosis with the onset of the tissue inflammatory response. Continuous infusion of Ang-II resulted in increased deposition of collagen in the heart. Ang-II infusion also resulted in the appearance of distinctive small, spindle-shaped, bone marrow-derived CD34(+)/CD45(+) fibroblasts that expressed collagen type I and the cardiac fibroblast marker DDR2 while structural fibroblasts were CD34(-)/CD45(-). Genetic deletion of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 (MCP-1-KO mice) prevented the Ang-II-induced cardiac fibrosis and the appearance of CD34(+)/CD45(+) fibroblasts. Real-time PCR in Ang-II-treated hearts revealed a striking induction of types I and III collagen, TGF-beta1, and TNF mRNA expression; this was obviated in Ang-II-infused MCP-1-KO hearts. In both wild-type and MCP-1-KO mice, Ang-II infusion resulted in cardiac hypertrophy, increased systolic function and hypertension which were not significantly different between the WT and MCP-1-KO mice over the 6-week course of infusion. In conclusion, the development of Ang-II-induced non-adaptive fibrosis in the heart required induction of MCP-1, which modulated the uptake and differentiation of a CD34(+)/CD45(+) fibroblast precursor population. In contrast to the inflammatory and fibrotic response, the hemodynamic response to Ang-II was not affected by MCP-1 in the first 6weeks. PMID:20488188

  16. Tetranuclear polybipyridyl complexes of Ru(II) and Mn(II), their electro- and photo-induced transformation into di-mu-oxo Mn(III)Mn(IV) hexanuclear complexes.

    PubMed

    Romain, Sophie; Baffert, Carole; Dumas, Stéphane; Chauvin, Jérôme; Leprêtre, Jean-Claude; Daveloose, Denis; Deronzier, Alain; Collomb, Marie-Noëlle

    2006-12-28

    affected by the presence of manganese within the tetranuclear complexes. A slight quenching of the excited states of the ruthenium moieties, which occurs by an intramolecular process, has been observed. Measurements made at low concentration (<1 x 10(-5) M) indicate that some decoordination of Mn(2+) arises in 1a-c. These measurements allow the calculation of the association constants for these complexes. Finally, photoinduced oxidation of the tetranuclear complexes has been performed by continuous photolysis experiments in the presence of a large excess of a diazonium salt, acting as a sacrificial oxidant. The three successive oxidation processes, Mn(II)--> Mn(III)Mn(IV), Mn(III)Mn(IV)--> Mn(IV)Mn(IV) and Ru(II)--> Ru(III) are thus obtained, the addition of 2,6-dimethylpyridine in the medium giving an essentially quantitative yield for the two first photo-induced oxidation steps as found for electrochemical oxidation. PMID:17146534

  17. The Escherichia coli Small Protein MntS and Exporter MntP Optimize the Intracellular Concentration of Manganese

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Julia E.; Waters, Lauren S.; Storz, Gisela; Imlay, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli does not routinely import manganese, but it will do so when iron is unavailable, so that manganese can substitute for iron as an enzyme cofactor. When intracellular manganese levels are low, the cell induces the MntH manganese importer plus MntS, a small protein of unknown function; when manganese levels are high, the cell induces the MntP manganese exporter and reduces expression of MntH and MntS. The role of MntS has not been clear. Previous work showed that forced MntS synthesis under manganese-rich conditions caused bacteriostasis. Here we find that when manganese is scarce, MntS helps manganese to activate a variety of enzymes. Its overproduction under manganese-rich conditions caused manganese to accumulate to very high levels inside the cell; simultaneously, iron levels dropped precipitously, apparently because manganese-bound Fur blocked the production of iron importers. Under these conditions, heme synthesis stopped, ultimately depleting cytochrome oxidase activity and causing the failure of aerobic metabolism. Protoporphyrin IX accumulated, indicating that the combination of excess manganese and iron deficiency had stalled ferrochelatase. The same chain of events occurred when mutants lacking MntP, the manganese exporter, were exposed to manganese. Genetic analysis suggested the possibility that MntS exerts this effect by inhibiting MntP. We discuss a model wherein during transitions between low- and high-manganese environments E. coli uses MntP to compensate for MntH overactivity, and MntS to compensate for MntP overactivity. PMID:25774656

  18. High-molar-mass hyaluronan behavior during testing its radical scavenging capacity in organic and aqueous media: effects of the presence of manganese(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Rapta, Peter; Valachová, Katarína; Gemeiner, Peter; Soltés, Ladislav

    2009-02-01

    This study compares the radical scavenging capacity of high-molar-mass hyaluronan (HA) using standardized methods applying 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and 2,2'-azinobis[3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulfonate] (ABTS) radical cations as oxidants. Additionally, spin-trapping technique combined with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was used to evaluate the ability of HA to scavenge reactive radicals. The thermal decomposition of K2S2O8 in pure H2O or in a H2O/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) mixture at 333 K was used as a source of reactive paramagnetic species. We found that HA does not exhibit radical-scavenging activity when DPPH radicals or ABTS(.+) radical cations are used as oxidant, but that HA is an effective radical scavenger at low concentrations, if the oxidation reactions are initiated by the decomposition of K2S2O8. At higher HA concentrations, a more complex behavior and prooxidant HA action was observed. The influence of Mn(II) ions on the reaction mechanisms of radical generation and termination in the K2S2O8/H2O/DMSO system in the presence of HA was studied in detail. PMID:19235158

  19. Occupational asthma due to manganese exposure: a case report.

    PubMed

    Wittczak, Tomasz; Dudek, Wojciech; Krakowiak, Anna; Walusiak, Jolanta; Pałczyński, Cezary

    2008-01-01

    Manganese belongs to a group of agents called "transitional metals" that are known to induce occupational asthma. However, well-documented cases of manganese-induced asthma have been lacking thus far. We have discussed a case of a 42-year-old non-smoking welder with work-related dyspnea. A number of clinical procedures were performed including clinical examination, routine laboratory tests, total serum IgE, skin prick tests to common aeroallergens and manganese nitrate, resting spirometry test, histamine challenge, and a single-blind, placebo-controlled specific inhalation challenge with 0.1% manganese chloride solution. Clinical findings and laboratory test results remained normal but a significant bronchial hyperreactivity was found. During the specific inhalation challenge, dyspnea and a significant decrease in forced expiratory volume (FEV1) were observed. An increased proportion of eosinophils and basophils in induced sputum could also be noted at 4 and 24 h after the challenge. The argument for recognizing the condition as occupational asthma was a positive clinical response to the specific challenge test as well as the morphological changes found in induced sputum. To our knowledge, this is the first well-documented case of manganese-induced occupational asthma. PMID:18468975

  20. Angiotensin II centrally induces frequent detrusor contractility of the bladder by acting on brain angiotensin II type 1 receptors in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Bunya; Shimizu, Shogo; Shimizu, Takahiro; Higashi, Youichirou; Honda, Masashi; Sejima, Takehiro; Saito, Motoaki; Takenaka, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin (Ang) II plays an important role in the brain as a neurotransmitter and is involved in psychological stress reactions, for example through activation of the sympatho-adrenomedullary system. We investigated the effects of centrally administered Ang II on the micturition reflex, which is potentially affected by the sympatho-adrenomedullary system, and brain Ang II receptors in urethane-anesthetized (1.0 g/kg, intraperitoneally) male rats. Central administration of Ang II (0.01, 0.02, and 0.07 nmol per rat, intracerebroventricularly, icv) but not vehicle rapidly and dose-dependently decreased the urinary bladder intercontraction interval, without altering the bladder detrusor pressure. Central administration of antagonists of Ang II type 1 but not type 2 receptors inhibited the Ang II-induced shortening of intercontraction intervals. Administration of the highest dose of Ang II (0.07 nmol per rat, icv) but not lower doses (0.01 and 0.02 nmol per rat, icv) elevated the plasma concentration of adrenaline. Bilateral adrenalectomy reduced Ang II-induced elevation in adrenaline, but had no effect on the Ang II-induced shortening of the intercontraction interval. These data suggest that central administration of Ang II increases urinary frequency by acting on brain Ang II type 1 receptors, independent of activation of the sympatho-adrenomedullary system. PMID:26908391

  1. Mechanisms underlying the cerebral microvascular responses to angiotensin II-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Vital, Shantel A; Terao, Satoshi; Nagai, Mutsumi; Granger, D Neil

    2010-11-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) and AngII type-1 receptors (AT1r) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension and ischemic stroke. The objectives of this study was to determine if/how chronic AngII administration affects blood-brain barrier (BBB) function and blood cell adhesion in the cerebral microvasculature. AngII-loaded osmotic pumps were implanted in wild type (WT) and mutant mice. Leukocyte and platelet adhesion were monitored in cerebral venules by intravital microscopy and BBB permeability detected by Evans blue leakage. AngII (two week) infusion increased blood pressure in WT mice. This was accompanied by an increased BBB permeability and a high density of adherent leukocytes and platelets. AT1r (on the vessel wall, but not on blood cells) was largely responsible for the microvascular responses to AngII. Immunodeficient (Rag-1(-/-) ) mice exhibited blunted blood cell recruitment responses without a change in BBB permeability. A similar protection pattern was noted in RANTES(-/-) and P-selectin(-/-) mice, with bone marrow chimeras (blood cell deficiency only) yielding responses comparable to the respective knockouts. These findings implicate AT1r in the microvascular dysfunction associated with AngII-induced hypertension and suggest that immune cells and blood cell-associated RANTES and P-selectin contribute to the blood cell recruitment, but not the BBB failure, elicited by AngII. PMID:21044218

  2. Central angiotensin II induces thirst-related responses in an amphibian.

    PubMed

    Propper, C R; Hillyard, S D; Johnson, W E

    1995-03-01

    Angiotensin II (A-II), a potent inducer of thirst-related behavior in many vertebrate species, was injected into the third ventricle of the brain of the spadefoot toad, Scaphiopus couchii. Following injection of 10 ng A-II the animals demonstrated a significant increase in water absorption response (WR) behavior, in which toads press their ventral skin to a moist surface and absorb water by osmosis. This increase in the frequency of WR behavior was positively correlated with an increase in water gain during a 2-hr period indicating that centrally injected A-II stimulates water intake by this amphibian species. We have previously demonstrated that WR behavior is also induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of A-II in several anuran species, including S. couchii. Thus, amphibians, like other vertebrates, demonstrate an increase in water intake in response to either centrally administered or circulating A-II. A second series of experiments was conducted to determine whether the above response to A-II might be secondary to increases in the circulating levels of aldosterone (ALDO) or antidiuretic hormone because the release of both of these hormones has been shown by others to be stimulated by A-II. Scaphiopus couchii injected i.p. with either ALDO or arginine vasotocin in dosages of 1, 10, and 100 micrograms/100 g body weight showed no increase in WR behavior relative to toads injected with saline alone. These results suggest that A-II acts directly on the brain of S. couchii to induce WR behavior. PMID:7782064

  3. Pollutant particles induce arginase II in human bronchial epithelial cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is associated with adverse pulmonary effects, including induction and exacerbation of asthma. Recently arginase was shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. In this study, we hypothesized that PM exposure would induce ar...

  4. Contribution of arginase to manganese metabolism of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Keni, Sarita; Punekar, Narayan S

    2016-02-01

    Aspects of manganese metabolism during normal and acidogenic growth of Aspergillus niger were explored. Arginase from this fungus was a Mn[II]-enzyme. The contribution of the arginase protein towards A. niger manganese metabolism was investigated using arginase knockout (D-42) and arginase over-expressing (ΔXCA-29) strains of A. niger NCIM 565. The Mn[II] contents of various mycelial fractions were found in the order: D-42 strain < parent strain < ΔXCA-29 strain. While the soluble fraction forms 60% of the total mycelial Mn[II] content, arginase accounted for a significant fraction of this soluble Mn[II] pool. Changes in the arginase levels affected the absolute mycelial Mn[II] content but not its distribution in the various mycelial fractions. The A. niger mycelia harvested from acidogenic growth media contain substantially less Mn[II] as compared to those from normal growth media. Nevertheless, acidogenic mycelia harbor considerable Mn[II] levels and a functional arginase. Altered levels of mycelial arginase protein did not significantly influence citric acid production. The relevance of arginase to cellular Mn[II] pool and homeostasis was evaluated and the results suggest that arginase regulation could occur via manganese availability. PMID:26679485

  5. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Manganese (II) Complexes of Phthalic and Isophthalic Acid: X-Ray Crystal Structures of [Mn(ph)(Phen)(2)(H(2)O)]. 4H(2)O, [Mn(Phen)(2)(H(2)O)(2)](2)(Isoph)(2)(Phen). 12H(2)O and {[Mn(Isoph)(bipy)](4). 2.75biby}(n)(phH(2) = Phthalic Acid; isoph = Isophthalic Acid; phen = 1,10-Phenanthroline; bipy = 2,2-Bipyridine).

    PubMed

    Devereux, M; McCann, M; Leon, V; Geraghty, M; McKee, V; Wikaira, J

    2000-01-01

    Manganese(II) acetate reacts with phthalic acid (phH(2)) to give [Mn(ph)].0.5H(2)O (1). Reaction of 1 with 1,10-phenanthroline produces [Mn(ph)(phen)].2H(2)O (2) and [Mn(ph)(phen)(2)(H(2)O)].4H(2)O (3). Reaction of isophthalic acid (isophH(2)) with manganese(II) acetate results in the formation of [Mn(isoph)].2H(2)O (4). The addition of the N,N-donor ligands 1,10-phenanthroline or 2,2'-bipyridine to 4 leads to the formation of [Mn(2) (isoph)(2)(phen)(3))].4H(2)O (5), [(Mn(phen)(2)(H(2)O)(2)](2)(isoph)(2)(phen).12H(2)O (6) and {[Mn(isoph)(bipy)](4).2.75 biby}(n) (7), respectively. Molecular structures of 3, 6 and 7 were determined crystallographically. In 3 the phthalate ligand is bound to the manganese via just one of its carboxylate groups in a monodentate mode with the remaining coordination sites filled by four phenanthroline nitrogen and one water oxygen atoms. In 6 the isophthalates are uncoordinated with the octahedral manganese center ligated by two phenanthrolines and two waters. In 7 the Isophthalate ligands act as bridges resulting in a polymeric structure. One of the carboxylate groups is chelating a single manganese with the other binding two metal centres in a bridging bidentate mode. The phthalate and isophthalate complexes, the metal free ligands and a number of simple manganes salts were each tested for their ability, to inhibit the growth of Candida albicans. Only the "metal free" 1,10-phenanthroline and its manganese complexes were found to be active. PMID:18475957

  6. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Manganese (II) Complexes of Phthalic and Isophthalic Acid: X-Ray Crystal Structures of [Mn(ph)(Phen)2(H2O)]· 4H2O, [Mn(Phen)2(H2O)2]2(Isoph)2(Phen)· 12H2O and {[Mn(Isoph)(bipy)]4· 2.75biby}n(phH2 = Phthalic Acid; isoph = Isophthalic Acid; phen = 1,10-Phenanthroline; bipy = 2,2-Bipyridine)

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Malachy; Leon, Vanessa; Geraghty, Majella; McKee, Vickie; Wikaira, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Manganese(II) acetate reacts with phthalic acid (phH2) to give [Mn(ph)]·0.5H2O (1). Reaction of 1 with 1,10-phenanthroline produces [Mn(ph)(phen)]·2H2O (2) and [Mn(ph)(phen)2(H2O)]·4H2O (3). Reaction of isophthalic acid (isophH2) with manganese(II) acetate results in the formation of [Mn(isoph)]·2H2O (4). The addition of the N,N-donor ligands 1,10-phenanthroline or 2,2'-bipyridine to 4 leads to the formation of [Mn2 (isoph)2(phen)3)]·4H2O (5), [(Mn(phen)2(H2O)2]2(isoph)2(phen)·12H2O (6) and {[Mn(isoph)(bipy)]4·2.75 biby}n (7), respectively. Molecular structures of 3, 6 and 7 were determined crystallographically. In 3 the phthalate ligand is bound to the manganese via just one of its carboxylate groups in a monodentate mode with the remaining coordination sites filled by four phenanthroline nitrogen and one water oxygen atoms. In 6 the isophthalates are uncoordinated with the octahedral manganese center ligated by two phenanthrolines and two waters. In 7 the Isophthalate ligands act as bridges resulting in a polymeric structure. One of the carboxylate groups is chelating a single manganese with the other binding two metal centres in a bridging bidentate mode. The phthalate and isophthalate complexes, the metal free ligands and a number of simple manganes salts were each tested for their ability, to inhibit the growth of Candida albicans. Only the “metal free” 1,10-phenanthroline and its manganese complexes were found to be active. PMID:18475957

  7. Human apolipoprotein A-II protects against diet-induced atherosclerosis in transgenic rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yao; Niimi, Manabu; Nishijima, Kazutoshi; Waqar, Ahmed Bilal; Yu, Ying; Koike, Tomonari; Kitajima, Shuji; Liu, Enqi; Inoue, Tomohiro; Kohashi, Masayuki; Keyamura, Yuka; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Zhang, Jifeng; Ma, Loretta; Zha, Xiaohui; Watanabe, Teruo; Asada, Yujiro; Chen, Y. Eugene; Fan, Jianglin

    2013-01-01

    Objective Apolipoprotein A-II (apo A-II) is the second major apolipoprotein of HDLs, yet its pathophysiological roles in the development of atherosclerosis remain unknown. We aimed to examine whether apo A-II plays any role in atherogenesis and if so, to elucidate the mechanism involved. Methods and Results We compared the susceptibility of human apo A-II transgenic (Tg) rabbits to cholesterol diet-induced atherosclerosis with non-Tg littermate rabbits. Tg rabbits developed significantly less aortic and coronary atherosclerosis than their non-Tg littermates while total plasma cholesterol levels were similar. Atherosclerotic lesions of Tg rabbits were characterized by reduced macrophages and smooth muscle cells and apo A-II immunoreactive proteins were frequently detected in the lesions. Tg rabbits exhibited low levels of plasma CRP and blood leukocytes compared to non-Tg rabbits and HDLs of Tg rabbit plasma exerted stronger cholesterol efflux activity and inhibitory effects on the inflammatory cytokine expression by macrophages in vitro than HDLs isolated from non-Tg rabbits. In addition, β-VLDLs of Tg rabbits were less sensitive to copper-induced oxidation than β-VLDLs of non-Tg rabbits. Conclusions These results suggest that enrichment of apo A-II in HDL particles has atheroprotective effects and apo A-II may become a target for the treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:23241412

  8. In vivo pharmacological evaluation of two novel type II (inducible) nitric oxide synthase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tracey, W R; Nakane, M; Basha, F; Carter, G

    1995-05-01

    Selective type II (inducible) nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors have several potential therapeutic applications, including treatment of sepsis, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. The ability of two novel, selective inhibitors of type II NOS, S-ethylisothiourea (EIT) and 2-amino-5,6-dihydro-6-methyl-4H-1,3-thiazine (AMT), to inhibit type II NOS function in vivo was studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treated rats. Type II NOS activity was assessed by measuring changes in plasma nitrite and nitrate concentrations ([NOx]). Both EIT and AMT elicited a dose-dependent and > 95% inhibition of the LPS-induced increase in plasma [NOx]. The ED50 values for EIT and AMT were 0.4 and 0.2 mg/kg, respectively. In addition, the administration of LPS and either NOS inhibitor resulted in a dose-dependent increase in animal mortality; neither compound was lethal when administered alone. Pretreatment with L-arginine (but not D-arginine) prevented the mortality, while not affecting the type II NOS-dependent NO production, suggesting the toxicity may be due to inhibition of one of the other NOS isoforms (endothelial or neuronal). Thus, although EIT and AMT are potent inhibitors of type II NOS function in vivo, type II NOS inhibitors of even greater selectivity may need to be developed for therapeutic applications. PMID:7585335

  9. Nox4-generated superoxide drives angiotensin II-induced neural stem cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Topchiy, Elena; Panzhinskiy, Evgeniy; Griffin, W. Sue T.; Barger, Steven W.; Das, Mita; Zawada, W. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been reported to affect neural stem cell self-renewal and therefore may be important for normal development and may influence neurodegenerative processes when ROS activity is elevated. To determine if increasing production of superoxide, via activation of NADPH oxidase (Nox), increases neural stem cell proliferation, 100nM angiotensin II (Ang II) – a strong stimulator of Nox – was applied to cultures of a murine neural stem cell line C17.2. Twelve hours following a single treatment with Ang II there was a doubling of the number of neural stem cells. This increase in neural stem cell numbers was preceded by a gradual elevation of superoxide levels (detected by dihydroethidium, DHE, fluorescence) from the steady state at 0, 5, and 30 minutes and gradually increasing from one hour to the maximum at 12 h, and returning to baseline at 24 h. Ang II-dependent proliferation was blocked by the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Confocal microscopy revealed the presence of two sources of intracellular ROS in C17.2 cells: i) mitochondrial and ii) extramitochondrial; the latter indicative of involvement of one or more specific isoforms of Nox. Of the Nox family, mRNA expression for one member, Nox4, is abundant in neural stem cell cultures, and Ang II treatment resulted in elevation of the relative levels of Nox4 protein. SiRNA targeting of Nox4 mRNA reduced both the constitutive and Ang II-induced Nox4 protein levels and attenuated Ang II-driven increases in superoxide levels and stem cell proliferation. Our findings are consistent with our hypothesis that Ang II-induced proliferation of neural stem cells occurs via Nox4-generated superoxide, suggesting that an Ang II/Nox4 axis is an important regulator of neural stem cell self-renewal and as such may fine-tune normal or stress- or disease-modifying neurogenesis. PMID:23751520

  10. Intrarenal mouse renin-angiotensin system during ANG II-induced hypertension and ACE inhibition.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Villalobos, Romer A; Satou, Ryousuke; Ohashi, Naro; Semprun-Prieto, Laura C; Katsurada, Akemi; Kim, Catherine; Upchurch, G M; Prieto, Minolfa C; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Navar, L Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition (ACEi) ameliorates the development of hypertension and the intrarenal ANG II augmentation in ANG II-infused mice. To determine if these effects are associated with changes in the mouse intrarenal renin-angiotensin system, the expression of angiotensinogen (AGT), renin, ACE, angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) mRNA (by quanitative RT-PCR) and protein [by Western blot (WB) and/or immunohistochemistry (IHC)] were analyzed. C57BL/6J male mice (9-12 wk old) were distributed as controls (n = 10), ANG II infused (ANG II = 8, 400 ng x kg(-1) x min(-1) for 12 days), ACEi only (ACEi = 10, lisinopril, 100 mg/l), and ANG II infused + ACEi (ANG II + ACEi = 11). When compared with controls (1.00), AGT protein (by WB) was increased by ANG II (1.29 +/- 0.13, P < 0.05), and this was not prevented by ACEi (ACEi + ANG II, 1.31 +/- 0.14, P < 0.05). ACE protein (by WB) was increased by ANG II (1.21 +/- 0.08, P < 0.05), and it was reduced by ACEi alone (0.88 +/- 0.07, P < 0.05) or in combination with ANG II (0.80 +/- 0.07, P < 0.05). AT(1)R protein (by WB) was increased by ANG II (1.27 +/- 0.06, P < 0.05) and ACEi (1.17 +/- 0.06, P < 0.05) but not ANG II + ACEi [1.15 +/- 0.06, not significant (NS)]. Tubular renin protein (semiquantified by IHC) was increased by ANG II (1.49 +/- 0.23, P < 0.05) and ACEi (1.57 +/- 0.15, P < 0.05), but not ANG II + ACEi (1.10 +/- 0.15, NS). No significant changes were observed in AGT, ACE, or AT(1)R mRNA. In summary, reduced responses of intrarenal tubular renin, ACE, and the AT(1)R protein to the stimulatory effects of chronic ANG II infusions, in the presence of ACEi, are associated with the effects of this treatment to ameliorate augmentations in blood pressure and intrarenal ANG II content during ANG II-induced hypertension. PMID:19846570

  11. Intrarenal mouse renin-angiotensin system during ANG II-induced hypertension and ACE inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Satou, Ryousuke; Ohashi, Naro; Semprun-Prieto, Laura C.; Katsurada, Akemi; Kim, Catherine; Upchurch, G. M.; Prieto, Minolfa C.; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Navar, L. Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition (ACEi) ameliorates the development of hypertension and the intrarenal ANG II augmentation in ANG II-infused mice. To determine if these effects are associated with changes in the mouse intrarenal renin-angiotensin system, the expression of angiotensinogen (AGT), renin, ACE, angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) mRNA (by quanitative RT-PCR) and protein [by Western blot (WB) and/or immunohistochemistry (IHC)] were analyzed. C57BL/6J male mice (9–12 wk old) were distributed as controls (n = 10), ANG II infused (ANG II = 8, 400 ng·kg−1·min−1 for 12 days), ACEi only (ACEi = 10, lisinopril, 100 mg/l), and ANG II infused + ACEi (ANG II + ACEi = 11). When compared with controls (1.00), AGT protein (by WB) was increased by ANG II (1.29 ± 0.13, P < 0.05), and this was not prevented by ACEi (ACEi + ANG II, 1.31 ± 0.14, P < 0.05). ACE protein (by WB) was increased by ANG II (1.21 ± 0.08, P < 0.05), and it was reduced by ACEi alone (0.88 ± 0.07, P < 0.05) or in combination with ANG II (0.80 ± 0.07, P < 0.05). AT1R protein (by WB) was increased by ANG II (1.27 ± 0.06, P < 0.05) and ACEi (1.17 ± 0.06, P < 0.05) but not ANG II + ACEi [1.15 ± 0.06, not significant (NS)]. Tubular renin protein (semiquantified by IHC) was increased by ANG II (1.49 ± 0.23, P < 0.05) and ACEi (1.57 ± 0.15, P < 0.05), but not ANG II + ACEi (1.10 ± 0.15, NS). No significant changes were observed in AGT, ACE, or AT1R mRNA. In summary, reduced responses of intrarenal tubular renin, ACE, and the AT1R protein to the stimulatory effects of chronic ANG II infusions, in the presence of ACEi, are associated with the effects of this treatment to ameliorate augmentations in blood pressure and intrarenal ANG II content during ANG II-induced hypertension. PMID:19846570

  12. THE STATE OF MANGANESE IN THE PHOTOSYNTHETIC APPARATUS: FIRST VIEW OF THE MANGANESE SITES BY X-RAY ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, Jon A.; Goodin, D. B.; Robertson, A. S.; Smith, J. P.; Thompson, A. C.; Klein, M. P.

