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1

Mangrove Forests  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Where the tropical ocean meets the sea, a peculiar kind of plant thrives in shallow, salty water. These mangrove plants are incredibly important for shoreline protection and baby fish habitats. In this video, Jonathan investigates life in mangroves by visiting both Caribbean and Pacific mangroves. Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

Productions, Jonathan B.

2010-05-05

2

Sedimentation in Mangrove Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tidal currents in mangrove forests are impeded by the friction caused by the high vegetation density. The tidal currents are also complex comprising eddies, jets and stagnation zones. The sediment particles carried in suspension into the forest during tidal inundation are cohesive, mainly clay and fine silt, and form large flocs. These flocs remain in suspension as a result

Keita Furukawa; Eric Wolanski

1996-01-01

3

Monitoring mangrove forest dynamics of the Sundarbans in Bangladesh and India using multi-temporal satellite data from 1973 to 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mangrove forests in many parts of the world are declining at an alarming rate-possibly even more rapidly than inland tropical forests. The rate and causes of such changes are not known. The forests themselves are dynamic in nature and are undergoing constant changes due to both natural and anthropogenic forces. Our research objective was to monitor deforestation and degradation arising from both natural and anthropogenic forces. We analyzed multi-temporal satellite data from 1970s, 1990s, and 2000s using supervised classification approach. Our spatio-temporal??analysis shows that despite having the highest population density in the world in its periphery, areal extent of the mangrove forest of the Sundarbans has not changed significantly (approximately 1.2%) in the last ???25 years. The forest is however constantly changing due to erosion, aggradation, deforestation and mangrove rehabilitation programs. The net forest area increased by 1.4% from the 1970s to 1990 and decreased by 2.5% from 1990 to 2000. The change is insignificant in the context of classification errors and the dynamic nature of mangrove forests. This is an excellent example of the co-existence of humans with terrestrial and aquatic plant and animal life. The strong commitment of governments under various protection measures such as forest reserves, wildlife sanctuaries, national parks, and international designations, is believed to be responsible for keeping this forest relatively intact (at least in terms of area). While the measured net loss of mangrove forest is not that high, the change matrix shows that turnover due to erosion, aggradation, reforestation and deforestation was much greater than net change. The forest is under threat from natural and anthropogenic forces leading to forest degradation, primarily due to top-dying disease and over-exploitation of forest resources. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Giri, C.; Pengra, B.; Zhu, Z.; Singh, A.; Tieszen, L.L.

2007-01-01

4

Monitoring Environmental Impacts on Mangrove Ecosystem in the Indus Delta of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring Environmental Impacts on Mangrove Ecosystem in the Indus Delta of Pakistan The mangrove forests growing in intertidal region along the tropical coastlines form a unique ecosystem with rich floral species and marine resources. In Pakistan, large mangrove forests are found all along the muddy coast of Sindh province at Indus Deltaic region. These mangroves are threatened by a variety

Mehrun-Nisa Siddiqui

2008-01-01

5

Characterization of mangrove forest types based on ALOS-PALSAR in overall Indonesian archipelago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indonesia has largest mangrove forest in the world, total area around 3.5 million ha or 17% - 23% from mangrove forest in the world. Mangrove forest provides products and services, such as carbon balance of the coastal zone. Mapping and monitoring biomass of mangrove is very important but field survey of mangrove biomass and productivity in overall Indonesia is very difficult. Global-scale mosaics with HH and HV backscatter of Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) which is 50-m spatial resolution has been generated. This image available for identification and monitoring mangrove forest. The Objective of this research to investigate characterization of mangrove forest types based on ALOS-PALSAR in overall Indonesian archipelago. Methodology consists of collecting ALOS-PALSAR image for overall Indonesian archipelago, preprocessing and mosaicking, collecting region of interest of mangrove forest, plotting, ground survey, characterization and classification. The result of this research has showed characterization of mangrove forest types based on ALOS-PALSAR. Indonesian mangrove forest types has HH value around -10 dB until -7 dB and HV value around -17 dB until -13 dB. Higher of HH and HV backscatters value indicated higher of level biomass. Based on scatter plot of HH and HV, Indonesian mangrove forest can be classified in three level biomass. Generally level biomass of mangrove forest in Indonesia archipelago is moderate.

Darmawan, S.; Takeuchi, W.; Vetrita, Y.; Winarso, G.; Wikantika, K.; Sari, D. K.

2014-06-01

6

Myanmar Ecological Forecasting: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Monitor, Map, and Analyze Mangrove Forests in Myanmar for Enhanced Conservation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mangroves supply many essential environmental amenities, such as preventing soil erosion, filtering water pollution, and protecting shorelines from harmful waves, floods, storms and winds. The Mangroves in Myanmar not only provide citizens with a food source, but they also offer firewood, charcoal, and construction materials. The depletion of mangroves is threatening more than the biodiversity however; Myanmar's fiscal livelihood is also in harm's way. Mangroves are valued at $100,000 to $277,000 per square kilometer and if managed in a sustainable fashion, can infuse constant income to the emerging Myanmarese economy. This study analyzed three coastline regions, the Ayeyarwady Delta, Rakhine and Tanintharyi, and mapped the spatial extent of mangrove forest during the dry season in 2000 and 2013. The classifications were derived from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Landsat 8 Operation Land Imager (OLI) imagery, as well as the Terra Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) digital elevation model information. This data was atmospherically corrected, mosaicked, masked and classified in ENVI, followed by ArcGIS to perform raster calculations and create final products. Forest degradation collected from 2000 to 2013 was later used to forecast the density and health of Mangroves in the year 2030. These results were subsequently presented to project partners Dr. Peter Leimgruber and Ellen Aiken at the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute in Front Royal, VA. After the presentation of the project to the partners, these organizations formally passed on to the Myanmar Ministry of Environment, Conservation and Forestry for policy makers and forest managers to utilize in order to protect the Myanmar mangrove ecosystem while sustaining a healthy economy.

Weber, Samuel J.; Keddell, Louis; Kemal, Mohammed

2014-01-01

7

Latitudinal Patterns of Herbivory in Mangrove Forests: Consequences  

E-print Network

Latitudinal Patterns of Herbivory in Mangrove Forests: Consequences of Nutrient Over in temperate areas. Mangrove forests, which occur across a broad biogeographic range from warm temperate of herbivores to nutrient enrichment in temperate versus tropical latitudes. Mangroves are complex intertidal

Chapman, Samantha

8

Mangrove forests and human security1 Bradley B. Walters*  

E-print Network

Review Mangrove forests and human security1 Bradley B. Walters* Address: Department of Geography of `environment and security' and examines their relevance in understanding human­mangrove interactions and human security. Research on human­mangrove interactions suggests that mangrove forests illustrate

Walters, Bradley B.

9

Mangrove forest distributions and dynamics in Madagascar (1975-2005)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mangrove forests of Madagascar are declining, albeit at a much slower rate than the global average. The forests are declining due to conversion to other land uses and forest degradation. However, accurate and reliable information on their present distribution and their rates, causes, and consequences of change have not been available. Earlier studies used remotely sensed data to map and, in some cases, to monitor mangrove forests at a local scale. Nonetheless, a comprehensive national assessment and synthesis was lacking. We interpreted time-series satellite data of 1975, 1990, 2000, and 2005 using a hybrid supervised and unsupervised classification approach. Landsat data were geometrically corrected to an accuracy of ?? one-half pixel, an accuracy necessary for change analysis. We used a postclassification change detection approach. Our results showed that Madagascar lost 7% of mangrove forests from 1975 to 2005, to a present extent of ???2,797 km2. Deforestation rates and causes varied both spatially and temporally. The forests increased by 5.6% (212 km2) from 1975 to 1990, decreased by 14.3% (455 km 2) from 1990 to 2000, and decreased by 2.6% (73 km2) from 2000 to 2005. Similarly, major changes occurred in Bombekota Bay, Mahajamba Bay, the coast of Ambanja, the Tsiribihina River, and Cap St Vincent. The main factors responsible for mangrove deforestation include conversion to agriculture (35%), logging (16%), conversion to aquaculture (3%), and urban development (1%). ?? 2008 by MDPI.

Giri, C.; Muhlhausen, J.

2008-01-01

10

Mangrove Forest Distributions and Dynamics in Madagascar (19752005)  

PubMed Central

Mangrove forests of Madagascar are declining, albeit at a much slower rate than the global average. The forests are declining due to conversion to other land uses and forest degradation. However, accurate and reliable information on their present distribution and their rates, causes, and consequences of change have not been available. Earlier studies used remotely sensed data to map and, in some cases, to monitor mangrove forests at a local scale. Nonetheless, a comprehensive national assessment and synthesis was lacking. We interpreted time-series satellite data of 1975, 1990, 2000, and 2005 using a hybrid supervised and unsupervised classification approach. Landsat data were geometrically corrected to an accuracy of one-half pixel, an accuracy necessary for change analysis. We used a postclassification change detection approach. Our results showed that Madagascar lost 7% of mangrove forests from 1975 to 2005, to a present extent of ?2,797 km2. Deforestation rates and causes varied both spatially and temporally. The forests increased by 5.6% (212 km2) from 1975 to 1990, decreased by 14.3% (455 km2) from 1990 to 2000, and decreased by 2.6% (73 km2) from 2000 to 2005. Similarly, major changes occurred in Bombekota Bay, Mahajamba Bay, the coast of Ambanja, the Tsiribihina River, and Cap St Vincent. The main factors responsible for mangrove deforestation include conversion to agriculture (35%), logging (16%), conversion to aquaculture (3%), and urban development (1%).

Giri, Chandra; Muhlhausen, Joseph

2008-01-01

11

Seasonal evapotranspiration patterns in mangrove forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

and seasonal controls on water vapor fluxes were investigated in a subtropical mangrove forest in Everglades National Park, Florida. Energy partitioning between sensible and latent heat fluxes was highly variable during the 2004-2005 study period. During the dry season, the mangrove forest behaved akin to a semiarid ecosystem as most of the available energy was partitioned into sensible heat, which gave Bowen ratio values exceeding 1.0 and minimum latent heat fluxes of 5 MJ d-1. In contrast, during the wet season the mangrove forest acted as a well-watered, broadleaved deciduous forest, with Bowen ratio values of 0.25 and latent heat fluxes reaching 18 MJ d-1. During the dry season, high salinity levels (> 30 parts per thousand, ppt) caused evapotranspiration to decline and correspondingly resulted in reduced canopy conductance. From multiple linear regression, daily average canopy conductance to water vapor declined with increasing salinity, vapor pressure deficit, and daily sums of solar irradiance but increased with air temperature and friction velocity. Using these relationships, appropriately modified Penman-Monteith and Priestley-Taylor models reliably reproduced seasonal trends in daily evapotranspiration. Such numerical models, using site-specific parameters, are crucial for constructing seasonal water budgets, constraining hydrological models, and driving regional climate models over mangrove forests.

Barr, Jordan G.; DeLonge, Marcia S.; Fuentes, Jose D.

2014-04-01

12

The mangrove pump: The tidal flushing of animal burrows in a tropical mangrove forest determined from radionuclide budgets  

E-print Network

The mangrove pump: The tidal flushing of animal burrows in a tropical mangrove forest determined; available online 30 October 2012 Abstract Intertidal mangrove forests contribute significantly cycling in mangrove ecosystems occurs within the subsurface of the forest floor. This subsurface source

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

13

Coastal mangrove forests mitigated tsunami  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study conducted after the 26th of December 2004 tsunami in 18 coastal hamlets along the south-east coast of India reiterates the importance of coastal mangrove vegetations and location characteristics of human inhabitation to protect lives and wealth from the fury of tsunami. The tsunami caused human death and loss of wealth and these decreased with the area of coastal

Kandasamy Kathiresan; Narayanasamy Rajendran

2005-01-01

14

Do invasive plants threaten the Sundarbans mangrove forest of Bangladesh?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sundarbans mangrove forest has substantial ecological and economic importance at local, national and global scales. Over the past decades, invasive species have spread significantly in the mangrove ecosystem. We conducted a study to identify the different types of invasive species present, the rate and pattern of invasion, its intensity, association of invaders and their habitat preference in the Sundarbans mangrove

Shekhar R. Biswas; Junaid Kabir Choudhury; Ainun Nishat

2007-01-01

15

Carbon Cycling and Storage in Mangrove Forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangroves are ecologically and economically important forests of the tropics. They are highly productive ecosystems with rates of primary production equal to those of tropical humid evergreen forests and coral reefs. Although mangroves occupy only 0.5% of the global coastal area, they contribute 10-15% (24 Tg C y-1) to coastal sediment carbon storage and export 10-11% of the particulate terrestrial carbon to the ocean. Their disproportionate contribution to carbon sequestration is now perceived as a means for conservation and restoration and a way to help ameliorate greenhouse gas emissions. Of immediate concern are potential carbon losses to deforestation (90-970 Tg C y-1) that are greater than these ecosystems' rates of carbon storage. Large reservoirs of dissolved inorganic carbon in deep soils, pumped via subsurface pathways to adjacent waterways, are a large loss of carbon, at a potential rate up to 40% of annual primary production. Patterns of carbon allocation and rates of carbon flux in mangrove forests are nearly identical to those of other tropical forests.

Alongi, Daniel M.

2014-01-01

16

Distribution and dynamics of mangrove forests of South Asiaq Chandra Giri a,*, Jordan Long b  

E-print Network

Distribution and dynamics of mangrove forests of South Asiaq Chandra Giri a,*, Jordan Long b Keywords: Mangrove forests Mangrove forest cover change South Asia Landsat Remote sensing Image processing a b s t r a c t Mangrove forests in South Asia occur along the tidal sea edge of Bangladesh, India

Tomkins, Andrew

17

Predicting Future Mangrove Forest Migration in the Everglades Under Rising Sea Level  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mangroves are highly productive ecosystems that provide valued habitat for fish and shorebirds. Mangrove forests are universally composed of relatively few tree species and a single overstory strata. Three species of true mangroves are common to intertidal zones of the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico Coast, namely, black mangrove (Avicennia germinans), white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa), and red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle). Mangrove forests occupy intertidal settings of the coastal margin of the Everglades along the southwest tip of the Florida peninsula (fig. 1).

Doyle, Thomas W.

2003-01-01

18

Floods and mangrove forests, friends or foes? Perceptions of relationships and risks in Cameroon coastal mangroves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Faced with the growing influence of climate change on climate driven perturbations such as flooding and biodiversity loss, managing the relationship between mangroves and their environment has become imperative for their protection. Hampering this is the fact that the full scope of the threats faced by specific mangrove forests is not yet well documented. Amongst some uncertainties is the nature of the relationship/interaction of mangroves with climate driven perturbations prevalent in their habitat such as coastal floods. We investigated the relationship between coastal flooding and mangrove forest stabilization, identify perceptions of flood risk and responses to offset identified effects. Random household surveys were carried out within four communities purposively sampled within the Cap Cameroon. Coastal changes were investigated over a period of 43 years (1965-2008). Seasonal flooding improved access to mangrove forests and hence promoted their exploitation for non-timber forest products (NTFPs) such as fuel wood and mangrove poles. 989 ha of mangrove forests were estimated to be lost over a period of 43 years in Cap Cameroon with implications on forest resources base, ecosystem stability, and livelihoods. Alternative livelihood activities were found to be carried out to moderate interruptions in fishing, with associated implications for mangrove forest dynamics. Respondents were of the opinion that risks associated with floods and mangrove deforestation will pose a major challenge for sustainable management of mangroves. These locally relevant perceptions and responses should however enable the identification of pertinent needs, challenges and opportunities to inform and orient effective decision-making, and to facilitate the development and participation in adaptive management strategies.

Munji, Cecilia A.; Bele, Mekou Y.; Idinoba, Monica E.; Sonwa, Denis J.

2014-03-01

19

Restoration of biogeochemical function in mangrove forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Forest structure of mangrove restoration sites (6 and 14 years old) at two locations (Henderson Creek [HC] and Windstar [WS]) in southwest Florida differed from that of mixed-basin forests (>50 years old) with which they were once contiguous. However, the younger site (HC) was typical of natural, developing forests, whereas the older site (WS) was less well developed with low structural complexity. More stressful physicochemical conditions resulting from incomplete tidal flushing (elevated salinity) and variable topography (waterlogging) apparently affected plant survival and growth at the WS restoration site. Lower leaf fall and root production rates at the WS restoration site, compared with that at HC were partly attributable to differences in hydroedaphic conditions and structural development. However, leaf and root inputs at each restoration site were not significantly different from that in reference forests within the same physiographic setting. Macrofaunal consumption of tethered leaves also did not differ with site history, but was dramatically higher at HC compared with WS, reflecting local variation in leaf litter processing rates, primarily by snails (Melampus coffeus). Degradation of leaves and roots in mesh bags was slow overall at restoration sites, however, particularly at WS where aerobic decomposition may have been more limited. These findings indicate that local or regional factors such as salinity regime act together with site history to control primary production and turnover rates of organic matter in restoration sites. Species differences in senescent leaf nitrogen content and degradation rates further suggest that restoration sites dominated by Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle should exhibit slower recycling of nutrients compared with natural basin forests where Avicennia germinans is more abundant. Structural development and biogeochemical functioning of restored mangrove forests thus depend on a number of factors, but site-specific as well as regional or local differences in hydrology and concomitant factors such as salinity and soil waterlogging will have a strong influence over the outcome of restoration projects.

McKee, K.L.; Faulkner, P.L.

2000-01-01

20

Present state and future of the world's mangrove forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Mangroves, the only woody halophytes living at the confluence of land and sea, have been heavily used traditionally for food, timber, fuel and medicine, and presently occupy about 181 000 km 2 of tropical and subtropical coastline. Over the past 50 years, approxi- mately one-third of the world's mangrove forests have been lost, but most data show very variable

Daniel M. Alongi

2002-01-01

21

Ecological effects of small-scale cutting of Philippine mangrove forests  

E-print Network

Ecological effects of small-scale cutting of Philippine mangrove forests Bradley B. Walters of mangrove forests in the Philippines. Information for the study was obtained through the application of extensive bio-ecological assessments of forests and interviews of forest users. Cut mangrove forests were

Walters, Bradley B.

22

Downed wood in Micronesian mangrove forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dead, downed wood is an important component of upland forest and aquatic ecosystems, but its role in wetland ecosystems, including mangroves, is poorly understood. We measured downed wood in ten sites on the western Pacific islands of Kosrae, Pohnpei, and Yap, all located within the Federated States of Micronesia. Our goals were to examine patterns of variability in the quantity of downed wood in these mangrove ecosystems, provide a general characterization of downed wood in a region with no previously published accounts, and investigate the relationship between harvesting practices and the amount of downed wood. The overall mean volume of downed wood at our study sites was estimated to be 60.8 m3 ha-1 (20.9 t ha-1), which is greater than most published data for forested wetlands. There were significant differences among islands, with the sites on Kosrae (104.2 m3 ha-1) having a much greater mean volume of downed wood than those on Pohnpei (43.1 m3 ha-1) or Yap (35.1 m3 ha-1). Part of the difference among islands may be attributable to differences in stand age and structure, but the most important factor seems to be the greater amount of wood harvesting on Kosrae, coupled with a low efficiency of use of cut trees. Of a total of 45 cut trees examined on Kosrae, no wood had been removed from 18 (40%); these are believed to be trees cut down because other, more valuable, trees were caught on them as they were felled. Of the other 27 trees, only 24 to 42% of the stem volume (to a 10 cm top) was removed from the forest, the amount varying by species. The impacts of current harvesting practices are unknown but may include important effects on tree regeneration and the abundance and species composition of crab populations.

Allen, J.A.; Ewel, K.C.; Keeland, B.D.; Tara, T.; Smith, T. J., III

2000-01-01

23

Degradation of mangrove forests in South Sulawesi, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In South Sulawesi forests contain a large variety of genera and species of plants. These forests are important as sources of timber, fuelwood, food and many other minor products. The major concern over this important coastal resource is its increasing rate of exploitation. Prior to 1965 it was estimated that there were at least 110 000 hectares of mangrove forests

Baharuddin Nurkin; N. Marshall; D. J. Macintosh

1994-01-01

24

National Level Assessment of Mangrove Forest Cover in Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangroves ecosystems consist of inter tidal flora and fauna found in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Mangroves forest is a collection of halophytic trees, shrubs, and other plants receiving inputs from regular tidal flushing and from freshwater streams and rivers. A global reduction of 25 % mangroves' area has been observed since 1980 and it is categorized as one of to the most threatened and vulnerable ecosystems of the world. Forest resources in Pakistan are being deteriorating both quantitatively and qualitatively due to anthropogenic activities, climatic v and loose institutional management. According to the FAO (2007), extent of forest cover of Pakistan in 2005 is 1,902,000 ha, which is 2.5% of its total land area. Annual change rate during 2000-2005 was -2.1% which is highest among all the countries in Asia. The Indus delta region contains the world's fifth-largest mangrove forest which provides a range of important ecosystem services, including coastal stabilisation, primary production and provision of nursery habitat for marine fish. Given their ecological importance in coastal settings, mangroves receive special attention in the assessment of conservation efforts and sustainable coastal developments. Coastline of Pakistan is 1050km long shared by the provinces, Sind (350km) and Baluchistan (700 km). The coastline, with typical arid subtropical climate, possesses five significant sites that are blessed with mangroves. In the Sindh province, mangroves are found in the Indus Delta and Sandspit. The Indus Delta is host to the most extensive mangroves areas and extends from Korangi Creek in the West to Sir Creek in the East, whereas Sandspit is a small locality in the West of Karachi city. In the Balochistan province, mangroves are located at three sites, Miani Hor, Kalmat Khor and Jiwani. Contemporary methods of Earth observation sciences are being incorporated as an integral part of environmental assessment related studies in coastal areas. GIS and Remote Sensing based technologies and methods are in use to map forest cover since the last two decades in Pakistan. The national level forest cover studies based upon satellite images include, Forestry Sector Master Plan (FSMP) and National Forest & Range Resources Assessment Study (NFRRAS). In FSMP, the mangrove forest extent was visually determined from Landsat images of 1988 - 1991, and was estimated to be 155,369 ha; whereas, in NFRRAS, Landsat images of 1997 - 2001 were automated processed and the mangroves areas was estimated to be 158,000 ha. To our knowledge, a comprehensive assessment of current mangroves cover of Pakistan has not been made over the last decade, although the mangroves ecosystems have become the focus of intention in context of recent climate change scenarios. This study was conducted to support the informed decision making for sustainable development in coastal areas of Pakistan by providing up-todate mangroves forest cover assessment of Pakistan. Various types of Earth Observation satellite images and processing methods have been tested in relation to mangroves mapping. Most of the studies have applied classical pixel - based approached, there are a few studies which used object - based methods of image analysis to map the mangroves ecosystems. Object - based methods have the advantage of incorporating spatial neighbourhood properties and hierarchical structures into the classification process to produce more accurate surface patterns recognition compared with classical pixel - based approaches. In this research, we applied multi-scale hierarchical approach of object-based methods of image analysis to ALOS - AVNIR-2 images of the year 2008-09 to map the land cover in the mangroves ecosystems of Pakistan. Considering the tide height and phonological effects of vegetation, particularly the algal mats, these data sets were meticulously chosen. Incorporation of multi-scale hierarchical structures made it easy to effectively discriminate among the land cover classes, particularly the mudflats from sparse mangroves, at their r

Abbas, S.; Qamer, F. M.; Hussain, N.; Saleem, R.; Nitin, K. T.

2011-09-01

25

Mapping the Philippines' mangrove forests using Landsat imagery  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Current, accurate, and reliable information on the areal extent and spatial distribution of mangrove forests in the Philippines is limited. Previous estimates of mangrove extent do not illustrate the spatial distribution for the entire country. This study, part of a global assessment of mangrove dynamics, mapped the spatial distribution and areal extent of the Philippines' mangroves circa 2000. We used publicly available Landsat data acquired primarily from the Global Land Survey to map the total extent and spatial distribution. ISODATA clustering, an unsupervised classification technique, was applied to 61 Landsat images. Statistical analysis indicates the total area of mangrove forest cover was approximately 256,185 hectares circa 2000 with overall classification accuracy of 96.6% and a kappa coefficient of 0.926. These results differ substantially from most recent estimates of mangrove area in the Philippines. The results of this study may assist the decision making processes for rehabilitation and conservation efforts that are currently needed to protect and restore the Philippines' degraded mangrove forests. ?? 2011 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Long, J.B.; Giri, C.

2011-01-01

26

Mapping the Philippines Mangrove Forests Using Landsat Imagery  

PubMed Central

Current, accurate, and reliable information on the areal extent and spatial distribution of mangrove forests in the Philippines is limited. Previous estimates of mangrove extent do not illustrate the spatial distribution for the entire country. This study, part of a global assessment of mangrove dynamics, mapped the spatial distribution and areal extent of the Philippines mangroves circa 2000. We used publicly available Landsat data acquired primarily from the Global Land Survey to map the total extent and spatial distribution. ISODATA clustering, an unsupervised classification technique, was applied to 61 Landsat images. Statistical analysis indicates the total area of mangrove forest cover was approximately 256,185 hectares circa 2000 with overall classification accuracy of 96.6% and a kappa coefficient of 0.926. These results differ substantially from most recent estimates of mangrove area in the Philippines. The results of this study may assist the decision making processes for rehabilitation and conservation efforts that are currently needed to protect and restore the Philippines degraded mangrove forests. PMID:22163779

Long, Jordan B.; Giri, Chandra

2011-01-01

27

Distribution and dynamics of mangrove forests of South Asia.  

PubMed

Mangrove forests in South Asia occur along the tidal sea edge of Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. These forests provide important ecosystem goods and services to the region's dense coastal populations and support important functions of the biosphere. Mangroves are under threat from both natural and anthropogenic stressors; however the current status and dynamics of the region's mangroves are poorly understood. We mapped the current extent of mangrove forests in South Asia and identified mangrove forest cover change (gain and loss) from 2000 to 2012 using Landsat satellite data. We also conducted three case studies in Indus Delta (Pakistan), Goa (India), and Sundarbans (Bangladesh and India) to identify rates, patterns, and causes of change in greater spatial and thematic details compared to regional assessment of mangrove forests. Our findings revealed that the areal extent of mangrove forests in South Asia is approximately 1,187,476ha representing ?7% of the global total. Our results showed that from 2000 to 2012, 92,135ha of mangroves were deforested and 80,461ha were reforested with a net loss of 11,673ha. In all three case studies, mangrove areas have remained the same or increased slightly, however, the turnover was greater than the net change. Both, natural and anthropogenic factors are responsible for the change and turnover. The major causes of forest cover change are similar throughout the region; however, specific factors may be dominant in specific areas. Major causes of deforestation in South Asia include (i) conversion to other land use (e.g. conversion to agriculture, shrimp farms, development, and human settlement), (ii) over-harvesting (e.g. grazing, browsing and lopping, and fishing), (iii) pollution, (iv) decline in freshwater availability, (v) floodings, (vi) reduction of silt deposition, (vii) coastal erosion, and (viii) disturbances from tropical cyclones and tsunamis. Our analysis in the region's diverse socio-economic and environmental conditions highlights complex patterns of mangrove distribution and change. Results from this study provide important insight to the conservation and management of the important and threatened South Asian mangrove ecosystem. PMID:24735705

Giri, Chandra; Long, Jordan; Abbas, Sawaid; Murali, R Mani; Qamer, Faisal M; Pengra, Bruce; Thau, David

2015-01-15

28

Organic carbon inventories in natural and restored Ecuadorian mangrove forests  

PubMed Central

Mangroves can capture and store organic carbon and their protection and therefore their restoration is a component of climate change mitigation. However, there are few empirical measurements of long-term carbon storage in mangroves or of how storage varies across environmental gradients. The context dependency of this process combined with geographically limited field sampling has made it difficult to generalize regional and global rates of mangrove carbon sequestration. This has in turn hampered the inclusion of sequestration by mangroves in carbon cycle models and in carbon offset markets. The purpose of this study was to estimate the relative carbon capture and storage potential in natural and restored mangrove forests. We measured depth profiles of soil organic carbon content in 72 cores collected from six sites (three natural, two restored, and one afforested) surrounding Muisne, Ecuador. Samples up to 1 m deep were analyzed for organic matter content using loss-on-ignition and values were converted to organic carbon content using an accepted ratio of 1.72 (g/g). Results suggest that average soil carbon storage is 0.055 0.002 g cm?3 (11.3 0.8% carbon content by dry mass, mean 1 SE) up to 1 m deep in natural sites, and 0.058 0.002 g cm?3 (8.0 0.3%) in restored sites. These estimates are concordant with published global averages. Evidence of equivalent carbon stocks in restored and afforested mangrove patches emphasizes the carbon sink potential for reestablished mangrove systems. We found no relationship between sediment carbon storage and aboveground biomass, forest structure, or within-patch location. Our results demonstrate the long-term carbon storage potential of natural mangroves, high effectiveness of mangrove restoration and afforestation, a lack of predictability in carbon storage strictly based on aboveground parameters, and the need to establish standardized protocol for quantifying mangrove sediment carbon stocks. PMID:24883249

Bruno, John F.; Benninger, Larry; Alperin, Marc; de Dios Morales, Juan

2014-01-01

29

Socio-institutional dynamics and the political ecology of mangrove forest conservation in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangrove forests provide a range of ecological and socio-economic benefits in coastal zones throughout the world's tropical regions. Yet the conversion of mangrove forest, due in particular to aquaculture development, is occurring at a dramatic rate. Drawing on insights and concepts offered by political ecology and complex systems, processes of mangrove forest conversion and aquaculture development in the coastal zone

Derek Armitage

2002-01-01

30

Population genetic structure of the polypore Datronia caperata in fragmented mangrove forests  

E-print Network

Population genetic structure of the polypore Datronia caperata in fragmented mangrove forests Jeri of the dominant polypore species found in neotropical mangrove forest fragments, where it is locally specialized mangrove forests using AFLP markers. Using five primer pair combinations, 145 loci were detected, 98

California at Berkeley, University of

31

The integration of spectral analyses of Landsat ETM+ with the DEM data for mapping mangrove forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to develop an efficient method to extract mangrove forests at a regional scale using remote sensing data and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technique. A regional mangrove forests mapping method was developed based on the spectral characteristics and the topographic existence condition of mangrove forests. Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) and digital elevation model (DEM) were used

Bayan Alsaaideh; Ahmad Al-Hanbali; Ryutaro Tateishi; Hoan Nguyen Thanh

2011-01-01

32

Mangrove forest recovery in the Everglades following Hurricane Wilma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On October 24th, 2005, Hurricane Wilma made landfall on the south western shore of the Florida peninsula. This major disturbance destroyed approximately 30 percent of the mangrove forests in the area. However, the damage to the ecosystem following the hurricane provided researchers at the Florida Coastal Everglades (FCE) LTER site with the rare opportunity to track the recovery process of the mangroves as determined by carbon dioxide (CO2) and energy exchanges, measured along daily and seasonal time scales.

Sarmiento, Daniel; Barr, Jordan; Engel, Vic; Fuentes, Jose D.; Smith, Thomas J.; Zieman, Jay C.

2009-01-01

33

Determination of mangrove change in Matang Mangrove Forest using multi temporal satellite imageries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangrove protects shorelines from damaging storm and hurricane winds, waves, and floods. Mangroves also help prevent erosion by stabilizing sediments with their tangled root systems. They maintain water quality and clarity, filtering pollutants and trapping sediments originating from land. However, mangrove has been reported to be threatened by land conversion for other activities. In this study, land use and land cover changes in Matang Mangrove Forest during the past 18 years (1993 to 2011) were determined using multi-temporal satellite imageries by Landsat TM and RapidEye. In this study, classification of land use and land cover approach was performed using the maximum likelihood classifier (MCL) method along with vegetation index differencing (NDVI) technique. Data obtained was evaluated through Kappa coefficient calculation for accuracy and results revealed that the classification accuracy was 81.25% with Kappa Statistics of 0.78. The results indicated changes in mangrove forest area to water body with 2,490.6 ha, aquaculture with 890.7 ha, horticulture with 1,646.1 ha, palm oil areas with 1,959.2 ha, dry land forest with 2,906.7 ha and urban settlement area with 224.1 ha. Combinations of these approaches were useful for change detection and for indication of the nature of these changes.

Ibrahim, N. A.; Mustapha, M. A.; Lihan, T.; Ghaffar, M. A.

2013-11-01

34

Surface wave propagation in mangrove forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangroves are a special form of vegetation as they exist at the boundary of terrestrial and marine environment. They have a special role in supporting fisheries and in the stabilizing the tropical coastal zones. Biochemical and trophodynamic processes in the mangroves are strongly linked to water movement, due to tides and waves. In this paper we present the theoretical attempt

S. R. Massel; K. Furukawa; R. M. Brinkman

1999-01-01

35

Remotely based monitoring of the mangroves over Penang Island, Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangrove vegetations are normally present in river estuaries and along the coast where the land meets the sea. Remote sensing can be used to obtain mangrove distribution information. The objective of this study was to study the current condition of mangrove forest using remote sensing over Penang Island, Malaysia. An attempt has been made based on supervised Maximum Likelihood Classification (MLC), various land use and land cover classes have been mapped and classified. A red-green-blue (RGB) colour was used to display and quantify mangrove forest distribution using Thailand Earth Observation System (THEOS) satellite imagery. Reference data was based on ground truth. High accuracy of 91.7% was obtained in mapping of mangrove cover.

Beh, B. C.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.

2010-11-01

36

Mangrove forest structure and productivity in the Fly River estuary, Papua New Guinea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In April, July and August 1989 and February 1990, the delta region of the Fly River was surveyed to establish the aerial extent of mangrove forests, their species composition, tree densities and basal areas, and potential net primary production. Mangrove forests cover 87 400 ha, mainly on islands within the delta. Twentynine mangrove plant species were recorded, but there were

A. I. Robertson; P. A. Daniel; P. Dixon

1991-01-01

37

Small-scale disturbance and regeneration dynamics in a neotropical mangrove forest  

E-print Network

Small-scale disturbance and regeneration dynamics in a neotropical mangrove forest RUTH E. SHERMAN of California at Berkeley, 145 Mulford Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA Summary 1 Mangrove forests are aected of a 47-km2 intertidal mangrove community in the Dominican Republic, by quantifying the spatial patterns

Battles, John

38

Blue Carbon distribution in mangrove forests of the Americas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Globally, coastal ecosystems are critical to maintaining human livelihood and biodiversity. These ecosystems including mangroves, salt marshes, and sea grasses provide essential ecosystem services, such as supporting fisheries by providing important spawning grounds, filtering pollutants and contaminants from coastal waters, and protecting coastal development and communities against storms, floods and erosion. Additionally, recent research indicates that these vegetated coastal ecosystems are highly efficient carbon sinks (i.e. 'Blue Carbon') and can potentially play a significant role in ameliorating the effect of increasing global climate change by capturing significant amounts of carbon into sediments and plant biomass. The term blue carbon indicates the carbon stored in coastal vegetated wetlands (i.e., mangroves, intertidal marshes, and seagrass meadows). As a result of rapid global changes in coastal regions, it is crucial that we improve our understanding of the current and future state of the remaining coastal ecosystems and associated ecosystem services and their vulnerability to global climate change. In this study, we present a continental scale study of mangrove distribution and assess patterns of forest structural development associated to latitude and geomorphological setting. We produced a baseline map of mangrove canopy height and biomass for all mangrove forests of the Americas using data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and publicly available land cover maps (Figure 1). The resulting canopy height map was calibrated using ICEsat/Geoscience Laser Altimeter system (GLAS). Biomass was derived from field data and allometry. The maps were validated with field data and results in accuracies that vary spatially around 2 to 3m in height and 20% in biomass. Figure 1: Global distribution of mangrove forests (green) and SRTM elevation data. These data were used to produce large scale maps of mangrove canopy height and biomass.

Simard, M.; Rivera-Monroy, V.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Roy Chowdhury, R.

2013-12-01

39

Mosquitoes of the mangrove forests of India: part 7--an overview.  

PubMed

Parts 1 to 6 of this series on the mosquitoes of the mangrove forests of India dealt with the mosquito species recorded in the mangroves of Bhitarkanika, Sundarbans, Andaman and Nicobar islands, Coringa, Chorao and Vikhroli, and Kundapur and Kannur. This concluding part provides an overview of the distribution of the mosquito species in different mangrove forests, including the mangroves of Muthupet in Tamilnadu and the mangroves of Gulf of Kutch and Gulf of Kambhat in Gujarat, species collected as larvae, species in relation to the salinity of the larval habitats, species landing on humans for feeding in the mangroves, and the impact of habitat degradation on species diversity. PMID:19181053

Rajavel, A R; Natarajan, R

2008-12-01

40

Distribution and dynamics of mangrove forests of South Asia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Our findings revealed that the areal extent of mangrove forests in South Asia is approximately 1,187,476 ha representing ?7% of the global total. Our results showed that from 2000 to 2012, 92,135 ha of mangroves were deforested and 80,461 ha were reforested with a net loss of 11,673 ha. In all three case studies, mangrove areas have remained the same or increased slightly, however, the turnover was greater than the net change. Both, natural and anthropogenic factors are responsible for the change and turnover. The major causes of forest cover change are similar throughout the region; however, specific factors may be dominant in specific areas. Major causes of deforestation in South Asia include (i) conversion to other land use (e.g. conversion to agriculture, shrimp farms, development, and human settlement), (ii) over-harvesting (e.g. grazing, browsing and lopping, and fishing), (iii) pollution, (iv) decline in freshwater availability, (v) floodings, (vi) reduction of silt deposition, (vii) coastal erosion, and (viii) disturbances from tropical cyclones and tsunamis. Our analysis in the region's diverse socio-economic and environmental conditions highlights complex patterns of mangrove distribution and change. Results from this study provide important insight to the conservation and management of the important and threatened South Asian mangrove ecosystem.

Giri, Chandra; Long, Jordan; Abbas, Sawaid; Murali, R. Mani; Qamer, Faisal M.; Pengra, Bruce; Thau, David

2014-01-01

41

MANGROVE FOREST COVER MAPPING IN PHANGNGA BAY, THAILAND; USING SPOT HRV AND JERS-1 DATA IN CONJUNCTION WITH GIS 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangrove forest in Phangnga Bay, Southern Thailand were analyzed using SPOT XS and JERS-1 data. Particular emphasis was given to the applicability of remote sensing and GIS for discriminating mangrove and non-mangrove areas and also for the detail classification of mangrove forests based on species and density. Results show that mangrove and non-mangrove discrimination can be done with an extremely

Chandra Prasad Giri; Jean-Pierre Delsol

42

Soil characteristics and nutrient status in a Northern Australian mangrove forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a study of soil factors in relation to plant growth for a tropical mangrove forest in northern Australia are\\u000a presented and discussed. Basic soil properties are described briefly in terms of particle size distribution, bulk density\\u000a and total carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. Soil redox potential, pH, salinity and extractable nitrogen and phosphorus were\\u000a monitored monthly over a

Kevin G. Boto; John T. Wellington

1984-01-01

43

Currents and Sediment Transport in Mangrove Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field study of the tidal currents, cohesive sediment dynamics and transport of organic carbon in a highly vegetated mangrove swamp was carried out at Middle Creek, Cairns, Australia. The interaction of tidal currents and the vegetation generated jets, eddies and zones of stagnant waters which were numerically modelled. A high value of the Manning friction coefficient (n=01) was derived

K. Furukawa; E. Wolanski; H. Mueller

1997-01-01

44

Ecosystem-Level Carbon Stocks in Costa Rican Mangrove Forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical mangroves provide a wide variety of ecosystem services, including atmospheric carbon sequestration. Because of their high rates of carbon accumulation, the large expected size of their total stocks (from 2 to 5 times greater than those of upland tropical forests), and the alarming rates at which they are being converted to other uses (releasing globally from 0.02 to 0.12 Pg C yr-1), mangroves are receiving increasing attention as additional tools to mitigate climate change. However, data on whole ecosystem-level carbon in tropical mangroves is limited. Here I present the first estimate of ecosystem level carbon stocks in mangrove forests of Central America. I established 28, 125 m-long, sampling transects along the 4 main rivers draining the Trraba-Sierpe National Wetland in the southern Pacific coast of Costa Rica. This area represents 39% of all remaining mangroves in the country (48300 ha). A circular nested plot was placed every 25 m along each transect. Carbon stocks of standing trees, regeneration, the herbaceous layer, litter, and downed wood were measured following internationally-developed methods compatible with IPCC "Good Practice Guidelines". In addition, total soil carbon stocks were determined down to 1 m depth. Together, these carbon estimates represent the ecosystem-carbon stocks of these forests. The average aboveground carbon stocks were 72.5 3.2 MgC ha-1 (range: 9 - 241 MgC ha-1), consistent with results elsewhere in the world. Between 74 and 92% of the aboveground carbon is stored in trees ? 5cm dbh. I found a significant correlation between basal area of trees ? 5cm dbh and total aboveground carbon. Soil carbon stocks to 1 m depth ranged between 141 y 593 MgC ha-1. Ecosystem-level carbon stocks ranged from 391 MgC ha-1 to 438 MgC ha-1, with a slight increase from south to north locations. Soil carbon stocks represent an average 76% of total ecosystem carbon stocks, while trees represent only 20%. These Costa Rican mangroves represent 38 to 43% of the total ecosystem carbon stocks measured in the Indo-Pacific region, which are among the most carbon-rich ecosystems in the world. Overall, the mangrove forest in the Trraba-Sierpe National Wetland contain close to 8 Tg C, which represents approximately 40% of all carbon currently stored nationwide in mangrove stands. Although deforestation and forest degradation processes have been, for the most part, controlled in the country, available data suggest that between 1990 and 2012 Costa Rica lost almost 4000 ha (8 % of currently remaining area) of mangrove forests. This translates in historical emissions of 1.6 Tg C, which is equivalent to 1.3 times the greenhouse gas emissions from the entire land use sector in Costa Rica in the 1990s. This calculation provides an indication of the potential recovery of carbon stocks which mangrove restoration efforts may offer in the country. Expanding this research to other Central American countries, and analyzing the historical land use dynamics along coastal areas together with the potential impacts of climate change on these ecosystems would yield similar region-wide estimates of greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation potential that could be used to improve the design of climate change mitigation projects in coastal areas.

Cifuentes, M.

2012-12-01

45

Material flux in mangrove forest based on the field observation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangrove ecosystems play important roles in conservation of seashore lines and spawning and nursery of aquatic creatures. It is important to understand nutrient budgets and links between human activities and their effects on mangrove ecosystems. However, we have less knowledge about mangrove ecosystems than that about many other ecosystems. To quantify total material balances in the estuary centered in mangrove forest, we have measured nutrient cycling and CH4 and CO2 gas fluxes in Fukido mangrove creek, Ishigaki island, Okinawa, Japan. It was conducted over tidal cycles from 2006 to 2008. To understand the difference between weather conditions, we investigated on both of rainy day and fine day. Water budget in the river was controlled by tidal exchange at estuary and the input budget from upriver was not dominant for the total budget even if it"fs rain"DFrom estimation of suspended solids (SS) budgets, SS was flowed in the river from upriver significantly on rainy day (more than 5 times inflow of fine day). The amount of SS accumulation in mangrove forest on rainy day (316 kg/day) was about 10 times amount of fine day. Total nitrogen (T-N) and total phosphorus (T-P) budgets also showed accumulation in mangrove. The outflow of T-P to coastal area on rainy day was 0.046 kgPO4/day and nearly equal to fine day. In contrast, T-N outflow to coastal on rainy day (0.58 kgN/day) was about 100 times of fine day. T-N budget showed different behavior from T-P. Ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) was dissolved from mangrove forest (~3.83 kgN/day by the nutrient dissolution experiments) and flowed out to estuary under certain conditions. In addition"Cconcentrations of total organic carbon (TOC) in mangrove creeks increased on fine days (11.2~15.5 mgC/L) and decreased on rainy days(1.8~4.9 mgC/L). It suggested the TOC dissolution to creek water from mangrove carbon-rich sediments and dilution effects by rain. Continuous measurements of gas fluxes showed that the CH4 and CO2 emissions from the water were accelerated due to the drop in hydrostatic pressure during the falling tide. The magnitude of total carbon gas fluxes (~116kgC/day) was about ~50 percent of the carbon accumulation in the creek. Estimation of net carbon cycling in Fukido mangrove estuary including carbon gas emission indicated that the estuary functioned as sinks for carbon. We conclude that a mangrove ecosystem had unique functions different from common urban rivers, preventing excess sediment outflow on rainy day and supplying nutrients to coastal area on fine day. It would affect the coastal ecosystems and offer habitats to marine life including fish and coral.

Terada, K.; Koibuchi, Y.; Isobe, M.

2008-12-01

46

The mangrove pump: The tidal flushing of animal burrows in a tropical mangrove forest determined from radionuclide budgets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intertidal mangrove forests contribute significantly to biogeochemical solute budgets of tropical and subtropical coastlines. A significant part of the biogeochemical cycling in mangrove ecosystems occurs within the subsurface of the forest floor. This subsurface source and the 'offshore' sink are linked by the tidally-driven movement of water through the mangrove forest floor. The tidal circulation through animal macro-burrows in the Coral Creek mangrove forest (area 3 km2) on Hinchinbrook Island (Australia) is documented by constructing mass balances of isotopes of radium and radon measured in the creek in 1997 and 2005 respectively. Isotope activities in burrows were found to be significantly greater than in the adjacent mangrove creek (e.g. for 222Rn, 680-1750 and 30-170 Bq m-3 in burrows and creek respectively). From isotope mass balances, a daily water circulation flux through burrows of 30.4 4.7 L m-2 of forest floor is calculated. This study quantifies the underlying physical process, i.e. the tidal flushing of burrows, that supports significant and continuous exports of soluble organic and inorganic matter from mangrove forest floors to the coastal ocean. The potential significance of the circulation flux estimate is illustrated by up-scaling of the forest-scale estimates to the mangrove forests in the entire central Great Barrier Reef. This extrapolation indicates that the annual water flux circulated by this tidally-driven 'mangrove pump' is equivalent to as much as 20% (16-22%) of the total annual river discharge along the ca. 400 km long coastline of this region.

Stieglitz, Thomas C.; Clark, Jordan F.; Hancock, Gary J.

2013-02-01

47

Plastic debris retention and exportation by a mangrove forest patch.  

PubMed

An experiment observed the behavior of selected tagged plastic items deliberately released in different habitats of a tropical mangrove forest in NE Brazil in late rainy (September) and late dry (March) seasons. Significant differences were not reported among seasons. However, marine debris retention varied among habitats, according to characteristics such as hydrodynamic (i.e., flow rates and volume transported) and relative vegetation (Rhizophora mangle) height and density. The highest grounds retained significantly more items when compared to the borders of the river and the tidal creek. Among the used tagged items, PET bottles were more observed and margarine tubs were less observed, being easily transported to adjacent habitats. Plastic bags were the items most retained near the releasing site. The balance between items retained and items lost was positive, demonstrating that mangrove forests tend to retain plastic marine debris for long periods (months-years). PMID:24321881

Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Costa, Monica F; Silva-Cavalcanti, Jacqueline S; Arajo, Maria Christina B

2014-01-15

48

Mapping and monitoring Louisiana's mangroves in the aftermath of the 2010 Gulf of Mexico Oil spill  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Information regarding the present condition, historical status, and dynamics of mangrove forests is needed to study the impacts of the Gulf of Mexico oil spill and other stressors affecting mangrove ecosystems. Such information is unavailable for Louisiana at sufficient spatial and thematic detail. We prepared mangrove forest distribution maps of Louisiana (prior to the oil spill) at 1 m and 30 m spatial resolution using aerial photographs and Landsat satellite data, respectively. Image classification was performed using a decision-tree classification approach. We also prepared land-cover change pairs for 1983, 1984, and every 2 y from 1984 to 2010 depicting ecosystem shifts (e.g., expansion, retraction, and disappearance). This new spatiotemporal information could be used to assess short-term and long-term impacts of the oil spill on mangroves. Finally, we propose an operational methodology based on remote sensing (Landsat, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer [ASTER], hyperspectral, light detection and ranging [LIDAR], aerial photographs, and field inventory data) to monitor the existing and emerging mangrove areas and their disturbance and regrowth patterns. Several parameters such as spatial distribution, ecosystem shifts, species composition, and tree height/biomass could be measured to assess the impact of the oil spill and mangrove recovery and restoration. Future research priorities will be to quantify the impacts and recovery of mangroves considering multiple stressors and perturbations, including oil spill, winter freeze, sea-level rise, land subsidence, and land-use/land-cover change for the entire Gulf Coast. ?? 2011 Coastal Education & Research Foundation.

Giri, C.; Long, J.; Tieszen, L.

2011-01-01

49

Vegetation and sediment characteristics in an expanding mangrove forest in New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangrove expansion in inlets has been widely observed in the North Island of New Zealand over recent decades. There is just one mangrove species in New Zealand, Avicennia marina var. resinifera. Our main objective was to investigate the response of mangroves to sedimentary patterns. Remote sensing and GIS was used to quantify the change in mangrove area. Vegetation and sediment characteristics were studied across seasons from December 2009 to August 2010. Comparison of digital images in 1940 and 2003 revealed that the mangrove area in our study inlet had increased by 21%. The mangroves created a rim of high fringe mangroves surrounding high-density but low height trees in the interior. The relatively low pH level and seasonally fluctuating pore water total dissolved salt (TDS) concentration reveal potentially stressful conditions in the interior mangrove zone, which may influence the forest structure in the interior.

Yang, Juan; Gao, Jay; Cheung, Alan; Liu, Baolin; Schwendenmann, Luitgard; Costello, Mark John

2013-12-01

50

Developing management plans for the mangrove forest reserves of mainland Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mangroves of Tanzania are currently not being managed although they are legally gazetted as forest reserves. The management of this overexploited and under estimated natural resource rests with the Forest and Beekeeping Division in the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism. It is the Division's intention to conserve the mangroves of Tanzania, therefore steps are being taken to reach

Adelaida K. Semesi

1992-01-01

51

Mangrove forest distributions and dynamics (19752005) of the tsunami-affected region of Asia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aim: We aimed to estimate the present extent of tsunami-affected mangrove forests and determine the rates and causes of deforestation from 1975 to 2005. Location: Our study region covers the tsunami-affected coastal areas of Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Burma (Myanmar), Bangladesh, India and Sri Lanka in Asia. Methods: We interpreted time-series Landsat data using a hybrid supervised and unsupervised classification approach. Landsat data were geometrically corrected to an accuracy of plus-or-minus half a pixel, an accuracy necessary for change analysis. Each image was normalized for solar irradiance by converting digital number values to the top-of-the atmosphere reflectance. Ground truth data and existing maps and data bases were used to select training samples and also for iterative labelling. We used a post-classification change detection approach. Results: were validated with the help of local experts and/or high-resolution commercial satellite data. Results The region lost 12% of its mangrove forests from 1975 to 2005, to a present extent of c. 1,670,000 ha. Rates and causes of deforestation varied both spatially and temporally. Annual deforestation was highest in Burma (c. 1%) and lowest in Sri Lanka (0.1%). In contrast, mangrove forests in India and Bangladesh remained unchanged or gained a small percentage. Net deforestation peaked at 137,000 ha during 1990-2000, increasing from 97,000 ha during 1975-90, and declining to 14,000 ha during 2000-05. The major causes of deforestation were agricultural expansion (81%), aquaculture (12%) and urban development (2%). Main conclusions: We assessed and monitored mangrove forests in the tsunami-affected region of Asia using the historical archive of Landsat data. We also measured the rates of change and determined possible causes. The results of our study can be used to better understand the role of mangrove forests in saving lives and property from natural disasters such as the Indian Ocean tsunami, and to identify possible areas for conservation, restoration and rehabilitation. ?? 2007 The Authors.

Giri, C.; Zhu, Z.; Tieszen, L.L.; Singh, A.; Gillette, S.; Kelmelis, J.A.

2008-01-01

52

Wave Attenuation in Mangrove Forests Numerical modelling of wave attenuation by implementation of a physical description of vegetation in SWAN  

E-print Network

Wave Attenuation in Mangrove Forests Numerical modelling of wave attenuation by implementation. H.J. Verhagen Drs. M. de Vries Dr. ir. M. Zijlema H.J. Opdam #12;Wave Attenuation in Mangrove of interest in this thesis is wave attenuation in vegetation and in particular in mangrove forests

Langendoen, Koen

53

Feeding selectivity of sesarmid crabs from northern Australian mangrove forests Chandra P. Salgado Kent* and Keith a. MCguinneSS  

E-print Network

Feeding selectivity of sesarmid crabs from northern Australian mangrove forests Chandra P. Salgado important components of mangrove fauna because of their influence on nutrient cycling and forest structure by feeding on litterfall. Little is known about the influence of electivity on the role of crabs in mangrove

54

Human Ecology, Vol. 32, No. 2, April 2004 ( C 2004) Local Management of Mangrove Forests in the  

E-print Network

Human Ecology, Vol. 32, No. 2, April 2004 ( C 2004) Local Management of Mangrove Forests restoration and management of mangrove forests, in particular, are now widely advocated as a solution in community-based, mangrove reforesta- tion and management. These cases are especially intriguing because

Walters, Bradley B.

55

PUBLISHED ONLINE: 3 APRIL 2011 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1123 Mangroves among the most carbon-rich forests in  

E-print Network

LETTERS PUBLISHED ONLINE: 3 APRIL 2011 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1123 Mangroves among the most carbon , Melanie Stidham4 and Markku Kanninen5 Mangrove forests occur along ocean coastlines throughout the tropics, the areal extent of mangrove forests has declined by 30­50% over the past half century as a result

Turner, Monica G.

