Sample records for mangrove forest monitoring

  1. Mangrove Forests

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jonathan Bird Productions

    2010-05-05

    Where the tropical ocean meets the sea, a peculiar kind of plant thrives in shallow, salty water. These mangrove plants are incredibly important for shoreline protection and baby fish habitats. In this video, Jonathan investigates life in mangroves by visiting both Caribbean and Pacific mangroves. Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

  2. Applications of ALOS PALSAR for monitoring biophysical parameters of a degraded black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, J. M.; Lu, X. X.; Flores-Verdugo, F.; Zhang, C.; Flores de Santiago, F.; Jiao, X.

    2013-08-01

    Within the last few decades mangrove forests worldwide have been experiencing high annual rates of loss and many of those that remain have undergone considerable degradation. To understand the condition of these forests, various optical remote sensing platforms have been used to map and monitor these wetlands, including the use of these data for biophysical parameter mapping. For many mangrove forests a reliable source of optical imagery is not possible given their location in quasi-permanent cloud cover or smoke covered regions. In such cases it is recommended that Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) be considered. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationships between various ALOS-PALSAR modes, acquired from eight images, and mangrove biophysical parameter data collected from a black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) dominated forest that has experienced considerable degradation. In total, structural data were collected from 61 plots representing the four common stand types found in this degraded forest of the Mexican Pacific: tall healthy mangrove (n = 17), dwarf healthy mangrove (n = 15), poor condition mangrove (n = 13), and predominantly dead mangrove (n = 16). Based on backscatter coefficients, significant negative correlation coefficients were observed between filtered single polarization ALOS PALSAR (6.25 m) HH backscatter and Leaf Area Index (LAI). When the dead stands were excluded (n = 45) the strength of these relationships increased. Moreover, significant negative correlation coefficients were observed with stand height, Basal Area (BA) and to a lesser degree with stem density and mean DBH. With the coarser spatial resolution dual-polarization and quad polarization data (12.5 m) only a few, and weaker, correlation coefficients were calculated between the mangrove parameters and the filtered HH backscatter. However, significant negative values were once again calculated for the HH when the 16 dead mangrove stands were removed from the sample. Conversely, strong positive significant correlation coefficients were calculated between the cross-polarization HV backscatter and LAI when the dead mangrove stands were considered. Although fewer in comparison to the HH correlations, a number of VV backscatter based relationships with mangrove parameters were observed from the quad polarization mode and, to a lesser extent, with the one single VV polarization data. In addition to backscatter coefficients, stepwise multiple regression models of the mangrove biophysical parameter data were developed based on texture parameters derived from the grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) of the ALOS data. A similar pattern to the backscatter relationships was observed for models based on the single polarization unfiltered data, with fairly strong coefficients of determination calculated for LAI and stem height when the dead stands were excluded. In contrast, similar coefficients of determination with biophysical parameters were observed for the dual and quad polarization multiple regression models when the dead stands were both included and excluded from the analyses. An estimated mangrove LAI map of the study area, derived from a multiple regression model of the quad polarization texture parameters, showed comparable spatial patterns of degradation to a map derived from higher spatial resolution optical satellite data.

  3. Monitoring mangrove forest dynamics of the Sundarbans in Bangladesh and India using multi-temporal satellite data from 1973 to 2000

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chandra Giri; Bruce Pengra; Zhiliang Zhu; Ashbindu Singh; Larry L. Tieszen

    2007-01-01

    Mangrove forests in many parts of the world are declining at an alarming rate—possibly even more rapidly than inland tropical forests. The rate and causes of such changes are not known. The forests themselves are dynamic in nature and are undergoing constant changes due to both natural and anthropogenic forces. Our research objective was to monitor deforestation and degradation arising

  4. Monitoring mangrove forest dynamics of the Sundarbans in Bangladesh and India using multi-temporal satellite data from 1973 to 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, C.; Pengra, B.; Zhu, Z.; Singh, A.; Tieszen, L.L.

    2007-01-01

    Mangrove forests in many parts of the world are declining at an alarming rate-possibly even more rapidly than inland tropical forests. The rate and causes of such changes are not known. The forests themselves are dynamic in nature and are undergoing constant changes due to both natural and anthropogenic forces. Our research objective was to monitor deforestation and degradation arising from both natural and anthropogenic forces. We analyzed multi-temporal satellite data from 1970s, 1990s, and 2000s using supervised classification approach. Our spatio-temporal??analysis shows that despite having the highest population density in the world in its periphery, areal extent of the mangrove forest of the Sundarbans has not changed significantly (approximately 1.2%) in the last ???25 years. The forest is however constantly changing due to erosion, aggradation, deforestation and mangrove rehabilitation programs. The net forest area increased by 1.4% from the 1970s to 1990 and decreased by 2.5% from 1990 to 2000. The change is insignificant in the context of classification errors and the dynamic nature of mangrove forests. This is an excellent example of the co-existence of humans with terrestrial and aquatic plant and animal life. The strong commitment of governments under various protection measures such as forest reserves, wildlife sanctuaries, national parks, and international designations, is believed to be responsible for keeping this forest relatively intact (at least in terms of area). While the measured net loss of mangrove forest is not that high, the change matrix shows that turnover due to erosion, aggradation, reforestation and deforestation was much greater than net change. The forest is under threat from natural and anthropogenic forces leading to forest degradation, primarily due to top-dying disease and over-exploitation of forest resources. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Monitoring mangrove forest dynamics of the Sundarbans in Bangladesh and India using multi-temporal satellite data from 1973 to 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, Chandra; Pengra, Bruce; Zhu, Zhiliang; Singh, Ashbindu; Tieszen, Larry L.

    2007-06-01

    Mangrove forests in many parts of the world are declining at an alarming rate—possibly even more rapidly than inland tropical forests. The rate and causes of such changes are not known. The forests themselves are dynamic in nature and are undergoing constant changes due to both natural and anthropogenic forces. Our research objective was to monitor deforestation and degradation arising from both natural and anthropogenic forces. We analyzed multi-temporal satellite data from 1970s, 1990s, and 2000s using supervised classification approach. Our spatio-temporal analysis shows that despite having the highest population density in the world in its periphery, areal extent of the mangrove forest of the Sundarbans has not changed significantly (approximately 1.2%) in the last ˜25 years. The forest is however constantly changing due to erosion, aggradation, deforestation and mangrove rehabilitation programs. The net forest area increased by 1.4% from the 1970s to 1990 and decreased by 2.5% from 1990 to 2000. The change is insignificant in the context of classification errors and the dynamic nature of mangrove forests. This is an excellent example of the co-existence of humans with terrestrial and aquatic plant and animal life. The strong commitment of governments under various protection measures such as forest reserves, wildlife sanctuaries, national parks, and international designations, is believed to be responsible for keeping this forest relatively intact (at least in terms of area). While the measured net loss of mangrove forest is not that high, the change matrix shows that turnover due to erosion, aggradation, reforestation and deforestation was much greater than net change. The forest is under threat from natural and anthropogenic forces leading to forest degradation, primarily due to top-dying disease and over-exploitation of forest resources.

  6. Characterization of mangrove forest types based on ALOS-PALSAR in overall Indonesian archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmawan, S.; Takeuchi, W.; Vetrita, Y.; Winarso, G.; Wikantika, K.; Sari, D. K.

    2014-06-01

    Indonesia has largest mangrove forest in the world, total area around 3.5 million ha or 17% - 23% from mangrove forest in the world. Mangrove forest provides products and services, such as carbon balance of the coastal zone. Mapping and monitoring biomass of mangrove is very important but field survey of mangrove biomass and productivity in overall Indonesia is very difficult. Global-scale mosaics with HH and HV backscatter of Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) which is 50-m spatial resolution has been generated. This image available for identification and monitoring mangrove forest. The Objective of this research to investigate characterization of mangrove forest types based on ALOS-PALSAR in overall Indonesian archipelago. Methodology consists of collecting ALOS-PALSAR image for overall Indonesian archipelago, preprocessing and mosaicking, collecting region of interest of mangrove forest, plotting, ground survey, characterization and classification. The result of this research has showed characterization of mangrove forest types based on ALOS-PALSAR. Indonesian mangrove forest types has HH value around -10 dB until -7 dB and HV value around -17 dB until -13 dB. Higher of HH and HV backscatters value indicated higher of level biomass. Based on scatter plot of HH and HV, Indonesian mangrove forest can be classified in three level biomass. Generally level biomass of mangrove forest in Indonesia archipelago is moderate.

  7. Myanmar Ecological Forecasting: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Monitor, Map, and Analyze Mangrove Forests in Myanmar for Enhanced Conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Samuel J.; Keddell, Louis; Kemal, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves supply many essential environmental amenities, such as preventing soil erosion, filtering water pollution, and protecting shorelines from harmful waves, floods, storms and winds. The Mangroves in Myanmar not only provide citizens with a food source, but they also offer firewood, charcoal, and construction materials. The depletion of mangroves is threatening more than the biodiversity however; Myanmar's fiscal livelihood is also in harm's way. Mangroves are valued at $100,000 to $277,000 per square kilometer and if managed in a sustainable fashion, can infuse constant income to the emerging Myanmarese economy. This study analyzed three coastline regions, the Ayeyarwady Delta, Rakhine and Tanintharyi, and mapped the spatial extent of mangrove forest during the dry season in 2000 and 2013. The classifications were derived from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Landsat 8 Operation Land Imager (OLI) imagery, as well as the Terra Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) digital elevation model information. This data was atmospherically corrected, mosaicked, masked and classified in ENVI, followed by ArcGIS to perform raster calculations and create final products. Forest degradation collected from 2000 to 2013 was later used to forecast the density and health of Mangroves in the year 2030. These results were subsequently presented to project partners Dr. Peter Leimgruber and Ellen Aiken at the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute in Front Royal, VA. After the presentation of the project to the partners, these organizations formally passed on to the Myanmar Ministry of Environment, Conservation and Forestry for policy makers and forest managers to utilize in order to protect the Myanmar mangrove ecosystem while sustaining a healthy economy.

  8. Latitudinal Patterns of Herbivory in Mangrove Forests: Consequences

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Samantha

    Latitudinal Patterns of Herbivory in Mangrove Forests: Consequences of Nutrient Over in temperate areas. Mangrove forests, which occur across a broad biogeographic range from warm temperate of herbivores to nutrient enrichment in temperate versus tropical latitudes. Mangroves are complex intertidal

  9. Mangrove forests and human security1 Bradley B. Walters*

    E-print Network

    Walters, Bradley B.

    Review Mangrove forests and human security1 Bradley B. Walters* Address: Department of Geography of `environment and security' and examines their relevance in understanding human­mangrove interactions and human security. Research on human­mangrove interactions suggests that mangrove forests illustrate

  10. Mangrove forest distributions and dynamics in Madagascar (1975-2005)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, C.; Muhlhausen, J.

    2008-01-01

    Mangrove forests of Madagascar are declining, albeit at a much slower rate than the global average. The forests are declining due to conversion to other land uses and forest degradation. However, accurate and reliable information on their present distribution and their rates, causes, and consequences of change have not been available. Earlier studies used remotely sensed data to map and, in some cases, to monitor mangrove forests at a local scale. Nonetheless, a comprehensive national assessment and synthesis was lacking. We interpreted time-series satellite data of 1975, 1990, 2000, and 2005 using a hybrid supervised and unsupervised classification approach. Landsat data were geometrically corrected to an accuracy of ?? one-half pixel, an accuracy necessary for change analysis. We used a postclassification change detection approach. Our results showed that Madagascar lost 7% of mangrove forests from 1975 to 2005, to a present extent of ???2,797 km2. Deforestation rates and causes varied both spatially and temporally. The forests increased by 5.6% (212 km2) from 1975 to 1990, decreased by 14.3% (455 km 2) from 1990 to 2000, and decreased by 2.6% (73 km2) from 2000 to 2005. Similarly, major changes occurred in Bombekota Bay, Mahajamba Bay, the coast of Ambanja, the Tsiribihina River, and Cap St Vincent. The main factors responsible for mangrove deforestation include conversion to agriculture (35%), logging (16%), conversion to aquaculture (3%), and urban development (1%). ?? 2008 by MDPI.