    1980-11-01

    Manganese atoms have long been implicated as essential ingredients in photosynthetic oxygen evolution. Heretofore they have eluded direct observation. We report the first direct observation, by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy, of the Mn sites in chloroplasts isolated from Spinacia oleracea. The manganese in chlorplasts is commonly thought to exist in two pools. The major pool, corresponding to two-thirds of the manganese, can be reversibly released with concomitant loss of oxygen evolving capacity, and has thus come to be assigned as the active pool. The role of the remanant one-third, or tightly bound pool is moot. Our analysis of the Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure of the active pool is consistent with a bridged dimeric structure involving two manganese atoms separated by about 2.7 {Angstroms}. The distance between manganese and bridging ligands is about 1.8 {Angstrom}. Analysis of the edge region suggests that the manganese in the active pool exists in oxidation states somewhat higher than Mn(II).

  13. Castration of male mice prevents the progression of established angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuan; Thatcher, Sean; Wu, Congqing; Daugherty, Alan; Cassis, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Male sex is a non-modifiable risk factor for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development. Similar to humans, male mice are more susceptible to angiotensin II (AngII)-induced AAAs than females. Previous studies demonstrated that castration of males markedly reduced the formation of AngII-induced AAAs. Progression of AAA size is associated with increased risk of aneurysm rupture. In this study, we hypothesized that castration of male mice would reduce the progression of established AngII-induced AAAs. Methods Male apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-/- mice were infused with AngII for 1 month to induce AAA formation. Aortic diameters were measured by ultrasound and mice were stratified into 2 groups that were either sham-operated or castrated. AngII infusions were continued for a further 2 months. Ultrasound was used to quantify lumen diameters, and excised aortas were processed for quantification of AAA size, volume, and tissue characteristics. Results Sham-operated mice exhibited progressive dilation of suprarenal aortic lumen diameters during continued AngII infusion. Castration significantly decreased aortic lumen diameters (study endpoint: 1.88 ± 0.05 mm vs 1.63 ± 0.04 mm; P<.05; sham-operated [n = 15] vs castration [n = 17], respectively). However, maximal external AAA diameters were not significantly different between sham-operated and castrated mice. The vascular volume/lumen volume ratio of excised AAAs imaged by ultrasound was significantly increased by castration (sham-operated, 4.8 ± 0.9; castration, 9.5 ± 2.0 %; n = 11/group; P<.05). Moreover, compared to thin walled AAAs of sham-operated mice, aneurysm sections from castrated mice exhibited increased smooth muscle -actin and collagen. Conclusions Removal of endogenous male hormones by castration selectively reduces aortic lumen expansion while not altering the external AAA dimensions. PMID:24439319

  14. Clopidogrel preserves whole kidney autoregulatory behavior in ANG II-induced hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Osmond, David A.; Zhang, Shali; Pollock, Jennifer S.; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; De Miguel, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that P2Y12 receptor blockade with clopidogrel preserves renal autoregulatory ability during ANG II-induced hypertension. Clopidogrel was administered orally to male Sprague-Dawley rats chronically infused with ANG II. After 14 days of treatment, whole kidney autoregulation of renal blood flow was assessed in vivo in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats using an ultrasonic flow probe placed around the left renal artery. In ANG II-vehicle-treated rats, decreasing arterial pressure over a range from 160 to 100 mmHg resulted in a 25 ± 5% decrease in renal blood flow, demonstrating a significant loss of autoregulation with an autoregulatory index of 0.66 ± 0.15. However, clopidogrel treatment preserved autoregulatory behavior in ANG II-treated rats to levels indistinguishable from normotensive sham-operated (sham) rats (autoregulatory index: 0.04 ± 0.14). Compared with normotensive sham-vehicle-treated rats, ANG II infusion increased renal CD3-positive T cell infiltration by 66 ± 6%, induced significant thickening of the preglomerular vessels and glomerular basement membrane and increased glomerular collagen I deposition, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, damage to the proximal tubular brush border, and protein excretion. Clopidogrel significantly reduced renal infiltration of T cells by 39 ± 9% and prevented interstitial artery thickening, ANG II-induced damage to the glomerular basement membrane, deposition of collagen type I, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, despite the maintenance of hypertension. These data demonstrate that systemic P2Y12 receptor blockade with clopidogrel protects against impairment of autoregulatory behavior and renal vascular injury in ANG II-induced hypertension, possibly by reducing renal T cell infiltration. PMID:24477682

  15. Glutamate carboxypeptidase II inhibition behaviorally and physiologically improves pyridoxine-induced neuropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Potter, Michelle C; Wozniak, Krystyna M; Callizot, Noelle; Slusher, Barbara S

    2014-01-01

    Pyridoxine is used as a supplement for treating conditions such as vitamin deficiency as well as neurological disorders such as depression, epilepsy and autism. A significant neurologic complication of pyridoxine therapy is peripheral neuropathy thought to be a result of long-term and high dose usage. Although pyridoxine-induced neuropathy is transient and can remit after its withdrawal, the process of complete recovery can be slow. Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCP II) inhibition has been shown to improve symptoms of both chemotherapy- and diabetic-induced neuropathy. This study evaluated if GCP II inhibition could behaviorally and physiologically improve pyridoxine-induced neuropathy. In the current study, high doses of pyridoxine (400 mg/kg, twice a day for seven days) were used to induce neuropathy in rats. An orally bioavailable GCP II inhibitor, 2-(3-mercaptopropyl) pentanedioic acid (2-MPPA), was administered daily at a dose of 30 mg/kg starting from the onset of pyridoxine injections. Body weight, motor coordination, heat sensitivity, electromyographical (EMG) parameters and nerve morphological features were monitored. The results show beneficial effects of GCP II inhibition including normalization of hot plate reaction time, foot fault improvements and increased open field distance travelled. H wave frequency, amplitude and latency as well as sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) were also significantly improved by 2-MPPA. Lastly, GCP II inhibition resulted in morphological protection in the spinal cord and sensory fibers in the lumbar region dorsal root ganglia (DRG). In conclusion, inhibition of GCP II may be beneficial against the peripheral sensory neuropathy caused by pyridoxine. PMID:25254647

  16. Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 7 Cation Channel Kinase: New Player in Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Tayze T; Callera, Glaucia E; He, Ying; Yogi, Alvaro; Ryazanov, Alexey G; Ryazanova, Lillia V; Zhai, Alexander; Stewart, Duncan J; Shrier, Alvin; Touyz, Rhian M

    2016-04-01

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) is a bifunctional protein comprising a magnesium (Mg(2+))/cation channel and a kinase domain. We previously demonstrated that vasoactive agents regulate vascular TRPM7. Whether TRPM7 plays a role in the pathophysiology of hypertension and associated cardiovascular dysfunction is unknown. We studied TRPM7 kinase-deficient mice (TRPM7Δkinase; heterozygous for TRPM7 kinase) and wild-type (WT) mice infused with angiotensin II (Ang II; 400 ng/kg per minute, 4 weeks). TRPM7 kinase expression was lower in heart and aorta from TRPM7Δkinase versus WT mice, effects that were further reduced by Ang II infusion. Plasma Mg(2+) was lower in TRPM7Δkinase versus WT mice in basal and stimulated conditions. Ang II increased blood pressure in both strains with exaggerated responses in TRPM7Δkinase versus WT groups (P<0.05). Acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation was reduced in Ang II-infused TRPM7Δkinase mice, an effect associated with Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase downregulation. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression was increased in Ang II-infused TRPM7 kinase-deficient mice. TRPM7 kinase targets, calpain, and annexin-1, were activated by Ang II in WT but not in TRPM7Δkinase mice. Echocardiographic and histopathologic analysis demonstrated cardiac hypertrophy and left ventricular dysfunction in Ang II-treated groups. In TRPM7 kinase-deficient mice, Ang II-induced cardiac functional and structural effects were amplified compared with WT counterparts. Our data demonstrate that in TRPM7Δkinase mice, Ang II-induced hypertension is exaggerated, cardiac remodeling and left ventricular dysfunction are amplified, and endothelial function is impaired. These processes are associated with hypomagnesemia, blunted TRPM7 kinase expression/signaling, endothelial nitric oxide synthase downregulation, and proinflammatory vascular responses. Our findings identify TRPM7 kinase as a novel player in Ang II-induced hypertension

  17. RAMP1 Augments Cerebrovascular Responses to CGRP And Inhibits Angiotensin II-Induced Vascular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Chrissobolis, Sophocles; Zhang, Zhongming; Kinzenbaw, Dale A.; Lynch, Cynthia M.; Russo, Andrew F.; Faraci, Frank M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose Receptors for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) are composed of the calcitonin-like receptor in association with receptor activity-modifying protein-1 (RAMP1). CGRP is an extremely potent vasodilator and may protect against vascular disease through other mechanisms. Methods We tested the hypothesis that overexpression of RAMP1 enhances vascular effects of CGRP using transgenic mice with ubiquitous expression of human RAMP1 (hRAMP1). Because angiotensin II (Ang II) is a key mediator of vascular disease, we also tested the hypothesis that RAMP1 protects against Ang II-induced vascular dysfunction. Results Responses to CGRP in carotid and basilar arteries in vitro as well as cerebral arterioles in vivo were selectively enhanced in hRAMP1 transgenic mice compared to littermate controls (P<0.05), and this effect was prevented by a CGRP receptor antagonist (P<0.05). Thus, vascular responses to CGRP are normally RAMP1-limited. Responses of carotid arteries were examined in vitro following overnight incubation with vehicle or Ang II. In arteries from control mice, Ang II selectively impaired responses to the endothelium-dependent agonist acetylcholine by ∼50% (P<0.05) via a superoxide-mediated mechanism. In contrast, Ang II did not impair responses to acetylcholine in hRAMP1 transgenic mice. Conclusions RAMP1 overexpression increases CGRP-induced vasodilation and protects against Ang II-induced endothelial dysfunction. These findings suggest that RAMP1 may be a new therapeutic target to regulate CGRP-mediated effects during disease including pathophysiological states where Ang II plays a major role. PMID:20814003

  18. UV-B-induced inhibition of photosystem II electron transport studied by EPR and chlorophyll fluorescence. Impairment of donor and acceptor side components.

    PubMed

    Vass, I; Sass, L; Spetea, C; Bakou, A; Ghanotakis, D F; Petrouleas, V

    1996-07-01

    Inhibition of photosystem II electron transport by UV-B radiation has been studied in isolated spinach photosystem II membrane particles using low-temperature EPR spectroscopy and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. UV-B irradiation results in the rapid inhibition of oxygen evolution and the decline of variable chlorophyll fluorescence. These effects are accompanied by the loss of the multiline EPR signal arising from the S2 state of the water-oxidizing complex and the induction of Signal IIfast originating from stabilized Try-Z+. The EPR signals from the QA-Fe2+ acceptor complex, Tyr-D+, and the oxidized non-heme iron (Fe3+) are also decreased during the course of UV-B irradiation, but at a significantly slower rate than oxygen evolution and the multiline signal. The decrease of the Fe3+ signal at high g values (g = 8.06, g = 5.6) is accompanied by the induction of another EPR signal at g = 4.26 that arises most likely from the same Fe3+ ion in a modified ligand environment. UV-B irradiation also affects cytochrome b-559. The g = 2.94 EPR signal that arises from the dark- oxidized form is enhanced, whereas the light inducible g = 3.04 signal that arises from the photo-oxidizable population of cytochrome b-559 is diminished. UV-B irradiation also induces the degradation of the D1 reaction center protein. The rate of the D1 protein loss is slower than the inhibition of oxygen evolution and of the multiline signal but follows closely the loss of Signal IIslow, the QA-Fe2+ and the Fe3+ EPR signals, as well as the release of protein-bound manganese. It is concluded from the results that UV-B radiation affects photosystem II redox components at both the donor and acceptor side. The primary damage occurs at the water-oxidizing complex. Modification and/or inactivation of tyrosine-D, cytochrome b-559, and the QAFe2+ acceptor complex are subsequent events that coincide more closely with the UV-B-induced damage to the protein structure of the photosystem II reaction

  19. Block the function of nonmuscle myosin II by blebbistatin induces zebrafish embryo cardia bifida.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueqian; Chong, Mei; Wang, Xin; Wang, Hongkui; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Hui; Zhang, Jingjing; Liu, Dong

    2015-03-01

    Nonmuscle myosin II (NM II) is the name given to the multi-subunit protein product of three genes encoding different nonmuscle myosin heavy chains including NM II-A, NM II-B, and NM II-C. Blebbistatin is a small molecule that has been shown to be a relatively specific inhibitor of NM II. Blocking the function of NM II by blebbistatin induces zebrafish embryo cardia bifida at a dose-dependent manner. In situ hybridization analysis with ventricular marker ventricular myosin heavy chain (vmhc) and atrial marker atrial myosin heavy chain (amhc) showed each of the heart contained both distinct atria and ventricle. However, the cardia bifida embryos had highly variable distance between two separate ventricles. We also provided evidence that time window from 12 to 20 h post fertilization (hpf) is necessary and sufficient for cardia bifida formation caused by blebbistatin treatment. Expression of spinster homolog 2 (spns2) was decreased in blebbistatin-treated embryos, suggesting the cardia bifida phenotype caused by NM II inhibition was relevant to precardiac mesoderm migration defects. Through in situ hybridization analysis, we showed that foxa1 was expressed in endoderm of blebbistatin-treated embryos at 24-hpf stage, suggesting the endoderm formation is normal in cardia bifida embryos caused by blebbistatin treatment. In addition, we demonstrated that blebbistatin treatment resulted in morphology alteration of zebrafish cardiomyocytes in vivo and neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes in vitro. PMID:25403653

  20. Angiotensin II induces region-specific medial disruption during evolution of ascending aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Rateri, Debra L; Davis, Frank M; Balakrishnan, Anju; Howatt, Deborah A; Moorleghen, Jessica J; O'Connor, William N; Charnigo, Richard; Cassis, Lisa A; Daugherty, Alan

    2014-09-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) promotes development of ascending aortic aneurysms (AAs), but progression of this pathology is undefined. We evaluated factors potentially involved in progression, and determined the temporal sequence of tissue changes during development of Ang II-induced ascending AAs. Ang II infusion into C57BL/6J mice promoted rapid expansion of the ascending aorta, with significant increases within 5 days, as determined by both in vivo ultrasonography and ex vivo sequential acquisition of tissues. Rates of expansion were not significantly different in LDL receptor-null mice fed a saturated fat-enriched diet, demonstrating a lack of effect of hypercholesterolemia. Augmenting systolic blood pressure with norepinephrine infusion had no significant effect on ascending aortic expansion. Pathological changes observed within 5 days of Ang II infusion included increased medial thickness and intramural hemorrhage characterized by erythrocyte extravasation in outer lamellar layers of the media. Intramedial hemorrhage was not observed after prolonged Ang II infusion, although partial medial disruption was present. Elastin fragmentation and transmural medial breaks of the ascending aorta were observed with continued Ang II infusion, which were restricted to anterior aspects. CD45(+) cells accumulated in adventitia but were minimal in media. Similar pathology was observed in tissues obtained from patients with ascending AAs. In conclusion, Ang II promotes ascending AAs through region-specific changes that are independent of hypercholesterolemia or systolic blood pressure. PMID:25038458

  1. Zeaxanthin induces Nrf2-mediated phase II enzymes in protection of cell death.

    PubMed

    Zou, X; Gao, J; Zheng, Y; Wang, X; Chen, C; Cao, K; Xu, J; Li, Y; Lu, W; Liu, J; Feng, Z

    2014-01-01

    Zeaxanthin (Zea) is a major carotenoid pigment contained in human retina, and its daily supplementation associated with lower risk of age-related macular degeneration. Despite known property of Zea as an antioxidant, its underlying molecular mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. In this study, we aim to study the regulation mechanism of Zea on phase II detoxification enzymes. In normal human retinal pigment epithelium cells, Zea promoted the nuclear translocation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and induced mRNA and protein expression of phase II enzymes, the induction was suppressed by specific knockdown of Nrf2. Zea also effectively protected against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. Glutathione (GSH) as the most important antioxidant was also induced by Zea through Nrf2 activation in a time- and dose-dependent manner, whereas the protective effects of Zea were decimated by inhibition of GSH synthesis. Finally, Zea activated the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK pathway, whereas only PI3K/Akt activation correlated with phase II enzymes induction and Zea protection. In further in vivo analyses, Zea showed effects of inducing phase II enzymes and increased GSH content, which contributed to the reduced lipid and protein peroxidation in the retina as well as the liver, heart, and serum of the Sprague-Dawley rats. For the first time, Zea is presented as a phase II enzymes inducer instead of being an antioxidant. By activating Nrf2-mediated phase II enzymes, Zea could enhance anti-oxidative capacity and prevent cell death both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:24810054

  2. Cardiovascular Toxicities Upon Manganese Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yueming; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Manganese (Mn)-induced Parkinsonism has been well documented; however, little attention has been devoted to Mn-induced cardiovascular dysfunction. This review summarizes literature data from both animal and human studies on Mn’s effect on cardiovascular function. Clinical and epidemiological evidence suggests that the incidence of abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG) is significantly higher in Mn-exposed workers than that in the control subjects. The main types of abnormal ECG include sinus tachycardia, sinus bradycardia, sinus arrhythmia, sinister megacardia, and ST-T changes. The accelerated heartbeat and shortened P-R interval appear to be more prominent in female exposed workers than in their male counterparts. Mn-exposed workers display a mean diastolic blood pressure that is significantly lower than that of the control subjects, especially in the young and female exposed workers. Animal studies indicate that Mn is capable of quickly accumulating in heart tissue, resulting in acute or sub-acute cardiovascular disorders, such as acute cardiodepression and hypotension. These toxic outcomes appear to be associated with Mn-induced mitochondrial damage and interaction with the calcium channel in the cardiovascular system. PMID:16382172

  3. Recovery of manganese and zinc from waste Zn-C cell powder: Mutual separation of Mn(II) and Zn(II) from leach liquor by solvent extraction technique.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Ranjit K; Habib, Mohammad A; Karmakar, Aneek K; Tanzin, Shohely

    2016-05-01

    Acidic organophosphorous extractants were screened for the mutual separation of Mn(II) and Zn(II), in a leach solution of waste Zn-C cell powder. This was done using a 2mol/L H2SO4 solution containing 2g/L glucose. Extraction characteristics of both metal ions in this mixture have been examined as functions of equilibrium pH. Although tech. and anal. grade D2EHPA are not so effective for the separation, PC88A, Cyanex 272, Cyanex 302 and Cyanex 301 are all promising for this purpose. Strippings of Mn(II) and Zn(II) from the extracted organic phases have been examined, using 0.25, 0.50 and 1mol/L H2SO4; and 1mol/L HCl, HNO3 and HClO4 at different phase ratios. H2SO4 appears to be the best stripping agent. A 1mol/L H2SO4 solution strips almost 100% of target metal ions in 10min, regardless of the extractant used. As ΔpH1/2=2.75 and as the max. separation factor (β)=1793 for Cyanex 302 at pH(eq)=4.0, a flow sheet has been developed for their mutual separations. Finally, classical precipitation methods have been adopted to obtain MnS and ZnS, which can be easily oxidized to MnO2 and ZnO, respectively. PMID:26456667

  4. Distribution and chemistry of manganese, iron, and suspended particulates in Orca Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trefry, John H.; Presley, Bob J.; Keeney-Kennicutt, Wendy L.; Trocine, Robert P.

    1984-06-01

    The intense halocline and redoxcline in the Orca Basin, northwest Gulf of Mexico, induce dramatic water column profiles for manganese, iron, and suspended particulates. Within a 17 m interval, the salinity of the basin water increases from 66 to ≈260 & permil and dissolved oxygen decreases to zero. Midway through this transition zone, concentrations of suspended matter peak at ≈900 μg/liter. Dissolved iron and manganese concentrations in the anoxic brine increase from oceanic values to maxima of 1.6 and 22 mg/liter, respectively. Upward migration of dissolved manganese from the brine leads to production of manganese-rich particles in the slightly oxygenated overlying water.

  5. Neurotrophins inhibit major histocompatibility class II inducibility of microglia: Involvement of the p75 neurotrophin receptor

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Harald; Misgeld, Thomas; Matsumuro, Kenji; Wekerle, Hartmut

    1998-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are rare in the healthy brain tissue, but are heavily expressed on microglial cells after inflammatory or neurodegenerative processes. We studied the conditions leading to the induction of MHC class II molecules in microglia by using explant cultures of neonatal rat hippocampus, a model of interacting neuronal networks. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-dependent MHC class II inducibility in microglia cells was very low, but strongly increased in the hippocampal slices after the blockade of neuronal activity by neurotoxins [tetrodotoxin (TTX), ω-conotoxin] or glutamate antagonists. None of these agents acted directly on isolated microglia cells. We found that neurotrophins modulate microglial MHC class II expression. MHC class II inducibility was enhanced by neutralization of neurotrophins produced locally within the cultured tissues and was inhibited by the addition of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or neurotrophin-3 (NT3). NGF and, to a lower extent, NT3 acted directly on isolated microglia via the p75 neurotrophin receptor and inhibited MHC class II inducibility as shown by blockade of the p75 neurotrophin receptor with antibodies. Our data suggest that neurotrophins secreted by electrically active neurons control the antigen-presenting potential of microglia cells, and indicate that this effect is mediated partly via the p75 neurotrophin receptor. PMID:9576961

  6. The transforming growth factor beta type II receptor can replace the activin type II receptor in inducing mesoderm.

    PubMed Central

    Bhushan, A; Lin, H Y; Lodish, H F; Kintner, C R

    1994-01-01

    The type II receptors for the polypeptide growth factors transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and activin belong to a new family of predicted serine/threonine protein kinases. In Xenopus embryos, the biological effects of activin and TGF-beta 1 are strikingly different; activin induces a full range of mesodermal cell types in the animal cap assay, while TGF-beta 1 has no effects, presumably because of the lack of functional TGF-beta receptors. In order to assess the biological activities of exogenously added TGF-beta 1, RNA encoding the TGF-beta type II receptor was introduced into Xenopus embryos. In animal caps from these embryos, TGF-beta 1 and activin show similar potencies for induction of mesoderm-specific mRNAs, and both elicit the same types of mesodermal tissues. In addition, the response of animal caps to TGF-beta 1, as well as to activin, is blocked by a dominant inhibitory ras mutant, p21(Asn-17)Ha-ras. These results indicate that the activin and TGF-beta type II receptors can couple to similar signalling pathways and that the biological specificities of these growth factors lie in their different ligand-binding domains and in different competences of the responding cells. Images PMID:8196664

  7. Indole-7-carbaldehyde thiosemicarbazone as a flexidentate ligand toward ZnII, CdII, PdII and PtII ions: cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing properties of the PtII complex.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Abeer A; Khaledi, Hamid; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Mohd Ali, Hapipah; Karimian, Hamed

    2014-03-14

    A new thiosemicarbazone (LH2) derived from indole-7-carbaldehyde was synthesized and reacted with Zn(II), Cd(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II) salts. The reactions with zinc and cadmium salts in 2 : 1 (ligand-metal) molar ratio afforded complexes of the type MX2(LH2)2, (X = Cl, Br or OAc), in which the thiosemicarbazone acts as a neutral S-monodentate ligand. In the presence of potassium hydroxide, the reaction of LH2 with ZnBr2 resulted in deprotonation of the thiosemicarbazone at the hydrazine and indole nitrogens to form Zn(L)(CH3OH). The reaction of LH2 with K2PdCl4 in the presence of triethylamine, afforded Pd(L)(LH2) which contains two thiosemicarbazone ligands: one being dianionic N,N,S-tridentate while the other one is neutral S-monodentate. When PdCl2(PPh3)2 was used as the Pd(II) ion source, Pd(L)(PPh3) was obtained. In a similar manner, the analogous platinum complex, Pt(L)(PPh3), was synthesized. The thiosemicarbazone in the latter two complexes behaves in a dianionic N,N,S-tridentate fashion. The platinum complex was found to have significant cytotoxicity toward four cancer cells lines, namely MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, HT-29, and HCT-116 but not toward the normal liver WRL-68 cell line. The apoptosis-inducing properties of the Pt complex was explored through fluorescence microscopy visualization, DNA fragmentation analysis and propidium iodide flow cytometry. PMID:24442181

  8. Icariside II, a novel phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, attenuates streptozotocin-induced cognitive deficits in rats.