56

Use of Landsat TM imagery as a tool for mangrove forest mapping ; a case study of Ehotile island in Cte d'Ivoire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integrated management of coastal zone requires a good coastal landscape knowledge. Mangroves in Cte d'Ivoire are valuable economic resources because of their high biomass production and their being a prolific fish habitat. They also play major role in the food chains and the fight against coastal erosion. However, mangroves are considered a hostile environment and thus are often cut down by man. Many restoration and protection efforts are underway. The present study is a remote sensing approach to map the mangroves of the Ehotil Islands (Iles Ehotil) in Cte d'Ivoire from the Landsat 7 scene 195-56 acquired on February 2nd, 2000. A multispectral analysis (Principal Component Analysis, Colour composites, Vegetation indices) was performed on the digital image which was later classified into nine (9) information classes (mangroves, swampy forest, forest, degraded forest, farmlands and/or fallows, grasslands, urban areas, seashore, water). The overall accuracy of the supervised classification is estimated at 93 percent. On the final classified image, areas predominantly covered by mangroves (Rhizophora racemosa) amount to 848 ha out of the 5715 ha of the study area. Remote sensing offers a valuable tool to monitor and map the mangrove ecosystems and land cover in tropical regions. Keywords: Mangroves, Remote sensing, Mapping, Classification, Landsat 7, Cte d'Ivoire, Iles Ehotil, Land cover, coastal zone.

Kwassi, A.; Blivi, A.

57

Mangroves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangroves, typical ecosystems of coastlines in the tropics and subtropics, are among the most productive ecosystems on earth.\\u000a Primary productivity is based on mangrove trees (6080 %), macroalgae (1520 %) and microbial mats (520 %). Stress conditions\\u000a of mangroves are given by highly variable substrate salinity, desiccation, irradiance, temperature. The trees in this ecosystem\\u000a are adapted by special morphological characteristics,

Ulrich Lttge

58

Mangrove recruitment after forest disturbance is facilitated by herbaceous species in the Caribbean.  

PubMed

Plant communities along tropical coastlines are often affected by natural and human disturbances, but little is known about factors influencing recovery. We focused on mangrove forests, which are among the most threatened ecosystems globally, to examine how facilitation by herbaceous vegetation might improve forest restoration after disturbance. We specifically investigated whether recovery of mangrove forests in harsh environments is accelerated by nurse plants and whether the beneficial effects are species-specific. Quantification of standardized effects allowed comparisons across performance parameters and over time for: (1) net effect of each herbaceous species on mangrove survival and growth, (2) effects of pre- and post-establishment factors associated with each herbaceous species, and (3) need for artificial planting to enhance growth or survival of mangrove seedlings. Mangrove recruitment in a clear-cut forest in Belize was accelerated by the presence of Sesuvium portulacastrum (succulent forb) and Distichlis spicata (grass), two coastal species common throughout the Caribbean region. The net effect of herbaceous vegetation was positive, but the magnitude of effects on mangrove survival and growth differed by species. Because of differences in their vegetative structure and other features, species effects on mangroves also varied by mechanism: (1) trapping of dispersing propagules (both species), (2) structural support of the seedling (Distichlis), and/or (3) promotion of survival (Sesuviumn) or growth (Distichlis) through amelioration of soil conditions (temperature, aeration). Artificial planting had a stronger positive effect on mangrove survival than did edaphic conditions, but planting enhanced mangrove growth more in Sesuvium than in Distichlis patches. Our study indicates that beneficial species might be selected based on features that provide multiple positive effects and that species comparisons may be improved using standardized effects. Our findings are not only relevant to the coastal environments found in the Caribbean region, but our assessment methods may be useful for developing site-specific information to restore disturbed mangrove forests worldwide, especially given the large pool of mangrove associates (>45 genera) available for screening. PMID:17913132

McKee, Karen L; Rooth, Jill E; Feller, Ilka C

2007-09-01

59

Flow routing in mangrove forests: A field study in Trang province, Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow routing in mangrove forests has great implications for the transport and distribution of sediments and nutrients and hence for mangroves' development and persistence. Whereas previous studies were limited to the creeks, supposedly feeding the surrounding mangroves, this study demonstrates the contribution of biogeophysical impacts on flow routing through estuarine mangroves. We present the results of a field campaign covering three pristine mangrove sites in two estuaries in Trang province, Thailand. The sites range from a mangrove forest elevated above mean sea level with steep cliffs and incised by tidal creeks, to smoothly inclining mangroves fronted by extensive mudflats and showing a clear vegetation zonation starting below mean sea level. It is shown how flow routing through estuarine mangroves is impacted by biogeophysical factors; elevation, exposure and vegetation. Within the higher elevated mangroves, creek flow prevails when water levels remain below a dense vegetation layer at the mangrove fringe bordering the estuary. Sheet flow prevails when this threshold is exceeded and direct water exchange takes place. The low-lying sites do not feature creeks and tidal flows are typically sheet flows, being susceptible to forcing by river discharges. With decreasing water depths and/or increasing vegetation densities, the effects of this forcing are reduced and flow velocities follow the vegetation induced cross-shore water level gradients. Flow velocities within the creeks are up to an order of magnitude greater than those within the vegetation, where velocities decrease progressively with increasing vegetation densities. Particular vegetation and elevation characteristics cause irregular velocity variations along the vertical, within the vegetation as well as in the creeks. Tentative tidal flux calculations demonstrate the significant contribution of creek flow to the total tidal prism in higher elevated mangroves. By explicitly quantifying and mapping flow routing through mangrove forests, this study provides observational evidence for flow routing phenomena that have been postulated in previous studies.

Horstman, Erik M.; Dohmen-Janssen, C. Marjolein; Hulscher, Suzanne J. M. H.

2013-12-01

60

An Evaluation of Plotless Sampling Using Vegetation Simulations and Field Data from a Mangrove Forest  

PubMed Central

In vegetation science and forest management, tree density is often used as a variable. To determine the value of this variable, reliable field methods are necessary. When vegetation is sparse or not easily accessible, the use of sample plots is not feasible in the field. Therefore, plotless methods, like the Point Centred Quarter Method, are often used as an alternative. In this study we investigate the accuracy of different plotless sampling methods. To this end, tree densities of a mangrove forest were determined and compared with estimates provided by several plotless methods. None of these methods proved accurate across all field sites with mean underestimations up to 97% and mean overestimations up to 53% in the field. Applying the methods to different vegetation patterns shows that when random spatial distributions were used the true density was included within the 95% confidence limits of all the plotless methods tested. It was also found that, besides aggregation and regularity, density trends often found in mangroves contribute to the unreliability. This outcome raises questions about the use of plotless sampling in forest monitoring and management, as well as for estimates of density-based carbon sequestration. We give recommendations to minimize errors in vegetation surveys and recommendations for further in-depth research. PMID:23826233

Hijbeek, Renske; Koedam, Nico; Khan, Md Nabiul Islam; Kairo, James Gitundu; Schoukens, Johan; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid

2013-01-01

61

Mangroves among the most carbon-rich forests in the tropics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangrove forests occur along ocean coastlines throughout the tropics, and support numerous ecosystem services, including fisheries production and nutrient cycling. However, the areal extent of mangrove forests has declined by 30-50% over the past half century as a result of coastal development, aquaculture expansion and over-harvesting. Carbon emissions resulting from mangrove loss are uncertain, owing in part to a lack of broad-scale data on the amount of carbon stored in these ecosystems, particularly below ground. Here, we quantified whole-ecosystem carbon storage by measuring tree and dead wood biomass, soil carbon content, and soil depth in 25 mangrove forests across a broad area of the Indo-Pacific region--spanning 30 of latitude and 73 of longitude--where mangrove area and diversity are greatest. These data indicate that mangroves are among the most carbon-rich forests in the tropics, containing on average 1,023Mg carbon per hectare. Organic-rich soils ranged from 0.5m to more than 3m in depth and accounted for 49-98% of carbon storage in these systems. Combining our data with other published information, we estimate that mangrove deforestation generates emissions of 0.02-0.12Pg carbon per year--as much as around 10% of emissions from deforestation globally, despite accounting for just 0.7% of tropical forest area.

Donato, Daniel C.; Kauffman, J. Boone; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Kurnianto, Sofyan; Stidham, Melanie; Kanninen, Markku

2011-05-01

62

EMERSION IN THE MANGROVE FOREST FISH 'RIVULUS MARMORATUS': A UNIQUE RESPONSE TO HYDROGEN SULFIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The mangrove forest fish Rivulus marmoratus (Cyprinodontidae) has frequently been observed out of water, a phenomenon generally attributed to habitat drying. The authors tested the hypothesis that hydrogen sulfide, a substance characteristically found in their environment, can se...

63

Plant biomass and nutrient flux in a managed mangrove forest in Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarizes previously reported and new data. Data on biomass and nutrient content in different components of the mangrove trees are presented and estimates of the flux of these are attempted. As a first step to determining the quantitative relationship between the export of material and the areal extent of mangroves, the biomass and nutrients contained in the mangrove trees and the release of these to the ecosystem annually were determined for the 40 800-ha Matang Mangrove Forest Reservea managed mangrove forest in Malaysia. The total standing biomass of the Matang Mangrove Forest is estimated to be 826 milion tonnes (of dry matter). Biomass released annually from the mangrove trees in the Matang system is 1 015 980 tonnes. Of these, 559 500 tonnes or 55% is in the form of dead trees, 396 840 tonnes (39%) is in the form of small litter and 59 640 (6%) in the slash left behind after thinning and harvesting. The amounts of macro-nutrients (N,P,K, Ca, Mg and Na) released annually are 12 210, 11 870 and 2690 tonnes through litter, dead trees and slash respectively. The fate of these materials is discussed. Using the figure of 50% export, the export of biomass and nutrients from the Matang Mangroves through leaf litter alone is estimated as 158 300 and 5100 tonnes annually or 39 and 01 tonne ha -1 year -1 respectively.

Gong, Wooi-Khoon; Ong, Jin-Eong

1990-11-01

64

Cyanobacterial diversity in the phyllosphere of a mangrove forest.  

PubMed

The cyanobacterial community colonizing phyllosphere in a well-preserved Brazilian mangrove ecosystem was assessed using cultivation-independent molecular approaches. Leaves of trees that occupy this environment (Rhizophora mangle,Avicennia schaueriana and Laguncularia racemosa) were collected along a transect beginning at the margin of the bay and extending upland. The results demonstrated that the phyllosphere of R. mangle and L. racemosa harbor similar assemblages of cyanobacteria at each point along the transect. A. schaueriana, found only in the coastal portions of the transect, was colonized by assemblages with lower richness than the other trees. However, the results indicated that spatial location was a stronger driver of cyanobacterial community composition than plant species. Distinct cyanobacterial communities were observed at each location along the coast-to-upland transect. Clone library analysis allowed identification of 19 genera of cyanobacteria and demonstrated the presence of several uncultivated taxa. A predominance of sequences affiliated with the orders Nostocales and Oscillatoriales was observed, with a remarkable number of sequences similar to genera Symphyonemopsis/Brasilonema (order Nostocales). The results demonstrated that phyllosphere cyanobacteria in this mangrove forest ecosystem are influenced by environmental conditions as the primary driver at the ecosystem scale, with tree species exerting some effect on community structure at the local scale. PMID:22611551

Rigonato, Janaina; Alvarenga, Danillo Oliveira; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Melo, Itamar Soares; Kent, Angela; Fiore, Marli Ftima

2012-05-01

65

Spatial analysis of anthropogenic disturbances in mangrove forests of Bhitarkanika Conservation Area, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dependence of coastal communities on mangrove forests for direct consumptive use due to the scarcity of alternate resources\\u000a makes them one of the highly disturbed landscapes. This paper examines the spatial characteristics and extent of anthropogenic\\u000a disturbances affecting the mangrove forests of Bhitarkanika Conservation Area situated along the east coast of India by using\\u000a remotely sensed data and GIS,

K. R. Ambastha; S. A. Hussain; R. Badola; P. S. Roy

2010-01-01

66

Winter climate change and coastal wetland foundation species: salt marshes vs. mangrove forests in the southeastern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We live in an era of unprecedented ecological change in which ecologists and natural resource managers are increasingly challenged to anticipate and prepare for the ecological effects of future global change. In this study, we investigated the potential effect of winter climate change upon salt marsh and mangrove forest foundation species in the southeastern United States. Our research addresses the following three questions: (1) What is the relationship between winter climate and the presence and abundance of mangrove forests relative to salt marshes; (2) How vulnerable are salt marshes to winter climate change-induced mangrove forest range expansion; and (3) What is the potential future distribution and relative abundance of mangrove forests under alternative winter climate change scenarios? We developed simple winter climate-based models to predict mangrove forest distribution and relative abundance using observed winter temperature data (19702000) and mangrove forest and salt marsh habitat data. Our results identify winter climate thresholds for salt marshmangrove forest interactions and highlight coastal areas in the southeastern United States (e.g., Texas, Louisiana, and parts of Florida) where relatively small changes in the intensity and frequency of extreme winter events could cause relatively dramatic landscape-scale ecosystem structural and functional change in the form of poleward mangrove forest migration and salt marsh displacement. The ecological implications of these marsh-to-mangrove forest conversions are poorly understood, but would likely include changes for associated fish and wildlife populations and for the supply of some ecosystem goods and services.

Osland, Michael J.; Day, Richard H.; Doyle, Thomas W.; Enwright, Nicholas

2013-01-01

67

Status and distribution of mangrove forests of the world using earth observation satellite data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aim Our scientific understanding of the extent and distribution of mangrove forests of the world is inadequate. The available global mangrove databases, compiled using disparate geospatial data sources and national statistics, need to be improved. Here, we mapped the status and distributions of global mangroves using recently available Global Land Survey (GLS) data and the Landsat archive.Methods We interpreted approximately 1000 Landsat scenes using hybrid supervised and unsupervised digital image classification techniques. Each image was normalized for variation in solar angle and earth-sun distance by converting the digital number values to the top-of-the-atmosphere reflectance. Ground truth data and existing maps and databases were used to select training samples and also for iterative labelling. Results were validated using existing GIS data and the published literature to map 'true mangroves'.Results The total area of mangroves in the year 2000 was 137,760 km2 in 118 countries and territories in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Approximately 75% of world's mangroves are found in just 15 countries, and only 6.9% are protected under the existing protected areas network (IUCN I-IV). Our study confirms earlier findings that the biogeographic distribution of mangroves is generally confined to the tropical and subtropical regions and the largest percentage of mangroves is found between 5?? N and 5?? S latitude.Main conclusions We report that the remaining area of mangrove forest in the world is less than previously thought. Our estimate is 12.3% smaller than the most recent estimate by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. We present the most comprehensive, globally consistent and highest resolution (30 m) global mangrove database ever created. We developed and used better mapping techniques and data sources and mapped mangroves with better spatial and thematic details than previous studies. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Giri, C.; Ochieng, E.; Tieszen, L.L.; Zhu, Z.; Singh, A.; Loveland, T.; Masek, J.; Duke, N.

2011-01-01

68

Status and distribution of mangrove forests of the world using earth observation satellite data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aim? Our scientific understanding of the extent and distribution of mangrove forests of the world is inadequate. The available global mangrove databases, compiled using disparate geospatial data sources and national statistics, need to be improved. Here, we mapped the status and distributions of global mangroves using recently available Global Land Survey (GLS) data and the Landsat archive. Methods? We interpreted approximately 1000 Landsat scenes using hybrid supervised and unsupervised digital image classification techniques. Each image was normalized for variation in solar angle and earthsun distance by converting the digital number values to the top-of-the-atmosphere reflectance. Ground truth data and existing maps and databases were used to select training samples and also for iterative labelling. Results were validated using existing GIS data and the published literature to map true mangroves. Results? The total area of mangroves in the year 2000 was 137,760 km2 in 118 countries and territories in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Approximately 75% of world's mangroves are found in just 15 countries, and only 6.9% are protected under the existing protected areas network (IUCN I-IV). Our study confirms earlier findings that the biogeographic distribution of mangroves is generally confined to the tropical and subtropical regions and the largest percentage of mangroves is found between 5 N and 5 S latitude. Main conclusions? We report that the remaining area of mangrove forest in the world is less than previously thought. Our estimate is 12.3% smaller than the most recent estimate by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. We present the most comprehensive, globally consistent and highest resolution (30 m) global mangrove database ever created. We developed and used better mapping techniques and data sources and mapped mangroves with better spatial and thematic details than previous studies.

Giri, Chandra; Ochieng, E.; Tieszen, Larry L.; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Singh, Ashbindu; Loveland, Thomas R.; Masek, Jeffery G.; Duke, Norm

2011-01-01

69

Morphology and Expansion of a Tidal Flat and Mangrove Forest, Firth of Thames, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A morphological and sedimentological study was undertaken on a tidal flat/mangrove forest complex in the Firth of Thames (North Island, New Zealand), to elucidate patterns and rates of tidal flat progradation and associated mangrove habitat expansion along this wave-impacted mesotidal muddy coastline. Recent studies of mangrove habitat in the area document accelerated forest expansion over the past five decades. To better understand processes controlling progradation of unvegetated mudflats fronting mangrove forest, sediment cores and field observations were collected on a transect extending one km seaward of the mangrove fringe. Cores were X-radiographed and analyzed for grain size, water content, and the radioisotopes Pb-210, Be-7, and Cs-137 to evaluate sediment accumulation rates, and sediment mixing rates and depths. X-radiographs and Be-7 profiles indicate intense and rapid mixing (by waves) of the uppermost 3-7 cm of sediment on unvegetated flats. Pb-210 accumulation rates of 2-3 cm/y characterize the uppermost 40-50 cm of unvegetated flat sediments, much slower accumulation than the 5-10 cm/y accumulation rates observed in the seaward edges of mangrove forest. Our observations suggest that the wave-swept unvegetated mudflats accrete relatively slowly until an elevation threshold is reached that allows mangrove recruitment. Sediment accretion in the mangrove fringe remains low until vegetation is sufficiently dense to reduce wave exposure, whereupon more rapid sediment accumulation ensues, as the young trees mature. A simple sediment budget based on Pb-210 sedimentation rates and estimated local river sediment supply indicates that present sediment accumulation on the unvegetated mudflat exceeds present fluvial sediment discharge by a significant margin, suggesting that the system is not in steady state, but is still adjusting to massive sediment flux delivered following a period of forest clearance in the late 19th/early 20th century.

Bentley, S. J.; Swales, A.; Kahlmeyer, E.; Denommee, K.

2008-12-01

70

Organic carbon burial in a mangrove forest, margin and intertidal mud flat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flux of total organic carbon (TOC) to depositional facies (intertidal mud flat, margin and forest) was quantified for a tropical mangrove forest in Brazil. Results indicate that these mangrove margins and intertidal mudflats are sites of large TOC accumulation, almost four times greater than the global averages for mangrove forests. The TOC burial rates were determined from organic carbon content in sediment cores which were dated using 210Pb. Burial rates were calculated to be 1129, 949, and 353 (g m -2 yr -1), for the mud flat, margin and forest, respectively. Sediment accumulation rates (SAR) were estimated to be 7.3, 5.0 and 2.8 mm yr -1. Sediment characterization (? 13C, ? 15N, TOC/TN and mud fraction) indicated a representative mangrove system with a record of consistent organic matter flux of up to 100 years. Because of substantial burial of organic carbon in mangrove ecosystems, their role in the global carbon budget must be considered. More importantly, as climate change influences temperature and sea level, mangrove ecosystems will respond to specific climatic conditions.

Sanders, Christian J.; Smoak, Joseph M.; Naidu, A. Sathy; Sanders, Luciana M.; Patchineelam, Sambasiva R.

2010-12-01

71

Variation in mangrove forest structure and sediment characteristics in Bocas del Toro, Panama  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mangrove forest structure and sediment characteristics were examined in the extensive mangroves of Bocas del Toro, Republic of Panama. Forest structure was characterized to determine if spatial vegetation patterns were repeated over the Bocas del Toro landscape. Using a series of permanent plots and transects we found that the forests of Bocas del Toro were dominated by Rhizophora mangle with very few individuals of Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa. Despite this low species diversity, there was large variation in forest structure and in edaphic conditions (salinity, concentration of available phosphorus, Eh and sulphide concentration). Aboveground biomass varied 20-fold, from 6.8 Mg ha-1 in dwarf forests to 194.3 Mg ha-1 in the forests fringing the land. But variation in forest structure was predictable across the intertidal zone. There was a strong tree height gradient from seaward fringe (mean tree height 3.9 m), decreasing in stature in the interior dwarf forests (mean tree height 0.7 m), and increasing in stature in forests adjacent to the terrestrial forest (mean tree height 4.1 m). The predictable variation in forest structure emerges due to the complex interactions among edaphic and plant factors. Identifying predictable patterns in forest structure will aid in scaling up the ecosystem services provided by mangrove forests in coastal landscapes. Copyright 2005 College of Arts and Sciences.

Lovelock, C.E.; Feller, I.C.; McKee, K.L.; Thompson, R.

2005-01-01

72

Carbon Accumulation in Mangrove Soil during Forest Maturity: New Insights from Afforestation Projects in Southern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangrove forests have high rates of carbon (C) sequestration, and long-term C storage in mangrove soils can span millennia. Our knowledge of C accumulation in mangrove soils is limited however, by a scarcity of direct measurements and because the existing body of data appears to be biased toward high C systems. Furthermore, very little is known about C accumulation rates in young forests following afforestation. We collected soil data from Chinese mangrove afforestation projects and conducted a literature review with the aims of 1) quantifying soil C accumulation following afforestation, and 2) characterizing young, relatively low-C systems to contribute to global estimates of mangrove soil C. We collected soil cores (depth range 10 to 100 cm) at Dongzhaigang (Hainan Province) and Futian (Guangdong Pronvince) National Mangrove Reserves, where forests plots ranged in age from 0 (unforested mudflat) to 60 years. At Futian, soil data were collected annually from pre-planting through 5 years old, and neighboring forests were used to characterize older forests (space for time chronosequence). At Dongzhaigang, a space for time approach was used to compare three neighboring forests. Preliminary data from Dongzhaigang show average to slightly high rates of soil C sequestration (196 to 319 g C m-2 yr-1), compared to current global averages for all mangroves. In our literature review, we found 10 papers containing soil C data for at least two forest ages, for a total of 19 sites. Soil C increased with forest age at almost all sites, and increased from pre-planting to year 5 at all sites of that age group. This trend differs from terrestrial forests, which on average show a decrease in soil C for the first five years after afforestation. Several reviewed studies and our own field data show soil C densities (%C per volume) near 2% decades after afforestation, which is several times lower than most current global averages for all mangrove soil. Our research indicates that young mangrove forests can sequester significant amounts of C in soil with positive sequestration rates following afforestation. However, despite significant sequestration, soil C density remains lower than current global averages decades after afforestation.

Lunstrum, A.; Chen, L.; Yang, Y.

2012-12-01

73

Mangrove recruitment after forest disturbance is facilitated by herbaceous species in the Caribbean  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Plant communities along tropical coastlines are often affected by natural and human disturbances, but little is known about factors influencing recovery. We focused on mangrove forests, which are among the most threatened ecosystems globally, to examine how facilitation by herbaceous vegetation might improve forest restoration after disturbance. We specifically investigated whether recovery of mangrove forests in harsh environments is accelerated by nurse plants and whether the beneficial effects are species-specific. Quantification of standardized effects allowed comparisons across performance parameters and over time for: (1) net effect of each herbaceous species on mangrove survival and growth, (2) effects of pre- and post-establishment factors associated with each herbaceous species, and (3) need for artificial planting to enhance growth or survival of mangrove seedlings. Mangrove recruitment in a clear-cut forest in Belize was accelerated by the presence of Sesuvium portulacastrum (succulent forb) and Distichlis spicata (grass), two coastal species common throughout the Caribbean region. The net effect of herbaceous vegetation was positive, but the magnitude of effects on mangrove survival and growth differed by species. Because of differences in their vegetative structure and other features, species effects on mangroves also varied by mechanism: (1) trapping of dispersing propagules (both species), (2) structural support of the seedling (Distichlis), and/or (3) promotion of survival (Sesuvium) or growth (Distichlis) through amelioration of soil conditions (temperature, aeration). Artificial planting had a stronger positive effect on mangrove survival than did edaphic conditions, but planting enhanced mangrove growth more in Sesuvium than in Distichlis patches. Our study indicates that beneficial species might be selected based on features that provide multiple positive effects and that species comparisons may be improved using standardized effects. Our findings are not only relevant to the coastal environments found in the Caribbean region, but our assessment methods may be useful for developing site-specific information to restore disturbed mangrove forests worldwide, especially given the large pool of mangrove associates (>45 genera) available for screening. ?? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America.

McKee, K.L.; Rooth, J.E.; Feller, I.C.

2007-01-01

74

Modeling light use efficiency in a subtropical mangrove forest equipped with CO2 eddy covariance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the importance of mangrove ecosystems in the global carbon budget, the relationships between environmental drivers and carbon dynamics in these forests remain poorly understood. This limited understanding is partly a result of the challenges associated with in situ flux studies. Tower-based CO2 eddy covariance (EC) systems are installed in only a few mangrove forests worldwide, and the longest EC record from the Florida Everglades contains less than 9 years of observations. A primary goal of the present study was to develop a methodology to estimate canopy-scale photosynthetic light use efficiency in this forest. These tower-based observations represent a basis for associating CO2 fluxes with canopy light use properties, and thus provide the means for utilizing satellite-based reflectance data for larger scale investigations. We present a model for mangrove canopy light use efficiency utilizing the enhanced green vegetation index (EVI) derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) that is capable of predicting changes in mangrove forest CO2 fluxes caused by a hurricane disturbance and changes in regional environmental conditions, including temperature and salinity. Model parameters are solved for in a Bayesian framework. The model structure requires estimates of ecosystem respiration (RE), and we present the first ever tower-based estimates of mangrove forest RE derived from nighttime CO2 fluxes. Our investigation is also the first to show the effects of salinity on mangrove forest CO2 uptake, which declines 5% per each 10 parts per thousand (ppt) increase in salinity. Light use efficiency in this forest declines with increasing daily photosynthetic active radiation, which is an important departure from the assumption of constant light use efficiency typically applied in satellite-driven models. The model developed here provides a framework for estimating CO2 uptake by these forests from reflectance data and information about environmental conditions.

Barr, J. G.; Engel, V.; Fuentes, J. D.; Fuller, D. O.; Kwon, H.

2013-03-01

75

Modeling light use efficiency in a subtropical mangrove forest equipped with CO2 eddy covariance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Despite the importance of mangrove ecosystems in the global carbon budget, the relationships between environmental drivers and carbon dynamics in these forests remain poorly understood. This limited understanding is partly a result of the challenges associated with in situ flux studies. Tower-based CO2 eddy covariance (EC) systems are installed in only a few mangrove forests worldwide, and the longest EC record from the Florida Everglades contains less than 9 years of observations. A primary goal of the present study was to develop a methodology to estimate canopy-scale photosynthetic light use efficiency in this forest. These tower-based observations represent a basis for associating CO2 fluxes with canopy light use properties, and thus provide the means for utilizing satellite-based reflectance data for larger scale investigations. We present a model for mangrove canopy light use efficiency utilizing the enhanced green vegetation index (EVI) derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) that is capable of predicting changes in mangrove forest CO2 fluxes caused by a hurricane disturbance and changes in regional environmental conditions, including temperature and salinity. Model parameters are solved for in a Bayesian framework. The model structure requires estimates of ecosystem respiration (RE), and we present the first ever tower-based estimates of mangrove forest RE derived from nighttime CO2 fluxes. Our investigation is also the first to show the effects of salinity on mangrove forest CO2 uptake, which declines 5% per each 10 parts per thousand (ppt) increase in salinity. Light use efficiency in this forest declines with increasing daily photosynthetic active radiation, which is an important departure from the assumption of constant light use efficiency typically applied in satellite-driven models. The model developed here provides a framework for estimating CO2 uptake by these forests from reflectance data and information about environmental conditions.

Barr, J.G.; Engel, V.; Fuentes, J.D.; Fuller, D.O.; Kwon, H.

2013-01-01

76

Assessment of mangrove forests in the Pacific region using Landsat imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The information on the mangrove forests for the Pacific region is scarce or outdated. A regional assessment based on a consistent methodology and data sources was needed to understand their true extent. Our investigation offers a regionally consistent, high resolution (30 m), and the most comprehensive mapping of mangrove forests on the islands of American Samoa, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Hawaii, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, New Caledonia, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, and Wallis and Futuna Islands for the year 2000. We employed a hybrid supervised and unsupervised image classification technique on a total of 128 Landsat scenes gathered between 1999 and 2004, and validated the results using existing geographic information science (GIS) datasets, high resolution imagery, and published literature. We also draw a comparative analysis with the mangrove forests inventory published by the Food and Agriculture Association (FAO) of the United Nations. Our estimate shows a total of 623755 hectares of mangrove forests in the Pacific region; an increase of 18% from FAO's estimates. Although mangrove forests are disproportionately distributed toward a few larger islands on the western Pacific, they are also significant in many smaller islands.

Bhattarai, Bibek; Giri, Chandra

2011-01-01

77

Taxonomic survey of Drosophilidae (Diptera) from mangrove forests of Santa Catarina Island, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Assemblages of drosophilids have been characterised in several environments of the Brazilian territory, like the Atlantic Rain Forest, urban areas, cerrados, the Amazon Forest, and others. The present survey is the first attempt to characterise the fauna of Drosophilidae in mangrove forests, an environment typical of tropical coasts worldwide. Twenty-eight samples were collected from the three main mangrove forests of Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil, using banana-baited traps hung in trees. Samples were taken in January (summer), April (autumn), July (winter) and October (spring) between July 2002 and July 2005. In total, 82,942 specimens of drosophilids were caught, belonging to 69 species of six genera - Amiota Loew, Drosophila Falln, Leucophenga Mik, Scaptodrosophila Duda, Zaprionus Coquillett and Zygothrica Wiedemann. The high abundance of D. simulans Sturtevant was remarkable, with some notable peaks of D. malerkotliana Parshad & Paika in autumn samples. Other common species were Zaprionus indianus Gupta, D. mediostriata Duda and D. willistoni Sturtevant. We also collected 45,826 flies of family Curtonotidae, the sister-group of Drosophilidae virtually absent in other environments. The assemblages of drosophilids were very similar in the three mangrove forests surveyed, despite the different surrounding environments. In general, the species sampled in the mangroves were the same as those observed in the surrounding environments, but in varying abundances. This suggests that drosophilids are differently affected by environmental pressures operating in mangroves. PMID:17420862

Schmitz, Hermes J; Valente, Vera L S; Hofmann, Paulo R P

2007-01-01

78

Patterns of tidal flooding within a mangrove forest: Coombabah Lake, Southeast Queensland, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tidal flooding and surface drainage patterns have often been used to describe mangrove species zonation. However, in mangrove forests exhibiting little topography, ambiguous species distributions and/or few species, such approaches are ineffective. We identified four physiognomic mangrove forest types (Riverine, Fringing, Overwash and Basin) at Coombabah Lake, a tidal lake in southeast Queensland, Australia and investigated tidal flooding patterns using synoptic surveys of tidal observations at the local Standard Port combined with local water depth observation. Subsequently three sub-types of the basin forest type were identified: (1) Deep Basin Forest with mature trees, 50 cm standing water and 3 tides per year; (2) Medium Depth Basin Forest with intermediate tree development, 15-30 cm standing water and 20-40 tides per year; and (3) Shallow Basin Forest with relatively recent mangrove establishment, 5-15 cm standing water and 80 tides per year. These three basin sub-types were found to flood at different tide heights with the Shallow Basin flooding for tides above mean high water springs and the Deep Basin flooding only for tide heights approaching the highest astronomical tide. We propose that these basin types represent a succession in mangrove forest development that corresponds with increasing water depth and tree maturation over time. The succession not only represents increasing age but also change in basin substrate composition. This is manifest as increasing pneumatophore density and an increasing area of basin surface occupied by contiguous pneumatophore cover. As a result, it seems that mangrove development is able to modify tidal flooding into the basin by increasingly impeding water movement.

Knight, J. M.; Dale, P. E. R.; Dunn, R. J. K.; Broadbent, G. J.; Lemckert, C. J.

2008-02-01

79

Fine root respiration in the mangrove Rhizophora mangle over variation in forest stature and nutrient availability.  

PubMed

Root respiration uses a significant proportion of photosynthetically fixed carbon (C) and is a globally important source of C liberated from soils. Mangroves, which are an important and productive forest resource in many tropical and subtropical countries, sustain a high ratio of root to shoot biomass which may indicate that root respiration is a particularly important component in mangrove forest carbon budgets. Mangroves are often exposed to nutrient pollution from coastal waters. Here we assessed the magnitude of fine root respiration in mangrove forests in Belize and investigated how root respiration is influenced by nutrient additions. Respiration rates of excised fine roots of the mangrove, Rhizophora mangle L., were low (4.01 +/- 0.16 nmol CO(2) g(-1) s(-1)) compared to those measured in temperate tree species at similar temperatures. In an experiment where trees where fertilized with nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P) in low productivity dwarf forests (1-2 m height) and more productive, taller (4- 7 m height) seaward fringing forests, respiration of fine roots did not vary consistently with fertilization treatments or with forest stature. Fine roots of taller fringe trees had higher concentrations of both N and P compared to dwarf trees. Fertilization with P enhanced fine root P concentrations in both dwarf and fringe trees, but reduced root N concentrations compared to controls. Fertilization with N had no effect on root N or P concentrations. Unlike photosynthetic C gain and growth, which is strongly limited by P availability in dwarf forests at this site, fine root respiration (expressed on a mass basis) was variable, but showed no significant enhancements with nutrient additions. Variation in fine root production and standing biomass are, therefore, likely to be more important factors determining C efflux from mangrove sediments than variations in fine root respiration per unit mass. PMID:17169899

Lovelock, Catherine E; Ruess, Roger W; Feller, Ilka C

2006-12-01

80

The influence of crabs on litter processing in high intertidal mangrove forests in tropical Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of litter fall and litter removal by crabs, in conjunction with estimates of litter decay by microbes and tidal export of litter from three high-intertidal mangrove forests were made during a year-long study in tropical northeastern Australia. In forests dominated by Ceriops tagal and Bruguiera exaristata, litter standing stocks remained low on the forest floor (mean 6 gm-2), although

A. I. Robertson; P. A. Daniel

1989-01-01

81

How mangrove forests adjust to rising sea level.  

PubMed

Mangroves are among the most well described and widely studied wetland communities in the world. The greatest threats to mangrove persistence are deforestation and other anthropogenic disturbances that can compromise habitat stability and resilience to sea-level rise. To persist, mangrove ecosystems must adjust to rising sea level by building vertically or become submerged. Mangroves may directly or indirectly influence soil accretion processes through the production and accumulation of organic matter, as well as the trapping and retention of mineral sediment. In this review, we provide a general overview of research on mangrove elevation dynamics, emphasizing the role of the vegetation in maintaining soil surface elevations (i.e. position of the soil surface in the vertical plane). We summarize the primary ways in which mangroves may influence sediment accretion and vertical land development, for example, through root contributions to soil volume and upward expansion of the soil surface. We also examine how hydrological, geomorphological and climatic processes may interact with plant processes to influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with rising sea level. We draw on a variety of studies to describe the important, and often under-appreciated, role that plants play in shaping the trajectory of an ecosystem undergoing change. PMID:24251960

Krauss, Ken W; McKee, Karen L; Lovelock, Catherine E; Cahoon, Donald R; Saintilan, Neil; Reef, Ruth; Chen, Luzhen

2014-04-01

82

How mangrove forests adjust to rising sea level  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mangroves are among the most well described and widely studied wetland communities in the world. The greatest threats to mangrove persistence are deforestation and other anthropogenic disturbances that can compromise habitat stability and resilience to sea-level rise. To persist, mangrove ecosystems must adjust to rising sea level by building vertically or become submerged. Mangroves may directly or indirectly influence soil accretion processes through the production and accumulation of organic matter, as well as the trapping and retention of mineral sediment. In this review, we provide a general overview of research on mangrove elevation dynamics, emphasizing the role of the vegetation in maintaining soil surface elevations (i.e. position of the soil surface in the vertical plane). We summarize the primary ways in which mangroves may influence sediment accretion and vertical land development, for example, through root contributions to soil volume and upward expansion of the soil surface. We also examine how hydrological, geomorphological and climatic processes may interact with plant processes to influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with rising sea level. We draw on a variety of studies to describe the important, and often under-appreciated, role that plants play in shaping the trajectory of an ecosystem undergoing change.

Krauss, Ken W.; McKee, Karen L.; Lovelock, Catherine E.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Saintilan, Neil; Reef, Ruth; Chen, Luzhen

2014-01-01

83

Tsunami damage reduction performance of a mangrove forest in Banda Aceh, Indonesia inferred from field data and a numerical model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the role of mangrove forests as natural defenses protecting coastal communities from tsunami disaster has been highlighted. However, some mangrove forests were destroyed by that tsunami. They are expected to have lost their protective functions. In this study, we develop a fragility function to assess the mangrove trees' vulnerability, expressed as the damage probability of mangrove trees, based on field surveys and numerical modeling of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. Based on the fragility function, we reconstruct a numerical model of tsunami inundation including the performance of mangrove forests in terms of reducing tsunami damage. The model reveals that a 10 year old mangrove forest in a 500 m wide area can reduce a tsunami's hydrodynamic force by approximately 70% for an incident wave of 3.0 m inundation depth and a wave period of 40 min at the shoreline. The model also shows, for a tsunami inundation depth of greater than 4 m, that a 10 year old mangrove forest would be mostly destroyed and that it would lose its force reduction capacity. Moreover, approximately 80% of a 30 year old mangrove forest would survive a 5 m tsunami and absorb 50% of the tsunami's hydrodynamic force.

Yanagisawa, H.; Koshimura, S.; Miyagi, T.; Imamura, F.

2010-06-01

84

Tidal-scale flow routing and sedimentation in mangrove forests: Combining field data and numerical modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tidal-scale biophysical interactions establish particular flow routing and sedimentation patterns in coastal mangroves. Sluggish water flows through the mangrove vegetation and enhanced sediment deposition are essential to maintain these valuable ecosystems, thereby enabling their contribution to coastal protection and stabilization. Spatially explicit field observations of tidal-scale flow routing and sediment deposition were obtained in an elevated mangrove stand dissected by tidal creeks, located in the Trang river estuary at the Thai Andaman coast. An accurate and efficient depth-averaged process-based numerical model of this field site was developed in Delft3D to study the contributions of various biogeophysical mangrove settings to the observed tidal dynamics and to study the impacts of changes of these environmental conditions. The creeks are found to form the major pathway for the tidal inflow during the lower tides, while the sheltered interior of the forest is an effective sediment sink during the higher tides. A numerical sensitivity analysis of the initial response-or adaptive capacity-of the studied mangrove system to instantaneous environmental changes reveals the stable state of the study site: deposition rates are largely imposed by the topography and relative elevation, while they are rather independent of the vegetation density. Deeper inundations of the mangroves favor sheet flows through the forest and spatially averaged deposition rates decrease, particularly when this coincides with decreasing vegetation densities. Moreover, the sediment trapping efficiency is found to reduce significantly with diminishing sediment inputs and with mangrove area losses. These results clearly indicate the sensitivity of mangroves' ecosystem engineering ability-in terms of sedimentation-to climate change and anthropogenic threats.

Horstman, E. M.; Dohmen-Janssen, C. M.; Bouma, T. J.; Hulscher, S. J. M. H.

2015-01-01

85

Change and fragmentation trends of Zhanjiang mangrove forests in southern China using multi-temporal Landsat imagery (1977-2010)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangrove forests, which are found in saline coastal environments around the tropical and subtropical latitudes, are among the most productive terrestrial ecosystems in the world and provide valuable ecological and societal goods and services. The objective of this work was to characterize the spatio-temporal changes in mangrove distribution and fragmentation patterns in the Zhanjiang National Mangrove Forest Nature Reserve, Guangdong province of Southern China, from 1977 through 2010. In addition, a major goal was to assess the socio-economic drivers contributing to the chronic changes taking place within and around the mangrove reserve. Land use and land cover data sets were generated for the reserve for multiple years via unsupervised classification using Landsat time series images. Mangrove fragmentation patterns were then assessed with a fragmentation model. Results revealed that the mangrove spatial extent decreased sharply during the period from 1977 to 1991 due to deforestation caused by diverse development programs, particularly shrimp farming. Afterwards, there was a continuous increase in mangrove extent from 1991 to 2010 due to afforestation and conservation efforts. The mangrove fragmentation trends depicted by the fragmentation model had a high degree of correlation with the observed areal changes. Additionally, the recorded dynamics of the local biodiversity (mainly birds) were consistent with the mangrove ecosystem fragmentation trends over time, and different fragmentation components, including interior, perforated and edge, had distinct impacts on the local mangrove-dependent biodiversity. The most effective way to protect and expand the current mangroves include the following: (1) establishment of mangrove natural reserves, (2) forceful implementation of regulations, (3) establishment of educational programs related to mangrove management, (4) deepening international exchanges and cooperation and (5) increasing the transparency of the project implementation process. Together such management measures will lead towards responsible and sustainable utilization of the mangrove ecosystems.

Li, M. S.; Mao, L. J.; Shen, W. J.; Liu, S. Q.; Wei, A. S.

2013-09-01

86

Assessing impact of climate change on Mundra mangrove forest ecosystem, Gulf of Kutch, western coast of India: a synergistic evaluation using remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangrove cover changes have globally raised the apprehensions as the changes influence the coastal climate as well as the marine ecosystem services. The main goals of this research are focused on the monitoring of land cover and mangrove spatial changes particularly for the Mundra forest in the western coast of Gujarat state, India, which is famous for its unique mangrove bio-diversity. The multi-temporal Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) Linear Imaging Self Scanning (LISS)-II (IRS-1B) and III (IRS P6/RESOURCESAT-1) images captured in the year 1994 and 2010 were utilized for the spatio-temporal analysis of the area. The land cover and mangrove density was estimated by a unique hybrid classification which consists of K means unsupervised following maximum likelihood classification (MLC) supervised classification-based approach. The vegetation and non-vegetation layers has been extracted and separated by unsupervised classification technique while the training-based MLC was applied on the separated vegetation and non-vegetation classes to classify them into 11 land use/land cover classes. The climatic variables of the area involves wind, temperature, dew point, precipitation, and mean sea level investigated for the period of 17 years over the site. To understand the driving factors, the anthropogenic variables were also taken into account such as historical population datasets. The overall analysis indicates a significant change in the frequency and magnitude of sea-level rise from 1994 to 2010. The analysis of the meteorological variables indicates a high pressure and changes in mangrove density during the 17 years of time, which reveals that if appropriate actions are not initiated soon, the Mundra mangroves might become the victims of climate change-induced habitat loss. After analyzing all the factors, some recommendations and suggestions are provided for effective mangrove conservation and resilience, which could be used by forest official to protect this precious ecosystem.

Srivastava, Prashant K.; Mehta, Abhinav; Gupta, Manika; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Islam, Tanvir

2014-06-01

87

Attitudes of local communities towards conservation of mangrove forests: A case study from the east coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ecological and economic importance of mangrove ecosystems is well established and highlighted by studies establishing a correlation between the protective function of mangroves and the loss of lives and property caused by coastal hazards. Nevertheless, degradation of this ecosystem remains a matter of concern, emphasizing the fact that effective conservation of natural resources is possible only with an understanding of the attitudes and perceptions of local communities. In the present study, we examined the attitudes and perceptions of local communities towards mangrove forests through questionnaire surveys in 36 villages in the Bhitarkanika Conservation Area, India. The sample villages were selected from 336 villages using hierarchical cluster analysis. The study revealed that local communities in the area had positive attitudes towards conservation and that their demographic and socio-economic conditions influenced people's attitudes. Local communities valued those functions of mangrove forests that were directly linked to their wellbeing. Despite human-wildlife conflict, the attitudes of the local communities were not altogether negative, and they were willing to participate in mangrove restoration. People agreed to adopt alternative resources if access to forest resources were curtailed. Respondents living near the forests, who could not afford alternatives, admitted that they would resort to pilfering. Hence, increasing their livelihood options may reduce the pressure on mangrove forests. In contrast with other ecosystems, the linkages of mangrove ecosystem services with local livelihoods and security are direct and tangible. It is therefore possible to develop strong local support for sustainable management of mangrove forests in areas where a positive attitude towards mangrove conservation prevails. The current debates on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) and payment for ecosystem services provide ample scope for development of sustainable livelihood options for local communities from the conservation of critical ecosystems such as mangroves.

Badola, Ruchi; Barthwal, Shivani; Hussain, Syed Ainul

2012-01-01

88

Biochemical properties of soils of undisturbed and disturbed mangrove forests of South Andaman (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on soil quality of mangrove forests would be of immense use in minimizing soil degradation and in adopting strategies for soil management at degraded sites. Among the various parameters of soil quality, biological and biochemical soil properties are very sensitive to environmental stress and provide rapid and accurate estimates on changes in quality of soils subjected to degradation. In

R. Dinesh; S. G. Chaudhuri; A. N. Ganeshamurthy; S. C. Pramanik

2004-01-01

89

A survey method for estimating potential levels of mangrove forest primary production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of net photosynthesis in mangrove communities by direct methods is technically and logistically difficult. Recording litter fall alone neglects other important components of production. A method has been developed which lends itself to ready application for obtaining survey estimates of photosynthetic yield. The procedure involves measurement of light attenuation through forest canopies attributable to photosynthetic utilization and standardized against

J. S. Bunt; K. G. Boto; G. Boto

1979-01-01

90

Interactive effects of salinity and irradiance on growth: implications for mangrove forest structure along salinity gradients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early growth of Ceriops australis and C. decandra was studied in response to salinity and irradiance under laboratory conditions. These results provided a basis for interpretation of growth patterns during seedling establishment by seven species of Rhizophoraceae with variation in irradiance under natural low and high salinity regimes in a tropical mangrove forest. Survival declined with decrease in irradiance, except

Marilyn C. Ball

2002-01-01

91

Ecotourism to Protect the Reserve Mangrove Forest the Sundarbans and its Flora and Fauna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nature based tourism is increasing throughout the world. Most is based in national parks and restricted areas. UNESCO has declared 28% of the world's largest continuous mangrove forest, the Sundarbans, as a world heritage site in 1987. But having the world's densest population, it is difficult to protect the flora and fauna unless there are economic benefits to the country

M. ABDUS SALAM; G. ROSS LINDSAY; MALCOLM C. M. BEVERIDGE

2000-01-01

92

Fine root respiration in the mangrove Rhizophora mangle over variation in forest stature and nutrient availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Root respiration uses a significant proportion of photosynthetically fixed carbon (C) and is a globally important source of C liberated from soils. Mangroves, which are an im- portant and productive forest resource in many tropical and subtropical countries, sustain a high ratio of root to shoot bio- mass which may indicate that root respiration is a particularly important component

CATHERINE E. LOVELOCK; ROGER W. RUESS; ILKA C. FELLER

93

Nitrogen limitation of growth and nutrient dynamics in a disturbed mangrove forest, Indian River Lagoon, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to determine effects of nutrient enrichment on plant growth, nutrient dynamics, and photosynthesis in a disturbed mangrove forest in an abandoned mosquito impoundment in Florida. Impounding altered the hydrology and soil chemistry of the site. In 1997, we established a factorial experiment along a tree-height gradient with three zones, i.e., fringe, transition, dwarf, and

Ilka C. Feller; Dennis F. Whigham; Karen L. McKee; Catherine E. Lovelock

2003-01-01

94

Evolution in Australasian Mangrove Forests: Multilocus Phylogenetic Analysis of the Gerygone Warblers (Aves: Acanthizidae)  

PubMed Central

The mangrove forests of Australasia have many endemic bird species but their evolution and radiation in those habitats has been little studied. One genus with several mangrove specialist species is Gerygone (Passeriformes: Acanthizidae). The phylogeny of the Acanthizidae is reasonably well understood but limited taxon sampling for Gerygone has constrained understanding of its evolution and historical biogeography in mangroves. Here we report on a phylogenetic analysis of Gerygone based on comprehensive taxon sampling and a multilocus dataset of thirteen loci spread across the avian genome (eleven nuclear and two mitochondrial loci). Since Gerygone includes three species restricted to Australia's coastal mangrove forests, we particularly sought to understand the biogeography of their evolution in that ecosystem. Analyses of individual loci, as well as of a concatenated dataset drawn from previous molecular studies indicates that the genus as currently defined is not monophyletic, and that the Grey Gerygone (G. cinerea) from New Guinea should be transferred to the genus Acanthiza. The multilocus approach has permitted the nuanced view of the group's evolution into mangrove ecosystems having occurred on multiple occasions, in three non-overlapping time frames, most likely first by the G. magnirostris lineage, and subsequently followed by those of G. tenebrosa and G. levigaster. PMID:22363748

Nyri, rpd S.; Joseph, Leo

2012-01-01

95

Redox conditions and heavy metals distribution in mangrove forests receiving shrimp farm effluents (Teremba bay, New Caledonia)  

E-print Network

1 Redox conditions and heavy metals distribution in mangrove forests receiving shrimp farm rocks and lateritic soils that are exploited for their richness in some heavy metals. We will endeavour heavy metals distributions in mangroves receiving shrimp farm effluents. Materials and methods Samples

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

96

Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Soil Organic Carbon in Mangrove Forest Ecosystems (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetlands are recognized as potentially important carbon sinks, but few studies have focused on tropical and sub-tropical systems that accumulate organic carbon. Soil organic carbon (SOC) density was analyzed in multiple mangrove forests, representing 30 geographic locations and six forest types (total of 230 study plots overall). SOC density varied from 0.002 to 0.1 g cm-3, with an overall average

K. L. McKee

2010-01-01

97

Characterisation of three mosquitocidal Bacillus strains isolated from mangrove forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to isolate mosquitocidal bacteria, 460 samples of soil, leaf and water were collected from mangrove habitats of AndamanNicobar Islands, India. Out of a total number of 857 bacteria screened, three Bacillus strains showed mosquitocidal activity at promising levels. Two of them were identified, morphologically and biochemically, as Bacillus subtilis, whereas one was Bacillus thuringiensis. These strains were

I. Geetha; G. Prabakaran; K. P. Paily; A. M. Manonmani; K. Balaraman

2007-01-01

98

Airborne Laser Scanning Quantification of Disturbances from Hurricanes and Lightning Strikes to Mangrove Forests in Everglades National Park, USA  

PubMed Central

Airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) measurements derived before and after Hurricanes Katrina and Wilma (2005) were used to quantify the impact of hurricanes and lightning strikes on the mangrove forest at two sites in Everglades National Park (ENP). Analysis of LIDAR measurements covering 61 and 68 ha areas of mangrove forest at the Shark River and Broad River sites showed that the proportion of high tree canopy detected by the LIDAR after the 2005 hurricane season decreased significantly due to defoliation and breakage of branches and trunks, while the proportion of low canopy and the ground increased drastically. Tall mangrove forests distant from tidal creeks suffered more damage than lower mangrove forests adjacent to the tidal creeks. The hurricanes created numerous canopy gaps, and the number of gaps per square kilometer increased from about 400?500 to 4000 after Katrina and Wilma. The total area of gaps in the forest increased from about 1?2% of the total forest area to 12%. The relative contribution of hurricanes to mangrove forest disturbance in ENP is at least 2 times more than that from lightning strikes. However, hurricanes and lightning strikes disturb the mangrove forest in a related way. Most seedlings in lightning gaps survived the hurricane impact due to the protection of trees surrounding the gaps, and therefore provide an important resource for forest recovery after the hurricane. This research demonstrated that LIDAR is an effective remote sensing tool to quantify the effects of disturbances such as hurricanes and lightning strikes in the mangrove forest.

Zhang, Keqi; Simard, Marc; Ross, Michael; Rivera-Monroy, Victor H.; Houle, Patricia; Ruiz, Pablo; Twilley, Robert R.; Whelan, Kevin R. T.

2008-01-01

99

Differential rates of vertical accretion and elevation change among aerial root types in Micronesian mangrove forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Root systems in mangrove swamps have captured the attention of scientists for decades. Among the postulated roles of root structures include a contribution to the geomorphological stability of mangrove soils through sediment trapping and binding. In this study, we used feldspar marker horizons and sediment pins to investigate the influence of three different functional root types - prop roots in Rhizophora spp., root knees in Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, and pneumatophores in Sonneratia alba - on vertical accretion and elevation change in three mangrove forests in the Federated States of Micronesia. Prop roots facilitated vertical accretion (11.0 mm year-1) more than pneumatophores or bare soil controls (mean, 8.3 mm year-1). Sediment elevation, on the other hand, increased at an average rate of only 1.3 mm year-1 across all root types, with rate differences by root type, ranging from -0.2 to 3.4 mm year-1, being detected within river basins. This investigation demonstrates that prop roots can assist in the settling of suspended sediments from estuarine waters, yet prop root structures are not as successful as pneumatophores in maintaining sediment elevation over 2.5 years. As root densities increase over time, an increase in turbulence-induced erosion and in shallow subsidence as organic peat layers form is expected in Micronesian mangrove forests. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Krauss, K.W.; Allen, J.A.; Cahoon, D.R.

2003-01-01

100

Long-term growth and succession in restored and natural mangrove forests in southwestern Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared colonization, growth and succession from 1989 to 2000 in a restored mangrove site and in gap and closed canopy sites in a natural mangrove forest. The restored site was created in 1982 and planted with Rhizophora mangle (???2 m-2) propagules. By 1989, Laguncularia racemosa, with densities up to 12.9 tree m-2, was a dominant in all plots, although densities were greater at edge plots relative to inner plots, and near open water (west plots) relative to further inland (east plots), and in tall mangrove plots relative to scrub plots. Rhizophora mangle (1989 tree densities about 2 m-2) was a codominant in inner and scrub plots, while Avicennia germinans had the lowest densities (<1 tree m-2) in all plots. From 1989 to 2000 L. racemosa experienced reduced recruitment and apparent density-dependent mortality of canopy individuals in plots with high initial densities. Scrub plots experienced high rates of colonization by R. mangle and L. racemosa, rapid growth in height of all species (1989-1996), followed by a dieoff of L. racemosa in later years (1997-2000) as the canopy came to resemble that of tall mangrove plots. Colonization and growth rates were lower in gap and closed canopy regions of the natural forest relative to rates in the restored site. After 11 years, densities of L. racemosa were 10-20x lower and R. mangle slightly less in the gap relative to densities in tall mangrove plots in the restored site at the same age. Although the restored stand had converged with the natural forest by 2000 in terms of some factors such as species richness, vegetation cover, litterfall, and light penetration, trees were still much smaller and stem densities much higher. Full development of mature structure and ecological function will likely require decades more development. ?? Springer 2005.

Proffitt, C.E.; Devlin, D.J.