  11. Mangrove Forest Distributions and Dynamics in Madagascar (1975–2005)

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Chandra; Muhlhausen, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Mangrove forests of Madagascar are declining, albeit at a much slower rate than the global average. The forests are declining due to conversion to other land uses and forest degradation. However, accurate and reliable information on their present distribution and their rates, causes, and consequences of change have not been available. Earlier studies used remotely sensed data to map and, in some cases, to monitor mangrove forests at a local scale. Nonetheless, a comprehensive national assessment and synthesis was lacking. We interpreted time-series satellite data of 1975, 1990, 2000, and 2005 using a hybrid supervised and unsupervised classification approach. Landsat data were geometrically corrected to an accuracy of ± one-half pixel, an accuracy necessary for change analysis. We used a postclassification change detection approach. Our results showed that Madagascar lost 7% of mangrove forests from 1975 to 2005, to a present extent of ?2,797 km2. Deforestation rates and causes varied both spatially and temporally. The forests increased by 5.6% (212 km2) from 1975 to 1990, decreased by 14.3% (455 km2) from 1990 to 2000, and decreased by 2.6% (73 km2) from 2000 to 2005. Similarly, major changes occurred in Bombekota Bay, Mahajamba Bay, the coast of Ambanja, the Tsiribihina River, and Cap St Vincent. The main factors responsible for mangrove deforestation include conversion to agriculture (35%), logging (16%), conversion to aquaculture (3%), and urban development (1%).

  12. Threat of heavy metal contamination in eight mangrove plants from the Futian mangrove forest, China.

    PubMed

    He, Bei; Li, Ruili; Chai, Minwei; Qiu, Guoyu

    2014-06-01

    Mangrove plants play an important role in heavy metal maintenance in a mangrove ecosystem. To evaluate the characteristics of heavy metal contamination in the Futian mangrove forest, Shenzhen, China, eight heavy metals in mangrove sediments and plants were monitored, including essential elements such as Cu and Zn, and non-essential elements such as Cr, Ni, As, Cd, Pb and Hg. The results showed that the heavy metals exhibited the following scheme: Zn > As > Cu ? Cr > Pb > Ni > Cd ? Hg in sediment cores, among which Cd, As, Pb and Hg contents were nearly ten times higher than the background values. There was no significant difference in metal maintenance capability between native and exotic species. In mangrove plants' leaves and stems, concentrations of Cu, Zn and As were higher than other heavy metals. The low bioconcentration factors for most heavy metals, except for Cr, implied the limited ability of heavy metal accumulation by the plants. Mangrove plants seem to develop some degree of tolerance to Cr. The factor analysis implies that anthropogenic influences have altered metal mobility and bioavailability. PMID:24085617

  13. Seasonal evapotranspiration patterns in mangrove forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Jordan G.; DeLonge, Marcia S.; Fuentes, Jose D.

    2014-04-01

    Diurnal and seasonal controls on water vapor fluxes were investigated in a subtropical mangrove forest in Everglades National Park, Florida. Energy partitioning between sensible and latent heat fluxes was highly variable during the 2004-2005 study period. During the dry season, the mangrove forest behaved akin to a semiarid ecosystem as most of the available energy was partitioned into sensible heat, which gave Bowen ratio values exceeding 1.0 and minimum latent heat fluxes of 5 MJ d-1. In contrast, during the wet season the mangrove forest acted as a well-watered, broadleaved deciduous forest, with Bowen ratio values of 0.25 and latent heat fluxes reaching 18 MJ d-1. During the dry season, high salinity levels (> 30 parts per thousand, ppt) caused evapotranspiration to decline and correspondingly resulted in reduced canopy conductance. From multiple linear regression, daily average canopy conductance to water vapor declined with increasing salinity, vapor pressure deficit, and daily sums of solar irradiance but increased with air temperature and friction velocity. Using these relationships, appropriately modified Penman-Monteith and Priestley-Taylor models reliably reproduced seasonal trends in daily evapotranspiration. Such numerical models, using site-specific parameters, are crucial for constructing seasonal water budgets, constraining hydrological models, and driving regional climate models over mangrove forests.

  14. The current status of world protection for mangrove forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhengyun, Zhang; Zhixian, Su; Qiaoying, Zhang; Aiying, Shen

    2003-09-01

    Mangrove forests occur extensively in the tropic areas rich in wildlife and other nonforestry resources and provide a wide array of raw materials for livelihood and production processes and have been a major source of income generation and subsistence for the local people. Exploitation of timber, fuel wood, poles, industrial raw material, and many other non-wood produets from the mangrove forests give rise to large scale economic activity and income generation. At present, mangrove forests are facing great peril. Reckless exploitation and swampland reclamation result in their gradual degradation. This article deals with the world’s mangrove forest resources and their benefit to people; describes the current status, points out the main causes of the destruction of these forests, presents proposals for protecting mangrove forests, and discusses international cooperation in protecting the world’s mangrove forests.

  15. Coastal mangrove forests mitigated tsunami

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kandasamy Kathiresan; Narayanasamy Rajendran

    2005-01-01

    A study conducted after the 26th of December 2004 tsunami in 18 coastal hamlets along the south-east coast of India reiterates the importance of coastal mangrove vegetations and location characteristics of human inhabitation to protect lives and wealth from the fury of tsunami. The tsunami caused human death and loss of wealth and these decreased with the area of coastal

  16. Heavy metals in mangroves: methodology, monitoring and management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Saenger; David McConchie

    2004-01-01

    Mangroves occur widely throughout Australia and, at some sites, are exposed to elevated heavy metal loads. The value of mangrove communities, and particularly of mangrove forest sediments, as a buffer between potential sources of metalliferous pollutants and marine ecosystems has been noted previously (Harbison, 1981, 1986; Saenger et al., 1991). How mangroves respond to the metal load in their environment

  17. Do invasive plants threaten the Sundarbans mangrove forest of Bangladesh?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shekhar R. Biswas; Junaid Kabir Choudhury; Ainun Nishat

    2007-01-01

    Sundarbans mangrove forest has substantial ecological and economic importance at local, national and global scales. Over the past decades, invasive species have spread significantly in the mangrove ecosystem. We conducted a study to identify the different types of invasive species present, the rate and pattern of invasion, its intensity, association of invaders and their habitat preference in the Sundarbans mangrove

  18. Ecological engineering for successful management and restoration of mangrove forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy R. Lewis

    2005-01-01

    Great potential exists to reverse the loss of mangrove forests worldwide through the application of basic principles of ecological restoration using ecological engineering approaches, including careful cost evaluations prior to design and construction. Previous documented attempts to restore mangroves, where successful, have largely concentrated on creation of plantations of mangroves consisting of just a few species, and targeted for harvesting

  19. Ecological engineering for successful management and restoration of mangrove forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy R. Lewis III

    Abstract Great potential exists to reverse the loss of mangrove,forests worldwide,through the application of basic principles of ecological restoration using ecological engineering approaches, including careful cost evaluations prior to design and construction. Previous documented attempts to restore mangroves, where successful, have largely concentrated on creation of plantations of mangroves consisting of just a few species, and targeted for harvesting as

  20. Carbon Cycling and Storage in Mangrove Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alongi, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are ecologically and economically important forests of the tropics. They are highly productive ecosystems with rates of primary production equal to those of tropical humid evergreen forests and coral reefs. Although mangroves occupy only 0.5% of the global coastal area, they contribute 10-15% (24 Tg C y-1) to coastal sediment carbon storage and export 10-11% of the particulate terrestrial carbon to the ocean. Their disproportionate contribution to carbon sequestration is now perceived as a means for conservation and restoration and a way to help ameliorate greenhouse gas emissions. Of immediate concern are potential carbon losses to deforestation (90-970 Tg C y-1) that are greater than these ecosystems' rates of carbon storage. Large reservoirs of dissolved inorganic carbon in deep soils, pumped via subsurface pathways to adjacent waterways, are a large loss of carbon, at a potential rate up to 40% of annual primary production. Patterns of carbon allocation and rates of carbon flux in mangrove forests are nearly identical to those of other tropical forests.

  1. Carbon cycling and storage in mangrove forests.

    PubMed

    Alongi, Daniel M

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are ecologically and economically important forests of the tropics. They are highly productive ecosystems with rates of primary production equal to those of tropical humid evergreen forests and coral reefs. Although mangroves occupy only 0.5% of the global coastal area, they contribute 10-15% (24 Tg C y(-1)) to coastal sediment carbon storage and export 10-11% of the particulate terrestrial carbon to the ocean. Their disproportionate contribution to carbon sequestration is now perceived as a means for conservation and restoration and a way to help ameliorate greenhouse gas emissions. Of immediate concern are potential carbon losses to deforestation (90-970 Tg C y(-1)) that are greater than these ecosystems' rates of carbon storage. Large reservoirs of dissolved inorganic carbon in deep soils, pumped via subsurface pathways to adjacent waterways, are a large loss of carbon, at a potential rate up to 40% of annual primary production. Patterns of carbon allocation and rates of carbon flux in mangrove forests are nearly identical to those of other tropical forests. PMID:24405426

  2. Distribution and dynamics of mangrove forests of South Asiaq Chandra Giri a,*, Jordan Long b

    E-print Network

    Tomkins, Andrew

    Distribution and dynamics of mangrove forests of South Asiaq Chandra Giri a,*, Jordan Long b Keywords: Mangrove forests Mangrove forest cover change South Asia Landsat Remote sensing Image processing a b s t r a c t Mangrove forests in South Asia occur along the tidal sea edge of Bangladesh, India

  3. Ethnobiology, socio-economics and management of mangrove forests: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bradley B. Walters; Patrik Rönnbäck; John M. Kovacs; Beatrice Crona; Syed Ainul Hussain; Ruchi Badola; Jurgenne H. Primavera; Edward Barbier; Farid Dahdouh-Guebas

    2008-01-01

    There is growing research interest in the ethnobiology, socio-economics and management of mangrove forests. Coastal residents who use mangroves and their resources may have considerable botanical and ecological knowledgeable about these forests. A wide variety of forest products are harvested in mangroves, especially wood for fuel and construction, tannins and medicines. Although there are exceptions, mangrove forest products are typically

  4. Predicting Future Mangrove Forest Migration in the Everglades Under Rising Sea Level

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    Mangroves are highly productive ecosystems that provide valued habitat for fish and shorebirds. Mangrove forests are universally composed of relatively few tree species and a single overstory strata. Three species of true mangroves are common to intertidal zones of the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico Coast, namely, black mangrove (Avicennia germinans), white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa), and red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle). Mangrove forests occupy intertidal settings of the coastal margin of the Everglades along the southwest tip of the Florida peninsula (fig. 1).

  5. Floods and mangrove forests, friends or foes? Perceptions of relationships and risks in Cameroon coastal mangroves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munji, Cecilia A.; Bele, Mekou Y.; Idinoba, Monica E.; Sonwa, Denis J.

    2014-03-01

    Faced with the growing influence of climate change on climate driven perturbations such as flooding and biodiversity loss, managing the relationship between mangroves and their environment has become imperative for their protection. Hampering this is the fact that the full scope of the threats faced by specific mangrove forests is not yet well documented. Amongst some uncertainties is the nature of the relationship/interaction of mangroves with climate driven perturbations prevalent in their habitat such as coastal floods. We investigated the relationship between coastal flooding and mangrove forest stabilization, identify perceptions of flood risk and responses to offset identified effects. Random household surveys were carried out within four communities purposively sampled within the Cap Cameroon. Coastal changes were investigated over a period of 43 years (1965-2008). Seasonal flooding improved access to mangrove forests and hence promoted their exploitation for non-timber forest products (NTFPs) such as fuel wood and mangrove poles. 989 ha of mangrove forests were estimated to be lost over a period of 43 years in Cap Cameroon with implications on forest resources base, ecosystem stability, and livelihoods. Alternative livelihood activities were found to be carried out to moderate interruptions in fishing, with associated implications for mangrove forest dynamics. Respondents were of the opinion that risks associated with floods and mangrove deforestation will pose a major challenge for sustainable management of mangroves. These locally relevant perceptions and responses should however enable the identification of pertinent needs, challenges and opportunities to inform and orient effective decision-making, and to facilitate the development and participation in adaptive management strategies.

  6. Restoration of biogeochemical function in mangrove forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, K.L.; Faulkner, P.L.