    PubMed

    Yin, Caixia; Deng, Yuanyuan; Gao, Jianmei; Li, Xiaohui; Liu, Yuangui; Gong, Qihai

    2016-07-22

    Beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and neuroinflammation are involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD)-type neurodegeneration with cognitive deficits. Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors have recently been studied as a potential target for cognitive enhancement by reducing inflammatory responses and Aβ levels. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of icariside II (ICS II), a novel PDE5 inhibitor derived from the traditional Chinese herb Epimedium brevicornum, on cognitive deficits, Aβ levels and neuroinflammation induced by intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) in rats. The results demonstrated that ICV-STZ exhibited cognitive deficits and neuronal morphological damage, along with Aβ increase and neuroinflammation in the rat hippocampus. ICS II improved cognitive deficits, attenuated neuronal death, and decreased the levels of Aβ1-40, Aβ1-42 and PDE5 in the hippocampus of STZ rats. Furthermore, administration of ICS II at the dose of 10mg/kg for 21days significantly suppressed the expression of beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP), beta-secretase1 (BACE1) and increased the expressions of neprilysin (NEP) together with inhibited interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) levels. In addition, ICS II exerted a beneficial effect on inhibition of IκB-α degradation and NF-κB activation induced by STZ. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that ICS II was a potential therapeutic agent for AD treatment. PMID:27109920

  9. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract induces DNA damage by inhibiting topoisomerase II activity in human hepatic cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhuhong; Chen, Si; Mei, Hu; Xuan, Jiekun; Guo, Xiaoqing; Couch, Letha; Dobrovolsky, Vasily N.; Guo, Lei; Mei, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba leaf extract has been shown to increase the incidence in liver tumors in mice in a 2-year bioassay conducted by the National Toxicology Program. In this study, the DNA damaging effects of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract and many of its constituents were evaluated in human hepatic HepG2 cells and the underlying mechanism was determined. A molecular docking study revealed that quercetin, a flavonoid constituent of Ginkgo biloba, showed a higher potential to interact with topoisomerase II (Topo II) than did the other Ginkgo biloba constituents; this in silico prediction was confirmed by using a biochemical assay to study Topo II enzyme inhibition. Moreover, as measured by the Comet assay and the induction of γ-H2A.X, quercetin, followed by keampferol and isorhamnetin, appeared to be the most potent DNA damage inducer in HepG2 cells. In Topo II knockdown cells, DNA damage triggered by Ginkgo biloba leaf extract or quercetin was dramatically decreased, indicating that DNA damage is directly associated with Topo II. DNA damage was also observed when cells were treated with commercially available Ginkgo biloba extract product. Our findings suggest that Ginkgo biloba leaf extract- and quercetin-induced in vitro genotoxicity may be the result of Topo II inhibition. PMID:26419945

  10. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract induces DNA damage by inhibiting topoisomerase II activity in human hepatic cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuhong; Chen, Si; Mei, Hu; Xuan, Jiekun; Guo, Xiaoqing; Couch, Letha; Dobrovolsky, Vasily N; Guo, Lei; Mei, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba leaf extract has been shown to increase the incidence in liver tumors in mice in a 2-year bioassay conducted by the National Toxicology Program. In this study, the DNA damaging effects of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract and many of its constituents were evaluated in human hepatic HepG2 cells and the underlying mechanism was determined. A molecular docking study revealed that quercetin, a flavonoid constituent of Ginkgo biloba, showed a higher potential to interact with topoisomerase II (Topo II) than did the other Ginkgo biloba constituents; this in silico prediction was confirmed by using a biochemical assay to study Topo II enzyme inhibition. Moreover, as measured by the Comet assay and the induction of γ-H2A.X, quercetin, followed by keampferol and isorhamnetin, appeared to be the most potent DNA damage inducer in HepG2 cells. In Topo II knockdown cells, DNA damage triggered by Ginkgo biloba leaf extract or quercetin was dramatically decreased, indicating that DNA damage is directly associated with Topo II. DNA damage was also observed when cells were treated with commercially available Ginkgo biloba extract product. Our findings suggest that Ginkgo biloba leaf extract- and quercetin-induced in vitro genotoxicity may be the result of Topo II inhibition. PMID:26419945

  11. Biomimetic Water-Oxidation Catalysts: Manganese Oxides.

    PubMed

    Kurz, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    The catalytic oxidation of water to molecular oxygen is a key process for the production of solar fuels. Inspired by the biological manganese-based active site for this reaction in the enzyme Photosystem II, researchers have made impressive progress in the last decades regarding the development of synthetic manganese catalysts for water oxidation. For this, it has been especially fruitful to explore the many different types of known manganese oxides MnOx. This chapter first offers an overview of the structural, thermodynamic, and mechanistic aspects of water-oxidation catalysis by MnOx. The different test systems used for catalytic studies are then presented together with general reactivity trends. As a result, it has been possible to identify layered, mixed Mn (III/IV)-oxides as an especially promising class of bio-inspired catalysts and an attempt is made to give structure-based reasons for the good performances of these materials. In the outlook, the challenges of catalyst screenings (and hence the identification of a "best MnOx catalyst") are discussed. There is a great variety of reaction conditions which might be relevant for the application of manganese oxide catalysts in technological solar fuel-producing devices, and thus catalyst improvements are currently still addressing a very large parameter space. Nonetheless, detailed knowledge about the biological catalyst and a solid experimental basis concerning the syntheses and water-oxidation reactivities of MnOx materials have been established in the last decade and thus this research field is well positioned to make important contributions to solar fuel research in the future. PMID:25980320

  12. Field-induced enhancement of voltage-controlled diffractive properties in paraelectric iron and manganese co-doped potassium-tantalate-niobate crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Tian, Hao; Meng, Xiangda; Chen, Huishun; Zhou, Zhongxiang; Shen, Yanqing

    2014-11-01

    High voltage-controlled diffraction efficiency of 78.3% was obtained in paraelectric potassium-tantalate-niobate crystal co-doped with iron and manganese. It was found that the recording time required to achieve maximum diffraction efficiency can be significantly reduced through the application of an external electric field on the crystal during writing. More importantly, the maximum diffraction efficiency maintained a considerably high value under a low external field at different writing angles. The external-field-enhanced space-charge fields were also calculated to interpret the important role of the enhancement effect. The results show that employing an enhanced electric field is of great significance for electroholography device applications.

  13. Age-related autoregulatory dysfunction and cerebromicrovascular injury in mice with angiotensin II-induced hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Peter; Tucsek, Zsuzsanna; Sosnowska, Danuta; Gautam, Tripti; Mitschelen, Matthew; Tarantini, Stefano; Deak, Ferenc; Koller, Akos; Sonntag, William E; Csiszar, Anna; Ungvari, Zoltan

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension in the elderly substantially contributes to cerebromicrovascular damage and promotes the development of vascular cognitive impairment. Despite the importance of the myogenic mechanism in cerebromicrovascular protection, it is not well understood how aging affects the functional adaptation of cerebral arteries to high blood pressure. Hypertension was induced in young (3 months) and aged (24 months) C57/BL6 mice by chronic infusion of angiotensin II (AngII). In young hypertensive mice, the range of cerebral blood flow autoregulation was extended to higher pressure values, and the pressure-induced tone of middle cerebral artery (MCA) was increased. In aged hypertensive mice, autoregulation was markedly disrupted, and MCAs did not show adaptive increases in myogenic tone. In young mice, the mechanism of adaptation to hypertension involved upregulation of the 20-HETE (20-hydroxy-5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid)/transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C (TRPC6) pathway and this mechanism was impaired in aged hypertensive mice. Downstream consequences of cerebrovascular autoregulatory dysfunction in aged AngII-induced hypertensive mice included exacerbated disruption of the blood–brain barrier and neuroinflammation (microglia activation and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines), which were associated with impaired hippocampal dependent cognitive function. Collectively, aging impairs autoregulatory protection in the brain of mice with AngII-induced hypertension, potentially exacerbating cerebromicrovascular injury and neuroinflammation. PMID:23942363

  14. Direct Comparison of Manganese Detoxification/Efflux Proteins and Molecular Characterization of ZnT10 Protein as a Manganese Transporter.

    PubMed

    Nishito, Yukina; Tsuji, Natsuko; Fujishiro, Hitomi; Takeda, Taka-Aki; Yamazaki, Tomohiro; Teranishi, Fumie; Okazaki, Fumiko; Matsunaga, Ayu; Tuschl, Karin; Rao, Rajini; Kono, Satoshi; Miyajima, Hiroaki; Narita, Hiroshi; Himeno, Seiichiro; Kambe, Taiho

    2016-07-01

    Manganese homeostasis involves coordinated regulation of specific proteins involved in manganese influx and efflux. However, the proteins that are involved in detoxification/efflux have not been completely resolved nor has the basis by which they select their metal substrate. Here, we compared six proteins, which were reported to be involved in manganese detoxification/efflux, by evaluating their ability to reduce manganese toxicity in chicken DT40 cells, finding that human ZnT10 (hZnT10) was the most significant contributor. A domain swapping and substitution analysis between hZnT10 and the zinc-specific transporter hZnT1 showed that residue Asn(43), which corresponds to the His residue constituting the potential intramembranous zinc coordination site in other ZnT transporters, is necessary to impart hZnT10's unique manganese mobilization activity; residues Cys(52) and Leu(242) in transmembrane domains II and V play a subtler role in controlling the metal specificity of hZnT10. Interestingly, the His → Asn reversion mutant in hZnT1 conferred manganese transport activity and loss of zinc transport activity. These results provide important information about manganese detoxification/efflux mechanisms in vertebrate cells as well as the molecular characterization of hZnT10 as a manganese transporter. PMID:27226609

  15. A Zn(II)-glycine complex suppresses UVB-induced melanin production by stimulating metallothionein expression.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Y; Kaburagi, S; Okano, Y; Masaki, H; Ichihashi, M; Funasaka, Y; Sakurai, H

    2008-04-01

    Oxidative stress caused by ultraviolet (UV) radiation generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the skin, induces the secretion of melanocyte growth and activating factors from keratinocytes, which results in the formation of cutaneous hyper-pigmentation. Thus, increasing the anti-oxidative ability of skin cells is expected to be a good strategy for skin-lightening cosmetics. Metallothionein (MT) is one of the stress-induced proteins and is known to exhibit a strong anti-oxidative property. We previously reported that a zinc(II) complex with glycine (Zn(II)(Gly)(2)) effectively induces MT expression in cultured human keratinocytes. To determine its potential as a new skin lightening active, we examined whether Zn(II)(Gly)(2) regulates the release of melanocyte-activating factors from UVB-irradiated keratinocytes and affects melanin production in a reconstructed human epidermal equivalent. Conditioned medium from UVB-irradiated keratinocytes accelerated melanocyte proliferation to 110%, and that increase could be prevented by pre-treatment with Zn(II)(Gly)(2). In addition, Zn(II)(Gly)(2) significantly reduced both the production of prostaglandin E(2) and proopiomelanocortin expression in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes. Zn(II)(Gly)(2) also decreased melanin production in a reconstructed human epidermal equivalent. These results indicate that MT-induction in the epidermis effectively up-regulates tolerance against oxidative stress and inhibits the secretion of melanocyte growth and activating factors from keratinocytes. Thus, Zn(II)(Gly)(2) is a good candidate as a new skin-lightening active. PMID:18377619

  16. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT II) - a drug-associated autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Götz

    2009-11-01

    Autoimmune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an acquired autoimmune disease characterised by isolated persistent thrombocytopenia and normal megakaryopoiesis. This definition also applies to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT II), a frequent side effect of heparin treatment. In HIT II, the immunogen is a coagulation active complex of heparin and platelet factor 4 (PF4). By now, diagnostics of HIT II is often material and time consuming. Three groups of patients were investigated for HIT II antibodies (HIT II-AB): 54 hospitalised stroke patients, 87 hospitalised cardiac patients, and 71 patients on chronic haemodialysis, all treated with heparin. Furthermore, 100 healthy volunteers were investigated. For detection of HIT II-AB the innovative whole blood test PADA-HIT (PADA: platelet adhesion assay) was used. PADA-HIT quantifies the interaction of IgG antibodies with FcgammaIIA receptors by comparing the activation state of platelets in citrated and heparinised whole blood. The occurrence of HIT II-AB in blood was very high with 44 % of stroke patients, 69% of cardiac patients and 38% of haemodialysis patients compared to only 15% of healthy volunteers. This demonstrates a high incidence and a rapid onset of HIT II-AB in patients being acutely treated with heparin. HIT II is one of the most frequent and severe autoimmune diseases bearing a great thrombosis risk. PADA-HIT represents an innovative diagnostic method for detection of autoimmune antibodies of IgG type that are directed against platelet factor 4 (PF4)-heparin-complex. By early and fast diagnostics and appropriate treatment severe complications of HIT II can be prevented. PMID:19888524

  17. Mediastinal Yolk Sac Tumor Producing Protein Induced by Vitamin K Absence or Antagonist-II.

    PubMed

    Akutsu, Noriyuki; Adachi, Yasushi; Isosaka, Mai; Mita, Hiroaki; Takagi, Hideyasu; Sasaki, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Arimura, Yoshiaki; Ishii, Yoshifumi; Masumori, Naoya; Endo, Takao; Shinomura, Yasuhisa

    2015-01-01

    Extragonadal yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare. We herein report the case of a 66-year-old man with mediastinal, lung and liver tumors. The largest mass was located in the liver and contained a high concentration of protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) and alpha-fetoprotein. Therefore, the lesion was difficult to distinguish from hepatocellular carcinoma. Finally, YST was diagnosed based on the results of a liver biopsy. Although chemotherapy was effective, the patient died of respiratory failure. The autopsy revealed primary mediastinal YST. In the current report, we describe this case of PIVKA-II-producing YST and review previous cases of PIVKA-II-producing tumors other than hepatoma. PMID:26073245

  18. Nickel (II)-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human proximal tubule cells through a ROS- and mitochondria-mediated pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi-Fen; Shyu, Huey-Wen; Chang, Yi-Chuang; Tseng, Wei-Chang; Huang, Yeou-Lih; Lin, Kuan-Hua; Chou, Miao-Chen; Liu, Heng-Ling; Chen, Chang-Yu

    2012-03-01

    Nickel compounds are known to be toxic and carcinogenic in kidney and lung. In this present study, we investigated the roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondria in nickel (II) acetate-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in the HK-2 human renal cell line. The results showed that the cytotoxic effects of nickel (II) involved significant cell death and DNA damage. Nickel (II) increased the generation of ROS and induced a noticeable reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Analysis of the sub-G1 phase showed a significant increase in apoptosis in HK-2 cells after nickel (II) treatment. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) not only inhibited nickel (II)-induced cell death and DNA damage, but also significantly prevented nickel (II)-induced loss of MMP and apoptosis. Cell apoptosis triggered by nickel (II) was characterized by the reduced protein expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and the induced the protein expression of Bad, Bcl-Xs, Bax, cytochrome c and caspases 9, 3 and 6. The regulation of the expression of Bcl-2-family proteins, the release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspases 9, 3 and 6 were inhibited in the presence of NAC. These results suggest that nickel (II) induces cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HK-2 cells via ROS generation and that the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway may be involved in the positive regulation of nickel (II)-induced renal cytotoxicity.

  19. Improving vagal activity ameliorates cardiac fibrosis induced by angiotensin II: in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin-Jun; Huang, Ning; Lu, Yi; Zhao, Mei; Yu, Xiao-Jiang; Yang, Yang; Yang, Yong-hua; Zang, Wei-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac remodeling is characterized by overactivity of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) and withdrawal of vagal activity. We hypothesized that improving vagal activity could attenuate cardiac fibrosis induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) in vivo and in vitro. Rats were subjected to abdominal aorta constriction (AAC) with or without pyridostigmine (PYR) (31 mg/kg/d). After 8 weeks, PYR significantly decreased Ang II level, AT1 protein expression, and collagen deposition in cardiac tissue and improved heart rate variability, baroreflex sensitivity and cardiac function, which were abolished by atropine. In vitro, treatment of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) with Ang II (10−7 M) increased cell proliferation, migration, transformation, and secretory properties, which were significantly diminished by acetylcholine (ACh, 10−6 M). Subsequently, Ang II significantly increased collagen type I expression as well as metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 expression and activity. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 expression and Smad3 phosphorylation presented a similar trend. Notably, the knockdown of the acetylcholine M2 receptor by siRNA could abolish ACh anti-fibrotic action. These data implicated cholinesterase inhibitor can increase vagal activity and reduce local Ang II level, and ACh inhibit Ang II pro-fibrotic effects. Our findings suggested that the parasympathetic nervous system can serve as a promising target for cardiac remodeling treatment. PMID:26596640

  20. Angiotensin II Induces Region-Specific Medial Disruption during Evolution of Ascending Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Rateri, Debra L.; Davis, Frank M.; Balakrishnan, Anju; Howatt, Deborah A.; Moorleghen, Jessica J.; O’Connor, William N.; Charnigo, Richard; Cassis, Lisa A.; Daugherty, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) promotes development of ascending aortic aneurysms (AAs), but progression of this pathology is undefined. We evaluated factors potentially involved in progression, and determined the temporal sequence of tissue changes during development of Ang II–induced ascending AAs. Ang II infusion into C57BL/6J mice promoted rapid expansion of the ascending aorta, with significant increases within 5 days, as determined by both in vivo ultrasonography and ex vivo sequential acquisition of tissues. Rates of expansion were not significantly different in LDL receptor–null mice fed a saturated fat-enriched diet, demonstrating a lack of effect of hypercholesterolemia. Augmenting systolic blood pressure with norepinephrine infusion had no significant effect on ascending aortic expansion. Pathological changes observed within 5 days of Ang II infusion included increased medial thickness and intramural hemorrhage characterized by erythrocyte extravasation in outer lamellar layers of the media. Intramedial hemorrhage was not observed after prolonged Ang II infusion, although partial medial disruption was present. Elastin fragmentation and transmural medial breaks of the ascending aorta were observed with continued Ang II infusion, which were restricted to anterior aspects. CD45+ cells accumulated in adventitia but were minimal in media. Similar pathology was observed in tissues obtained from patients with ascending AAs. In conclusion, Ang II promotes ascending AAs through region-specific changes that are independent of hypercholesterolemia or systolic blood pressure. PMID:25038458

  1. Silencing MR-1 attenuates inflammatory damage in mice heart induced by AngII

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Wenjian; Chen, Haiyang; Jiang, Jiandong; Kong, Weijia; Wang, Yiguang

    2010-01-15

    Myofibrillogenesis regulator-1(MR-1) can aggravate cardiac hypertrophy induced by angiotensin(Ang) II in mice through activation of NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway, and nuclear transcription factor (NF)-{kappa}B and activator protein-1(AP-1) regulate inflammatory and immune responses by increasing the expression of specific inflammatory genes in various tissues including heart. Whether inhibition of MR-1 expression will attenuate AngII-induced inflammatory injury in mice heart has not been explored. Herein, we monitored the activation of NF-{kappa}B and AP-1, together with expression of pro-inflammatory of interleukin(IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-{alpha}, vascular-cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM), and inflammatory cell infiltration in heart of mice which are induced firstly by AngII (PBS),then received MR-1-siRNA or control-siRNA injecting. We found that the activation of NF-{kappa}B and AP-1 was inhibited significantly, together with the decreased expression of IL-6, TNF-{alpha}, VCAM-1, and PECAM in AngII-induced mice myocardium in MR-1-siRNA injection groups compared with control-siRNA injecting groups. However, the expression level of MR-1 was not an apparent change in PBS-infused groups than in unoperation groups, and MR-1-siRNA do not affect the expression of MR-1 in PBS-infused mice. Our findings suggest that silencing MR-1 protected mice myocardium against inflammatory injury induced by AngII by suppression of pro-inflammatory transcription factors NF-{kappa}B and AP-1 signaling pathway.

  2. Kinetic patterns in the formation of nanosized manganese-manganese oxide systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surovoi, E. P.; Bugerko, L. N.; Surovaya, V. E.; Zaikonnikova, T. M.

    2016-03-01

    Transformations in nanosized manganese films are studied by means of optical spectroscopy, microscopy, and gravimetry at different film thicknesses ( d = 4-108 nm) and temperatures of heat treatment ( T = 373-673 K). It is found that the kinetic curves of conversion are satisfactorily described in the terms of linear, inverse logarithmic, cubic, and logarithmic laws. The contact potential difference is measured for Mn and MnO films, and photo EMF is measured for Mn-MnO systems. An energy band diagram is constructed for Mn-MnO systems. A model for the thermal transformation of Mn films is proposed that includes stages of oxygen adsorption, the redistribution of charge carriers in the contact field of Mn-MnO, and manganese(II) oxide formation.

  3. Mutations in SLC39A14 disrupt manganese homeostasis and cause childhood-onset parkinsonism-dystonia.

    PubMed

    Tuschl, Karin; Meyer, Esther; Valdivia, Leonardo E; Zhao, Ningning; Dadswell, Chris; Abdul-Sada, Alaa; Hung, Christina Y; Simpson, Michael A; Chong, W K; Jacques, Thomas S; Woltjer, Randy L; Eaton, Simon; Gregory, Allison; Sanford, Lynn; Kara, Eleanna; Houlden, Henry; Cuno, Stephan M; Prokisch, Holger; Valletta, Lorella; Tiranti, Valeria; Younis, Rasha; Maher, Eamonn R; Spencer, John; Straatman-Iwanowska, Ania; Gissen, Paul; Selim, Laila A M; Pintos-Morell, Guillem; Coroleu-Lletget, Wifredo; Mohammad, Shekeeb S; Yoganathan, Sangeetha; Dale, Russell C; Thomas, Maya; Rihel, Jason; Bodamer, Olaf A; Enns, Caroline A; Hayflick, Susan J; Clayton, Peter T; Mills, Philippa B; Kurian, Manju A; Wilson, Stephen W

    2016-01-01

    Although manganese is an essential trace metal, little is known about its transport and homeostatic regulation. Here we have identified a cohort of patients with a novel autosomal recessive manganese transporter defect caused by mutations in SLC39A14. Excessive accumulation of manganese in these patients results in rapidly progressive childhood-onset parkinsonism-dystonia with distinctive brain magnetic resonance imaging appearances and neurodegenerative features on post-mortem examination. We show that mutations in SLC39A14 impair manganese transport in vitro and lead to manganese dyshomeostasis and altered locomotor activity in zebrafish with CRISPR-induced slc39a14 null mutations. Chelation with disodium calcium edetate lowers blood manganese levels in patients and can lead to striking clinical improvement. Our results demonstrate that SLC39A14 functions as a pivotal manganese transporter in vertebrates. PMID:27231142

  4. Mutations in SLC39A14 disrupt manganese homeostasis and cause childhood-onset parkinsonism–dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Tuschl, Karin; Meyer, Esther; Valdivia, Leonardo E.; Zhao, Ningning; Dadswell, Chris; Abdul-Sada, Alaa; Hung, Christina Y.; Simpson, Michael A.; Chong, W. K.; Jacques, Thomas S.; Woltjer, Randy L.; Eaton, Simon; Gregory, Allison; Sanford, Lynn; Kara, Eleanna; Houlden, Henry; Cuno, Stephan M.; Prokisch, Holger; Valletta, Lorella; Tiranti, Valeria; Younis, Rasha; Maher, Eamonn R.; Spencer, John; Straatman-Iwanowska, Ania; Gissen, Paul; Selim, Laila A. M.; Pintos-Morell, Guillem; Coroleu-Lletget, Wifredo; Mohammad, Shekeeb S.; Yoganathan, Sangeetha; Dale, Russell C.; Thomas, Maya; Rihel, Jason; Bodamer, Olaf A.; Enns, Caroline A.; Hayflick, Susan J.; Clayton, Peter T.; Mills, Philippa B.; Kurian, Manju A.; Wilson, Stephen W.

    2016-01-01

    Although manganese is an essential trace metal, little is known about its transport and homeostatic regulation. Here we have identified a cohort of patients with a novel autosomal recessive manganese transporter defect caused by mutations in SLC39A14. Excessive accumulation of manganese in these patients results in rapidly progressive childhood-onset parkinsonism–dystonia with distinctive brain magnetic resonance imaging appearances and neurodegenerative features on post-mortem examination. We show that mutations in SLC39A14 impair manganese transport in vitro and lead to manganese dyshomeostasis and altered locomotor activity in zebrafish with CRISPR-induced slc39a14 null mutations. Chelation with disodium calcium edetate lowers blood manganese levels in patients and can lead to striking clinical improvement. Our results demonstrate that SLC39A14 functions as a pivotal manganese transporter in vertebrates. PMID:27231142

  5. Reconstitution of the water-oxidizing complex in manganese-depleted photosystem II preparations using synthetic binuclear Mn(II) and Mn(IV) complexes: production of hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Toshi; Nagasawa, Takayuki; Zharmukhamedov, Sergei K; Klimov, Vyacheslav V; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I

    2007-01-01

    Reconstitution of Mn-depleted PSII particles with synthetic binuclear Mn complexes (one Mn(II)(2) complex and one Mn(IV)(2) complex) was examined. In both cases the electron-transfer rates in the reconstituted systems were found to be up to 75-82% of that measured in native PSII but the oxygen evolution activity remained lower (<5-40%). However, hydrogen peroxide was also produced by the reconstituted samples. These samples therefore represent a new type of reconstituted PSII that generates hydrogen peroxide as the final product in reconstituted PSII centers. PMID:17437183

  6. Effect of two phenanthrene alkaloids on angiotensin II-induced leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in vivo.