2005-01-01

101

Mangrove Action Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This nonprofit organization provides information about the biology and ecology of mangrove species, the distribution of mangrove forests and importance of mangrove ecosystems to wildlife and people worldwide. Photos, slide show, current issues and links to related sites are provided. Threats to mangroves are described and sustainable alternatives, based on pilot projects, are presented. Appropriate for grades 8 and up.

102

Macrofaunal Loss and Microhabitat Destruction: The Impact of Trampling in a Temperate Mangrove Forest, NSW Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trampling paths are a feature of estuarine habitats in southeastern Australia. An experimental investigation quantified the\\u000a impact of trampling over a 3year period on the microhabitat features and macrofaunal assemblages in a temperate mangrove\\u000a forest in New South Wales, Australia. The magnitude of the impact varied between 0 and 25 passes (representing a visit by\\u000a 25 people), which reduced the

Pauline M. Ross

2006-01-01

103

SITE PLANNING AND ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS OF RESORTS IN MANGROVE FORESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mangrove forest is a coastal wetland ecosystem dominated by halophytic vegetation growing in brackish or saline waters. This complex ecosystem is formed by the integration of a variety of plant and animal communities, living either as aquatic or terrestrial life. It is among the highest biodiversity ecosystems on the planet with net primary productivity of 2000 gC\\/m2\\/yr. The survival

Muhammad Ali; A. Rahman

104

Nitrogen vs. phosphorus limitation across an ecotonal gradient in a mangrove forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangrove forests are characterized by distinctive tree-height gradientsthat reflect complex spatial, within-stand differences in environmentalfactors,including nutrient dynamics, salinity, and tidal inundation, across narrowgradients. To determine patterns of nutrient limitation and the effects ofnutrient availability on plant growth and within-stand nutrient dynamics, weused a factorial experiment with three nutrient treatment levels (control, N,P)and three zones along a tree-height gradient (fringe, transition,

Ilka C. Feller; Karen L. McKee; Dennis F. Whigham; John P. O'Neill

2003-01-01

105

Landscape analysis and pattern of hurricane impact and circulation on mangrove forests of the everglades  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Everglades ecosystem contains the largest contiguous tract of mangrove forest outside the tropics that were also coincidentally intersected by a major Category 5 hurricane. Airborne videography was flown to capture the landscape pattern and process of forest damage in relation to storm trajectory and circulation. Two aerial video transects, representing different topographic positions, were used to quantify forest damage from video frame analysis in relation to prevailing wind force, treefall direction, and forest height. A hurricane simulation model was applied to reconstruct wind fields corresponding to the ground location of each video frame and to correlate observed treefall and destruction patterns with wind speed and direction. Mangrove forests within the storm's eyepath and in the right-side (forewind) quadrants suffered whole or partial blowdowns, while left-side (backwind) sites south of the eyewall zone incurred moderate canopy reduction and defoliation. Sites along the coastal transect sustained substantially more storm damage than sites along the inland transect which may be attributed to differences in stand exposure and/or stature. Observed treefall directions were shown to be non-random and associated with hurricane trajectory and simulated forewind azimuths. Wide-area sampling using airborne videography provided an efficient adjunct to limited ground observations and improved our spatial understanding of how hurricanes imprint landscape-scale patterns of disturbance. ?? 2009 The Society of Wetland Scientists.

Doyle, T.W.; Krauss, K.W.; Wells, C.J.

2009-01-01

106

Controls on mangrove forest-atmosphere carbon dioxide exchanges in western Everglades National Park  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on net ecosystem production (NEP) and key environmental controls on net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide (CO2) between a mangrove forest and the atmosphere in the coastal Florida Everglades. An eddy covariance system deployed above the canopy was used to determine NEE during January 2004 through August 2005. Maximum daytime NEE ranged from -20 to -25 ?mol (CO2) m-2 s-1 between March and May. Respiration (Rd) was highly variable (2.81 2.41 ?mol (CO2) m-2 s-1), reaching peak values during the summer wet season. During the winter dry season, forest CO2 assimilation increased with the proportion of diffuse solar irradiance in response to greater radiative transfer in the forest canopy. Surface water salinity and tidal activity were also important controls on NEE. Daily light use efficiency was reduced at high (>34 parts per thousand (ppt)) compared to low (<17 ppt) salinity by 46%. Tidal inundation lowered daytime Rd by 0.9 ?mol (CO2) m-2 s-1 and nighttime Rd by 0.5 ?mol (CO2) m-2 s-1. The forest was a sink for atmospheric CO2, with an annual NEP of 1170 127 g C m-2 during 2004. This unusually high NEP was attributed to year-round productivity and low ecosystem respiration which reached a maximum of only 3 g C m-2 d-1. Tidal export of dissolved inorganic carbon derived from belowground respiration likely lowered the estimates of mangrove forest respiration. These results suggest that carbon balance in mangrove coastal systems will change in response to variable salinity and inundation patterns, possibly resulting from secular sea level rise and climate change.

Barr, Jordan G.; Engel, Vic; Fuentes, Jos D.; Zieman, Joseph C.; O'Halloran, Thomas L.; Smith, Thomas J.; Anderson, Gordon H.

2010-06-01

107

Controls on mangrove forest-atmosphere carbon dioxide exchanges in western Everglades National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report on net ecosystem production (NEP) and key environmental controls on net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide (CO2) between a mangrove forest and the atmosphere in the coastal Florida Everglades. An eddy covariance system deployed above the canopy was used to determine NEE during January 2004 through August 2005. Maximum daytime NEE ranged from -20 to -25 ?mol (CO2) m-2 s-1 between March and May. Respiration (Rd) was highly variable (2.81 2.41 ?mol (CO2) m-2 s-1), reaching peak values during the summer wet season. During the winter dry season, forest CO2 assimilation increased with the proportion of diffuse solar irradiance in response to greater radiative transfer in the forest canopy. Surface water salinity and tidal activity were also important controls on NEE. Daily light use efficiency was reduced at high (>34 parts per thousand (ppt)) compared to low (d by ~0.9 ?mol (CO2) m-2 s-1 and nighttime Rd by ~0.5 ?mol (CO2) m-2 s-1. The forest was a sink for atmospheric CO2, with an annual NEP of 1170 127 g C m-2 during 2004. This unusually high NEP was attributed to year-round productivity and low ecosystem respiration which reached a maximum of only 3 g C m-2 d-1. Tidal export of dissolved inorganic carbon derived from belowground respiration likely lowered the estimates of mangrove forest respiration. These results suggest that carbon balance in mangrove coastal systems will change in response to variable salinity and inundation patterns, possibly resulting from secular sea level rise and climate change.

Barr, Jordan G.; Engel, Vic; Fuentes, Jose D.; Zieman, Joseph C.; O'Halloran, Thomas L.; Smith, Thomas J.; Anderson, Gordon H.

2010-01-01

108

Satellite-based estimates of light-use efficiency in a subtropical mangrove forest equipped with CO2 eddy covariance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the importance of mangrove ecosystems in the global carbon budget, the relationships between environmental drivers and carbon dynamics in these forests remain poorly understood. This limited understanding is partly a result of the challenges associated with in situ flux studies. Tower-based carbon dioxide eddy covariance (EC) systems are installed in only a few mangrove forests worldwide and the longest EC record from the Florida Everglades contains less than 9 yr of observations. A primary goal of the present study was to develop a methodology to estimate canopy-scale photosynthetic light use efficiency in this forest. These tower-based observations represent a basis for associating CO2 fluxes with canopy light use properties, and thus provide the means for utilizing satellite-based reflectance data for larger-scale investigations. We present a model for mangrove canopy light use efficiency utilizing the enhanced green vegetation index (EVI) derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) that is capable of predicting changes in mangrove forest CO2 fluxes caused by a hurricane disturbance and changes in regional environmental conditions, including temperature and salinity. Model parameters are solved for in a Bayesian framework. The model structure requires estimates of ecosystem respiration (RE) and we present the first-ever tower-based estimates of mangrove forest RE derived from night-time CO2 fluxes. Our investigation is also the first to show the effects of salinity on mangrove forest CO2 uptake, which declines 5% per each 10 parts per thousand (ppt) increases in salinity. Light use efficiency in this forest declines with increasing daily photosynthetic active radiation, which is an important departure from the assumption of constant light use efficiency typically applied in satellite-driven models. The model developed here provides a framework for estimating CO2 uptake by these forests from reflectance data and information about environmental conditions.

Barr, J. G.; Engel, V.; Fuentes, J. D.; Fuller, D. O.; Kwon, H.

2012-11-01

109

Hydrological and geomorphological controls on a mangrove forest maintenance during the dry season in the Pacific Coast of Nicaragua  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrological and geomorphological processes are key to mangrove forest growth and development. However, very few studies have been carried out in Central American mangroves to understand their hydrological functioning. Here, a small mangrove forest (0.2 km2) in the South Pacific coast of Nicaragua was investigated to determine sources of freshwater inputs and fluxes of water and nutrients to the sea during the dry season. The general groundwater flow direction is from NE to SW towards the sea. The aquifer is composed of clay and alluvial deposits overlying a fractured shale unit. Shallow groundwater is influenced by a nearby town through infiltration of grey water and pit latrines. Groundwater from the mangrove showed Mn2+ and Fe2+ presence indicating occurrence of denitrification and the role of the mangrove as a nutrient sink. Also, refreshening and salinization processes were identified near the river, indicated by different water facies. Freshwater inputs from precipitation and groundwater discharge maintain adequate salt gradients. The water balance showed an increase of around 619 m3 d-1 in storage during a 22 study period during the dry season, which is reflected by increased hydraulic heads and river stage. Water storage is fostered by low conductivity soil materials and beach ridges parallel to the coast line, whereby the latter occassionally breach due to overtopping of surface water. These conditions favor forest subsistence during the dry season, allowing the mangrove to continue to provide ecological and economic benefits in terms of protection against flooding, habitat for numerous species and tourist attraction.

Calderon, Heyddy; Weeda, Ruben; Uhlenbrook, Stefan

2014-05-01

110

Degradation of mangrove tissues and implications for peat formation in Belizean island forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Macrofaunal leaf consumption and degradation of leaves, woody twigs and roots were studied in mangrove island forests on a Belizean island. Factors influencing accumulation of organic matter deposited both above and below ground in this oligotrophic, autochothonous system were assessed. 2. Leaf degradation rates of Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove), Avicennia germinans (black mangrove) and Laguncularia racemosa (white mangrove) measured in mesh bags, were much faster in the lower than the upper intertidal zone. Mass loss was most rapid in A. germinans but zonal effects were much larger than species differences. 3. Exposure to invertebrates such as crabs and amphipods tripled overall rates of leaf litter breakdown. In the lower intertidal, crabs completely consumed some unbagged leaves within 23 days. Crabs also had an effect on some upper intertidal sites, where degradation of leaves placed in artificial burrows was 2.4 times faster than when placed on the soil surface. 4. In contrast to leaves (27??5% remaining after 230 days), roots and woody twigs were highly refractory (40??2% and 51??6% remaining after 584 and 540 days, respectively). Root degradation did not vary by soil depth, zone or species. Twigs of R. mangle and A. germinans degraded faster on the ground than in the canopy, whereas those of L. racemosa were highly resistant to decay regardless of position. 5. Peat formation at Twin Cays has occurred primarily through deposition and slow turnover of mangrove roots, rather than above-ground tissues that are either less abundant (woody twigs) or more readily removed (leaves).

Middleton, B.A.; McKee, K.L.

2001-01-01

111

Nitrogen limitation of growth and nutrient dynamics in a disturbed mangrove forest, Indian River Lagoon, Florida.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to determine effects of nutrient enrichment on plant growth, nutrient dynamics, and photosynthesis in a disturbed mangrove forest in an abandoned mosquito impoundment in Florida. Impounding altered the hydrology and soil chemistry of the site. In 1997, we established a factorial experiment along a tree-height gradient with three zones, i.e., fringe, transition, dwarf, and three fertilizer treatment levels, i.e., nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), control, in Mosquito Impoundment 23 on the eastern side of Indian River. Transects traversed the forest perpendicular to the shoreline, from a Rhizophora mangle-dominated fringe through an Avicennia germinans stand of intermediate height, and into a scrub or dwarf stand of A. germinans in the hinterland. Growth rates increased significantly in response to N fertilization. Our growth data indicated that this site is N-limited along the tree-height gradient. After 2 years of N addition, dwarf trees resembled vigorously growing saplings. Addition of N also affected internal dynamics of N and P and caused increases in rates of photosynthesis. These findings contrast with results for a R. mangle-dominated forest in Belize where the fringe is N-limited, but the dwarf zone is P-limited and the transition zone is co-limited by N and P. This study demonstrated that patterns of nutrient limitation in mangrove ecosystems are complex, that not all processes respond similarly to the same nutrient, and that similar habitats are not limited by the same nutrient when different mangrove forests are compared. PMID:12647149

Feller, Ilka C; Whigham, Dennis F; McKee, Karen L; Lovelock, Catherine E

2003-02-01

112

Nitrogen limitation of growth and nutrient dynamics in a disturbed mangrove forest, Indian River Lagoon, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The objectives of this study were to determine effects of nutrient enrichment on plant growth, nutrient dynamics, and photosynthesis in a disturbed mangrove forest in an abandoned mosquito impoundment in Florida. Impounding altered the hydrology and soil chemistry of the site. In 1997, we established a factorial experiment along a tree-height gradient with three zones, i.e., fringe, transition, dwarf, and three fertilizer treatment levels, i.e., nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), control, in Mosquito Impoundment 23 on the eastern side of Indian River. Transects traversed the forest perpendicular to the shoreline, from a Rhizophora mangle-dominated fringe through an Avicennia germinans stand of intermediate height, and into a scrub or dwarf stand of A. germinans in the hinterland. Growth rates increased significantly in response to N fertilization. Our growth data indicated that this site is N-limited along the tree-height gradient. After 2 years of N addition, dwarf trees resembled vigorously growing saplings. Addition of N also affected internal dynamics of N and P and caused increases in rates of photosynthesis. These findings contrast with results for a R. mangle-dominated forest in Belize where the fringe is N-limited, but the dwarf zone is P-limited and the transition zone is co-limited by N and P. This study demonstrated that patterns of nutrient limitation in mangrove ecosystems are complex, that not all processes respond similarly to the same nutrient, and that similar habitats are not limited by the same nutrient when different mangrove forests are compared.

Feller, I.C.; Whigham, D.F.; McKee, K.L.; Lovelock, C.E.

2003-01-01

113

Use of archive aerial photography for monitoring black mangrove populations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A study was conducted on the south Texas Gulf Coast to evaluate archive aerial color-infrared (CIR) photography combined with supervised image analysis techniques to quantify changes in black mangrove [Avicennia germinans (L.) L.] populations over a 26-year period. Archive CIR film from two study si...

114

Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Soil Organic Carbon in Mangrove Forest Ecosystems (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands are recognized as potentially important carbon sinks, but few studies have focused on tropical and sub-tropical systems that accumulate organic carbon. Soil organic carbon (SOC) density was analyzed in multiple mangrove forests, representing 30 geographic locations and six forest types (total of 230 study plots overall). SOC density varied from 0.002 to 0.1 g cm-3, with an overall average of 0.019 and 0.058 g cm-3 in mineral and organic soils, respectively. Sites spanned a latitudinal range from 37 S to 29 N, and carbon density was correlated with average annual temperature. However, high variation in SOC density within latitude indicated additional influences. At a regional scale, SOC density varied with forest type and generally increased with hydrologic energy. At a site in Panama, SOC density varied spatially with soil pore space, which influenced bulk density and soil temperatureindicating an influence of compaction and/or degree of decomposition. Carbon sequestration rates estimated from surface accretion of organic C were similar in organic (216 g C m-2 yr-1) and mineral (145 g C m-2 yr-1) soil types, but varied across geographic locations (41 to 591 g C m-2 yr-1). Subsurface inputs of carbon, which were estimated using measured rates of root matter accumulation and root carbon content, averaged 121 g m-2 yr-1, but exceeded 400 g m-2 yr-1 at several sites. Depths of mangrove peat varied across sites from < 1 m to over 10 m, indicating the potentially large carbon stores that can develop under certain conditions. Rates of carbon accretion at a site in Belize have varied from 90 to 300 g C m-2 yr-1 over 8000 yr. These patterns indicate spatial and temporal variability in SOC and suggest multiple controls on rates of carbon accumulation in mangrove ecosystems.

McKee, K. L.

2010-12-01

115

Community structure at two compartments of a disturbed mangrove forests at Pulau Langkawi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study on floristic composition and estimation of above ground biomass of trees was carried out in two areas of disturbed mangroves at Kisap Forest Reserve, Pulau Langkawi. Two compartments that were selected was based on the different types of disturbances, i.e. compartment 5 (C5) was disrupted by human harvesting activities of mangrove trees for charcoal production, while compartment 7 (C7) was naturally disturbed from lightning strikes. In C5, a total of 1,217 trees measuring 1 cm DBH and above were enumerated in the plots of 0.25 ha which included 7 species and 5 genera in 3 families, i.e. Rhizophoraceae, Meliaceae and Avicenniaceae. In C7, a total of 390 individual trees of 8 species, 5 genera and 3 families were recorded. The three families recorded in C7 were also common in C5. Rhizophoraceae was recorded as the family with highest density in both compartments. Ceriops tagal had the highest density in C5, while Rhizophora apiculata was the most prominent species in the C7. Total basal area that represents tree coverage showed C5 had a value of 7.767 m2/ha with C. tagal as the major contributor at 5.022m2/ha. Total coverage in C7 was 18.184 m2/ha that was mostly contributed by R. apiculata at 11.135 m2/ha. Ceriops tagal (22.41 t/ha) and R. apiculata (111.75 t/ha), were the main contributors to the total biomass in C5 (37.34 t/ha) and C7 (162.29 t/ha), respectively. The distribution of individuals of six tree size classes in C7 was homogenous compared to that of C5, which had more saplings. In this study, the total biomass indicated that anthropogenic activities resulted in lower productivity of forest compared to natural disturbance. Therefore, conservation efforts of mangrove forest should be enhance in the management of mangrove forest in Pulau Langkawi.

Norilani, W. I. Wan; Juliana, W. A. Wan; Salam, Muhamad Razali; Latiff, A.

2014-09-01

116

Changes in mass and nutrient content of wood during decomposition in a south Florida mangrove forest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1 Large pools of dead wood in mangrove forests following disturbances such as hurricanes may influence nutrient fluxes. We hypothesized that decomposition of wood of mangroves from Florida, USA (Avicennia germinans, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle), and the consequent nutrient dynamics, would depend on species, location in the forest relative to freshwater and marine influences and whether the wood was standing, lying on the sediment surface or buried. 2 Wood disks (8-10 cm diameter, 1 cm thick) from each species were set to decompose at sites along the Shark River, either buried in the sediment, on the soil surface or in the air (above both the soil surface and high tide elevation). 3 A simple exponential model described the decay of wood in the air, and neither species nor site had any effect on the decay coefficient during the first 13 months of decomposition. 4 Over 28 months of decomposition, buried and surface disks decomposed following a two-component model, with labile and refractory components. Avicennia germinans had the largest labile component (18 ?? 2% of dry weight), while Laguncularia racemosa had the lowest (10 ?? 2%). Labile components decayed at rates of 0.37-23.71% month -1, while refractory components decayed at rates of 0.001-0.033% month-1. Disks decomposing on the soil surface had higher decay rates than buried disks, but both were higher than disks in the air. All species had similar decay rates of the labile and refractory components, but A. germinans exhibited faster overall decay because of a higher proportion of labile components. 5 Nitrogen content generally increased in buried and surface disks, but there was little change in N content of disks in the air over the 2-year study. Between 17% and 68% of total phosphorus in wood leached out during the first 2 months of decomposition, with buried disks having the greater losses, P remaining constant or increasing slightly thereafter. 6 Newly deposited wood from living trees was a short-term source of N for the ecosystem but, by the end of 2 years, had become a net sink. Wood, however, remained a source of P for the ecosystem. 7 As in other forested ecosystems, coarse woody debris can have a significant impact on carbon and nutrient dynamics in mangrove forests. The prevalence of disturbances, such as hurricanes, that can deposit large amounts of wood on the forest floor accentuates the importance of downed wood in these forests. ?? 2005 British Ecological Society.

Romero, L.M.; Smith, T. J., III; Fourqurean, J.W.

2005-01-01

117

Nitrogen vs. phosphorus limitation across an ecotonal gradient in a mangrove forest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mangrove forests are characterized by distinctive tree-height gradients that reflect complex spatial, within-stand differences in environmental factors, including nutrient dynamics, salinity, and tidal inundation, across narrow gradients. To determine patterns of nutrient limitation and the effects of nutrient availability on plant growth and within-stand nutrient dynamics, we used a factorial experiment with three nutrient treatment levels (control, N, P) and three zones along a tree-height gradient (fringe, transition, dwarf) on offshore islands in Belize. Transects were laid out perpendicular to the shoreline across a mangrove forest from a fringe stand along the seaward edge, through a stand of intermediate height, into a dwarf stand in the interior of the island. At three sites, three trees were fertilized per zone for 2 yr. Although there was spatial variability in response, growth by R. mangle was generally nitrogen (N) -limited in the fringe zone; phosphorus (P) -limited in the dwarf zone; and, N- and/or P-limited in the transition zone. Phosphorus-resorption efficiency decreased in all three zones, and N-resorption efficiency increased in the dwarf zone in response to P enrichment. The addition of N had no effect on either P or N resorption efficiencies. Belowground decomposition was increased by P enrichment in all zones, whereas N enrichment had no effect. This study demonstrated that essential nutrients are not uniformly distributed within mangrove ecosystems; that soil fertility can switch from conditions of N to P limitation across narrow ecotonal gradients; and, that not all ecological processes respond similarly to, or are limited by, the same nutrient.

Feller, I.C.; McKee, K.L.; Whigham, D.F.; O'Neill, J.P.

2003-01-01

118

Is Matang Mangrove Forest in Malaysia sustainably rejuvenating after more than a century of conservation and harvesting management?  

PubMed

Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve (MMFR) in Peninsular Malaysia is under systematic management since 1902 and still considered as the best managed mangrove forest in the world. The present study on silvimetrics assessed the ongoing MMFR forest management, which includes a first thinning after 15 years, a second thinning after 20 years and clear-felling of 30-year old forest blocks, for its efficiency and productivity in comparison to natural mangroves. The estimated tree structural parameters (e.g. density, frequency) from three different-aged mangrove blocks of fifteen (MF15), twenty (MF20), and thirty (MF30) years old indicated that Bruguiera and Excoecaria spp. did not constitute a significant proportion of the vegetation (<5%), and hence the results focused majorly on Rhizophora apiculata. The density of R. apiculata at MF15, MF20 and MF30 was 4,331, 2,753 and 1,767 stems ha(-1), respectively. In relation to ongoing practices of the artificial thinnings at MMFR, the present study suggests that the first thinning could be made earlier to limit the loss of exploitable wood due to natural thinning. In fact, the initial density at MF15 was expected to drop down from 6,726 to 1,858 trees ha(-1) before the first thinning. Therefore the trees likely to qualify for natural thinning, though having a smaller stem diameter, should be exploited for domestic/commercial purposes at an earlier stage. The clear-felling block (MF30) with a maximum stem diameter of 30 cm was estimated to yield 372 t ha(-1) of the above-ground biomass and suggests that the mangrove management based on a 30-year rotation is appropriate for the MMFR. Since Matang is the only iconic site that practicing sustainable wood production, it could be an exemplary to other mangrove locations for their improved management. PMID:25144689

Goessens, Arnaud; Satyanarayana, Behara; Van der Stocken, Tom; Quispe Zuniga, Melissa; Mohd-Lokman, Husain; Sulong, Ibrahim; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid

2014-01-01

119

December 2012 When mangroves  

E-print Network

N° 419 December 2012 When mangroves no longer protect the coastline Scientific news Actualidad cientifica Actualité scientifique The mangrove forests in the Guyanas (French Guiana, Surinam and Guyana unstable muddy coastline2 against erosion. However, most of the Guyana mangroves have been destroyed

120

Nutrition of mangroves.  

PubMed

Mangrove forests dominate the world's tropical and subtropical coastlines. Similar to other plant communities, nutrient availability is one of the major factors influencing mangrove forest structure and productivity. Many mangrove soils have extremely low nutrient availability, although nutrient availability can vary greatly among and within mangrove forests. Nutrient-conserving processes in mangroves are well developed and include evergreeness, resorption of nutrients prior to leaf fall, the immobilization of nutrients in leaf litter during decomposition, high root/shoot ratios and the repeated use of old root channels. Both nitrogen-use efficiency and nutrient resorption efficiencies in mangroves are amongst the highest recorded for angiosperms. A complex range of interacting abiotic and biotic factors controls the availability of nutrients to mangrove trees, and mangroves are characteristically plastic in their ability to opportunistically utilize nutrients when these become available. Nitrogen and phosphorus have been implicated as the nutrients most likely to limit growth in mangroves. Ammonium is the primary form of nitrogen in mangrove soils, in part as a result of anoxic soil conditions, and tree growth is supported mainly by ammonium uptake. Nutrient enrichment is a major threat to marine ecosystems. Although mangroves have been proposed to protect the marine environment from land-derived nutrient pollution, nutrient enrichment can have negative consequences for mangrove forests and their capacity for retention of nutrients may be limited. PMID:20566581

Reef, Ruth; Feller, Ilka C; Lovelock, Catherine E

2010-09-01

121

Decomposition of mangrove roots: Effects of location, nutrients, species identity and mix in a Kenyan forest  

E-print Network

Decomposition of mangrove roots: Effects of location, nutrients, species identity and mix of Edinburgh, Grant Institute, The King's Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JW, UK e Mangrove Keywords: mangrove roots carbon decay nitrogen species-mixing a b s t r a c t Mangrove trees may allocate

Mencuccini, Maurizio

122

Modeling Productivity in Mangrove Forests as Impacted by Effective Soil Water Availability and Its Sensitivity to Climate Change Using Biome-BGC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystem dynamics and the responses to climate change in mangrove forests are poorly understood. We applied the biogeochemical\\u000a process model Biome-BGC to simulate the dynamics of net primary productivity (NPP) and leaf area index (LAI) under the present\\u000a and future climate conditions in mangrove forests in Shenzhen, Zhanjiang, and Qiongshan across the southern coast of China,\\u000a and in three monocultural

Zhongkui Luo; Osbert Jianxin Sun; Enli Wang; Hai Ren; Hualin Xu

2010-01-01

123

Mangroves: Living Filters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this two-minute radio program, a marine biology professor points out a number of the ecological functions that coastal mangrove forests perform. For example, he explains that mangrove forests serve as filters and nursery areas for fish. He contends that there are ecological and economic reasons to conserve mangroves. The archived program, part of the Pulse of the Planet radio show, is available here in text and audio formats. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Pulse of the Planet

2008-03-26

124

Litter processing and population food intake of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus in a high intertidal forest in northern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study provides the first quantification of the population food intake of the litter-consuming mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Ocypodidae, L. 1763) in a New World mangrove forest. Diet, feeding periodicity, gastric evacuation rates and size-dependent consumption were determined for this intensively exploited semi-terrestrial crab in different types of mangrove forest. Unlike many other crabs Ucides cordatus is a continuous feeder, as shown by gastrointestinal contents over a day's cycle. Starvation experiments revealed that most gastric evacuation occurs during the first 12 h after feeding, following an exponential decay function. Evacuation rates (0.35 h -1 and 0.31 h -1) for small (carapace width CW 2.5-3.5 cm) and large (CW 6.5-7.5 cm) crabs, respectively, and the mean daily gastrointestinal contents were used to calculate the daily food intake (DFI) of U. cordatus for both sexes and different size classes. DFI was strongly correlated to body size and ranged from 19.8 to 6.0% of body dry weight in small and large crabs, respectively. The daily energy intake of U. cordatus (37.6 kJ for a 65 g wet weight specimen) was high when compared to other leaf-eating crabs. Litter fall and propagule production were calculated as 16.38 t ha -1 y -1, corresponding to a daily mean of 4.49 g m -2 in a high intertidal Rhizophora mangle forest stand. The estimated population food intake of Ucides cordatus (4.1 g dw m -2 d -1) corresponds to 81.3% of this production. This high litter removal rate, a low litter quantity in burrows and high consumption rates during field experiments suggest that the local crab population is food-limited in many parts of the study area. The very efficient coupling of forest litter production and crab litter consumption is possible due to the high crab density and the low inundation frequency of the mangrove forests, allowing for prolonged foraging periods. By processing the major part of the litter, U. cordatus helps to retain nutrients and energy within the mangrove ecosystem. The impact of this species on litter turnover in a New World mangrove is similar to or even higher than that of litter-feeding sesarmid crabs in the Indo-West Pacific region.

Nordhaus, Inga; Wolff, Matthias; Diele, Karen

2006-03-01

125

The increased concentration of SO{sub 2} and threat to the largest mangrove forest of the world - the Sundarbans  

SciTech Connect

The atmospheric concentration of SO{sub 2} was monitored in two different sites, Khulna and Savar in Bangladesh as a part of Rains Asia Atmos Module, Phase I Project. The results show that the winter concentration of SO{sub 2} in Khulna is 3 to 4 times higher than the summer concentrations, which is also higher compared to measurements at Savar which is adjacent to Dhaka city. Based on these facts and seasonal wind pattern, trans-boundary air pollution has been suggested. Khulna is in the southwestern part of Bangladesh and this area harbors the largest mangrove forest of the world, the Sundarbans. Sundari trees are the main trees of the Sundarban ecosystem. During the last few years, many of the Sundari trees, which are quite susceptible to pH stress, are dying from the top. The unusual winter increase of atmospheric sulphurdioxide has been assigned to be one of the reasons for the top dying. Other factors might be the increase of salinity and diminished flow of water.

Ahmad, J.U.; Ullah, S.S. [Jahangirnagar Univ. (Bangladesh); Carmichael, G.R. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Haque, R. [Khulna Univ. (Bangladesh)

1996-12-31

126

Landscape-scale extent, height, biomass, and carbon estimation of Mozambique's mangrove forests with Landsat ETM+ and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission elevation data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangroves are salt tolerant plants that grow within the intertidal zone along tropical and subtropical coasts. They are important barriers for mitigating coastal disturbances, provide habitat for over 1300 animal species and are one of the most productive ecosystems. Mozambique's mangroves extend along 2700 km and cover one of the largest areas in Africa. The purpose of this study was to determine the countrywide mean tree height spatial distribution and biomass of Mozambique's mangrove forests using Landsat ETM+ and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data. The SRTM data were calibrated using the Landsat derived land-cover map and height calibration equations. Stand-specific canopy height-biomass allometric equations developed from field measurements and published height-biomass equations were used to calculate aboveground biomass of the mangrove forests on a landscape scale. The results showed that mangrove forests covered a total of 2909 km2 in Mozambique, a 27% smaller area than previously estimated. The SRTM calibration indicated that average tree heights changed with geographical settings. Even though the coast of Mozambique spans across 16 degrees latitude, we did not find a relationship between latitude and biomass. These results confirm that geological setting has a greater influence than latitude alone on mangrove production. The total mangrove dry aboveground biomass in Mozambique was 23.6 million tons and the total carbon was 11.8 million tons.

Fatoyinbo, Temilola E.; Simard, Marc; Washington-Allen, Robert A.; Shugart, Herman H.

2008-06-01

127

Emersion in the mangrove forest fish Rivulus marmoratus: A unique response to hydrogen sulfide  

SciTech Connect

The mangrove forest fish Rivulus marmoratus (Cyprinodontidae) has frequently been observed out of water, a phenomenon generally attributed to habitat drying. The hypothesis that hydrogen sulfide, a substance characteristically found in their environment, can serve as a stimulus for emersion, is tested in this study. In the field R. marmoratus was found in water with low to moderate level of H{sub 2}S. In the laboratory, R marmora leaped from water contaminated with H{sub 2}S at ecologically relevant concentrations. Aquatic hypoxia did not induce emersion, but prey capture did. Oxygen consumption by both juveniles and adults decreased significantly in air. These results suggest that avoidance of H{sub 2}S and the ability to survive terrestrial conditions enable this species to permanently occupy an area of the forest unavailable to other fishes. Furthermore, because a variety of stimuli lead to emersion in R. marmoratus, terrestriality in this species is likely a generalized response to environmental stress as well as a means of exploiting terrestrial resources. 16 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Abel, D.C.; Koenig, C.C.; Davis, W.P.

1987-01-01

128

Remote Sensing of Mangrove Change Along the Tanzania Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article contributes to the understanding of the changes in distribution and total area of mangrove forests along the mainland Tanzania coast over the past decade. Mangroves are recognized as critical coastal habitat requiring protection and special attention. The Tanzania coastline forms a suitable habitat for establishment of mangrove forests. Mangrove forests are distributed from Tanga in the north to

Yeqiao Wang; Gregory Bonynge; Jarunee Nugranad; Michael Traber; Amani Ngusaru; James Tobey; Lynne Hale; Robert Bowen; Vedast Makota

2003-01-01

129

Forest fire monitoring with multiple small UAVs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frequent updates concerning the progress of a forest fire are essential for effective and safe fire fighting. Since a forest fire is typically inaccessible by ground vehicles due to mountainous terrain, small unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) are emerging as a promising means of monitoring large forest fires. We present an effective UAV path planning algorithm utilizing infrared images that are

David W. Casbeer; Randal W. Beard; T. W. McLain; Sai-Ming Li; R. K. Mehra

2005-01-01

130

FOREST HEALTH MONITORING - 1991 STATISTICAL SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

This is a statistical summary of forest measurement data from the Forest Health Monitoring Network. here are now 925 plots in the FHM national network, of which 628 plots are forested. sing a probability sampling design, the installed plots are located systematically throughout t...

131

Typhoons exert significant but differential impacts on net ecosystem carbon exchange of subtropical mangrove forests in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typhoons are very unpredictable natural disturbances to subtropical mangrove forests in Asian countries, but little information is available on how these disturbances affect ecosystem level carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange of mangrove wetlands. In this study, we examined short-term effect of frequent strong typhoons on defoliation and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) of subtropical mangroves, and also synthesized 19 typhoons during a 4-year period between 2009 and 2012 to further investigate the regulation mechanisms of typhoons on ecosystem carbon and water fluxes following typhoon disturbances. Strong wind and intensive rainfall caused defoliation and local cooling effect during the typhoon season. Daily total NEE values decreased by 26-50% following some typhoons (e.g., W28-Nockten, W35-Molave and W35-Lio-Fan), but significantly increased (43-131%) following typhoon W23-Babj and W38-Megi. The magnitudes and trends of daily NEE responses were highly variable following different typhoons, which were determined by the balance between the variances of gross ecosystem production (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (RE). Furthermore, results from our synthesis indicated that the landfall time of typhoon, wind speed and rainfall were the most important factors controlling the CO2 fluxes following typhoon events. These findings indicate that different types of typhoon disturbances can exert very different effects on CO2 fluxes of mangrove ecosystems and that typhoon will likely have larger impacts on carbon cycle processes in subtropical mangrove ecosystems as the intensity and frequency of typhoons are predicted to increase under future global climate change scenarios.

Chen, H.; Lu, W.; Yan, G.; Yang, S.; Lin, G.

2014-10-01

132

Effects of Hydrology on Red Mangrove Recruits  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coastal wetlands along the Gulf of Mexico have been experiencing significant shifts in hydrology and salinity levels over the past century as a result of changes in sea level and freshwater drainage patterns. Local land management in coastal zones has also impacted the hydrologic regimes of salt marshes and mangrove areas. Parks and refuges in south Florida that contain mangrove forests have, in some cases, been ditched or impounded to control mosquito outbreaks and to foster wildlife use. And while mangroves dominate the subtropical coastlines of Florida and thrive in saltwater environments, little is known about how they respond to changes in hydrology under managed or variable tidal conditions. USGS researchers designed a study to evaluate the basic hydrological requirements of mangroves so that their health and survival may be more effectively managed in controlled impoundments and restored wetlands. Mangroves are commonly found in the intertidal zone (between low and high tides) in a rather broad spectrum of hydrologic settings. Because they thrive at the interface of land and sea, mangroves are subject to changes in freshwater flow (flow rate, nutrients, pollutants) and to marine influences (sea-level rise, salinity). Salinity has long been recognized as a controlling factor that determines the health and distribution of mangrove forests. Field and experimental observations indicate that most mangrove species achieve their highest growth potential under brackish conditions (modest salinity) between 10 and 20 parts per thousand (ppt). Yet, if provided with available propagules, successful regeneration, and limited competition from other plants, then mangroves can survive and thrive in freshwater systems as well. Because little is known about the growthand survival patterns of mangrove species relative to changing hydrology, USGS scientists conducted greenhouse and field experiments to determine how flooded or drained patterns of hydrology would influence growth of the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle (fig. 1). Red mangrove propagules (recruits) of select sizes and genotypes (i.e., genetically similar groups) were planted both in greenhouses and in the field. Seedling growth was monitored in both studies on a quarterly basis for over a year; measurements included shoot growth, seedling height, and a final harvest of plant biomass.

Doyle, Thomas W.

2003-01-01

133

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens: a mosquitocidal bacterium from mangrove forests of Andaman & Nicobar islands, India.  

PubMed

Samples collected from the mangrove forests of Andaman & Nicobar islands yielded a mosquitocidal bacterium, whose extracellular metabolite(s) exhibited mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal activity. The bacterium was isolated using standard microbiological methods and identified using classical biochemical tests and rpoB gene sequences. The mosquitocidal bacterium was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Mosquitocidal metabolite(s) was separated from the culture supernatant of the bacterium and its efficacy against the larval and pupal stages of different species of mosquitoes was determined in terms of LC(50) and LC(90). Mosquito larvicidal activity in terms of LC(50) against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was respectively, 26.4?g, 22.2?g and 20.5?g/ml and its pupicidal activity was 4.4?g, 8.2?g and 14.5?g/ml respectively. The mosquitocidal metabolite(s) was found to be a biosurfactant. This is the first report of the mosquitocidal activity of B. amyloliquefaciens and it is a new weapon which can be added to the array of microbial agents for use against mosquitoes. PMID:21810402

Geetha, I; Manonmani, A M; Prabakaran, G

2011-12-01

134

Leaf removal by sesarmid crabs in Bangrong mangrove forest, Phuket, Thailand; with emphasis on the feeding ecology of Neoepisesarma versicolor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field measurements on leaf removal by populations of sesarmid crabs at different locations in the Bangrong mangrove forest, Phuket, Thailand, indicated that crabs on average can remove 87% of the daily leaf litter fall by ingestion or burial. The removal rate is correlated positively with the number of crab burrows and negatively with tidal inundation time. The results from the field were supplemented with observations on the behavior of Neoepisesarma versicolor in laboratory microcosms and a mangrove mesocosm. N. versicolor feeds primarily at night and total time spent feeding was up to an order of magnitude higher in the artificial microcosms than under simulated in situ conditions in the mesocosm. Most of the time during both day and night was spent resting near the entrance or inside burrows. N. versicolor mainly feeds on mangrove leaves and scraps of food material from the sediment surface. This is supported by examinations of stomach content, which showed that 62% is composed of higher plant material and 38% of detritus and mineral particles from the sediment. The nutritive value of leaves and detritus is insufficient to maintain crab growth. Sesarmid crabs may instead obtain the needed nutrients by occasional consumption of nitrogen-rich animal tissues, such as carcasses of fish and crustaceans, as indicated by the presence of animal remains in the stomach and the willingness of crabs to consume fish meat. Laboratory experiments on leaf consumption and leaf preferences of N. versicolor indicate that they preferentially feed on brown leaves, if available, followed by green and yellow leaves. If all species of sesarmid crabs in the Bangrong mangrove forest consume leaves at the same rate as N. versicolor, they could potentially ingest 52% of the total litter fall.

Thongtham, Nalinee; Kristensen, Erik; Puangprasan, Som-Ying

2008-12-01

135

Dwarf and fringe mangrove forest stands of Calabash Caye(Belize): A structural and functional comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper was intended to describe a functional comparison of two types of mangroves, dwarf and fringe, at Calabash Caye, Turneffe Atoll, in Belize. As one of the CARICOMP (The Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity) program's participants, we treated dwarf and fringe mangroves with various approaches to study their senesced leave's aquatic productivities, in-situ soil contexts, and tree's structures. Since the

Wei-Ta Fang; Jui-Yu Chou

136

Ecophysiology of mangroves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangrove forests are of major ecological and commercial importance, yet the future of these resources is threatened by pollution, development and over-exploitation. There is an urgent need to develop sound management practices based on a functional understanding of the physical and biological processes underlying mangrove ecosystem dynamics. Such biological processes include dispersal (Rabinowitz 1978), herbivory (Smith 1987) and the physiological

Marilyn C. Ball

1988-01-01

137

Rhodovulum mangrovi sp. nov., a phototrophic alphaproteobacterium isolated from a mangrove forest sediment sample.  

PubMed

A novel Gram-staining-negative, purple non-sulfur bacterium, strain AK41(T), was isolated from a sediment sample collected from Coringa mangrove forest, Andhra Pradesh, India. A red-brownish-coloured culture was obtained on modified Pfennig medium after enrichment with 2?% NaCl and 0.3?% pyruvate under 2000 lx illumination. Individual cells were ovoid-rod-shaped and non-motile. Bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoids of the spheroidene series were present as photosynthetic pigments. Strain AK41(T) was halophilic and grew photoheterotrophically with a number of organic compounds as carbon sources and electron donors. It was unable to grow photoautotrophically. It did not utilize sulfide or thiosulfate as electron donors. The fatty acids were found to be dominated by C16?:?0 and C18?:?1?7c. Strain AK41(T) contained phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, an unknown aminolipid and four unknown lipids as polar lipids. Q-10 was the predominant respiratory quinone. The DNA G+C content of strain AK41(T) was 68.9 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain AK41(T) was a member of the genus Rhodovulum and was closely related to Rhodovulum sulfidophilum, with 96.0?% similarity to the type strain; the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the type strains of other species of the genus Rhodovulum was 93.9-95.8?%. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that strain AK41(T) clustered with the type strains of Rhodovulum marinum, Rdv. kholense, Rdv. sulfidophilum and Rdv. visakhapatnamense with sequence similarity of 95.9-96.2?%. Based on data from the current study, strain AK41(T) is proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Rhodovulum, for which the name Rhodovulum mangrovi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Rhodovulum mangrovi is AK41(T) (?=?MTCC 11825(T)?=?JCM 19220(T)). PMID:24972612

Nupur, P; Srinivas, T N R; Takaichi, S; Anil Kumar, P

2014-09-01

138

Restoration of mangrove plantations and colonisation by native species in Leizhou bay, South China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To examine the natural colonisation of native mangrove species into remediated exotic mangrove stands in Leizhou Bay, South China, we compared soil physical-chemical properties, community structure and recruitments of barren mangrove areas, native mangrove species plantations, and exotic mangrove species-Sonneratia apetala Buch.Ham-between plantations and natural forest. We found that severely degraded mangrove stands could not regenerate naturally without human intervention due to severely altered local environments, whereas some native species had been recruited into the 4-10 year S. apetala plantations. In the first 10 years, the exotic species S. apetala grew better than native species such as Rhizophora stylosa Griff and Kandelia candel (Linn.) Druce. The mangrove plantation gradually affected soil physical and chemical properties during its recovery. The exotic S. apetala was more competitive than native species and its plantation was able to restore soil organic matter in about 14 years. Thus, S. apetala can be considered as a pioneer species to improve degraded habitats to facilitate recolonisation by native mangrove species. However, removal to control proliferation may be needed at late stages to facilitate growth of native species. To ensure sustainability of mangroves in South China, the existing mangrove wetlands must be managed as an ecosystem, with long-term scientific monitoring program in place. ?? 2007 The Ecological Society of Japan.

Ren, H.; Jian, S.; Lu, H.; Zhang, Q.; Shen, W.; Han, W.; Yin, Z.; Guo, Q.

2008-01-01

139

Hyperspectral forest monitoring and imaging implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The forest biome is vital to the health of the earth. Canada and the United States have a combined forest area of 4.68 Mkm2. The monitoring of these forest resources has become increasingly complex. Hyperspectral remote sensing can provide a wealth of improved information products to land managers to make more informed decisions. Research in this area has demonstrated that hyperspectral remote sensing can be used to create more accurate products for forest inventory (major forest species), forest health, foliar biochemistry, biomass, and aboveground carbon. Operationally there is a requirement for a mix of airborne and satellite approaches. This paper surveys some methods and results in hyperspectral sensing of forests and discusses the implications for space initiatives with hyperspectral sensing

Goodenough, David G.; Bannon, David

2014-05-01

140

Vegetation Structure, Tree Volume and Biomass Estimation using Terrestrial Laser Scanning Remote Sensing: A Case Study of the Mangrove Forests in the Everglades National Park  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangrove forests are being threatened by accelerated climate change, sea level rise and coastal projects. Carbon/above ground biomass (AGB) losses due to natural or human intervention can affect global warming. Thus, it is important to monitor AGB fluctuations in mangrove forests similar to those inhabiting the Everglades National Park (ENP). Tree volume and tree wood specific density are two important measurements for the estimation of AGB (mass = volume * density). Wood specific density is acquired in the laboratory by analyzing stem cores acquired in the field. However, tree volume is a challenging task because trees resemble tapered surfaces. The majority of published studies estimate tree volume and biomass using allometric equations, which describe the size, shape, volume or AGB of a given population of trees. However, these equations can be extremely general and might not give a representative value of volume or AGB for a specific tree species. In order to have precise biomass estimations, other methodologies for tree volume estimation are needed. To overcome this problem, we use a state-of-the-art remote sensing tool known as ground-based LiDAR a.k.a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS), which can be used to precisely measure vegetation structure and tree volume from its 3-D point cloud. We surveyed three mangrove communities: (Rhizophora mangle, Laguncuria racemosa and Avicennia germinans) in three different sites along Shark River Slough (SRS), which is the primary source of water to the ENP. Our sites included: small-, intermediate- and tall- size mangroves. Our ground measurements included both: traditional forestry surveys and TLS surveys for tree attributes (tree height and diameter at breast height (DBH)) comparison. These attributes are used as input to allometric equations for the estimation of tree volume and AGB. A total of 25 scans were collected in 2011 with a Leica ScanStation C10 TLS. The 3-D point cloud acquired from the TLS data revealed that trees could be modeled as a combination of tapered geometric surfaces called frustums. The volume of the various geometric frustums can be estimated using specific mathematical formulas. We compared our TLS-derived tree volume/AGB versus published allometric equation-derived tree volume/AGB for our mangrove sites. Preliminary results yielded a good agreement between the TLS-derived and the allometric-derived biomass measurements, with TLS slightly underestimating it. In addition, we compared hand-measured tree attributes vs. TLS-measured tree attributes. Preliminary results showed that DBH can be precisely estimated with TLS. In the other hand, tree height can be estimated in places where there is low vegetation density due to point cloud occlusion and shadowing. We suggest that TLS shows potential to fill the gap between traditional forestry measurements and airborne LiDAR for forestry applications.

Feliciano, E. A.; Wdowinski, S.; Potts, M. D.

2012-12-01

141

Hurricane disturbance and recovery of carbon and energy balance in a tidal mangrove forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this presentation is to determine mangrove ecosystem function following a disturbance. Hurricane Wilma made landfall as a Category 3 storm along the western coast of the Florida Everglades in October 2005. The storm deposited large amounts of marine calcitic sediments. At a site 2 km inland from the center of landfall, 5 cm of sediments were deposited, and 30% of mature trees were defoliated and killed. At this site, tower based measurements of carbon dioxide eddy covariance and energy balance were started in 2004. Several years of repeated measurements of tree basal area, litterfall, root turnover, and peat surface elevations also pre-date the storm. Measurements resumed in 2006, providing an opportunity to examine the effects of hurricane disturbance on coastal ecosystem functioning. Following defoliation sensible heating decreased and latent heating increased. Reductions in sensible heating are attributed to decreased energy exchange at the forest crown and increased solar energy reaching the peat surface. Increases in latent heating are attributed to increased turbulent transport of latent heat fluxes from the saturated soil and water beneath the forest. Soil temperature and soil heat fluxes increased after the storm. Reductions in net ecosystem carbon assimilation rates (NEE) are apparent 4 years after the storm, though the rates are now approaching pre-storm values. The increased soil temperature following the storm presumably led to increased soil respiration which, along with the tree mortality, branch loss, and defoliation, explained the decreases in ecosystem-level carbon assimilation rates following the storm. Minimum half-hourly NEE values reached -25 ?mol m-2 s-1 and -22 ?mol m-2 s-1 before and after the storm, respectively. Daytime ecosystem respiration rates (Re) estimated using the intercept of light-response curves increased by an average of 1.2 ?mol m-2 s-1 at a reference temperature of 20 oC during low tide periods. Nightime Re at 20 oC increased by an average of 0.6 ?mol m-2 s-1 during low tide periods. Temperature response functions suggest the higher soil temperature after the storm resulted in an average increase in Rs of 1 to 2 ?mol m-2 s-1. This is correlated with a general decline in peat surface elevations, suggesting significant carbon loss from the soil has occurred through carbon efflux and dissolved fluxes to the tide. However, the rate of changes in peat surface elevations has decreased over the last year with canopy closure, suggesting the soil and overall ecosystem carbon balance are approaching a new dynamic equilibrium following the storm.

Barr, J. G.; Engel, V.; Fuentes, J. D.; Smith, T.

2009-12-01

142

Export of inorganic carbon from two Southeast Asian mangrove forests to adjacent estuaries as estimated by the stable isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of mangrove forests on the dynamics of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in tropical estuaries was estimated quantitatively using newly developed isotope (?13C) mass balance models that take into account both the input of DIC and the air-water exchange of CO2. To this aim, the concentration and ?13C of DIC were determined across the salinity gradient of two river estuaries facing the Andaman Sea. The longitudinal distribution of DIC could be explained by conservative mixing of the river water and seawater DIC in the low-discharge period (March 2006), while a net accumulation of DIC up to 190 ?mol L-1 was observed in the high-discharge period (December 2006). ?13CDIC values were generally lower than expected for the mixing of the river water and seawater DIC, due to the 13C-depleted DIC inputs from the riverside mangroves. The concentration of mangrove-derived DIC in the estuarine waters was estimated by the proposed models to be as much as 856 ?mol L-1, and was higher during the low-discharge period. This suggested that the mangroves exported much higher levels of DIC to the estuaries than indicated by the net accumulation of DIC. Our results confirm that mangroves function as an effective CO2 pump that takes CO2 from the atmosphere and releases it into estuarine waters. This study illustrates that ?13CDIC is a sensitive and quantitative indicator for DIC emission to the sea from coastal wetlands including mangroves.

Miyajima, Toshihiro; Tsuboi, Yoshie; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Koike, Isao

2009-03-01

143

Understanding sources of carbon from a coastal mangrove forest: Shark River - Everglades National Park  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical and subtropical estuaries, particularly those occupied by mangrove forests, sequester a large amount of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to be stored in biomass and ultimately in sediments. However, a significant portion of this carbon is lost as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) exported to the ocean. Therefore, the processes that transform and transport DOC within estuarine systems are an important part of the global carbon cycle. Analysis of stable carbon isotopes can provide insight on carbon dynamics in these coastal environments. Although DOC is the largest pool of reduced carbon in the ocean, few measurements of ?13C-DOC have been made for marine waters. Low DOC:DIC ratios and interference from large halide concentrations make such measurements difficult, time consuming, and costly. We have developed an approach that allows for the simultaneous measurement of DOC and ?13C-DOC in marine waters. By coupling a carbon analyzer utilizing a wet chemical oxidation technique to a high sensitivity cavity ring down spectrometer (WCO-CRDS), we are able to analyze ?13C-DOC of marine waters with DOC concentrations as low as 3 ppm C. Our approach uses an ambient atmospheric CO2 CRDS system originally designed to measure at 300 ppm (pCO2) which is an order-of-magnitude more sensitive than standard CRDS systems. This method for seawater analysis was developed by maximizing both the sample and sodium persulfate reagent volumes used in the oxidation reaction, as well as increasing the sodium persulfate concentration. Additionally, we operate the WCO-CRDS system using ultra high purity nitrogen as a carrier gas to prevent the oxidation of halides which reduces damage to the machines. These parameters allow for complete oxidation of the DOC in the sample, which was confirmed using two DOC standards mixed in an artificial seawater with a salinity around 30 g/L, and produces a sufficient volume of CO2 for detection and measurement by the CRDS. This configuration enables us to analyze up to 24 samples per day, allowing for a more rapid sample throughput than alternative ?13C-DOC analytical methods including WCO-IRMS. This method was applied to marine samples collected from Shark River (SR) located on the western edge of Everglades National Park. DOC concentrations for water in this estuary typically fall between 2 and 18 ppm, with salinities that range from fresh to marine (~30) where SR empties into the Gulf of Mexico. Water samples were collected from Florida Coastal Everglades LTER sampling sites located in SR and analyzed for DOC concentration and ?13C-DOC composition. DOC concentration ranged from 6 to 15 ppm and ?13C-DOC values were between -32 and -27.8. These results are also compared to the ?13C-DIC data from the same samples. These results indicate that mangroves are the major contributor to the DOC pool in SR. The new WCO-CRDS method will enable us to continue analysis of DOC and ?13C-DOC in marine waters, such as the Shark River estuary, to better understand C dynamics. With this approach will be able to build a dataset to help identify spatial and temporal variations in and controls on DOC and ?13C-DOC in these coastal marine settings, which are an important interface between atmospheric and oceanic carbon reservoirs.

Palya, A. P.; Anderson, W. T.; Jaffe, R.; Swart, P. K.

2012-12-01

144

Biodiversity of meiofauna in the intertidal khe nhan mudflat, can gio mangrove forest, vietnam with special emphasis on free living nematodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ecological aspect of meiofaunal communities in Can Gio mangrove forest, Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam has not been investigated before. The composition, distribution, density and biodiversity of meiofaunal communities were studied along an intertidal transect at the Khe Nhan mudflat. Each time, three replicate samples were collected in four stations along a transect following the water line from low tide level up to the mangrove forest edge. In total, 18 meiofaunal taxa were found with the dominant taxa belonging to Nematoda, Copepoda, Sarcomastigophora and Polychaeta. The densities of meiofauna ranged from 1156 inds/10 cm2 to 2082 inds/10 cm2. The increase in densities from the mangrove forest edge towards the low water line was significant. Along the mudflat transect, the biodiversity (expressed by different indices) was relatively high at different taxonomic levels but did not vary significantly along the mudflat except for taxa richness. Eighty nematode genera belonging to 24 families with Comesomatidae having the highest abundance 33.8 % were found. Theristus and Neochromadora decreased in densities from the lower water line towards the mangrove forest edge, while Paracomesoma and Hopperia are typical and more abundant at the middle of the mudflat. Halalaimus increased from high on the mudflat to the low water line.