    2000-01-01

    Forest structure of mangrove restoration sites (6 and 14 years old) at two locations (Henderson Creek [HC] and Windstar [WS]) in southwest Florida differed from that of mixed-basin forests (>50 years old) with which they were once contiguous. However, the younger site (HC) was typical of natural, developing forests, whereas the older site (WS) was less well developed with low structural complexity. More stressful physicochemical conditions resulting from incomplete tidal flushing (elevated salinity) and variable topography (waterlogging) apparently affected plant survival and growth at the WS restoration site. Lower leaf fall and root production rates at the WS restoration site, compared with that at HC were partly attributable to differences in hydroedaphic conditions and structural development. However, leaf and root inputs at each restoration site were not significantly different from that in reference forests within the same physiographic setting. Macrofaunal consumption of tethered leaves also did not differ with site history, but was dramatically higher at HC compared with WS, reflecting local variation in leaf litter processing rates, primarily by snails (Melampus coffeus). Degradation of leaves and roots in mesh bags was slow overall at restoration sites, however, particularly at WS where aerobic decomposition may have been more limited. These findings indicate that local or regional factors such as salinity regime act together with site history to control primary production and turnover rates of organic matter in restoration sites. Species differences in senescent leaf nitrogen content and degradation rates further suggest that restoration sites dominated by Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle should exhibit slower recycling of nutrients compared with natural basin forests where Avicennia germinans is more abundant. Structural development and biogeochemical functioning of restored mangrove forests thus depend on a number of factors, but site-specific as well as regional or local differences in hydrology and concomitant factors such as salinity and soil waterlogging will have a strong influence over the outcome of restoration projects.

  7. Present state and future of the world's mangrove forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel M. Alongi

    2002-01-01

    SUMMARY Mangroves, the only woody halophytes living at the confluence of land and sea, have been heavily used traditionally for food, timber, fuel and medicine, and presently occupy about 181 000 km 2 of tropical and subtropical coastline. Over the past 50 years, approxi- mately one-third of the world's mangrove forests have been lost, but most data show very variable

  8. Ecological effects of small-scale cutting of Philippine mangrove forests

    E-print Network

    Walters, Bradley B.

    Ecological effects of small-scale cutting of Philippine mangrove forests Bradley B. Walters of mangrove forests in the Philippines. Information for the study was obtained through the application of extensive bio-ecological assessments of forests and interviews of forest users. Cut mangrove forests were

  9. National Level Assessment of Mangrove Forest Cover in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, S.; Qamer, F. M.; Hussain, N.; Saleem, R.; Nitin, K. T.

    2011-09-01

    Mangroves ecosystems consist of inter tidal flora and fauna found in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Mangroves forest is a collection of halophytic trees, shrubs, and other plants receiving inputs from regular tidal flushing and from freshwater streams and rivers. A global reduction of 25 % mangroves' area has been observed since 1980 and it is categorized as one of to the most threatened and vulnerable ecosystems of the world. Forest resources in Pakistan are being deteriorating both quantitatively and qualitatively due to anthropogenic activities, climatic v and loose institutional management. According to the FAO (2007), extent of forest cover of Pakistan in 2005 is 1,902,000 ha, which is 2.5% of its total land area. Annual change rate during 2000-2005 was -2.1% which is highest among all the countries in Asia. The Indus delta region contains the world's fifth-largest mangrove forest which provides a range of important ecosystem services, including coastal stabilisation, primary production and provision of nursery habitat for marine fish. Given their ecological importance in coastal settings, mangroves receive special attention in the assessment of conservation efforts and sustainable coastal developments. Coastline of Pakistan is 1050km long shared by the provinces, Sind (350km) and Baluchistan (700 km). The coastline, with typical arid subtropical climate, possesses five significant sites that are blessed with mangroves. In the Sindh province, mangroves are found in the Indus Delta and Sandspit. The Indus Delta is host to the most extensive mangroves areas and extends from Korangi Creek in the West to Sir Creek in the East, whereas Sandspit is a small locality in the West of Karachi city. In the Balochistan province, mangroves are located at three sites, Miani Hor, Kalmat Khor and Jiwani. Contemporary methods of Earth observation sciences are being incorporated as an integral part of environmental assessment related studies in coastal areas. GIS and Remote Sensing based technologies and methods are in use to map forest cover since the last two decades in Pakistan. The national level forest cover studies based upon satellite images include, Forestry Sector Master Plan (FSMP) and National Forest & Range Resources Assessment Study (NFRRAS). In FSMP, the mangrove forest extent was visually determined from Landsat images of 1988 - 1991, and was estimated to be 155,369 ha; whereas, in NFRRAS, Landsat images of 1997 - 2001 were automated processed and the mangroves areas was estimated to be 158,000 ha. To our knowledge, a comprehensive assessment of current mangroves cover of Pakistan has not been made over the last decade, although the mangroves ecosystems have become the focus of intention in context of recent climate change scenarios. This study was conducted to support the informed decision making for sustainable development in coastal areas of Pakistan by providing up-todate mangroves forest cover assessment of Pakistan. Various types of Earth Observation satellite images and processing methods have been tested in relation to mangroves mapping. Most of the studies have applied classical pixel - based approached, there are a few studies which used object - based methods of image analysis to map the mangroves ecosystems. Object - based methods have the advantage of incorporating spatial neighbourhood properties and hierarchical structures into the classification process to produce more accurate surface patterns recognition compared with classical pixel - based approaches. In this research, we applied multi-scale hierarchical approach of object-based methods of image analysis to ALOS - AVNIR-2 images of the year 2008-09 to map the land cover in the mangroves ecosystems of Pakistan. Considering the tide height and phonological effects of vegetation, particularly the algal mats, these data sets were meticulously chosen. Incorporation of multi-scale hierarchical structures made it easy to effectively discriminate among the land cover classes, particularly the mudflats from sparse mangroves, at their r

  10. Mapping the Philippines' mangrove forests using Landsat imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, J.B.; Giri, C.

    2011-01-01

    Current, accurate, and reliable information on the areal extent and spatial distribution of mangrove forests in the Philippines is limited. Previous estimates of mangrove extent do not illustrate the spatial distribution for the entire country. This study, part of a global assessment of mangrove dynamics, mapped the spatial distribution and areal extent of the Philippines' mangroves circa 2000. We used publicly available Landsat data acquired primarily from the Global Land Survey to map the total extent and spatial distribution. ISODATA clustering, an unsupervised classification technique, was applied to 61 Landsat images. Statistical analysis indicates the total area of mangrove forest cover was approximately 256,185 hectares circa 2000 with overall classification accuracy of 96.6% and a kappa coefficient of 0.926. These results differ substantially from most recent estimates of mangrove area in the Philippines. The results of this study may assist the decision making processes for rehabilitation and conservation efforts that are currently needed to protect and restore the Philippines' degraded mangrove forests. ?? 2011 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  11. Distribution and dynamics of mangrove forests of South Asia.

    PubMed

    Giri, Chandra; Long, Jordan; Abbas, Sawaid; Murali, R Mani; Qamer, Faisal M; Pengra, Bruce; Thau, David

    2015-01-15

    Mangrove forests in South Asia occur along the tidal sea edge of Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. These forests provide important ecosystem goods and services to the region's dense coastal populations and support important functions of the biosphere. Mangroves are under threat from both natural and anthropogenic stressors; however the current status and dynamics of the region's mangroves are poorly understood. We mapped the current extent of mangrove forests in South Asia and identified mangrove forest cover change (gain and loss) from 2000 to 2012 using Landsat satellite data. We also conducted three case studies in Indus Delta (Pakistan), Goa (India), and Sundarbans (Bangladesh and India) to identify rates, patterns, and causes of change in greater spatial and thematic details compared to regional assessment of mangrove forests. Our findings revealed that the areal extent of mangrove forests in South Asia is approximately 1,187,476 ha representing ?7% of the global total. Our results showed that from 2000 to 2012, 92,135 ha of mangroves were deforested and 80,461 ha were reforested with a net loss of 11,673 ha. In all three case studies, mangrove areas have remained the same or increased slightly, however, the turnover was greater than the net change. Both, natural and anthropogenic factors are responsible for the change and turnover. The major causes of forest cover change are similar throughout the region; however, specific factors may be dominant in specific areas. Major causes of deforestation in South Asia include (i) conversion to other land use (e.g. conversion to agriculture, shrimp farms, development, and human settlement), (ii) over-harvesting (e.g. grazing, browsing and lopping, and fishing), (iii) pollution, (iv) decline in freshwater availability, (v) floodings, (vi) reduction of silt deposition, (vii) coastal erosion, and (viii) disturbances from tropical cyclones and tsunamis. Our analysis in the region's diverse socio-economic and environmental conditions highlights complex patterns of mangrove distribution and change. Results from this study provide important insight to the conservation and management of the important and threatened South Asian mangrove ecosystem. PMID:24735705

  12. Evaluating the condition of a mangrove forest of the Mexican Pacific based on an estimated leaf area index mapping approach.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, J M; King, J M L; Flores de Santiago, F; Flores-Verdugo, F

    2009-10-01

    Given the alarming global rates of mangrove forest loss it is important that resource managers have access to updated information regarding both the extent and condition of their mangrove forests. Mexican mangroves in particular have been identified as experiencing an exceptional high annual rate of loss. However, conflicting studies, using remote sensing techniques, of the current state of many of these forests may be hindering all efforts to conserve and manage what remains. Focusing on one such system, the Teacapán-Agua Brava-Las Haciendas estuarine-mangrove complex of the Mexican Pacific, an attempt was made to develop a rapid method of mapping the current condition of the mangroves based on estimated LAI. Specifically, using an AccuPAR LP-80 Ceptometer, 300 indirect in situ LAI measurements were taken at various sites within the black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) dominated forests of the northern section of this system. From this sample, 225 measurements were then used to develop linear regression models based on their relationship with corresponding values derived from QuickBird very high resolution optical satellite data. Specifically, regression analyses of the in situ LAI with both the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the simple ration (SR) vegetation index revealed significant positive relationships [LAI versus NDVI (R (2) = 0.63); LAI versus SR (R (2) = 0.68)]. Moreover, using the remaining sample, further examination of standard errors and of an F test of the residual variances indicated little difference between the two models. Based on the NDVI model, a map of estimated mangrove LAI was then created. Excluding the dead mangrove areas (i.e. LAI = 0), which represented 40% of the total 30.4 km(2) of mangrove area identified in the scene, a mean estimated LAI value of 2.71 was recorded. By grouping the healthy fringe mangrove with the healthy riverine mangrove and by grouping the dwarf mangrove together with the poor condition mangrove, mean estimated LAI values of 4.66 and 2.39 were calculated, respectively. Given that the former healthy group only represents 8% of the total mangrove area examined, it is concluded that this mangrove system, considered one of the most important of the Pacific coast of the Americas, is currently experiencing a considerable state of degradation. Furthermore, based on the results of this investigation it is suggested that this approach could provide resource managers and scientists alike with a very rapid and effective method for monitoring the state of remaining mangrove forests of the Mexican Pacific and, possibly, other areas of the tropics. PMID:19023672

  13. Organic carbon inventories in natural and restored Ecuadorian mangrove forests

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, John F.; Benninger, Larry; Alperin, Marc; de Dios Morales, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves can capture and store organic carbon and their protection and therefore their restoration is a component of climate change mitigation. However, there are few empirical measurements of long-term carbon storage in mangroves or of how storage varies across environmental gradients. The context dependency of this process combined with geographically limited field sampling has made it difficult to generalize regional and global rates of mangrove carbon sequestration. This has in turn hampered the inclusion of sequestration by mangroves in carbon cycle models and in carbon offset markets. The purpose of this study was to estimate the relative carbon capture and storage potential in natural and restored mangrove forests. We measured depth profiles of soil organic carbon content in 72 cores collected from six sites (three natural, two restored, and one afforested) surrounding Muisne, Ecuador. Samples up to 1 m deep were analyzed for organic matter content using loss-on-ignition and values were converted to organic carbon content using an accepted ratio of 1.72 (g/g). Results suggest that average soil carbon storage is 0.055 ± 0.002 g cm?3 (11.3 ± 0.8% carbon content by dry mass, mean ± 1 SE) up to 1 m deep in natural sites, and 0.058 ± 0.002 g cm?3 (8.0 ± 0.3%) in restored sites. These estimates are concordant with published global averages. Evidence of equivalent carbon stocks in restored and afforested mangrove patches emphasizes the carbon sink potential for reestablished mangrove systems. We found no relationship between sediment carbon storage and aboveground biomass, forest structure, or within-patch location. Our results demonstrate the long-term carbon storage potential of natural mangroves, high effectiveness of mangrove restoration and afforestation, a lack of predictability in carbon storage strictly based on aboveground parameters, and the need to establish standardized protocol for quantifying mangrove sediment carbon stocks. PMID:24883249