    PubMed

    Estellés, Rossana; López-Martín, Javier; Milian, Lara; O'Connor, José-Enrique; Martínez-Losa, Magdalena; Cerdá-Nicolás, Miguel; Anam, Edet M; Ivorra, María Dolores; Issekutz, Andrew C; Cortijo, Julio; Morcillo, Esteban J; Blázquez, Maria Amparo; Sanz, Maria-Jesús

    2003-11-01

    1. The present study has evaluated the effect of two phenanthrene alkaloids, uvariopsine and stephenanthrine, on angiotensin II (Ang-II)-induced leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in vivo and the mechanisms involved in their activity. Intravital microscopy within the rat mesenteric microcirculation was used. 2. A 60 min superfusion with 1 nm Ang-II induced a significant increase in the leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions that were completely inhibited by 1 microm uvariopsine cosuperfusion. A lower dose of 0.1 microm significantly reduced Ang-II-induced leukocyte adhesion by 75%. 3. When Ang-II was cosuperfused with 1 and 0.1 microm stephenanthrine, Ang-II-induced leukocyte responses were significantly diminished. A lower dose of 0.01 microm only affected Ang-II-induced leukocyte adhesion. 4. Both alkaloids inhibited Ang-II-induced endothelial P-selectin upregulation and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in endothelial cells stimulated with Ang-II, in fMLP-stimulated human neutrophils (PMNs) and in the hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase system. However, cyclic AMP levels in PMNs stimulated with fMLP were not affected. 5. Uvariopsine and stephenanthrine inhibited PAF-induced elevations in intracellular calcium levels in PMNs (IC50 values: 15.1 and 6.1 microm respectively) and blocked the binding of [3H]PAF to these leukocytes. They also reduced PAF-induced increases in intracellular levels of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide. 6. In conclusion, stephenanthrine and uvariopsine are potent inhibitors of Ang-II-induced leukocyte accumulation in vivo. This effect appears to be mediated through ROS scavenging activity and blockade of PAF receptor. Thus, they have potential therapeutic interest for the control of leukocyte recruitment that occurs in cardiovascular disease states in which Ang-II is involved. PMID:14559857

  7. Role of the carboxy terminus of polypeptide D1 in the assembly of a functional water-oxidizing manganese cluster in photosystem II of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803: assembly requires a free carboxyl group at C-terminal position 344.

    PubMed

    Nixon, P J; Trost, J T; Diner, B A

    1992-11-10

    The D1 polypeptide of the photosystem II (PSII) reaction center is synthesized as a precursor polypeptide which is posttranslationally processed at the carboxy terminus. It has been shown in spinach that such processing removes nine amino acids, leaving Ala344 as the C-terminal residue [Takahashi, M., Shiraishi, T., & Asada, K. (1988) FEBS Lett. 240, 6-8; Takahashi, Y., Nakane, H., Kojima, H., & Satoh, K. (1990) Plant Cell Physiol. 31, 273-280]. We show here that processing on the carboxy side of Ala344 also occurs in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803, resulting in the removal of 16 amino acids. By constructing a deletion strain of Synechocystis 6803 that lacks the three copies of the psbA gene encoding D1, we have developed a system for generating psbA mutants. Using this system, we have constructed mutants of Synechocystis 6803 that are modified in the region of the C-terminus of the D1 polypeptide. Characterization of these mutants has revealed that (1) processing of the D1 polypeptide is blocked when the residue after the cleavage site is changed from serine to proline (mutant Ser345Pro) with the result that the manganese cluster is unable to assemble correctly; (2) the C-terminal extension of 16 amino acid residues can be deleted with little consequence either for insertion of D1 into the thylakoid membrane or for assembly of D1 into a fully active PSII complex; (3) removal of only one more residue (mutant Ala344stop) results in a loss of assembly of the manganese cluster; and (4) the ability of detergent-solubilized PSII core complexes (lacking the manganese cluster) to bind and oxidize exogenous Mn2+ by the secondary donor, Z+, is largely unaffected in the processing mutants (the Ser345Pro mutant of Synechocystis 6803 and the LF-1 mutant of Scenedesmus obliquus) and the truncation mutant Ala344stop. Our results are consistent with a role for processing in regulating the assembly of the photosynthetic manganese cluster and a role for the free carboxy

  8. Calpain Inhibition Attenuates Angiotensin II-induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms and Atherosclerosis in LDL Receptor Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Venkateswaran; Uchida, Haruhito Adam; Ijaz, Talha; Moorleghen, Jessica J.; Howatt, Deborah A.; Balakrishnan, Anju

    2011-01-01

    Chronic infusion of angiotensin II (AngII) augments atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAAs) formation in hypercholesterolemic mice. AngII-induced AAAs are associated with medial macrophage accumulation and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activation. Inhibition of calpain, a calcium-activated neutral cysteine protease, by overexpression of its endogenous inhibitor, calpastatin, attenuates AngII-induced leukocyte infiltration, perivascular inflammation, and MMP activation in mice. The purpose of this study was to define whether pharmacological inhibition of calpain influences AngII-induced AAAs in hypercholesterolemic mice. Male LDL receptor −/− mice were fed a fat-enriched diet and administered with either vehicle or a calpain-specific inhibitor, BDA-410 (30 mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks. After 1 week of feeding, mice were infused with AngII (1,000 ng/kg/min) for 4 weeks. AngII-infusion profoundly increased aortic calpain protein and activity. BDA-410 administration had no effect on plasma cholesterol concentrations or AngII-increased systolic blood pressure. Calpain inhibition significantly attenuated AngII-induced AAA formation and atherosclerosis development. BDA-410 administration attenuated activation of MMP12, pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, MCP-1) and macrophage infiltration into the aorta. BDA-410 administration significantly attenuated thioglycollate-elicited macrophage accumulation in the peritoneal cavity. We conclude that calpain inhibition using BDA-410 attenuated AngII-induced AAA formation and atherosclerosis development in LDL receptor −/− mice. PMID:21964156

  9. An Intact Median Preoptic Nucleus is Necessary for Chronic Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ployngam, Trasida; Collister, John P.

    2007-01-01

    The median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) receives afferent input from the subfornical organ, a circumventricular organ that has been shown to be necessary in mediating the full chronic hypertensive response to angiotensin II (ANG II) administration. In addition, intravenous ANG II infusion has been shown to cause activation of a number of neurons in both the dorsal and ventral part of MnPO. Taken together, we hypothesized that the MnPO is necessary for the full hypertensive response observed during chronic ANG II-induced hypertension. To test this hypothesis, male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to either sham (SHAM) or electrolytic lesion of both the dorsal and ventral part of the MnPO (MnPOx). During the same surgery, rats were instrumented with venous catheters, and radiotelemetric transducers for the intravenous administration of ANG II and the measurement of blood pressure and heart rate, respectively. Rats were then given a week recovery period. After 3 days of saline control infusion, ANG II was intravenously infused (10 ng ˙ kg−1˙ min−1) in both sham and MnPOx animals for 10 consecutive days, and followed by 3 recovery days. By day 7 of Ang II infusion, MAP had increased 38 ± 3 mmHg in sham lesion rats (n=6), but MAP of MnPOx rats (>90% MnPO ablated; n=5) had only increased 18 ± 2 mmHg. This trend continued through day 10 of ANG II treatment. These results support the hypothesis that the MnPO is necessary for the chronic hypertensive response to ANG II administration. PMID:17618605

  10. Crystal structure and spectroscopic analysis of a new oxalate-bridged Mn(II) compound: catena-poly[guanidinium [[aqua-chlorido-manganese(II)]-μ2-oxalato-κ(4) O (1),O (2):O (1'),O (2')] monohydrate].

    PubMed

    Sehimi, Hiba; Chérif, Ichraf; Zid, Mohamed Faouzi

    2016-05-01

    As part of our studies on the synthesis and the characterization of oxalate-bridged compounds M-ox-M (ox = oxalate dianion and M = transition metal ion), we report the crystal structure of a new oxalate-bridged Mn(II) phase, {(CH6N3)[Mn(C2O4)Cl(H2O)]·H2O} n . In the compound, a succession of Mn(II) ions (situated on inversion centers) adopting a distorted octa-hedral coordination and bridged by oxalate ligands forms parallel zigzag chains running along the c axis. These chains are inter-connected through O-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions to form anionic layers parallel to (010). Individual layers are held together via strong hydrogen bonds involving the guanidinium cations (N-H⋯O and N-H⋯Cl) and the disordered non-coordinating water mol-ecule (O-H⋯O and O-H⋯Cl), as well as by guanidinium π-π stacking. The structural data were confirmed by IR and UV-Visible spectroscopic analysis. PMID:27308028

  11. Autophagy regulates hyperoxia-induced intracellular accumulation of surfactant protein C in alveolar type II cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Zhao, Shuang; Yuan, Li-Jie; Wu, Hong-Min; Jiang, Hong; Zhao, Shi-Meng; Luo, Gang; Xue, Xin-Dong

    2015-10-01

    Surfactant protein C (SP-C) deficiency is a risk factor for hyperoxia-induced bronchopulmonary dysplasia in newborn infants. However, the role of SP-C deficiency in the process is unclear. Here, using neonatal rat BPD model and MLE-12, mouse alveolar epithelial type II cell, we examined the changes of SP-C levels during hyperoxia. Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and ELISA analysis showed SP-C accumulation in alveolar epithelial type II cells. Electron microscopy further demonstrated the accumulation of lamellar bodies and the co-localization of lamellar bodies with autophagosomes in the cytoplasm of alveolar epithelial type II cells. The inhibition of autophagy with 3-Methyladenine and knockdown of Atg7 abolished hyperoxia-induced SP-C accumulation in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, inhibition of JNK signaling with SP600125 suppressed hyperoxia-induced Atg7 expression and SP-C accumulation. These findings suggest that hyperoxia triggers autophagy via JNK signaling-mediated Atg7 expression, which promotes the accumulation of SP-C within alveolar epithelial type II cells. Our data provide a potential approach for hyperoxic lung injury therapy by targeted pharmacological inhibition of autophagic pathway. PMID:26122393

  12. Qiliqiangxin inhibits angiotensin II-induced transdifferentiation of rat cardiac fibroblasts through suppressing interleukin-6

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jingmin; Jiang, Kun; Ding, Xuefeng; Fu, Mingqiang; Wang, Shijun; Zhu, Lingti; He, Tao; Wang, Jingfeng; Sun, Aijun; Hu, Kai; Chen, Li; Zou, Yunzeng; Ge, Junbo

    2015-01-01

    Qiliqiangxin (QL), a traditional Chinese medicine, had long been used to treat chronic heart failure. Recent studies revealed that differentiation of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) into myofibroblasts played an important role in cardiac remodelling and development of heart failure, however, little was known about the underlying mechanism and whether QL treatment being involved. This study aimed to investigate the effects of QL on angiotensin II (AngII)-induced CFs transdifferentiation. Study was performed on in vitro cultured CFs from Sprague–Dawley rats. CFs differentiation was induced by AngII, which was attenuated by QL through reducing transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Our data showed that AngII-induced IL-6 mRNA as well as typeI and typeIII collagens were reduced by QL. IL-6 deficiency could suppress TGF-β1 and α-SMA, and both IL-6 siRNA and QL-mediated such effect was reversed by foresed expression of recombined IL-6. Increase in actin stress fibres reflected the process of CFs differentiation, we found stress fibres were enhanced after AngII stimulation, which was attenuated by pre-treating CFs with QL or IL-6 siRNA, and re-enhanced after rIL-6 treatment. Importantly, we showed that calcineurin-dependent NFAT3 nuclear translocation was essential to AngII-mediated IL-6 transcription, QL mimicked the effect of FK506, the calcineurin inhibitor, on suppression of IL-6 expression and stress fibres formation. Collectively, our data demonstrated the negative regulation of CFs differentiation by QL through an IL-6 transcriptional mechanism that depends on inhibition of calcineurin/NFAT3 signalling. PMID:25752645

  13. Angiotensin II-Induced Arterial Thickening, Fibrosis and Stiffening Involves Elevated Arginase Function

    PubMed Central

    Bhatta, Anil; Yao, Lin; Toque, Haroldo A.; Shatanawi, Alia; Xu, Zhimin; Caldwell, Ruth B.; Caldwell, R. William

    2015-01-01

    Background Arterial stiffness (AS) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity/mortality. Smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and increased collagen synthesis are key features in development of AS. Arginase (ARG), an enzyme implicated in many cardiovascular diseases, can compete with nitric oxide (NO) synthase for their common substrate, L-arginine. Increased arginase can also provide ornithine for synthesis of polyamines via ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and proline/collagen via ornithine aminotransferase (OAT), leading to vascular cell proliferation and collagen formation, respectively. We hypothesized that elevated arginase activity is involved in Ang II-induced arterial thickening, fibrosis, and stiffness and that limiting its activity can prevent these changes. Methods and Results We tested this by studies in mice lacking one copy of the ARG1 gene that were treated with angiotensin II (Ang II, 4 weeks). Studies were also performed in rat aortic Ang II-treated SMC. In WT mice treated with Ang II, we observed aortic stiffening (pulse wave velocity) and aortic and coronary fibrosis and thickening that were associated with increases in ARG1 and ODC expression/activity, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, hydroxyproline levels, and collagen 1 protein expression. ARG1 deletion prevented each of these alterations. Furthermore, exposure of SMC to Ang II (1 μM, 48 hrs) increased ARG1 expression, ARG activity, ODC mRNA and activity, cell proliferation, collagen 1 protein expression and hydroxyproline content. Treatment with ABH prevented these changes. Conclusion Arginase 1 is crucially involved in Ang II-induced SMC proliferation and arterial fibrosis and stiffness and represents a promising therapeutic target. PMID:25807386

  14. Manganese Complexes of 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (PTA): The First Nitrogen Bound Transition Metal Complex of PTA

    SciTech Connect

    Frost,B.; Bautista, C.; Huang, R.; Shearer, J.

    2006-01-01

    The structures of two manganese(II) complexes of 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (PTA) reveal the first transition-metal complexes of PTA in which the metal preferentially coordinates to a nitrogen and not the phosphorus of PTA. The coordination environment about the manganese was probed using X-ray crystallography (solid state) and EXAFS spectroscopy (solution).

  15. Method development for the determination of calcium, copper, magnesium, manganese, iron, potassium, phosphorus and zinc in different types of breads by microwave induced plasma-atomic emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ozbek, Nil; Akman, Suleyman

    2016-06-01

    A novel method was developed for the determination of calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, copper, zinc, and manganese and phosphorous in various kinds of breads samples sold in Turkey by microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MIP-AES). Breads were dried at 100 °C for one day, ground thoroughly and then digested using nitric acid/hydrogen per oxide (3:1). The analytes in certified reference wheat flour and maize flour samples were determined in the uncertainty limits of the certified values as well as the analytes added to the mixture of ground bread and acid mixture prior to digestion were recovered quantitatively (>90%). Therefore, all determinations were made by linear calibration technique using aqueous standards. The LOD values for Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P and Zn were 13.1, 0.28, 4.47, 118, 1.10, 0.41, 7550 and 3.00 ng mL(-1), respectively. No spectral interference was detected at the working wavelengths of the analytes. PMID:26830585

  16. Enhanced PKC beta II translocation and PKC beta II-RACK1 interactions in PKC epsilon-induced heart failure: a role for RACK1.

    PubMed

    Pass, J M; Gao, J; Jones, W K; Wead, W B; Wu, X; Zhang, J; Baines, C P; Bolli, R; Zheng, Y T; Joshua, I G; Ping, P

    2001-12-01

    Recent investigations have established a role for the beta II-isoform of protein kinase C (PKC beta II) in the induction of cardiac hypertrophy and failure. Although receptors for activated C kinase (RACKs) have been shown to direct PKC signal transduction, the mechanism through which RACK1, a selective PKC beta II RACK, participates in PKC beta II-mediated cardiac hypertrophy and failure remains undefined. We have previously reported that PKC epsilon activation modulates the expression of RACKs, and that altered epsilon-isoform of PKC (PKC epsilon)-RACK interactions may facilitate the genesis of cardiac phenotypes in mice. Here, we present evidence that high levels of PKC epsilon activity are commensurate with impaired left ventricular function (dP/dt = 6,074 +/- 248 mmHg/s in control vs. 3,784 +/- 269 mmHg/s in transgenic) and significant myocardial hypertrophy. More importantly, we demonstrate that high levels of PKC epsilon activation induce a significant colocalization of PKC beta II with RACK1 (154 +/- 7% of control) and a marked redistribution of PKC beta II to the particulate fraction (17 +/- 2% of total PKC beta II in control mice vs. 49 +/- 5% of total PKC beta II in hypertrophied mice), without compensatory changes of the other eight PKC isoforms present in the mouse heart. This enhanced PKC beta II activation is coupled with increased RACK1 expression and PKC beta II-RACK1 interactions, demonstrating PKC epsilon-induced PKC beta II signaling via a RACK1-dependent mechanism. Taken together with our previous findings regarding enhanced RACK1 expression and PKC epsilon-RACK1 interactions in the setting of cardiac hypertrophy and failure, these results suggest that RACK1 serves as a nexus for at least two isoforms of PKC, the epsilon-isoform and the beta II-isoform, thus coordinating PKC-mediated hypertrophic signaling. PMID:11709417

  17. Mineral of the month: manganese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corathers, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Manganese is one of the most important ferrous metals and one of the few for which the United States is totally dependent on imports. It is a black, brittle element predominantly used in metallurgical applications as an alloying addition, particularly in steel and cast iron production, which together provide the largest market for manganese (about 83 percent). It is also used as an alloy with nonferrous metals such as aluminum and copper. Nonmetallurgical applications of manganese include battery cathodes, soft ferrite magnets used in electronics, micronutrients found in fertilizers and animal feed, water treatment chemicals, and a colorant for bricks and ceramics.

  18. Mineralocorticoid and angiotensin II type 1 receptors in the subfornical organ mediate angiotensin II - induced hypothalamic reactive oxygen species and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Wei; Huang, Bing S; White, Roselyn A; Chen, Aidong; Ahmad, Monir; Leenen, Frans H H

    2016-08-01

    Activation of angiotensinergic pathways by central aldosterone (Aldo)-mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) pathway plays a critical role in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension. The subfornical organ (SFO) contains both MR and angiotensin II type 1 receptors (AT1R) and can relay the signals of circulating Ang II to downstream nuclei such as the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), supraoptic nucleus (SON) and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). In Wistar rats, subcutaneous (sc) infusion of Ang II at 500ng/min/kg for 1 or 2weeks increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) as measured by dihydroethidium (DHE) staining in a nucleus - specific pattern. Intra-SFO infusion of AAV-MR- or AT1aR-siRNA prevented the Ang II-induced increase in AT1R mRNA expression in the SFO and decreased MR mRNA. Both MR- and AT1aR-siRNA prevented increases in ROS in the PVN and RVLM. MR- but not AT1aR-siRNA in the SFO prevented the Ang II-induced ROS in the SON. Both MR- and AT1aR-siRNA in the SFO prevented most of the Ang II-induced hypertension as assessed by telemetry. These results indicate that Aldo-MR signaling in the SFO is needed for the activation of Ang II-AT1R-ROS signaling from the SFO to the PVN and RVLM. Activation of Aldo-MR signaling from the SFO to the SON may enhance AT1R dependent activation of pre-sympathetic neurons in the PVN. PMID:27163380

  19. Relaxin deficiency attenuates pregnancy-induced adaptation of the mesenteric artery to angiotensin II in mice.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Sarah A; Leo, Chen Huei; Senadheera, Sevvandi N; Girling, Jane E; Tare, Marianne; Parry, Laura J

    2016-05-01

    Pregnancy is associated with reduced peripheral vascular resistance, underpinned by changes in endothelial and smooth muscle function. Failure of the maternal vasculature to adapt correctly leads to serious pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia. The peptide hormone relaxin regulates the maternal renal vasculature during pregnancy; however, little is known about its effects in other vascular beds. This study tested the hypothesis that functional adaptation of the mesenteric and uterine arteries during pregnancy will be compromised in relaxin-deficient (Rln(-/-)) mice. Smooth muscle and endothelial reactivity were examined in small mesenteric and uterine arteries of nonpregnant (estrus) and late-pregnant (day 17.5) wild-type (Rln(+/+)) and Rln(-/-) mice using wire myography. Pregnancy per se was associated with significant reductions in contraction to phenylephrine, endothelin-1, and ANG II in small mesenteric arteries, while sensitivity to endothelin-1 was reduced in uterine arteries of Rln(+/+) mice. The normal pregnancy-associated attenuation of ANG II-mediated vasoconstriction in mesenteric arteries did not occur in Rln(-/-) mice. This adaptive failure was endothelium-independent and did not result from altered expression of ANG II receptors or regulator of G protein signaling 5 (Rgs5) or increases in reactive oxygen species generation. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase with l-NAME enhanced ANG II-mediated contraction in mesenteric arteries of both genotypes, whereas blockade of prostanoid production with indomethacin only increased ANG II-induced contraction in arteries of pregnant Rln(+/+) mice. In conclusion, relaxin deficiency prevents the normal pregnancy-induced attenuation of ANG II-mediated vasoconstriction in small mesenteric arteries. This is associated with reduced smooth muscle-derived vasodilator prostanoids. PMID:26936785

  20. Involvement of Spinal Angiotensin II System in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Neuropathic Pain in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Yoshiki; Nemoto, Wataru; Nakagawasai, Osamu; Yamagata, Ryota; Tadano, Takeshi; Tan-No, Koichi

    2016-09-01

    Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity increases under hyperglycemic states, and is thought to be involved in diabetic complications. We previously demonstrated that angiotensin (Ang) II, a main bioactive component of the RAS, might act as a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator in the transmission of nociceptive information in the spinal cord. Here, we examined whether the spinal Ang II system is responsible for diabetic neuropathic pain induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Tactile allodynia was observed concurrently with an increase in blood glucose levels the day after mice received STZ (200 mg/kg, i.v.) injections. Tactile allodynia on day 14 was dose-dependently inhibited by intrathecal administration of losartan, an Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist, but not by PD123319, an AT2 receptor antagonist. In the lumbar dorsal spinal cord, the expression of Ang II, Ang converting enzyme (ACE), and phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were all significantly increased on day 14 after STZ injection compared with vehicle-treated controls, whereas no differences were observed among AT1 receptors or angiotensinogen levels. Moreover, the increase in phospho-p38 MAPK was significantly inhibited by intrathecal administration of losartan. These results indicate that the expression of spinal ACE increased in STZ-induced diabetic mice, which in turn led to an increase in Ang II levels and tactile allodynia. This increase in spinal Ang II was accompanied by the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, which was shown to be mediated by AT1 receptors. PMID:27401876

  1. In vivo footprinting of the estrogen-inducible vitellogenin II gene from chicken.

    PubMed Central

    Philipsen, J N; Hennis, B C; Ab, G

    1988-01-01

    Protein-DNA interactions in the promoter region of the chicken vitellogenin II gene were analyzed by in vivo dimethylsulphate footprinting with expressing and non-expressing tissues. The reactivity of G-residues is essentially the same in erythrocytes, oviduct and control liver, not expressing the gene. In the expressing estrogen-induced liver we find a number of G-residues with altered reactivities. These G's are located within distinct sequences: the estrogen responsive elements, a sequence resembling the NF-1 recognition motive, and several elements which are conserved between yolk protein genes. The expression-dependent binding of proteins to these sites was confirmed by DNaseI footprinting applied to nuclei isolated from estrogen-induced and control liver. Estradiol appears to establish a transcription complex comprising a number of distinct proteins bound to different sites in the 5' flanking region of the vitellogenin II gene. Images PMID:3186442

  2. A target-induced fluorescent nanoparticle for in situ monitoring of Zn(II).

    PubMed

    John, Carrie L; Huan, Yanfu; Wu, Xu; Jin, Yuhui; Pierce, David T; Zhao, Julia Xiaojun

    2013-09-01

    A target-induced fluorescent silica nanoparticle has been developed for the identification, enrichment and in situ determination of trace amounts of zinc(II). The nanoparticle combines the advantages of target-induced fluorescent compounds and the small size of the nanomaterial to produce a new, smarter nanosignaling material that is capable of selectively enriching a target and detecting a specific binding process in one step. As the target analyte, Zn(II), changes the fluorescence characteristics of the nanoparticle and effectively 'turns on' the fluorescence signal, no separation step is needed to confirm or quantify the binding process. The designed nanoparticle was characterized by several aspects prior to monitoring of Zn(II) in situ. The interferences from common metal ions were studied in detail. The photostability and reversibility of the sensing materials were investigated as well. The ability of this nanoparticle to detect the target Zn(II) provides a great advantage for in situ monitoring targets in biological samples under the fluorescence microscope. PMID:23799230

  3. Systematic identification of type I and type II interferon-induced antiviral factors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Su-Yang; Sanchez, David Jesse; Aliyari, Roghiyh; Lu, Sun; Cheng, Genhong