Xuan, Quang Ngo; Vanreusel, Ann; Thanh, Nguyen Vu; Smol, Nic

2007-09-01

145

A systematic method for 3D mapping of mangrove forests based on Shuttle Radar Topography Mission elevation data, ICEsat\\/GLAS waveforms and field data: Application to Cinaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangrove forests are found within the intertropical zone and are one of the most biodiverse and productive wetlands on Earth. We focus on the Cinaga Grande de Santa Marta (CGSM) in Colombia, the largest coastal lagoondelta ecosystem in the Caribbean area with an extension of 1280km2, where one of the largest mangrove rehabilitation projects in Latin America is currently underway.

Marc Simard; Victor H. Rivera-Monroy; Jos Ernesto Mancera-Pineda; Edward Castaeda-Moya; Robert R. Twilley

2008-01-01

146

Mosquitoes of the mangrove forests of India: part 5--Chorao, Goa, and Vikhroli, Maharashtra.  

PubMed

Mosquitoes of 14 species belonging to 9 subgenera and 9 genera were recorded in Chorao mangroves of Goa, and 12 species belonging to 9 subgenera and 7 genera in the mangroves of Vikhroli, Maharashtra, in India. Genera recorded were Aedes, Anopheles, Armigeres, Culex, Mansonia, Ochlerotatus, Orthopodomyia, Toxorhynchites, Uranotaenia, and Verrallina. Species common to both the mangroves were Ae. albopictus, Ae. novalbopictus, An. subpictus, Cx. sitiens, Oc. wardi, Ur. atra, and Ve. lugubris. Tree holes, crab holes, and swamp pools were the common larval habitats in Chorao, but tree holes were absent in Vikhroli. Adults of Ae. albopictus, Ae. novalbopictus, Ar. subalbatus, Cx. gelidus Cx. sitiens, Ma. indiana, Ur. atra, and Ve. lugubris were found landing on humans. Aedes novalbopictus, Oc. wardi, and Or. anopheloides are new records for the state of Goa. PMID:17847838

Rajavel, A R; Natarajan, R; Vaidyanathan, K; Soniya, V P

2007-06-01

147

National Satellite Forest Monitoring systems for REDD+  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) is an effort to create a financial value for the carbon stored in forests, offering incentives for developing countries to reduce emissions from forested lands and invest in low-carbon paths to sustainable development. "REDD+" goes beyond deforestation and forest degradation, and includes the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. In the framework of getting countries ready for REDD+, the UN-REDD Programme assists developing countries to prepare and implement national REDD+ strategies. For the monitoring, reporting and verification, FAO supports the countries to develop national satellite forest monitoring systems that allow for credible measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of REDD+ activities. These are among the most critical elements for the successful implementation of any REDD+ mechanism. The UN-REDD Programme through a joint effort of FAO and Brazil's National Space Agency, INPE, is supporting countries to develop cost- effective, robust and compatible national monitoring and MRV systems, providing tools, methodologies, training and knowledge sharing that help countries to strengthen their technical and institutional capacity for effective MRV systems. To develop strong nationally-owned forest monitoring systems, technical and institutional capacity building is key. The UN-REDD Programme, through FAO, has taken on intensive training together with INPE, and has provided technical help and assistance for in-country training and implementation for national satellite forest monitoring. The goal of the support to UN-REDD pilot countries in this capacity building effort is the training of technical forest people and IT persons from interested REDD+ countries, and to set- up the national satellite forest monitoring systems. The Brazilian forest monitoring system, TerraAmazon, which is used as a basis for this initiative, allows countries to adapt it to country needs and the training on the TerraAmazon system is a tool to enhance existing capacity on carbon monitoring systems. The support with the National Forest Monitoring System will allow these countries to follow all actions related to the implementation of its national REDD+ policies and measures. The monitoring system will work as a platform to obtain information on their REDD+ results and actions, related directly or indirectly to national REDD+ strategies and may also include actions unrelated to carbon assessment, such as forest law enforcement. With the technical assistance of FAO, INPE and other stakeholders, the countries will set up an autonomous operational forest monitoring system. An initial version and the methodologies of the system for DRC and PNG has been launched in Durban, South Africa during COP 17 and in 2012 Paraguay, Viet Nam and Zambia will be launched in Doha, Qatar at COP 18. The access to high-quality satellite data for these countries is crucial for the set-up.

Jonckheere, I. G.

2012-12-01

148

Root proliferation in decaying roots and old root channels: A nutrient conservation mechanism in oligotrophic mangrove forests?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. In oligotrophic habitats, proliferation of roots in nutrient-rich microsites may contribute to overall nutrient conservation by plants. Peat-based soils on mangrove islands in Belize are characterized by the presence of decaying roots and numerous old root channels (0.1-3.5 cm diameter) that become filled with living and highly branched roots of Rhizophora mangle and Avicennia germinans. The objectives of this study were to quantify the proliferation of roots in these microsites and to determine what causes this response. 2. Channels formed by the refractory remains of mangrove roots accounted for only 1-2% of total soil volume, but the proportion of roots found within channels varied from 9 to 24% of total live mass. Successive generations of roots growing inside increasingly smaller root channels were also found. 3. When artificial channels constructed of PVC pipe were buried in the peat for 2 years, those filled with nutrient-rich organic matter had six times more roots than empty or sand-filled channels, indicating a response to greater nutrient availability rather than to greater space or less impedance to root growth. 4. Root proliferation inside decaying roots may improve recovery of nutrients released from decomposing tissues before they can be leached or immobilized in this intertidal environment. Greatest root proliferation in channels occurred in interior forest zones characterized by greater soil waterlogging, which suggests that this may be a strategy for nutrient capture that minimizes oxygen losses from the whole root system. 5. Improved efficiency of nutrient acquisition at the individual plant level has implications for nutrient economy at the ecosystem level and may explain, in part, how mangroves persist and grow in nutrient-poor environments.

McKee, K.L.

2001-01-01

149

Sedimentology of onshore tsunami deposits of the Indian Ocean tsunami, 2004 in the mangrove forest of the Curieuse Marine National Park, Seychelles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Seychelles were severely affected by the December 26, 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean. Since the tsunami history of small islands often remains unclear due to a young historiography we conducted a study of onshore tsunami deposits on the Seychelles in order to understand the scale of impact of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and potential predecessors. As part of this project we found and studied onshore tsunami deposits in the mangrove forest at Old Turtle Pond bay on the east coast of Curieuse Island. The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused a change of habitat due to sedimentation of an extended sand sheet in the mangrove forest. We present results of the first detailed sedimentological study of onshore tsunami deposits of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami conducted on the Seychelles. The Curieuse mangrove forest at Old Turtle Pond bay is part of the Curieuse Marine National Park. It is thus protected from anthropogenic interference. Towards the sea it was shielded until the tsunami by a 500 m long and 1.5 m high causeway which was set up in 1909 as a sediment trap. The causeway was destroyed by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. The silt to fine sand sized and organic rich mangrove soil was subsequently covered by carbonate fine to medium sand (1.5 to 2.1 ?) containing coarser carbonate shell debris which had been trapped outside the mangrove bay before the tsunami. The tsunami deposited a sand sheet which is organized into different lobes. They extend landwards to different inundation distances as a function of morphology. Maximum inundation distance is 200 m. The sediments often cover the pneumatophores of the mangroves. No landward fining trend of the sand sheet has been observed. On the different sand lobes carbonate-cemented sandstone debris ranging in size from 0.5 up to 12 cm occurs. Also numerous mostly fragmented shells of bivalves and molluscs were distributed on top of the sand lobes. Intact bivalve shells were mostly positioned with the convex side upwards. On small ledges of a granitic body at 120 m from the shore fragmented and complete shells were deposited at different elevations of up to 4 m. This implies a run up height of at least 4 m above sea level at this distance from the shore. Our study presents the mapping of the tsunamigenic sand lobes, their grain size distribution and petrographic variations of their components compared to the mangrove soil. The difference in the grain size and amount of organic material of the mangrove soil compared to the sand lobes indicate that the coarser material was entrained from outside of the mangrove forest by the tsunami. The similarity of the grain size distributions of the sediment of the sand lobes and of a reference beach/intertidal sample suggests the lagoon between the mangrove forest and the causeway as the probable sediment source area. The fact that the mangrove forest is surrounded by granitic hills and the appearance of the carbonate sandstone debris mostly on the surface of the sand sheets supports this assumption.

Nentwig, V.; Bahlburg, H.; Monthy, D.

2012-12-01

150

Comparison of different sensors and analysis techniques for tropical mangrove forest mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to compare different remote sensing sensors and analysis techniques for the purpose of mangrove mapping. A study area in Southern Thailand of approximately 4030 km size was selected. A systematic assessment of strengths and limitations of data taken from different sensors, namely Landsat TM, SPOT HRV, MOS MESSR, JERS-1 SAR and ERS-1 SAR, was

J. Aschbacher; P. Tiangco; C. P. Giri; R. S. Ofren; D. R. Paudyal; Y. K. Ang

1995-01-01

151

Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2003200466 Monitoring of forest health in Britain  

E-print Network

Forest Research Annual Report and Accounts 2003­200466 Monitoring of forest health in Britain: The Forest Condition Survey and Level I networks Introduction Every year, Forest Research undertakes an extensive survey of the condition of Britain's forest trees. The Forest Condition Survey has been carried

152

Monitoring Change in Temperate Coniferous Forest Ecosystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary goal of this research was to improve monitoring of temperate forest change using remote sensing. In this context, change includes both clearing of forest due to effects such as fire, logging, or land conversion and forest growth and succession. The Landsat 7 ETM+ proved an extremely valuable research tool in this domain. The Landsat 7 program has generated an extremely valuable transformation in the land remote sensing community by making high quality images available for relatively low cost. In addition, the tremendous improvements in the acquisition strategy greatly improved the overall availability of remote sensing images. I believe that from an historical prespective, the Landsat 7 mission will be considered extremely important as the improved image availability will stimulate the use of multitemporal imagery at resolutions useful for local to regional mapping. Also, Landsat 7 has opened the way to global applications of remote sensing at spatial scales where important surface processes and change can be directly monitored. It has been a wonderful experience to have participated on the Landsat 7 Science Team. The research conducted under this project led to contributions in four general domains: I. Improved understanding of the information content of images as a function of spatial resolution; II. Monitoring Forest Change and Succession; III. Development and Integration of Advanced Analysis Methods; and IV. General support of the remote sensing of forests and environmental change. This report is organized according to these topics. This report does not attempt to provide the complete details of the research conducted with support from this grant. That level of detail is provided in the 16 peer reviewed journal articles, 7 book chapters and 5 conference proceedings papers published as part of this grant. This report attempts to explain how the various publications fit together to improve our understanding of how forests are changing and how to monitor forest change with remote sensing. There were no new inventions that resulted from this grant.

Williams, Darrel (Technical Monitor); Woodcock, Curtis E.

2004-01-01

153

Differential responses of net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide to light and temperature between spring and neap tides in subtropical mangrove forests.  

PubMed

The eddy flux data with field records of tidal water inundation depths of the year 2010 from two mangroves forests in southern China were analyzed to investigate the tidal effect on mangrove carbon cycle. We compared the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and its responses to light and temperature, respectively, between spring tide and neap tide inundation periods. For the most time of the year 2010, higher daytime NEE values were found during spring tides than during neap tides at both study sites. Regression analysis of daytime NEE to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) using the Landsberg model showed increased sensitivity of NEE to PAR with higher maximum photosynthetic rate during spring tides than neap tides. In contrast, the light compensation points acquired from the regression function of the Landsberg model were smaller during spring tides than neap tides in most months. The dependence of nighttime NEE on soil temperature was lower under spring tide than under neap tides. All these results above indicated that ecosystem carbon uptake rates of mangrove forests were strengthened, while ecosystem respirations were inhibited during spring tides in comparison with those during neap tides, which needs to be considered in modeling mangrove ecosystem carbon cycle under future sea level rise scenarios. PMID:25133267

Li, Qing; Lu, Weizhi; Chen, Hui; Luo, Yiqi; Lin, Guanghui

2014-01-01

154

Differential Responses of Net Ecosystem Exchange of Carbon Dioxide to Light and Temperature between Spring and Neap Tides in Subtropical Mangrove Forests  

PubMed Central

The eddy flux data with field records of tidal water inundation depths of the year 2010 from two mangroves forests in southern China were analyzed to investigate the tidal effect on mangrove carbon cycle. We compared the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and its responses to light and temperature, respectively, between spring tide and neap tide inundation periods. For the most time of the year 2010, higher daytime NEE values were found during spring tides than during neap tides at both study sites. Regression analysis of daytime NEE to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) using the Landsberg model showed increased sensitivity of NEE to PAR with higher maximum photosynthetic rate during spring tides than neap tides. In contrast, the light compensation points acquired from the regression function of the Landsberg model were smaller during spring tides than neap tides in most months. The dependence of nighttime NEE on soil temperature was lower under spring tide than under neap tides. All these results above indicated that ecosystem carbon uptake rates of mangrove forests were strengthened, while ecosystem respirations were inhibited during spring tides in comparison with those during neap tides, which needs to be considered in modeling mangrove ecosystem carbon cycle under future sea level rise scenarios. PMID:25133267

Li, Qing; Lu, Weizhi; Chen, Hui; Luo, Yiqi; Lin, Guanghui

2014-01-01

155

Mangrove forests change analysis in the western coastal of Guangdong Province, China using remote sensing and GIS (1988-2008)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangroves are small evergreen trees that flourish in the intertidal zones of river deltas, lagoons, estuaries, and coastal systems in the tropics, subtropics, and some temperate coasts. Mangroves provide a variety of ecological services for human beings, such as the protection of coasts from typhoon damage, pollutant absorption, and water purification. Guangdong province, used to locate half of mangrove wetlands

Kai Liu; Shugong Wang; Xuena Wang

2010-01-01

156

Decomposition of mangrove roots: Effects of location, nutrients, species identity and mix in a Kenyan forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangrove trees may allocate >50% of their biomass to roots. Dead roots often form peat, which can make mangroves significant carbon sinks and allow them to raise the soil surface and thus survive rising sea levels. Understanding mangrove root production and decomposition is hence of theoretical and applied importance. The current work explored the effects of species, site, and root size and root nutrients on decomposition. Decomposition of fine (?3 mm diameter) and coarse (>3 mm diameter, up to a maximum of 9 mm) roots from three mangrove species, Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Ceriops tagal was measured over 12 months at 6 sites along a tidal gradient in Gazi Bay, Kenya. C:N and P:N ratios in fresh and decomposed roots were measured, and the effects on decomposition of root size and age, of mixing roots from A. marina and C. tagal, of enriching B. gymnorrhiza roots with N and P and of artefacts caused by bagging roots were recorded. There were significant differences between species, with 76, 47 and 44 % mean dry weight lost after one year for A. marina, B. gymnorrhiza and C. tagal respectively, and between sites, with generally slower decomposition at dryer, high tidal areas. N enriched B. gymnorrhiza roots decomposed significantly faster than un-enriched controls; there was no effect of P enrichment. Mixing A. marina and C. tagal roots caused significantly enhanced decomposition in C. tagal. These results suggest that N availability was an important determinant of decomposition, since differences between species reflected the initial C: N ratios. The relatively slow decomposition rates recorded concur with other studies, and may overestimate natural rates, since larger (10-20 mm diameter), more mature and un-bagged roots all showed significantly slower rates.

Huxham, Mark; Langat, Joseph; Tamooh, Fredrick; Kennedy, Hilary; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Skov, Martin W.; Kairo, James

2010-06-01

157

Assessing forest products usage and local residents' perception of environmental changes in peri-urban and rural mangroves of Cameroon, Central Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Deforestation is one of the most ubiquitous forms of land degradation worldwide. Although remote sensing and aerial photographs can supply valuable information on land/use cover changes, they may not regularly be available for some tropical coasts (e.g., Cameroon estuary) where cloud cover is frequent. With respect to mangroves, researchers are now employing local knowledge as an alternative means of understanding forest disturbances. This paper was primarily aimed at assessing the mangrove forest products usage, along with the local people's perceptions on environmental changes, between Littoral (Cameroon estuary) and Southern (mouth of the Nyong River and Mpalla village) regions of Cameroon. Methods The data from both locations were obtained through conducting household interviews and field observations. Results In the Cameroon estuary (Littoral region), 69.23% of respondents (mostly elders) could distinguish two to four mangrove plants, whereas the informants (65.45%) in the mouth of the Nyong River and Mpalla village (mostly young people interviewed from the Southern region) are familiar with only one or two commonly found mangroves. Also, more respondents from the Cameroon estuary are depending on mangroves for fuelwood (Rhizophora spp.) and housing (Rhizophora spp., Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn and Nypa fruticans (Thumb.) Wurmb.) purposes, in contrast to Nyong River mouth and Mpalla village. Although local people perceived wood extraction as a greater disruptive factor, there are several causes for mangrove depletion in the Cameroon estuary. Among others, over-harvesting, clear-felled corridors, sand extraction and housing were found important. Furthermore, a decline in mangrove fauna composition (in terms of fishery products) was recorded in the Littoral as well as Southern regions. However, the causes of such perceived negative changes were not similar in both cases. Conclusions Findings of this study highlight the need to improve sustainable management of the mangrove ecosystems through afforestation (in large impacted areas), selective removal of senescent tree stems and branches (in little damage stands), regulating sand extraction and housing activities, and creating awareness and law enforcement. PMID:22146073

2011-01-01

158

GEO Secretariat Monitoring Forests with GEOSS,  

E-print Network

© GEO Secretariat Monitoring Forests with GEOSS, the Global Earth Observation System of Systems and Products at Minimum Time delay and Minimum Cost · Free of Charge or Cost of Reproduction for Research or box (~ $200) #12;© GEO Secretariat GEONETCast A Space-based Dissemination System for Data, Products

159

Burrows of the Semi-Terrestrial Crab Ucides cordatus Enhance CO2 Release in a North Brazilian Mangrove Forest  

PubMed Central

Ucides cordatus is an abundant mangrove crab in Brazil constructing burrows of up to 2 m depth. Sediment around burrows may oxidize during low tides. This increase in sediment-air contact area may enhance carbon degradation processes. We hypothesized that 1) the sediment CO2 efflux rate is greater with burrows than without and 2) the reduction potential in radial profiles in the sediment surrounding the burrows decreases gradually, until approximating non-bioturbated conditions. Sampling was conducted during the North Brazilian wet season at neap tides. CO2 efflux rates of inhabited burrows and plain sediment were measured with a CO2/H2O gas analyzer connected to a respiration chamber. Sediment redox potential, pH and temperature were measured in the sediment surrounding the burrows at horizontal distances of 2, 5, 8 and 15 cm at four sediment depths (1, 10, 30 and 50 cm) and rH values were calculated. Sediment cores (50 cm length) were taken to measure the same parameters for plain sediment. CO2 efflux rates of plain sediment and individual crab burrows with entrance diameters of 7 cm were 0.71.3 mol m?2 s?1 and 0.20.4 mol burrows?1 s?1, respectively. CO2 released from a Rhizophora mangle dominated forest with an average of 1.7 U. cordatus burrows?1 m?2 yielded 1.01.7 mol m?2 s?1, depending on the month and burrow entrance diameter. Laboratory experiments revealed that 2060% of the CO2 released by burrows originated from crab respiration. Temporal changes in the reduction potential in the sediment surrounding the burrows did not influence the CO2 release from burrows. More oxidized conditions of plain sediment over time may explain the increase in CO2 release until the end of the wet season. CO2 released by U. cordatus and their burrows may be a significant pathway of CO2 export from mangrove sediments and should be considered in mangrove carbon budget estimates. PMID:25313661

Plmanns, Nathalie; Diele, Karen; Mehlig, Ulf; Nordhaus, Inga

2014-01-01

160

Occurrence of species-rich crab fauna in a human-impacted mangrove forest questions the application of community analysis as an environmental assessment tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diversity and composition of the intertidal brachyuran crab community in the Segara Anakan Lagoon (SAL), Java, Indonesia, during the dry season of 2005 and the rainy season of 2006, shows that crab community composition and structure alone appeared to be poor indicators for the state of a forest in terms of tree diversity and wood-cutting intensity. The lagoon is surrounded by the largest mangrove stand in Java and is under constant anthropogenic pressure, mainly due to logging, land conversion for agriculture, overfishing and industrial pollution. This study aims to determine the crab community composition at different sites of the lagoon in relation to vegetation composition and sediment parameters. In addition it investigates if mangrove crabs can be used as bioindicators to describe the environmental state of mangrove forests (tree diversity, degree of logging). It was assumed to find a low crab diversity and species richness and a strong dominance of a single species at highly disturbed forest sites compared to moderately disturbed sites. A stratified, hierarchical design was used to sample the crab fauna at 13 stations distributed over the entire lagoon. Additionally, abiotic parameters and vegetation composition were recorded. In total 6463 crabs were caught belonging to 49 species, 5 superfamilies and 10 families, with Ocypodidae and Sesarmidae being the families of most note. Mean density of adult crabs was 27.7 individuals*m -2 and mean biomass was 12.8 g wet mass*m -2 or 1.3 g ash free dry mass*m -2. Density and biomass varied strongly within and between stations but they where within the range reported for other mangrove forests of the Indo-West-Pacific. Species composition was significantly different between stations. The distribution of facultatively leaf-feeding grapsid crabs was related to vegetation parameters (tree, seedling and undergrowth density), but the occurrence of single crab and tree species was not correlated. The distribution of ocypodid crabs, feeding on detritus and microphytobenthos, correlated with sediment characteristics like median grain size and organic content. The crab community was strongly dominated by one species at six stations, however, this was not correlated to the degree of logging. Leaf-feeding crab and mangrove tree diversity was correlated at areas of one hectare (stations), but not at a lower spatial scale (areas of 100 m 2, "zone"). Species richness of leaf-feeding crabs was not linked to forest diversity. Hence a functional relation between leaf-feeding crab and tree species diversity could not be proven.

Geist, Simon Joscha; Nordhaus, Inga; Hinrichs, Saskia

2012-01-01

161

Monitoring Forest Damage Methods and Development in Sweden  

E-print Network

Monitoring Forest Damage Methods and Development in Sweden Sören Wulff Faculty of Forestry Department of Forest Resource Management Umeå Doctoral Thesis Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Wulff) #12;Monitoring Forest Damage: Methods and Development in Sweden Abstract The aims of the work

162

Predicting mangrove forest recovery on the southwest coast of Florida following the impact of Hurricane Wilma, October 2005: Chapter 6H in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The damage to mangrove forests on the west coast of Everglades National Park from Hurricane Wilma in 2005 rivaled that of Hurricane Andrew in 1992. We describe patterns and rates of recovery following Andrew and use these estimates to gage recovery based upon site reconnaissance and forest structural damage considerations in the aftermath of Wilma.

Ward, Greg A.; Smith, Thomas J.

2007-01-01

163

Mangrove Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Florida Plants Online provides this resource on mangroves, featuring brief annotations and links to dozens of mangrove-related pages. Although the pages described at Florida Plants Online vary in depth and quality, many are worthwhile.

164

Forest Health Monitoring In the Ngangao Forest, Taita Hills, Kenya: A Five Year Assessment Of Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) provides a standardized detection-level survey of forest and tree characteristics for large forested areas. We have adopted FHM methods from this temperate-based program to tropical forests in the Eastern Arc Mountains (EAM) of Kenya and Tanzania. This paper reports the first assessment of trend data in the EAM over a period from 2001 to 2006. Growth

Paul C. Rogers; Barbara O'Connell; James Mwang'ombe; Seif Madoffe; Gerard Hertel

2008-01-01

165

Local vulnerability as an advantage: mangrove forest management in Par state, north Brazil, under conditions of illegality  

Microsoft Academic Search

When ecosystems are threatened or scientific knowledge of the effects of human action is uncertain, legislative prohibition is often adopted. This paper examines how the criminalization of mangrove tree use affects ecosystem management outcomes. We explore the biological, economic and social sustainability effects of the legal ban on mangrove use on the coast of Bragana, Par, north Brazil. There are

Marion Glaser; Uta Berger; Rosangela Macedo

2003-01-01

166

Impacts of shrimp farm effluent on water quality, benthic metabolism and N-dynamics in a mangrove forest (New Caledonia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water quality parameters, sediment oxygen demand (SOD), dissolved organic and inorganic nutrient fluxes, and N-cycle processes (nitrification; denitrification; dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA)) were determined in a New Caledonian mangrove receiving shrimp farm effluent and a natural mangrove. Effluent was enriched in nutrients and organic matter, and significantly stimulated SOD and nutrient regeneration rates in the receiving sediments. All N-cycling processes were stimulated between 2 and 12-fold in the sediments receiving effluents compared to the natural mangrove. However, due to the preferential enhancement of DNRA compared to denitrification, there was no significant increase in net nitrogen elimination compared to the significant increase in sediment nutrient regeneration rates. These results indicate that the mangroves are only a partial filter for the shrimp farm effluent, as confirmed by the elevated nutrient concentrations measured in an external, marine creek of the effluent receiving mangrove.

Molnar, Nathalie; Welsh, David T.; Marchand, Cyril; Deborde, Jonathan; Meziane, Tarik

2013-01-01

167

Organochlorine pesticide residues in sediments of a tropical mangrove estuary, India: implications for monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the concentrations of isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), ?-endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate in surface sediment samples collected from the mouth of Hugli estuary in the vicinity of Sundarban mangrove environment, eastern part of India. An overall pattern of accumulation of these pesticides was in the order of: ?HCH>endosulfan sulfate>?DDT>?-endosulfan. The concentration of

Badal Bhattacharya; Santosh Kumar Sarkar; Nilanjana Mukherjee

2003-01-01

168

Hyperspectral Indices for Retrieval of Chlorophyll and Nitrogen in Mangroves Using SLC and HYMAP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal ecosystems, such as mangroves, pose a challenge for chlorophyll (CHL) and nitrogen (N) estimation using Hyperspectral. Mangroves have unique characteristics such as high humidity, wet soils (mud), water logged, and roots on the mangrove floors that provide strong influence to mangrove canopy spectra. This study aims to find optimum Hyperspectral indices for the estimation of CHL and N concentrations at canopy level using HYMAP data of mangrove forests. The common vegetation indices such as SR, NDVI, PVI, TSAVI, and OVI were applied on original spectra as well as first derivative spectra (using the Savitsky and Golay method). The first method was calculating the best indices to estimate CHL using radiative transfer model, SLC (soil-leaf-canopy). The results were tested to HYMAP data. The second method was calculating the best indices to estimate CHL and N from the HYMAP data which then tested to SLC. The first method provides disagreement between indices determined using SLC and applied to HYMAP data. The second method provides good agreement between indices determined using HYMAP data and applied to SLC. The best indices: for CHL estimation dSR=d?544/d?1736, for N estimation PVI = ?514 - 0.9*?676 - 0.1/1.3454. Information on CHL and N concentrations of mangroves are important to monitor nutrient enrichment of coastal zone and their effects to mangrove ecosystem.

Fauzi, A.; Schlerf, M.; Skidmore, A.; van Gils, H.; Heitkonig, I. M.

2011-12-01

169

[Carbon storage and carbon sink of mangrove wetland: research progress].  

PubMed

Mangrove forest is a special wetland forest growing in the inter-tidal zone of tropical and subtropical regions, playing important roles in windbreak, promoting silt sedimentation, resisting extreme events such as cyclones and tsunamis, and protecting coastline, etc. The total area of global mangrove forests is about 152000 km2, only accounting for 0. 4% of all forest area. There are about 230 km2 mangrove forests in China. The mangrove forests in the tropics have an average carbon storage as high as 1023 Mg hm-2, and the global mangrove forests can sequestrate about 0. 18-0. 228 Pg C a-1. In addition to plant species composition, a variety of factors such as air temperature, seawater temperature and salinity, soil physical and chemical properties, atmospheric CO2 concentration, and human activities have significant effects on the carbon storage and sink ability of mangrove forests. Many approaches based onfield measurements, including allometric equations, remote sensing, and model simulation, are applied to quantify the carbon storage and sink ability of mangrove forest wetland. To study the carbon storage and sink ability of mangrove wetland can promote the further understanding of the carbon cycle of mangrove wetland and related controlling mechanisms, being of significance for the protection and rational utilization of mangrove wetland. PMID:23898678

Zhang, Li; Guo, Zhi-hua; Li, Zhi-yong

2013-04-01

170

Global Change Impacts on Mangrove Ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mangroves are tropical/subtropical communities of primarily tree species that grow in the intertidal zone. These tidal forests are important coastal ecosystems that are valued for a variety of ecological and societal goods and services. Major local threats to mangrove ecosystems worldwide include clearcutting and trimming of forests for urban, agricultural, or industrial expansion; hydrological alterations; toxic chemical spills; and eutrophication. In many countries with mangroves, much of the human population resides in the coastal zone, and their activities often negatively impact the integrity of mangrove forests. In addition, eutrophication, which is the process whereby nutrients build up to higher than normal levels in a natural system, is possibly one of the most serious threats to mangroves and associated ecosystems such as coral reefs. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at the National Wetlands Research Center are working to more fully understand global impacts on these significant ecosystems. Changes in climate and other factors may also affect mangroves, but in complex ways. Global warming may promote expansion of mangrove forests to higher latitudes and accelerate sea-level rise through melting of polar ice or steric expansion of oceans. Changes in sea level would alter flooding patterns and the structure and areal extent of mangroves. Climate change may also alter rainfall patterns, which would in turn change local salinity regimes and competitive interactions of mangroves with other wetland species. Increases in frequency or intensity of tropical storms and hurricanes in combination with sea-level rise may alter erosion and sedimentation rates in mangrove forests. Another global change factor that may directly affect mangrove growth is increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), caused by burning of fossil fuels and other factors. Elevated CO2 concentration may increase mangrove growth by stimulating photosynthesis or improving water use efficiency, but the consequences of this growth enhancement for the ecosystem are unknown.

McKee, Karen L.

2004-01-01

171

Impact of typhoon disturbance on the diversity of key ecosystem engineers in a monoculture mangrove forest plantation, Can Gio Biosphere Reserve, Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangrove crabs as key ecosystem engineers may play an important role in the recovery process of storm-damaged forests. Yet, their response to storm disturbance is largely unknown. Here we compare the ground-dwelling brachyuran crab community of intact mangrove stands with that of typhoon gaps having experienced 100% tree mortality. Field work was conducted in two adjacent areas in Can Gio Biosphere Reserve, southern Vietnam. In each area, an 18-20 yr old monoculture Rhizophora apiculata stand served as control and was compared with typhoon gaps where downed stems had been removed or left on-site. The gaps were 14 and 20 months old when studied in the dry and rainy season 2008, respectively. Time-based sampling of ground-dwelling crabs with hand or shovel was conducted by 4 persons inside 100 m2 plots for 30 min (7 replicate plots per area, treatment and month). Abiotic (sediment pH, salinity, temperature, grain size, water content, carbon and nitrogen content), and biotic measures (e.g. canopy coverage, woody debris, number of trees, leaf litter) were also taken. Despite complete canopy loss, total crab abundance has not changed significantly (in contrast to biomass) and all 12 species found in the forest were also found in the gaps, demonstrating their robustness. Another 9 gap-exclusive species were recorded and average species number and Shannon diversity were thus higher in the gaps. Perisesarma eumolpe was the most abundant species, both in the forest and in the gaps, and a shift from sesarmids (typical forest species) to ocypodids (generally more prominent in open areas) has not occurred. The persistence of litter-feeding sesarmid crabs prior to the re-establishment of a mangrove canopy is likely to depend on the availability of woody debris on the ground of the gaps, fuelling a mangrove detritus based food web, rather than one based on microphytobenthos and deposit-feeding ocypodids. The presence of burrowing crabs in the gaps suggests that important ecosystem engineering activities are still performed. However, bioturbation may be reduced as crab biomass and body size were smaller in the gaps. Follow-up assessments and field experiments are needed to understand the crabs' role in processing the woody debris, their long-term community dynamics and possible feed-backs between species shifts and gap regeneration.

Diele, K.; Tran Ngoc, D. M.; Geist, S. J.; Meyer, F. W.; Pham, Q. H.; Saint-Paul, U.; Tran, T.; Berger, U.

2013-11-01

172

Monotoring of mangrove ecosystem in relation with exploration and production activities  

SciTech Connect

From Indonesia`s initial 13 million hectares of mangrove forests, presently only 2.6 million hectares remains which must be certainly protected. Mangrove swamps are of considerable ecological importance not only because of their use as spawning and feeding grounds for a many variety of fish and shrimps but also of economical importance and last but not least as coastal protection. In such a sensitive ecosystem, i.e. in the mangrove swamp area of Mahakam Delta in East Kalimantan, Indonesia, TOTAL Indonesie, an affiliate of the French oil company {open_quotes}TOTAL{close_quotes} and one of the production sharing contractors of PERTAMINA, the Indonesian owned state oil company, has undertaken its E&P operations since 1974. Realizing the sensitivity of the mangrove area, TOTAL Indonesie has undertaken continuous monitoring of the environment as part of its Environmental Management System. This monitoring is very important not only to measure the impact to the mangrove ecosystem in particular due to TOTAL Indonesie activities but also as a feed back for the environmental management. Physicochemical and biological aspects of the environment are monitored and various measurements are taken covering: (1) Hydrology and hydrodynamics of the water streams i.e. the water quality, productivity and flow characteristic of the region (2) Sedimentation and biodegradation (3) The influence of accidental and chronic pollution mangrove ecosystem (3) Sensitivity of the mangroves. The above monitoring has led to the conclusion that after more than 20 years of operation, there has significant adverse impact to the mangrove ecosystem by the exploration and production activities of Indonesie.

Alamsyah, C.; Dwistiadi, D.

1996-11-01

173

Origin and evolution of the unique Australo-Papuan mangrove- restricted avifauna: novel insights form molecular phylogenetic and comparative phylogeographic analyses.  

E-print Network

??Coastal mangrove forests of Australo-Papua harbor the world's richest avifauna restricted to mangroves, however their biogeographic origins and evolutionary processes shaping their current distributions are (more)

Nyri, rpd S.

2011-01-01

174

Hurricane Wilma's impact on overall soil elevation and zones within the soil profile in a mangrove forest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soil elevation affects tidal inundation period, inundation frequency, and overall hydroperiod, all of which are important ecological factors affecting species recruitment, composition, and survival in wetlands. Hurricanes can dramatically affect a site's soil elevation. We assessed the impact of Hurricane Wilma (2005) on soil elevation at a mangrove forest location along the Shark River in Everglades National Park, Florida, USA. Using multiple depth surface elevation tables (SETs) and marker horizons we measured soil accretion, erosion, and soil elevation. We partitioned the effect of Hurricane Wilma's storm deposit into four constituent soil zones: surface (accretion) zone, shallow zone (00.35 m), middle zone (0.354 m), and deep zone (46 m). We report expansion and contraction of each soil zone. Hurricane Wilma deposited 37.0 ( 3.0 SE) mm of material; however, the absolute soil elevation change was + 42.8 mm due to expansion in the shallow soil zone. One year post-hurricane, the soil profile had lost 10.0 mm in soil elevation, with 8.5 mm of the loss due to erosion. The remaining soil elevation loss was due to compaction from shallow subsidence. We found prolific growth of new fine rootlets (209 34 SE g m?2) in the storm deposited material suggesting that deposits may become more stable in the near future (i.e., erosion rate will decrease). Surficial erosion and belowground processes both played an important role in determining the overall soil elevation. Expansion and contraction in the shallow soil zone may be due to hydrology, and in the middle and bottom soil zones due to shallow subsidence. Findings thus far indicate that soil elevation has made substantial gains compared to site specific relative sea-level rise, but data trends suggest that belowground processes, which differ by soil zone, may come to dominate the long term ecological impact of storm deposit.

Whelan, K.R.T.; Smith, T. J., III; Anderson, G.H.; Ouellette, M.L.

2009-01-01

175

Effects of flooding and warming on soil organic matter mineralization in Avicennia germinans mangrove forests and Juncus roemerianus salt marshes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under a changing climate, coastal wetlands experience sea level rise, warming, and vegetation change, all of which may influence organic matter mineralization. In coastal wetlands of subtropical west-central Florida (USA), we investigated how soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) mineralization respond to soil water, temperature, and ecosystem type (Avicennia germinans mangrove forest vs. Juncus roemerianus salt marsh). We evaluated how soil respiration and mineral N concentration varied along a soil moisture gradient, and whether these relationships differed between ecosystem types. Then, we manipulated soils in a 28-d laboratory incubation to evaluate how potentially mineralizable C and N respond to temperature (23 vs. 27C), soil hydroperiod (inundated 4 vs. 20h/d), and soil source. Soil saturation and inundation suppressed short-term (minutes to weeks) C mineralization from near-surface soils. Soil CO2 efflux declined by 65% as soil moisture increased from 75% to 85%, and potentially mineralizable C was 18% lower with a 20-h hydroperiod than with a 4-h hydroperiod. Organic C quality appears to be greater in A.germinans than in J.roemerianus soils, as A.germinans soils had higher field CO2 efflux rates and greater mineralizable C:N (despite lower total C:N). Increasing incubation temperature from 23 to 27C elevated potentially mineralizable C by 40%, indicating that two symptoms of climate change (increased inundation from sea level rise, and warming) may have opposing effects on soil C mineralization. Temperature sensitivity of C mineralization was high for long-hydroperiod soils, however, suggesting that protection of soil organic matter (SOM) due to prolonged inundation will be undermined by warming. Potentially mineralizable N was greater in J.roemerianus soils, although in situ mineral N was not different between ecosystems, instead correlating positively with SOM. These results indicate that models forecasting soil elevation responses to climate change might include inundation effects on mineralization rates.

Lewis, David Bruce; Brown, Jewel A.; Jimenez, Kristine L.

2014-02-01

176

Aliiglaciecola coringensis sp. nov., isolated from a water sample collected from mangrove forest in Coringa, Andhra Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

A Gram-negative, rod shaped, motile, aerobic bacterium, designated as strain AK49(T) was isolated from a water sample from a mangrove forest in Coringa village, Andhra Pradesh, India. Strain AK49(T) was observed to form yellow coloured, smooth, circular, convex colonies on marine agar, with entire margins. Cells of strain AK49(T) are 0.5-1.0 m wide and 1.5-3.5 m long. Growth was observed at 25-37 C (optimum 30 C), 2-6 % NaCl (optimum 2 %) and pH 6-8 (optimum 7). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain AK49(T) is closely related to two species recently reclassified as members of the genus Aliiglaciecola: Aliiglaciecola lipolytica JCM 15139(T) (sequence similarity 95.43 %) and Aliiglaciecola litoralis JCM 15896(T) (sequence similarity 96.91 %). The major cellular fatty acids of strain AK49(T) were found to include C16:0, C18:1?7c and summed feature 3 (C16:1?7c/C15:0 iso-2-OH). The polar lipid content of cell membrane was found to include phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified aminolipid, an unidentified lipid and an unidentified glycolipid. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain AK49(T) was determined to be 41.9 mol%. Based on the taxonomic methods, including chemotaxonomic, phenotypic and phylogenetic approaches, strain AK49(T) is described here as a novel species belonging to the genus Aliiglaciecola, for which the name Aliiglaciecola coringensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Aliiglaciecola coringensis sp. nov. is AK49(T) (=MTCC 12003(T )= JCM19197(T)). PMID:25216983

Gupta, Vasundhera; Sharma, Gunjan; Srinivas, T N R; Anil Kumar, P

2014-12-01

177

Mangroves as filters of shrimp pond effluent: predictions and biogeochemical research needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary estimates of the ratio of mangrove forest: shrimp pond area necessary to remove nutrients from shrimp pond effluent are made using budgets of nitrogen and phosphorus output for semi-intensive and intensive shrimp ponds combined with estimates of total net primary production in Rhizophora-dominated mangrove forests in tropical coastal areas. If effluent is delivered directly to mangrove forest plots, it

A. I. Robertson; M. J. Phillips

1995-01-01

178

Seedling recruitment patterns in a Belizean mangrove forest: effects of establishment ability and physico-chemical factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field study was conducted to evaluate the relative importance of factors affecting seedling establishment and survival on a mangrove-dominated island in Belize. An examination of spatial patterns of seedling relative densities in relation to reproductive adults and physico-chemical conditions provided correlative information on factors affecting mangrove regeneration patterns. Distance from reproductive adults explained 8994% of the variation in relative

Karen L. McKee

1995-01-01

179

Microbacterium mangrovi sp. nov., an amylolytic actinobacterium isolated from mangrove forest soil.  

PubMed

Strain MUSC 115(T) was isolated from mangrove soil of the Tanjung Lumpur river in the state of Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. Cells of this strain stained Gram-positive and were non-spore-forming, short rods that formed yellowish-white colonies on different agar media. The taxonomy of strain MUSC 115(T) was studied by a polyphasic approach, and the organism showed a range of phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic properties consistent with those of the genus Microbacterium. The cell-wall peptidoglycan was of type B2?, containing the amino acids ornithine, alanine, glycine, glutamic acid and homoserine. The muramic acid was of the N-glycolyl form. The predominant menaquinones detected were MK-12, MK-13 and MK-11. The polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphoglycolipid, diphosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified lipids, three unidentified phospholipids and four unidentified glycolipids. The major fatty acids of the cell membrane were anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0. The whole-cell sugars detected were ribose, glucose, mannose and galactose. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence, strain MUSC 115(T) showed the highest sequence similarity to Microbacterium immunditiarum SK 18(T) (98.1%), M. ulmi XIL02(T) (97.8%) and M. arborescens DSM 20754(T) (97.5%) and lower sequence similarity to strains of other species of the genus Microbacterium. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed a low level of DNA-DNA relatedness (less than 24%) between strain MUSC 115(T) and the type strains of closely related species. Furthermore, BOX-PCR fingerprint comparison also indicated that strain MUSC 115(T) represented a unique DNA profile. The DNA G+C content determined was 70.9 0.7 mol%, which is lower than that of M. immunditiarum SK 18(T). Based on the combination of genotypic and phenotypic data, it is proposed that strain MUSC 115(T) represents a novel species of the genus Microbacterium, for which the name Microbacterium mangrovi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MUSC 115(T) ( = MCCC 1K00251(T) = DSM 28240(T) = NBRC 110089(T)). PMID:25056298

Lee, Learn-Han; Azman, Adzzie-Shazleen; Zainal, Nurullhudda; Eng, Shu-Kee; Ab Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

2014-10-01

180

The role of mangroves in attenuating storm surges  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Field observations and numerical simulations indicate that the 6-to-30-km-wide mangrove forest along the Gulf Coast of South Florida effectively attenuated stormsurges from a Category 3 hurricane, Wilma, and protected the inland wetland by reducing an inundation area of 1800 km2 and restricting surge inundation inside the mangrove zone. The surge amplitude decreases at a rate of 4050 cm/km across the mangrove forest and at a rate of 20 cm/km across the areas with a mixture of mangrove islands with open water. In contrast, the amplitudes of stormsurges at the front of the mangrove zone increase by about 1030% because of the "blockage" of mangroves to surge water, which can cause greater impacts on structures at the front of mangroves than the case without mangroves. The mangrove forest can also protect the wetlands behind the mangrove zone against surge inundation from a Category 5 hurricane with a fast forward speed of 11.2 m/s (25 mph). However, the forest cannot fully attenuate stormsurges from a Category 5 hurricane with a slow forward speed of 2.2 m/s (5 mph) and reduced surges can still affect the wetlands behind the mangrove zone. The effects of widths of mangrove zones on reducing surge amplitudes are nonlinear with large reduction rates (1530%) for initial width increments and small rates (<5%) for subsequent width increments.

Zhang, Keqi; Liu, Huiqing; Li, Yuepeng; Xu, Hongzhou; Shen, Jian; Rhome, Jamie; Smith, J., III

2012-01-01

181

Ecology of the mangroves of south Florida: a community profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed description is given of the community structure and ecosystem processes of the mangrove forests of south Florida. This description is based upon a compilation of data and hypotheses from published and unpublished sources. Information covered ranges from details of mangrove distribution, primary production, and diseases to asepcts of reproduction, biomass partitioning, and adaptations to stress. Mangrove ecosystems are

W. E. Odum; C. C. McIvor; T. J. Smith

1982-01-01

182

Complete larval and early juvenile development of the mangrove crab  

E-print Network

Complete larval and early juvenile development of the mangrove crab Perisesarma fasciatum. INTRODUCTION Sesarmid crabs are among the most diverse and import- ant faunal components of mangrove forest in the mangroves of these continents. Two of the more conspicuous and species-rich genera of African, Asian

Schubart, Christoph

183

Distinguishing mangrove species with laboratory measurements of hyperspectral leaf reflectance  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a first step in developing classification procedures for remotely acquired hyperspectral mapping of mangrove canopies, we conducted a laboratory study of mangrove leaf spectral reflectance at a study site on the Caribbean coast of Panama, where the mangrove forest canopy is dominated by Avicennia germinans, Laguncularia racemosa, and Rhizophora mangle. Using a high?resolution spectrometer, we measured the reflectance of

Le Wang; Wayne P. Sousa

2009-01-01

184

Microhabitat associations of a semi-terrestrial fish, Kryptolebias marmoratus (Poey 1880) in a mosquito-ditched mangrove forest, west-central Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mangrove rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus) is one of the few species of fish that is semi-terrestrial and able to use exposed intertidal and potentially supratidal habitats for prolonged periods of time. Based on previous work demonstrating frequent use of subterranean crab burrows as well as damp leaf litter and logs, we examined the microhabitat associations of rivulus in a mosquito-ditched mangrove forest on the Gulf coast of Florida near the northern limit of its distribution. We captured 161 rivulus on 20 dates between late April and mid-December 2007 using trench traps. Fish ranged in size from 7 to 35 mm SL. Peak abundance in mid-summer coincided with recruitment of a new year-class. The three study sites occurred within 0.5 km of one another, and experienced similar water temperatures and salinities. Nevertheless, they differed in their degree of tidal inundation, standing stock of leaf litter, and density of entrances to fiddler crab burrows. We consistently observed the highest mean catches of rivulus away from permanent subtidal waters of mosquito ditches, at intermediate relative elevations, and where leaf litter was locally abundant. Density of entrances to crab burrows was apparently unrelated to rivulus distribution or abundance in these forests.

Richards, Travis M.; Krebs, Justin M.; McIvor, Carole C.

2011-01-01

185

The Significance of Forest Monitoring Programmes: the Finnish Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finland has been participating in the ICP Forests programme (the International Co-operative Programme on the Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests) based on international agreements on the long- range transportation of air pollutants (LRTAP) and other associated monitoring programmes (e.g. Forest Focus, ICP Integrated Monitoring, ICP Vegetation) since 1985. The knowledge gained during the years has greatly increased our understanding of the overall condition of our forests and the factors affecting forest condition, the processes underlying forest ecosystem functioning, and the potential threats to our forests posed by human activities, both at home and abroad. The success of the monitoring activities in Finland is largely based on the experience gained during the early 1980's with our own national acidification project and, during the late 1980's and early 1990"s, in a number of regional monitoring projects. Finland's membership of the European Union (entry in 1996) has enabled us to further develop the infrastructure and coverage of both our extensive and intensive level networks. This broadening of our ecological understanding and development of international collaboration are now providing us with an invaluable basis for addressing the new monitoring challenges (biodiversity, climate change). The results gained in our monitoring activities clearly demonstrate the value of long-term monitoring programmes. The main results have been regularly reported both at the European (e.g. http://www.icp- forests.org/Reports.htm) and national level (e.g. http://www.metla.fi/julkaisut/workingpapers/2007/mwp045- en.htm). However, the datasets have not been intensively explored and exploited, and few of the important methodological and ecological findings have been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals. This has, understandably, not been the first priority of the international monitoring programmes. A number of the intensive forest monitoring plots in Finland have recently been included in LTER platforms, thus potentially increasing scientific collaboration between researchers across different governmental institutes and education bodies.

Merila, P.; Derome, J.; Lindgren, M.

2007-12-01

186

Satellite Data Aid Monitoring of Nation's Forests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The USDA Forest Services Asheville, North Carolina-based Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center and Prineville, Oregon-based Western Wildlands Environmental Threat Assessment Center partnered with Stennis Space Center and other agencies to create an early warning system to identify, characterize, and track disturbances from potential forest threats. The result was ForWarn, which is now being used by federal and state forest and natural resource managers.

2014-01-01

187

CTFS-ForestGEO: a worldwide network monitoring forests in an era of global change.  

PubMed

Global change is impacting forests worldwide, threatening biodiversity and ecosystem services including climate regulation. Understanding how forests respond is critical to forest conservation and climate protection. This review describes an international network of 59 long-term forest dynamics research sites (CTFS-ForestGEO) useful for characterizing forest responses to global change. Within very large plots (median size 25ha), all stems ?1cm diameter are identified to species, mapped, and regularly recensused according to standardized protocols. CTFS-ForestGEO spans 25S-61N latitude, is generally representative of the range of bioclimatic, edaphic, and topographic conditions experienced by forests worldwide, and is the only forest monitoring network that applies a standardized protocol to each of the world's major forest biomes. Supplementary standardized measurements at subsets of the sites provide additional information on plants, animals, and ecosystem and environmental variables. CTFS-ForestGEO sites are experiencing multifaceted anthropogenic global change pressures including warming (average 0.61C), changes in precipitation (up to 30% change), atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds (up to 3.8g Nm(-2) yr(-1) and 3.1g Sm(-2) yr(-1) ), and forest fragmentation in the surrounding landscape (up to 88% reduced tree cover within 5km). The broad suite of measurements made at CTFS-ForestGEO sites makes it possible to investigate the complex ways in which global change is impacting forest dynamics. Ongoing research across the CTFS-ForestGEO network is yielding insights into how and why the forests are changing, and continued monitoring will provide vital contributions to understanding worldwide forest diversity and dynamics in an era of global change. PMID:25258024

Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J; Davies, Stuart J; Bennett, Amy C; Gonzalez-Akre, Erika B; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Joseph Wright, S; Abu Salim, Kamariah; Almeyda Zambrano, Anglica M; Alonso, Alfonso; Baltzer, Jennifer L; Basset, Yves; Bourg, Norman A; Broadbent, Eben N; Brockelman, Warren Y; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Burslem, David F R P; Butt, Nathalie; Cao, Min; Cardenas, Dairon; Chuyong, George B; Clay, Keith; Cordell, Susan; Dattaraja, Handanakere S; Deng, Xiaobao; Detto, Matteo; Du, Xiaojun; Duque, Alvaro; Erikson, David L; Ewango, Corneille E N; Fischer, Gunter A; Fletcher, Christine; Foster, Robin B; Giardina, Christian P; Gilbert, Gregory S; Gunatilleke, Nimal; Gunatilleke, Savitri; Hao, Zhanqing; Hargrove, William W; Hart, Terese B; Hau, Billy C H; He, Fangliang; Hoffman, Forrest M; Howe, Robert W; Hubbell, Stephen P; Inman-Narahari, Faith M; Jansen, Patrick A; Jiang, Mingxi; Johnson, Daniel J; Kanzaki, Mamoru; Kassim, Abdul Rahman; Kenfack, David; Kibet, Staline; Kinnaird, Margaret F; Korte, Lisa; Kral, Kamil; Kumar, Jitendra; Larson, Andrew J; Li, Yide; Li, Xiankun; Liu, Shirong; Lum, Shawn K Y; Lutz, James A; Ma, Keping; Maddalena, Damian M; Makana, Jean-Remy; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marthews, Toby; Mat Serudin, Rafizah; McMahon, Sean M; McShea, William J; Memiaghe, Herv R; Mi, Xiangcheng; Mizuno, Takashi; Morecroft, Michael; Myers, Jonathan A; Novotny, Vojtech; de Oliveira, Alexandre A; Ong, Perry S; Orwig, David A; Ostertag, Rebecca; den Ouden, Jan; Parker, Geoffrey G; Phillips, Richard P; Sack, Lawren; Sainge, Moses N; Sang, Weiguo; Sri-Ngernyuang, Kriangsak; Sukumar, Raman; Sun, I-Fang; Sungpalee, Witchaphart; Suresh, Hebbalalu Sathyanarayana; Tan, Sylvester; Thomas, Sean C; Thomas, Duncan W; Thompson, Jill; Turner, Benjamin L; Uriarte, Maria; Valencia, Renato; Vallejo, Marta I; Vicentini, Alberto; Vrka, Tom; Wang, Xihua; Wang, Xugao; Weiblen, George; Wolf, Amy; Xu, Han; Yap, Sandra; Zimmerman, Jess

2015-02-01

188

Monitoring the health of a forest: A Canadian approach.  