  14. Organic carbon inventories in natural and restored Ecuadorian mangrove forests.

    PubMed

    DelVecchia, Amanda G; Bruno, John F; Benninger, Larry; Alperin, Marc; Banerjee, Ovik; de Dios Morales, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves can capture and store organic carbon and their protection and therefore their restoration is a component of climate change mitigation. However, there are few empirical measurements of long-term carbon storage in mangroves or of how storage varies across environmental gradients. The context dependency of this process combined with geographically limited field sampling has made it difficult to generalize regional and global rates of mangrove carbon sequestration. This has in turn hampered the inclusion of sequestration by mangroves in carbon cycle models and in carbon offset markets. The purpose of this study was to estimate the relative carbon capture and storage potential in natural and restored mangrove forests. We measured depth profiles of soil organic carbon content in 72 cores collected from six sites (three natural, two restored, and one afforested) surrounding Muisne, Ecuador. Samples up to 1 m deep were analyzed for organic matter content using loss-on-ignition and values were converted to organic carbon content using an accepted ratio of 1.72 (g/g). Results suggest that average soil carbon storage is 0.055 ± 0.002 g cm(-3) (11.3 ± 0.8% carbon content by dry mass, mean ± 1 SE) up to 1 m deep in natural sites, and 0.058 ± 0.002 g cm(-3) (8.0 ± 0.3%) in restored sites. These estimates are concordant with published global averages. Evidence of equivalent carbon stocks in restored and afforested mangrove patches emphasizes the carbon sink potential for reestablished mangrove systems. We found no relationship between sediment carbon storage and aboveground biomass, forest structure, or within-patch location. Our results demonstrate the long-term carbon storage potential of natural mangroves, high effectiveness of mangrove restoration and afforestation, a lack of predictability in carbon storage strictly based on aboveground parameters, and the need to establish standardized protocol for quantifying mangrove sediment carbon stocks. PMID:24883249

  15. Population genetic structure of the polypore Datronia caperata in fragmented mangrove forests

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Population genetic structure of the polypore Datronia caperata in fragmented mangrove forests Jeri of the dominant polypore species found in neotropical mangrove forest fragments, where it is locally specialized mangrove forests using AFLP markers. Using five primer pair combinations, 145 loci were detected, 98

  16. Mangrove forest recovery in the Everglades following Hurricane Wilma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sarmiento, Daniel; Barr, Jordan; Engel, Vic; Fuentes, Jose D.; Smith, Thomas J., III; Zieman, Jay C.

    2009-01-01

    On October 24th, 2005, Hurricane Wilma made landfall on the south western shore of the Florida peninsula. This major disturbance destroyed approximately 30 percent of the mangrove forests in the area. However, the damage to the ecosystem following the hurricane provided researchers at the Florida Coastal Everglades (FCE) LTER site with the rare opportunity to track the recovery process of the mangroves as determined by carbon dioxide (CO2) and energy exchanges, measured along daily and seasonal time scales.

  17. Mosquitoes of the mangrove forests of India: part 2--Sundarbans, West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Rajavel, A R; Natarajan, R; Vaidyanathan, K

    2005-06-01

    Mosquitoes of 19 species belonging to 9 subgenera and 6 genera, Aedes, Aedeomyia, Anopheles, Armigeres, Culex, and Mansonia, were recorded in Sundarbans mangrove forest in West Bengal, India. With 6 and 5 species, respectively, the 2 genera Culex and Anopheles were found to be more diverse while less than 3 species were recorded in the other 4 genera. Adults were mainly collected resting on walls in the guesthouse, tree holes in the forest, landing on humans in the guesthouse, and in the forest, and in light traps. Larvae were obtained from tree holes in the forest. The list of species recorded is not conclusive due to the restriction in access to most parts of the mangroves due to the presence of tigers. The occurrence of the urban species Cx. quinquefasciatus within the Sajnakhali sanctuary is indicative of the need to monitor environmental changes that result with the introduction of man-made facilities. PMID:16033114

  18. Mangrove forests: Resilience, protection from tsunamis, and responses to global climate change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel M. Alongi

    2008-01-01

    This review assesses the degree of resilience of mangrove forests to large, infrequent disturbance (tsunamis) and their role in coastal protection, and to chronic disturbance events (climate change) and the future of mangroves in the face of global change. From a geological perspective, mangroves come and go at considerable speed with the current distribution of forests a legacy of the

  19. Small-scale disturbance and regeneration dynamics in a neotropical mangrove forest

    E-print Network

    Battles, John

    Small-scale disturbance and regeneration dynamics in a neotropical mangrove forest RUTH E. SHERMAN of California at Berkeley, 145 Mulford Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA Summary 1 Mangrove forests are aected of a 47-km2 intertidal mangrove community in the Dominican Republic, by quantifying the spatial patterns

  20. Carbon stocks and potential carbon storage in the mangrove forests of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongxiao; Ren, Hai; Hui, Dafeng; Wang, Wenqing; Liao, Baowen; Cao, Qingxian

    2014-01-15

    Mangrove forests provide important ecosystem services, and play important roles in terrestrial and oceanic carbon (C) cycling. Although the C stocks or storage in terrestrial ecosystems in China have been frequently assessed, the C stocks in mangrove forests have often been overlooked. In this study, we estimated the C stocks and the potential C stocks in China's mangrove forests by combining our own field data with data from the National Mangrove Resource Inventory Report and from other published literature. The results indicate that mangrove forests in China store about 6.91 ± 0.57 Tg C, of which 81.74% is in the top 1 m soil, 18.12% in the biomass of mangrove trees, and 0.08% in the ground layer (i.e. mangrove litter and seedlings). The potential C stocks are as high as 28.81 ± 4.16 Tg C. On average, mangrove forests in China contain 355.25 ± 82.19 Mg C ha(-1), which is consistent with the global average of mangrove C density at similar latitudes, but higher than the average C density in terrestrial forests in China. Our results suggest that C storage in mangroves can be increased by selecting high C-density species for afforestation and stand improvement, and even more by increasing the mangrove area. The information gained in this study will facilitate policy decisions concerning the restoration of mangrove forests in China. PMID:24374165

  1. Mosquitoes of the mangrove forests of India: part 7--an overview.

    PubMed

    Rajavel, A R; Natarajan, R

    2008-12-01

    Parts 1 to 6 of this series on the mosquitoes of the mangrove forests of India dealt with the mosquito species recorded in the mangroves of Bhitarkanika, Sundarbans, Andaman and Nicobar islands, Coringa, Chorao and Vikhroli, and Kundapur and Kannur. This concluding part provides an overview of the distribution of the mosquito species in different mangrove forests, including the mangroves of Muthupet in Tamilnadu and the mangroves of Gulf of Kutch and Gulf of Kambhat in Gujarat, species collected as larvae, species in relation to the salinity of the larval habitats, species landing on humans for feeding in the mangroves, and the impact of habitat degradation on species diversity. PMID:19181053

  2. Distribution and dynamics of mangrove forests of South Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, Chandra; Long, Jordan; Abbas, Sawaid; Murali, R. Mani; Qamer, Faisal M.; Pengra, Bruce; Thau, David

    2014-01-01

    Our findings revealed that the areal extent of mangrove forests in South Asia is approximately 1,187,476 ha representing ?7% of the global total. Our results showed that from 2000 to 2012, 92,135 ha of mangroves were deforested and 80,461 ha were reforested with a net loss of 11,673 ha. In all three case studies, mangrove areas have remained the same or increased slightly, however, the turnover was greater than the net change. Both, natural and anthropogenic factors are responsible for the change and turnover. The major causes of forest cover change are similar throughout the region; however, specific factors may be dominant in specific areas. Major causes of deforestation in South Asia include (i) conversion to other land use (e.g. conversion to agriculture, shrimp farms, development, and human settlement), (ii) over-harvesting (e.g. grazing, browsing and lopping, and fishing), (iii) pollution, (iv) decline in freshwater availability, (v) floodings, (vi) reduction of silt deposition, (vii) coastal erosion, and (viii) disturbances from tropical cyclones and tsunamis. Our analysis in the region's diverse socio-economic and environmental conditions highlights complex patterns of mangrove distribution and change. Results from this study provide important insight to the conservation and management of the important and threatened South Asian mangrove ecosystem.

  3. Soil characteristics and nutrient status in a Northern Australian mangrove forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin G. Boto; John T. Wellington

    1984-01-01

    The results of a study of soil factors in relation to plant growth for a tropical mangrove forest in northern Australia are\\u000a presented and discussed. Basic soil properties are described briefly in terms of particle size distribution, bulk density\\u000a and total carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. Soil redox potential, pH, salinity and extractable nitrogen and phosphorus were\\u000a monitored monthly over a

  4. Short note Coastal mangrove forests mitigated tsunami

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kandasamy Kathiresan; Narayanasamy Rajendran

    A study conducted after the 26th of December 2004 tsunami in 18 coastal hamlets along the south-east coast of India reiterates the importance of coastal mangrove vegetations and location characteristics of human inhabitation to protect lives and wealth from the fury of tsunami. The tsunami caused human death and loss of wealth and these decreased with the area of coastal

  5. Currents and Sediment Transport in Mangrove Forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Furukawa; E. Wolanski; H. Mueller

    1997-01-01

    A field study of the tidal currents, cohesive sediment dynamics and transport of organic carbon in a highly vegetated mangrove swamp was carried out at Middle Creek, Cairns, Australia. The interaction of tidal currents and the vegetation generated jets, eddies and zones of stagnant waters which were numerically modelled. A high value of the Manning friction coefficient (n=0·1) was derived

  6. Plastic debris retention and exportation by a mangrove forest patch.

    PubMed

    Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Costa, Monica F; Silva-Cavalcanti, Jacqueline S; Araújo, Maria Christina B

    2014-01-15

    An experiment observed the behavior of selected tagged plastic items deliberately released in different habitats of a tropical mangrove forest in NE Brazil in late rainy (September) and late dry (March) seasons. Significant differences were not reported among seasons. However, marine debris retention varied among habitats, according to characteristics such as hydrodynamic (i.e., flow rates and volume transported) and relative vegetation (Rhizophora mangle) height and density. The highest grounds retained significantly more items when compared to the borders of the river and the tidal creek. Among the used tagged items, PET bottles were more observed and margarine tubs were less observed, being easily transported to adjacent habitats. Plastic bags were the items most retained near the releasing site. The balance between items retained and items lost was positive, demonstrating that mangrove forests tend to retain plastic marine debris for long periods (months-years). PMID:24321881

  7. Mapping and monitoring Louisiana's mangroves in the aftermath of the 2010 Gulf of Mexico Oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, C.; Long, J.; Tieszen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Information regarding the present condition, historical status, and dynamics of mangrove forests is needed to study the impacts of the Gulf of Mexico oil spill and other stressors affecting mangrove ecosystems. Such information is unavailable for Louisiana at sufficient spatial and thematic detail. We prepared mangrove forest distribution maps of Louisiana (prior to the oil spill) at 1 m and 30 m spatial resolution using aerial photographs and Landsat satellite data, respectively. Image classification was performed using a decision-tree classification approach. We also prepared land-cover change pairs for 1983, 1984, and every 2 y from 1984 to 2010 depicting ecosystem shifts (e.g., expansion, retraction, and disappearance). This new spatiotemporal information could be used to assess short-term and long-term impacts of the oil spill on mangroves. Finally, we propose an operational methodology based on remote sensing (Landsat, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer [ASTER], hyperspectral, light detection and ranging [LIDAR], aerial photographs, and field inventory data) to monitor the existing and emerging mangrove areas and their disturbance and regrowth patterns. Several parameters such as spatial distribution, ecosystem shifts, species composition, and tree height/biomass could be measured to assess the impact of the oil spill and mangrove recovery and restoration. Future research priorities will be to quantify the impacts and recovery of mangroves considering multiple stressors and perturbations, including oil spill, winter freeze, sea-level rise, land subsidence, and land-use/land-cover change for the entire Gulf Coast. ?? 2011 Coastal Education & Research Foundation.