    2012-03-13

    Type I and type II interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that establish the cellular antiviral state through the induction of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). We sought to understand the basis of the antiviral activity induced by type I and II IFNs in relation to the functions of their ISGs. Based on gene expression studies, we systematically identified antiviral ISGs by performing blinded, functional screens on 288 type I and type II ISGs. We assessed and validated the antiviral activity of these ISGs against an RNA virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and a DNA virus, murine gammaherpes virus (MHV-68). Overall, we identified 34 ISGs that elicited an antiviral effect on the replication of either one or both viruses. Fourteen ISGs have uncharacterized antiviral functions. We further defined ISGs that affect critical life-cycle processes in expression of VSV protein and MHV-68 immediate-early genes. Two previously undescribed antiviral ISGs, TAP1 and BMP2, were further validated. TAP1-deficient fibroblasts were more susceptible to VSV infection but less so to MHV-68 infection. On the other hand, exogenous BMP2 inhibits MHV-68 lytic growth but did not affect VSV growth. These results delineate common and distinct sets of type I and type II IFN-induced genes as well as identify unique ISGs that have either broad or specific antiviral effects on these viruses. PMID:22371602

  4. A Food-Derived Flavonoid Luteolin Protects against Angiotensin II-Induced Cardiac Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Tomoko; Yamaguchi, Toshihiro; Sumida, Tomokazu; Ikeda, Yuichi; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Motozawa, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Tsukasa; Imaizumi, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Tadashi; Nagai, Ryozo; Komuro, Issei

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in cardiac remodeling (cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy), which impairs cardiac function and metabolism; therefore, it is anticipated antioxidative compounds will have protective properties against cardiac remodeling. Luteolin (3’,4’,5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone), a widely distributed flavonoid found in many herbal extracts including celery, green pepper, perilla leaves and seeds, and chamomile, is a known to be a potent antioxidant and was previously demonstrated to exert an antifibrotic effect in the lungs and the liver. In this study, we clearly demonstrate that oral pretreatment with the higher-luteolin diet (0.035% (wt/wt)) protected against cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy as well as a hyperoxidative state in Ang II-infused rats. In cardiac tissue, increased gene expression levels of TGFβ1, CTGF, Nox2, Nox4, ANP, and BNP induced by Ang II were restored by oral pretreatment of this high-luteolin diet. In cultured rat cardiac fibroblasts, H2O2-induced TGFβ1 expression and the phosphorylation of JNK were suppressed by luteolin pretreatment. In conclusion, food-derived luteolin has protective actions against Ang II-induced cardiac remodeling, which could be mediated through attenuation of oxidative stress. PMID:26327560

  5. A Food-Derived Flavonoid Luteolin Protects against Angiotensin II-Induced Cardiac Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Atsuko; Morita, Hiroyuki; Nakao, Tomoko; Yamaguchi, Toshihiro; Sumida, Tomokazu; Ikeda, Yuichi; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Motozawa, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Tsukasa; Imaizumi, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Tadashi; Nagai, Ryozo; Komuro, Issei

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in cardiac remodeling (cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy), which impairs cardiac function and metabolism; therefore, it is anticipated antioxidative compounds will have protective properties against cardiac remodeling. Luteolin (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone), a widely distributed flavonoid found in many herbal extracts including celery, green pepper, perilla leaves and seeds, and chamomile, is a known to be a potent antioxidant and was previously demonstrated to exert an antifibrotic effect in the lungs and the liver. In this study, we clearly demonstrate that oral pretreatment with the higher-luteolin diet (0.035% (wt/wt)) protected against cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy as well as a hyperoxidative state in Ang II-infused rats. In cardiac tissue, increased gene expression levels of TGFβ1, CTGF, Nox2, Nox4, ANP, and BNP induced by Ang II were restored by oral pretreatment of this high-luteolin diet. In cultured rat cardiac fibroblasts, H2O2-induced TGFβ1 expression and the phosphorylation of JNK were suppressed by luteolin pretreatment. In conclusion, food-derived luteolin has protective actions against Ang II-induced cardiac remodeling, which could be mediated through attenuation of oxidative stress. PMID:26327560

  6. Inhibition of GSK-3β Alleviates Collagen II-Induced Rheumatoid Arthritis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Haiyan; Liu, Jun; Zeng, Jiashun; Hu, Bailong; Fang, Xiuyi; Li, Long

    2016-01-01

    Background Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) inhibitor is a serine/threonine kinase with an inhibitory role in glycogen synthesis, which is essential in inflammatory and immunological diseases. The purpose of our study was to determine if TDZD-8 can alleviate collagen II-induced rheumatoid arthritis in rats. Material/Methods Twenty collagen II-induced rheumatoid arthritis rats were treated with selective GSK-3β inhibitor. The effects of GSK-3β inhibition on collagen II-induced rheumatoid arthritis in the rats were evaluated by paw edema, histological examination of arthritic synovium, radiographic examination of knee joint, and the level of inflammation mediators such as prostaglandin E2, 5-hydroxytryptamin, and histamine. The level of cytokines such as IL-6, IL-12, IL-10, and TNF-α, was examined by Elisa. Results GSK-3β inhibitor significantly reduced the development of rheumatoid arthritis in rats. The levels of inflammation mediators such as prostaglandin E2, 5-hydroxytryptamin, and histamine were decreased in the TDZD-8 group. Serum levels of IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α were significantly reduced in the TDZD-8 group compared with the RA group. Conclusions Treatment with GSK-3β inhibitor suppressed inflammatory response in RA rats. These findings suggest that the inhibition of GSK-3β can be an effective treatment for RA. PMID:27029564

  7. Manganese oxidation model for rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Glen W.; Kim, Byung R.; Roberts, Philip J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The presence of manganese in natural waters (>0.05 mg/L) degrades water-supply quality. A model was devised to predict the variation of manganese concentrations in river water released from an impoundment with the distance downstream. The model is one-dimensional and was calibrated using dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, pH, manganese, and hydraulic data collected in the Duck River, Tennessee. The results indicated that the model can predict manganese levels under various conditions. The model was then applied to the Chattahoochee River, Georgia. Discrepancies between observed and predicted may be due to inadequate pH data, precipitation of sediment particles, unsteady flow conditions in the Chattahoochee River, inaccurate rate expressions for the low pH conditions, or their combinations.

  8. Modulation of In Utero Total Body Irradiation Induced Newborn Mouse Growth Retardation by Maternal Manganese Superoxide Dismutase-Plasmid Liposome (MnSOD-PL) Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Epperly, Michael W.; Smith, Tracy; Zhang, Xichen; Greenberger, Benjamin; Komanduri, Paavani; Wang, Hong; Greenberger, Joel S.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the effects of Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) plasmid liposome (PL) maternal radioprotection on fetal mice, timed pregnant female mice (E14 gestation) were irradiated to 3.0 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) dose, and the number, weight, and growth and development over 6 months after birth of newborn mice was quantitated compared to irradiated controls. Maternal MnSOD-PL treatment at E13 improved pup survival at birth (5.4 ± 0.9/litter compared to irradiated 3.0 Gy controls 4.9 ± 1.1. There was no statistically significant difference in newborn abnormalities, male to female ratio in newborn litters, or other evidence of teratogenesis in surviving newborn mice from MnSOD-PL treated compared to irradiated controls. However, E13 3Gy irradiated pups from gene therapy treated mothers showed a significant increase in both growth and overall survival over 6 months after birth (p = 0.0022). To determine if transgene product crossed the placenta pregnant E13 mice were injected I.V. with hemagglutinin-epitope-tagged MnSOD (100 μgm plasmid in 100 μl liposomes), then 24 hours later fetal mice, placentas, and maternal tissues were removed and tested by both immunohistochemistry and RTPCR for transgene and product. There was no evidence of transgene or product in placenta or any fetal tissue while maternal liver was positive by both assays. The data provide evidence for fetal radioprotection by maternal MnSOD-PL gene therapy before irradiation which is mediated by an indirect bystander effect and is associated with a significant improvement in both survival at birth and growth and development of newborn mice. PMID:21248791

  9. Modulation of in utero total body irradiation induced newborn mouse growth retardation by maternal manganese superoxide dismutase-plasmid liposome (MnSOD-PL) gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Epperly, M W; Smith, T; Zhang, X; Goff, J P; Franicola, D; Greenberger, B; Komanduri, P; Wang, H; Greenberger, J S

    2011-06-01

    To determine the effects of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) plasmid liposome (PL) maternal radioprotection on fetal mice, timed pregnant female mice (E14 gestation) were irradiated to 3.0 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) dose, and the number, weight and growth and development over 6 months after birth of newborn mice was quantitated compared with irradiated controls. Maternal MnSOD-PL treatment at E13 improved pup survival at birth (5.4±0.9 per litter) compared with non-irradiated 3.0 Gy controls 4.9±1.1. There was no statistically significant difference in newborn abnormalities, male to female ratio in newborn litters, or other evidence of teratogenesis in surviving newborn mice from MnSOD-PL treated compared with irradiated controls. However, E14 3 Gy irradiated pups from gene therapy-treated mothers showed a significant increase in both growth and overall survival over 6 months after birth (P=0.0022). To determine if transgene product crossed the placenta pregnant E13 mice were injected intravenously with hemagglutinin-epitope-tagged MnSOD (100 μg plasmid in 100 μl liposomes), then after 24 h, fetal mice, placentas and maternal tissues were removed and tested by both immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase-PCR for transgene and product. There was no evidence of transgene or product in placenta or any fetal tissue while maternal liver was positive by both assays. The data provide evidence for fetal radioprotection by maternal MnSOD-PL gene therapy before irradiation, which is mediated by an indirect bystander effect and is associated with a significant improvement in both survival at birth and growth and development of newborn mice. PMID:21248791

  10. Manganese and Microbial Pathogenesis: Sequestration by the Mammalian Immune System and Utilization by Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial and fungal pathogens cause a variety of infectious diseases and constitute a significant threat to public health. The human innate immune system represents the first line of defense against pathogenic microbes and employs a range of chemical artillery to combat these invaders. One important mechanism of innate immunity is the sequestration of metal ions that are essential nutrients. Manganese is one nutrient that is required for many pathogens to establish an infective lifestyle. This review summarizes recent advances in the role of manganese in the host–pathogen interaction and highlights Mn(II) sequestration by neutrophil calprotectin as well as how bacterial acquisition and utilization of manganese enables pathogenesis. PMID:25594606

  11. Determination of manganese in grain by potential titration with catalytic end-point indication.

    PubMed

    Xuezhi, D; Deliang, L; Chunshan, C; Jingwei, Z

    1999-12-01

    A method of catalytic potential titration for the determination of trace manganese by using crystal violet ion selective electrode is reported in this paper. It is based on the catalytic effect of manganese (II) on the oxidation of crystal violet by potassium periodate in the presence of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA). The experiments indicated that this technique showed high sensitivity and high accuracy. The results of determination of trace manganese in grain could be compared with the results obtained by means of atomic absorption spectrometry. PMID:18967787

  12. Angiotensin II induces skin fibrosis: a novel mouse model of dermal fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology characterized by fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Ang II (angiotensin II), a vasoconstrictive peptide, is a well-known inducer of kidney, heart, and liver fibrosis. The goal of this study was to investigate the profibrotic potential of Ang II in the mouse skin. Methods Ang II was administered by subcutaneous osmotic mini pumps to C57BL/6 male mice. Collagen-content measurements were performed with Gomori Trichrome staining and hydroxyproline assay. The mRNA expression level of collagens, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, CTGF, αSMA, CD3, Emr1, CD45/B220, MCP1, and FSP1 were quantified with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Immunostaining was performed for markers of inflammation and fibrosis, including, phospho-Smad2, αSMA, CD3, Mac3, CD45/B220, and CD163B. Fibrocytes were identified by double staining with CD45/FSP1 and CD45/PH4. Endothelial cells undergoing endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) were identified by double staining with VE-cadherin/FSP1. Results Ang II-infused mice develop prominent dermal fibrosis in the area proximal to the pump, as shown by increased collagen and CTGF mRNA levels, increased hydroxyproline content, and more tightly packed collagen fibers. In addition, elevated mRNA levels of TGF-β2 and TGF-β3 along with increased expression of pSmad2 were observed in the skin of Ang II-treated mice. Dermal fibrosis was accompanied by an increased number of infiltrating fibrocytes, and an increased number of αSMA-positive cells, as well as CD163B+ macrophages in the upper dermis. This correlated with significantly increased mRNA levels of αSMA, Emr1, and MCP1. Infiltration of CD3-, CD45/B220-, and Mac3-positive cells was observed mainly in the hypodermis. Furthermore, an increased number of double-positive VE-cadherin/FSP1 cells were detected in the hypodermis only. Conclusions This work demonstrates that Ang II induces both

  13. Heme oxygenase-1 gene expression modulates angiotensin II-induced increase in blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liming; Quan, Shuo; Nasjletti, Alberto; Laniado-Schwartzman, Michal; Abraham, Nader G

    2004-06-01

    The heme-heme oxygenase (HO) system has been implicated in the regulation of vascular reactivity and blood pressure. This study examines the notion that overexpression of HO decreases pressor responsiveness to angiotensin II (Ang II). Five-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats received an intraleft ventricular injection of approximately 5x10(9) cfu/mL of retroviruses containing human HO-1 sense (LSN-HHO-1), rat HO-1 antisense (LSN-RHO-1-AS), or control retrovirus (LXSN). Three months later, rats were instrumented with femoral arterial and venous catheters for mean arterial pressure (MAP) determination and Ang II administration, respectively. Rats injected with LSN-HHO-1, but not with LXSN, expressed human HO-1 mRNA and protein in several tissues. BP increased with administration of Ang II in rats expressing and not expressing human HO-1. However, the Ang II-induced pressor response (mm Hg) in LSN-HHO-1 rats (16+/-3, 27+/-3, and 38+/-3 at 0.5, 2, and 10 ng) was surpassed (P<0.05) in LXSN rats (23+/-1, 37+/-2, and 52+/-2 at 0.5, 2, and 10 ng). Importantly, treating LSN-HHO-1 rats with the HO inhibitor tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP) enhanced (P<0.05) the Ang II-induced pressor response to a level not different from that observed in LXSN rats. Rats injected with LSN-RHO-1-AS showed a decrease in renal HO-1 protein expression and HO activity relative to control LXSN rats. Administration of Ang II (0.1 to 2 ng) caused small (4 to 5 mm Hg) but significant increases in MAP in rats injected with LSN-RHO-1-AS (P<0.05) compared with rats injected with LXSN. These data demonstrate that overexpression of HO-1 brings about a reduction in pressor responsiveness to Ang II, which is most likely due to increased generation of an HO-1 product, presumably CO, with the ability to inhibit vascular reactivity to constrictor stimuli. PMID:15166181

  14. Nickel(II) and zinc(II) dibenzoylmethanates: molecular and crystal structure, polymorphism, and guest- or temperature-induced oligomerization.

    PubMed

    Soldatov, D V; Henegouwen, A T; Enright, G D; Ratcliffe, C I; Ripmeester, J A

    2001-03-26

    Four forms of nickel(II) and two of zinc(II) dibenzoylmethanates have been isolated and characterized with powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, differential scanning calorimetry, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and solid-state 13C cross-polarization/magic angle spinning NMR. Nickel dibenzoylmethanate, Ni(DBM)2 (DBM = PhCOCHCOPh-), forms three polymorphic forms (light-green, brown, and green) and a fourth clathrate form with guest benzene included. The light-green polymorph is metastable. Substituted benzenes induce recrystallization of the polymorph into a stable brown form (C30H22NiO4; a = 26.502(3) A, b = 5.774(1) A, c = 16.456(2) A, beta = 116.03(1) degrees; monoclinic, C2/c; Z = 4). Unlike the other forms, the brown form is diamagnetic and is comprised of monomers of the low-spin [Ni(DBM)2] complex. The Ni(II) is chelated by two DBM ligands in a square planar environment by four donor oxygen atoms. When heated, the brown form transforms to a green form which is stable above 202 degrees C (C90H66Ni3O12; a = 13.819(2) A, b = 16.252(2) A, c = 17.358(2) A, beta = 108.28(1) degrees; monoclinic, P2(1)/n; Z = 2). This polymorph is formed by van der Waals packing of trimers [Ni3(DBM)6] containing linear Ni3 clusters with an Ni-Ni distance of 2.81 A. The cluster is surrounded by six DBM ligands, providing a distorted octahedral environment about each Ni by six oxygen atoms. Benzene stabilizes the trimeric structure at room temperature, forming a [Ni3(DBM)6].2(benzene) inclusion compound (Ni-Ni distance of 2.83 A) with guest benzene molecules located in channels (C90H66Ni3O12 + 2(C6H6); a = 17.670(2) A, b = 20.945(3) A, c=11.209(2) A, beta = 102.57(1) degrees; monoclinic, P2(1)/c; Z = 2). Zinc dibenzoylmethanate has been prepared in two polymorphic forms. The monomeric form contains [Zn(DBM)2] molecules with the zinc center in a distorted tetrahedral environment of four oxygens from the two chelated DBMs (C30H22O4Zn; a = 10.288(2) A, b = 10

  15. Manganese and epilepsy: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Reyes, Rodrigo E; Gutierrez-Alvarez, Angela M; Moreno, Carlos B

    2007-02-01

    Manganese is an essential trace element for the development and function of the central nervous system. Alterations in manganese concentrations, whether excessive or deficient, can be accompanied by convulsions. This article represents a systematic review of available quantitative evidence that might clarify this issue. We searched The Cochrane Library, Medline and LILACS databases from January 1966 through June 2006 and reviewed all resulting English and Spanish language publications, as well as those possibly relevant in other languages based on their abstracts. The final selection included for this review comprises all investigations in humans and animals that compared manganese levels in any tissue of a group with spontaneous or induced convulsions (with or without antiepileptic treatment) and a convulsion-free control group. The literature search identified thirteen publications since then relevant to the issue, four of which failed to meet our criteria for inclusion. Of the remaining nine, six were in humans and three in rodents. At present, there is no satisfactory explanation for the relationship between low manganese levels and the presence of convulsions. There is a documented correlation between low blood manganese levels and the presence of convulsions in both humans and animals. The lack of evidence indicating whether this is a cause or an effect of the convulsions clearly justifies more detailed follow-up investigations in humans. PMID:17166592

  16. Motoric impairment following manganese exposure in asteroid echinoderms.

    PubMed

    Sköld, Helen Nilsson; Baden, Susanne P; Looström, Jakob; Eriksson, Susanne P; Hernroth, Bodil E

    2015-10-01

    In the oceans, naturally occurring manganese (Mn) is released from the sediments during events of hypoxia. While neuro- and immuno-toxic effects of bioavailable manganese are well documented for crustaceans, studies of similar effects of manganese on other marine invertebrates are comparatively few. Here, we developed a new functional test "the repeated turning assay" to investigate if manganese exposure at ∼12 mg L(-1) affected motoric behaviour of two asteroid echinoderms, the Common sea star, Asterias rubens, and the Black brittle star, Ophiocomina nigra. By measuring of the turning-over capacity, from dorsal to ventral position, after one and two weeks of manganese exposure, we showed that for both species Mn exposure significantly delayed the ability to turn. After a recovery period of two weeks, the capacity of turning-over was not restored to that of unexposed animals neither for A. rubens nor for O. nigra. Further investigation of sea stars showed that Mn accumulated ∼5 fold in the tube feet, organs involved in their turning-over activity, and the high concentration remained after the recovery period. In the tube feet we also recorded an increased activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), here used as a proxy for neuromuscular disturbances. The results indicated that Mn induces neuromuscular disturbance in echinoderms which is important news, given that previous studies have concluded that adult echinoderms are relatively tolerant to Mn. PMID:26254768

  17. Angiotensin II induces apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells through the AT2 receptor, GATA-6 and the Bax pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Lihua; Wang, Wensheng; Xiao, Weidong; Liang, Hongyin; Yang, Yang; Yang, Hua

    2012-08-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ang II-induced apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cell through AT2 receptor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The apoptosis process involves in the Bax/Bcl-2 intrinsic pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GATA-6 short hairpin RNA reduced Bax expression, but not Bcl-2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GATA-6 may play a critical role in apoptosis in response to the Ang II challenge. -- Abstract: Angiotensin II (Ang II) has been shown to play an important role in cell apoptosis. However, the mechanisms of Ang-II-induced apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells are not fully understood. GATA-6 is a zinc finger transcription factor expressed in the colorectal epithelium, which directs cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. In the present study we investigated the underlying mechanism of which GATA-6 affects Ang-II induced apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells. The in vitro intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis model was established by co-culturing Caco-2 cells with Ang II. Pretreatment with Angiotensin type 2 (AT2) receptor antagonist, PD123319, significantly reduced the expression of Bax and prevented the Caco-2 cells apoptosis induced by Ang II. In addition, Ang II up-regulated the expression of GATA-6. Interestingly, GATA-6 short hairpin RNA prevented Ang II-induced intestinal epithelial cells apoptosis and reduced the expression of Bax, but not Bcl-2. Taken together, the present study suggests that Angiotensin II promotes apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells through GATA-6 and the Bax pathway in an AT2 receptor-dependent manner.

  18. Orphan Nuclear Receptor Nur77 Inhibits Angiotensin II-Induced Vascular Remodeling via Downregulation of β-Catenin.

    PubMed

    Cui, Mingli; Cai, Zhaohua; Chu, Shichun; Sun, Zhe; Wang, Xiaolei; Hu, Liuhua; Yi, Jing; Shen, Linghong; He, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is the predominant effector peptide of the renin-angiotensin system. Ang II contributes to vascular remodeling in many cardiovascular diseases (eg, hypertension, atherosclerosis, restenosis, and aneurysm). Orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 has a crucial role in the functional regulation of vascular cells. The objective of this study was to define the specific role of Nur77 in Ang II-induced vascular remodeling. Nur77 expression was initially found to be elevated in medial vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of thoracic aortas from mice continuously infused with Ang II for 2 weeks using a subcutaneous osmotic minipump. Cellular studies revealed that Nur77 expression was upregulated by Ang II via the MAPK/PKA-CREB signaling pathway. Ang II-induced proliferation, migration, and phenotypic switching were significantly enhanced in VSMCs isolated from Nur77(-/-) mice compared with wild-type VSMCs. Consistent with the role in VSMCs, we found that compared with wild-type mice, Nur77(-/-) mice had elevated aortic medial areas and luminal diameters, more severe elastin disruption and collagen deposition, increased VSMC proliferation and matrix metalloproteinase production, and decreased VSMC-specific genes SM-22α and α-actin expression, after 2 weeks of exogenous Ang II administration. The results of additional experiments suggested that Nur77 suppressed Ang II-induced β-catenin signaling pathway activation by promoting β-catenin degradation and inhibiting its transcriptional activity. Our findings indicated that Nur77 is a critical negative regulator of Ang II-induced VSMC proliferation, migration, and phenotypic switching via the downregulation of β-catenin activity. Nur77 may reduce Ang II-induced vascular remodeling involved in many cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26597820

  19. Role of epidermal growth factor receptor and endoplasmic reticulum stress in vascular remodeling induced by angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Takayanagi, Takehiko; Kawai, Tatsuo; Forrester, Steven J; Obama, Takashi; Tsuji, Toshiyuki; Fukuda, Yamato; Elliott, Katherine J; Tilley, Douglas G; Davisson, Robin L; Park, Joon-Young; Eguchi, Satoru

    2015-06-01

    The mechanisms by which angiotensin II (AngII) elevates blood pressure and enhances end-organ damage seem to be distinct. However, the signal transduction cascade by which AngII specifically mediates vascular remodeling such as medial hypertrophy and perivascular fibrosis remains incomplete. We have previously shown that AngII-induced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation is mediated by disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain 17 (ADAM17), and that this signaling is required for vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy but not for contractile signaling in response to AngII. Recent studies have implicated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in hypertension. Interestingly, EGFR is capable of inducing ER stress. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that activation of EGFR and ER stress are critical components required for vascular remodeling but not hypertension induced by AngII. Mice were infused with AngII for 2 weeks with or without treatment of EGFR inhibitor, erlotinib, or ER chaperone, 4-phenylbutyrate. AngII infusion induced vascular medial hypertrophy in the heart, kidney and aorta, and perivascular fibrosis in heart and kidney, cardiac hypertrophy, and hypertension. Treatment with erlotinib as well as 4-phenylbutyrate attenuated vascular remodeling and cardiac hypertrophy but not hypertension. In addition, AngII infusion enhanced ADAM17 expression, EGFR activation, and ER/oxidative stress in the vasculature, which were diminished in both erlotinib-treated and 4-phenylbutyrate-treated mice. ADAM17 induction and EGFR activation by AngII in vascular cells were also prevented by inhibition of EGFR or ER stress. In conclusion, AngII induces vascular remodeling by EGFR activation and ER stress via a signaling mechanism involving ADAM17 induction independent of hypertension. PMID:25916723

  20. Biological Superoxide In Manganese Oxide Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansel, C.; Learman, D.; Zeiner, C.; Santelli, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    Manganese (Mn) oxides are among the strongest sorbents and oxidants within the environment, controlling the fate and transport of numerous elements and the degradation of recalcitrant carbon. Both bacteria and fungi mediate the oxidation of Mn(II) to Mn(III/IV) oxides but the genetic and biochemical mechanisms responsible remain poorly understood. Furthermore, the physiological basis for microbial Mn(II) oxidation remains an enigma. We have recently reported that a common marine bacterium (Roseobacter sp. AzwK-3b) oxidizes Mn(II) via reaction with extracellular superoxide (O2-) produced during exponential growth. Here we expand this superoxide-mediated Mn(II) oxidation pathway to fungi, introducing a surprising homology between prokaryotic and eukaryotic metal redox processes. For instance, Stibella aciculosa, a common soil Ascomycete filamentous fungus, precipitates Mn oxides at the base of asexual reproductive structures (synnemata) used to support conidia (Figure 1). This distribution is a consequence of localized production of superoxide (and it's dismutation product hydrogen peroxide, H2O2), leading to abiotic oxidation of Mn(II) by superoxide. Disruption of NADPH oxidase activity using the oxidoreductase inhibitor DPI leads to diminished cell differentiation and subsequent Mn(II) oxidation inhibition. Addition of Cu(II) (an effective superoxide scavenger) leads to a concentration dependent decrease in Mn oxide formation. We predict that due to the widespread production of extracellular superoxide within the fungal and likely bacterial kingdoms, biological superoxide may be an important contributor to the cycling of Mn, as well as other metals (e.g., Hg, Fe). Current and future explorations of the genes and proteins involved in superoxide production and Mn(II) oxidation will ideally lend insight into the physiological and biochemical basis for these processes.