PubMed

In Canada, acid rain is the generic term encompassing all forms of air pollution - wet and dry deposition, gaseous pollutant concentrations, and airborne particulates. It was because these pollutants, alone or in combination, may directly or indirectly affect the heath of Canada's forests, that in 1984, the Canadian Forestry Service initiated a national forest monitoring program (Acid Rain National Early Warning System or ARNEWS).Research studies on pollutant effects of the past 15-20 years have demonstrated that it is not possible to define specific symptoms of acid rain or mixtures of pollutants on native tree species or specific responses of the forest ecosystem. Consequently, ARNEWS monitored incipient acid rain effects by determining the forest's state of health rather than by concentrating on specific pollutant responses.The detection system entails experienced insect and disease survey forest rangers assessing both specific plots and the forest as a whole for extraordinary forest damage. The techniques used include mensurational and symptomatological measurements as well as evaluation of stands for damage from natural and anthropogenic causes. Critical also to the system was the capability of the Canadian Forestry Service to support the detection system with research staff who could carry out studies to explain any abnormalities in forest condition detected during the annual surveys. The ultimate outcome of the monitoring system if unexplained forest damage is detected is a research project on possible causes. PMID:24249057

Addison, P A

1989-04-01

189

Classification of mangroves vegetation species using texture analysis on Rapideye satellite imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangroves are unique ecosystem structures that are typically made up of salt tolerant species of vegetation that can be found in tropical and subtropical climate country. Mangrove ecosystem plays important role and also is known as highly productive ecosystem with high diversity of flora and fauna. However, these ecosystems have been declining over time due to the various kinds of direct and indirect pressures. Thus, there is an increasing need to monitor and assess this ecosystem for better conservation and management efforts. The multispectral RapidEye satellite image was used to identify the mangrove vegetation species within the Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve in Perak, Malaysia using texture analysis. Classification was implemented using the maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) method. Total of eleven main mangrove species were found in the satellite image of the study site which includes Rhizophora mucronata, Rhizophora apiculata, Bruguiera parviflora, Bruguiera cylindrica, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Avicennia alba, Avicennia officinalis, Sonneratia alba, Sonneratia caseolaris, Sonneratia ovata and Xylocarpus granatum. The classification results showed that the textured image produced high overall classification assessment recorded at 84% and kappa statistic of 0.8016. Meanwhile, the non-textured image produces 80% of overall accuracy and kappa statistic of 0.7061. The classification result indicated the capability of high resolution satellite image to classify the mangrove species and inclusion of texture information in the classification increased the classification accuracy.

Roslani, M. A.; Mustapha, M. A.; Lihan, T.; Juliana, W. A. Wan

2013-11-01

190

ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY -ORIGINAL RESEARCH Species mixing boosts root yield in mangrove trees  

E-print Network

ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY - ORIGINAL RESEARCH Species mixing boosts root yield in mangrove trees Joseph K and ecosystem processes. Therefore, we tested for the effects of tree species richness on mangrove root biomass- and slow-growing species to enhance belowground growth in mangrove forests, with implications for forest

Mencuccini, Maurizio

191

Ecology of the mangroves of south Florida: a community profile  

SciTech Connect

A detailed description is given of the community structure and ecosystem processes of the mangrove forests of south Florida. This description is based upon a compilation of data and hypotheses from published and unpublished sources. Information covered ranges from details of mangrove distribution, primary production, and diseases to asepcts of reproduction, biomass partitioning, and adaptations to stress. Mangrove ecosystems are considered in terms of zonation, succession, litter fall and decomposition, carbon export, and energy flow. Most of the components of mangrove communities are cataloged and discussed; these include mircoorganisms, plants other than mangroves, invertebrates, fishes, reptiles, amphibians, birds, and mammals. Finally, two sections summarize the value of mangrove ecosystems to man and present ways to manage this type of habitat. It is concluded that mangrove forests, which cover between 430,000 and 500,000 acres (174,000 to 202,000 ha) in Florida, are a resource of great value and should be protected and preserved wherever possible.

Odum, W.E.; McIvor, C.C.; Smith, T.J. III

1982-01-01

192

Boreal Forest Monitoring with ERS Coherence  

Microsoft Academic Search

C-band repeat-pass InSAR coherence from ERS-1\\/-2 satellites has been shown to be a valuable parameter for retrieval of stem volume in boreal forests, being more accurate than microwave radar backscatter. In this work we have presented a procedure to estimate stem volume from coherence measurements, obtained with careful InSAR processing due to the low coherence of forested areas. At first

M. Santoro; J. Askne; G. Smith; J. E. S. Fransson

193

Monitoring the forest carbon changes Osamu Ochiai  

E-print Network

Branco, PALSAR, 2009 (Left:HH, Right:HV) 0 100[km] 0 100[km] Clear cutDense forest #12;Jun72007~Jul222007SeptQuick Forest Observation Chain DRTS ALOS #12;1993/6/261997/5/41997/7/312007/6/132007/9/13 Amazon Deforest Watch/6/13 2007/9/13 Lat : S 2°34' Lon : W 54°45' © JAXA,METI #12;a)before logging, b) mid of the cutting,c) after

194

Taiga forest stands and SAR: Monitoring for subarctic global change  

SciTech Connect

In preparation for the first European Earth Remote Sensing (ERS-1) mission, a series of multitemporal, multifrequency, multipolarization aircraft synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data sets were acquired over the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest near Fairbanks, Alaska in March 1988. Significant change in radar backscatter was observed over the two-week experimental period due to changing environmental conditions. These preliminary results are presented to illustrate the opportunity afforded by the ERS-1 SAR to monitor temporal change in forest ecosystems.

Way, J.; Kwok, R.; Viereck, L.; Slaughter, C.; Dobson, C.

1992-03-01

195

Monitoring forest structure at landscape level: a case study of Scots pine forest in NE Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to investigate the change in spatial-temporal configuration of secondary forest succession and generate measurements\\u000a for monitoring the changes in structural plant diversity in Yaln?zam Scots pine forest in NE Turkey from 1972 to 2005. The\\u000a successional stages were mapped using the combination of Geographic Information System (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS),\\u000a aerial photos and high resolution satellite

Salih Terzio?lu; Emin Zeki Ba?kent; Ali ?hsan Kad?o?ullar?

2009-01-01

196

Using Forest Health Monitoring to assess aspen forest cover change in the southern Rockies ecoregion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term qualitative observations suggest a marked decline in quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) primarily due to advancing succession and fire suppression. This study presents an ecoregional coarse-grid analysis of the current aspen situation using Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) data from Idaho, Wyoming, and Colorado.A unique feature of aspen forests in western North America is regeneration primarily by asexual suckering although

Paul Rogers

2002-01-01

197

Breeding Bird Monitoring in Western Great Lakes National Forests 1991-2007  

E-print Network

Breeding Bird Monitoring in Western Great Lakes National Forests 1991-2007 Report to Chequamegon.J. Niemi. 2008. Breeding bird monitoring in Great Lakes National Forests 1991-2007. NRRI Technical Report

Netoff, Theoden

198

The mangroves of the north coast of Haiti  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of five mangrove forests was undertaken during the summer of1998 on the north coast of Haiti. Photo-interpretation detected areachanges between 1978 and 1989; the areas were reduced by an averageof 43% each. Two of the sites, Sale River mangrove andHaut-du-Cap River mangrove, were characterized by means of a vegetationsurvey and water and soil analysis. Tree density averaged 58,750

Mlanie Aub; Lise Caron

2001-01-01

199

Monitoring Fires in Southwestern Amazonia Rain Forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From mid-July to mid-October 2005, an environmental disaster unfolded in the trinational region of Madre de Dios, Peru; Acre, Brazil; and Pando, Bolivia (the MAP region), in southwestern Amazonia. A prolonged dry season and human-initiated fires resulted in smoke pollution affecting more than 400,000 persons, fire damage to over 300,000 hectares of rain forest, and over US$50 million of direct economic losses. Indicators suggest that anomalous drought conditions could occur again this year.

Brown, I. Foster; Schroeder, Wilfrid; Setzer, Alberto; de Los Rios Maldonado, Monica; Pantoja, Nara; Duarte, Alejandro; Marengo, Jose

2006-06-01

200

The Loss of Species: Mangrove Extinction Risk and Geographic Areas of Global Concern  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangrove species are uniquely adapted to tropical and subtropical coasts, and although relatively low in number of species, mangrove forests provide at least US $1.6 billion each year in ecosystem services and support coastal livelihoods worldwide. Globally, mangrove areas are declining rapidly as they are cleared for coastal development and aquaculture and logged for timber and fuel production. Little is

Beth A. Polidoro; Kent E. Carpenter; Lorna Collins; Norman C. Duke; Aaron M. Ellison; Joanna C. Ellison; Elizabeth J. Farnsworth; Edwino S. Fernando; Kandasamy Kathiresan; Nico E. Koedam; Suzanne R. Livingstone; Toyohiko Miyagi; Gregg E. Moore; Vien Ngoc Nam; Jin Eong Ong; Jurgenne H. Primavera; Severino G. Salmo; Jonnell C. Sanciangco; Sukristijono Sukardjo; Yamin Wang; Jean Wan Hong Yong; Dennis Marinus Hansen

2010-01-01

201

Methyl halide emissions from greenhouse-grown mangroves Steven L. Manley,1  

E-print Network

Methyl halide emissions from greenhouse-grown mangroves Steven L. Manley,1 Nun-Yii Wang,2 Maggie L 2006; published 6 January 2007. [1] Two mangrove species, Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle of methyl halide emissions from mangrove forests. Citation: Manley, S. L., N.-Y. Wang, M. L. Walser, and R

Manley, Steven L.

202

A Global Trend towards the Loss of Evolutionarily Unique Species in Mangrove Ecosystems  

E-print Network

A Global Trend towards the Loss of Evolutionarily Unique Species in Mangrove Ecosystems Barnabas HGill University, Montreal, Canada Abstract The mangrove biome stands out as a distinct forest type at the interface between terrestrial, estuarine, and near-shore marine ecosystems. However, mangrove species

Davies, Jonathan

203

United States Department of Mangroves of the Pacific Islands:Agriculture  

E-print Network

United States Department of Mangroves of the Pacific Islands:Agriculture Forest Service Research, Ariel E. 1990. Mangroves of the Pacific islands: research opportunities. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-118. The perception of mangroves by people in the Pacific islands and throughout all the world has changed in the past

Standiford, Richard B.

204

22th International Meeting on org. geochem. The fate of organic matter in mangrove sediments  

E-print Network

22th International Meeting on org. geochem. The fate of organic matter in mangrove sediments. Several field trips allowed to sample twinned sedimentary cores from both the mangroves. The development and age of mangrove marshes and forests was assessed by parallel studies performed by ecologists

Boyer, Edmond

205

Marbled Murrelet Effectiveness Monitoring Northwest Forest Plan  

E-print Network

, Pacific Southwest Research Station Ken Ostrom, GIS/Database Specialist, US Fish and Wildlife Service C University Ken Ostrom, GIS/Database Specialist, US Fish and Wildlife Service Randall Wilk, Researcher, US Members for FY01 Population Monitoring Patrick G.R. Jodice, Module Leader, US Fish and Wildlife Service

Jodice, Patrick

206

Mangrove outwelling: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The export of detritus and faunal biomass from mangroves has long been considered as an important support for offshore biological production and has been widely used as an argument for mangrove conservation. This functional role of the mangroves, like many other paradigms in mangrove ecology, has seldom been put to rigorous test since the hypothesis was postulated about 25 years

S. Y. Lee

1995-01-01

207

The emergence of modern type rain forests and mangroves and their traces in the palaeobotanical record during the Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of modern rain forests is still very poorly known. This ecosystem could have potentially fully evolved only after the development of relatively high numbers of flowering plant families adapted to rain forest conditions. During the early phase of angiosperm evolution in the early Cretaceous the palaeo-equatorial region was located in a seasonally dry climatic belt, so that during this phase, flowering plants often show adaptations to drought, rather than to continuously wet climate conditions. Therefore it is not surprising that except for the Nymphaeales, the most basal members of extant angiosperm families have members that do not necessarily occur in the continuously wet tropics today. However, during the late Early Cretaceous several clades emerged that later would give rise to families that are typically found today mostly in (shady) moist places in warmer regions. This is especially seen among the monocotyledons, a group of the mesangiosperms, that developed in many cases large leaves often with very specific venation patterns that make these leaves very unique and well recognizable. Especially members of three groups are here of interest: the arum family (Araceae), the palms (Arecaceae) and the Ginger and allies (Zingiberales). The earliest fossil of Araceae are restricted to low latitudes during the lower Cretaceous. Arecaceae and Zingiberales do not appear in the fossil record before the early late Cretaceous and occur at mid latitudes. During the Late Cretaceous, Araceae are represented at mid latitudes by non-tropical early diverging members and at low latitudes by derived rainforest members. Palms became widespread during the Late Cretataceous and also Nypa, a typical element of tropical to subtropical mangrove environments evolved during this time period. During the Paleocene Arecaceae appear to be restricted to lower latitudes as well as Zingiberales. All three groups are again widespread during the Eocene, reaching higher latitudes and probably diversifying at mid latitudes. Later on, they slowly became restricted to lower latitudes as seen today. This fluctuation appears to be linked to climate change and are still reflected by the regional diversity of these groups, which reflect rather well rain forest evolution. When tracing the fossil record of rain forest plants we clearly see a pattern that suggests the onset of this type of environment during the late Late Cretaceous and spread during the early Tertiary with phases of retreat during the Oligocene and from the mid-Miocene onwards.

Mohr, Barbara; Coiffard, Clment

2014-05-01

208

Satellite radar for monitoring forest resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation is made of the computer analysis results of a study which used Seasat satellite radar data obtained in 1978 and Shuttle Imaging Radar-B data obtained in 1984. The change-detection procedures employed demonstrate that deforestation and reforestation activities can be effectively monitored on the basis of radar data gathered at satellite altitudes. The computer-processing techniques applied to the data encompassed (1) overlay display, (2) ratios, (3) differences, (4) principal-component analysis, and (5) classification; of these, overlay display is noted to quickly and easily yield a qualitative display of the multidate data.

Hoffer, Roger M.; Lee, Kyu-Sung

1990-01-01

209

Monitoring of impact of anthropogenic inputs on water quality of mangrove ecosystem of Uran, Navi Mumbai, west coast of India.  

PubMed

Surface water samples were collected from substations along Sheva creek and Dharamtar creek mangrove ecosystems of Uran (Raigad), Navi Mumbai, west coast of India. Water samples were collected fortnightly from April 2009 to March 2011 during spring low and high tides and were analyzed for pH, Temperature, Turbidity, Total solids (TS), Total dissolved solids (TDS), Total suspended solids (TSS), Dissolved oxygen (DO), Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Carbon dioxide (CO2), Chemical oxygen demand (COD), Salinity, Orthophosphate (O-PO4), Nitrite-nitrogen (NO2-N), Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), and Silicates. Variables like pH, turbidity, TDS, salinity, DO, and BOD show seasonal variations. Higher content of O-PO4, NO3-N, and silicates is recorded due to discharge of domestic wastes and sewage, effluents from industries, oil tanking depots and also from maritime activities of Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT), hectic activities of Container Freight Stations (CFS), and other port wastes. This study reveals that water quality from mangrove ecosystems of Uran is deteriorating due to industrial pollution and that mangrove from Uran is facing the threat due to anthropogenic stress. PMID:23856298

Pawar, Prabhakar R

2013-10-15

210

Hurricane disturbance and recovery of energy balance, CO2 fluxes and canopy structure in a mangrove forest of the Florida Everglades  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eddy covariance (EC) estimates of carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes and energy balance are examined to investigate the functional responses of a mature mangrove forest to a disturbance generated by Hurricane Wilma on October 24, 2005 in the Florida Everglades. At the EC site, high winds from the hurricane caused nearly 100% defoliation in the upper canopy and widespread tree mortality. Soil temperatures down to -50 cm increased, and air temperature lapse rates within the forest canopy switched from statically stable to statically unstable conditions following the disturbance. Unstable conditions allowed more efficient transport of water vapor and CO2 from the surface up to the upper canopy layer. Significant increases in latent heat fluxes (LE) and nighttime net ecosystem exchange (NEE) were also observed and sensible heat fluxes (H) as a proportion of net radiation decreased significantly in response to the disturbance. Many of these impacts persisted through much of the study period through 2009. However, local albedo and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer) data (the Enhanced Vegetation Index) indicated a substantial proportion of active leaf area recovered before the EC measurements began 1 year after the storm. Observed changes in the vertical distribution and the degree of clumping in newly emerged leaves may have affected the energy balance. Direct comparisons of daytime NEE values from before the storm and after our measurements resumed did not show substantial or consistent differences that could be attributed to the disturbance. Regression analyses on seasonal time scales were required to differentiate the storm's impact on monthly average daytime NEE from the changes caused by interannual variability in other environmental drivers. The effects of the storm were apparent on annual time scales, and CO2 uptake remained approximately 250 g C m-2 yr-1 lower in 2009 compared to the average annual values measured in 20042005. Dry season CO2 uptake was relatively more affected by the disturbance than wet season values. Complex leaf regeneration dynamics on damaged trees during ecosystem recovery are hypothesized to lead to the variable dry versus wet season impacts on daytime NEE. In contrast, nighttime CO2 release (i.e., nighttime respiration) was consistently and significantly greater, possibly as a result of the enhanced decomposition of litter and coarse woody debris generated by the storm, and this effect was most apparent in the wet seasons compared to the dry seasons. The largest pre- and post-storm differences in NEE coincided roughly with the delayed peak in cumulative mortality of stems in 20072008. Across the hurricane-impacted region, cumulative tree mortality rates were also closely correlated with declines in peat surface elevation. Mangrove forestatmosphere interactions are interpreted with respect to the damage and recovery of stand dynamics and soil accretion processes following the hurricane.

Barr, Jordan G.; Engel, Vic; Smith, Thomas J.; Fuentes, Jose D.

2012-01-01

211

Hurricane disturbance and recovery of energy balance, CO 2 fluxes and canopy structure in a mangrove forest of the Florida Everglades  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eddy covariance (EC) estimates of carbon dioxide (CO 2) fluxes and energy balance are examined to investigate the functional responses of a mature mangrove forest to a disturbance generated by Hurricane Wilma on October 24, 2005 in the Florida Everglades. At the EC site, high winds from the hurricane caused nearly 100% defoliation in the upper canopy and widespread tree mortality. Soil temperatures down to -50cm increased, and air temperature lapse rates within the forest canopy switched from statically stable to statically unstable conditions following the disturbance. Unstable conditions allowed more efficient transport of water vapor and CO 2 from the surface up to the upper canopy layer. Significant increases in latent heat fluxes (LE) and nighttime net ecosystem exchange (NEE) were also observed and sensible heat fluxes (H) as a proportion of net radiation decreased significantly in response to the disturbance. Many of these impacts persisted through much of the study period through 2009. However, local albedo and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer) data (the Enhanced Vegetation Index) indicated a substantial proportion of active leaf area recovered before the EC measurements began 1year after the storm. Observed changes in the vertical distribution and the degree of clumping in newly emerged leaves may have affected the energy balance. Direct comparisons of daytime NEE values from before the storm and after our measurements resumed did not show substantial or consistent differences that could be attributed to the disturbance. Regression analyses on seasonal time scales were required to differentiate the storm's impact on monthly average daytime NEE from the changes caused by interannual variability in other environmental drivers. The effects of the storm were apparent on annual time scales, and CO 2 uptake remained approximately 250gCm -2yr -1 lower in 2009 compared to the average annual values measured in 2004-2005. Dry season CO 2 uptake was relatively more affected by the disturbance than wet season values. Complex leaf regeneration dynamics on damaged trees during ecosystem recovery are hypothesized to lead to the variable dry versus wet season impacts on daytime NEE. In contrast, nighttime CO 2 release (i.e., nighttime respiration) was consistently and significantly greater, possibly as a result of the enhanced decomposition of litter and coarse woody debris generated by the storm, and this effect was most apparent in the wet seasons compared to the dry seasons. The largest pre- and post-storm differences in NEE coincided roughly with the delayed peak in cumulative mortality of stems in 2007-2008. Across the hurricane-impacted region, cumulative tree mortality rates were also closely correlated with declines in peat surface elevation. Mangrove forest-atmosphere interactions are interpreted with respect to the damage and recovery of stand dynamics and soil accretion processes following the hurricane. ?? 2011.

Barr, J.G.; Engel, V.; Smith, T.J.; Fuentes, J.D.

2012-01-01

212

Net Change in Forest Density, 1873-2001: Using Historical Maps to Monitor  

E-print Network

of the United States" depicting broad categories of evergreen and deciduous forests, and arable and dry prairiesa Net Change in Forest Density, 1873-2001: Using Historical Maps to Monitor Long-term Forest Trends Research Map NRS-4United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service #12;b Abstract European settlement

213

An Overview of the Forest Bird Monitoring Program in Ontario, Canada1 Daniel A. Welsh2  

E-print Network

An Overview of the Forest Bird Monitoring Program in Ontario, Canada1 Daniel A. Welsh2 Abstract trends in forest birds. The Forest Bird Monitoring Program (FBMP) was designed to describe changes birds (species composition and relative abundance), and to develop regionally accurate habitat

Standiford, Richard B.

214

Marbled Murrelet Effectiveness Monitoring Bentivoglio et al. April 2002 Northwest Forest Plan  

E-print Network

Marbled Murrelet Effectiveness Monitoring Bentivoglio et al. April 2002 Northwest Forest Plan Marbled Murrelet Effectiveness Monitoring 2000 Annual Report Naomi Bentivoglio1 (Team Leader), Jim BaldwinMarbled Murrelet Effectiveness Monitoring Bentivoglio et al. April 2002 Summary Marbled murrelets (Brachyramphus

Jodice, Patrick

215

A new approach to spatially explicit modelling of forest dynamics: spacing, ageing and neighbourhood competition of mangrove trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new approach to spatially explicit modelling that enables the influence of neighbourhood effects on the dynamics of forests and plant communities to be analysed. We refer to this approach as field of neighbourhood (FON). It combines the neighbourhood philosophy of grid-based models with the description of individual spacing in the zone of influence (ZOI) approach. The

Uta Berger; Hanno Hildenbrandt

2000-01-01

216

Monitoring Forest Regrowth Using a Multi-Platform Time Series  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past 50 years, the forests of western Washington and Oregon have been extensively harvested for timber. This has resulted in a heterogeneous mosaic of remaining mature forests, clear-cuts, new plantations, and second-growth stands that now occur in areas that formerly were dominated by extensive old-growth forests and younger forests resulting from fire disturbance. Traditionally, determination of seral stage and stand condition have been made using aerial photography and spot field observations, a methodology that is not only time- and resource-intensive, but falls short of providing current information on a regional scale. These limitations may be solved, in part, through the use of multispectral images which can cover large areas at spatial resolutions in the order of tens of meters. The use of multiple images comprising a time series potentially can be used to monitor land use (e.g. cutting and replanting), and to observe natural processes such as regeneration, maturation and phenologic change. These processes are more likely to be spectrally observed in a time series composed of images taken during different seasons over a long period of time. Therefore, for many areas, it may be necessary to use a variety of images taken with different imaging systems. A common framework for interpretation is needed that reduces topographic, atmospheric, instrumental, effects as well as differences in lighting geometry between images. The present state of remote-sensing technology in general use does not realize the full potential of the multispectral data in areas of high topographic relief. For example, the primary method for analyzing images of forested landscapes in the Northwest has been with statistical classifiers (e.g. parallelepiped, nearest-neighbor, maximum likelihood, etc.), often applied to uncalibrated multispectral data. Although this approach has produced useful information from individual images in some areas, landcover classes defined by these techniques typically are not consistent for the same scene imaged under different illumination conditions, especially in the mountainous regions. In addition, it is difficult to correct for atmospheric and instrumental differences between multiple scenes in a time series. In this paper, we present an approach for monitoring forest cutting/regrowth in a semi-mountainous portion of the southern Gifford Pinchot National Forest using a multisensor-time series composed of MSS, TM, and AVIRIS images.

Sabol, Donald E., Jr.; Smith, Milton O.; Adams, John B.; Gillespie, Alan R.; Tucker, Compton J.

1996-01-01

217

Coastal resource degradation in the tropics: does the tragedy of the commons apply for coral reefs, mangrove forests and seagrass beds.  

PubMed

The keynote paper by Garrett Hardin 44 years ago introduced the term 'tragedy of the commons' into our language (Hardin, 1968); this term is now used widely, but it is neither universally accepted nor fully understood. Irrespective, the 'tragedy of the commons' is an increasing reality for more than 500 million people that rely on the biodiversity resources and services of tropical coral reefs, mangrove forests, seagrass beds and associated fisheries. These natural resources continue to decline despite major advances in our scientific understanding of how ecosystems and human populations interact, and the application of considerable conservation and management efforts at scales from local user communities to oceans. Greater effort will be required to avert increasing damage from over-exploitation, pollution and global climate change; all deriving from increasing exploitation driven by poverty and progress i.e. continuing to expand development indefinitely and extraction of resources at industrial scales. However, the 'tragedy' concept has been widely criticized as a simple metaphor for a much larger set of problems and solutions. We argue that the 'tragedy' is essentially real and will continue to threaten the lives of millions of people unless there are some major moral and policy shifts to reverse increasing damage to coastal habitats and resources. We agree with the conclusion by Hardin that the solution to the tragedy will not be through the application of natural sciences, but via implementing exceedingly difficult and controversial moral decisions. An extreme example of a moral and controversial direction suggested by Hardin was in re-examining the 'freedom to breed' as an inherent human value. The need for 'moral decisions' is even greater in 2012. PMID:22349467

Wilkinson, Clive; Salvat, Bernard

2012-06-01

218

Mapping Belizes Coastal Mangrove Forests: experiments with conjunctive use of SPOT, L- and X-band SAR and SRTM data.  

E-print Network

Four experimental classifications of coastal mangroves in Belize were developed using Definiens software using various combinations of SPOT multispectral data and ALOS L-band PALSAR data combined with digital surface models obtained from airborne X...

Marin Herrera, Mario A.

2010-08-11

219

Monitoring Regional Forest Disturbances across the US with Near Real Time MODIS NDVI Products included in the ForWarn Forest Threat Early Warning System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

U.S. forests occupy approx.1/3 of total land area (approx. 304 million ha). Since 2000, a growing number of regionally evident forest disturbances have occurred due to abiotic and biotic agents. Regional forest disturbances can threaten human life and property, bio-diversity and water supplies. Timely regional forest disturbance monitoring products are needed to aid forest health management work. Near Real Time (NRT) twice daily MODIS NDVI data provide a means to monitor U.S. regional forest disturbances every 8 days. Since 2010, these NRT forest change products have been produced and posted on the US Forest Service ForWarn Early Warning System for Forest Threats.

Hargrove, William W.; Gasser, Gerald; Norman, Steve; Spruce, Joseph

2013-01-01

220

Watershed Scale Analyses of Mangrove Ecosystems in the Americas and the Contributing Upland Area Land Cover Change Over Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecosystems throughout the world have been under pressure by drivers of change both natural and anthropogenic. Coastal and marine ecosystems such as mangrove forests contribute to the biodiversity of land and ocean habitats at various scales, acting as direct link to biogeochemical cycles of both upland and coastal regions. All of the positive and negative drivers of change of both natural and anthropogenic, within watershed and political boundaries, play a role in the health and function of these ecosystems. As a result, they are among the most rapidly changing landscapes in the Americas. This research presents a watershed scale monitoring approach of mangrove ecosystems using datasets that contain several sources of remotely sensed data and intensive ecological field data. Spatially exclusive decision tree models were used to assess and monitor land use and land cover change in mangrove ecosystems for different regions of the Americas, representing varying geomorphologic settings across a latitudinal gradient. The integration of ecological, hydrological, and geomorphologic characteristics of the contributing areas to these critical downstream ecosystems is crucial for both mapping and monitoring these vulnerable ecosystems. This research develops the scientific and technical framework needed for advancement in regional scale natural resource management and valuation, informed policy making, and protection of coastal ecosystems. This research also provides a foundation for the development of forecast models to simulate and assess mangrove area, health, and viability changes under different land management and climate scenarios.

Corcoran, J.; Simard, M.

2013-12-01

221

People and mangroves in the Philippines: fifty years of coastal environmental change  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Historical research has enhanced understanding of past human influences on forests and provides insights that can improve current conservation efforts. This paper presents one of the first detailed studies of mangrove forest history. Historical changes in mangroves and their use were examined in Bais Bay and Banacon Island, Philippines. Cutting to make space for fish ponds and residential settlement

Bradley B. Walters

2003-01-01

222

The composition of sedimentary organic matter in relation to the dynamic features of a mangrove-fringed coast in  

E-print Network

The composition of sedimentary organic matter in relation to the dynamic features of a mangrove Author Keywords: Mangrove sediments; Organic matter; Rock-Eval analyses; Organic petrography; Redox of 2-m-deep cores was examined in relation to the evolution of mangrove forest, on the basis

Boyer, Edmond

223

[The Purruja mangrove, Golfito, Costa Rica: a management model].  

PubMed

The Purruja mangrove (Golfito, Costa Rica) has an estimated area of 70 ha. A socio-biological research was the ground to set initial goals to manage the resources and to identify the mangrove biological condition. Community participation and the local organization were key factors in developing an integrated model for the management of natural resources. Constant monitoring and institutional networks were the other two factors to manage the mangrove. The constant profesional support was a tool to facilitate the acomplishment of goals and to establish an institucional network to promote local group iniciatives for collaborative management of the Purruja mangrove. PMID:17465138

Silva, Ana Margarita; Carrillo, Norma Natalia

2004-12-01

224

Long-term monitoring of Dzanga Bai forest elephants: forest clearing use patterns.  

PubMed

Individual identification of the relatively cryptic forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis) at forest clearings currently provides the highest quality monitoring data on this ecologically important but increasingly threatened species. Here we present baseline data from the first 20 years of an individually based study of this species, conducted at the Dzanga Clearing, Central African Republic. A total of 3,128 elephants were identified over the 20-year study (1,244 adults; 675 females, 569 males). It took approximately four years for the majority of elephants visiting the clearing to be identified, but new elephants entered the clearing every year of the study. The study population was relatively stable, varying from 1,668 to 1,864 individuals (including juveniles and infants), with increasingly fewer males than females over time. The age-class distribution for females remained qualitatively unchanged between 1995 and 2010, while the proportion of adult males decreased from 20% to 10%, likely reflecting increased mortality. Visitation patterns by individuals were highly variable, with some elephants visiting monthly while others were ephemeral users with visits separated by multiple years. The number of individuals in the clearing at any time varied between 40 and 100 individuals, and there was little evidence of a seasonal pattern in this variation. The number of elephants entering the clearing together (defined here as a social group) averaged 1.49 (range 1-12) for males and 2.67 (range 1-14) for females. This collation of 20 years of intensive forest elephant monitoring provides the first detailed, long term look at the ecology of bai visitation for this species, offering insight to the ecological significance and motivation for bai use, social behavior, and threats to forest elephants. We discuss likely drivers (rainfall, compression, illegal killing, etc.) influencing bai visitation rates. This study provides the baseline for future demographic and behavioral studies of this population. PMID:24386460

Turkalo, Andrea K; Wrege, Peter H; Wittemyer, George

2013-01-01

225

Long-Term Monitoring of Dzanga Bai Forest Elephants: Forest Clearing Use Patterns  

PubMed Central

Individual identification of the relatively cryptic forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis) at forest clearings currently provides the highest quality monitoring data on this ecologically important but increasingly threatened species. Here we present baseline data from the first 20 years of an individually based study of this species, conducted at the Dzanga Clearing, Central African Republic. A total of 3,128 elephants were identified over the 20-year study (1,244 adults; 675 females, 569 males). It took approximately four years for the majority of elephants visiting the clearing to be identified, but new elephants entered the clearing every year of the study. The study population was relatively stable, varying from 1,668 to 1,864 individuals (including juveniles and infants), with increasingly fewer males than females over time. The age-class distribution for females remained qualitatively unchanged between 1995 and 2010, while the proportion of adult males decreased from 20% to 10%, likely reflecting increased mortality. Visitation patterns by individuals were highly variable, with some elephants visiting monthly while others were ephemeral users with visits separated by multiple years. The number of individuals in the clearing at any time varied between 40 and 100 individuals, and there was little evidence of a seasonal pattern in this variation. The number of elephants entering the clearing together (defined here as a social group) averaged 1.49 (range 112) for males and 2.67 (range 114) for females. This collation of 20 years of intensive forest elephant monitoring provides the first detailed, long term look at the ecology of bai visitation for this species, offering insight to the ecological significance and motivation for bai use, social behavior, and threats to forest elephants. We discuss likely drivers (rainfall, compression, illegal killing, etc.) influencing bai visitation rates. This study provides the baseline for future demographic and behavioral studies of this population. PMID:24386460

Turkalo, Andrea K.; Wrege, Peter H.; Wittemyer, George

2013-01-01

226

Monitoring for Adaptive Management in Coniferous Forests of the Northern Rockies1  

E-print Network

initiated in 2001, on bird responses to dry-forest restoration in the northern Rockies. Ponderosa pine suppression. Active treatment of ponderosa pine forests to reverse historical trends is a recent managementMonitoring for Adaptive Management in Coniferous Forests of the Northern Rockies1 Jock S. Young,2

Hutto, Richard

227

Biology of mangroves and mangrove Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangroves are woody plants that grow at the interface between land and sea in tropical and sub-tropical latitudes where they exist in conditions of high salinity, extreme tides, strong winds, high temperatures and muddy, anaerobic soils. There may be no other group of plants with such highly developed morphological and physiological adaptations to extreme conditions.Because of their environment, mangroves are

K. Kathiresan; B. L. Bingham

2001-01-01

228

New Approaches to Forest Monitoring using Remote Sensing  

E-print Network

Landsat ·Enhancing use of Landsat data #12;Mapping the Boreal zone ­ forest cover and forest cover loss 2000 to 2005 Mapping the Boreal zone ­ forest cover and forest cover loss 2000 to 2005 a - South Dakota Hansena, Peter Potapova, Steve Stehmanb, Kyle Pittmana, Thomas Lovelandc #12;Mapping boreal forest cover

229

Use of Multi-Year MODIS Phenological Data Products to Detect and Monitor Forest Disturbances at Regional and National Scales  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation discusses an effort to use select MODIS phenological products for forest disturbance monitoring at the regional and CONUS scales. Forests occur on 1/3 of the U.S. land base and include regionally prevalent forest disturbances that can threaten forest sustainability. Regional and CONUS forest disturbance monitoring is needed for a national forest threat early warning system being developed by the USDA Forest Service with help from NASA, ORNL, and USGS. MODIS NDVI phenology products are being used to develop forest disturbance monitoring capabilities of this EWS.

Spruce, Joseph; Hargrove, William W.; Gasser, Jerry; Smoot, James; Ross, Kenton

2010-01-01

230

Inorganic and organic carbon biogeochemistry in the Gautami Godavari estuary (Andhra Pradesh, India) during pre-monsoon: The local impact of extensive mangrove forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution and sources of organic and inorganic carbon were studied in the Gautami Godavari estuary (Andhra Pradesh, India) and in a mangrove ecosystem in its delta during pre-monsoon. In the oligohaline and mesohaline section (salinity 0-15) of the estuary, internal production of total alkalinity (TAlk) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) was recorded, and the ?13CDIC profile suggests that carbonate dissolution may be an important process determining the DIC dynamics in this section of the Godavari. The partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) was fairly low along the entire salinity gradient, (293-500 ppm), but much higher and more variable (1375-6437 ppm) in the network of tidal mangrove creeks in the delta. Here, variations in the concentration and ?13C of the DIC pool were shown to result largely from the mineralization of organic matter. The present study clearly identifies the mangrove creeks as an active site of mineralization and CO2 efflux to the atmosphere, but shows that these changes in the aquatic biogeochemistry are a localized feature, rapidly fading in the adjacent Kakinada Bay. Our data indicate that mineralization of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of mangrove origin, and its subsequent efflux as CO2 to the atmosphere may represent an important fate for mangrove carbon. Although further quantification of this process in a variety of systems is required, we suggest that some of the current ideas on the role of mangroves in the carbon budget of the coastal zone may need to be reconsidered.

Bouillon, Steven; Frankignoulle, Michel; Dehairs, Frank; Velimirov, Branko; Eiler, Alexander; Abril, GwenaL.; Etcheber, Henri; Borges, Alberto Vieira

2003-12-01

231

Analytical and numerical simulation of tsunami mitigation by mangroves in Penang, Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Andaman tsunami that occurred on 26 December 2004 killed about a quarter million people worldwide, of which 52 deaths happened in Penang, Malaysia. Mangrove forests fringing the shallow coastal seas of Penang Island and northwest of Peninsular Malaysia have been credited to have played a role in mitigating the tsunami waves. It is therefore relevant to assess the role of mangroves in tsunami mitigation by analytical model and numerical simulations. The role of mangrove forest in reducing tsunami wave energy, heights and velocities are simulated by the incorporation of the Morison Equation to represent friction provided by the mangrove forest for the coasts of Penang. Wave heights and velocities can be reduced in the presence of mangrove. However the degree of reduction varies significantly depending on several factors such as wave period and wavelength as well as mangrove characteristics including forest widths and density. For a wave of 10 km wavelength, with wave height and velocity of 1.0 m and 1.0 m/s, respectively at the shore without a mangrove forest, then a mangrove forest of 500 m width may provide a reduction ratio for wave height and wave velocity of about 0.55 and 0.50, respectively.

Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye; Liu, Philip Li-Fan; Ismail, Ahmad Izani Md.; Lee, Hooi Ling

2009-09-01

232

Advancing Indonesian forest resource monitoring using multi-source remotely sensed imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indonesia experiences the third highest rate of deforestation among tropical countries (FAO, 2005, 2010, Hansen et al 2008, 2009). Providing timely and accurate forest data at the national scale is crucial to combat deforestation and forest degradation in support climate change mitigation and biodiversity conservation policy initiatives. Indonesia's national communication to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 2009 reveals a substantial role of forests as well as peatlands in contributing projected national carbon emission under business as usual. Further, in 2009 the government of Indonesia pledged to reduce national carbon emissions from between 26% to 41% of business as usual by 2020 while maintaining annual economic growth at 7%. The forests and wetlands therefore are becoming major interest for climate change mitigation in Indonesia. Our work here documents timely natural primary forests extent and loss within various types of physiographical formations. We present a hybrid approach to quantify the extent and change of primary forests for different composition and structure using a per-pixel supervised classification mapping combined with a GIS-based fragmentation analysis (Margono et al 2012). We also demonstrate the mapping of Indonesia's wetlands cover as a single thematic class (including peatlands, freshwater wetlands and mangroves) using topographical indices (derived from SRTM elevation data) combined with optical (Landsat) and radar (ALOS PALSAR) image data. We provided analysis within different physiographic formations (uplands and lowlands) defined using DEM data. The loss of Indonesia's primary intact and primary degraded forests, within wetlands and non-wetlands covers, as well as in the upland was quantified to provide suitable information for the objectives of the UNFCCC Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD and REDD+) program.

Margono, B. A.; Turubanova, S.; Potapov, P.; Hansen, M.

2013-12-01

233

Linking physiological processes with mangrove forest structure: phosphorus deficiency limits canopy development, hydraulic conductivity and photosynthetic carbon gain in dwarf Rhizophora mangle.  

PubMed

Spatial gradients in mangrove tree height in barrier islands of Belize are associated with nutrient deficiency and sustained flooding in the absence of a salinity gradient. While nutrient deficiency is likely to affect many parameters, here we show that addition of phosphorus (P) to dwarf mangroves stimulated increases in diameters of xylem vessels, area of conductive xylem tissue and leaf area index (LAI) of the canopy. These changes in structure were consistent with related changes in function, as addition of P also increased hydraulic conductivity (Ks), stomatal conductance and photosynthetic assimilation rates to the same levels measured in taller trees fringing the seaward margin of the mangrove. Increased xylem vessel size and corresponding enhancements in stem hydraulic conductivity in P fertilized dwarf trees came at the cost of enhanced mid-day loss of hydraulic conductivity and was associated with decreased assimilation rates in the afternoon. Analysis of trait plasticity identifies hydraulic properties of trees as more plastic than those of leaf structural and physiological characteristics, implying that hydraulic properties are key in controlling growth in mangroves. Alleviation of P deficiency, which released trees from hydraulic limitations, reduced the structural and functional distinctions between dwarf and taller fringing tree forms of Rhizophora mangle. PMID:17087463

Lovelock, Catherine E; Ball, Marilyn C; Choat, Brendan; Engelbrecht, Bettina M J; Holbrook, N Michelle; Feller, Ilka C

2006-05-01

234

Nutrient enrichment increases mortality of mangroves.  

PubMed

Nutrient enrichment of the coastal zone places intense pressure on marine communities. Previous studies have shown that growth of intertidal mangrove forests is accelerated with enhanced nutrient availability. However, nutrient enrichment favours growth of shoots relative to roots, thus enhancing growth rates but increasing vulnerability to environmental stresses that adversely affect plant water relations. Two such stresses are high salinity and low humidity, both of which require greater investment in roots to meet the demands for water by the shoots. Here we present data from a global network of sites that documents enhanced mortality of mangroves with experimental nutrient enrichment at sites where high sediment salinity was coincident with low rainfall and low humidity. Thus the benefits of increased mangrove growth in response to coastal eutrophication is offset by the costs of decreased resilience due to mortality during drought, with mortality increasing with soil water salinity along climatic gradients. PMID:19440554

Lovelock, Catherine E; Ball, Marilyn C; Martin, Katherine C; C Feller, Ilka

2009-01-01

235

Nutrient Enrichment Increases Mortality of Mangroves  

PubMed Central

Nutrient enrichment of the coastal zone places intense pressure on marine communities. Previous studies have shown that growth of intertidal mangrove forests is accelerated with enhanced nutrient availability. However, nutrient enrichment favours growth of shoots relative to roots, thus enhancing growth rates but increasing vulnerability to environmental stresses that adversely affect plant water relations. Two such stresses are high salinity and low humidity, both of which require greater investment in roots to meet the demands for water by the shoots. Here we present data from a global network of sites that documents enhanced mortality of mangroves with experimental nutrient enrichment at sites where high sediment salinity was coincident with low rainfall and low humidity. Thus the benefits of increased mangrove growth in response to coastal eutrophication is offset by the costs of decreased resilience due to mortality during drought, with mortality increasing with soil water salinity along climatic gradients. PMID:19440554

Lovelock, Catherine E.; Ball, Marilyn C.; Martin, Katherine C.; C. Feller, Ilka

2009-01-01

236

Using the ratio of optical channels in satellite image decoding in monitoring biodiversity of boreal forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study contains the results of forest monitoring at three levels: the forests condition assessment at the time of recording or mapping for this indicator, the seasonal changes assessment in the forests condition, mainly during the vegetation period and the evaluation of long-term changes in the values of the studied parameters on the example of the forests recovery after a fire. The use of two indices - NDVI and Image Difference in the boreal forests monitoring is treated. NDVI assesses the state of plant biomass and its productivity. The rate of Image Difference characterizes the optical density and allows estimate the density of the forest stand. In addition, by identifying Image Difference on summer and autumn pictures it can makes a distinction of different wood species, to divide forest areas, which consist of deciduous and coniferous species and larch which shedded needles at the end of the vegetation period. Therefore, it is possible to differentiate the pine, cedar, spruce forests on the one side and birch, larch, alder on the other side. The optical density of the forest decreases after the needles- and the leaf sheddings. Using the index Image Difference in estimates of long-term changes of the forest stand shows the trend of changes of the forest density and the tree species composition. The results of the analysis of the recovery process of the forest after a fire in the period from 1995 to 2009 showed how shoots of birch, larch and pine recover wastelands.

Rozhkov, Yurj P.; Kondakova, Maria Y.

2013-10-01

237

Mangrove Restoration - Costs and Benefits of Successful Ecological Restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Mangrove Restoration - costs and measures,of successful ecological restoration. Roy R. Robin Lewis III, President, Lewis Environmental Services, Inc. P.O. Box 5430, Salt Springs, Florida, USA, 32134-5430. The costs to successfully restore both the vegetative cover and ecological functions of a mangrove forest have been reported to range from USD$225\\/ha to USD$216,000\\/ha. Unpublished data would indicate that the even

Roy R. Lewis III

238

Cumulative impacts of hurricanes on Florida mangrove ecosystems: Sediment deposition, storm surges and vegetation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hurricanes have shaped the structure of mangrove forests in the Everglades via wind damage, storm surges and sediment deposition. Immediate effects include changes to stem size-frequency distributions and to species relative abundance and density. Long-term impacts to mangroves are poorly understood at present. We examine impacts of Hurricane Wilma on mangroves and compare the results to findings from three previous storms (Labor Day, Donna, Andrew). Surges during Wilma destroyed ??? 1,250 ha of mangroves and set back recovery that started following Andrew. Data from permanent plots affected by Andrew and Wilma showed no differences among species or between hurricanes for stem mortality or basal area lost. Hurricane damage was related to hydro-geomorphic type of forest. Basin mangroves suffered significantly more damage than riverine or island mangroves. The hurricane by forest type interaction was highly significant. Andrew did slightly more damage to island mangroves. Wilma did significantly more damage to basin forests. This is most likely a result of the larger and more spatially extensive storm surge produced by Wilma. Forest damage was not related to amount of sediment deposited. Analyses of reports from Donna and the Labor Day storm indicate that some sites have recovered following catastrophic disturbance. Other sites have been permanently converted into a different ecosystem, namely intertidal mudflats. Our results indicate that mangroves are not in a steady state as has been recently claimed. ?? 2009 The Society of Wetland Scientists.

Smith, T. J., III; Anderson, G.H.; Balentine, K.; Tiling, G.; Ward, G.A.; Whelan, K.R.T.

2009-01-01

239

Mangrove loss leads to fish hyperutilization of seagrass beds in a UNESCO biosphere reserve.  

PubMed

Hurricanes severely damaged a mangrove forest in a UNESCO biosphere reserve in the U.S. Virgin Islands. The system has yet to recover and when alternative habitats have been destroyed, it is shown that juvenile fishes will hyperutilize seagrass beds at densities significantly greater than in areas that maintain functioning mangroves. Despite over a decade of recovery time, the affected mangrove system remains inhospitable to juvenile fishes. PMID:24773547

Bologna, P A X

2014-05-01

240

LONG-TERM STREAM CHEMISTRy MONITORING ON THE FERNOW EXPERIMENTAL FOREST: IMPLICATIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF HARDWOOD FORESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term monitoring of stream chemistry of forested watersheds on the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia has been conducted to determine the effects of both human- induced and natural disturbances on nutrient cycling and stream chemistry. We compare mean annual stream water pH, and nitrate (NO3), sulfate (SO4), and calcium (Ca) concentrations from 6 gauged Fernow watersheds with different disturbance

Mary Beth Adams; James N. Kochenderfer

241

Influence of human-induced disturbance on benthic microbial metabolism in the Pichavaram mangroves, VellarColeroon estuarine complex, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large areas of mangroves in India are heavily disturbed by cattle grazing, hypersalinity, and other human-induced impacts. In two disturbed Avicennia marina forests and two undisturbed A. marina and Rhizophora apiculata forests in the Pichavaram mangroves of the VellarColeroon estuarine complex, southeast India, we measured the rates and pathways of microbial decomposition of soil organic matter to determine if human

D. M. Alongi; A. L. Ramanathan; L. Kannan; F. Tirendi; L. A. Trott; M. Bala Krishna Prasad

2005-01-01

242

Monitoring Strategies for REDD+: Integrating Field, Airborne, and Satellite Observations of Amazon Forests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large-scale tropical forest monitoring efforts in support of REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation plus enhancing forest carbon stocks) confront a range of challenges. REDD+ activities typically have short reporting time scales, diverse data needs, and low tolerance for uncertainties. Meeting these challenges will require innovative use of remote sensing data, including integrating data at different spatial and temporal resolutions. The global scientific community is engaged in developing, evaluating, and applying new methods for regional to global scale forest monitoring. Pilot REDD+ activities are underway across the tropics with support from a range of national and international groups, including SilvaCarbon, an interagency effort to coordinate US expertise on forest monitoring and resource management. Early actions on REDD+ have exposed some of the inherent tradeoffs that arise from the use of incomplete or inaccurate data to quantify forest area changes and related carbon emissions. Here, we summarize recent advances in forest monitoring to identify and target the main sources of uncertainty in estimates of forest area changes, aboveground carbon stocks, and Amazon forest carbon emissions.

Morton, Douglas; Souza, Carlos, Jr.; Souza, Carlos, Jr.; Keller, Michael

2012-01-01

243

Monitoring environmental state of Alaskan forests with AIRSAR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During March 1988 and May 1991, the JPL airborne synthetic aperture radar, AIRSAR, collected sets of multi-temporal imagery of the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest near Fairbanks, Alaska. These data sets consist of series of multi-polarized images collected at P-, L-, and C-bands each over a period of a few days. The AIRSAR campaigns were complemented with extensive ground measurements that included observations of both static canopy characteristics such as forest architecture as well as properties that vary on short term time scales such as canopy dielectric conditions. Observations exist for several stands of deciduous and coniferous species including white spruce (Picea glauca), black spruce (Picea mariana), and balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera). Although the duration of each campaign was fairly short, significant changes in environmental conditions caused notable variations in the physiological state of the canopies. During the 1988 campaign, environmental conditions ranged from unseasonably warm to more normal subfreezing temperatures. This permitted AIRSAR observations of frozen and thawed canopy states. During May 1991, ice jams that occurred along the river caused many stands to flood while the subsequent clearing of the river then allowed the waters to recede, leaving a snow covered ground surface. This allowed observations of several stands during both flooded and nonflooded conditions. Furthermore, the local weather varied from clear sunny days to heavy overcast days with some occurrence of rain. Measurements of leaf water potential indicated that this caused significant variations in canopy water status, allowing SAR observations of water stressed and unstressed trees. Mean backscatter from several stands is examined for the various canopy physiological states. The changes in canopy backscatter that occur as a function of environmental and physiological state are analyzed. Preliminary results of a backscatter signature modeling analysis are presented. The implications of using SAR to monitor canopy phenological state are addressed.

Mcdonald, Kyle C.; Way, Jobea; Rignot, Eric; Williams, Cindy; Viereck, Les; Adams, Phylis

1992-01-01

244

Forest Watch: Using Student Data to Monitor Forest Response to Ground-Level Ozone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest Watch, a k-12 science outreach program begun at the University of New Hampshire (UNH) in 1991, has engaged pre-college students in providing UNH researchers with data on the annual response of white pine (Pinus strobus; a bio-indicator species for ozone exposure) to ground-level ozone across the New England region. Each year, student-collected growth and foliar symptomology data for 5 pine trees adjacent to their schools, along with first-year foliar samples, are submitted to UNH. Key foliar symptoms and student data are compared with summer monthly (JJA) maximum ozone concentrations collected by state and federal ozone monitoring stations across the region. To date, tree health indicators are inversely correlated (r2=0.83;p=0.10) with ozone concentrations: low ozone levels correlate with symptoms of good health (spectral indices diagnostic of high foliar chlorophyll levels and moisture content, normal incremental growth, low number of foliar symptoms), while summers characterized by high ozone concentrations correlate with symptoms of reduced health (low chlorophyll indices and moisture content, reduced incremental growth, increased number of foliar symptoms). In drought years (1999, 2001, 2002, 2003) few foliar symptoms of ozone damage are seen even though ozone levels were high, likely due to drought-induced stomatal closure. Based on student data since 1998, either low ozone summers, or drought summers have resulted in improved health in the sampled trees (n=30). Based on the success of Forest Watch in New England, we are exploring the extension of the program to Colorado as Front Range Forest Watch, operated from Colorado State University (CSU). The primary objective is to develop a student-scientist-local agency project that addresses real ecological issues in northern Colorado, including ozone pollution, and to provide pre-college students and teachers authentic science experiences. CSU runs a GK-12 program with Poudre School District in northern Colorado, which infuses ecology graduate students into the public school system to assist in the delivery of science content. The extension of Forest Watch to northern Colorado will provide a test-bed for the possible extension of the program to the rest of the state.

Spencer, S.; Rock, B. N.

2006-12-01

245

Interagency Collaborators Develop and Implement ForWarn, a National, Near Real Time Forest Monitoring Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ForWarn is a satellite-based forest monitoring tool that is being used to detect and monitor disturbances to forest conditions and forest health. It has been developed through the synergistic efforts, capabilities and contributions of four federal agencies, including the US Forest Service Eastern Forest and Western Wildland Environmental Threat Assessment Centers, NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC), Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and US Geological Survey Earth (USGS) Earth Research Observation System (EROS), as well as university partners, including the University of North Carolina Asheville's National Environmental Modeling and Analysis Center (NEMAC). This multi-organizational partnership is key in producing a unique, path finding near real-time forest monitoring system that is now used by many federal, state and local government end-users. Such a system could not have been produced so effectively by any of these groups on their own. The forests of the United States provide many societal values and benefits, ranging from ecological, economic, cultural, to recreational. Therefore, providing a reliable and dependable forest and other wildland monitoring system is important to ensure the continued health, productivity, sustainability and prudent use of our Nation's forests and forest resources. ForWarn does this by producing current health indicator maps of our nation's forests based on satellite data from NASA's MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensors. Such a capability can provide noteworthy value, cost savings and significant impact at state and local government levels because at those levels of government, once disturbances are evident and cause negative impacts, a response must be carried out. The observations that a monitoring system like ForWarn provide, can also contribute to a much broader-scale understanding of vegetation disturbances.

Underwood, Lauren

2013-01-01

246

ERS\\/SAR data application for Russian boreal forests mapping and monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is aimed at assessing ERS\\/SAR data application for Russian forests mapping and monitoring. Implementation of this task includes assessment of ERS\\/SAR data benefits for discrimination of forest-covered areas, territory classification by land and forest types. The choice of the SAR sensor is substantiated by its well-known advantages, such as independence of cloud cover and sensitivity to humidity, volume

Viktoria V. Dontchenko; Ola M. Johannessen; Leonid P. Bobylev; Sergey A. Bartalev

1999-01-01

247

Between Land and Sea: Livelihoods and Environmental Changes in Mangrove Ecosystems of Senegal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike the global trend, the area of mangrove forest increased in the estuaries of Low Casamance and Sine-Saloum, Senegal, between 1986 and 2006. We collected multisource data (social and spatial) and applied a mix of qualitative and quantitative analytical methods to investigate the humanmangrove interactions during this period and to understand the causes of the observed increase. Our research demonstrates

Giulia Conchedda; Eric F. Lambin; Philippe Mayaux

2011-01-01

248

Surface Elevation Change And Vertical Accretion In Created Mangroves In Tampa Bay, Florida, Usa  

EPA Science Inventory

Mangroves protect coastlines, provide faunal habitat, and store large quantities of carbon (C). In South Florida and other parts of the Gulf of Mexico, large wetland areas, including mangrove forests, have been removed, degraded, or damaged. Wetland creation efforts have been use...