  8. Status and changes of mangrove forest in Mekong Delta: Case study in Tra Vinh, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thu, Phan Minh; Populus, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Because shrimp culture in the Mekong Delta develops rapidly, it has negatively impacted the environment, socio-economics and natural resources. In particular, mangrove forests have been altered by the shrimp culture. The area of mangrove forests in the region has been reduced and this is seen especially in Tra Vinh province. The results obtained from GIS (Geography Information System) and RS (Remote Sensing) show the status of mangrove forests in Tra Vinh province in 1965, 1995 (Northeastern part of Tra Vinh Province) and 2001. In 1965, the area of mangrove forests was 21,221 ha making up 56% of total land-use, while in 2001 it was 12,797 ha making up 37% of total land-use. Also based on GIS analysis, over the 36 years (1965-2001), the total coverage of mangrove forests have decreased by 50% since 1965. However, the speed of mangrove forest destruction in the period from 1965 to 1995 was much less than that in the period from 1995 to 2001. The average annual reduction in mangrove forest coverage in the first period (1965-1995) was 0.2% whereas it was 13.1% in the later period (1995-2001). For the long time, mangrove deforestation has been caused by war, collection of firewood and clearing for agriculture, and recently, shrimp farming has significantly contributed rate of mangrove destruction.

  9. Are mangroves in the tropical Atlantic ripe for invasion? Exotic mangrove trees in the forests of South Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fourqurean, James W.; Smith, Thomas J., III; Possley, Jennifer; Collins, Timothy M.; Lee, David; Namoff, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Two species of mangrove trees of Indo-Pacific origin have naturalized in tropical Atlantic mangrove forests in South Florida after they were planted and nurtured in botanic gardens. Two Bruguiera gymnorrhiza trees that were planted in the intertidal zone in 1940 have given rise to a population of at least 86 trees growing interspersed with native mangrove species Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa along 100 m of shoreline; the population is expanding at a rate of 5.6% year-1. Molecular genetic analyses confirm very low genetic diversity, as expected from a population founded by two individuals. The maximumnumber of alleles at any locus was three, and we measured reduced heterozygosity compared to native-range populations. Lumnitzera racemosa was introduced multiple times during the 1960s and 1970s, it has spread rapidly into a forest composed of native R. mangle, A. germinans, Laguncularia racemosa and Conocarpus erectus and now occupies 60,500 m2 of mangrove forest with stem densities of 24,735 ha-1. We estimate the population growth rate of Lumnitzera racemosa to be between 17 and 23% year-1. Populations of both species of naturalized mangroves are dominated by young individuals. Given the long life and water-dispersed nature of propagules of the two exotic species, it is likely that they have spread beyond our survey area. We argue that the species-depauperate nature of tropical Atlantic mangrove forests and close taxonomic relatives in the more species-rich Indo-Pacific region result in the susceptibility of tropical Atlantic mangrove forests to invasion by Indo-Pacific mangrove species.

  10. Identification of Lightning Gaps in Mangrove Forests Using Airborne LIDAR Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.

    2006-12-01

    Mangrove forests are highly dynamic ecosystems and change frequently due to tropical storms, frost, and lightning. These factors can cause gaps in mangrove forests by damaging trees. Compared to gaps generated by storms and frost, gaps caused by lightning strikes are small, ranging from 50 to 300 m2. However, these small gaps may play a critical role in mangrove forest dynamics because of the frequent occurrence of lightning in tropical areas. It has been hypothesized that the turnover of mangrove forests is mainly due to the death and regeneration of trees in lightning gaps. However, there is a lack of data for gap occurrence in mangrove forests to verify this hypothesis. It is impractical to measure gaps through a field survey on a large scale because of the logistic difficulties of muddy mangrove forests. Airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) technology is an effective alternative because it provides direct measurements of ground and canopy elevations remotely. This study developed a method to identify lightning gaps in mangrove forests in terms of LIDAR measurements. First, LIDAR points are classified into vegetation and ground measurements using the progressive morphological filter. Second, a digital canopy model (DCM) is generated by subtracting a digital terrain model (DTM) from a digital surface model (DSM). The DSM is generated by interpolating raw LIDAR measurements, and DTM is produced by interpolating ground measurements. Third, a black top-hat mathematical morphological transformation is used to identify canopy gaps. Comparison of identified gap polygons with raw LIDAR measurements and field surveys shows that the proposed method identifies lightning gaps in mangrove forests successfully. The area of lightning gaps in mangrove forests in Everglades National Park is about 3% of total forest area, which verifies that lightning gaps play a critical role in mangrove forest turnover.

  11. Mangrove forest distributions and dynamics (19752005) of the tsunami-affected region of Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, C.; Zhu, Z.; Tieszen, L.L.; Singh, A.; Gillette, S.; Kelmelis, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: We aimed to estimate the present extent of tsunami-affected mangrove forests and determine the rates and causes of deforestation from 1975 to 2005. Location: Our study region covers the tsunami-affected coastal areas of Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Burma (Myanmar), Bangladesh, India and Sri Lanka in Asia. Methods: We interpreted time-series Landsat data using a hybrid supervised and unsupervised classification approach. Landsat data were geometrically corrected to an accuracy of plus-or-minus half a pixel, an accuracy necessary for change analysis. Each image was normalized for solar irradiance by converting digital number values to the top-of-the atmosphere reflectance. Ground truth data and existing maps and data bases were used to select training samples and also for iterative labelling. We used a post-classification change detection approach. Results: were validated with the help of local experts and/or high-resolution commercial satellite data. Results The region lost 12% of its mangrove forests from 1975 to 2005, to a present extent of c. 1,670,000 ha. Rates and causes of deforestation varied both spatially and temporally. Annual deforestation was highest in Burma (c. 1%) and lowest in Sri Lanka (0.1%). In contrast, mangrove forests in India and Bangladesh remained unchanged or gained a small percentage. Net deforestation peaked at 137,000 ha during 1990-2000, increasing from 97,000 ha during 1975-90, and declining to 14,000 ha during 2000-05. The major causes of deforestation were agricultural expansion (81%), aquaculture (12%) and urban development (2%). Main conclusions: We assessed and monitored mangrove forests in the tsunami-affected region of Asia using the historical archive of Landsat data. We also measured the rates of change and determined possible causes. The results of our study can be used to better understand the role of mangrove forests in saving lives and property from natural disasters such as the Indian Ocean tsunami, and to identify possible areas for conservation, restoration and rehabilitation. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  12. Tsunami damage reduction performance of a mangrove forest in Banda Aceh, Indonesia inferred from field data and a numerical model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Yanagisawa; S. Koshimura; T. Miyagi; F. Imamura

    2010-01-01

    Since the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the role of mangrove forests as natural defenses protecting coastal communities from tsunami disaster has been highlighted. However, some mangrove forests were destroyed by that tsunami. They are expected to have lost their protective functions. In this study, we develop a fragility function to assess the mangrove trees' vulnerability, expressed as the

  13. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 3 APRIL 2011 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1123 Mangroves among the most carbon-rich forests in

    E-print Network

    Turner, Monica G.

    LETTERS PUBLISHED ONLINE: 3 APRIL 2011 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1123 Mangroves among the most carbon , Melanie Stidham4 and Markku Kanninen5 Mangrove forests occur along ocean coastlines throughout the tropics, the areal extent of mangrove forests has declined by 30­50% over the past half century as a result

  14. Human Ecology, Vol. 32, No. 2, April 2004 ( C 2004) Local Management of Mangrove Forests in the

    E-print Network

    Walters, Bradley B.

    Human Ecology, Vol. 32, No. 2, April 2004 ( C 2004) Local Management of Mangrove Forests restoration and management of mangrove forests, in particular, are now widely advocated as a solution in community-based, mangrove reforesta- tion and management. These cases are especially intriguing because

  15. Wave Attenuation in Mangrove Forests Numerical modelling of wave attenuation by implementation of a physical description of vegetation in SWAN

    E-print Network

    Langendoen, Koen

    Wave Attenuation in Mangrove Forests Numerical modelling of wave attenuation by implementation. H.J. Verhagen Drs. M. de Vries Dr. ir. M. Zijlema H.J. Opdam #12;Wave Attenuation in Mangrove of interest in this thesis is wave attenuation in vegetation and in particular in mangrove forests

  16. Feeding selectivity of sesarmid crabs from northern Australian mangrove forests Chandra P. Salgado Kent* and Keith a. MCguinneSS

    E-print Network

    Feeding selectivity of sesarmid crabs from northern Australian mangrove forests Chandra P. Salgado important components of mangrove fauna because of their influence on nutrient cycling and forest structure by feeding on litterfall. Little is known about the influence of electivity on the role of crabs in mangrove

  17. FEEDING HABITS OF NON-OCYPODID CRABS FROM TWO MANGROVE FORESTS IN KENYA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Dahdouh-Guebas; M. Giuggioli; A. Oluoch; M. Vannini; S. Cannicci

    1999-01-01

    The stomachs of 194 crabs belonging to 11 species, commonly inhabiting mangrove areas, were collected in two Kenyan mangrove forests, in Gazi Bayand Mida Creek, and their contents were analyzed. Both the stomach fullness (a subjective estimation) and the composition (the plant:animal matter ratio) of the food ingested were recorded. Results show that few species are either strictly herbivorous (Sesarma

  18. Nutrients and heavy metal contamination of plants and sediments in Futian mangrove forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. F. Y. Tam; S. H. Li; C. Y. Lan; G. Z. Chen; M. S. Li; Y. S. Wong

    1995-01-01

    An ecological survey was carried out to determine the levels of nutrients and heavy metals in the sediments and leaf tissues of two dominant mangrove plant species, Kandelia candel and Aegiceras corniculatum, in Futian mangrove forest, Shenzhen, the People's Republic of China. The spatial and seasonal variations of these elements were also investigated. The results show that there was no

  19. Flow routing in mangrove forests: A field study in Trang province, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horstman, Erik M.; Dohmen-Janssen, C. Marjolein; Hulscher, Suzanne J. M. H.

    2013-12-01

    Flow routing in mangrove forests has great implications for the transport and distribution of sediments and nutrients and hence for mangroves' development and persistence. Whereas previous studies were limited to the creeks, supposedly feeding the surrounding mangroves, this study demonstrates the contribution of biogeophysical impacts on flow routing through estuarine mangroves. We present the results of a field campaign covering three pristine mangrove sites in two estuaries in Trang province, Thailand. The sites range from a mangrove forest elevated above mean sea level with steep cliffs and incised by tidal creeks, to smoothly inclining mangroves fronted by extensive mudflats and showing a clear vegetation zonation starting below mean sea level. It is shown how flow routing through estuarine mangroves is impacted by biogeophysical factors; elevation, exposure and vegetation. Within the higher elevated mangroves, creek flow prevails when water levels remain below a dense vegetation layer at the mangrove fringe bordering the estuary. Sheet flow prevails when this threshold is exceeded and direct water exchange takes place. The low-lying sites do not feature creeks and tidal flows are typically sheet flows, being susceptible to forcing by river discharges. With decreasing water depths and/or increasing vegetation densities, the effects of this forcing are reduced and flow velocities follow the vegetation induced cross-shore water level gradients. Flow velocities within the creeks are up to an order of magnitude greater than those within the vegetation, where velocities decrease progressively with increasing vegetation densities. Particular vegetation and elevation characteristics cause irregular velocity variations along the vertical, within the vegetation as well as in the creeks. Tentative tidal flux calculations demonstrate the significant contribution of creek flow to the total tidal prism in higher elevated mangroves. By explicitly quantifying and mapping flow routing through mangrove forests, this study provides observational evidence for flow routing phenomena that have been postulated in previous studies.