  1. Chronic resveratrol reverses a mild angiotensin II-induced pressor effect in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Gordish, Kevin L; Beierwaltes, William H

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol is reported to reduce blood pressure in animal models of hypertension, but the mechanisms are unknown. We have shown that resveratrol infusion increases sodium excretion. We hypothesized that chronic ingestion of resveratrol would reduce angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced increases in blood pressure by decreasing oxidative stress and by also decreasing sodium reabsorption through a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. We infused rats with vehicle or 80 μg Ang II/d over 4 weeks. Vehicle or Ang II-infused rats were individually housed, pair fed, and placed on a diet of normal chow or normal chow plus 146 mg resveratrol/d. Groups included 1) control, 2) resveratrol-fed, 3) Ang II-treated, and 4) Ang II plus resveratrol. Systolic blood pressure was measured by tail cuff. During the 4th week, rats were placed in metabolic caging for urine collection. NO2/NO3 and 8-isoprostane excretion were measured. Ang II increased systolic blood pressure in the 1st week by +14±5 mmHg (P<0.05) in Group 3 and +10±3 mmHg (P<0.05) in Group 4, respectively. Blood pressure was unchanged in Groups 1 and 2. After 4 weeks, blood pressure remained elevated in Group 3 rats with Ang II (+9±3 mmHg, P<0.05), but in Group 4, blood pressure was no longer elevated (+2±2 mmHg). We found no significant differences between the groups in sodium excretion or cumulative sodium balance (18.49±0.12, 17.75±0.16, 17.97±0.17, 18.46±0.18 μEq Na+/7 d in Groups 1-4, respectively). Urinary excretion of NO2/NO3 in the four groups was 1) 1631±207 μmol/24 h, 2) 1045±236 μmol/24 h, 3) 1490±161 μmol/24 h, and 4) 609±17 μmol/24 h. 8-Isoprostane excretion was 1) 63.85±19.39 nmol/24 h, 2) 73.57±22.02 nmol/24 h, 3) 100.69±37.62 nmol/24 h, and 4) 103.00±38.88 nmol/24 h. We conclude that chronic resveratrol supplementation does not blunt Ang II-increased blood pressure, and while resveratrol has mild depressor effects, these do not seem to be due to natriuresis or enhanced renal nitric oxide

  2. Chronic resveratrol reverses a mild angiotensin II-induced pressor effect in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Gordish, Kevin L; Beierwaltes, William H

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol is reported to reduce blood pressure in animal models of hypertension, but the mechanisms are unknown. We have shown that resveratrol infusion increases sodium excretion. We hypothesized that chronic ingestion of resveratrol would reduce angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced increases in blood pressure by decreasing oxidative stress and by also decreasing sodium reabsorption through a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. We infused rats with vehicle or 80 μg Ang II/d over 4 weeks. Vehicle or Ang II-infused rats were individually housed, pair fed, and placed on a diet of normal chow or normal chow plus 146 mg resveratrol/d. Groups included 1) control, 2) resveratrol-fed, 3) Ang II-treated, and 4) Ang II plus resveratrol. Systolic blood pressure was measured by tail cuff. During the 4th week, rats were placed in metabolic caging for urine collection. NO2/NO3 and 8-isoprostane excretion were measured. Ang II increased systolic blood pressure in the 1st week by +14±5 mmHg (P<0.05) in Group 3 and +10±3 mmHg (P<0.05) in Group 4, respectively. Blood pressure was unchanged in Groups 1 and 2. After 4 weeks, blood pressure remained elevated in Group 3 rats with Ang II (+9±3 mmHg, P<0.05), but in Group 4, blood pressure was no longer elevated (+2±2 mmHg). We found no significant differences between the groups in sodium excretion or cumulative sodium balance (18.49±0.12, 17.75±0.16, 17.97±0.17, 18.46±0.18 μEq Na+/7 d in Groups 1–4, respectively). Urinary excretion of NO2/NO3 in the four groups was 1) 1631±207 μmol/24 h, 2) 1045±236 μmol/24 h, 3) 1490±161 μmol/24 h, and 4) 609±17 μmol/24 h. 8-Isoprostane excretion was 1) 63.85±19.39 nmol/24 h, 2) 73.57±22.02 nmol/24 h, 3) 100.69±37.62 nmol/24 h, and 4) 103.00±38.88 nmol/24 h. We conclude that chronic resveratrol supplementation does not blunt Ang II-increased blood pressure, and while resveratrol has mild depressor effects, these do not seem to be due to natriuresis or enhanced renal nitric oxide

  3. Activation of Central PPAR-γ Attenuates Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yang; Xue, Bao-Jian; Wei, Shun-Guang; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Beltz, Terry G; Guo, Fang; Johnson, Alan Kim; Felder, Robert B

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation and renin-angiotensin system activity in the brain contribute to hypertension through effects on fluid intake, vasopressin release, and sympathetic nerve activity. We recently reported that activation of brain peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ in heart failure rats reduced inflammation and renin-angiotensin system activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and ameliorated the peripheral manifestations of heart failure. We hypothesized that activation of brain PPAR-γ might have beneficial effects in angiotensin II-induced hypertension. Sprague-Dawley rats received a 2-week subcutaneous infusion of angiotensin II (120 ng/kg/min) combined with a continuous intracerebroventricular infusion of vehicle, the PPAR-γ agonist pioglitazone (3 nmol/h) or the PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 (7 nmol/h). Angiotensin II+vehicle rats had increased mean blood pressure, increased sympathetic drive as indicated by the mean blood pressure response to ganglionic blockade, and increased water consumption. PPAR-γ mRNA in subfornical organ and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus was unchanged, but PPAR-γ DNA binding activity was reduced. mRNA for interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2 and angiotensin II type-1 receptor was augmented in both nuclei, and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus neuronal activity was increased. The plasma vasopressin response to a 6-hour water restriction also increased. These responses to angiotensin II were exacerbated by GW9662 and ameliorated by pioglitazone, which increased PPAR-γ mRNA and PPAR-γ DNA binding activity in subfornical organ and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Pioglitazone and GW9662 had no effects on control rats. The results suggest that activating brain PPAR-γ to reduce central inflammation and brain renin-angiotensin system activity may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of angiotensin II-dependent hypertension. PMID:26101342

  4. Reduced proximal tubule angiotensin II receptor expression in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Cheng, H F; Burns, K D; Harris, R C

    1994-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by alterations in the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system, including decreases in glomerular angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor density. Since Ang II regulates proximal tubule transport function, the present studies examined whether diabetes altered expression of proximal tubule receptors. In basolateral membranes from 14 day streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, specific binding of 125I Ang II was decreased to 53 +/- 8% of control (3.2 +/- 0.5 vs. 1.5 +/- 0.2 fmol/mg protein; N = 7; P < 0.02). Similarly, in proximal tubule brush border membranes from diabetic animals, specific binding was decreased to 63 +/- 11% of control (1.1 +/- 0.2 vs 0.6 +/- 0.1 fmol/mg protein; N = 9; P < 0.05). Concomitant insulin treatment reversed the decrease in specific binding of 125I Ang II to basolateral membranes (109 +/- 26% of control; N = 3) and to brush border membranes (85 +/- 17% of control; N = 6). In order to determine if changes in expression of type-1 Ang II receptors (AT1R) accompanied the changes in binding, quantitative polymerase chain reaction of AT1R mRNA was performed and expressed as the ratio of the amplified AT1R to that of an Msc1/Msc1 internal deletion mutant and normalized to that of beta-actin. In total RNA from proximal tubule suspensions of diabetic animals, AT1R mRNA expression decreased by 38% (21 +/- 3 vs. 13 +/- 2 cpm AT1R/cpm deletion mutant/cpm beta actin/10(6); N = 4; P < 0.0025). Insulin treatment reverted AT1R mRNA expression to control levels (22 +/- 3 cpm AT1R/cpm deletion mutant/cpm beta actin/10(6); P < 0.001 compared to the untreated group).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7700017

  5. Activation of central PPAR-γ attenuates angiotensin II-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Xue, Bao-Jian; Wei, Shun-Guang; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Beltz, Terry G; Guo, Fang; Johnson, Alan Kim; Felder, Robert B

    2015-08-01

    Inflammation and renin-angiotensin system activity in the brain contribute to hypertension through effects on fluid intake, vasopressin release, and sympathetic nerve activity. We recently reported that activation of brain peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ in heart failure rats reduced inflammation and renin-angiotensin system activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and ameliorated the peripheral manifestations of heart failure. We hypothesized that the activation of brain PPAR-γ might have beneficial effects in angiotensin II-induced hypertension. Sprague-Dawley rats received a 2-week subcutaneous infusion of angiotensin II (120 ng/kg per minute) combined with a continuous intracerebroventricular infusion of vehicle, the PPAR-γ agonist pioglitazone (3 nmol/h) or the PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 (7 nmol/h). Angiotensin II+vehicle rats had increased mean blood pressure, increased sympathetic drive as indicated by the mean blood pressure response to ganglionic blockade, and increased water consumption. PPAR-γ mRNA in subfornical organ and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus was unchanged, but PPAR-γ DNA-binding activity was reduced. mRNA for interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2, and angiotensin II type 1 receptor was augmented in both nuclei, and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus neuronal activity was increased. The plasma vasopressin response to a 6-hour water restriction also increased. These responses to angiotensin II were exacerbated by GW9662 and ameliorated by pioglitazone, which increased PPAR-γ mRNA and PPAR-γ DNA-binding activity in subfornical organ and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Pioglitazone and GW9662 had no effects on control rats. The results suggest that activating brain PPAR-γ to reduce central inflammation and brain renin-angiotensin system activity may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of angiotensin II-dependent hypertension. PMID:26101342

  6. Nitro-Arachidonic Acid Prevents Angiotensin II-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction in a Cell Line of Kidney Proximal Tubular Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Calvo, Beatriz; Cassina, Adriana; Rios, Natalia; Boggia, José; Radi, Rafael; Rubbo, Homero; Trostchansky, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Nitro-arachidonic acid (NO2-AA) is a cell signaling nitroalkene that exerts anti-inflammatory activities during macrophage activation. While angiotensin II (ANG II) produces an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial dysfunction in renal tubular cells, little is known regarding the potential protective effects of NO2-AA in ANG II-mediated kidney injury. As such, this study examines the impact of NO2-AA on ANG II-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in an immortalized renal proximal tubule cell line (HK-2 cells). Treatment of HK-2 cells with ANG II increases the production of superoxide (O2●-), nitric oxide (●NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) expression, peroxynitrite (ONOO-) and mitochondrial dysfunction. Using high-resolution respirometry, it was observed that the presence of NO2-AA prevented ANG II-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Attempting to address mechanism, we treated isolated rat kidney mitochondria with ONOO-, a key mediator of ANG II-induced mitochondrial damage, in the presence or absence of NO2-AA. Whereas the activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and ATP synthase (ATPase) were diminished upon exposure to ONOO-, they were restored by pre-incubating the mitochondria with NO2-AA. Moreover, NO2-AA prevents oxidation and nitration of mitochondrial proteins. Combined, these data demonstrate that ANG II-mediated oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction is abrogated by NO2-AA, identifying this compound as a promising pharmacological tool to prevent ANG II–induced renal disease. PMID:26943326

  7. Hydroxytyrosol induces phase II detoxifying enzyme expression and effectively protects dopaminergic cells against dopamine- and 6-hydroxydopamine induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guohua; Deng, Ajun; Tang, Wanbin; Ma, Junzhi; Yuan, Chonggang; Ma, Jiyan

    2016-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common late-age onset neurodegenerative disease. Except for the symptomatic alleviating treatment, no disease modifying therapy is currently available. In this study, we investigated the potential neuroprotective role of hydroxytyrosol (HT), a major phenolic compound present in olive oil, against dopaminergic cell death. We found that HT effectively protected dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells against dopamine (DA) and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced cell death, but had no apparent effect on 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-induced cytotoxicity. Furthermore, we have shown that HT efficiently induced the expression of phase II detoxifying enzymes, including NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). Using an NQO1 inhibitor, we revealed that increased NQO1 expression contributed to the protective effect of HT against dopaminergic cell death. Together, our findings suggest that HT has a protective effect against DA- and 6-OHDA-induced dopaminergic cell death, supporting the beneficial effect of olive oil in preventing DA-metabolism related dopaminergic neuron dysfunction. PMID:26970393

  8. Effect of adsorbed and substituted Al on Fe(II)-induced mineralization pathways of ferrihydrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansel, C. M.; Learman, D. R.; Lentini, C. J.; Ekstrom, E. B.

    2011-08-01

    The poorly crystalline Fe(III) hydroxide ferrihydrite is considered one of the most important sinks for (in)organic contaminants and nutrients within soils, sediments, and waters. The ripening of ferrihydrite to more stable and hence less reactive phases such as goethite is catalyzed by surface reaction with aqueous Fe(II). While ferrihydrite within most natural environments contains high concentrations of adsorbed or co-precipitated cations (particularly Al), little is known regarding the impact of these cations on Fe(II)-induced transformation of ferrihydrite to secondary phases. Accordingly, we explored the extent, rates, and pathways of Fe(II)-induced secondary mineralization of Al-ferrihydrites by reacting aqueous Fe(II) (0.2 and 2.0 mM) with 2-line ferrihydrite containing a range of Al levels substituted within (6-24 mol% Al) or adsorbed on the surface (0.1-27% Γmax). Here, we show that regardless of the Fe(II) concentration, Al substituted within or adsorbed on ferrihydrite results in diminished secondary mineralization and preservation of ferrihydrite. In contrast to pure ferrihydrite, the concentration of Fe(II) may not in fact influence the mineralization products of Al-compromised ferrihydrites. Furthermore, the secondary mineral profiles upon Fe(II) reaction with ferrihydrite are not only a function of Al concentration but also the mode of Al incorporation. While Al substitution impedes lepidocrocite formation and magnetite nucleation, Al adsorption completely inhibits goethite formation and appears to have a lesser impact on magnetite nucleation. When normalized to total Al content associated with ferrihydrite, Al adsorption results in greater degree of ferrihydrite preservation relative to Al substitution. These findings provide insight into mechanisms that may be responsible for ferrihydrite preservation and low levels of secondary magnetite typically found in sedimentary environments. Considering the preponderance of cation substitution within and

  9. Intracellular photoactivation of caged cGMP induces myosin II and actin responses in motile cells.

    PubMed

    Pfannes, Eva K B; Anielski, Alexander; Gerhardt, Matthias; Beta, Carsten

    2013-12-01

    Cyclic GMP (cGMP) is a ubiquitous second messenger in eukaryotic cells. It is assumed to regulate the association of myosin II with the cytoskeleton of motile cells. When cells of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum are exposed to chemoattractants or to increased osmotic stress, intracellular cGMP levels rise, preceding the accumulation of myosin II in the cell cortex. To directly investigate the impact of intracellular cGMP on cytoskeletal dynamics in a living cell, we released cGMP inside the cell by laser-induced photo-cleavage of a caged precursor. With this approach, we could directly show in a live cell experiment that an increase in intracellular cGMP indeed induces myosin II to accumulate in the cortex. Unexpectedly, we observed for the first time that also the amount of filamentous actin in the cell cortex increases upon a rise in the cGMP concentration, independently of cAMP receptor activation and signaling. We discuss our results in the light of recent work on the cGMP signaling pathway and suggest possible links between cGMP signaling and the actin system. PMID:24136144

  10. Enhanced susceptibility of mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes to type II group B streptococcal infection.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, M S; Fuselier, P A

    1983-01-01

    Since diabetes mellitus predisposes adults to group B streptococcal (GBS) bacteremia, a murine model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and type II GBS bacteremia was developed to assess certain immune factors which might influence susceptibility to infection. In diabetic mice, the 50% lethal dose for two strains of type II GBS was significantly lower (greater than 1 log10 decrease in CFU per milliliter) than in control animals. This enhanced virulence of GBS for diabetic animals was associated with prolonged bacteremia, persistent sequestration of organisms in the splanchnic reticuloendothelial system, and a shift from splenic to hepatic clearance. Although immunization of control and diabetic animals resulted in high concentrations of type-specific serum antibody, it had no effect on late reticuloendothelial system sequestration in diabetics. In contrast, depletion of complement by treatment of mice with cobra venom factor blocked reticuloendothelial system clearance and resulted in fatal infection in both diabetic and control mice. These results indicate that neither type-specific antibody nor an intact complement system is adequate for effective clearance of type II GBS bacteremia in mice with experimentally induced diabetes. This clearance deficit could be the result of a defect in hepatocyte membrane receptors necessary for removal of this encapsulated microorganism. PMID:6339383

  11. Bog Manganese Ore: A Resource for High Manganese Steel Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, Swatirupa; Singh, Saroj K.; Mohapatra, Birendra K.

    2016-06-01

    Bog manganese ore, associated with the banded iron formation of the Iron Ore Group (IOG), occurs in large volume in northern Odisha, India. The ore is powdery, fine-grained and soft in nature with varying specific gravity (2.8-3.9 g/cm3) and high thermo-gravimetric loss, It consists of manganese (δ-MnO2, manganite, cryptomelane/romanechite with minor pyrolusite) and iron (goethite/limonite and hematite) minerals with sub-ordinate kaolinite and quartz. It shows oolitic/pisolitic to globular morphology nucleating small detritus of quartz, pyrolusite/romanechite and hematite. The ore contains around 23% Mn and 28% Fe with around 7% of combined alumina and silica. Such Mn ore has not found any use because of its sub-grade nature and high iron content, and is hence considered as waste. The ore does not respond to any physical beneficiation techniques because of the combined state of the manganese and iron phases. Attempts have been made to recover manganese and iron value from such ore through smelting. A sample along with an appropriate charge mix when processed through a plasma reactor, produced high-manganese steel alloy having 25% Mn within a very short time (<10 min). Minor Mn content from the slag was recovered through acid leaching. The aim of this study has been to recover a value-added product from the waste.

  12. Extraction of manganese from electrolytic manganese residue by bioleaching.

    PubMed

    Xin, Baoping; Chen, Bing; Duan, Ning; Zhou, Changbo

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of manganese from electrolytic manganese residues using bioleaching was investigated in this paper. The maximum extraction efficiency of Mn was 93% by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria at 4.0 g/l sulfur after bioleaching of 9days, while the maximum extraction efficiency of Mn was 81% by pyrite-leaching bacteria at 4.0 g/l pyrite. The series bioleaching first by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and followed by pyrite-leaching bacteria evidently promoted the extraction of manganese, witnessing the maximum extraction efficiency of 98.1%. In the case of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, the strong dissolution of bio-generated sulfuric acid resulted in extraction of soluble Mn2+, while both the Fe2+ catalyzed reduction of Mn4+ and weak acidic dissolution of Mn2+ accounted for the extraction of manganese with pyrite-leaching bacteria. The chemical simulation of bioleaching process further confirmed that the acid dissolution of Mn2+ and Fe2+ catalyzed reduction of Mn4+ were the bioleaching mechanisms involved for Mn extraction from electrolytic manganese residues. PMID:21050747

  13. Bog Manganese Ore: A Resource for High Manganese Steel Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, Swatirupa; Singh, Saroj K.; Mohapatra, Birendra K.

    2016-05-01

    Bog manganese ore, associated with the banded iron formation of the Iron Ore Group (IOG), occurs in large volume in northern Odisha, India. The ore is powdery, fine-grained and soft in nature with varying specific gravity (2.8-3.9 g/cm3) and high thermo-gravimetric loss, It consists of manganese (δ-MnO2, manganite, cryptomelane/romanechite with minor pyrolusite) and iron (goethite/limonite and hematite) minerals with sub-ordinate kaolinite and quartz. It shows oolitic/pisolitic to globular morphology nucleating small detritus of quartz, pyrolusite/romanechite and hematite. The ore contains around 23% Mn and 28% Fe with around 7% of combined alumina and silica. Such Mn ore has not found any use because of its sub-grade nature and high iron content, and is hence considered as waste. The ore does not respond to any physical beneficiation techniques because of the combined state of the manganese and iron phases. Attempts have been made to recover manganese and iron value from such ore through smelting. A sample along with an appropriate charge mix when processed through a plasma reactor, produced high-manganese steel alloy having 25% Mn within a very short time (<10 min). Minor Mn content from the slag was recovered through acid leaching. The aim of this study has been to recover a value-added product from the waste.

  14. A X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study of Manganese Containing Compounds and Photosynthetic Spinach Chloroplasts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Jon Allan

    The manganese sites in chloroplasts, long thought to be involved in photosynthetic oxygen evolution have been examined and partially characterized by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) using synchrotron radiation. The local environment about the manganese atoms is estimated from an analysis of the extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS). Comparisons with and simulations of the manganese EXAFS for several reference compounds leads to a model in which the chloroplast manganese atoms are contained in a binuclear complex similar to di-u-oxo -tetrakis-(2,2'-bipyridine) dimanganese. It is suggested that the partner metal is another manganese. The bridging ligands are most probably oxygen. The remaining manganese ligands are carbon, oxygen, or nitrogen. A roughly linear correlation between the X-ray K edge onset energy and the "coordination charge" of a large number of manganese coordination complexes and compounds has been developed. Entry of the chloroplast manganese edge energy onto this correlation diagram establishes that the active pool of manganese is in an oxidation state greater than +2. If the manganese is in a dimeric form the oxidation states are most probably (II,III). Underlying these results is an extensive data analysis methodology. The method developed involves the use of many different background removal techniques, Fourier transforms and ultimately curve fitting to the modulations in the x-ray absorption cross sections. A large number of model compounds were used to evaluate the analysis method. These analyses are used to show that the two major curve fitting models available are essentially equivalent. Due to its greater versatility, the theoretical model of Teo and Lee is preferred (J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1979), 101, 2815). The results are also used to determine the informational limitations of XAS within the limits of the present understanding of X-ray absorption phenomena by inner shell electrons for atoms with atomic number greater than that

  15. Effect of angiotensin II on proliferation and differentiation of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells into mesodermal progenitor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ishizuka, Toshiaki; Goshima, Hazuki; Ozawa, Ayako; Watanabe, Yasuhiro

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treatment with angiotensin II enhanced LIF-induced DNA synthesis of mouse iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Angiotensin II may enhance the DNA synthesis via induction of superoxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treatment with angiotensin II significantly increased JAK/STAT3 phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Angiotensin II enhanced differentiation into mesodermal progenitor cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Angiotensin II may enhance the differentiation via activation of p38 MAPK. -- Abstract: Previous studies suggest that angiotensin receptor stimulation may enhance not only proliferation but also differentiation of undifferentiated stem/progenitor cells. Therefore, in the present study, we determined the involvement of the angiotensin receptor in the proliferation and differentiation of mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Stimulation with angiotensin II (Ang II) significantly increased DNA synthesis in mouse iPS cells cultured in a medium with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Pretreatment of the cells with either candesartan (a selective Ang II type 1 receptor [AT{sub 1}R] antagonist) or Tempol (a cell-permeable superoxide scavenger) significantly inhibited Ang II-induced DNA synthesis. Treatment with Ang II significantly increased JAK/STAT3 phosphorylation. Pretreatment with candesartan significantly inhibited Ang II- induced JAK/STAT3 phosphorylation. In contrast, induction of mouse iPS cell differentiation into Flk-1-positive mesodermal progenitor cells was performed in type IV collagen (Col IV)- coated dishes in a differentiation medium without LIF. When Col IV-exposed iPS cells were treated with Ang II for 5 days, the expression of Flk-1 was significantly increased compared with that in the cells treated with the vehicle alone. Pretreatment of the cells with both candesartan and SB203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor) significantly inhibited the Ang II- induced increase in Flk-1 expression

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyl 77 augments angiotensin II-induced atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysms in male apolipoprotein E deficient mice

    SciTech Connect

    Arsenescu, Violeta; Arsenescu, Razvan; Parulkar, Madhura; Karounos, Michael; Zhang, Xuan; Baker, Nicki; Cassis, Lisa A.