249

Regional Breeding Bird Monitoring in Western Great Lakes National Forests1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We established breeding bird monitoring programs in three National Forests in northern Minnesota (Superior and Chippewa in 1991) and northern Wisconsin (Che- quamegon in 1992). A total of 134, 169, and 132 stands (1,272 survey points) have been surveyed annually in these forests through 2002. We examined trends in rel- ative abundance for 53 species in the Chequamegon, 51 species

JoAnn Hanowski; Jim Lind; Nick Danz; Gerald Niemi; Tim Jones

250

Mangrove Key Islets  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Beyond the mangrove key islets that make up the Ten Thousand Islands, lies the Gulf of Mexico. The Ten Thousand Islands are comprised of hundreds of mangrove islands that extend northward from the northwest corner of Everglades National Park. These uninhabited islands stretch for 60-miles al...

251

An evaluation of resource inventory and monitoring program used in national forest planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Forest Management Act (1976) specifies that multiresource inventories be conducted to provide baseline data for development and, later, monitoring of national forest management plans. This mandate entails the most ambitious and complex resource planning effort ever attempted. In this paper we evaluate the structure and use of current inventory-monitoring programs and recommend a framework for gathering data to improve national forest planning. Current national guidelines are general and provide only basic directions to forest-level planners. Forest inventories have traditionally concentrated on timber. Although these inventories are often well designed, the questions we are now asking about forest resources have outgrown these methods. Forest management is impeded by general confusion over definitions of resources and the interactions among them. We outline a simple classification scheme that centers on identification of basic ecosystem elements that can be readily measured. Furthermore, spatial and temporal scales must be considered in the design of inventory-monitoring programs. The concept of ecological indicators is reviewed, and caution is advised in their use. Inventory-monitoring programs should be goal-directed and based on as rigorous a statistical design as possible. We also review fundamental issues of variable selection, validation, and sampling bias. We conclude by developing a flexible inventory-monitoring program that is designed to provide information on individual characteristics of the environment, rather than being based on fixed definitions of resources.

Morrison, Michael L.; Marcot, Bruce G.

1995-01-01

252

Monitoring mammals in the Caxiuan National Forest, Brazil First results from the Tropical Ecology, Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for long-term biodiversity monitoring using standardized protocols led to the creation of the Tropical Ecology, Assessment\\u000a and Monitoring (TEAM) initiative. At some 50 field stations in tropical forests around the world, TEAM will monitor various\\u000a taxa such as ants, birds, butterflies, medium and large terrestrial mammals, primates, litter fall, and trees, as well as\\u000a landscape change in nine

Simone de Souza Martins; James G. Sanderson; Jos Sousa e Silva-Jnior

253

Monitoring mammals in the Caxiuan National Forest, Brazil First results from the Tropical Ecology, Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for long-term biodiversity monitoring using standardized protocols led to the creation of the Tropical Ecology, Assessment\\u000a and Monitoring (TEAM) initiative. At some 50 field stations in tropical forests around the world, TEAM will monitor various\\u000a taxa such as ants, birds, butterflies, medium and large terrestrial mammals, primates, litter fall, and trees, as well as\\u000a landscape change in nine

Simone de Souza Martins; James G. Sanderson; Jos de Sousa e Silva-Jnior

2007-01-01

254

Mangroves enhance the biomass of coral reef fish communities in the Caribbean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangrove forests are one of the world's most threatened tropical ecosystems with global loss exceeding 35% (ref. 1). Juvenile coral reef fish often inhabit mangroves, but the importance of these nurseries to reef fish population dynamics has not been quantified. Indeed, mangroves might be expected to have negligible influence on reef fish communities: juvenile fish can inhabit alternative habitats and fish populations may be regulated by other limiting factors such as larval supply or fishing. Here we show that mangroves are unexpectedly important, serving as an intermediate nursery habitat that may increase the survivorship of young fish. Mangroves in the Caribbean strongly influence the community structure of fish on neighbouring coral reefs. In addition, the biomass of several commercially important species is more than doubled when adult habitat is connected to mangroves. The largest herbivorous fish in the Atlantic, Scarus guacamaia, has a functional dependency on mangroves and has suffered local extinction after mangrove removal. Current rates of mangrove deforestation are likely to have severe deleterious consequences for the ecosystem function, fisheries productivity and resilience of reefs. Conservation efforts should protect connected corridors of mangroves, seagrass beds and coral reefs.

Mumby, Peter J.; Edwards, Alasdair J.; Ernesto Arias-Gonzlez, J.; Lindeman, Kenyon C.; Blackwell, Paul G.; Gall, Angela; Gorczynska, Malgosia I.; Harborne, Alastair R.; Pescod, Claire L.; Renken, Henk; C. C. Wabnitz, Colette; Llewellyn, Ghislane

2004-02-01

255

Chemical ecology of red mangroves, Rhizophora mangle, in the Hawaiian Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The coastal red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle L., was introduced to the Hawaiian Islands from Florida 100 yr ago and has spread to cover many shallow intertidal shorelines that once were unvegetated mudflats. We used a field survey approach to test whether mangroves at the land-ocean interface could indicate watershed inputs, especially whether measurements of leaf chemistry could identify coasts with high nutrient inputs and high mangrove productivities. During 2001-2002, we sampled mangroves on dry leeward coasts of southern Moloka'i and O'ahu for 14 leaf variables including stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (delta13C, delta15N), macronutrients (C, N, P), trace elements (B, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn), and cations (Na, Mg, K, Ca). A new modeling approach using leaf Na, N, P, and delta13C indicated two times higher productivity for mangroves in urban versus rural settings, with rural mangroves more limited by low N and P nutrients and high-nutrient urban mangroves more limited by freshwater inputs and salt stress. Leaf chemistry also helped identify other aspects of mangrove dynamics: especially leaf delta15N values helped identify groundwater N inputs, and a combination of strongly correlated variables (C, N, P, B, Cu, Mg, K, Ca) tracked the mangrove growth response to nutrient loading. Overall, the chemical marker approach is an efficient way to survey watershed forcing of mangrove forest dynamics.

Fry, Brian; Cormier, Nicole

2011-01-01

256

Mangroves enhance the biomass of coral reef fish communities in the Caribbean.  

PubMed

Mangrove forests are one of the world's most threatened tropical ecosystems with global loss exceeding 35% (ref. 1). Juvenile coral reef fish often inhabit mangroves, but the importance of these nurseries to reef fish population dynamics has not been quantified. Indeed, mangroves might be expected to have negligible influence on reef fish communities: juvenile fish can inhabit alternative habitats and fish populations may be regulated by other limiting factors such as larval supply or fishing. Here we show that mangroves are unexpectedly important, serving as an intermediate nursery habitat that may increase the survivorship of young fish. Mangroves in the Caribbean strongly influence the community structure of fish on neighbouring coral reefs. In addition, the biomass of several commercially important species is more than doubled when adult habitat is connected to mangroves. The largest herbivorous fish in the Atlantic, Scarus guacamaia, has a functional dependency on mangroves and has suffered local extinction after mangrove removal. Current rates of mangrove deforestation are likely to have severe deleterious consequences for the ecosystem function, fisheries productivity and resilience of reefs. Conservation efforts should protect connected corridors of mangroves, seagrass beds and coral reefs. PMID:14765193

Mumby, Peter J; Edwards, Alasdair J; Arias-Gonzlez, J Ernesto; Lindeman, Kenyon C; Blackwell, Paul G; Gall, Angela; Gorczynska, Malgosia I; Harborne, Alastair R; Pescod, Claire L; Renken, Henk; Wabnitz, Colette C C; Llewellyn, Ghislane

2004-02-01

257

Biocomplexity in mangrove ecosystems.  

PubMed

Mangroves are an ecological assemblage of trees and shrubs adapted to grow in intertidal environments along tropical coasts. Despite repeated demonstration of their economic and societal value, more than 50% of the world's mangroves have been destroyed, 35% in the past two decades to aquaculture and coastal development, altered hydrology, sea-level rise, and nutrient overenrichment. Variations in the structure and function of mangrove ecosystems have generally been described solely on the basis of a hierarchical classification of the physical characteristics of the intertidal environment, including climate, geomorphology, topography, and hydrology. Here, we use the concept of emergent properties at multiple levels within a hierarchical framework to review how the interplay between specialized adaptations and extreme trait plasticity that characterizes mangroves and intertidal environments gives rise to the biocomplexity that distinguishes mangrove ecosystems. The traits that allow mangroves to tolerate variable salinity, flooding, and nutrient availability influence ecosystem processes and ultimately the services they provide. We conclude that an integrated research strategy using emergent properties in empirical and theoretical studies provides a holistic approach for understanding and managing mangrove ecosystems. PMID:21141670

Feller, I C; Lovelock, C E; Berger, U; McKee, K L; Joye, S B; Ball, M C

2010-01-01

258

GHG monitoring over Paris megacity and Orlans forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a growing world with more than 7 billion inhabitants and big emerging countries such as China, Brazil and India, emissions of anthropogenic pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs) are increasing continuously. Their monitoring and control in megacities have become a major challenge for scientists and public health authorities in environmental research area. The ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer (QualAir FTS[a], model IFS 125HR) of the QualAir platform located in downtown Paris at University Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), is a scientific research instrument dedicated to the survey of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and urban air quality. Equipped with a sun-tracker, the remote sensing QualAir FTS relies on solar infrared absorption for monitoring trace gas concentrations and their variability in the Ile-de-France region[b]. Concentrations of atmospheric GHGs, especially CO2, CH4 and N2O, are retrieved by the radiative transfer model PROFFIT[c]. Because Paris is the third largest European megacity, the QualAir FTS can provide new and complementary measurements as compared to existing ground-based FTS network stations (NDACC and TCCON) located in unpolluted environments, such as the TCCON-Orlans station[d] situated in the forest of Orlans (100 km south of Paris). In the effort to integrate QualAir FTS into the TCCON network, simultaneous FTS measurements of GHGs at Paris and Orlans have been performed. We will emphasize on comparisons of CO2 from these two sites. Our comparison will be completed by high-resolved direct CO2 modeling outputs from the Meso-NH model, and ground in situ measurements at different sites (Orlans/Trainou, Paris/Jussieu, Paris/Eiffel Tower). Parts of the data were acquired in the framework of the French CO2-MEGAPARIS project[e, f], whose main goal is to quantify CO2 emissions from the Paris area. The present data intercomparison will help to reduce uncertainties in carbon cycle models and to better characterize regional GHG fluxes, especially with respect to anthropogenic emission sources (urban versus rural) and trends. References: [a] T et al., J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 29, 911-921, 2012 [b] T et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum., 81, 103102, 2010 [c] Hase et al., JQSRT, 87, 25-52, 2004 [d] https://tccon-wiki.caltech.edu/Sites/Orleans [e] http://co2-megaparis.lsce.ipsl.fr/ [f] Xueref-Remy et al., Abstract nA13F-0277, AGU Fall Meeting 2010, San Francisco, USA

Te, Y. V.; Jeseck, P.; Zanon, T.; Boursier, C.; Janssen, C.; Deutscher, N. M.; Warneke, T.; Notholt, J.; Lac, C.; Dieudonn, E.; Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Xueref-remy, I. C.

2012-12-01

259

FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING EFFECTS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE ON MANGROVE ECOSYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Mangrove ecosystems perhaps represent the most diverse combination of floral, faunal and physical elements among coastal habitats. angrove forests are globally widespread in the tropics and subtropics and provide a dynamic interface between the sea and the land. angrove ecosystem...

260

Monitoring forest land from high altitude and from space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Forest inventory, forest stress, and standardization and calibration studies are presented. These include microscale photointerpretation of forest and nonforest land classes, multiseasonal film densities for automated forest and nonforest land classification, trend and spread of bark beetle infestations from 1968 through 1971, aerial photography for determining optimum levels of stand density to reduce such infestations, use of airborne spectrometers and multispectral scanners for previsual detection of Ponderosa pine trees under stress from insects and diseases, establishment of an earth resources technology satellite test site in the Black Hills and the identification of natural resolution targets, detection of root disease impact on forest stands by sequential orbital and suborbital multispectral photography, and calibration of color aerial photography.

1971-01-01

261

Ecosystem development after mangrove wetland creation: plant-soil change across a 20-year chronosequence  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mangrove wetland restoration and creation efforts are increasingly proposed as mechanisms to compensate for mangrove wetland losses. However, ecosystem development and functional equivalence in restored and created mangrove wetlands are poorly understood. We compared a 20-year chronosequence of created tidal wetland sites in Tampa Bay, Florida (USA) to natural reference mangrove wetlands. Across the chronosequence, our sites represent the succession from salt marsh to mangrove forest communities. Our results identify important soil and plant structural differences between the created and natural reference wetland sites; however, they also depict a positive developmental trajectory for the created wetland sites that reflects tightly coupled plant-soil development. Because upland soils and/or dredge spoils were used to create the new mangrove habitats, the soils at younger created sites and at lower depths (10-30 cm) had higher bulk densities, higher sand content, lower soil organic matter (SOM), lower total carbon (TC), and lower total nitrogen (TN) than did natural reference wetland soils. However, in the upper soil layer (0-10 cm), SOM, TC, and TN increased with created wetland site age simultaneously with mangrove forest growth. The rate of created wetland soil C accumulation was comparable to literature values for natural mangrove wetlands. Notably, the time to equivalence for the upper soil layer of created mangrove wetlands appears to be faster than for many other wetland ecosystem types. Collectively, our findings characterize the rate and trajectory of above- and below-ground changes associated with ecosystem development in created mangrove wetlands; this is valuable information for environmental managers planning to sustain existing mangrove wetlands or mitigate for mangrove wetland losses.

Osland, Michael J.; Spivak, Amanda C.; Nestlerode, Janet A.; Lessmann, Jeannine M.; Almario, Alejandro E.; Heitmuller, Paul T.; Russell, Marc J.; Krauss, Ken W.; Alvarez, Federico; Dantin, Darrin D.; Harvey, James E.; From, Andrew S.; Cormier, Nicole; Stagg, Camille L.

2012-01-01

262

INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATIVE PROGRAM ON ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING OF AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON FORESTS: THE SIERRA ANCHA EXPERIMENTAL  

E-print Network

INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATIVE PROGRAM ON ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING OF AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON FORESTS and anthropogenic (in particular air pollution) as well as natural stress factors through intensive monitoring on Assessment andMonitoring ofAir Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP) was launched in 1985 under the Convention

263

Preliminary work of mangrove ecosystem carbon stock mapping in small island using remote sensing: above and below ground carbon stock mapping on medium resolution satellite image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangrove forest is an important ecosystem located in coastal area that provides various important ecological and economical services. One of the services provided by mangrove forest is the ability to act as carbon sink by sequestering CO2 from atmosphere through photosynthesis and carbon burial on the sediment. The carbon buried on mangrove sediment may persist for millennia before return to the atmosphere, and thus act as an effective long-term carbon sink. Therefore, it is important to understand the distribution of carbon stored within mangrove forest in a spatial and temporal context. In this paper, an effort to map carbon stocks in mangrove forest is presented using remote sensing technology to overcome the handicap encountered by field survey. In mangrove carbon stock mapping, the use of medium spatial resolution Landsat 7 ETM+ is emphasized. Landsat 7 ETM+ images are relatively cheap, widely available and have large area coverage, and thus provide a cost and time effective way of mapping mangrove carbon stocks. Using field data, two image processing techniques namely Vegetation Index and Linear Spectral Unmixing (LSU) were evaluated to find the best method to explain the variation in mangrove carbon stocks using remote sensing data. In addition, we also tried to estimate mangrove carbon sequestration rate via multitemporal analysis. Finally, the technique which produces significantly better result was used to produce a map of mangrove forest carbon stocks, which is spatially extensive and temporally repetitive.

Wicaksono, Pramaditya; Danoedoro, Projo; Hartono, Hartono; Nehren, Udo; Ribbe, Lars

2011-11-01

264

Elevated rates of organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus accumulation in a highly impacted mangrove wetland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

effect of nutrient enrichment on mangrove sediment accretion and carbon accumulation rates is poorly understood. Here we quantify sediment accretion through radionuclide tracers to determine organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) accumulation rates during the previous 60 years in both a nutrient-enriched and a pristine mangrove forest within the same geomorphological region of southeastern Brazil. The forest receiving high nutrient loads has accumulated OC, TN, and TP at rates that are fourfold, twofold, and eightfold respectively, higher than those from the undisturbed mangrove. Organic carbon and TN stable isotopes (?13C and ?15N) reflect an increased presence of organic matter (OM) originating with either phytoplankton, benthic algae, or another allochthonous source within the more rapidly accumulated sediments of the impacted mangrove. This suggests that the accumulation rate of OM in eutrophic mangrove systems may be enhanced through the addition of autochthonous and allochthonous nonmangrove material.

Sanders, Christian J.; Eyre, Bradley D.; Santos, Isaac R.; Machado, Wilson; Luiz-Silva, Wanilson; Smoak, Joseph M.; Breithaupt, Joshua L.; Ketterer, Michael E.; Sanders, Luciana; Marotta, Humberto; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel

2014-04-01

265

MONITORING IN SUPPORT OF THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST FOREST PLAN: A REPORT ON REQUIREMENTS AND KEY QUESTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This document summarizes the monitoring requirements identified in the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Pacific Northwest Forest Plan and presents the key questions the future monitoring program should strive to answer. he key questions, developed from the standards and guideline...

266

Integrated use of SRS Data &GIS Technique for Monitoring Changes in Riverine Forest of Sindh, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deforestation / depletion in forest area threaten the sustainability of agricultural production systems and en-danger the economy of the country. Every year extensive areas of arable agricultural and forestlands are degraded and turned into wastelands, due to natural causes or human interventions. There are several causes of deforestation, such as expansion in agricultural area, urban development, forest fires, commercial logging, illicit cutting, grazing, constructions of dams / reservoirs and barrages, com munication links, etc. Depletion in forest cover, therefore, has an important impact on socio - economic development and ecological balance. High population growth rate in Pakistan is one of the main causes for the rapid deterioration of physical environment and natural resource base. In view of this, it is felt necessary to carryout land -u s e studies focusing on strategies for mapping the past and present conditions and extent of forests and rangelands using Satellite Remote Sensing (SRS) data and GIS t echnology. The SRS and GIS technology provides a possible means of monitoring and mapping changes occurring in natural resources and the environment on a continuing basis. The riverine forests of Sindh mostly grow along the River Indus in the flood plains, spread over an area of 241,000 ha are disappearing very rapidly. Construction of dams / barrages on the upper reaches of the River Indus for hydroelectric power and irrigation works have significantly reduced the discharge of fresh water into the lower Indus basin and as a result, 100,000 acres of forests have disappeared. Furthermore, the heavy floods that occurred in 1978, 1988, 1992 and 1997, altered the course of the River Indus in many places, especially in the lower reaches, this has also damaged the riverine forests of Sindh. An integrated approach involving analysis of SRS data from 1977 to 1998 and GIS technique have been used to evaluate the geographic ex-tent and distribution of the riverine forests of Sindh and to monitor temporal changes in the forest cover between 1977 &1990 and 1990 &1998. The integrated landuse forest cover maps of riverine forest, shows temporal changes in the forest cover between 1977 &1990 and 1990 &1998, as well as in the River Indus course. The digital thematic maps based on SRS data and GIS technology can supplement existing conventional ground based sources of information for monitoring changes in forest cover on a regular basis, which can be helpful for forest resource management and planning and monitoring environmental changes.

Siddiqui, M.; Ali, Z.

267

Comparison of NASA OMI and MLS Ozone Products with US Forest Service Ground-based Ozone Monitoring Data for US Forest Service Air Quality / Forest Management Decision Support  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropospheric ozone, formed when nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) react with sunlight, is a significant threat to the health of US National Forests. Approximately one third of ozone is absorbed by plants during the uptake of carbon dioxide. This increases the vegetation's susceptibility to drought, beetle infestation, and wildfire. Currently the US Forest Service has ground monitoring stations sparsely located across the country. This project looks specifically at the area surrounding several Class I Wilderness Areas in the Appalachian region. These areas are the highest priority for protection from air pollutants. The Forest Service must interpolate ozone concentrations for areas between these monitoring stations. Class I Wilderness Areas are designated by the Forest Service and are defined as a total 5000 acres or greater when the Clean Air Act was passed in 1977. This Act mandated that the EPA create national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for six major air pollutants including ground-level ozone. This project assessed the feasibility of incorporating NASA ozone data into Forest Service ozone monitoring in an effort to enhance the accuracy and precision of ozone exposure measurements in Class I Wilderness Areas and other federally managed lands in order to aid in complying with the Clean Air Act of 1977. This was accomplished by establishing a method of comparison between a preliminary data product produced at the Goddard Space Flight Center that uses OMI/MLS data to derive global tropospheric ozone measurements and Forest Service ozone monitoring station measurements. Once a methodology for comparison was established, statistical comparisons of these data were performed to assess the quantitative differences.

Barrett, S.; Brooks, A.; Moussa, Y.; Spencer, T.; Thompson, J.

2013-12-01

268

Mangrove habitat partitioning by Ucides cordatus (Ucididae): effects of the degree of tidal flooding and tree-species composition during its life cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental factors strongly affect mangrove crabs, and some factors modulate population structure and habitat partitioning during the crabs' life cycle. However, the effect of these environmental factors on habitat selection by mangrove crabs is still unknown. We evaluated habitat selection by the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus in mangrove forests with different degrees of predominance of Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa or Avicennia schaueriana, two tidal flooding levels (less- and more-flooded), and two biological periods (breeding and non-breeding seasons). Sampling was conducted in four mangrove forests with different influences of these biotic and abiotic parameters. We used the data for sex ratio to explain environmental partitioning by this species. Females predominated in R. mangle mangroves, independently of the biological period (breeding or non-breeding seasons), and males predominated only in the less-flooded L. racemosa mangroves. The flooding level affected the sex ratio of U. cordatus, with a predominance of males in less-flooded mangroves, independently of the biological period; and a gender balance in the more-flooded mangroves only during the breeding season. Outside the breeding season, the largest specimens were recorded in the R. mangle mangroves, but in the breeding season, the largest crabs were recorded in the L. racemosa mangroves with a higher level of flooding. These results suggest that tree-species composition and tidal flooding level can have a significant effect on the habitat partitioning of sexes and sizes of the mangrove crab U. cordatus both during and outside the breeding season.

Wunderlich, A. C.; Pinheiro, M. A. A.

2013-06-01

269

Hyperspectral band selection and classification of Hyperion image of Bhitarkanika mangrove ecosystem, eastern India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical mangrove forests along the coast evolve dynamically due to constant changes in the natural ecosystem and ecological cycle. Remote sensing has paved the way for periodic monitoring and conservation of such floristic resources, compared to labour intensive in-situ observations. With the laboratory quality image spectra obtained from hyperspectral image data, species level discrimination in habitats and ecosystems is attainable. One of the essential steps before classification of hyperspectral image data is band selection. It is important to eliminate the redundant bands to mitigate the problems of Hughes effect that are likely to affect further image analysis and classification accuracy. This paper presents a methodology for the selection of appropriate hyperspectral bands from the EO-1 Hyperion image for the identification and mapping of mangrove species and coastal landcover types in the Bhitarkanika coastal forest region, eastern India. Band selection procedure follows class based elimination procedure and the separability of the classes are tested in the band selection process. Individual bands are de-correlated and redundant bands are removed from the bandwise correlation matrix. The percent contribution of class variance in each band is analysed from the factors of PCA component ranking. Spectral bands are selected from the wavelength groups and statistically tested. Further, the band selection procedure is compared with similar techniques (Band Index and Mutual information) for validation. The number of bands in the Hyperion image was reduced from 196 to 88 by the Factor-based ranking approach. Classification was performed by Support Vector Machine approach. It is observed that the proposed Factor-based ranking approach performed well in discriminating the mangrove species and other landcover units compared to the other statistical approaches. The predominant mangrove species Heritiera fomes, Excoecaria agallocha and Cynometra ramiflora are spectral identified and the health status of these species are assessed by the selected band. Further, the performance of this band selection approaches are evaluated in multi-sensor image fusion for better mapping of mangrove ecosystems, wherein spatial resolution is enhanced while retaining the optimal number of hyperspectral bands.

Ashokkumar, L.; Shanmugam, S.

2014-10-01

270

Structure and productivity along a tree height gradient in a Kandelia obovata mangrove forest in the Manko Wetland, Okinawa Island, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree height (H) of Kandelia obovata trees decreased sharply from 5m at the forest interior behind the terrestrial forest to 1.5m at the forest edge near the\\u000a river bank according to an increase in the yearly waterlogged period along a belt transect. The decreasing tree stature was\\u000a attributed to a decrease in the asymptote of H in the D\\u000a 0.1

Rempei Suwa; Kangkuso Analuddin; Akio Hagihara

2008-01-01

271

The mangroves of Belize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between the late 1980s and early 1990s, significant sections of the Belizean coast came under escalating pressure from development. The resulting habitat loss highlighted the need for a comprehensive assessment of the extent, characteristics and use of the countrys remaining mangrove.This paper reports on the resulting study, and confirms the presence of three true mangrovesRhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia

M. R Murray; S. A Zisman; P. A Furley; D. M Munro; J Gibson; J Ratter; S Bridgewater; C. D Minty

2003-01-01

272

Les mangroves En Nouvelle-Caldonie, la mangrove est  

E-print Network

Les mangroves En Nouvelle-Calédonie, la mangrove est un écosytème remarquable du point de vue de sa richesse floristique (24 espèces, dont 1 endémique). La superficie couverte par les mangroves est monde. La mangrove stabilise le trait de côte et sert de barrière contre l'érosion. La dispersion des

273

Extent of Mangrove Nursery Habitats Determines the Geographic Distribution of a Coral Reef Fish in a South-Pacific Archipelago  

PubMed Central

Understanding the drivers of species' geographic distribution has fundamental implications for the management of biodiversity. For coral reef fishes, mangroves have long been recognized as important nursery habitats sustaining biodiversity in the Western Atlantic but there is still debate about their role in the Indo-Pacific. Here, we combined LA-ICP-MS otolith microchemistry, underwater visual censuses (UVC) and mangrove cartography to estimate the importance of mangroves for the Indo-Pacific coral reef fish Lutjanus fulviflamma in the archipelago of New Caledonia. Otolith elemental compositions allowed high discrimination of mangroves and reefs with 83.8% and 98.7% correct classification, respectively. Reefs were characterized by higher concentrations of Rb and Sr and mangroves by higher concentrations of Ba, Cr, Mn and Sn. All adult L. fulviflamma collected on reefs presented a mangrove signature during their juvenile stage with 85% inhabiting mangrove for their entire juvenile life (about 1 year). The analysis of 2942 UVC revealed that the species was absent from isolated islands of the New Caledonian archipelago where mangroves were absent. Furthermore, strong positive correlations existed between the abundance of L. fulviflamma and the area of mangrove (r?=?0.84 for occurrence, 0.93 for density and 0.89 for biomass). These results indicate that mangrove forest is an obligatory juvenile habitat for L. fulviflamma in New Caledonia and emphasize the potential importance of mangroves for Indo-Pacific coral reef fishes. PMID:25140697

Paillon, Christelle; Wantiez, Laurent; Kulbicki, Michel; Labonne, Maylis; Vigliola, Laurent

2014-01-01

274

Extent of mangrove nursery habitats determines the geographic distribution of a coral reef fish in a South-Pacific archipelago.  

PubMed

Understanding the drivers of species' geographic distribution has fundamental implications for the management of biodiversity. For coral reef fishes, mangroves have long been recognized as important nursery habitats sustaining biodiversity in the Western Atlantic but there is still debate about their role in the Indo-Pacific. Here, we combined LA-ICP-MS otolith microchemistry, underwater visual censuses (UVC) and mangrove cartography to estimate the importance of mangroves for the Indo-Pacific coral reef fish Lutjanus fulviflamma in the archipelago of New Caledonia. Otolith elemental compositions allowed high discrimination of mangroves and reefs with 83.8% and 98.7% correct classification, respectively. Reefs were characterized by higher concentrations of Rb and Sr and mangroves by higher concentrations of Ba, Cr, Mn and Sn. All adult L. fulviflamma collected on reefs presented a mangrove signature during their juvenile stage with 85% inhabiting mangrove for their entire juvenile life (about 1 year). The analysis of 2942 UVC revealed that the species was absent from isolated islands of the New Caledonian archipelago where mangroves were absent. Furthermore, strong positive correlations existed between the abundance of L. fulviflamma and the area of mangrove (r?=?0.84 for occurrence, 0.93 for density and 0.89 for biomass). These results indicate that mangrove forest is an obligatory juvenile habitat for L. fulviflamma in New Caledonia and emphasize the potential importance of mangroves for Indo-Pacific coral reef fishes. PMID:25140697

Paillon, Christelle; Wantiez, Laurent; Kulbicki, Michel; Labonne, Maylis; Vigliola, Laurent

2014-01-01

275

Monitoring Needs to Transform Amazonian Forest Maintenance Into a Global Warming-Mitigation Option  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two approaches are frequently mentioned in proposals to use tropical forest maintenance as a carbon offset. One is to set\\u000a up specific reserves, funding the establishment, demarcation, and guarding of these units. Monitoring, in this case, consists\\u000a of the relatively straightforward process of confirming that the forest stands in question continue to exist. In Amazonia,\\u000a where large expanses of tropical

Philip M. Fearnside

1997-01-01

276

Diversity, disturbance, and sustainable use of Neotropical forests: insects as indicators for conservation monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable use of tropical forest systems requires continuous monitoring of biological diversity and ecosystem functions. This can be efficiently done with early warning (short-cycle) indicator groups of non-economical insects, whose population levels and resources are readily measured. Twenty-one groups of insects are evaluated as focal indicator taxa for rapid assessment of changes in Neotropical forest systems. Composite environmental indices for

Keith S. Brown Jr

1997-01-01

277

Measuring Mangrove Type, Structure And Carbon Storage With UAVSAR And ALOS/PALSAR Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangrove forests provide a great number of ecosystem services ranging from shoreline protection (e.g. against erosion, tsunamis and storms), nutrient cycling, fisheries production, building materials and habitat. Mangrove forests have been shown to store very large amounts of Carbon, both above and belowground, with storage capacities even greater than tropical rainforests. But as a result of their location and economic value, they are among the most rapidly changing landscapes in the World. Mangrove extent is limited 1) in total extent to tidally influenced coastal areas and 2) to tropical and subtropical regions. This can lead to difficulties mapping mangrove type (such as degraded vs non degraded, scrub vs tall, dense vs sparse) because of cloud cover and limited access to high-resolution optical data. To accurately quantify the effect of land use and climate change on tropical wetland ecosystems, we must develop effective mapping methodologies that take into account not only extent, but also the structure and health of the ecosystem. This must be done by including Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. In this research, we used L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar data from the ALOS/PALSAR and UAVSAR instruments over selected sites in the Americas (Sierpe, Costa Rica and Everglades, Florida)and Asia (Sundarbans). In particular, we used the SAR data in combination with other remotely sensed data and field data to 1) map mangrove extent 2) determine mangrove type, health and adjascent land use, and 3) estimate aboveground biomass and carbon storage for entire mangrove systems. We used different classification methodologies such as polarimetric decomposition, unsupervised classification and image segmentation to map mangrove type. Because of the high resolution of the radar data, and its ability to interact with forest volume, we are able to identify mangrove zones and differentiate between mangroves and other forests/land uses. We also integrated InSAR data (SRTM), spaceborne Lidar (GLAS) and field data, in combination with the SAR data to derive aboveground biomass and carbon storage in mangroves. We successfully produced maps of mangrove extent, type, health and carbon storage by using L-band SAR data. Our results show that both UAVSAR and ALOS/PALSAR data alone are effective datasets for mapping mangrove extent, type and other land use. By combining multiple datasets, we were able to determine mangrove biomass without an upper estimation limit and with low error.

Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Cornforth, W.; Pinto, N.; Simard, M.; Pettorelli, N.

2011-12-01

278

The effect of mangrove reforestation on the accumulation of PCBs in sediment from different habitats in Guangdong, China.  

PubMed

To investigate the influence of mangrove reforestation on the accumulation of PCBs, the concentrations and homologue patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls in surface sediments from different mangrove forests and their adjacent mud flats in Guangdong Province were determined. The total PCB concentrations in the sediments ranged from 3.03 to 46.62 ng g? (dry weight). Differences in the accumulation and distribution of PCBs were found between the mangrove sites and the mud flats. Furthermore, the natural forests and restored mangrove forests of native species showed slight PCB contamination, whereas the exotic species Sonneratia apetala exacerbated the PCB pollution at certain sites. It was suggested that the native mangrove species Kandelia candel and Aegiceras corniculatum could represent good choices for the phytoremediation of PCB contamination. PMID:22704149

Zhao, Bo; Zhou, Yan-Wu; Chen, Gui-Zhu

2012-08-01

279

Latitudinal Variation In Mangrove Height And Biomass in East Africa Using SRTM Elevation Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the foundations of biogeography states that productivity and biomass are highest at the equator and decrease as latitude increases. This relationship was confirmed for mangrove ecosystems by Sanger and Snedaker in 1993, based on a review of mangrove biomass and litterfall studies. Recent advances in remote sensing technology have permitted the estimation of mangrove biomass using landcover maps and data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). A test of this paradigm of mangrove ecology, using Mozambique as a case study, did not confirm the relationship between mangrove biomass and latitude. In this study, we produced a height and biomass map of mangrove forests of the whole Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region, which spans from Somalia in the North (12N) to South Africa in the S (28S), including Madagascar. Landsat ETM+ data was used to produce landcover maps and SRTM elevation data to produce height and biomass maps for the WIO region. Based on our results, we did not find a significant correlation between latitude and height/biomass in mangrove forests. Our results suggest that that freshwater input and type of geographical setting (lagoons, bays, deltas and open coast) are more important in determining mangrove height and biomass.

Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Simard, M.; Shugart, H. H.

2007-12-01

280

Radiocarbon Dating and Wood Density Chronologies of Mangrove Trees in Arid Western Australia  

PubMed Central

Mangrove trees tend to be larger and mangrove communities more diverse in tropical latitudes, particularly where there is high rainfall. Variation in the structure, growth and productivity of mangrove forests over climatic gradients suggests they are sensitive to variations in climate, but evidence of changes in the structure and growth of mangrove trees in response to climatic variation is scarce. Bomb-pulse radiocarbon dating provides accurate dates of recent wood formation and tree age of tropical and subtropical tree species. Here, we used radiocarbon techniques combined with X-ray densitometry to develop a wood density chronology for the mangrove Avicennia marina in the Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia (WA). We tested whether wood density chronologies of A. marina were sensitive to variation in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation Index, which reflects temperature fluctuations in the Pacific Ocean and is linked to the instrumental rainfall record in north WA. We also determined growth rates in mangrove trees from the Exmouth Gulf, WA. We found that seaward fringing A. marina trees (?10 cm diameter) were 481 to 8923 years old (mean 1?) and that their growth rates ranged from 4.082.36 to 5.303.33 mm/yr (mean 1?). The wood density of our studied mangrove trees decreased with increases in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation Index. Future predicted drying of the region will likely lead to further reductions in wood density and their associated growth rates in mangrove forests in the region. PMID:24265797

Santini, Nadia S.; Hua, Quan; Schmitz, Nele; Lovelock, Catherine E.

2013-01-01

281

Radiocarbon dating and wood density chronologies of mangrove trees in arid Western Australia.  

PubMed

Mangrove trees tend to be larger and mangrove communities more diverse in tropical latitudes, particularly where there is high rainfall. Variation in the structure, growth and productivity of mangrove forests over climatic gradients suggests they are sensitive to variations in climate, but evidence of changes in the structure and growth of mangrove trees in response to climatic variation is scarce. Bomb-pulse radiocarbon dating provides accurate dates of recent wood formation and tree age of tropical and subtropical tree species. Here, we used radiocarbon techniques combined with X-ray densitometry to develop a wood density chronology for the mangrove Avicennia marina in the Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia (WA). We tested whether wood density chronologies of A. marina were sensitive to variation in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation Index, which reflects temperature fluctuations in the Pacific Ocean and is linked to the instrumental rainfall record in north WA. We also determined growth rates in mangrove trees from the Exmouth Gulf, WA. We found that seaward fringing A. marina trees (~10 cm diameter) were 48 1 to 89 23 years old (mean 1 ?) and that their growth rates ranged from 4.08 2.36 to 5.30 3.33 mm/yr (mean 1 ?). The wood density of our studied mangrove trees decreased with increases in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation Index. Future predicted drying of the region will likely lead to further reductions in wood density and their associated growth rates in mangrove forests in the region. PMID:24265797

Santini, Nadia S; Hua, Quan; Schmitz, Nele; Lovelock, Catherine E

2013-01-01

282

Mangroves - what are they worth  

SciTech Connect

This paper is based on a study for FAO and on the management and utilization of mangroves in Asia and the Pacific. Land use options are examined in relation to the different roles which mangroves play (provision of firewood, charcoal, timber and pulp; wildlife; fisheries and aquaculture; and agriculture). Special attention is paid to mangrove management in Malaysia. (Refs 26)

Christensen, B.

1983-01-01

283

Global Status of Mangrove Ecosystems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mangroves are the characteristic littoral plant formations of tropical/subtropical sheltered coastlines. Presented is a detailed report which discusses uses made of mangrove ecosystems and attempts to resolve conflicts arising from these uses. Areas considered include cause/consequence of mangrove destruction, legislative/administrative aspects,

Saenger, P., Ed.; And Others

1983-01-01

284

MANGROVE-EXPORTED NUTRIENT INCORPORATION BY SESSILE CORAL REEF INVERTEBRATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Coastal mangrove forests were historically considered as a source of organic matter (OM) for adjacent marine systems due to high net primary production; yet recent research suggesting little uptake through the food web because of low nutritional quality, challenges the concept of...

285

Mangrove crabs as ecosystem engineers; with emphasis on sediment processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benthic fauna in mangrove forests is usually dominated by burrowing sesarmid (Grapsidae) and fiddler crabs (Ocypodidae). They are herbivores that retain, bury, macerate and ingest litter and microalgal mats. Most species within these two groups actively dig and maintain burrows in the sediment as a refuge from predation and environmental extremes. Based on the current knowledge on the biology

Erik Kristensen

2008-01-01

286

CLIMATE DATA AND ANALYSIS FOR THE NEW ENGLAND FOREST HEALTH MONITORING PROJECT (NEFHM/EMAP FORESTS)  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper describes the development of climatological information products to support ecological data collection and analysis. Characteristics of climatological persistence and recurrence that are critical to New England forest health and productivity are identified. he appropri...

287

Sample project: establishing a global forest monitoring capability using multi-resolution and multi-temporal remotely sensed data sets  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quantifying rates of forest-cover change is important for improved carbon accounting and climate change modeling, management of forestry and agricultural resources, and biodiversity monitoring. A practical solution to examining trends in forest cover change at global scale is to employ remotely sensed data. Satellite-based monitoring of forest cover can be implemented consistently across large regions at annual and inter-annual intervals. This research extends previous research on global forest-cover dynamics and land-cover change estimation to establish a robust, operational forest monitoring and assessment system. The approach integrates both MODIS and Landsat data to provide timely biome-scale forest change estimation. This is achieved by using annual MODIS change indicator maps to stratify biomes into low, medium and high change categories. Landsat image pairs can then be sampled within these strata and analyzed for estimating area of forest cleared.

Hansen, Matt; Stehman, Steve; Loveland, Tom; Vogelmann, Jim; Cochrane, Mark

2009-01-01

288

Caribbean mangroves adjust to rising sea level through biotic controls on change in soil elevation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aim The long-term stability of coastal ecosystems such as mangroves and salt marshes depends upon the maintenance of soil elevations within the intertidal habitat as sea level changes. We examined the rates and processes of peat formation by mangroves of the Caribbean Region to better understand biological controls on habitat stability. Location Mangrove-dominated islands on the Caribbean coasts of Belize, Honduras and Panama were selected as study sites. Methods Biological processes controlling mangrove peat formation were manipulated (in Belize) by the addition of nutrients (nitrogen or phosphorus) to Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove), and the effects on the dynamics of soil elevation were determined over a 3-year period using rod surface elevation tables (RSET) and marker horizons. Peat composition and geological accretion rates were determined at all sites using radiocarbon-dated cores. Results The addition of nutrients to mangroves caused significant changes in rates of mangrove root accumulation, which influenced both the rate and direction of change in elevation. Areas with low root input lost elevation and those with high rates gained elevation. These findings were consistent with peat analyses at multiple Caribbean sites showing that deposits (up to 10 m in depth) were composed primarily of mangrove root matter. Comparison of radiocarbon-dated cores at the study sites with a sea-level curve for the western Atlantic indicated a tight coupling between peat building in Caribbean mangroves and sea-level rise over the Holocene. Main conclusions Mangroves common to the Caribbean region have adjusted to changing sea level mainly through subsurface accumulation of refractory mangrove roots. Without root and other organic inputs, submergence of these tidal forests is inevitable due to peat decomposition, physical compaction and eustatic sea-level rise. These findings have relevance for predicting the effects of sea-level rise and biophysical processes on tropical mangrove ecosystems.

McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Feller, I.C.

2007-01-01

289

Monitoring littoral sediment accretion and erosion at Forest Park Beach, Lake Forest, Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest Park Beach, a coastal-development project on the shore of Lake Michigan at Lake Forest, Illinois, consists of a series of segmented, rubble-mound breakwaters that form four beach cells and a small-boat launch basin. The project was designed to have minimal impact on local littoral-transport processes. The 9-hectare footprint extends no more than 107 m lakeward of the preconstruction shoreline;

C. B. Trask; M. J. Chrzastowski

1993-01-01

290

Ecological Factors Acting on the Microfauna in Mangrove Swamps. The Case of Foraminiferal Assemblages in French Guiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-seven surface sediment samples were collected in January 1999 and July 2000 in the mangrove swamps and mud flats of French Guiana where strong seasonal contrasts occur. Sampling stations were selected to provide information on the foraminiferal assemblages associated with different environmental conditions, on the mud banks and in the mangrove forest. A total of 44 species have been identified.

J.-P. Debenay; D. Guiral; M. Parra

2002-01-01

291

Red Mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) Reproduction and Seedling Colonization after Hurricane Charley: Comparisons of Charlotte Harbor and Tampa Bay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive aspects of life history are known to be important in recovery following disturbance in many plant species although this has not been well studied in mangroves. Hurricane Charley devastated large areas of mangroves in Charlotte Harbor, Florida, in August 2004. We surveyed 6 forests in Charlotte Harbor (2002, 2003, and 2005) and 16 in Tampa Bay, Florida (2001, 2002,

C. EDWARD PROFFITT; ERIC C. MILBRANDT; STEVEN E. TRAVIS

2006-01-01

292

Biomass and Carbon Sequestration in Community Mangrove Plantations and a Natural Regeneration Stand in the Ayeyarwady Delta, Myanmar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangroves in the Ayeyarwady Delta is one of the most threatened ecosystems, and is rapidly disappearing as in many tropical countries. The deforestation and degradation of mangrove forest in the Ayeryarwady Delta results in the shortage of wood resources and declining of environmental services that have been provided by the mangrove ecosystem. Cyclone Nargis struck the Ayeyarwady Delta on 2 May 2008 with an intensity unprecedented in the history of Myanmar. The overexploitation of mangroves because of local demands for fuel wood and charcoal and the conversion of mangrove forest land into agricultural land or shrimp farms over the past decades have increased the loss of human life and the damage to settlements caused by the Cyclone.The biomass study was conducted in September of 2006 in Bogale Township in the Ayeyarwady Delta and continued monitoring in September of each year from 2007 to 2010. Above and below ground biomass was studied in six years old mangrove plantations of Avicenia marina (Am), Avicenia officinalis (Ao) and Sonneratia apetala (Sa) and a naturally regenerated stand under regeneration improving felling operation (NR: consists of Ceriops decandra, Bruguiera sexangula, and Aegicerus corniculatum) protected for seven years since 2000. These stands were established by small-scale Community Forestry scheme on abandoned paddy fields where natural mangroves once existed. Common allometric equations were developed for biomass estimation by performing regressions between dry weights of trees as dependent variables and biometric parameters such as stem diameter, height and wood density as independent variables. The above and below ground biomass in NR stand (70 Mg ha-1 and 104 Mg ha-1) was the greatest (P < 0.001), and followed by Sa plantation (69 Mg ha-1 and 32 Mg ha-1), Am plantation (25 Mg ha-1 and 27 Mg ha-1) and Ao plantation (21 Mg ha-1 and 26 Mg ha-1). The total carbon stock in biomass was 73 Mg C ha-1 in NR stand, 43 Mg C ha-1 in Sa plantation, 21 Mg C ha-1 in Am plantation and 18 Mg C ha-1 in Ao plantation respectively. The averaged total soil carbon stock up to 1 m soil depth in plantation site was estimated to be 167 58 Mg C ha-1 which was nearly two times higher than that of current paddy fields 85 17 Mg C ha-1. These facts suggest the feasibility of the mangrove plantation and induced natural regeneration as a carbon sequestration tool. The establishment of mangrove plantations appeared to be one measure for reducing the risk of cyclone damage after the Cyclone Nargis. This may reduce future human loss by cyclones and also improve the life of local people by increasing timber resources and environmental services.

Thant, Y. M.; Kanzaki, M.; nil

2011-12-01

293

Forest monitoring with TerraSAR-X: first results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several TerraSAR-X satellite images acquired in high resolution spotlight mode with different polarisations for two study\\u000a sites in southern Germany were used to distinguish forest from other land cover classes (agriculture, built-up, water bodies)\\u000a using logistic regression models. In general, we observed that the mean and particularly the standard deviation of the backscatter\\u000a were viable measures to discriminate land cover

Johannes Breidenbach; Sonia M. Ortiz; Manfred Reich

2010-01-01

294

Monitoring the Philippine Forest Cover Change Using Ndvi Products of Remote Sensing Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Philippines has one of the world's fastest disappearing forest cover, which is being lost to natural processes and landscape-modifying human activities. Currently, forested landscape covers 24% (i.e., 7.2 million hectares) of the Philippines' total land area, of which only 800,000 hectares are considered as old-growth forests. Occasionally, volcanic activities and earthquakes cause large-scale impacts on the forest cover, but the systematic reduction of the country's forest has been sustained through unregulated logging operations and other human-induced landscape modification. Reforestation and watershed protection have become important public policy programs as forest denudation is linked to recent devastating landslides, debris flows and flashfloods. However, many watershed areas that are at risk to deforestation are hardly accessible to ground-based monitoring. A spaced-based monitoring system facilitates an efficient and timely response to changes in the quality and extent of the Philippine forest cover. This monitoring system relies in the generation of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) products from the red and infrared bands of remote sensing data, which correlates with the amount of chlorophyll in the vegetation. Given the existing forest classification maps, non-forested regions are masked in the data analysis, so that only forest-related changes in the vegetation are shown in the NDVI image difference products. A combination of two MODIS-bearing satellites, i.e., Terra and Aqua, acquire high temporal and moderate spatial resolution data, enabling the countrywide detection of vegetation changes within a certain observation period. MODIS data are calibrated for setting the pixel quality thresholds, which minimize the artifact of clouds and haze in the analysis. Areas showing dramatic changes are further investigated using higher resolution data, such as ASTER and Landsat 7 ETM. Sequential NDVI products of remote sensing data provide improved spatial information for the assessment of a natural disaster, warning of potential hazardous situations, detection of illegal forest-clearing activities and management of the reforestation effort.

Torres, R. C.; Mouginis-Mark, P.; Wright, R.; Garbeil, H.; Craig, B.

2004-12-01

295

An integrated approach to coastal rehabilitation: Mangrove restoration in Sungai Haji Dorani, Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To achieve an efficient method of coastal rehabilitation, a coastal structure was applied in combination with the mangrove restoration scheme in Sungai Haji Dorani where coastal forest over-cutting associated with erosion has resulted in severe coastline retreat. Such an attempt provides the opportunity to mitigate erosion as well as improve ecological and socio-economic aspects of coastal areas, both of which are of great importance to local communities and authorities. Beach morphological changes were monitored for an eight-month period of time. The results indicate that the attempt has been successful in retaining sediment on the beach and consequently raising the elevation of the site. While the monitoring schedule is required to continue for several years to evaluate long-term performance of the rehabilitation effort, approximately 30% of the transplanted mangrove saplings' survival after eight months shows that the project was moderately successful. Since the general conditions of the selected site represent the majority of the eroded shorelines on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, the method applied in this study can be replicated as an appropriate cost-effective alternative for the same cases.

Hashim, Roslan; Kamali, Babak; Tamin, Noraini Mohd; Zakaria, Rozainah

2010-01-01

296

Temperature monitoring and Forest Fires in Gis Council, Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our school the activities linked with sciences are developed in a partnership with other school subjects. Interdisciplinary projects are always valued from beginning to end of a project. It is common for teachers of different areas to work together in a Science project. Research of English written articles is very important not only for the development of our students' scientific literacy but also as a way of widening knowledge and a view on different perspectives of life instead of being limited to research of any articles in Portuguese language. As in this area there is a strong occurrence of forest fires, we are going to study the influence of temperature and its occurrence. For this study we have selected six meteorological stations, distributed through the region and placed in different altitudes. Through the analysis of the temperatures we have verified the lack of data from some stations, so we have proceeded to the homogenisation of the series, using the correlation coefficient of a reference series. In a second stage we will analyse forest fires episodes in the region, with data collected from the Civil Protection and the Meteorological Institute from 1980 to 2010 and correlate this with the series of temperatures for the different areas selected for this study. This research allows an evaluation of the forest fire propagation in the region and recognise the most affected areas.

Rodrigues, M. A. S.; Costa, M. E. G.

2012-04-01

297

Optimization of the information content of multitemporal Landsat TM data sets for monitoring forest cover disturbance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedures that were developed to optimize the information content of multitemporal thematic mapper (TM) data sets for forest cover disturbance monitoring in Minnesota are described. TM imagery from three different years was calibrated to exoatmospheric reflectance. An atmospheric correction routine was applied combining two major components, atmospheric normalization over time and transformation to ground reflectance. Atmospheric conditions were modeled over time using regression functions derived from five ground features known to be unchanged over the time interval of interest and spanning the entire image reflectance range. The correlation between digital data and the forest cover was subsequently maximized and irrelevant information content was reduced by converting the band-specific reflectances into seven vegetation indices that were assumed to carry unique information. The application of two change detection algorithms to these seven indices ultimately resulted in 14 change features for each time interval of interest. Results show that the preprocessing sequence is vital to forest cover monitoring methodology.

Coppin, Pol R.; Bauer, Marvin E.

1992-01-01

298

The effect of a protected area on the tradeoffs between short-run and long-run benefits from mangrove ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Protected areas are used to sustain biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, protected areas can create tradeoffs spatially and temporally among ecosystem services, which can affect the welfare of dependent local communities. This study examines the effect of a protected area on the tradeoff between two extractive ecosystem services from mangrove forests: cutting mangroves (fuelwood) and harvesting the shrimp and fish that thrive if mangroves are not cut. We demonstrate the effect in the context of Saadani National Park (SANAPA) in Tanzania, where enforcement of prohibition of mangrove harvesting was strengthened to preserve biodiversity. Remote sensing data of mangrove cover over time are integrated with georeferenced household survey data in an econometric framework to identify the causal effect of mangrove protection on income components directly linked to mangrove ecosystem services. Our findings suggest that many households experienced an immediate loss in the consumption of mangrove firewood, with the loss most prevalent in richer households. However, all wealth classes appear to benefit from long-term sustainability gains in shrimping and fishing that result from mangrove protection. On average, we find that a 10% increase in the mangrove cover within SANAPA boundaries in a 5-km2 radius of the subvillage increases shrimping income by approximately twofold. The creation of SANAPA shifted the future trajectory of the area from one in which mangroves were experiencing uncontrolled cutting to one in which mangrove conservation is providing gains in income for the local villages as a result of the preservation of nursery habitat and biodiversity. PMID:21873182

McNally, Catherine G.; Uchida, Emi; Gold, Arthur J.

2011-01-01

299

The effect of a protected area on the tradeoffs between short-run and long-run benefits from mangrove ecosystems.  

PubMed

Protected areas are used to sustain biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, protected areas can create tradeoffs spatially and temporally among ecosystem services, which can affect the welfare of dependent local communities. This study examines the effect of a protected area on the tradeoff between two extractive ecosystem services from mangrove forests: cutting mangroves (fuelwood) and harvesting the shrimp and fish that thrive if mangroves are not cut. We demonstrate the effect in the context of Saadani National Park (SANAPA) in Tanzania, where enforcement of prohibition of mangrove harvesting was strengthened to preserve biodiversity. Remote sensing data of mangrove cover over time are integrated with georeferenced household survey data in an econometric framework to identify the causal effect of mangrove protection on income components directly linked to mangrove ecosystem services. Our findings suggest that many households experienced an immediate loss in the consumption of mangrove firewood, with the loss most prevalent in richer households. However, all wealth classes appear to benefit from long-term sustainability gains in shrimping and fishing that result from mangrove protection. On average, we find that a 10% increase in the mangrove cover within SANAPA boundaries in a 5-km(2) radius of the subvillage increases shrimping income by approximately twofold. The creation of SANAPA shifted the future trajectory of the area from one in which mangroves were experiencing uncontrolled cutting to one in which mangrove conservation is providing gains in income for the local villages as a result of the preservation of nursery habitat and biodiversity. PMID:21873182

McNally, Catherine G; Uchida, Emi; Gold, Arthur J

2011-08-23

300

Monitoring Forest Carbon Sequestration with Remote Sensing and Carbon Cycle Modeling  

E-print Network

Monitoring Forest Carbon Sequestration with Remote Sensing and Carbon Cycle Modeling DAVID P. Carbon-cycle process models cou- pled to regional climate databases can provide information on potential the current status of the global carbon cycle and to meeting re- quirements in the United Nations Framework

Lefsky, Michael

301

Monitoring Amazon Rain Forest Drought Using MODIS Land Surface Temperature Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2005 Amazonian drought has been shown to have been one of the most severe in the past century. Contrary to expectations, recent remote sensing-based studies have indicated increases in greenness during the drought period; these results contrast sharply with field-based evidence of increases in respiration, mortality and forest fire. A new method is evaluated for monitoring and assessing tropical

M. P. Toomey; D. A. Roberts

2010-01-01

302

Global characterization and monitoring of forest cover using Landsat data: opportunities and challanges  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The compilation of global Landsat data-sets and the ever-lowering costs of computing now make it feasible to monitor the Earths land cover at Landsat resolutions of 30 m. In this article, we describe the methods to create global products of forest cover and cover change at Landsat resolutions. Neve...