  20. The mangrove pump: The tidal flushing of animal burrows in a tropical mangrove forest determined from radionuclide budgets

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    for Tropical Water and Aquatic Ecosystem Research, James Cook University, Townsville, Qld 4811, Australia e process, i.e. the tidal flushing of burrows, that supports significant and continuous exports of soluble. INTRODUCTION Mangrove forests are the dominant intertidal vegetation of the tropics. They are highly productive

  1. An Evaluation of Plotless Sampling Using Vegetation Simulations and Field Data from a Mangrove Forest

    PubMed Central

    Hijbeek, Renske; Koedam, Nico; Khan, Md Nabiul Islam; Kairo, James Gitundu; Schoukens, Johan; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid

    2013-01-01

    In vegetation science and forest management, tree density is often used as a variable. To determine the value of this variable, reliable field methods are necessary. When vegetation is sparse or not easily accessible, the use of sample plots is not feasible in the field. Therefore, plotless methods, like the Point Centred Quarter Method, are often used as an alternative. In this study we investigate the accuracy of different plotless sampling methods. To this end, tree densities of a mangrove forest were determined and compared with estimates provided by several plotless methods. None of these methods proved accurate across all field sites with mean underestimations up to 97% and mean overestimations up to 53% in the field. Applying the methods to different vegetation patterns shows that when random spatial distributions were used the true density was included within the 95% confidence limits of all the plotless methods tested. It was also found that, besides aggregation and regularity, density trends often found in mangroves contribute to the unreliability. This outcome raises questions about the use of plotless sampling in forest monitoring and management, as well as for estimates of density-based carbon sequestration. We give recommendations to minimize errors in vegetation surveys and recommendations for further in-depth research. PMID:23826233

  2. Monitoring urban forest health.

    PubMed

    McPherson, E G

    1993-07-01

    Renewed interest in urban forestry has resulted in significant public investment in trees during the past few years, yet comprehensive urban forest monitoring programs are uncommon. Monitoring is an integral component of a program to sustain healthy community forests and long term flows of net benefits. Volunteer-based monitoring will promote continued public involvement and support in community forestry. To overcome constraints to monitoring in urban environments, programs must be personally relevant, socially desirable, scientifically credible, and economically feasible. A three-tiered monitoring approach is presented. Canopy cover analysis documents net gains and losses in regional urban forest cover. Simplified detection monitoring uses trained volunteers to better understand tree population dynamics, while intensive monitoring characterizes urban forest functions and stressors. Implementation of an urban forest health initiative to develop, place, and evaluate monitoring programs is advocated. PMID:24220831

  3. Mangroves among the most carbon-rich forests in the tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donato, Daniel C.; Kauffman, J. Boone; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Kurnianto, Sofyan; Stidham, Melanie; Kanninen, Markku

    2011-05-01

    Mangrove forests occur along ocean coastlines throughout the tropics, and support numerous ecosystem services, including fisheries production and nutrient cycling. However, the areal extent of mangrove forests has declined by 30-50% over the past half century as a result of coastal development, aquaculture expansion and over-harvesting. Carbon emissions resulting from mangrove loss are uncertain, owing in part to a lack of broad-scale data on the amount of carbon stored in these ecosystems, particularly below ground. Here, we quantified whole-ecosystem carbon storage by measuring tree and dead wood biomass, soil carbon content, and soil depth in 25 mangrove forests across a broad area of the Indo-Pacific region--spanning 30° of latitude and 73° of longitude--where mangrove area and diversity are greatest. These data indicate that mangroves are among the most carbon-rich forests in the tropics, containing on average 1,023Mg carbon per hectare. Organic-rich soils ranged from 0.5m to more than 3m in depth and accounted for 49-98% of carbon storage in these systems. Combining our data with other published information, we estimate that mangrove deforestation generates emissions of 0.02-0.12Pg carbon per year--as much as around 10% of emissions from deforestation globally, despite accounting for just 0.7% of tropical forest area.

  4. EMERSION IN THE MANGROVE FOREST FISH 'RIVULUS MARMORATUS': A UNIQUE RESPONSE TO HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mangrove forest fish Rivulus marmoratus (Cyprinodontidae) has frequently been observed out of water, a phenomenon generally attributed to habitat drying. The authors tested the hypothesis that hydrogen sulfide, a substance characteristically found in their environment, can se...

  5. Cyanobacterial diversity in the phyllosphere of a mangrove forest.

    PubMed

    Rigonato, Janaina; Alvarenga, Danillo Oliveira; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Melo, Itamar Soares; Kent, Angela; Fiore, Marli Fátima

    2012-05-01

    The cyanobacterial community colonizing phyllosphere in a well-preserved Brazilian mangrove ecosystem was assessed using cultivation-independent molecular approaches. Leaves of trees that occupy this environment (Rhizophora mangle,Avicennia schaueriana and Laguncularia racemosa) were collected along a transect beginning at the margin of the bay and extending upland. The results demonstrated that the phyllosphere of R. mangle and L. racemosa harbor similar assemblages of cyanobacteria at each point along the transect. A. schaueriana, found only in the coastal portions of the transect, was colonized by assemblages with lower richness than the other trees. However, the results indicated that spatial location was a stronger driver of cyanobacterial community composition than plant species. Distinct cyanobacterial communities were observed at each location along the coast-to-upland transect. Clone library analysis allowed identification of 19 genera of cyanobacteria and demonstrated the presence of several uncultivated taxa. A predominance of sequences affiliated with the orders Nostocales and Oscillatoriales was observed, with a remarkable number of sequences similar to genera Symphyonemopsis/Brasilonema (order Nostocales). The results demonstrated that phyllosphere cyanobacteria in this mangrove forest ecosystem are influenced by environmental conditions as the primary driver at the ecosystem scale, with tree species exerting some effect on community structure at the local scale. PMID:22611551

  6. Winter climate change and coastal wetland foundation species: salt marshes vs. mangrove forests in the southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osland, Michael J.; Day, Richard H.; Doyle, Thomas W.; Enwright, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    We live in an era of unprecedented ecological change in which ecologists and natural resource managers are increasingly challenged to anticipate and prepare for the ecological effects of future global change. In this study, we investigated the potential effect of winter climate change upon salt marsh and mangrove forest foundation species in the southeastern United States. Our research addresses the following three questions: (1) What is the relationship between winter climate and the presence and abundance of mangrove forests relative to salt marshes; (2) How vulnerable are salt marshes to winter climate change-induced mangrove forest range expansion; and (3) What is the potential future distribution and relative abundance of mangrove forests under alternative winter climate change scenarios? We developed simple winter climate-based models to predict mangrove forest distribution and relative abundance using observed winter temperature data (1970–2000) and mangrove forest and salt marsh habitat data. Our results identify winter climate thresholds for salt marsh–mangrove forest interactions and highlight coastal areas in the southeastern United States (e.g., Texas, Louisiana, and parts of Florida) where relatively small changes in the intensity and frequency of extreme winter events could cause relatively dramatic landscape-scale ecosystem structural and functional change in the form of poleward mangrove forest migration and salt marsh displacement. The ecological implications of these marsh-to-mangrove forest conversions are poorly understood, but would likely include changes for associated fish and wildlife populations and for the supply of some ecosystem goods and services.

  7. Winter climate change and coastal wetland foundation species: salt marshes vs. mangrove forests in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Osland, Michael J; Enwright, Nicholas; Day, Richard H; Doyle, Thomas W

    2013-05-01

    We live in an era of unprecedented ecological change in which ecologists and natural resource managers are increasingly challenged to anticipate and prepare for the ecological effects of future global change. In this study, we investigated the potential effect of winter climate change upon salt marsh and mangrove forest foundation species in the southeastern United States. Our research addresses the following three questions: (1) What is the relationship between winter climate and the presence and abundance of mangrove forests relative to salt marshes; (2) How vulnerable are salt marshes to winter climate change-induced mangrove forest range expansion; and (3) What is the potential future distribution and relative abundance of mangrove forests under alternative winter climate change scenarios? We developed simple winter climate-based models to predict mangrove forest distribution and relative abundance using observed winter temperature data (1970-2000) and mangrove forest and salt marsh habitat data. Our results identify winter climate thresholds for salt marsh-mangrove forest interactions and highlight coastal areas in the southeastern United States (e.g., Texas, Louisiana, and parts of Florida) where relatively small changes in the intensity and frequency of extreme winter events could cause relatively dramatic landscape-scale ecosystem structural and functional change in the form of poleward mangrove forest migration and salt marsh displacement. The ecological implications of these marsh-to-mangrove forest conversions are poorly understood, but would likely include changes for associated fish and wildlife populations and for the supply of some ecosystem goods and services. PMID:23504931

  8. RS Application for conducting change detection within the Sundarban Mangrove Forest, Bangladesh to meet REDD+ initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, T.; Maus, P.; Megown, K.

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. Forest Service (USFS) provided technical support to the Resource Information Management System (RIMS) unit of the Forest Department (FD) of Bangladesh in developing a method to monitor changes within the Sundarbans Reserve Forest using remote sensing and GIS technology to meet the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+) initiatives within Bangladesh. It included comparing the simple image differencing method with the Z-score outlier change detection method to examine changes within the mangroves of Bangladesh. Landsat data from three time periods (1989, 1999, 2009) were used to quantify change within four canopy cover classes (High, Medium, Low, and Very Low) within Sundarbans. The Z-score change analysis and image differencing was done for all the 6 reflective bands obtained from Landsat and two spectral indices NDVI and NDMI, derived from these bands for each year. Our results indicated very subtle changes in the mangrove forest within the past twenty years and the Z-score analysis was found to be more useful in capturing these subtle changes than the simple image difference method. Percent change in Z-score of NDVI provided the most meaningful index of vegetation change. It was used to summarize change for the entire study area by pixel, by canopy cover classes and the management compartment during this analysis. Our analysis showed less than 5% overall change in area within the mangroves for the entire study period. Percent change in forest canopy cover reduced from 4% in 1989-99 to 2% by 1999-2009 indicating an increase in forest canopy cover. Percent change in NDVI Z-score of each pixel was used to compute the overall percent change in z-score within the entire study area, mean percent change within each canopy cover class and management compartments from 1989 to 1999 and from 1999 to 2009. The above analysis provided insight to the spatial distribution of percent change in NDVI between the study periods and helped in identifying potential area for management intervention. The mean distribution of change from both study periods was observed within ± 20% SD.Our results were in agreement with the independent field study conducted by the US Forest Service earlier the same year for biomass and carbon stock estimation. The 10m field plots that showed a decline in carbon stock between 1995 and 2010 overall coincided with the compartments or region that showed a decline in forest canopy cover between 1999 and 2009 from the present analysis. These results led us to believe that the Z-score analysis can be a potential quantitatively rigorous tool to quantify change in ecosystems that are mostly stable and do not undergo drastic land use or land cover change. The field and remote sensing study together provided important scientific information and direction for future management of the forest resources, baseline information for long term monitoring of the forest, and identifying potential REDD+ Carbon financing projects in Sundarbans, as well as other potential REDD+ sites within forested area of Bangladesh. Given the rising concern and interest in REDD+ initiative we consider the Z-score analysis to be a potential tool in monitoring and providing a quick spatial assessment of change using remote sensing technology.

  9. Variation in mangrove forest structure and sediment characteristics in Bocas del Toro, Panama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovelock, C.E.; Feller, I.C.; McKee, K.L.; Thompson, R.

    2005-01-01

    Mangrove forest structure and sediment characteristics were examined in the extensive mangroves of Bocas del Toro, Republic of Panama. Forest structure was characterized to determine if spatial vegetation patterns were repeated over the Bocas del Toro landscape. Using a series of permanent plots and transects we found that the forests of Bocas del Toro were dominated by Rhizophora mangle with very few individuals of Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa. Despite this low species diversity, there was large variation in forest structure and in edaphic conditions (salinity, concentration of available phosphorus, Eh and sulphide concentration). Aboveground biomass varied 20-fold, from 6.8 Mg ha-1 in dwarf forests to 194.3 Mg ha-1 in the forests fringing the land. But variation in forest structure was predictable across the intertidal zone. There was a strong tree height gradient from seaward fringe (mean tree height 3.9 m), decreasing in stature in the interior dwarf forests (mean tree height 0.7 m), and increasing in stature in forests adjacent to the terrestrial forest (mean tree height 4.1 m). The predictable variation in forest structure emerges due to the complex interactions among edaphic and plant factors. Identifying predictable patterns in forest structure will aid in scaling up the ecosystem services provided by mangrove forests in coastal landscapes. Copyright 2005 College of Arts and Sciences.