    2011-11-15

    Infusion of angiotensin II (AngII) to hyperlipidemic mice augments atherosclerosis and causes formation of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Each of these AngII-induced vascular pathologies exhibit pronounced inflammation. Previous studies demonstrated that coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) promote inflammation in endothelial cells and adipocytes, two cell types implicated in AngII-induced vascular pathologies. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that administration of PCB77 to male apolipoprotein E (ApoE) -/- mice promotes AngII-induced atherosclerosis and AAA formation. Male ApoE-/- mice were administered vehicle or PCB77 (49 mg/kg, i.p.) during week 1 and 4 (2 divided doses/week) of AngII infusion. Body weights and total serum cholesterol concentrations were not influenced by administration of PCB77. Systolic blood pressure was increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle (156 {+-} 6 vs 137 {+-} 5 mmHg, respectively). The percentage of aortic arch covered by atherosclerotic lesions was increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle (2.0 {+-} 0.4 vs 0.9 {+-} 0.1%, respectively). Lumen diameters of abdominal aortas determined by in vivo ultrasound and external diameters of excised suprarenal aortas were increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle. In addition, AAA incidence increased from 47 to 85% in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77. Adipose tissue in close proximity to AAAs from mice administered PCB77 exhibited increased mRNA abundance of proinflammatory cytokines and elevated expression of components of the renin-angiotensin system (angiotensinogen, angiotensin type 1a receptor (AT1aR)). These results demonstrate that PCB77 augments AngII-induced atherosclerosis and AAA formation. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polychlorinated biphenyl 77 (PCB77) promotes AngII-induced hypertension. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCB77 augments AngII-induced

  17. The Novel Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker Azilsartan Medoxomil Ameliorates Insulin Resistance Induced by Chronic Angiotensin II Treatment in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Lastra, Guido; Santos, Fernando R.; Hooshmand, Payam; Hooshmand, Paria; Mugerfeld, Irina; Aroor, Annayya R.; DeMarco, Vincent G.; Sowers, James R.; Henriksen, Erik J.

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin receptor (type 1) blockers (ARBs) can reduce both hypertension and insulin resistance induced by local and systemic activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The effectiveness of azilsartan medoxomil (AZIL-M), a novel imidazole-based ARB, to facilitate metabolic improvements in conditions of angiotensin II (Ang II)-associated insulin resistance is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of chronic AZIL-M treatment on glucose transport activity and key insulin signaling elements in red skeletal muscle of Ang II-treated rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 8 weeks with or without Ang II (200 ng/kg/min) combined with either vehicle or AZIL-M (1 mg/kg/day). Ang II induced significant (p < 0.05) increases in blood pressure, which were completely prevented by AZIL-M. Furthermore, Ang II reduced insulin-mediated glucose transport activity in incubated soleus muscle, and AZIL-M co-treatment increased this parameter. Moreover, AZIL-M treatment of Ang II-infused animals increased the absolute phosphorylation of insulin signaling molecules, including Akt [both Ser473 (81%) and Thr308 (23%)] and AS160 Thr642 (42%), in red gastrocnemius muscle frozen in situ. Absolute AMPKα (Thr172) phosphorylation increased (98%) by AZIL-M treatment, and relative Thr389 phosphorylation of p70 S6K1, a negative regulator of insulin signaling, decreased (51%) with AZIL-M treatment. These results indicate that ARB AZIL-M improves the in vitro insulin action on glucose transport in red soleus muscle and the functionality of the Akt/AS160 axis in red gastrocnemius muscle in situ in Ang II-induced insulin-resistant rats, with the latter modification possibly associated with enhanced AMPKα and suppressed p70 S6K1 activation. PMID:23922555

  18. Manganese and acute paranoid psychosis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Manganese regulates many enzymes and is essential for normal development and body function. Chronic manganese intoxication has an insidious and progressive course and usually starts with complaints of headache, fatigue, sleep disturbances, irritability and emotional instability. Later, several organ systems may be affected and, due to neurotoxicity, an atypical parkinsonian syndrome may emerge. With regard to neuropsychiatry, an array of symptoms may develop up to 30 years after intoxication, of which gait and speech abnormalities, cognitive and motor slowing, mood changes and hallucinations are the most common. Psychotic phenomena are rarely reported. Case presentation We describe the case of a 49-year-old Caucasian man working as a welder who was referred to our facility for evaluation of acute paranoid psychotic behavior. Our patient's medical history made no mention of any somatic complaints or psychiatric symptoms, and he had been involved in a professional career as a metalworker. On magnetic resonance imaging scanning of his brain, a bilateral hyperdensity of the globus pallidus, suggestive for manganese intoxication, was found. His manganese serum level was 52 to 97 nmol/L (range: 7 to 20 nmol/L). A diagnosis of organic psychotic disorder due to manganese overexposure was made. His psychotic symptoms disappeared within two weeks of treatment with low-dose risperidone. At three months later, serum manganese was decreased to slightly elevated levels and the magnetic resonance imaging T1 signal intensity was reduced. No signs of Parkinsonism were found and a definite diagnosis of manganese-induced apathy syndrome was made. Conclusion Although neuropsychiatric and neurological symptoms caused by (chronic) manganese exposure have been reported frequently in the past, in the present day the disorder is rarely diagnosed. In this report we stress that manganese intoxication can still occur, in our case in a confined-space welder, and may present

  19. Evolution of Microstructures During Austempering of Ductile Irons Alloyed with Manganese and Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Ranjan Kumar; Mondal, Dipak Kumar; Chakrabarti, Ajit Kumar

    2013-03-01

    The influences of relatively high manganese (0.45 through 1.0 wt pct) and copper (0.56 through 1.13 wt pct) contents on microstructure development and phase transformation in three austempered ductile irons have been studied. The experimental ductile irons alloyed with copper and manganese are found to be practically free from intercellular manganese segregation. This suggests that the positive segregation of manganese is largely neutralized by the negative segregation of copper when these alloying elements are added in appropriate proportions. The drop in unreacted austenite volume (UAV) with increasing austempering temperature and time is quite significant in irons alloyed with copper and manganese. The ausferrite morphology also undergoes a transition from lenticular to feathery appearance of increasing coarseness with the increasing austempering temperature and time. SEM micrographs of the austempered samples from the base alloy containing manganese only, as well as copper plus manganese-alloyed irons, clearly reveal the presence of some martensite along with retained austenite and ferrite. X-ray diffraction analysis also confirms the presence of these phases. SEM examination further reveals the presence of twinned martensite in the copper plus manganese-alloyed samples. The possibility of strain-induced transformation of austenite to martensite during austempering heat treatment is suggested.

  20. Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity alters blood pressure response to angiotensin II administration in rats

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Aghdas; Saberi, Shadan; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cisplatin (CP) is an effective chemotherapeutic drug used in the clinic, which is accompanied with nephrotoxicity. CP may also disturb hemodynamics of the circulation system. We have tested the role of CP in mean arterial pressure (MAP) response to graded angiotensin (Ang) II infusion in rats. Materials and Methods: Male and female rats were treated with CP (2.5 mg/kg/day) for a period of 1-week and compared with the vehicle-treated animals. The blood pressure response to Ang II (100–1000 ng/kg/min) was determined under the anesthesia condition. Endothelial permeability of aorta was measured according to the Evans blue uptake. The kidney tissue was also subjected to histological investigation. Results: Significant increase in serum levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine and pathological findings in CP-treated rats verified CP-induced nephrotoxicity. Significant difference in percentage of change in MAP response to Ang II between male and female rats was detected in vehicle-treated groups (P < 0.05) while in CP-treated animals this response difference was not observed. The groups were not significantly different with regard to the endothelial permeability of aorta while the serum level of nitrite in male rats increased significantly following administration of CP (P < 0.05). Conclusion: It seems the different response in percentage of change of MAP to graded Ang II infusion between male and female indicates the effect of CP on renin Ang system parameters. PMID:27110550

  1. Atg1-mediated myosin II activation regulates autophagosome formation during starvation-induced autophagy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hong-Wen; Wang, Yu-Bao; Wang, Shiu-Lan; Wu, Mei-Hsuan; Lin, Shu-Yu; Chen, Guang-Chao

    2011-02-16

    Autophagy is a membrane-mediated degradation process of macromolecule recycling. Although the formation of double-membrane degradation vesicles (autophagosomes) is known to have a central role in autophagy, the mechanism underlying this process remains elusive. The serine/threonine kinase Atg1 has a key role in the induction of autophagy. In this study, we show that overexpression of Drosophila Atg1 promotes the phosphorylation-dependent activation of the actin-associated motor protein myosin II. A novel myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)-like protein, Spaghetti-squash activator (Sqa), was identified as a link between Atg1 and actomyosin activation. Sqa interacts with Atg1 through its kinase domain and is a substrate of Atg1. Significantly, myosin II inhibition or depletion of Sqa compromised the formation of autophagosomes under starvation conditions. In mammalian cells, we found that the Sqa mammalian homologue zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK) and myosin II had a critical role in the regulation of starvation-induced autophagy and mammalian Atg9 (mAtg9) trafficking when cells were deprived of nutrients. Our findings provide evidence of a link between Atg1 and the control of Atg9-mediated autophagosome formation through the myosin II motor protein. PMID:21169990

  2. THE MANGANESE MERCURY STAR π1 BOOTIS

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, John Wm.; Aller, Lawrence H.

    1969-01-01

    High-dispersion plates secured with the Coudé spectrograph of the Lick 120 inch telescope have been used to analyze the peculiar A star π1 Bootis. Spectral-energy distribution measurements are combined with line-intensity data for iron and manganese in two stages of ionization to obtain a fit with model atmospheres for Teff = 13,000°K and log g = 4. The influence of adopted T and g on the derived abundances is discussed. Although C, O, Mg, Si, Ti, Cr, and Fe appear to have nearly normal (i.e., solar) abundances, strontium appears to be enhanced in abundance by an order of magnitude, and scandium is about 50 times overabundant, while manganese and yttrium appear to be two orders of magnitude overabundant. If the identification of gallium is correct, this element is overabundant by a factor approaching 100,000; while if λ3983.90 is to be attributed to HgII, as Bidelman suggests, the overabundance of this element is many orders of magnitude. PMID:16578698

  3. Bis(1-methyl-1H-imidazole-κN 3)[N,N′-o-phenyl­enebis(pyridine-2-carbox­amido)-κ4 N]manganese(II)

    PubMed Central

    Zahran, Zaki N.; Xu, Nan; Powell, Douglas R.; Richter-Addo, George B.

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, [Mn(C18H12N4O2)(C4H6N2)2], belongs to the family of 1,2-bis­(pyridine-2-carboxamido)benzene (H2bpb) ligated metal complexes. The manganese center is octa­hedrally coordinated by a bpb ligand and two axial 1-methyl­imidazole mol­ecules. The axial N—Mn—N group is bent with a bond angle of 151.79 (7)°. PMID:21581541

  4. Condensin II Promotes the Formation of Chromosome Territories by Inducing Axial Compaction of Polyploid Interphase Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Christopher R.; Hartl, Tom A.; Bosco, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    The eukaryotic nucleus is both spatially and functionally partitioned. This organization contributes to the maintenance, expression, and transmission of genetic information. Though our ability to probe the physical structure of the genome within the nucleus has improved substantially in recent years, relatively little is known about the factors that regulate its organization or the mechanisms through which specific organizational states are achieved. Here, we show that Drosophila melanogaster Condensin II induces axial compaction of interphase chromosomes, globally disrupts interchromosomal interactions, and promotes the dispersal of peri-centric heterochromatin. These Condensin II activities compartmentalize the nucleus into discrete chromosome territories and indicate commonalities in the mechanisms that regulate the spatial structure of the genome during mitosis and interphase. PMID:22956908

  5. Redundancy among manganese peroxidases in Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Salame, Tomer M; Knop, Doriv; Levinson, Dana; Yarden, Oded; Hadar, Yitzhak

    2013-04-01

    Manganese peroxidases (MnPs) are key players in the ligninolytic system of white rot fungi. In Pleurotus ostreatus (the oyster mushroom) these enzymes are encoded by a gene family comprising nine members, mnp1 to -9 (mnp genes). Mn(2+) amendment to P. ostreatus cultures results in enhanced degradation of recalcitrant compounds (such as the azo dye orange II) and lignin. In Mn(2+)-amended glucose-peptone medium, mnp3, mnp4, and mnp9 were the most highly expressed mnp genes. After 7 days of incubation, the time point at which the greatest capacity for orange II decolorization was observed, mnp3 expression and the presence of MnP3 in the extracellular culture fluids were predominant. To determine the significance of MnP3 for ligninolytic functionality in Mn(2+)-sufficient cultures, mnp3 was inactivated via the Δku80 strain-based P. ostreatus gene-targeting system. In Mn(2+)-sufficient medium, inactivation of mnp3 did not significantly affect expression of nontargeted MnPs or their genes, nor did it considerably diminish the fungal Mn(2+)-mediated orange II decolorization capacity, despite the significant reduction in total MnP activity. Similarly, inactivation of either mnp4 or mnp9 did not affect orange II decolorization ability. These results indicate functional redundancy within the P. ostreatus MnP gene family, enabling compensation upon deficiency of one of its members. PMID:23377936

  6. Redundancy among Manganese Peroxidases in Pleurotus ostreatus

    PubMed Central

    Salame, Tomer M.; Knop, Doriv; Levinson, Dana; Yarden, Oded

    2013-01-01

    Manganese peroxidases (MnPs) are key players in the ligninolytic system of white rot fungi. In Pleurotus ostreatus (the oyster mushroom) these enzymes are encoded by a gene family comprising nine members, mnp1 to -9 (mnp genes). Mn2+ amendment to P. ostreatus cultures results in enhanced degradation of recalcitrant compounds (such as the azo dye orange II) and lignin. In Mn2+-amended glucose-peptone medium, mnp3, mnp4, and mnp9 were the most highly expressed mnp genes. After 7 days of incubation, the time point at which the greatest capacity for orange II decolorization was observed, mnp3 expression and the presence of MnP3 in the extracellular culture fluids were predominant. To determine the significance of MnP3 for ligninolytic functionality in Mn2+-sufficient cultures, mnp3 was inactivated via the Δku80 strain-based P. ostreatus gene-targeting system. In Mn2+-sufficient medium, inactivation of mnp3 did not significantly affect expression of nontargeted MnPs or their genes, nor did it considerably diminish the fungal Mn2+-mediated orange II decolorization capacity, despite the significant reduction in total MnP activity. Similarly, inactivation of either mnp4 or mnp9 did not affect orange II decolorization ability. These results indicate functional redundancy within the P. ostreatus MnP gene family, enabling compensation upon deficiency of one of its members. PMID:23377936

  7. Interferon-γ Induces Major Histocompatibility Class II Transactivator (CIITA) That Mediates Collagen Repression and Major Histocompatibility Class II Activation by Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Butticè, Giovanna; Miller, Janice; Wang, Lin; Smith, Barbara D.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic inflammation in atherosclerosis is responsible for plaque instability through alterations in extracellular matrix. Previously, we demonstrated that major histocompatibility class II (MHC II) transactivator (CIITA) in a complex with regulatory factor for X box 5 (RFX5) is a crucial protein mediating interferon (IFN)-γ–induced repression of collagen type I gene transcription in fibroblasts. This article demonstrates that, in smooth muscle cells (SMCs), IFN-γ dramatically increases the expression of CIITA isoforms III and IV, with no increase in expression of CIITA isoform I. Expression of CIITA III and IV correlates with decreased collagen type I and increased MHC II gene expression. Exogenous expression of CIITA I, III, and IV, in transiently transfected SMCs, represses collagen type I promoters (COL1A1 and COL1A2) and activates MHC II promoter. Levels of CIITA and RFX5 increase in the nucleus of cells treated with IFN-γ. Moreover, simvastatin lowers the IFN-γ–induced expression of RFX5 and MHC II in addition to repressing collagen expression. However, simvastatin does not block the IFN-γ–induced expression of CIITA III and IV, suggesting a CIITA-independent mechanism. This first demonstration that RFX5 and CIITA isoforms are expressed in SMCs after IFN-γ stimulation suggest that CIITA could be a key factor in plaque stability in atherosclerosis. PMID:16439692

  8. CYP4A2-Induced Hypertension is 20-HETE and Angiotensin II-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Sodhi, Komal; Wu, Cheng-Chia; Cheng, Jennifer; Gotlinger, Katherine; Inoue, Kazuyoshi; Goli, Mohan; Falck, John R.; Abraham, Nader G.; Schwartzman, Michal L.

    2010-01-01

    We have previously shown that increased vascular endothelial expression of CYP4A2 leads to 20-HETE-dependent hypertension. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a key regulator of blood pressure. In this study, we examined possible interactions between 20-HETE and RAS. In normotensive (110±3 mmHg) Sprague Dawley rats transduced with a lentivirus expressing the CYP4A2 cDNA under the control of an endothelial-specific promoter (VECAD-4A2), systolic blood pressure increased rapidly, reaching 139±1, 145±3 and 150±2 mmHg at 3, 5 and 10 days after transduction; blood pressure remained elevated, thereafter, with maximum levels of 163±3 mmHg. Treatment with lisinopril, losartan or the 20-HETE antagonist 20-hydroxyeicosa-6(Z), 15(Z)-dienoic acid (20-HEDE) decreased blood pressure to control values, but blood pressure returned to its high levels after cessation of treatment. Endothelial-specific overexpression of CYP4A2 resulted in increased expression of vascular angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and increased levels of plasma and tissue Angiotensin II; all were attenuated by treatment with HET0016, an inhibitor of 20-HETE synthesis, or with 20-HEDE. In cultured endothelial cells, 20-HETE specifically and potently induced ACE expression without altering the expression of ACE2, angiotensinogen or angiotensin II receptors. This is the first study to demonstrate that 20-HETE, a key constrictor eicosanoid in the microcirculation, induces ACE and AT1R expression and increases Angiotensin II levels, suggesting that the mechanisms by which 20-HETE promotes hypertension include activation of RAS that is likely initiated at the level of ACE induction. PMID:20837888

  9. Tumor necrosis factor-induced contraction of cultured rat mesangial cells: interaction with angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Medina, J; Baud, L; Garcia Escribano, C; Gila, J A; Rodriguez Puyol, D; Rodriguez Puyol, M

    1993-08-01

    The role of tumor necrosis factor alpha in the regulation of renal function, particularly glomerular filtration rate, has not been completely defined. This study was designed to assess the intrinsic role of this cytokine on glomerular filtration rate by analyzing its short-term effect on the degree of contraction in cultured rat mesangial cells, not only directly but also in the presence of angiotensin II. Contraction was evaluated both morphologically--by measuring planar cell surface area of cultured rat mesangial cells and glomerular cross-sectional area of isolated rat glomeruli--and biochemically--by analyzing myosin light-chain phosphorylation in cells. Tumor necrosis factor alpha significantly decreased planar cell surface area in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner, an effect completely abolished by preincubation of the cells with platelet-activating factor receptor antagonists BN 52021 and alprazolam. This effect was also observed in the presence of angiotensin II, whether tumor necrosis factor alpha was added before or after angiotensin II, increasing the reduction in planar cell surface area induced by angiotensin II in both cases. Changes in planar cell surface area were evident not only when the absolute values of this parameter were considered but also when the percentage of contracted cells (cells with a planar cell surface area reduction > 10%) was analyzed. Tumor necrosis factor alpha also induced a significant reduction of glomerular cross-sectional area in isolated rat glomeruli. The results of the morphologic studies were supported by myosin light-chain phosphorylation experiments.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8340701

  10. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  12. 21 CFR 582.5452 - Manganese gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5452 Manganese gluconate. (a) Product. Manganese gluconate. (b) Conditions of use....

  13. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  14. 21 CFR 582.5458 - Manganese hypophosphite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5458 Manganese hypophosphite. (a) Product. Manganese hypophosphite. (b) Conditions of...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5449 Manganese citrate. (a) Product. Manganese citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5449 Manganese citrate. (a) Product. Manganese citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  17. 21 CFR 582.5458 - Manganese hypophosphite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5458 Manganese hypophosphite. (a) Product. Manganese hypophosphite. (b) Conditions of...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5452 - Manganese gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5452 Manganese gluconate. (a) Product. Manganese gluconate. (b) Conditions of use....

  19. Platelet-activating factor mediates angiotensin II-induced proteinuria in isolated perfused rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Perico, N; Lapinski, R; Konopka, K; Aiello, S; Noris, M; Remuzzi, G

    1997-09-01

    Isolated kidney preparations (IPK) from male Sprague Dawley rats perfused at constant pressure were used to evaluate the effect of angiotensin II (AII) and platelet-activating factor (PAF) on renal function and urinary protein excretion. Compared with basal, intrarenal infusion of AII at 8 ng/min caused a progressive increase in protein excretion (11 +/- 6 versus 73 +/- 21 micrograms/min) in parallel with a decline in renal perfusate flow (RPF) (29 +/- 3 versus 18 +/- 3 ml/min). Addition to the perfusate of PAF at 50 nM final concentration also induced proteinuria (9 +/- 4 versus 55 +/- 14 micrograms/min) but did not change RPF (29 +/- 3 versus 30 +/- 3 ml/min). Preexposure of isolated kidneys to the PAF receptor antagonist WEB 2086 prevented the increase in urinary protein excretion induced by AII infusion (basal: 13 +/- 6; post-AII: 12 +/- 7 micrograms/min) but failed to prevent the vasoactive effect of AII (RPF, basal: 30 +/- 2; post-AII: 21 +/- 3 ml/min). In additional experiments, dexamethasone reduced the proteinuric effect of PAF remarkably. These results indicate that in isolated kidney preparation: (1) AII infusion induced proteinuria and decreased RPF; and (2) the effect of AII in enhancing urinary protein excretion was completely prevented by a specific PAF receptor antagonist, which, however, did not influence the AII-induced fall in RPF. It is suggested that PAF plays a major role in AII-induced changes in the permselective function of the glomerular capillary barrier. PMID:9294830

  20. Differential Phenotypes of Tissue-Infiltrating T Cells during Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zihui; Spizzo, Iresha; Diep, Henry; Drummond, Grant R.; Widdop, Robert E.; Vinh, Antony

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension remains the leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Experimental hypertension is associated with increased T cell infiltration into blood pressure-controlling organs, such as the aorta and kidney; importantly in absence of T cells of the adaptive immune system, experimental hypertension is significantly blunted. However, the function and phenotype of these T cell infiltrates remains speculative and undefined in the setting of hypertension. The current study compared T cell-derived cytokine and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from normotensive and hypertensive mice. Splenic, blood, aortic, kidney and brain T cells were isolated from C57BL/6J mice following 14-day vehicle or angiotensin (Ang) II (0.7 mg/kg/day, s.c.) infusion. T cell infiltration was increased in aorta, kidney and brain from hypertensive mice. Cytokine analysis in stimulated T cells indicated an overall Th1 pro-inflammatory phenotype, but a similar proportion (flow cytometry) and quantity (cytometric bead array) of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-17 between vehicle- and Ang II- treated groups. Strikingly, elevated T cell-derived production of a chemokine, chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2), was observed in aorta (∼6-fold) and kidney in response to Ang II, but not in brain, spleen or blood. Moreover, T cell-derived ROS production in aorta was elevated ∼3 -fold in Ang II-treated mice (n = 7; P<0.05). Ang II-induced hypertension does not affect the overall T cell cytokine profile, but enhanced T cell-derived ROS production and/or leukocyte recruitment due to elevated CCL2, and this effect may be further amplified with increased infiltration of T cells. We have identified a potential hypertension-specific T cell phenotype that may represent a functional contribution of T cells to the development of hypertension, and likely several other associated vascular disorders. PMID:25501574

  1. Plasma exchange in the treatment of thyroid storm secondary to type II amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis

    PubMed Central

    Zainudin, Sueziani Binte; Kaushik, Manish; Khor, Li Yan; Chng, Chiaw Ling

    2016-01-01

    Summary Type II amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT) is an uncommon cause of thyroid storm. Due to the rarity of the condition, little is known about the role of plasma exchange in the treatment of severe AIT. A 56-year-old male presented with thyroid storm 2months following cessation of amiodarone. Despite conventional treatment, his condition deteriorated. He underwent two cycles of plasma exchange, which successfully controlled the severe hyperthyroidism. The thyroid hormone levels continued to fall up to 10h following plasma exchange. He subsequently underwent emergency total thyroidectomy and the histology of thyroid gland confirmed type II AIT. Management of thyroid storm secondary to type II AIT can be challenging as patients may not respond to conventional treatments, and thyroid storm may be more harmful in AIT patients owing to the underlying cardiac disease. If used appropriately, plasma exchange can effectively reduce circulating hormones, to allow stabilisation of patients in preparation for emergency thyroidectomy. Learning points Type II AIT is an uncommon cause of thyroid storm and may not respond well to conventional thyroid storm treatment. Prompt diagnosis and therapy are important, as patients may deteriorate rapidly. Plasma exchange can be used as an effective bridging therapy to emergency thyroidectomy. This case shows that in type II AIT, each cycle of plasma exchange can potentially lower free triiodothyronine levels for 10h. Important factors to consider when planning plasma exchange as a treatment for thyroid storm include timing of each session, type of exchange fluid to be used and timing of surgery. PMID:27398220

  2. Absence of a role for DNA polymerase II in SOS-induced translesion bypass of phi X174.

    PubMed Central

    Kow, Y W; Faundez, G; Hays, S; Bonner, C A; Goodman, M F; Wallace, S S

    1993-01-01

    In order to examine the possible role of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase II in SOS-induced translesion bypass, Weigle reactivation and mutation induction were measured with single-stranded phi X174 transfecting DNA containing individual lesions. No decrease in bypass of thymine glycol or cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in the absence of DNA polymerase II was observed. Furthermore, DNA polymerase II did not affect bypass of abasic sites when either survival or mutagenesis was the endpoint. Lastly, repair of gapped DNA molecules, intermediates in methyl-directed mismatch repair, was also unaffected by the presence or absence of DNA polymerase II. PMID:8419305