303

BRYOPHYTE SPECIES DIVERSITY OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS IN SLOVENIA (INTENSIVE MONITORING PROGRAMME)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Intensive Monitoring Programme (IM) of Forest Ecosystems in Slovenia, the bryophyte flora and vegetation have been studied on 11 IM plots and 64 vegetation sub-plots (1010 m). On the IM plots, high species diversity of bryophytes has been assessed. The total number of bryophytes was 109; among them 82 species belonging to the mosses (Bryophyta) and

Lado KUTNAR

304

Carbon Sequestration Potential in Mangrove Wetlands of Southern of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangrove forest and the soil on which it grows are major sinks of atmospheric carbon. We present the results of a study on the carbon sequestration in the ground biomass of Avicennia marina including the organic carbon deposition, degradation and preservation in wetland sediments of Muthupet mangrove forest (southeast coast of India) in order to evaluate the influence of forests in the global carbon cycle. The inventory for estimating the ground biomass of Avicennia marina was carried out using random sampling technique (10 m 10 m plot) with allometric regression equation. The carbon content in different vegetal parts (leaves, stem and root) of mangrove species and associated marshy vegetations was estimated using the combustion method. We observe that the organic carbon was higher (ca. 54.8%) recorded in the stems of Aegiceras corniculatum and Salicornia brachiata and lower (ca. 30.3%) in the Sesuvium portulacastrum leaves. The ground biomass and carbon sequestration of Avicennia marina are 58.5612.65 t/ ha and 27.525.95 mg C/ha, respectively. The depth integrated organic carbon model profiles indicate an average accumulation rate of 149.75gC/m2.yr and an average remineralization rate of 32.89gC/m2.yr. We estimate an oxidation of ca. 21.85% of organic carbon and preservation of ca. 78.15% of organic carbon in the wetland sediments. Keywords: Above ground biomass, organic carbon, sequestration, mangrove, wetland sediments, Muthupet.

Chokkalingam, L.; Ponnambalam, K.; Ponnaiah, J. M.; Roy, P.; Sankar, S.

2012-12-01

305

Painting the world REDD: addressing scientific barriers to monitoring emissions from tropical forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In December 2010, parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) agreed to encourage reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from forest losses with the financial support of developed countries. This important international agreement followed about seven years of effort among governments, non-governmental organizations (NGO) and the scientific community, and is called REDD+, the program for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation. REDD+ could achieve its potential to slow emissions from deforestation and forest degradation either as a new market option to offset emissions from developed nations, or as a mitigation option for developing countries themselves. Aside from representing an important step towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions, a growing list of potential co-benefits to REDD+ include improved forestry practices, forest restoration, sustainable development, and biodiversity protection. Indeed the agreement is heralded as a win-win for climate change mitigation and tropical forest conservation, and it could end up contributing to a global economy based on carbon and ecosystem services. That's good news, and some governments are now working to become 'REDD ready' in preparation for the forthcoming international program. This is important because, according to the agreements made by governments in the UNFCCC, developing countries which voluntarily decide to take part in REDD+ must establish their own national forest monitoring system to report changes in emissions from forests (UNFCCC 2009). But as of today, no developing country has implemented a system for monitoring, reporting and verifying (MRV) emission reductions for REDD+. Of course, it is all still very new, but many REDD-type projects have been underway for years now (Parker et al 2008), and many MRV practitioners involved in those projects are the same people being asked to help with government-led, national MRV programs. Yet going from the project scale to program readiness is a big step for all involved, and many are finding that it is not easy. Current barriers to national monitoring of forest carbon stocks and emissions range from technical to scientific, and from institutional to operational. In fact, a recent analysis suggested that about 3% of tropical countries currently have the capacity to monitor and report on changes in forest cover and carbon stocks (Herold 2009). But until now, the scientific and policy-development communities have had little quantitative information on exactly which aspects of national-scale monitoring are most uncertain, and how that uncertainty will affect REDD+ performance reporting. A new and remarkable study by Pelletier, Ramankutty and Potvin (2011) uses an integrated, spatially-explicit modeling technique to explore and quantify sources of uncertainty in carbon emissions mapping throughout the Republic of Panama. Their findings are sobering: deforestation rates would need to be reduced by a full 50% in Panama in order to be detectable above the statistical uncertainty caused by several current major monitoring problems. The number one uncertainty, accounting for a sum total of about 77% of the error, rests in the spatial variation of aboveground carbon stocks in primary forests, secondary forests and on fallow land. The poor quality of and insufficient time interval between land-cover maps account for the remainder of the overall uncertainty. These findings are a show-stopper for REDD+ under prevailing science and technology conditions. The Pelletier et al study highlights the pressing need to improve the accuracy of forest carbon and land cover mapping assessments in order for REDD+ to become viable, but how can the uncertainties be overcome? First, with REDD+ nations required to report their emissions, and with verification organizations wanting to check on the reported numbers, there is a clear need for shared measurement and monitoring approaches. One of the major stumbling blocks actually starts with the scientific community, which needs not only to develop h

Asner, Gregory P.

2011-06-01

306

Potential for Expanding the Near Real Time ForWarn Regional Forest Monitoring System to Include Alaska  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The on-line near real time (NRT) ForWarn system is currently deployed to monitor regional forest disturbances within the conterminous United States (CONUS), using daily MODIS Aqua and Terra NDVI data to derive monitoring products. The Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003 mandated such a system. Work on ForWarn began in 2006 with development and validation of retrospective MODIS NDVI-based forest monitoring products. Subsequently, NRT forest disturbance monitoring products were demonstrated, leading to the actual system deployment in 2010. ForWarn provides new CONUS forest disturbance monitoring products every 8 days, using USGS eMODIS data for current NDVI. ForWarn currently does not cover Alaska, which includes extensive forest lands at risk to multiple biotic and abiotic threats. This poster discusses a case study using Alaska eMODIS Terra data to derive ForWarn like forest change products during the 2010 growing season. The eMODIS system provides current MODIS Terra NDVI products for Alaska. Resulting forest change products were assessed with ground, aerial, and Landsat reference data. When cloud and snow free, these preliminary products appeared to capture regional forest disturbances from insect defoliation and fires; however, more work is needed to mitigate cloud and snow contamination, including integration of eMODIS Aqua data.

Spruce, Joseph P.; Gasser, Gerald; Hargrove, William; Smoot, James; Kuper, Philip D.

2014-01-01

307

Organic carbon burial rates in mangrove sediments: strengthening the global budget  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mangrove wetlands exist in the transition zone between terrestrial and marine environments and as such were historically overlooked in discussions of terrestrial and marine carbon cycling. In recent decades, mangroves have increasingly been credited with producing and burying large quantities of organic carbon (OC). The amount of available data regarding OC burial in mangrove soils has more than doubled since the last primary literature review (2003). This includes data from some of the largest, most developed mangrove forests in the world, providing an opportunity to strengthen the global estimate. First-time representation is now included for mangroves in Brazil, Colombia, Malaysia, Indonesia, China, Japan, Vietnam, and Thailand, along with additional data from Mexico and the United States. Our objective is to recalculate the centennial-scale burial rate of OC at both the local and global scales. Quantification of this rate enables better understanding of the current carbon sink capacity of mangroves as well as helps to quantify and/or validate the other aspects of the mangrove carbon budget such as import, export, and remineralization. Statistical analysis of the data supports use of the geometric mean as the most reliable central tendency measurement. Our estimate is that mangrove systems bury 163 (+40; -31) g OC m-2 yr-1 (95% C.I.). Globally, the 95% confidence interval for the annual burial rate is 26.1 (+6.3; -5.1) Tg OC. This equates to a burial fraction that is 42% larger than that of the most recent mangrove carbon budget (2008), and represents 1015% of estimated annual mangrove production. This global rate supports previous conclusions that, on a centennial time scale, 815% of all OC burial in marine settings occurs in mangrove systems.

Breithaupt, J.; Smoak, Joseph M.; Smith, Thomas J.; Sanders, Christian J.; Hoare, Armando

2012-01-01

308

Organic carbon burial rates in mangrove sediments: Strengthening the global budget  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangrove wetlands exist in the transition zone between terrestrial and marine environments and as such were historically overlooked in discussions of terrestrial and marine carbon cycling. In recent decades, mangroves have increasingly been credited with producing and burying large quantities of organic carbon (OC). The amount of available data regarding OC burial in mangrove soils has more than doubled since the last primary literature review (2003). This includes data from some of the largest, most developed mangrove forests in the world, providing an opportunity to strengthen the global estimate. First-time representation is now included for mangroves in Brazil, Colombia, Malaysia, Indonesia, China, Japan, Vietnam, and Thailand, along with additional data from Mexico and the United States. Our objective is to recalculate the centennial-scale burial rate of OC at both the local and global scales. Quantification of this rate enables better understanding of the current carbon sink capacity of mangroves as well as helps to quantify and/or validate the other aspects of the mangrove carbon budget such as import, export, and remineralization. Statistical analysis of the data supports use of the geometric mean as the most reliable central tendency measurement. Our estimate is that mangrove systems bury 163 (+40; -31) g OC m-2 yr-1 (95% C.I.). Globally, the 95% confidence interval for the annual burial rate is 26.1 (+6.3; -5.1) Tg OC. This equates to a burial fraction that is 42% larger than that of the most recent mangrove carbon budget (2008), and represents 10-15% of estimated annual mangrove production. This global rate supports previous conclusions that, on a centennial time scale, 8-15% of all OC burial in marine settings occurs in mangrove systems.

Breithaupt, Joshua L.; Smoak, Joseph M.; Smith, Thomas J., III; Sanders, Christian J.; Hoare, Armando

2012-09-01

309

Monitoring forest change at ecotones in the Colorado Rockies  

SciTech Connect

We are assessing the potential effect of global climate change on the Front Range of the Colorado Rockies, including Rocky Mountain National Park. Our objective is quantify the abiotic and biotic controls on forest distribution and productivity as a basis for assessing potential vegetation change for a range of projected climate scenarios. A series of long-term vegetation transects are being established to relate soil characteristics (e.g., soil type, texture, moisture, nitrogen content) and microclimate (air and soil temperature) to vegetation characteristics (e.g., basal area, leaf area index, tree age structure, resource use efficiency, primary production) across lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) ecotones. Results from five 200+ ectonal transects (68 20 m x 20 m plots; over 3,753 trees) show that basal area gradients from lodgepole pine to spruce-fir (Picea engelmannii, Abies lasiocarpa), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) forests are correlated strongly (but not linearly), to soil texture and summer soil moisture. Factors controlling species-specific radial growth patterns along ecotones are more complex.

Stohlgren, T.J.; Bachand, R.R. (Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, CO (United States))

1994-06-01

310

A Lesson from Mangroves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the importance of interpretive programs in the Northern Territory of Australia. Describes the typical interpretive approach of local school science curricula, which serve 20,000 Aboriginal children. Addresses the curriculum framework, learning strategies, and process skill development, illustrating them through a lesson on mangroves. (TW)

Davis, Stephen

1987-01-01

311

Mangrove bacterial richness  

PubMed Central

Mangroves are complex and dynamic ecosystems varying in salinity, water level and nutrient availability; they also contain diverse and distinct microbial communities. Studies of microbes and their interactions with other ecosystem components (e.g., tree roots) are critical for our understanding of mangrove ecosystem functioning and remediation. Using a barcoding pyrosequencing approach, we previously noted the persistence of terrestrial bacterial populations on mangrove roots when nursery raised saplings were transplanted back to their natural environment. Here we go into further detail about the potential functional associations of bacterial guilds with distinct mangrove microhabitats including the rhizosphere. We also use a nonparametric richness estimator to show that estimated operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness is more than twice that observed. In the transplant microhabitat, our estimate suggests that there are almost 7,000 OTU's for a sample size of 10,400 individual sequences with no sign of an asymptote, indicating that true richness for this microhabitat is substantially larger. Results on the number of bacterial OTU's should, however, be viewed with caution given that the barcoding pyrosequencing technique used can yield sequencing artifacts that may inflate richness estimates if not properly removed. PMID:21966560

Cleary, Daniel FR; Calado, Ricardo; Costa, Rodrigo

2011-01-01

312

Poleward expansion of mangroves is a threshold response to decreased frequency of extreme cold events  

PubMed Central

Regional warming associated with climate change is linked with altered range and abundance of species and ecosystems worldwide. However, the ecological impacts of changes in the frequency of extreme events have not been as well documented, especially for coastal and marine environments. We used 28 y of satellite imagery to demonstrate that the area of mangrove forests has doubled at the northern end of their historic range on the east coast of Florida. This expansion is associated with a reduction in the frequency of extreme cold events (days colder than ?4 C), but uncorrelated with changes in mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation, and land use. Our analyses provide evidence for a threshold response, with declining frequency of severe cold winter events allowing for poleward expansion of mangroves. Future warming may result in increases in mangrove cover beyond current latitudinal limits of mangrove forests, thereby altering the structure and function of these important coastal ecosystems. PMID:24379379

Cavanaugh, Kyle C.; Kellner, James R.; Forde, Alexander J.; Gruner, Daniel S.; Parker, John D.; Rodriguez, Wilfrid; Feller, Ilka C.

2014-01-01

313

Mangrove peat analysis and reconstruction of vegetation history at the Pelican Cays, Belize  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The substrate beneath mangrove forests in the Pelican Cays complex is predominately peat composed mainly of mangrove roots. Leaves and wood account for less than 20% of the peat mass. At Cat Cay, the depth of the peat ranges from 0.2 m along the shoreline to 1.65 m in the island center, indicating that the island has expanded horizontally as well as vertically through below-ground, biogenic processes. Mangrove roots thus play a critical role in the soil formation, vertical accretion, and stability of these mangrove cays. The species composition of fossil roots changes markedly with depth: Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove) was the initial colonizer on a coral base, followed by Avicennia germinans (black mangrove), which increased in abundance and expanded radially from the center of the island. The center of the Avicennia stand ultimately died, leaving an unvegetated, shallow pond. The peat thus retains a record of mangrove development, succession, and deterioration in response to sea-level change and concomitant hydroedaphic conditions controlling dispersal, establishment, growth, and mortality of mangroves on oceanic islands in Belize.

McKee, K.L.; Faulkner, P.L.

2000-01-01

314

Molecular Insights into Plant-Microbial Processes and Carbon Storage in Mangrove Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangrove forests, in tropical and subtropical coastal zones, are among the most productive ecosystems, representing a significant global carbon sink. We report new molecular insights into the functional relationship among microorganisms, mangrove trees and sediment geochemistry. The interactions among these elements were studied in peat-based mangrove sediments (Twin Cays, Belize) subjected to a long-term fertilization experiment with N and P, providing an analog for eutrophication. The composition and ?13C of bacterial PLFA showed that bacteria and mangrove trees had similar nutrient limitation patterns (N in the fringe mangrove zone, P in the interior zone), and that fertilization with N or P can affect bacterial metabolic processes and bacterial carbon uptake (from diverse mangrove sources including leaf litter, live and dead roots). PCR amplified nifH genes showed a high diversity (26% nifH novel clones) and a remarkable spatial and temporal variability in N-fixing microbial populations in the rhizosphere, varying primarily with the abundance of dead roots, PO4-3 and H2S concentrations in natural and fertilized environments. Our results indicate that eutrophication of mangrove ecosystems has the potential to alter microbial organic matter remineralization and carbon release with important implications for the coastal carbon budget. In addition, we will present preliminary data from a new study exploring the modern calibration of carbon and hydrogen isotopes of plant leaf waxes as a proxy recorder of past environmental change in mangrove ecosystems.

Romero, I. C.; Ziegler, S. E.; Fogel, M.; Jacobson, M.; Fuhrman, J. A.; Capone, D. G.

2009-12-01

315

An Early Warning System for Identification and Monitoring of Disturbances to Forest Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest ecosystems are susceptible to damage due to threat events like wildfires, insect and disease attacks, extreme weather events, land use change, and long-term climate change. Early identification of such events is desired to devise and implement a protective response. The mission of the USDA Forest Service is to sustain the health, diversity, and productivity of the nation's forests. However, limited resources for aerial surveys and ground-based inspections are insufficient for monitoring the large areas covered by the U.S. forests. The USDA Forest Service, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and NASA Stennis Space Center are developing an early warning system for the continuous tracking and long-term monitoring of disturbances and responses in forest ecosystems using high resolution satellite remote sensing data. Geospatiotemporal data mining techniques were developed and applied to normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) products derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) MOD 13 data at 250 m resolution on eight day intervals. Representative phenologically similar regions, or phenoregions, were developed for the conterminous United States (CONUS) by applying a k-means clustering algorithm to the NDVI data spanning the full eight years of the MODIS record. Annual changes in the phenoregions were quantitatively analyzed to identify the significant changes in phenological behavior. This methodology was successfully applied for identification of various forest disturbance events, including wildfire, tree mortality due to Mountain Pine Beetle, and other insect infestation and diseases, as well as extreme events like storms and hurricanes in the United States. Where possible, the results were validated and quantitatively compared with aerial and ground-based survey data available from different agencies. This system was able to identify most of the disturbances reported by aerial and ground-based surveys, and it also identified affected areas that were not covered by any of the surveys. Analysis results and validation data will be presented.

Marshall, A. A.; Hoffman, F. M.; Kumar, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Spruce, J.; Mills, R. T.

2011-12-01

316

Conservation genetics of Lumnitzera littorea (Combretaceae), an endangered mangrove, from the Indo-West Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangrove forests, with their ecological significance and economic benefits, are vital inter-tidal wetland ecosystems. Lumnitzera littorea (Combreataceae) is a non-viviparous mangrove distributed in tropical Asia and North Australia. Due to natural and human impacts,\\u000a populations of this species have been isolated, fragmented, and highly disturbed. In China, L. littorea is an endangered species, restricted to small regions of Hainan Island.

Guohua Su; Yelin Huang; Fengxiao Tan; Xiaowei Ni; Tian Tang; Suhua Shi

2007-01-01

317

Wetland changes and mangrove restoration planning in Shenzhen Bay, Southern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangrove forests and associated gei wai (excavated ponds used for shrimp and fish farming) provide important ecosystem services in Shenzhen Bay. Much of the mangrove\\u000a and gei wai wetlands, however, have been lost because of intensified human activities in the past 30years. Using five-phase remote-sensing\\u000a images, we describe the recent history of the spatialtemporal dynamics for the wetlands in the

Hai Ren; Xiaoming Wu; Tianzhu Ning; Gu Huang; Jun Wang; Shuguang Jian; Hongfang Lu

2011-01-01

318

Monitoring of environmental conditions in taiga forests using ERS-1 SAR  

SciTech Connect

Synthetic-aperture radar images of forest site near Manley Hot Springs (64[degree]N, 151[degree]W), Alaska, were collected between August 1991 and December 1991, day and night, every 3 days, at C-band frequency ([lambda] = 5.7 cm), vertical receive and transmit polarization, by the European Space Agency First Remote Sensing Satellite, ERS-1. During the same period, air and soil temperatures and dielectric and gravimetric moisture properties of the forest canopy and forest floor were monitored in three forest stands dominated, respectively, by black spruce (Picea mariana), white spruce (Picea glauca), and balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera). The calibrated ERS-1 radar backscatter values, [sigma][degree], of the forest stands are shown to exhibit a pronounced temporal pattern, with little separability between tree species. The largest change in [sigma][degree], a 3-dB decrease almost independent of tree species, is observed in early winter when the soil and vegetation freeze. In the summer, temporal fluctuations in [sigma][degree] are about 1--2 dB in magnitude, depending on tree species. Diurnal variations in [sigma][degree] are as large as 2 dB during fall freeze-up, and less than 1 dB in summer and winter. These temporal variations in radar backscatter from the forest are interpreted using the MIMICS radar backscatter model and the in situ surface observations as due to changes in the dielectric properties of the forest floor and forest canopy induced by precipitation (summer), drought (fall), and freezing (fall-winter) events. In winter, [sigma][degree] increases across the entire landscape, probably because of volume scattering from large depth hoar ice crystals forming in the snow pack.

Rignot, E.; Way, J.B.; McDonald, K. (Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States)); Viereck, L.; Williams, C.; Adams, P.; Payne, C.; Wood, W. (Inst. of Northern Forestry, Fairbanks, AK (United States)); Shi, J. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States))

1994-08-01

319

Monitoring forest succession in the NC Piedmont using a Landsat time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest successional stage, an indicator of compositional turnover and structural development in forest stands, is a central factor in efforts to quantify productivity and carbon sequestration, nutrient cycling, wildlife habitat and species diversity in forests. Despite its importance, only recently have advances in remote sensing and computer processing provided researchers with the synoptic view necessary for landscape-scale mapping of successional change. This research reports on results from the first segment of a multi-part project to ascertain the rate and distribution of structural development and compositional turnover in the North Carolina Piedmont. The Piedmont study site was selected for hosting a diversity of forest community types and possessing a recent history characterized by dynamic land cover transitions. In this study, a Landsat time series stack (LTSS) from 1984-2011 is used at a tri-annual time step to quantify landscape-scale forest successional processes using temporal trajectory analysis rather than space-for-time substitutions. After controlling for phenological noise in the LTSS trajectory by downscaling a AVHRR/MODIS-derived phenological profile, relative change in spectral values, rather than absolute radiometric values, is used to assess characteristic temporal signatures in spectral space that map onto successional processes. Model validation from CVS and Duke forest plot data confirm the utility of fitting nonlinear regression to a Tasseled Cap Angle time series as a means to monitor regeneration rates for disturbed forests that return to a closed canopy within the period. While results fail to find a consistent change pattern across the study site, spatial autocorrelation in summer increment NDVI change vectors indicate clustering of successional processes characterized by high rates of evergreen establishment in disturbed areas and a transition from evergreen to deciduous communities in closed-canopy forests.

Hakkenberg, C.

2013-12-01

320

The application of satellite data for the quantification of mangrove loss and coastal management in the Godavari estuary, East Coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mangrove formations of Godavari estuary are due to silting over many centuries. The estuary covers an area of 62,000 ha\\u000a of which dense Coringa mangrove forest spread in 6,600 ha. Satellite sensor data was used to detect change in the mangrove\\u000a cover for a period of 12 years (1992004). It was found that an area of about 1,250 ha

D. R. Satapathy; R. J. Krupadam; L. Pawan Kumar; S. R. Wate

2007-01-01

321

Application of spectral invariants for monitoring forests across multiple scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of canopy spectral invariants expresses the observation that simple algebraic combinations of leaf scattering and canopy reflectance spectra become wavelength independent and determine two variables -- the recollision probability and directional escape factor. They quantify two events: a photon scattered from a phytoelement will recollide or escape the canopy in a given direction, respectively. The spectral invariants specify an accurate relationship between spectral responses of vegetation to incident solar radiation from leaf to canopy scales and thus provide a framework through which structural information can be maintained in a self-consistent manner across multiple scales. The objectives of this research are to (1) explain the physics behind the correlation between multi-angle spectral data and canopy height; (2) develop a physically based approach for forest classification from hyperspectral data; (3) investigate the sensitivity of canopy reflectance to leaf nitrogen concentration. Analyses of Airborne Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (AirMISR) and airborne Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) data suggest a dominant role of the escape factor in the sensitivity of multi-angle spectral data to canopy height. Analyses of ground and Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data suggest that the total escape probability (one minus recollision probability) varies as a power function with the exponent related to the number of nested hierarchical levels present in satellite pixels. Its base is a geometrical mean of local total escape probabilities and accounts for the cumulative effect of canopy structure over a wide range of scales. The escape factor to the total escape probability ratio becomes independent of the number of hierarchical levels and is a function of tree crown and stand geometry. These properties allow for the natural separation of forest types based on the location of points on the total escape probability versus the ratio log- log plane. Analyses of ground data on leaf nitrogen, leaf and canopy structure as well as AVIRIS and LVIS data suggest that both Near InfraRed (NIR) canopy reflectance and canopy nitrogen are positively correlated with canopy structure. This finding suggests that structure is the dominant factor causing the observed positive correlation between canopy NIR reflectance and nitrogen concentration for data examined.

Schull, Mitchell A.

322

The use of microwave SAR images for forest decline monitoring in mountainous area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, an attempt to use microwave images for the monitoring of forest deterioration in the Sudety Mountains has been made. For Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images acquired over mountainous area the removal of geometric and radiometric distortions should precede a thematic interpretation. In order to control the influence of digital terrain model on the accuracy of geocoding, a method of fast and precise rectification of SAR images to Polish topographic maps was elaborated. The dependence of the corrected and calibrated signal on the local incidence angle for different land cover forms was investigated. The classification aimed on a discrimination of forest from non forest area has been performed. The achieved accuracy depends on the choice of multi-temporal microwave data according to the varying moisture conditions.

Stankiewicz, K.

323

Evaluation of a regional monitoring program's statistical power to detect temporal trends in forest health indicators.  

PubMed

Forests are socioeconomically and ecologically important ecosystems that are exposed to a variety of natural and anthropogenic stressors. As such, monitoring forest condition and detecting temporal changes therein remain critical to sound public and private forestland management. The National Parks Service's Vital Signs monitoring program collects information on many forest health indicators, including species richness, cover by exotics, browse pressure, and forest regeneration. We applied a mixed-model approach to partition variability in data for 30 forest health indicators collected from several national parks in the eastern United States. We then used the estimated variance components in a simulation model to evaluate trend detection capabilities for each indicator. We investigated the extent to which the following factors affected ability to detect trends: (a) sample design: using simple panel versus connected panel design, (b) effect size: increasing trend magnitude, (c) sample size: varying the number of plots sampled each year, and (d) stratified sampling: post-stratifying plots into vegetation domains. Statistical power varied among indicators; however, indicators that measured the proportion of a total yielded higher power when compared to indicators that measured absolute or average values. In addition, the total variability for an indicator appeared to influence power to detect temporal trends more than how total variance was partitioned among spatial and temporal sources. Based on these analyses and the monitoring objectives of the Vital Signs program, the current sampling design is likely overly intensive for detecting a 5 % trendyear(-1) for all indicators and is appropriate for detecting a 1 % trendyear(-1) in most indicators. PMID:25028183

Perles, Stephanie J; Wagner, Tyler; Irwin, Brian J; Manning, Douglas R; Callahan, Kristina K; Marshall, Matthew R

2014-09-01

324

Away-field advantage: mangrove seedlings grow best in litter from other mangrove species  

E-print Network

1880 Away-field advantage: mangrove seedlings grow best in litter from other mangrove species and mixture status influenced mangrove seedling growth, biomass allocation, and stoichiometry, we performed mesocosm experiments. Two species of mangrove seedlings, Avicennia germinans, black mangrove and Rhizo

Chapman, Samantha

325

Tropical forest cover change in the 1990s and options for future monitoring.  

PubMed

Despite the importance of the world's humid tropical forests, our knowledge concerning their rates of change remains limited. Two recent programmes (FAO 2000 Forest Resources Assessment and TREES II), exploiting the global imaging capabilities of Earth observing satellites, have recently been completed to provide information on the dynamics of tropical forest cover. The results from these independent studies show a high degree of conformity and provide a good understanding of trends at the pan-tropical level. In 1990 there were some 1150 million ha of tropical rain forest with the area of the humid tropics deforested annually estimated at 5.8 million ha (approximately twice the size of Belgium). A further 2.3 million ha of humid forest is apparently degraded annually through fragmentation, logging and/or fires. In the sub-humid and dry tropics, annual deforestation of tropical moist deciduous and tropical dry forests comes to 2.2 and 0.7 million ha, respectively. Southeast Asia is the region where forests are under the highest pressure with an annual change rate of -0.8 to -0.9%. The annual area deforested in Latin America is large, but the relative rate (-0.4 to -0.5%) is lower, owing to the vast area covered by the remaining Amazonian forests. The humid forests of Africa are being converted at a similar rate to those of Latin America (-0.4 to -0.5% per year). During this period, secondary forests have also been established, through re-growth on abandoned land and forest plantations, but with different ecological, biophysical and economic characteristics compared with primary forests. These trends are significant in all regions, but the extent of new forest cover has proven difficult to establish. These results, as well as the lack of more detailed knowledge, clearly demonstrate the need to improve sound scientific evidence to support policy. The two projects provide useful guidance for future monitoring efforts in the context of multilateral environmental agreements and of international aid, trade and development partnerships. Methodologically, the use of high-resolution remote sensing in representative samples has been shown to be cost-effective. Close collaboration between tropical institutions and inter-governmental organizations proved to be a fruitful arrangement in the different projects. To properly assist decision-making, monitoring and assessments should primarily be addressed at the national level, which also corresponds to the ratification level of the multilateral environmental agreements. The Forest Resources Assessment 2000 deforestation statistics from countries are consistent with the satellite-based estimates in Asia and America, but are significantly different in Africa, highlighting the particular need for long-term capacity-building activities in this continent. PMID:15814351

Mayaux, Philippe; Holmgren, Peter; Achard, Frdric; Eva, Hugh; Stibig, Hans-Jrgen; Branthomme, Anne

2005-02-28

326

Influence of QA/QC procedures on non-sampling error in deposition monitoring in forests.  

PubMed

A Working Ring Test (WRT) was organised in the framework of the EU Regulation (EC) No 2152/2003 ("Forest Focus") and of the UN/ECE Program "ICP Forests" to evaluate the overall performance of the laboratories monitoring atmospheric deposition and soil solution in European Forests. Seven natural samples of atmospheric deposition and soil solutions and 5 synthetic solutions were distributed to 52 laboratories, which analysed them using their routine methods. Thirteen variables are considered in this paper: pH, conductivity, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, ammonium, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, total alkalinity, total dissolved nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon. For each variable, the relative standard deviation of the results was evaluated, after outlier rejection, to estimate the analytical error of the measurements. The results are evaluated considering the Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) procedure included in the ICP Forests monitoring manual: consistency check of the data and use of control charts and internal standards. A Data Quality Objective (DQO) is defined for each of the variables and the number of data meeting the DQOs are discussed in relation to the QA/QC procedures adopted. Although 38% of the results did not meet the DQO, the laboratories adopting QA/QC procedures produced a larger proportion of results meeting the objective and a consistent part of the outliers could be detected a posteriori checking analyses consistence. PMID:19557224

Marchetto, Aldo; Mosello, Rosario; Tartari, Gabriele; Tornimbeni, Ombretta; Derome, John; Derome, Kirsti; Sorsa, Pia; Knig, Nils; Clarke, Nicholas; Ulrich, Erwin; Kowalska, Anna

2009-04-01

327

A case for using Plethodontid salamanders for monitoring biodiversity and ecosystem integrity of North American forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Terrestrial salamanders of the family P!ethodontidae have unique attributes that make them excellent indicators of biodiversity and ecosystem integrity in forested habitats. Their longevity, small territory size, site fidelity, sensitivity to natural and anthropogenic perturbations, tendency to occur in high densities, and low sampling costs mean that counts of plethodontid salamanders provide numerous advantages over counts of other North American forest organisms for indicating environmental change. Furthermore, they are tightly linked physiologically to microclimatic and successional processes that influence the distribution and abundance of numerous other hydrophilic but difficult-to-study forest-dwelling plants and animals. Ecosystem processes such as moisture cycling, food-web dynamics, and succession, with their related structural and microclimatic variability, all affect forest biodiversity and have been shown to affect salamander populations as well. We determined the variability associated with sampling for plethodontid salamanders by estimating the coefficient of variation (CV) from available time-series data. The median coefficient of variation indicated that variation in counts of individuals among studies was much lower in plethodonticis (27%) than in lepidoptera (93%), passerine birds (57%), small mammals (69%), or other amphibians (37-46%), which means plethodontid salamanders provide an important statistical advantage over other species for monitoring long-term forest health.

Welsh, H.H., Jr.; Droege, S.

2001-01-01

328

Comparison of line transects and point counts for monitoring spring migration in forested wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared the efficacy of 400-m line transects and sets of three point counts at detecting avian richness and abundance in bottomland hardwood forests and intensively managed cottonwood (Populus deltoides) plantations within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. We detected more species and more individuals on line transects than on three point counts during 218 paired surveys conducted between 24 March and 3 June, 1996 and 1997. Line transects also yielded more birds per unit of time, even though point counts yielded higher estimates of relative bird density. In structurally more-complex bottomland hardwood forests, we detected more species and individuals on line transects, but in more-open cottonwood plantations, transects surpassed point counts only at detecting species within 50 m of the observer. Species richness and total abundance of Nearctic-Neotropical migrants and temperate migrants were greater on line transects within bottomland hardwood forests. Within cottonwood plantations, however, only species richness of Nearctic-Neotropical migrants and total abundance of temperate migrants were greater on line transects. Because we compared survey techniques using the same observer, within the same forest stand on a given day, we assumed that the technique yielding greater estimates of avian species richness and total abundance per unit of effort is superior. Thus, for monitoring migration within hardwood forests of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, we recommend using line transects instead of point counts.

Wilson, R.R.; Twedt, D.J.; Elliott, A.B.

2000-01-01

329

Food sources of macro-invertebrates in an important mangrove ecosystem of Vietnam determined by dual stable isotope signatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dual stable isotope signatures (?13C and ?15N) were applied to determine the contribution of mangrove materials and other organic carbon sources to the invertebrate community in an ecologically important mangrove ecosystem of Vietnam. We have analyzed 181 specimens of 30 invertebrate species and found ?13C and ?15N ranging from - 14.5 to - 26.8 and from 1.3 to 12.1, respectively. From taxa measured for stable isotopes, polychaete, gastropods, bivalves, and grapsid crabs living in mangrove forest showed relative low ?13C values, while fiddler crabs inhabiting in the land-water ecotone showed the highest ?13C values. The ?13C showed that just a few mangrove inhabitants directly relied on the mangrove materials. The wide ranges of ?13C and ?15N signatures indicated that the invertebrates utilized heterogeneous diets, comprising benthic microalgae, marine phytoplankton, particulate organic matter, sediment organic matter, mangrove detritus, and meiofauna and rotten animal tissues as the supplemental nutrient food sources. Moreover, the significant correlation between ?13C values and body sizes of invertebrates showed that snails Littoraria melanostoma and Terebralia sulcata, bivalve Glauconome virens, and portunid crab Scylla serrata exhibited ontogenetic shifts in diets. The present study showed that adjacent habitats such as tidal flat and mangrove creeks seem to contribute an important microalgal food resource for invertebrates and highlighted the need for conservations of mangrove forests and the adjacent habitats.

Tue, Nguyen Tai; Hamaoka, Hideki; Sogabe, Atsushi; Quy, Tran Dang; Nhuan, Mai Trong; Omori, Koji

2012-08-01

330

Mangrove removal in the belize cays: effects on mangrove-associated fish assemblages in the intertidal and subtidal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We investigated the effects of mangrove cutting on fish assemblages in Twin Cays, Belize, in two habitat types. We conducted visual censuses at two sites in adjoining undisturbed/disturbed (30%70% of shoreline fringe removed) sub-tidal fringing Rhizophora mangle Linnaeus, 1753. Observers recorded significantly more species and individuals in undisturbed sites, especially among smaller, schooling species (e.g., atherinids, clupeids), where densities were up to 200 times greater in undisturbed habitat. Multivariate analyses showed distinct species assemblages between habitats at both sites. In addition, extensive trapping with wire minnow traps within the intertidal zone in both undisturbed and disturbed fringing and transition (landward) mangrove forests was conducted. Catch rates were low: 638 individuals from 24 species over 563 trap-nights. Trap data, however, indicated that mangrove disturbance had minimal effect on species composition in either forest type (fringe/transition). Different results from the two methods (and habitat types) may be explained by two factors: (1) a larger and more detectable species pool in the subtidal habitat, with visual "access" to all species, and (2) the selective nature of trapping. Our data indicate that even partial clearing of shoreline and more landward mangroves can have a significant impact on local fish assemblages.

Taylor, D.S.; Reyier, E.A.; Davis, W.P.; McIvor, C.C.

2007-01-01

331

Assessment and monitoring of long-term forest cover changes in Odisha, India using remote sensing and GIS.  

PubMed

Deforestation and fragmentation are important concerns in managing and conserving tropical forests and have global significance. In the Indian context, in the last one century, the forests have undergone significant changes due to several policies undertaken by government as well as increased population pressure. The present study has brought out spatiotemporal changes in forest cover and variation in forest type in the state of Odisha (Orissa), India, during the last 75 years period. The mapping for the period of 1924-1935, 1975, 1985, 1995 and 2010 indicates that the forest cover accounts for 81,785.6 km(2) (52.5 %), 56,661.1 km(2) (36.4 %), 51,642.3 km(2) (33.2 %), 49,773 km(2) (32 %) and 48,669.4 km(2) (31.3 %) of the study area, respectively. The study found the net forest cover decline as 40.5 % of the total forest and mean annual rate of deforestation as 0.69 % year(-1) during 1935 to 2010. There is a decline in annual rate of deforestation during 1995 to 2010 which was estimated as 0.15 %. Forest type-wise quantitative loss of forest cover reveals large scale deforestation of dry deciduous forests. The landscape analysis shows that the number of forest patches (per 1,000) are 2.463 in 1935, 10.390 in 1975, 11.899 in 1985, 12.193 in 1995 and 15.102 in 2010, which indicates high anthropogenic pressure on the forests. The mean patch size (km(2)) of forest decreased from 33.2 in 1935 to 5.5 in 1975 and reached to 3.2 by 2010. The study demonstrated that monitoring of long term forest changes, quantitative loss of forest types and landscape metrics provides critical inputs for management of forest resources. PMID:22996824

Reddy, C Sudhakar; Jha, C S; Dadhwal, V K

2013-05-01

332

Automated In-Situ Laser Scanner for Monitoring Forest Leaf Area Index  

PubMed Central

An automated laser rangefinding instrument was developed to characterize overstorey and understorey vegetation dynamics over time. Design criteria were based on information needs within the statewide forest monitoring program in Victoria, Australia. The ground-based monitoring instrument captures the key vegetation structural information needed to overcome ambiguity in the estimation of forest Leaf Area Index (LAI) from satellite sensors. The scanning lidar instrument was developed primarily from low cost, commercially accessible components. While the 635 nm wavelength lidar is not ideally suited to vegetation studies, there was an acceptable trade-off between cost and performance. Tests demonstrated reliable range estimates to live foliage up to a distance of 60 m during night-time operation. Given the instrument's scan angle of 57.5 degrees zenith, the instrument is an effective tool for monitoring LAI in forest canopies up to a height of 30 m. An 18 month field trial of three co-located instruments showed consistent seasonal trends and mean LAI of between 1.32 to 1.56 and a temporal LAI variation of 8 to 17% relative to the mean. PMID:25196006

Culvenor, Darius S.; Newnham, Glenn J.; Mellor, Andrew; Sims, Neil C.; Haywood, Andrew

2014-01-01

333

Analysing ethnobotanical and fishery-related importance of mangroves of the East-Godavari Delta (Andhra Pradesh, India) for conservation and management purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangrove forests, though essentially common and wide-spread, are highly threatened. Local societies along with their knowledge about the mangrove also are endangered, while they are still underrepresented as scientific research topics. With the present study we document local utilization patterns, and perception of ecosystem change. We illustrate how information generated by ethnobiological research can be used to strengthen the management

F Dahdouh-Guebas; S Collin; D Lo Seen; P Rnnbck; D Depommier; T Ravishankar; N Koedam

2006-01-01

334

Jewel Scarabs (Chrysina sp.) in Honduras: Key Species for Cloud Forest Conservation Monitoring?  

PubMed Central

Jewel scarabs, beetles in the genus Chrysina Kirby (Coleoptera: Rutelinae: Scarabaeidae), receive their name from the bright, often gold, green elytra that reflect light like a precious stone. Jewel scarabs are commonly observed at light traps in Mesoamerican cloud forests, and their association with mountain forests makes them potentially interesting candidates for cloud forest conservation monitoring. The absence of survey protocols and identification tools, and the little ecological information available are barriers. In the present study, collection of Chrysina species assembled during biodiversity surveys by Operation Wallacea in Cusuco National Park (CNP), Honduras, were studied. The aim of this overview is to provide an easy to use identification tool for in the field, hopefully stimulating data collection on these beetles. Based on the data associated with the collection localities, elevation distribution of the species in the park was analyzed. The limited data points available were complemented with potential distribution areas generated with distribution models based on climate and elevation data. This study is aimed at initializing the development of a survey protocol for Chrysina species that can be used in cloud forest conservation monitoring throughout Central America. A list of Chrysina species recorded from Honduras so far is provided. The six identified and one unidentified species recorded from CNP are easy to identify in the field based on color and straightforward morphological characteristics. Literature research revealed ten species currently recorded from Honduras. This low species richness in comparison with surrounding Central American countries indicates the poor knowledge of this genus in Honduras. Chrysina species richness in CNP increases with elevation, thereby making the genus one of a few groups of organisms where this correlation is observed, and rendering it a suitable invertebrate representative for cloud forest habitats in Central America. PMID:23901802

Jocque, M.; Vanhove, M.P.M.; Creedy, T.J.; Burdekin, O.; Nuez-Mio, J.M.; Casteels, J.

2013-01-01

335

Report Evaluates Importance of Coral Reefs and Mangroves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirty percent of the world's coral reefs are seriously damaged, and possibly no pristine reefs remain, according to a 24 January report by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) issued in the wake of the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. ``The Indian Ocean tsunami brought a lot of attention to coral reefs and mangroves,'' said Sue Wells, lead author of the report, In the Front Line: Shoreline Protection and other Ecosystem Services from Mangroves and Coral Reefs. ``Were they badly damaged? Did they play a role in buffering damage on shore?''

Kumar, Mohi

2006-02-01

336

Natural Products from Mangrove Actinomycetes  

PubMed Central

Mangroves are woody plants located in tropical and subtropical intertidal coastal regions. The mangrove ecosystem is becoming a hot spot for natural product discovery and bioactivity survey. Diverse mangrove actinomycetes as promising and productive sources are worth being explored and uncovered. At the time of writing, we report 73 novel compounds and 49 known compounds isolated from mangrove actinomycetes including alkaloids, benzene derivatives, cyclopentenone derivatives, dilactones, macrolides, 2-pyranones and sesquiterpenes. Attractive structures such as salinosporamides, xiamycins and novel indolocarbazoles are highlighted. Many exciting compounds have been proven as potential new antibiotics, antitumor and antiviral agents, anti-fibrotic agents and antioxidants. Furthermore, some of their biosynthetic pathways have also been revealed. This review is an attempt to consolidate and summarize the past and the latest studies on mangrove actinomycetes natural product discovery and to draw attention to their immense potential as novel and bioactive compounds for marine drugs discovery. PMID:24798926

Xu, Dong-Bo; Ye, Wan-Wan; Han, Ying; Deng, Zi-Xin; Hong, Kui

2014-01-01

337

Monitoring thirty years of land cover change: Secondary forest succession in the Artvin Forest planning unit of Northeastern Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a major topic in forest ecosystems, determining plant successional changes is crucial to understanding the vegetation dynamics, composition and environmental disturbance of forest landscapes. This study is designed to evaluate the consequences of human and natural impacts on changes in secondary forest succession land cover from 1972 to 2002 in the Artvin Forest Planning Unit, in NE Turkey. This

Gnay akir; Fatih Sivrikaya; Salih Terzioglu; Sedat Keles; Emin Zeki Baskent

2007-01-01

338

Effects of nutrient enrichment on mangrove leaf litter decomposition.  

PubMed

Nutrient enrichment of mangroves, a common phenomenon along densely populated coastlines, may negatively affect mangrove ecosystems by modifying internal carbon and nutrient cycling. The decomposition of litter exerts a strong influence on these processes and is potentially modified by eutrophication. This study describes effects of N and P enrichment on litter decomposition rate and mineralisation/immobilisation patterns. By making use of reciprocal litter transplantation experiments among fertiliser treatments, it was tested if nutrient addition primarily acts on the primary producers (i.e. changes in litter quantity and quality) or on the microbial decomposers (i.e. changes in nutrient limitation for decomposition). Measurements were done in two mangrove forests where primary production was either limited by N or by P, which had been subject to at least 5years of experimental N and P fertilisation. Results of this study indicated that decomposers were always N-limited regardless of the limitation of the primary producers. This leads to a differential nutrient limitation between decomposers and primary producers in sites where mangrove production was P-limited. In these sites, fertilisation with P caused litter quality to change, resulting in a higher decomposition rate. This study shows that direct effects of fertilisation on decomposition through an effect on decomposer nutrient availability might be non-significant, while the indirect effects through modifying litter quality might be quite substantial in mangroves. Our results show no indication that eutrophication increases decomposition without stimulating primary production. Therefore we do not expect a decline in carbon sequestration as a result of eutrophication of mangrove ecosystems. PMID:25497680

Keuskamp, Joost A; Hefting, Mariet M; Dingemans, Bas J J; Verhoeven, Jos T A; Feller, Ilka C

2015-03-01

339

Use of Current 2010 Forest Disturbance Monitoring Products for the Conterminous United States in Aiding a National Forest Threat Early Warning System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation discusses contributions of near real time (NRT) MODIS forest disturbance detection products for the conterminous United States to an emerging national forest threat early warning system (EWS). The latter is being developed by the USDA Forest Service s Eastern and Western Environmental Threat Centers with help from NASA Stennis Space Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Building off work done in 2009, this national and regional forest disturbance detection and viewing capability of the EWS employs NRT MODIS NDVI data from the USGS eMODIS group and historical NDVI data from standard MOD13 products. Disturbance detection products are being computed for 24 day composites that are refreshed every 8 days. Products for 2010 include 42 dates of the 24 day composites. For each compositing date, we computed % change in forest maximum NDVI products for 2010 with respect to each of three historical baselines of 2009, 2007-2009, and 2003-2009,. The three baselines enable one to view potential current, recent, and longer term forest disturbances. A rainbow color table was applied to each forest change product so that potential disturbances (NDVI drops) were identified in hot color tones and growth (NDVI gains) in cold color tones. Example products were provided to end-users responsible for forest health monitoring at the Federal and State levels. Large patches of potential forest disturbances were validated based on comparisons with available reference data, including Landsat and field survey data. Products were posted on two internet mapping systems for US Forest Service internal and collaborator use. MODIS forest disturbance detection products were computed and posted for use in as little as 1 day after the last input date of the compositing period. Such products were useful for aiding aerial disturbance detection surveys and for assessing disturbance persistence on both inter- and intra-annual scales. Multiple 2010 forest disturbance events were detected across the nation, including damage from ice storms, tornadoes, caterpillars, bark beetles, and wildfires. This effort enabled improved NRT forest disturbance monitoring capabilities for this nation-wide forest threat EWS.

Graham, William D.; Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

2010-01-01

340

Use of Current 2010 Forest Disturbance Monitoring Products for the Conterminous United States in Aiding a National Forest Threat Early Warning System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation discusses contributions of near real time (NRT) MODIS forest disturbance detection products for the conterminous United States to an emerging national forest threat early warning system (EWS). The latter is being developed by the USDA Forest Services Eastern and Western Environmental Threat Centers with help from NASA Stennis Space Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Building off work done in 2009, this national and regional forest disturbance detection and viewing capability of the EWS employs NRT MODIS NDVI data from the USGS eMODIS group and historical NDVI data from standard MOD13 products. Disturbance detection products are being computed for 24 day composites that are refreshed every 8 days. Products for 2010 include 42 dates of the 24 day composites. For each compositing date, we computed % change in forest maximum NDVI products for 2010 with respect to each of three historical baselines of 2009, 2007-2009, and 2003-2009. The three baselines enable one to view potential current, recent, and longer term forest disturbances. A rainbow color table was applied to each forest change product so that potential disturbances (NDVI drops) were identified in hot color tones and growth (NDVI gains) in cold color tones. Example products were provided to end-users responsible for forest health monitoring at the Federal and State levels. Large patches of potential forest disturbances were validated based on comparisons with available reference data, including Landsat and field survey data. Products were posted on two internet mapping systems for US Forest Service internal and collaborator use. MODIS forest disturbance detection products were computed and posted for use in as little as 1 day after the last input date of the compositing period. Such products were useful for aiding aerial disturbance detection surveys and for assessing disturbance persistence on both inter- and intra-annual scales. Multiple 2010 forest disturbance events were detected across the nation, including damage from ice storms, tornados, caterpillars, bark beetles, and wildfires. This effort enabled improved NRT forest disturbance monitoring capabilities for this nation-wide forest threat EWS.

Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

2010-12-01

341

Mangrove expansion and rainfall patterns in Moreton Bay, Southeast Queensland, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in rainfall pattern have been suggested as a mechanism for the landward incursion of mangrove into salt marsh. The aim of the research was to assess the relationship between rainfall patterns and the spatial distribution of mangrove forests at study sites in Moreton Bay, Southeast Queensland, Australia, over a 32-year period from 1972 to 2004. To identify periods of relatively consistent rainfall patterns points at which rainfall patterns changed (change-points) were identified using the non-parametric Pettitt-Mann-Whitney-Statistic and the cumulative sum technique. The change-points were then used to define the temporal periods over which changes to mangrove area were assessed. Both mangrove and salt marsh area were measured by digitizing aerial photographs acquired in 1972, 1990 (the year with the most significant change-point), and 2004. The rates of change in mangrove area pre-1990 (a wetter period) and post-1990 (a drier period) were estimated. A significant positive relationship was demonstrated between rainfall variables and landward mangrove expansion, but not for seaward expansion. We concluded that rainfall variability is one of the principal factors influencing the rate of upslope encroachment of mangrove. However, the rate of expansion may vary from site to site due to site-specific geomorphological and hydrological characteristics and the level of disturbance in the catchment.

Eslami-Andargoli, L.; Dale, Per; Sipe, N.; Chaseling, J.

2009-11-01

342

Monitoring Regional Forest Disturbances across the US with Near Real Time MODIS NDVI Products included in the ForWarn Forest Threat Early Warning System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest threats across the US have become increasingly evident in recent years. These include regionally extensive disturbances (e.g., from drought, bark beetle outbreaks, and wildfires) that can occur across multiyear durations and result in extensive forest mortality. In addition, forests can be subject to ephemeral, sometimes yearly defoliation from various insects and types of storm damage. After prolonged severe disturbance, signs of forest recovery can vary in terms of satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values. The increased extent and threat of forest disturbances in part led to the enactment of the 2003 Healthy Forest Restoration Act, which mandated that a national forest threat Early Warning System (EWS) be deployed. In response, the US Forest Service collaborated with NASA, DOE Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the USGS Eros Data Center to build the near real time ForWarn forest threat EWS for monitoring regionally evident forest disturbances, starting on-line operations in 2010. Given the diversity of disturbance types, severities, and durations, ForWarn employs multiple historical baselines used with current NDVI to derive a suite of six nationwide 'weekly' forest change products. ForWarn uses daily 232 meter MODIS Aqua and Terra satellite NDVI data, including MOD13 products for deriving historical baseline NDVIs and eMODIS products for compiling current NDVI. Separately pre-processing the current and historical NDVIs, the Time Series Product Tool and the Phenological Parameters Estimation Tool are used to temporally reduce noise, fuse, and aggregate MODIS NDVIs into 24 day composites refreshed every 8 days with 46 dates of forest change products per year. The 24 day compositing interval typically enables new disturbances to be detected, while minimizing the frequency of residual atmospheric contamination. ForWarn's three standard forest change products compare current NDVI to that from the previous year, previous 3 years, and all previous years since 2000. Other forest change products added in 2013 include one for quicker disturbance detection and two others that adjust for seasonal fluctuations in normal vegetation phenology. This product suite and ForWarn's geospatial data viewer allow end users to view and assess disturbance dynamics for many regionally evident biotic and abiotic forest disturbances throughout a given current year. ForWarn's change products are also being used for forest change trend analysis and for developing regional forest overstory mortality products. They are used to alert forest health specialists about new regional forest disturbances. Such alerts also typically consider available Landsat, aerial, and ground data as well as communications with forest health specialists and previous experience. ForWarn products have been used to detect and track many types of regional disturbances for multiple forest types, including defoliation from caterpillars and severe storms, as well as mortality from both biotic and abiotic agents (e.g., bark beetles, drought, fire, anthropogenic clearing). ForWarn provides forest change products that could be combined with other geospatial data on forest biomass to help assess forest disturbance carbon impacts within the conterminous US.

Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, J.; Norman, S. P.

2013-12-01

343

Sea level and turbidity controls on mangrove soil surface elevation change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increases in sea level are a threat to seaward fringing mangrove forests if levels of inundation exceed the physiological tolerance of the trees; however, tidal wetlands can keep pace with sea level rise if soil surface elevations can increase at the same pace as sea level rise. Sediment accretion on the soil surface and belowground production of roots are proposed to increase with increasing sea level, enabling intertidal habitats to maintain their position relative to mean sea level, but there are few tests of these predictions in mangrove forests. Here we used variation in sea level and the availability of sediments caused by seasonal and inter-annual variation in the intensity of La Nina-El Nino to assess the effects of increasing sea level on surface elevation gains and contributing processes (accretion on the surface, subsidence and root growth) in mangrove forests. We found that soil surface elevation increased with mean sea level (which varied over 250mm during the study) and with turbidity at sites where fine sediment in the water column is abundant. In contrast, where sediments were sandy, rates of surface elevation gain were high, but not significantly related to variation in turbidity, and were likely to be influenced by other factors that deliver sand to the mangrove forest. Root growth was not linked to soil surface elevation gains, although it was associated with reduced shallow subsidence, and therefore may contribute to the capacity of mangroves to keep pace with sea level rise. Our results indicate both surface (sedimentation) and subsurface (root growth) processes can influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with sea level rise within the same geographic location, and that current models of tidal marsh responses to sea level rise capture the major feature of the response of mangroves where fine, but not coarse, sediments are abundant.

Lovelock, Catherine E.; Adame, Maria Fernanda; Bennion, Vicki; Hayes, Matthew; Reef, Ruth; Santini, Nadia; Cahoon, Donald R.