  10. Carbon Accumulation in Mangrove Soil during Forest Maturity: New Insights from Afforestation Projects in Southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunstrum, A.; Chen, L.; Yang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Mangrove forests have high rates of carbon (C) sequestration, and long-term C storage in mangrove soils can span millennia. Our knowledge of C accumulation in mangrove soils is limited however, by a scarcity of direct measurements and because the existing body of data appears to be biased toward high C systems. Furthermore, very little is known about C accumulation rates in young forests following afforestation. We collected soil data from Chinese mangrove afforestation projects and conducted a literature review with the aims of 1) quantifying soil C accumulation following afforestation, and 2) characterizing young, relatively low-C systems to contribute to global estimates of mangrove soil C. We collected soil cores (depth range 10 to 100 cm) at Dongzhaigang (Hainan Province) and Futian (Guangdong Pronvince) National Mangrove Reserves, where forests plots ranged in age from 0 (unforested mudflat) to 60 years. At Futian, soil data were collected annually from pre-planting through 5 years old, and neighboring forests were used to characterize older forests (space for time chronosequence). At Dongzhaigang, a space for time approach was used to compare three neighboring forests. Preliminary data from Dongzhaigang show average to slightly high rates of soil C sequestration (196 to 319 g C m-2 yr-1), compared to current global averages for all mangroves. In our literature review, we found 10 papers containing soil C data for at least two forest ages, for a total of 19 sites. Soil C increased with forest age at almost all sites, and increased from pre-planting to year 5 at all sites of that age group. This trend differs from terrestrial forests, which on average show a decrease in soil C for the first five years after afforestation. Several reviewed studies and our own field data show soil C densities (%C per volume) near 2% decades after afforestation, which is several times lower than most current global averages for all mangrove soil. Our research indicates that young mangrove forests can sequester significant amounts of C in soil with positive sequestration rates following afforestation. However, despite significant sequestration, soil C density remains lower than current global averages decades after afforestation.

  11. Community perceptions of state forest ownership and management: a case study of the Sundarbans Mangrove Forest in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Roy, Anjan Kumer Dev; Alam, Khorshed; Gow, Jeff

    2013-03-15

    The Sundarbans Mangrove Forest (SMF) is the world's largest mangrove forest and it provides livelihoods to 3.5 million forest-dependent people in coastal Bangladesh. The first study aim was to analyse the efficacy of the state property regime in managing the forest through a close examination of the relationship between property rights and mangrove conservation practices. The second study aim was to explore forest-dependent communities' (FDCs) perceptions about their participation in management and conservation practices. The Schlager and Ostrom theoretical framework was adopted to examine the role of potential ownership variations in a common property resource regime. A survey of 412 FDC households was undertaken. Current management by the Bangladesh Forest Department (BFD) does not result in implementation of mandated mangrove conservation practices. It was found that allocation of property rights to FDCs would be expected to increase conservation practices. 92% of respondents expressed the view that the evidenced rapid degradation over the past 30 years was due primarily to corruption in the BFD. About half of FDCs (46%) surveyed are willing to participate in mangrove conservation through involvement in management as proprietors. Consistent with Schlager and Ostrom's theory, the results indicate the necessity for de facto and de jure ownership and management change from a state to common property regime to ensure FDCs' participation in conservation practices. PMID:23376299

  12. Long-Term Growth and Succession in Restored and Natural Mangrove Forests in Southwestern Florida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Edward Proffitt; Donna J. Devlin

    2005-01-01

    We compared colonization, growth and succession from 1989 to 2000 in a restored mangrove site and in gap and closed canopy sites in a natural mangrove forest. The restored site was created in 1982 and planted with Rhizophora mangle (?2 m?2) propagules. By 1989, Laguncularia racemosa, with densities up to 12.9 tree m?2, was a dominant in all plots, although densities were greater

  13. Mangrove recruitment after forest disturbance is facilitated by herbaceous species in the Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, K.L.; Rooth, J.E.; Feller, I.C.

    2007-01-01

    Plant communities along tropical coastlines are often affected by natural and human disturbances, but little is known about factors influencing recovery. We focused on mangrove forests, which are among the most threatened ecosystems globally, to examine how facilitation by herbaceous vegetation might improve forest restoration after disturbance. We specifically investigated whether recovery of mangrove forests in harsh environments is accelerated by nurse plants and whether the beneficial effects are species-specific. Quantification of standardized effects allowed comparisons across performance parameters and over time for: (1) net effect of each herbaceous species on mangrove survival and growth, (2) effects of pre- and post-establishment factors associated with each herbaceous species, and (3) need for artificial planting to enhance growth or survival of mangrove seedlings. Mangrove recruitment in a clear-cut forest in Belize was accelerated by the presence of Sesuvium portulacastrum (succulent forb) and Distichlis spicata (grass), two coastal species common throughout the Caribbean region. The net effect of herbaceous vegetation was positive, but the magnitude of effects on mangrove survival and growth differed by species. Because of differences in their vegetative structure and other features, species effects on mangroves also varied by mechanism: (1) trapping of dispersing propagules (both species), (2) structural support of the seedling (Distichlis), and/or (3) promotion of survival (Sesuvium) or growth (Distichlis) through amelioration of soil conditions (temperature, aeration). Artificial planting had a stronger positive effect on mangrove survival than did edaphic conditions, but planting enhanced mangrove growth more in Sesuvium than in Distichlis patches. Our study indicates that beneficial species might be selected based on features that provide multiple positive effects and that species comparisons may be improved using standardized effects. Our findings are not only relevant to the coastal environments found in the Caribbean region, but our assessment methods may be useful for developing site-specific information to restore disturbed mangrove forests worldwide, especially given the large pool of mangrove associates (>45 genera) available for screening. ?? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America.

  14. Modeling light use efficiency in a subtropical mangrove forest equipped with CO2 eddy covariance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, J.G.; Engel, V.; Fuentes, J.D.; Fuller, D.O.; Kwon, H.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of mangrove ecosystems in the global carbon budget, the relationships between environmental drivers and carbon dynamics in these forests remain poorly understood. This limited understanding is partly a result of the challenges associated with in situ flux studies. Tower-based CO2 eddy covariance (EC) systems are installed in only a few mangrove forests worldwide, and the longest EC record from the Florida Everglades contains less than 9 years of observations. A primary goal of the present study was to develop a methodology to estimate canopy-scale photosynthetic light use efficiency in this forest. These tower-based observations represent a basis for associating CO2 fluxes with canopy light use properties, and thus provide the means for utilizing satellite-based reflectance data for larger scale investigations. We present a model for mangrove canopy light use efficiency utilizing the enhanced green vegetation index (EVI) derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) that is capable of predicting changes in mangrove forest CO2 fluxes caused by a hurricane disturbance and changes in regional environmental conditions, including temperature and salinity. Model parameters are solved for in a Bayesian framework. The model structure requires estimates of ecosystem respiration (RE), and we present the first ever tower-based estimates of mangrove forest RE derived from nighttime CO2 fluxes. Our investigation is also the first to show the effects of salinity on mangrove forest CO2 uptake, which declines 5% per each 10 parts per thousand (ppt) increase in salinity. Light use efficiency in this forest declines with increasing daily photosynthetic active radiation, which is an important departure from the assumption of constant light use efficiency typically applied in satellite-driven models. The model developed here provides a framework for estimating CO2 uptake by these forests from reflectance data and information about environmental conditions.

  15. Taxonomic survey of Drosophilidae (Diptera) from mangrove forests of Santa Catarina Island, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Hermes J; Valente, Vera L S; Hofmann, Paulo R P

    2007-01-01

    Assemblages of drosophilids have been characterised in several environments of the Brazilian territory, like the Atlantic Rain Forest, urban areas, cerrados, the Amazon Forest, and others. The present survey is the first attempt to characterise the fauna of Drosophilidae in mangrove forests, an environment typical of tropical coasts worldwide. Twenty-eight samples were collected from the three main mangrove forests of Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil, using banana-baited traps hung in trees. Samples were taken in January (summer), April (autumn), July (winter) and October (spring) between July 2002 and July 2005. In total, 82,942 specimens of drosophilids were caught, belonging to 69 species of six genera - Amiota Loew, Drosophila Fallén, Leucophenga Mik, Scaptodrosophila Duda, Zaprionus Coquillett and Zygothrica Wiedemann. The high abundance of D. simulans Sturtevant was remarkable, with some notable peaks of D. malerkotliana Parshad & Paika in autumn samples. Other common species were Zaprionus indianus Gupta, D. mediostriata Duda and D. willistoni Sturtevant. We also collected 45,826 flies of family Curtonotidae, the sister-group of Drosophilidae virtually absent in other environments. The assemblages of drosophilids were very similar in the three mangrove forests surveyed, despite the different surrounding environments. In general, the species sampled in the mangroves were the same as those observed in the surrounding environments, but in varying abundances. This suggests that drosophilids are differently affected by environmental pressures operating in mangroves. PMID:17420862

  16. Landscape Scale Height, Biomass and Carbon Estimation of Mangrove Forests with SRTM Elevation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Washington-Allen, R.; Simard, M.; Shugart, H. H.

    2006-12-01

    Mangroves are salt tolerant plants that grow within the intertidal zone along tropical and sub-tropical coasts and estuaries. They are important barriers for mitigating the cataclysmic coastal effects of climatic events and are one of the most productive ecosystems worldwide. We produced a countrywide map of mean tree height of mangrove forests for Mozambique using elevation data derived from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The SRTM data was calibrated using a Landsat Thematic Mapper derived land cover map, field collected tree-height data, and coarse resolution (1-km) GTOPO 30 digital elevation data. The land cover map and the SRTM-derived mangrove height map showed an increase in both mangrove forest area and height from the South of the country to the North, along the 2700 km coastline. We then produced stand-specific height- biomass relationships from field-derived measures of tree height and diameter. These allometric equations permitted the calculation of total aboveground biomass and total aboveground Carbon stored within the mangrove forests. The resulting biomass and Carbon map we produced show larger biomass and Carbon storage in lower latitudes and in forests with a steady input of freshwater.

  17. The influence of crabs on litter processing in high intertidal mangrove forests in tropical Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. Robertson; P. A. Daniel

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of litter fall and litter removal by crabs, in conjunction with estimates of litter decay by microbes and tidal export of litter from three high-intertidal mangrove forests were made during a year-long study in tropical northeastern Australia. In forests dominated by Ceriops tagal and Bruguiera exaristata, litter standing stocks remained low on the forest floor (mean 6 g·m-2), although

  18. Vegetation dynamics in the Bangladesh Sundarbans mangroves: a review of forest inventories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Iftekhar; Peter Saenger

    2008-01-01

    The Sundarbans, the largest contiguous mangrove forest in the world, covers 6,017 km2 of the coastal zone of Bangladesh. Heritiera fomes Buch.-Ham., Excoecaria agallocha L. and Ceriops decandra (Griff.) Ding Hou jointly cover 95% of the forest area. In this study, the results of four forest inventories have been analyzed\\u000a to understand observed vegetation dynamics of the Sundarbans from 1926 to

  19. How mangrove forests adjust to rising sea level.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Ken W; McKee, Karen L; Lovelock, Catherine E; Cahoon, Donald R; Saintilan, Neil; Reef, Ruth; Chen, Luzhen

    2014-04-01

    Mangroves are among the most well described and widely studied wetland communities in the world. The greatest threats to mangrove persistence are deforestation and other anthropogenic disturbances that can compromise habitat stability and resilience to sea-level rise. To persist, mangrove ecosystems must adjust to rising sea level by building vertically or become submerged. Mangroves may directly or indirectly influence soil accretion processes through the production and accumulation of organic matter, as well as the trapping and retention of mineral sediment. In this review, we provide a general overview of research on mangrove elevation dynamics, emphasizing the role of the vegetation in maintaining soil surface elevations (i.e. position of the soil surface in the vertical plane). We summarize the primary ways in which mangroves may influence sediment accretion and vertical land development, for example, through root contributions to soil volume and upward expansion of the soil surface. We also examine how hydrological, geomorphological and climatic processes may interact with plant processes to influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with rising sea level. We draw on a variety of studies to describe the important, and often under-appreciated, role that plants play in shaping the trajectory of an ecosystem undergoing change. PMID:24251960

  20. How mangrove forests adjust to rising sea level

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krauss, Ken W.; McKee, Karen L.; Lovelock, Catherine E.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Saintilan, Neil; Reef, Ruth; Chen, Luzhen

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are among the most well described and widely studied wetland communities in the world. The greatest threats to mangrove persistence are deforestation and other anthropogenic disturbances that can compromise habitat stability and resilience to sea-level rise. To persist, mangrove ecosystems must adjust to rising sea level by building vertically or become submerged. Mangroves may directly or indirectly influence soil accretion processes through the production and accumulation of organic matter, as well as the trapping and retention of mineral sediment. In this review, we provide a general overview of research on mangrove elevation dynamics, emphasizing the role of the vegetation in maintaining soil surface elevations (i.e. position of the soil surface in the vertical plane). We summarize the primary ways in which mangroves may influence sediment accretion and vertical land development, for example, through root contributions to soil volume and upward expansion of the soil surface. We also examine how hydrological, geomorphological and climatic processes may interact with plant processes to influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with rising sea level. We draw on a variety of studies to describe the important, and often under-appreciated, role that plants play in shaping the trajectory of an ecosystem undergoing change.