  3. Controlled Synthesis of Hollow Manganese Oxide Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ki Min; Oh, Kyung Hee; Ham, Kyung-Sik

    2016-02-01

    Carbon spheres have been prepared from glucose under hydrothermal conditions to facilitate the synthesis of hollow manganese oxides. The phases of manganese oxide are controlled by changing annealing temperature of the manganese monoxide on a carbon sphere template. The particles on the carbon surface get an agglomeration and make dense oxide shell during the calcination step, which result in typical hollow structures. The electrochemical properties of hollow manganese oxides have been investigated to elucidate their relative catalytic activities. PMID:27433689

  4. Interaction of Cu(II) and Ni(II) with Ypk9 Protein Fragment via NMR Studies

    PubMed Central

    Peana, Massimiliano Francesco; Medici, Serenella; Ledda, Alessia; Nurchi, Valeria Marina; Zoroddu, Maria Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    P1D2E3K4H5E6L7 (PK9-H), a fragment of Ypk9, the yeast homologue of the human Park9 protein, was studied for its coordination abilities towards Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions through mono- and bi-dimensional NMR techniques. Both proteins are involved in the transportation of metal ions, including manganese and nickel, from the cytosol to the lysosomal lumen. Ypk9 showed manganese detoxification role, preventing a Mn-induced Parkinsonism (PD) besides mutations in Park9, linked to a juvenile form of the disease. Here, we tested PK9-H with Cu(II) and Ni(II) ions, the former because it is an essential element ubiquitous in the human body, so its trafficking should be strictly regulated and one cannot exclude that Ypk9 may play a role in it, and the latter because, besides being a toxic element for many organisms and involved in different pathologies and inflammation states, it seems that the protein confers protection against it. NMR experiments showed that both cations can bind PK9-H in an effective way, leading to complexes whose coordination mode depends on the pH of the solution. NMR data have been used to build a model for the structure of the major Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes. Structural changes in the conformation of the peptide with organized side chain orientation promoted by nickel coordination were detected. PMID:24790577

  5. Angiotensin II Levels in Gingival Tissues from Healthy Individuals, Patients with Nifedipine Induced Gingival Overgrowth and Non Responders on Nifedipine

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, Anitha; Balaji, Thodur Madapusi

    2015-01-01

    Context The Renin Angiotensin system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Drug Induced Gingival Overgrowth (DIGO), a fibrotic condition, caused by Phenytoin, Nifedipine and Cyclosporine. Aim This study quantified Angiotensin II levels in gingival tissue samples obtained from healthy individuals, patients on Nifedipine manifesting/not manifesting drug induced gingival overgrowth. Materials and Methods Gingival tissue samples were obtained from healthy individuals (n=24), patients on nifidipine manifesting gingival overgrowth (n= 18) and patients on nifidipine not manifesting gingival overgrowth (n=8). Angiotensin II levels were estimated in the samples using a commercially available ELISA kit. Results Angiotensin II levels were significantly elevated in patients on Nifedipine manifesting gingival overgrowth compared to the other 2 groups (p<0.01). Conclusion The results of the study give an insight into the role played by Angiotensin II in the pathogenesis of drug induced gingival overgrowth. PMID:26436057

  6. Ablation of peroxiredoxin II attenuates experimental colitis by increasing FoxO1-induced Foxp3+ regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Won, Hee Yeon; Jang, Eun Jung; Lee, Kihyun; Oh, Sera; Kim, Hyo Kyung; Woo, Hyun Ae; Kang, Sang Won; Yu, Dae-Yeul; Rhee, Sue-Goo; Hwang, Eun Sook

    2013-10-15

    Peroxiredoxin (Prx) II is an intracellular antioxidant molecule that eliminates hydrogen peroxide, employing a high substrate-binding affinity. PrxII deficiency increases the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species in many types of cells, which may increase reactive oxygen species-mediated inflammation. In this study, we investigated the susceptibility of PrxII knockout (KO) mice to experimentally induced colitis and the effects of PrxII on the immune system. Wild-type mice displayed pronounced weight loss, high mortality, and colon shortening after dextran sulfate sodium administration, whereas colonic inflammation was significantly attenuated in PrxII KO mice. Although macrophages were hyperactivated in PrxII KO mice, the amount of IFN-γ and IL-17 produced by CD4(+) T cells was substantially reduced. Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells were elevated, and Foxp3 protein expression was increased in the absence of PrxII in vitro and in vivo. Restoration of PrxII into KO cells suppressed the increased Foxp3 expression. Interestingly, endogenous PrxII was inactivated through hyperoxidation during Treg cell development. Furthermore, PrxII deficiency stabilized FoxO1 expression by reducing mouse double minute 2 homolog expression and subsequently activated FoxO1-mediated Foxp3 gene transcription. PrxII overexpression, in contrast, reduced FoxO1 and Foxp3 expression. More interestingly, adoptive transfer of naive CD4(+) T cells from PrxII KO mice into immune-deficient mice attenuated T cell-induced colitis, with a reduction in mouse double minute 2 homolog expression and an increase in FoxO1 and Foxp3 expression. These results suggest that inactivation of PrxII is important for the stability of FoxO1 protein, which subsequently mediates Foxp3(+) Treg cell development, thereby attenuating colonic inflammation. PMID:24048895

  7. The sensitized luminescence of manganese-activated calcite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulman, J.H.; Evans, L.W.; Ginther, R.J.; Murata, K.J.

    1947-01-01

    Synthetic manganese-activated calcites are shown to be practically inert to ultraviolet excitation in the range 2000-3500A, while they are luminescent under cathode-ray excitation. The incorporation of small amounts of an auxiliary impurity along with the manganese produces the strong response to ultraviolet radiation hitherto ascribed to CaCO3:Mn itself. Three such impurities have been studied: lead, thallium, and cerium. The first two induce excitation in the neighborhood of the mercury resonance line, while the cerium introduces a response principally to longer wave ultraviolet. The strong response to 2537A excitation shown by some natural calcites is likewise found to be due to the presence of lead along with the manganese, rather than to the manganese alone. The data do not warrant ascribing the longer wave-length ultraviolet-excited luminescence of all natural calcites to the action of an auxiliary impurity. The essential identity of the cathode-ray excited luminescence spectra of CaCO 3:Mn, CaCO3: (Pb+Mn), CaCO3:(Tl+Mn), and CaCO3:(Ce+Mn) with the 2537A-excited spectra of the latter three is evidence that the luminescent center in all cases is the manganese ion or the MnO6 group. It is shown that a "cascade" mechanism for the action of the auxiliary impurities, lead, thallium, and cerium, is incorrect; and that the phenomenon must be considered as a case of sensitized luminescence. Owing to the nature of cathode-ray excitation, the manganese activator can be excited by this agent even in the absence of a second impurity. For optical excitation, however, an absorption band for the ultraviolet must be established by building into the CaCO3:Mn a second impurity or "sensitizer.".

  8. A label-free colorimetric aptasensor for simple, sensitive and selective detection of Pt (II) based on platinum (II)-oligonucleotide coordination induced gold nanoparticles aggregation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Daoqing; Zhai, Qingfeng; Zhou, Weijun; Zhu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Erkang; Dong, Shaojun

    2016-11-15

    Herein, a gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) based label-free colorimetric aptasensor for simple, sensitive and selective detection of Pt (II) was constructed for the first time. Four bases (G-G mismatch) mismatched streptavidin aptamer (MSAA) was used to protect AuNPs from salt-induced aggregation and recognize Pt (II) specifically. Only in the presence of Pt (II), coordination occurs between G-G bases and Pt (II), leading to the activation of streptavidin aptamer. Streptavidin coated magnetic beads (MBs) were used as separation agent to separate Pt (II)-coordinated MSAA. The residual less amount of MSAA could not efficiently protect AuNPs anymore and aggregation of AuNPs will produce a colorimetric product. With the addition of Pt (II), a pale purple-to-blue color variation could be observed by the naked eye. A detection limit of 150nM and a linear range from 0.6μM to 12.5μM for Pt (II) could be achieved without any amplification. PMID:27281107

  9. Laser-Induced Transient Grating Analysis of Dynamics of Interaction between Sensory Rhodopsin II D75N and the HtrII Transducer

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Keiichi; Sasaki, Jun; Spudich, John L.; Terazima, Masahide

    2007-01-01

    The interaction between sensory rhodopsin II (SRII) and its transducer HtrII was studied by the time-resolved laser-induced transient grating method using the D75N mutant of SRII, which exhibits minimal visible light absorption changes during its photocycle, but mediates normal phototaxis responses. Flash-induced transient absorption spectra of transducer-free D75N and D75N joined to 120 amino-acid residues of the N-terminal part of the SRII transducer protein HtrII (ΔHtrII) showed only one spectrally distinct K-like intermediate in their photocycles, but the transient grating method resolved four intermediates (K1–K4) distinct in their volumes. D75N bound to HtrII exhibited one additional slower kinetic species, which persists after complete recovery of the initial state as assessed by absorption changes in the UV-visible region. The kinetics indicate a conformationally changed form of the transducer portion (designated Tr*), which persists after the photoreceptor returns to the unphotolyzed state. The largest conformational change in the ΔHtrII portion was found to cause a ΔHtrII-dependent increase in volume rising in 8 μs in the K4 state and a drastic decrease in the diffusion coefficient (D) of K4 relatively to those of the unphotolyzed state and Tr*. The magnitude of the decrease in D indicates a large structural change, presumably in the solvent-exposed HAMP domain of ΔHtrII, where rearrangement of interacting molecules in the solvent would substantially change friction between the protein and the solvent. PMID:17189313

  10. Transformation of Tetracycline Antibiotics and Fe(II) and Fe(III) Species Induced by Their Complexation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Yao, Hong; Sun, Peizhe; Li, Desheng; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Tetracycline antibiotics (TCs) are frequently detected micropollutants and are known to have a strong tendency to complex with metal ions such as Fe(II) and Fe(III) in aquatic environments. Experiments with Fe(II) and TCs showed that the complexation of Fe(II) with tetracycline (TTC), oxytetracycline (OTC), or chlorotetracycline (CTC) could lead to the accelerated oxidation of Fe(II) and the promoted degradation of TCs simultaneously. The reaction started with complexation of Fe(II) with TC followed by oxidation of the Fe(II)-TC complex by dissolved oxygen to generate a Fe(III)-TC complex and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS (primarily ·OH) then degraded TC. The oxidation rate constants of Fe(II) in the Fe(II)-H2L and Fe(II)-HL complexes were 0.269 and 1.511 min(-1), respectively, at ambient conditions (pH 7, 22 °C, and PO2 of 0.21 atm), which were about 60 and 350 times of the oxidation rate of uncomplexed Fe(II). Humic acids (HA) compete with TCs for Fe(II), but the effect was negligible at moderate HA concentrations (≤10 mg·L(-1)). Experiments with Fe(III) and TCs showed that the complexation of Fe(III) with TC could generate oxidized TC and Fe(II) without the need of oxygen at a relatively slower rate compared to the reaction involving Fe(II), O2, and TCs. These findings indicate the mutually influenced environmental transformation of TCs and Fe(II) and Fe(III) induced by their complexation. These newly identified reactions could play an important role in affecting the environmental fate of TCs and cycling of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in TCs-contaminated water and soil systems. PMID:26618388

  11. Manganese depresses rat heart muscle respiration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has previously been reported that moderately high dietary manganese (Mn) in combination with marginal magnesium (Mg) resulted in ultrastructural damage to heart mitochondria. Manganese may replace Mg in biological functions, including the role of enzyme cofactor. Manganese may accumulate and subs...

  12. Klotho inhibits angiotensin II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through suppression of the AT1R/beta catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Liangzhu; Meng, Wei; Ding, Jieqiong; Cheng, Menglin

    2016-04-29

    Myocardial hypertrophy is an independent risk factor for cardiac morbidity and mortality. The antiaging protein klotho reportedly possesses a protective role in cardiac diseases. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective effects of klotho remain unknown. This study was aimed to determine the effects of klotho on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertrophy in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and the possible mechanism of actions. We found that klotho significantly inhibited Ang II-induced hypertrophic growth of neonatal cardiomyocytes, as evidenced by decreased [(3)H]-Leucine incorporation, cardiomyocyte surface area and β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC) mRNA expression. Meanwhile, klotho inhibited Ang II-stimulated activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in cardiomyocytes, as evidenced by decreased protein expression of active β-catenin, downregulated protein and mRNA expression of the β-catenin target genes c-myc and cyclin D1, and increased β-catenin phosphorylation. Inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by the specific inhibitor XAV939 markedly attenuated Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. The further study revealed that klotho treatment significantly downregulated protein expression of Ang II receptor type I (AT1R) but not type II (AT2R). The AT1R antagonist losartan inhibited Ang II-stimulated activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Our findings suggest that klotho inhibits Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through suppression of the AT1R/β-catenin signaling pathway, which may provide new insights into the mechanism underlying the protective effects of klotho in heart diseases, and raise the possibility that klotho may act as an endogenous antihypertrophic factor by inhibiting the Ang II signaling pathway. PMID:26970306

  13. Thermal bleaching induced changes in photosystem II function not reflected by changes in photosystem II protein content of Stylophora pistillata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeans, J.; Szabó, M.; Campbell, D. A.; Larkum, A. W. D.; Ralph, P. J.; Hill, R.

    2014-03-01

    Scleractinian corals exist in a symbiosis with marine dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium that is easily disrupted by changes in the external environment. Increasing seawater temperatures cause loss of pigments and expulsion of the symbionts from the host in a process known as coral bleaching; though, the exact mechanism and trigger of this process has yet to be elucidated. We exposed nubbins of the coral Stylophora pistillata to bleaching temperatures over a period of 14 daylight hours. Fifty-nine percent of the symbiont population was expelled over the course of this short-term treatment. Maximum quantum yield ( F V/ F M) of photosystem (PS) II for the in hospite symbiont population did not change significantly over the treatment period, but there was a significant decline in the quantity of PSII core proteins (PsbA and PsbD) at the onset of the experimental increase in temperature. F V/ F M from populations of expelled symbionts dropped sharply over the first 6 h of temperature treatment, and then toward the end of the experiment, it increased to an F V/ F M value similar to that of the in hospite population. This suggests that the symbionts were likely damaged prior to expulsion from the host, and the most damaged symbionts were expelled earlier in the bleaching. The quantity of PSII core proteins, PsbA and PsbD, per cell was significantly higher in the expelled symbionts than in the remaining in hospite population over 6-10 h of temperature treatment. We attribute this to a buildup of inactive PSII reaction centers, likely caused by a breakdown in the PSII repair cycle. Thus, thermal bleaching of the coral S. pistillata induces changes in PSII content that do not follow the pattern that would be expected based on the results of PSII function.

  14. Methylation of CIITA promoter IV causes loss of HLA-II inducibility by IFN-γ in promyelocytic cells

    PubMed Central

    De Ambrosis, Alessandro; Banelli, Barbara; Pira, Giuseppina Li; Aresu, Ottavia; Romani, Massimo; Ferrini, Silvano; Accolla, Roberto S.

    2008-01-01

    The human promyelocytic cell line THP-1 expresses high level of HLA class II (HLA-II) molecules after IFN-γ treatment. Here, we report a variant of THP-1 that does not express HLA-II after IFN-γ. The variant's HLA-II phenotype is constant over time in culture and it is not related to a defective IFN-γ-signalling pathway. Transfection of CIITA, the HLA-II transcriptional activator, under the control of a cytomegalovirus promoter rescues high level of HLA-DR surface expression in the variant indicating that the biosynthetic block resides in the expression of CIITA and not in the CIITA-dependent transactivation of the HLA-II promoters. Treatment of the variant with 5-azacytidine (5-aza), which inhibits CpG methylation, restores inducibility of HLA-II by IFN-γ both at transcriptional and phenotypic level and antigen presenting and processing function of the variant. DNA studies demonstrate that the molecular defect of the THP-1 variant originates from the methylation of the CIITA promoter IV. Furthermore, treatment with 5-aza produces a substantial demethylation of CIITA promoter IV and a significant increase of IFN-γ-dependent HLA-II expression in another myelomonocytic cell line, U937. Therefore hyper-methylation of CIITA promoter IV may be a relevant mechanism of epigenetic control preventing HLA-II IFN-γ inducibility in the myelomonocytic cell lineage. PMID:18829986

  15. Column solid phase extraction and flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of manganese(II) and iron(III) ions in water, food and biological samples using 3-(1-methyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxylic acid on synthesized graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Pourjavid, Mohammad Reza; Sehat, Ali Akbari; Arabieh, Masoud; Yousefi, Seyed Reza; Hosseini, Majid Haji; Rezaee, Mohammad

    2014-02-01

    A modified, selective, highly sensitive and accurate procedure for the determination of trace amounts of manganese and iron ions is established in the presented work. 3-(1-Methyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxylic acid (MPPC) and graphene oxide (GO) were used in a glass column as chelating reagent and as adsorbent respectively prior to their determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The adsorption mechanism of titled metals complexes on GO was investigated by using computational chemistry approach based on PM6 semi-empirical potential energy surface (PES). The effect of some parameters including pH, flow rate and volume of sample and type, volume and concentration of eluent, as well as the adsorption capacity of matrix ions on the recovery of Mn(II) and Fe(III) was investigated. The limit of detection was 145 and 162 ng L(-1) for Mn(II) and Fe(III), respectively. Calibration was linear over the range of 0.31-355 μg L(-1) for Mn(II) and 0.34-380 μg L(-1) for Fe(III) ions. The method was successfully applied for the determination of understudied ions in water, food and biological samples. PMID:24411390

  16. Altered stability of etoposide-induced topoisomerase II-DNA complexes in resistant human leukaemia K562 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ritke, M. K.; Roberts, D.; Allan, W. P.; Raymond, J.; Bergoltz, V. V.; Yalowich, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    K562 leukaemia cells were selected for resistance using 0.5 microM etoposide (VP-16). Cloned K/VP.5 cells were 30-fold resistant to growth inhibition by VP-16 and 5- to 13-fold resistant to m-AMSA, adriamycin and mitoxantrone. K/VP.5 cells did not overexpress P-glycoprotein; VP-16 accumulation was similar to that in K562 cells. VP-16-induced DNA damage was reduced in cells and nuclei from K/VP.5 cells compared with K562 cells. Topoisomerase II protein was reduced 3- to 7-fold and topoisomerase II alpha and topoisomerase II beta mRNAs were each reduced 3-fold in resistant cells. After drug removal, VP-16-induced DNA damage disappeared 1.7 times more rapidly and VP-16-induced DNA-topoisomerase II adducts dissociated 1.5 times more rapidly in K/VP.5 cells than in K562 cells. ATP (1 mM) was more effective in enhancing VP-16-induced DNA damage in nuclei isolated from sensitive cells than in nuclei from resistant cells. In addition, ATP (0.3-5 mM) stimulated VP-16-induced DNA-topoisomerase II adducts to a greater extent in K562 nuclei than in K/VP.5 nuclei. Taken together, these results indicate that resistance to VP-16 in a K562 subline is associated with a quantitative reduction in topoisomerase II protein and, in addition, a distinct qualitative alteration in topoisomerase II affecting the stability of drug-induced DNA-topoisomerase II complexes. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8142256

  17. Synthesis, Characterization, In Vitro Cytotoxicity, and Apoptosis-Inducing Properties of Ruthenium(II) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li; Zhong, Nan-Jing; Xie, Yang-Yin; Huang, Hong-Liang; Jiang, Guang-Bin; Liu, Yun-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Two new Ru(II) complexes, [Ru(bpy)2(FAMP)](ClO4)2 1 and 2, are synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, electrospray mass spectrometry, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance. The in vitro cytotoxicities and apoptosis-inducing properties of these complexes are extensively studied. Complexes 1 and 2 exhibit potent antiproliferative activities against a panel of human cancer cell lines. The cell cycle analysis shows that complexes 1 and 2 exhibit effective cell growth inhibition by triggering G0/G1 phase arrest and inducing apoptosis by mitochondrial dysfunction. The in vitro DNA binding properties of the two complexes are investigated by different spectrophotometric methods and viscosity measurements. PMID:24804832

  18. UV damage-induced RNA polymerase II stalling stimulates H2B deubiquitylation.

    PubMed

    Mao, Peng; Meas, Rithy; Dorgan, Kathleen M; Smerdon, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    Histone H2B monoubiquitylation plays an important role in RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) elongation. Whether this modification responds to RNAPII stalling is not yet known. We report that both yeast and human cells undergo a rapid and significant H2B deubiquitylation after exposure to UV irradiation. This deubiquitylation occurs concurrently with UV-induced transcription arrest and is significantly reduced in a DNA damage-bypassing RNAPII yeast mutant. Consistent with these results, yeast deubiquitylases Ubp8 and Ubp10 are associated with the RNAPII complex. Moreover, simultaneous deletion of Ubp8 and Ubp10 leads to a lack of H2B deubiquitylation after UV exposure. Consequently, nucleotide excision repair at an actively transcribed gene locus is decreased, whereas UV-induced RNAPII degradation is increased in ubp8Δubp10Δ mutant cells. These results indicate that eukaryotic cells respond to RNAPII arrest by deubiquitylating H2B to coordinate DNA repair and RNAPII degradation. PMID:25136098

  19. UV damage-induced RNA polymerase II stalling stimulates H2B deubiquitylation

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Peng; Meas, Rithy; Dorgan, Kathleen M.; Smerdon, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Histone H2B monoubiquitylation plays an important role in RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) elongation. Whether this modification responds to RNAPII stalling is not yet known. We report that both yeast and human cells undergo a rapid and significant H2B deubiquitylation after exposure to UV irradiation. This deubiquitylation occurs concurrently with UV-induced transcription arrest and is significantly reduced in a DNA damage-bypassing RNAPII yeast mutant. Consistent with these results, yeast deubiquitylases Ubp8 and Ubp10 are associated with the RNAPII complex. Moreover, simultaneous deletion of Ubp8 and Ubp10 leads to a lack of H2B deubiquitylation after UV exposure. Consequently, nucleotide excision repair at an actively transcribed gene locus is decreased, whereas UV-induced RNAPII degradation is increased in ubp8Δubp10Δ mutant cells. These results indicate that eukaryotic cells respond to RNAPII arrest by deubiquitylating H2B to coordinate DNA repair and RNAPII degradation. PMID:25136098

  20. Overexpression of Annexin II Receptor-Induced Autophagy Protects Against Apoptosis in Uveal Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuelu; Song, Hongyuan; Guo, Ting; Zhu, Yongzhe; Tang, Hailin; Qi, Zhongtian; Zhao, Ping; Zhao, Shihong

    2016-05-01

    Uveal melanoma is the most common primary malignant intraocular tumor in adults and still lacks effective systemic therapies. Annexin A2 receptor (AXIIR), a receptor for Annexin II, was demonstrated to play an important role in multiple cells, but its role in uveal melanoma cells remains exclusive. Herein, the authors reported that overexpression of AXIIR was able to reduce cell viability and activate apoptosis apparently in the Mum2C uveal melanoma cell line. Meanwhile, overexpression of AXIIR could induce autophagy and increase autophagy flux. After autophagy was inhibited by chloroquine, enhanced apoptosis and cytotoxicity could be detected. In summary, these data highlighted the crucial role of AXIIR in reducing Mum2C cell viability through inducing apoptosis, while autophagy played a protective role in this process. Interference of this gene may be a promising method for uveal melanoma therapy and combination with specific inhibitor of autophagy may serve as a supplementary. PMID:27183438

  1. Roles of Caveolin-1 in Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertrophy and Inward Remodeling of Cerebral Pial Arterioles.

    PubMed

    Umesalma, Shaikamjad; Houwen, Frederick Keith; Baumbach, Gary L; Chan, Siu-Lung

    2016-03-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a major determinant of inward remodeling and hypertrophy in pial arterioles that may have an important role in stroke during chronic hypertension. Previously, we found that epidermal growth factor receptor is critical in Ang II-mediated hypertrophy that may involve caveolin-1 (Cav-1). In this study, we examined the effects of Cav-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) on Ang II-mediated structural changes in pial arterioles. Cav-1-deficient (Cav-1(-/-)), MMP9-deficient (MMP9(-/-)), and wild-type mice were infused with either Ang II (1000 ng/kg per minute) or saline via osmotic minipumps for 28 days (n=6-8 per group). Systolic arterial pressure was measured by a tail-cuff method. Pressure and diameter of pial arterioles were measured through an open cranial window in anesthetized mice. Cross-sectional area of the wall was determined histologically in pressurized fixed pial arterioles. Expression of Cav-1, MMP9, phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor, and Akt was determined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Deficiency of Cav-1 or MMP9 did not affect Ang II-induced hypertension. Ang II increased the expression of Cav-1, phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor, and Akt in wild-type mice, which was attenuated in Cav-1(-/-) mice. Ang II-induced hypertrophy, inward remodeling, and increased MMP9 expression in pial arterioles were prevented in Cav-1(-/-) mice. Ang II-mediated increases in MMP9 expression and inward remodeling, but not hypertrophy, were prevented in MMP9(-/-) mice. In conclusion, Cav-1 is essential in Ang II-mediated inward remodeling and hypertrophy in pial arterioles. Cav-1-induced MMP9 is exclusively involved in inward remodeling, not hypertrophy. Further studies are needed to determine the role of Akt in Ang II-mediate