2015-02-01

344

Rapid Losses of Surface Elevation following Tree Girdling and Cutting in Tropical Mangroves  

PubMed Central

The importance of mangrove forests in carbon sequestration and coastal protection has been widely acknowledged. Large-scale damage of these forests, caused by hurricanes or clear felling, can enhance vulnerability to erosion, subsidence and rapid carbon losses. However, it is unclear how small-scale logging might impact on mangrove functions and services. We experimentally investigated the impact of small-scale tree removal on surface elevation and carbon dynamics in a mangrove forest at Gazi bay, Kenya. The trees in five plots of a Rhizophora mucronata (Lam.) forest were first girdled and then cut. Another set of five plots at the same site served as controls. Treatment induced significant, rapid subsidence (?32.18.4 mm yr?1 compared with surface elevation changes of +4.21.4 mm yr?1 in controls). Subsidence in treated plots was likely due to collapse and decomposition of dying roots and sediment compaction as evidenced from increased sediment bulk density. Sediment effluxes of CO2 and CH4 increased significantly, especially their heterotrophic component, suggesting enhanced organic matter decomposition. Estimates of total excess fluxes from treated compared with control plots were 25.37.4 tCO2 ha?1 yr?1 (using surface carbon efflux) and 35.676.9 tCO2 ha?1 yr?1 (using surface elevation losses and sediment properties). Whilst such losses might not be permanent (provided cut areas recover), observed rapid subsidence and enhanced decomposition of soil sediment organic matter caused by small-scale harvesting offers important lessons for mangrove management. In particular mangrove managers need to carefully consider the trade-offs between extracting mangrove wood and losing other mangrove services, particularly shoreline stabilization, coastal protection and carbon storage. PMID:25244646

Lang'at, Joseph Kipkorir Sigi; Kairo, James G.; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Bouillon, Steven; Skov, Martin W.; Waldron, Susan; Huxham, Mark

2014-01-01

345

(abstract) Monitoring Seasonal Change in Taiga Forests Using ERS-1 SAR Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensitivity of radar backscatter to the dielectric and geometric character of forested regions suggests significant changes in backscatter are expected with season due to freezing temperatures, snow, wind, leaf fall, and drought. The first European Remote Sensing Satellite, ERS-1, offers a unique opportunity to monitor a complete seasonal cycle for the Alaskan taiga forest ecosystem with synthetic aperture radar. During the 3-day repeat Commissioning Phase of ERS-1, from August 1991to December 1991, ERS-1 SAR data were collected in the region of Manley Hot Springs, Alaska, along the Tanana River, west of Fairbanks. In parallel with the SAR data collection, meteorological data from three weather stations positioned in three forest stands were collected continuously along with in situ measurements of the dielectric and moisture properties of the canopy and of ground cover which were collected during each overflight. The in situ data were collected in floodplain forest stands dominated by balsam poplar, white spruce, and black spruce. These results from the Commissioning Phase as well as preliminary results from the 35-day Repeat Phase will be presented.

Way, JoBea; Rignot, Eric; McDonald, Kyle; Viereck, Leslie; Williams, Cynthia; Adams, Phyllis; Payne, Cheryl; Wood, William

1993-01-01

346

Near real-time monitoring systems for adaptive management and improved forest governance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The destruction and degradation of the world's forests from deforestation, illegal logging and fire has wide-ranging environmental and economic impacts, including biodiversity loss, the degradation of ecosystem services and the emission of greenhouse gases. In an effort to strengthen local capacity to respond to these threats, Conservation International has developed a suite of near real-time satellite monitoring systems generating daily alerts, maps and reports of forest fire, fire risk, deforestation and degradation that are used by national and sub-national government agencies, NGO's, scientists, communities, and the media to respond to and report on threats to forest resources. Currently, the systems support more than 1000 subscribers from 45 countries, focusing on Madagascar, Indonesia, Bolivia and Peru. This presentation will explore the types of innovative applications users have found for these data, challenges they've encountered in data acquisition and accuracy, and feedback they've given on the usefulness of these systems for REDD+ implementation, protected areas management and improved forest governance.;

Musinsky, J.; Tabor, K.; Cano, A.

2012-12-01

347

DOES THE AUTECOLOGY OF THE MANGROVE RIVULUS FISH (RIVULUS MARMORATUS) REFLECT A PARADIGM FOR MANGROVE ECOSYSTEM SENSITIVITY?  

EPA Science Inventory

The killifish Rivulus marmoratus, mangrove rivulus, represents the one of the two potentially truly "mangrove dependent" fish species in western Atlantic mangrove ecosystems. he distribution of this species closely parallels the range of red mangroves. hese plants and fish exhibi...

348

Characterization of salt-adapted secreted lignocellulolytic enzymes from the mangrove fungus Pestalotiopsis sp.  

PubMed

Fungi are important for biomass degradation processes in mangrove forests. Given the presence of sea water in these ecosystems, mangrove fungi are adapted to high salinity. Here we isolate Pestalotiopsis sp. NCi6, a halotolerant and lignocellulolytic mangrove fungus of the order Xylariales. We study its lignocellulolytic enzymes and analyse the effects of salinity on its secretomes. De novo transcriptome sequencing and assembly indicate that this fungus possesses of over 400 putative lignocellulolytic enzymes, including a large fraction involved in lignin degradation. Proteomic analyses of the secretomes suggest that the presence of salt modifies lignocellulolytic enzyme composition, with an increase in the secretion of xylanases and cellulases and a decrease in the production of oxidases. As a result, cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis is enhanced but lignin breakdown is reduced. This study highlights the adaptation to salt of mangrove fungi and their potential for biotechnological applications. PMID:23651998

Arfi, Yonathan; Chevret, Didier; Henrissat, Bernard; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Levasseur, Anthony; Record, Eric

2013-01-01

349

Multitemporal analysis of landscape metrics for monitoring forested patterns in coastal and mountainous areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of forested areas for the maintaining of an acceptable landscape balance is crucial. As an example, they contribute to higher biodiversity levels directly and to cleaner fluvial waters indirectly, thus, the degradation of such ecosystems has strong repercussions on many ecological processes. In order to preserve their natural stability, monitoring forest temporal dynamics is very important for a correct management, particularly, in fragile Mediterranean environments that are highly vulnerable to both natural and human-induced perturbations. For analysing the evolution of forested patterns, especially in areas with a strong human presence, landscape metrics are a basilar tool since they allow for evaluating the structure of landscape patterns at different spatio-temporal scales and the relationship between natural environment and human environment. Starting from this premise, we selected a set of Landscape Metrics to evaluate the temporal dynamics of forested covers in two different environments (coastal and mountainous) located in Basilicata Region, Southern Italy. The first one (area A) is located along the Ionian coast and is largely characterized by evergreen forests; in such an area, even if many sites are protected by the European Community (SCI), forests are subjected to a strong incidence of human activities mainly linked to agriculture and tourism as well as to frequent fire events and coastal erosion processes that favour salt-water intrusion. The second one (area B) is a high heterogeneous mountainous area, which also comprehends alluvial planes. The particular configuration of the territory allows for the presence of a very rich faunal and vegetation biodiversity; thus, it is partially under the protection of a National Park, but there are also many critical anthropical activities (e.g. oil drilling, agriculture, etc.). The landscape ecology analyses were performed on multi temporal land cover maps, obtained from hybrid classifications of a time series of Landsat-TM subscenes: for area A, we used five images covering the period 1987-2006; and for area B, three images covering the period 1993-1998. The analysis of landscape structure and dynamics were performed by elaborating metrics based on patch number, size, shape and arrangements of different land cover types. At landscape level, area A provided quite low levels of Evenness (SHEI<0,70) and Diversity (SHDI~1.0) for the analyzed period. Metrics at patch and class levels, particularly for patch dimensions (MPS), complexity (FRACT) and Interdispersion (IJI) showed a little expansion of the urban sites and no important changes for the large agricultural areas. On the contrary, for natural areas a process of fragmentation has been revealed for coniferous forests in the period 1987-1998 when they show an alternation with a less structured and herbaceous vegetation. For area B, the landscape level shows, in the studied period, stable high values of Evenness (SHEI>0.80) and medium values of Diversity (SHDI~1.8). Metrics for patch and class levels reveal, instead, an increment in size and complexity for anthropical vegetation and a decrement for natural forested areas (mainly beeches) accompanied by a high variability of the transitional areas located along the edges of forested sites. On the whole, the combined interpretation of metrics at different levels of landscape structure and at different time steps revealed an increasing trend of forest isolation and fragmentation, which can enhance their sensitivity. The obtained results for both areas suggest that the institution of protected areas is not a complete solution for the maintaining of forest ecosystems balance without a correct management of the surrounding areas. In order to increase the connectivity among forested patches and, more in general, to improve the ecosystem functionality, the ecological analysis of satellite time series represents an operative tool for an efficient intervention planning, such as the location of the most suitable sites for ecological restoration activities.

Carone, M. T.; Imbrenda, V.; Lanfredi, M.; Macchiato, M.; Simoniello, T.

2009-04-01

350

Belowground Dynamics in Mangrove Ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

MANGROVE ECOSYSTEMS Mangrove ecosystems are tropical/subtropical communities of primarily tree species that grow in the intertidal zone. These tidal communities are important coastal ecosystems that are valued for a variety of ecological and societal goods and services (fig. 1). Mangrove wetlands are important filters of materials moving between the land and sea, trapping sediment, nutrients, and pollutants in runoff from uplands and preventing their direct introduction into sensitive marine ecosystems such as seagrass beds and coral reefs. Mangroves serve as nursery grounds and refuge for a variety of organisms and are consequently vital to the biological productivity of coastal waters. Furthermore, because mangroves are highly resilient to disturbances such as hurricanes, they represent a self-sustaining, protective barrier for human populations living in the coastal zone. Mangrove ecosystems also contribute to shoreline stabilization through consolidation of unstable mineral sediments and peat formation. In order to help conserve mangrove ecoystems, scientists with the United States Geological Survey (USGS) at the National Wetlands Research Center are working to more fully understand the dynamics that impact these vital ecosystems.

McKee, Karen L.

2004-01-01

351

Monitoring Regional Forest Disturbances across the US with near Real Time MODIS NDVI Products Resident to the ForWarn Forest Threat Early Warning System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Forest threats across the US have become increasingly evident in recent years. Sometimes these have resulted in regionally evident disturbance progressions (e.g., from drought, bark beetle outbreaks, and wildfires) that can occur across multiyear durations and have resulted in extensive forest overstory mortality. In addition to stand replacement disturbances, other forests are subject to ephemeral, sometimes yearly defoliation from various insects and varying types and intensities of ephemeral damage from storms. Sometimes, after prolonged severe disturbance, signs of recovery in terms of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) can occur. The growing prominence and threat of forest disturbances in part have led to the formation and implementation of the 2003 Healthy Forest Restoration Act which mandated that national forest threat early warning system be developed and deployed. In response, the US Forest Service collaborated with NASA, DOE Oakridge National Laboratory, and the USGS Eros Data Center to build and roll-out the near real time ForWarn early warning system for monitoring regionally evident forest disturbances. Given the diversity of disturbance types, severities, and durations, ForWarn employs multiple historical baselines that are used with current NDVI to derive a suite of six forest change products that are refreshed every 8 days. ForWarn employs daily quarter kilometer MODIS NDVI data from the Aqua and Terra satellites, including MOD13 data for deriving historical baseline NDVIs and eMODIS 7 NDVI for compiling current NDVI. In doing so, the Time Series Product Tool and the Phenological Parameters Estimation Tool are used to temporally de-noise, fuse, and aggregate current and historical MODIS NDVIs into 24 day composites refreshed every 8 days with 46 dates of products per year. The 24 day compositing interval enables disturbances to be detected, while minimizing the frequency of residual atmospheric contamination. Forest change products are computed versus the previous 1, previous 3, and all previous years in the MODIS record for a given 24 day interval. Other "weekly" forest change products include one computed using an adaptive length compositing method for quicker detection of disturbances, two others that adjust for seasonal fluctuations in normal vegetation phenology (e.g., early versus late springs). This overall approach enables forest disturbance dynamics from a variety of regionally evident biotic and abiotic forest disturbances to be viewed and assessed through the calendar year. The change products are also being utilized for forest change trend analysis and for developing regional forest overstory mortality products. ForWarn's forest change products are used to alert forest health specialists about new forest disturbances. Such alerts are also typically based on available Landsat, aerial, and ground data as well as communications with forest health specialists and previous experience. ForWarn products have been used to detect and track many types of regional disturbances to multiple forest types, including defoliation from caterpillars and severe storms, as well as mortality from both biotic and abiotic agents (e.g., bark beetles, drought, fire, anthropogenic clearing). ForWarn offers products that could be combined with other geospatial data on forest biomass to assess forest disturbance carbon impacts within the conterminous US.

Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William W.; Gasser, Gerald

2013-01-01

352

The influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on mangrove dynamics over 60 years: The Somone Estuary, Senegal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although such ecosystems are fragile, this study shows that the anthropogenic damages inflicted on the mangrove forests of West Africa can be reversed over a relatively short time period if environmental conditions are favorable. The mangrove ecosystem of the microtidal Somone Estuary, Senegal, has undergone extreme changes during the last century. The area occupied by mangrove forest was estimated with a diachronic study by GIS for the period 1946-2006. Between 1946 and 1978, 85% of the area was progressively replaced by unvegetated mudflats in the intertidal zones and by barren area in the supratidal zones. Until 1990, this was mainly a result of traditional wood harvesting. The impact was exacerbated by the closing off of the estuary to the sea (1967-1969 and 1987) and by an extended drought (1970 onwards), which resulted in a lack of renewal of water, hypersalinization and acidification. The main factors controlling mangrove evolution in the Somone ecosystem, however, are anthropogenic. Until 1990, traditional wood cutting (for wood and oyster harvesting) was practiced by the local population. Between 1978 and 1989, a small area occupied by the mangroves was stabilized. Since 1992, a modification of mangrove logging and a new reforestation policy resulted in an exponential increase of mangrove area progressively replacing intertidal mudflats. Such success in the restoration of the ecosystem reforestation is supported by favorable environmental conditions: tidal flooding, groundwater influence, rainfall during the wet season, low net accretion rate of about 0.2-0.3 cm year -1, and a ban on the cutting of mangrove wood. The rate of mangrove loss from 1946 to 1978 was 44,000 m 2 year -1, but this has been offset by restoration efforts resulting in an increase in mangrove area from 1992 to 2006 of 63,000 m 2 year -1.

Sakho, Issa; Mesnage, Valrie; Deloffre, Julien; Lafite, Robert; Niang, Isabelle; Faye, Guilgane

2011-07-01

353

Prawn landings and their relationship with the extent of mangroves and shallow waters in western peninsular Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated changes in landings of all prawns, white prawns (mainly Penaeus merguiensis), mangrove extent, rainfall and the area of shallow water in western peninsular Malaysia. The most important state for both the landings of all prawns and white prawns was Perak where about 50% of all prawns and 35% of white prawns were landed. This is also the state with the largest, and most stable, extent of mangrove forest reserve (40?000 ha) and the largest area of shallow water (<5 m deep). Juvenile prawns from Perak may contribute to the landings of the nearby, adjacent states of Penang and Selangor, where the second highest landings for white prawns and total prawns, respectively, were found. The area of shallow water accounted for the greatest proportion of variation in landings of both all prawns and white prawns, and was the most significant variable fitted to multiple regressions of landings and coastal attributes (area of shallow water, mangrove area, length of coastline). Although there was a significant linear relationship between the landings of total prawns and mangrove area in both the 1980s and 1990s, this was not the case for the mangrove-dependent white prawns where a significant relationship was found only for the 1990s. Furthermore, landings of all prawns and white prawns in Selangor and Johor, where large losses of mangrove forest reserve have been recorded, appear to have been maintained or increased in the 1990s. The lack of a clear relationship between mangrove loss and prawn landings may be due to the migration of prawns from adjacent areas or that other attributes of mangroves, such as the length of mangrove-water interface, may be more important for the growth and survival of prawn populations than total area of mangroves.

Loneragan, N. R.; Ahmad Adnan, N.; Connolly, R. M.; Manson, F. J.

2005-04-01

354

Ground Monitoring Neotropical Dry Forests: A Sensor Network for Forest and Microclimate Dynamics in Semi-Arid Environments (Enviro-Net)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the face of unprecedented global change driven by anthropogenic pressure on natural systems it has become imperative to monitor and better understand potential shifts in ecosystem functioning and services from local to global scales. The utilization of automated sensors technologies offers numerous advantages over traditional on-site ecosystem surveying techniques and, as a result, sensor networks are becoming a powerful tool in environmental monitoring programs. Tropical forests, renowned for their biodiversity, are important regulators of land-atmosphere fluxes yet the seasonally dry tropical forests, which account for 40% of forested ecosystems in the American tropics, have been severely degraded over the past several decades and not much is known of their capacity to recover. With less than 1% of these forests protected, our ability to monitor the dynamics and quantify changes in the remaining primary and recovering secondary tropical dry forests is vital to understanding mechanisms of ecosystem stress responses and climate feedback with respect to annual productivity and desertification processes in the tropics. The remote sensing component of the Tropi-Dry: Human and Biophysical Dimensions of Tropical Dry Forests in the Americas research network supports a network of long-term tropical ecosystem monitoring platforms which focus on the dynamics of seasonally dry tropical forests in the Americas. With over 25 sensor station deployments operating across a latitudinal gradient in Mexico, Costa Rica, Brazil, and Argentina continuously collecting hyper-temporal sensory input based on standardized deployment parameters, this monitoring system is unique among tropical environments. Technologies used in the network include optical canopy phenology towers, understory wireless sensing networks, above and below ground microclimate stations, and digital cameras. Sensory data streams are uploaded to a cyber-infrastructure initiative, denominated Enviro-Net, for data storage, management, visualization, and retrieval for further analysis. The use of tower and ground-based optical sensor networks and meteorological monitoring instrumentation has proven effective in capturing seasonal growth patterns in primary and secondary forest stands. Furthermore, the observed trends in above and below ground microclimate variables are shown to closely correlate with in-situ vegetative indices (NDVI and EVI) across study sites. These long-term environmental sensory data streams provide valuable insights as to how these threatened semi-arid ecosystems regenerate after disturbances and how they respond to environmental stress such as climate change in the tropical and sub-tropical latitudes.

Rankine, C. J.; Snchez-Azofeifa, G.

2011-12-01

355

Forest bird monitoring protocol for strategic habitat conservation and endangered species management on O'ahu Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Island of O'ahu, Hawai'i  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the results of a pilot forest bird survey and a consequent forest bird monitoring protocol that was developed for the O'ahu Forest National Wildlife Refuge, O'ahu Island, Hawai'i. The pilot survey was conducted to inform aspects of the monitoring protocol and to provide a baseline with which to compare future surveys on the Refuge. The protocol was developed in an adaptive management framework to track bird distribution and abundance and to meet the strategic habitat conservation requirements of the Refuge. Funding for this research was provided through a Science Support Partnership grant sponsored jointly by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS).

Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Banko, Paul C.

2011-01-01

356

An Effort to Map and Monitor Baldcypress Forest Areas in Coastal Louisiana, Using Landsat, MODIS, and ASTER Satellite Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation discusses a collaborative project to develop, test, and demonstrate baldcypress forest mapping and monitoring products for aiding forest conservation and restoration in coastal Louisiana. Low lying coastal forests in the region are being negatively impacted by multiple factors, including subsidence, salt water intrusion, sea level rise, persistent flooding, hydrologic modification, annual insect-induced forest defoliation, timber harvesting, and conversion to urban land uses. Coastal baldcypress forests provide invaluable ecological services in terms of wildlife habitat, forest products, storm buffers, and water quality benefits. Before this project, current maps of baldcypress forest concentrations and change did not exist or were out of date. In response, this project was initiated to produce: 1) current maps showing the extent and location of baldcypress dominated forests; and 2) wetland forest change maps showing temporary and persistent disturbance and loss since the early 1970s. Project products are being developed collaboratively with multiple state and federal agencies. Products are being validated using available reference data from aerial, satellite, and field survey data. Results include Landsat TM- based classifications of baldcypress in terms of cover type and percent canopy cover. Landsat MSS data was employed to compute a circa 1972 classification of swamp and bottomland hardwood forest types. Landsat data for 1972-2010 was used to compute wetland forest change products. MODIS-based change products were applied to view and assess insect-induced swamp forest defoliation. MODIS, Landsat, and ASTER satellite data products were used to help assess hurricane and flood impacts to coastal wetland forests in the region.

Spruce, Joseph P.; Sader, Steve; Smoot, James

2012-01-01

357

Three Conservation Applications of Astronaut Photographs of Earth: Tidal Flat Loss (Japan), Elephant Impacts on Vegetation (Botswana), and Seagrass and Mangrove Monitoring (Australia)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA photographs taken from low Earth orbit can provide information relevant to conservation biology. This data source is now more accessible due to improvements in digitizing technology, Internet file transfer, and availability of image processing software. We present three examples of conservation-related projects that benefited from using orbital photographs. (1) A time series of photographs from the Space Shuttle showing wetland conversion in Japan was used as a tool for communicating about the impacts of tidal flat loss. Real-time communication with astronauts about a newsworthy event resulted in acquiring current imagery. These images and the availability of other high resolution digital images from NASA provided timely public information on the observed changes. (2) A Space Shuttle photograph of Chobe National Park in Botswana was digitally classified and analyzed to identify the locations of elephant-impacted woodland. Field validation later confirmed that areas identified on the image showed evidence of elephant impacts. (3) A summary map from intensive field surveys of seagrasses in Shoalwater Bay, Australia was used as reference data for a supervised classification of a digitized photograph taken from orbit. The classification was able to distinguish seagrasses, sediments and mangroves with accuracy approximating that in studies using other satellite remote sensing data. Orbital photographs are in the public domain and the database of nearly 400,000 photographs from the late 1960s to the present is available at a single searchable location on the Internet. These photographs can be used by conservation biologists for general information about the landscape and in quantitative applications.

Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Robinson, Julie A.; Minorukashiwagi; Maggiesuzuki; Duanenellis, M.; Bussing, Charles E.; Leelong, W. J.; McKenzie, Andlen J.

2000-01-01

358

An in-depth study of forest products industries in the Pacific Northwest  

E-print Network

Forest Institute Fellow, Zimbabwe #12;Southern Africa forest resources · Forests and woodland types in Southern Africa include; tropical rainforests, afromontane forests, mangrove forests, Zambezi teak forests to Australia and Mexico are grown commercially in tree farms across Southern Africa. · In 2000 total fuelwood

359

Forest Fire Monitoring with an Adaptive In-Network Aggregation Scheduling in Wireless Sensor Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a novel in-network aggregation scheduling scheme for forest fire monitoring in a wireless sensor network. This adaptively configures both the timeout and the collecting period according to the potential level of a fire occurrence. At normal times, the proposed scheme decreases a timeout that is a wait time for packets sent from child nodes and makes the collecting period longer. That reduces the dissipated energy of the sensor node. Conversely, the proposed scheme increases the timeout and makes the collecting period shorter during fire occurrences in order to achieve more accurate data aggregation and early fire detection.

Baek, Jang Woon; Nam, Young Jin; Seo, Dae-Wha

360

Monitoring of the effects of fire in North American boreal forests using ERS SAR imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ERS synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery represents a tool for monitoring the effects of fires in boreal regions. Fire-scar signatures from ERS SAR collected over Canada and Alaska are presented. The temporal variability exhibited throughout the growing season is underlined. The investigation showed that these signatures have a seasonal trend related to the patterns of soil moisture originating from snow melts in the spring and precipitation during the growing season. These signatures appear in all the regions of the North American boreal forest and remain visible for up to 13 years after a fire.

Kasischke, E. S.; French, N. H. F.; Bourgeau-Chavez, L. L.

1997-01-01

361

Annual report Sea Grant Developing a protocol to use remote sensing as a cost effective tool to monitor  

E-print Network

effective tool to monitor contamination of mangrove wetlands Principle Investigators Johannes H. Schellekens a protocol to use remote sensing as a cost effective tool to monitor contamination of mangrove wetlands" 2nd 2006. "Can we use remote sensing to monitor contamination in mangrove wetlands?" Sociedad Geologica

Gilbes, Fernando

362

Spatial and temporal patterns of methane dynamics in the tropical mangrove dominated estuary, NE coast of Bay of Bengal, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal and spatial variation of dissolved and atmospheric methane (CH 4) was measured in the estuaries of the Sundarban mangrove ecosystem from January to December 2003. This unique mangrove forest ecosystem (9630 km 2), a part of the Hooghly-Matla estuarine system (NE coast of Bay of Bengal) comprises about 3% of the total area of the world's mangroves. Dissolved methane concentrations in the mangrove dominated estuarine water (Muriganga, Saptamukhi and Thakuran) were observed between 11.0 and 129.0 nmol L - 1 with emission rates between 1.97 and 134.6 ?mol m - 2 d - 1 . Methane emission showed maximum rate during post-monsoon when phytoplankton reached blooming proportion. During post-monsoon materials transported from the mangrove forest could stimulate phytoplankton bloom when transparency of water column was increased and river input of nutrient was low. However, dissolved methane concentrations in the Hooghly estuary, the main river water flushing channel showed lower values between 10.3 and 59.25 nmol L - 1 with emission rates between 0.88 and 148.6 ?mol m - 2 d - 1 . Methane concentrations in the salinity gradient zone of the Hooghly estuary did not show any decreasing trend with increased salinity due to its lateral transport from the mangrove forest situated at the lower stretch of the estuary. Dissolved methane concentration in the pore water collected from the virgin mangrove forest showed a maximum concentration of 5769 nmol L - 1 which was considerably lower compared to that of coastal salt marsh, tidal fresh water wetland. This indicated intense oxidation or out competition of methanogenic bacteria by sulfate and nitrate reducing bacteria. Methane emission from the adjacent forest ecosystem (18.36 mmol m - 2 d - 1 ) was higher compared to that in the mangrove water. Considering methane emission rates from the aquatic and forest ecosystems, an area average rate of 47.28 10 5 mol km - 2 yr - 1 for Sundarban mangrove environment was obtained. Extrapolating over the global area covered by mangrove forest with area average soil methane emission rate without considering its emission from water could yield inaccurate estimation.

Biswas, H.; Mukhopadhyay, S. K.; Sen, S.; Jana, T. K.

2007-11-01

363

Monitoring the broadleaf fraction and canopy cover of boreal forests using spectral invariants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent method based on the spectral invariants theory to retrieve physically-based information on forest properties from remotely sensed hyperspectral imagery was tested in a southern boreal setting in central Finland. An atmospherically corrected Hyperion image and ground measurements from 66 forest stands were used. First, the novel concept of transformed green leaf single scattering spectral albedos was tested against leaf (needle) albedo measurements on Scots pine, Norway spruce and Silver birch from the study area. We found the transformed Beaked hazel albedo applied in previous studies could be used as reference also for the boreal tree species. Second, we derived a newly suggested spectrally invariant variable, the directional area scattering factor (DASF), to estimate the broadleaf fraction of forest stands. Based on our results, DASF seems highly promising as a potential new hyperspectral satellite product for change monitoring of broadleaf fraction over different vegetation zones. Finally, we plotted our results in the spectral invariants space, and suggest a new interpretation for the reference-dependent structural parameter pR. We propose this parameter is an indicator of canopy cover and suffers less from saturation problems than vegetation indices.

Vanhatalo, Kalle M.; Rautiainen, Miina; Stenberg, Pauline

2014-01-01

364

Global Characterization and Monitoring of Forest Cover Using Landsat Data: Opportunities and Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The compilation of global Landsat data-sets and the ever-lowering costs of computing now make it feasible to monitor the Earth's land cover at Landsat resolutions of 30 m. In this article, we describe the methods to create global products of forest cover and cover change at Landsat resolutions. Nevertheless, there are many challenges in ensuring the creation of high-quality products. And we propose various ways in which the challenges can be overcome. Among the challenges are the need for atmospheric correction, incorrect calibration coefficients in some of the data-sets, the different phenologies between compilations, the need for terrain correction, the lack of consistent reference data for training and accuracy assessment, and the need for highly automated characterization and change detection. We propose and evaluate the creation and use of surface reflectance products, improved selection of scenes to reduce phenological differences, terrain illumination correction, automated training selection, and the use of information extraction procedures robust to errors in training data along with several other issues. At several stages we use Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer data and products to assist our analysis. A global working prototype product of forest cover and forest cover change is included.

Townshend, John R.; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Huang, ChengQuan; Vermote, Eric F.; Gao, Feng; Channan, Saurabh; Sexton, Joseph O.; Feng, Min; Narasimhan, Ramghuram; Kim, Dohyung; Song, Kuan; Song, Danxia; Song, Xiao-Peng; Noojipady, Praveen; Tan, Bin; Hansen, Matthew C.; Li, Mengxue; Wolfe, Robert E.

2012-01-01

365

Monitoring forest plant biodiversity changes and developing conservation strategies: a study from Camili Biosphere Reserve Area in NE Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out in forestland of Camili Biosphere Reserve (CBR) area in NE Turkey. It was designed to evaluate\\u000a the consequences of disturbances on changes in secondary forest succession from 1985 to 2005 for monitoring forest plant biodiversity\\u000a changes and developing conservation strategies. The successional stages were mapped using Geographic Information System (GIS),\\u000a Global Positioning System (GPS), aerial

Salih Terzio?lu; Emin Zeki Ba?kent; Fatih Sivrikaya; Gnay akir; Ali Ihsan Kadio?ullari; ?a?dan Ba?kaya; Sedat Kele?

2010-01-01

366

Mangroves in peril: unprecedented degradation rates of peri-urban mangroves in Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine ecosystems are experiencing unprecedentedly high degradation rates than any other ecosystem on the planet, which in some instances are up to four times that of rainforests. Mangrove ecosystems have especially been impacted by compounded anthropogenic pressures leading to significant cover reductions of between 35 and 50% (equivalent to 1-2% loss pa) for the last half century. The main objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that peri-urban mangroves suffering from compounded and intense pressures may be experiencing higher degradation rates than the global mean (and/or national mean for Kenya) using Mombasa mangroves (comprising of Tudor and Mwache creeks) as a case study. Stratified sampling was used to sample along 22 and 10 belt transects in Mwache and Tudor respectively, set to capture stand heterogeneity in terms of species composition and structure in addition to perceived human pressure gradients using proximity to human habitations as a proxy. We acquired SPOT (HRV/ HRVIR/ HRS) imageries of April 1994, May 2000 and January 2009 and a vector mangrove map of 1992 at a scale of 1 : 50 000 for cover change and species composition analysis. Results from image classification of the 2009 image had 80.23% overall accuracy and Cohen's Kappa of 0.77, thus proving satisfactory for use in this context. Structural data indicate that complexity index (CI) which captures stand structural development was higher in Mwache at 1.80 compared to Tudor at 1.71. From cover change data, Tudor had lost 86.9% of the forest between 1992 and 2009, compared to Mwache at 45.4% representing very high hitherto undocumented degradation rates of 5.1 and 2.7% pa, respectively. These unprecedentedly high degradation rates, which far exceed not only the national mean (for Kenya of 0.7% pa) but the global mean as well, strongly suggest that these mangroves are highly threatened due to compounded pressures. Strengthening of governance regimes through enforcement and compliance to halt illegal wood extraction, improvement of land-use practices upstream to reduce soil erosion, restoration in areas where natural regeneration has been impaired, provision of alternative energy sources/building materials and a complete moratorium on wood extraction especially in Tudor creek to allow recovery are some of the suggested management interventions.

Bosire, J. O.; Kaino, J. J.; Olagoke, A. O.; Mwihaki, L. M.; Ogendi, G. M.; Kairo, J. G.; Berger, U.; Macharia, D.

2013-10-01

367

Mangroves in peril: unprecedented degradation rates of peri-urban mangroves in Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine ecosystems are experiencing unprecedented degradation rates higher than any other ecosystem on the planet, which in some instances are up to 4 times those of rainforests. Mangrove ecosystems have especially been impacted by compounded anthropogenic pressures leading to significant cover reductions of between 35 and 50% (equivalent to 1-2% loss pa) for the last half century. The main objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that peri-urban mangroves suffering from compounded and intense pressures may be experiencing higher degradation rates than the global mean (and/or national mean for Kenya) using Mombasa mangroves (comprising Tudor and Mwache creeks) as a case study. Stratified sampling was used to sample along 22 and 10 belt transects in Mwache and Tudor respectively, set to capture stand heterogeneity in terms of species composition and structure in addition to perceived human pressure gradients using proximity to human habitations as a proxy. We acquired SPOT (HRV/ HRVIR/ HRS) images of April 1994, May 2000 and January 2009 and a vector mangrove map of 1992 at a scale of 1:50 000 for cover change and species composition analysis. Results from image classification of the 2009 image had 80.23% overall accuracy and Cohen's kappa of 0.77, thus proving satisfactory for use in this context. Structural data indicate that complexity index (CI) which captures stand structural development was higher in Mwache at 1.80 compared to Tudor at 1.71. From cover change data, Tudor lost 86.9% of the forest between 1992 and 2009, compared to Mwache at 45.4%, representing very high hitherto undocumented degradation rates of 5.1 and 2.7% pa, respectively. These unprecedentedly high degradation rates, which far exceed not only the national mean (for Kenya of 0.7% pa) but the global mean as well, strongly suggest that these mangroves are highly threatened due to compounded pressures. Strengthening of governance regimes through enforcement and compliance to halt illegal wood extraction, improvement of land-use practices upstream to reduce soil erosion, restoration in areas where natural regeneration has been impaired, provision of alternative energy sources/building materials and a complete moratorium on wood extraction especially in Tudor Creek to allow recovery are some of the suggested management interventions.

Bosire, J. O.; Kaino, J. J.; Olagoke, A. O.; Mwihaki, L. M.; Ogendi, G. M.; Kairo, J. G.; Berger, U.; Macharia, D.

2014-05-01

368

A Total Validation Approach for assessing the RST technique in forest fire detection and monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several studies have shown that high temporal resolution sensors such as AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) aboard NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) satellites, MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) aboard EOS (Earth Observing System) satellites and, more recently, SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) aboard MSG (Meteosat Second Generation) platforms, are suitable for detecting and monitoring forest fires. At the same time, many satellite-based techniques have been proposed for fire detection, but most of them, based on single image fixed-thresholds, often generate false alarms mainly due to the contribution of the reflected solar radiation in daytime, atmospheric effects, etc., so that they result to have scarce reliability when applied in an operational scenario. Other algorithms, which are quite reliable thanks to their multitemporal and/or contextual nature, may turn out to be hardly applicable so that they cannot be inserted in whatever operative schemes. An innovative approach, named RST - Robust Satellite Technique, already applied for the monitoring of major natural and environmental risks has been recently used for fire detection and monitoring. The RST approach is based on local (in space and time) thresholds which are automatically computed on the basis of long temporal series of satellite data. It demonstrated already good performances in many cases of applications, but recently for the first time a total validation approach (TVA) was experimented in collaboration with administrators, decision makers and local agencies, in order to evaluate the actual reliability and sensitivity of RST in a pre-operational context. TVA, based on a systematic study of the origin of each hot spot identified by RST, allowed us to recognize most of them as actual thermal anomalies (associated to small fires, to variations of thermal emission in industrial plants, etc.) and not as false alarms simply because not associated to officially documented forest fires. Some results of recent campaigns both of winter and summer fire detection and monitoring in Italy will be shown and discussed.

Mazzeo, Giuseppe; Baldassarre, Giuseppe; Corrado, Rosita; Filizzola, Carolina; Genzano, Nicola; Marchese, Francesco; Paciello, Rossana; Pergola, Nicola; Tramutoli, Valerio

2010-05-01

369

Unmanned aerial systems for forest reclamation monitoring: throwing balloons in the air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires are a recurrent phenomenon in Mediterranean landscapes, deteriorating environment and ecosystems, calling out for adequate land management. Monitoring burned areas enhances our abilities to reclaim them. Remote sensing has become an increasingly important tool for environmental assessment and land management. It is fast, non-intrusive, and provides continuous spatial coverage. This paper reviews remote sensing methods, based on space-borne, airborne or ground-based multispectral imagery, for monitoring the biophysical properties of forest areas for site specific management. The usage of satellite imagery for land use management has been frequent in the last decades, it is of great use to determine plants health and crop conditions, allowing a synergy between the complexity of environment, anthropogenic landscapes and multi-temporal understanding of spatial dynamics. Aerial photography increments on spatial resolution, nevertheless it is heavily dependent on airborne availability as well as cost. Both these methods are required for wide areas management and policy planning. Comprising an active and high resolution imagery source, that can be brought at a specific instance, reducing cost while maintaining locational flexibility is of utmost importance for local management. In this sense, unmanned aerial vehicles provide maximum flexibility with image collection, they can incorporate thermal and multispectral sensors, however payload and engine operation time limit flight time. Balloon remote sensing is becoming increasingly sought after for site specific management, catering rapid digital analysis, permitting greater control of the spatial resolution as well as of datasets collection in a given time. Different wavelength sensors may be used to map spectral variations in plant growth, monitor water and nutrient stress, assess yield and plant vitality during different stages of development. Proximity could be an asset when monitoring forest plants vitality. Early predictions of re-vegetation success facilitate precise and timely diagnosis of stress, thus remedial actions can be taken at localized detail.

Andrade, Rita; Vaz, Eric; Panagopoulos, Thomas; Guerrero, Carlos

2014-05-01

370

The Economical Microbolometer-Based Environmental Radiometer Satellite (EMBERSAT) Designed for Forest Fire Detection and Monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal infrared imagery from several satellite instruments, such as the NOAA AVHRR and the NASA MODIS, is presently used to detect and map forest fires. But while these radiometers can identify fires they are designed and optimized for cloud detection, providing relatively low spatial resolution and quickly saturating even for small fires. Efforts to detect and monitor forest fires from space would benefit from the development of single-sensor satellites designed specifically for this purpose. With the advent of uncooled thermal detectors, and thus the absence of aggressive cooling, the possibility of developing small satellites for the purpose of fire detection and monitoring becomes practical and cost-effective. Thus is the case with the Economical Microbolometer Based Environmental Radiometer Satellite (EMBERSat) program. The objective of this program is to develop a single, prototype satellite that will provide multiband thermal imagery with a spatial resolution of 250m and a dynamic range of 300-1000K. The thermal imaging payload has flight heritage in the Infrared Spectral Imaging Radiometer that flew aboard mission STS-85 and the spacecraft is a variant of the SimpleSat bus launched from the shuttle Columbia as part of STS-109. The EMBERSat program is a technology demonstration initiative with the eventual goal of providing high-resolution thermal imagery to both the scientific community and the public.

Lancaster, Redgie S.; Skillman, David R.; Welch, Wayne; Spinhirne, James D.; Manizade, Kathrine F.; Beecken, Brian P.

2003-01-01

371

The Economical Microbolometer-Based Environmental Radiometer Satellite (EMBERSat) Designed for Forest Fire Detection and Monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal infrared imagery from several satellite instruments, such as the NOAA AVHRR and the NASA MODIS, is presently used to detect and map forest fires. But while these radiometers can identify fires they are designed and optimized for cloud detection, providing relatively low spatial resolution and quickly saturating even for small fires. Efforts to detect and monitor forest fires from space would benefit from the development of single-sensor satellites designed specifically for this purpose. With the advent of uncooled thermal detectors, and thus the absence of aggressive cooling, the possibility of developing small satellites for the purpose of fire detection and monitoring becomes practical and cost-effective. Thus is the case with the Economical Microbolometer Based Environmental Radiometer Satellite (EMBERSat) program. The objective of this program is to develop a single, prototype satellite that will provide multiband thermal imagery with a spatial resolution of 250m and a dynamic range of 300-1000K. The thermal imaging payload has flight heritage in the Infrared Spectral Imaging Radiometer that flew aboard mission STS-85 and the spacecraft is a variant of the SimpleSat bus launched from the shuttle Columbia as part of STS-105. The EMBERSat program is a technology demonstration initiative with the eventual goal of providing high-resolution thermal imagery to both the scientific community and the public.

Lancaster, Redgie S.; Skillman, David R.; Welch, Wayne C.; Spinhirne, James D.; Manizade, Katherine F.; Beecken, Brian P.

2004-01-01

372

Designing, implementing and monitoring social impact mitigation strategies: Lessons from Forest Industry Structural Adjustment Packages  

SciTech Connect

Social impact mitigation strategies are implemented by the proponents of policies and projects with the intent of reducing the negative, and increasing the positive social impacts of their activities, and facilitating the achievement of policy/project goals. Evaluation of mitigation strategies is critical to improving their future success and cost-effectiveness. This paper evaluates two Forest Industry Structural Adjustment Packages (FISAP) implemented in Australia in the 1990s to 2000s as part of broader policy changes that reduced access to timber from publicly owned native forests. It assesses the effectiveness of the structure, design, implementation and monitoring of the FISAPs, and highlights the interactions between these four elements and their influence on social impacts. The two FISAPs were found to be effective in terms of reducing negative impacts, encouraging positive impacts and contributing towards policy goals, although they did not mitigate negative impacts in all cases, and sometimes interacted with external factors and additional policy changes to contribute to significant short and long term negative impacts. -- Highlights: ? Mitigation strategies aim to reduce negative and enhance positive social impacts ? Mitigation strategy design, implementation, and monitoring are critical to success ? Effective mitigation enhanced the capacity of recipients to respond to change ? Mitigation strategies influenced multiple interacting positive and negative impacts ? Success required good communication, transparency, support, resources and timing.

Loxton, Edwina A., E-mail: Edwina.Loxton@anu.edu.au [Fenner School of Environment and Society, The Australian National University, Canberra, 0200 (Australia); Schirmer, Jacki, E-mail: Jacki.Schirmer@canberra.edu.au [Fenner School of Environment and Society, The Australian National University, Canberra, 0200 (Australia) [Fenner School of Environment and Society, The Australian National University, Canberra, 0200 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Forestry, Hobart, 7001 (Australia); Kanowski, Peter, E-mail: P.Kanowski@cgiar.org [Fenner School of Environment and Society, The Australian National University, Canberra, 0200 (Australia) [Fenner School of Environment and Society, The Australian National University, Canberra, 0200 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Forestry, Hobart, 7001 (Australia)

2013-09-15

373

MANGROVE-DERIVED NUTRIENTS AND CORAL REEFS  

EPA Science Inventory

Understanding the consequences of the declining global cover of mangroves due to anthropogenic disturbance necessitates consideration of how mangrove-derived nutrients contribute to threatened coral reef systems. We sampled potential sources of organic matter and a suite of sessi...

374

Queen Angelfish Hides in Mangrove Prop Roots  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A Queen Angelfish peers through the safety of the mangrove roots across the rich colors and textures of corals, sponges, urchins, and algae. Queen Angelfish feed almost exclusively on sponges, which are abundant in these mangroves....

375

Forest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Become an expert on the Forest habitat!! Begin your search for information by reading below. You can click on the underlined words to take you to the website you want to go to. Have fun! Read carefully. You can learn about the Broadleaf forest or the Coniferous forest! Kathryn! You can learn a lot about worms from Herman the Worm. Read the information to learn about worms! You can also visit Earthworms to learn more! Colter! You can learn about American Black Bears and Black Bears! Click the underlined words and read read read! Happy trails! ...

Ryan, Ms.

2013-02-12

376

A Global Trend towards the Loss of Evolutionarily Unique Species in Mangrove Ecosystems  

PubMed Central

The mangrove biome stands out as a distinct forest type at the interface between terrestrial, estuarine, and near-shore marine ecosystems. However, mangrove species are increasingly threatened and experiencing range contraction across the globe that requires urgent conservation action. Here, we assess the spatial distribution of mangrove species richness and evolutionary diversity, and evaluate potential predictors of global declines and risk of extinction. We found that human pressure, measured as the number of different uses associated with mangroves, correlated strongly, but negatively, with extinction probability, whereas species ages were the best predictor of global decline, explaining 15% of variation in extinction risk. Although the majority of mangrove species are categorised by the IUCN as Least Concern, our finding that the more threatened species also tend to be those that are more evolutionarily unique is of concern because their extinction would result in a greater loss of phylogenetic diversity. Finally, we identified biogeographic regions that are relatively species-poor but rich in evolutionary history, and suggest these regions deserve greater conservation priority. Our study provides phylogenetic information that is important for developing a unified management plan for mangrove ecosystems worldwide. PMID:23805263

Mankga, Ledile T.; Davies, T. Jonathan

2013-01-01

377

Long-term assessment of an innovative mangrove rehabilitation project: case study on Carey Island, Malaysia.  

PubMed

Wave energy and storm surges threaten coastal ecology and nearshore infrastructures. Although coastal structures are conventionally constructed to dampen the wave energy, they introduce tremendous damage to the ecology of the coast. To minimize environmental impact, ecofriendly coastal protection schemes should be introduced. In this paper, we discuss an example of an innovative mangrove rehabilitation attempt to restore the endangered mangroves on Carey Island, Malaysia. A submerged detached breakwater system was constructed to dampen the energy of wave and trap the sediments behind the structure. Further, a large number of mangrove seedlings were planted using different techniques. Further, we assess the possibility of success for a future mangrove rehabilitation project at the site in the context of sedimentology, bathymetry, and hydrogeochemistry. The assessment showed an increase in the amount of silt and clay, and the seabed was noticeably elevated. The nutrient concentration, the pH value, and the salinity index demonstrate that the site is conducive in establishing mangrove seedlings. As a result, we conclude that the site is now ready for attempts to rehabilitate the lost mangrove forest. PMID:25097894

Motamedi, Shervin; Hashim, Roslan; Zakaria, Rozainah; Song, Ki-Il; Sofawi, Bakrin

2014-01-01

378

Mangrove carbon sink. Do burrowing crabs contribute to sediment carbon storage? Evidence from a Kenyan mangrove system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangrove ecosystems are acknowledged as a significant carbon reservoir, with a potential key role as carbon sinks. Little however is known on sediment/soil capacity to store organic carbon and the impact of benthic fauna on soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in mangrove C-poor soils. This study aimed to investigate the effects of macrobenthos on SOC storage and dynamic in mangrove forest at Gazi Bay (Kenya). Although the relatively low amount of organic carbon (OC%) in these soils, they resulted in the presence of large ecosystem carbon stock comparable to other forest ecosystems. SOC at Gazi bay ranged from 3.6 kg m- 2 in a Desert-like belt to 29.7 kg m- 2 in the Rhizophora belt considering the depth soil interval from 0 cm to 80 cm. The high spatial heterogeneity in the distribution and amount of SOC seemed to be explained by different dominant crab species and their impact on the soil environment. A further major determinant was the presence, in the subsoil, of horizons rich in organic matter, whose dating pointed to their formation being associated with sea level rise over the Holocene. Dating and soil morphological characters proved to be an effective support to discuss links between the strategies developed by macrobenthos and soil ecosystem functioning.

Andreetta, Anna; Fusi, Marco; Cameldi, Irene; Cim, Filippo; Carnicelli, Stefano; Cannicci, Stefano

2014-01-01

379

Multiscale satellite and spatial information and analysis framework in support of a large-area forest monitoring and inventory update.  

PubMed

Many countries undertake a national forest inventory to enable statistically valid monitoring in support of national and international reporting of forest conditions and change. Canada's National Forest Inventory (NFI) program is designed to operate on a 10-year remeasurement cycle, with an interim report produced at the 5-year mid-point. The NFI is a sample-based inventory, with approximately 18,850 22-km photo plots across the country, distributed on a 2020-km grid of sample points; these photo plots are the primary data source for the NFI. Capacity to provide annual monitoring information is required to keep policy and decision makers apprised of current forest conditions. In this study, we implemented a multistage monitoring framework and used a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) change product to successfully identify 78% of the changes in forest cover area that were captured with a Landsat change detection approach. Of the NFI photo plots that were identified by both the Landsat and MODIS approaches as having changes in forest cover, the proportion of change area within the plots was similar (R2=0.78). Approximately 70% of the Landsat-derived change events occupied less than 40% of a single MODIS pixel, and more than 90% of the change events of this size were successfully detected with the MODIS product. Finally, MODIS estimates of the proportion of forest cover change at the NFI photo plot level were comparable to change estimates for the ecoregions as a whole (R2=0.95). High-temporal, low-spatial resolution imagery such as MODIS, in combination with other remotely sensed data sources, can provide information on disturbance events within a national forest inventory remeasurement cycle, thereby satisfying the interim information needs of policy and decision makers as well as the requirements of national and international reporting commitments. PMID:19908150

Wulder, Michael A; White, Joanne C; Gillis, Mark D; Walsworth, Nick; Hansen, Matthew C; Potapov, Peter

2010-11-01

380

Rehabilitation of Mangrove Ecosystems: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept and goals of mangrove ecosystem rehabilitation are considered and contrasted with ideas of ecosystem restoration. Three reasons for mangrove rehabilitation: conservation and landscaping; multiple use systems for high sustainable yield and protection of coastal areas, are then examined in detail. In each case, the underlying philosophy and limitations are presented. The practical problems of site selection for mangrove

C. D Field

1999-01-01

381

Dynamics of mangrove-marsh ecotones in subtropical coastal wetlands: fire, sea-level rise, and water levels  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ecotones are areas of sharp environmental gradients between two or more homogeneous vegetation types. They are a dynamic aspect of all landscapes and are also responsive to climate change. Shifts in the position of an ecotone across a landscape can be an indication of a changing environment. In the coastal Everglades of Florida, USA, a dominant ecotone type is that of mangrove forest and marsh. However, there is a variety of plants that can form the marsh component, including sawgrass (Cladium mariscus [L.] Pohl), needlegrass rush (Juncus roemerianus Scheele), and spikerush (Eleocharis spp.). Environmental factors including water depth, soil type, and occurrence of fires vary across these ecotones, influencing their dynamics. Altered freshwater inflows from upstream and increasing sea level over the past 100 years may have also had an impact. We analyzed a time series of historical aerial photographs for a number of sites in the coastal Everglades and measured change in position of mangrovemarsh ecotones. For three sites, detailed maps were produced and the area of marsh, mangrove, and other habitats was determined for five periods spanning the years 1928 to 2004. Contrary to our initial hypothesis on fire, we found that fire did not prevent mangrove expansion into marsh areas but may in fact assist mangroves to invade some marsh habitats, especially sawgrass. Disparate patterns in mangrovemarsh change were measured at two downstream sites, both of which had multiple fires over from 1948 to 2004. No change in mangrove or marsh area was measured at one site. Mangrove area increased and marsh area decreased at the second of these fire-impacted sites. We measured a significant increase in mangrove area and a decline in marsh area at an upstream site that had little occurrence of fire. At this site, water levels have increased significantly as sea level has risen, and this has probably been a factor in the mangrove expansion.

Smith, Thomas J.; Foster, Ann M.; Tiling-Range, Ginger; Jones, John W.

2013-01-01

382

Spatial distribution and abundances of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in mangrove sediments.  

PubMed

We investigated the diversity, spatial distribution, and abundances of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in sediment samples of different depths collected from a transect with different distances to mangrove forest in the territories of Hong Kong. Both the archaeal and bacterial amoA genes (encoding ammonia monooxygenase subunit A) from all samples supported distinct phylogenetic groups, indicating the presences of niche-specific AOA and AOB in mangrove sediments. The higher AOB abundances than AOA in mangrove sediments, especially in the vicinity of the mangrove trees, might indicate the more important role of AOB on nitrification. The spatial distribution showed that AOA had higher diversity and abundance in the surface layer sediments near the mangrove trees (0 and 10 m) but lower away from the mangrove trees (1,000 m), and communities of AOA could be clustered into surface and bottom sediment layer groups. In contrast, AOB showed a reverse distributed pattern, and its communities were grouped by the distances between sites and mangrove trees, indicating mangrove trees might have different influences on AOA and AOB community structures. Furthermore, the strong correlations among archaeal and bacterial amoA gene abundances and their ratio with NH (4) (+) , salinity, and pH of sediments indicated that these environmental factors have strong influences on AOA and AOB distributions in mangrove sediments. In addition, AOA diversity and abundances were significantly correlated with hzo gene abundances, which encodes the key enzyme for transformation of hydrazine into N(2) in anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria, indicating AOA and anammox bacteria may interact with each other or they are influenced by the same controlling factors, such as NH (4) (+) . The results provide a better understanding on using mangrove wetlands as biological treatment systems for removal of nutrients. PMID:20953601

Li, Meng; Cao, Huiluo; Hong, Yiguo; Gu, Ji-Dong

2011-02-01

383

Spatial distribution and abundances of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in mangrove sediments  

PubMed Central

We investigated the diversity, spatial distribution, and abundances of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in sediment samples of different depths collected from a transect with different distances to mangrove forest in the territories of Hong Kong. Both the archaeal and bacterial amoA genes (encoding ammonia monooxygenase subunit A) from all samples supported distinct phylogenetic groups, indicating the presences of niche-specific AOA and AOB in mangrove sediments. The higher AOB abundances than AOA in mangrove sediments, especially in the vicinity of the mangrove trees, might indicate the more important role of AOB on nitrification. The spatial distribution showed that AOA had higher diversity and abundance in the surface layer sediments near the mangrove trees (0 and 10m) but lower away from the mangrove trees (1,000m), and communities of AOA could be clustered into surface and bottom sediment layer groups. In contrast, AOB showed a reverse distributed pattern, and its communities were grouped by the distances between sites and mangrove trees, indicating mangrove trees might have different influences on AOA and AOB community structures. Furthermore, the strong correlations among archaeal and bacterial amoA gene abundances and their ratio with NH4+, salinity, and pH of sediments indicated that these environmental factors have strong influences on AOA and AOB distributions in mangrove sediments. In addition, AOA diversity and abundances were significantly correlated with hzo gene abundances, which encodes the key enzyme for transformation of hydrazine into N2 in anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria, indicating AOA and anammox bacteria may interact with each other or they are influenced by the same controlling factors, such as NH4+. The results provide a better understanding on using mangrove wetlands as biological treatment systems for removal of nutrients. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00253-010-2929-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20953601

Li, Meng; Cao, Huiluo; Hong, Yiguo

2010-01-01

384

Factors limiting the intertidal distribution of the mangrove species Xylocarpus granatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tree species Xylocarpus granatum is commonly described as occurring in the upper intertidal zone of mangrove forests, but mature trees are occasionally found at lower elevations. In the Utwe River basin, on the Pacific island of Kosrae, we investigated the relative importance of several biotic and abiotic factors that may control the intertidal distribution of X. granatum. Factors we

James A. Allen; Ken W. Krauss; Robert D. Hauff

2003-01-01