  1. Mangrove forests: Resilience, protection from tsunamis, and responses to global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alongi, Daniel M.

    2008-01-01

    This review assesses the degree of resilience of mangrove forests to large, infrequent disturbance (tsunamis) and their role in coastal protection, and to chronic disturbance events (climate change) and the future of mangroves in the face of global change. From a geological perspective, mangroves come and go at considerable speed with the current distribution of forests a legacy of the Holocene, having undergone almost chronic disturbance as a result of fluctuations in sea-level. Mangroves have demonstrated considerable resilience over timescales commensurate with shoreline evolution. This notion is supported by evidence that soil accretion rates in mangrove forests are currently keeping pace with mean sea-level rise. Further support for their resilience comes from patterns of recovery from natural disturbances (storms, hurricanes) which coupled with key life history traits, suggest pioneer-phase characteristics. Stand composition and forest structure are the result of a complex interplay of physiological tolerances and competitive interactions leading to a mosaic of interrupted or arrested succession sequences, in response to physical/chemical gradients and landform changes. The extent to which some or all of these factors come into play depends on the frequency, intensity, size, and duration of the disturbance. Mangroves may in certain circumstances offer limited protection from tsunamis; some models using realistic forest variables suggest significant reduction in tsunami wave flow pressure for forests at least 100 m in width. The magnitude of energy absorption strongly depends on tree density, stem and root diameter, shore slope, bathymetry, spectral characteristics of incident waves, and tidal stage upon entering the forest. The ultimate disturbance, climate change, may lead to a maximum global loss of 10-15% of mangrove forest, but must be considered of secondary importance compared with current average annual rates of 1-2% deforestation. A large reservoir of below-ground nutrients, rapid rates of nutrient flux and microbial decomposition, complex and highly efficient biotic controls, self-design and redundancy of keystone species, and numerous feedbacks, all contribute to mangrove resilience to various types of disturbance.

  2. Tsunami damage reduction performance of a mangrove forest in Banda Aceh, Indonesia inferred from field data and a numerical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, H.; Koshimura, S.; Miyagi, T.; Imamura, F.

    2010-06-01

    Since the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the role of mangrove forests as natural defenses protecting coastal communities from tsunami disaster has been highlighted. However, some mangrove forests were destroyed by that tsunami. They are expected to have lost their protective functions. In this study, we develop a fragility function to assess the mangrove trees' vulnerability, expressed as the damage probability of mangrove trees, based on field surveys and numerical modeling of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. Based on the fragility function, we reconstruct a numerical model of tsunami inundation including the performance of mangrove forests in terms of reducing tsunami damage. The model reveals that a 10 year old mangrove forest in a 500 m wide area can reduce a tsunami's hydrodynamic force by approximately 70% for an incident wave of 3.0 m inundation depth and a wave period of 40 min at the shoreline. The model also shows, for a tsunami inundation depth of greater than 4 m, that a 10 year old mangrove forest would be mostly destroyed and that it would lose its force reduction capacity. Moreover, approximately 80% of a 30 year old mangrove forest would survive a 5 m tsunami and absorb 50% of the tsunami's hydrodynamic force.

  3. Tidal-scale flow routing and sedimentation in mangrove forests: Combining field data and numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horstman, E. M.; Dohmen-Janssen, C. M.; Bouma, T. J.; Hulscher, S. J. M. H.

    2015-01-01

    Tidal-scale biophysical interactions establish particular flow routing and sedimentation patterns in coastal mangroves. Sluggish water flows through the mangrove vegetation and enhanced sediment deposition are essential to maintain these valuable ecosystems, thereby enabling their contribution to coastal protection and stabilization. Spatially explicit field observations of tidal-scale flow routing and sediment deposition were obtained in an elevated mangrove stand dissected by tidal creeks, located in the Trang river estuary at the Thai Andaman coast. An accurate and efficient depth-averaged process-based numerical model of this field site was developed in Delft3D to study the contributions of various biogeophysical mangrove settings to the observed tidal dynamics and to study the impacts of changes of these environmental conditions. The creeks are found to form the major pathway for the tidal inflow during the lower tides, while the sheltered interior of the forest is an effective sediment sink during the higher tides. A numerical sensitivity analysis of the initial response-or adaptive capacity-of the studied mangrove system to instantaneous environmental changes reveals the stable state of the study site: deposition rates are largely imposed by the topography and relative elevation, while they are rather independent of the vegetation density. Deeper inundations of the mangroves favor sheet flows through the forest and spatially averaged deposition rates decrease, particularly when this coincides with decreasing vegetation densities. Moreover, the sediment trapping efficiency is found to reduce significantly with diminishing sediment inputs and with mangrove area losses. These results clearly indicate the sensitivity of mangroves' ecosystem engineering ability-in terms of sedimentation-to climate change and anthropogenic threats.

  4. Oceanobacillus halophilum sp. nov. isolated from a mangrove forest soil.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jia; Yang, Guiqin; Wang, Yueqiang; Wu, Chu; Zhou, Shungui

    2014-05-01

    A halophilic, aerobic bacterium, designated GD01(T), was isolated from a mangrove forest soil near the South China Sea. Cells of strain GD01(T) were Gram staining positive, oxidase positive, and catalase positive. The strain was rod shaped and motile by means of peritrichous flagella and produced ellipsoidal endospores. The strain was able to grow with NaCl at concentrations of 0.5-12 % (optimum 3-5 %, w/v), at temperatures of 20-50 °C (optimum 30 °C), and at pH 6.0-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain GD01(T) formed a cluster with O. profundus DSM 18246(T) (96.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), O. caeni KCTC 13061(T) (95.4 %), and O. oncorhynchi JCM 12661(T) (94.5 %). The G+C content of strain GD01(T) was 38.7 mol%. The major respiratory quinone was MK-7. The major cellular fatty acids (>5 %) were anteiso-C15:0, iso-C16:0 (13.7 %), anteiso-C17:0 (12.6 %), iso-C15:0 (9.9 %), iso-C14:0 (9.5 %), and C16:0 (5.0 %). The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, glycolipid, four unknown lipids, and four unknown phospholipids. Based on phenotypic characteristics, chemotaxonomic features, and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, the strain was identified to represent a distinct novel species in the genus Oceanobacillus, and the name proposed is Oceanobacillus halophilum sp. nov. with type train GD01(T) (=CCTCC AB 2012863(T) = KCTC 33101(T)). PMID:24430724

  5. Change and fragmentation trends of Zhanjiang mangrove forests in southern China using multi-temporal Landsat imagery (1977-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M. S.; Mao, L. J.; Shen, W. J.; Liu, S. Q.; Wei, A. S.

    2013-09-01

    Mangrove forests, which are found in saline coastal environments around the tropical and subtropical latitudes, are among the most productive terrestrial ecosystems in the world and provide valuable ecological and societal goods and services. The objective of this work was to characterize the spatio-temporal changes in mangrove distribution and fragmentation patterns in the Zhanjiang National Mangrove Forest Nature Reserve, Guangdong province of Southern China, from 1977 through 2010. In addition, a major goal was to assess the socio-economic drivers contributing to the chronic changes taking place within and around the mangrove reserve. Land use and land cover data sets were generated for the reserve for multiple years via unsupervised classification using Landsat time series images. Mangrove fragmentation patterns were then assessed with a fragmentation model. Results revealed that the mangrove spatial extent decreased sharply during the period from 1977 to 1991 due to deforestation caused by diverse development programs, particularly shrimp farming. Afterwards, there was a continuous increase in mangrove extent from 1991 to 2010 due to afforestation and conservation efforts. The mangrove fragmentation trends depicted by the fragmentation model had a high degree of correlation with the observed areal changes. Additionally, the recorded dynamics of the local biodiversity (mainly birds) were consistent with the mangrove ecosystem fragmentation trends over time, and different fragmentation components, including interior, perforated and edge, had distinct impacts on the local mangrove-dependent biodiversity. The most effective way to protect and expand the current mangroves include the following: (1) establishment of mangrove natural reserves, (2) forceful implementation of regulations, (3) establishment of educational programs related to mangrove management, (4) deepening international exchanges and cooperation and (5) increasing the transparency of the project implementation process. Together such management measures will lead towards responsible and sustainable utilization of the mangrove ecosystems.

  6. Assessing impact of climate change on Mundra mangrove forest ecosystem, Gulf of Kutch, western coast of India: a synergistic evaluation using remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Prashant K.; Mehta, Abhinav; Gupta, Manika; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Islam, Tanvir

    2014-06-01

    Mangrove cover changes have globally raised the apprehensions as the changes influence the coastal climate as well as the marine ecosystem services. The main goals of this research are focused on the monitoring of land cover and mangrove spatial changes particularly for the Mundra forest in the western coast of Gujarat state, India, which is famous for its unique mangrove bio-diversity. The multi-temporal Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) Linear Imaging Self Scanning (LISS)-II (IRS-1B) and III (IRS P6/RESOURCESAT-1) images captured in the year 1994 and 2010 were utilized for the spatio-temporal analysis of the area. The land cover and mangrove density was estimated by a unique hybrid classification which consists of K means unsupervised following maximum likelihood classification (MLC) supervised classification-based approach. The vegetation and non-vegetation layers has been extracted and separated by unsupervised classification technique while the training-based MLC was applied on the separated vegetation and non-vegetation classes to classify them into 11 land use/land cover classes. The climatic variables of the area involves wind, temperature, dew point, precipitation, and mean sea level investigated for the period of 17 years over the site. To understand the driving factors, the anthropogenic variables were also taken into account such as historical population datasets. The overall analysis indicates a significant change in the frequency and magnitude of sea-level rise from 1994 to 2010. The analysis of the meteorological variables indicates a high pressure and changes in mangrove density during the 17 years of time, which reveals that if appropriate actions are not initiated soon, the Mundra mangroves might become the victims of climate change-induced habitat loss. After analyzing all the factors, some recommendations and suggestions are provided for effective mangrove conservation and resilience, which could be used by forest official to protect this precious ecosystem.

  7. Attitudes of local communities towards conservation of mangrove forests: A case study from the east coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badola, Ruchi; Barthwal, Shivani; Hussain, Syed Ainul

    2012-01-01

    The ecological and economic importance of mangrove ecosystems is well established and highlighted by studies establishing a correlation between the protective function of mangroves and the loss of lives and property caused by coastal hazards. Nevertheless, degradation of this ecosystem remains a matter of concern, emphasizing the fact that effective conservation of natural resources is possible only with an understanding of the attitudes and perceptions of local communities. In the present study, we examined the attitudes and perceptions of local communities towards mangrove forests through questionnaire surveys in 36 villages in the Bhitarkanika Conservation Area, India. The sample villages were selected from 336 villages using hierarchical cluster analysis. The study revealed that local communities in the area had positive attitudes towards conservation and that their demographic and socio-economic conditions influenced people's attitudes. Local communities valued those functions of mangrove forests that were directly linked to their wellbeing. Despite human-wildlife conflict, the attitudes of the local communities were not altogether negative, and they were willing to participate in mangrove restoration. People agreed to adopt alternative resources if access to forest resources were curtailed. Respondents living near the forests, who could not afford alternatives, admitted that they would resort to pilfering. Hence, increasing their livelihood options may reduce the pressure on mangrove forests. In contrast with other ecosystems, the linkages of mangrove ecosystem services with local livelihoods and security are direct and tangible. It is therefore possible to develop strong local support for sustainable management of mangrove forests in areas where a positive attitude towards mangrove conservation prevails. The current debates on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) and payment for ecosystem services provide ample scope for development of sustainable livelihood options for local communities from the conservation of critical ecosystems such as mangroves.

  8. Habitat creation and biodiversity maintenance in mangrove forests: teredinid bivalves as ecosystem engineers

    PubMed Central

    Michie, Laura; Taylor, Ben W.

    2014-01-01

    Substantial amounts of dead wood in the intertidal zone of mature mangrove forests are tunnelled by teredinid bivalves. When the tunnels are exposed, animals are able to use tunnels as refuges. In this study, the effect of teredinid tunnelling upon mangrove forest faunal diversity was investigated. Mangrove forests exposed to long emersion times had fewer teredinid tunnels in wood and wood not containing teredinid tunnels had very few species and abundance of animals. However, with a greater cross-sectional percentage surface area of teredinid tunnels, the numbers of species and abundance of animals was significantly higher. Temperatures within teredinid-attacked wood were significantly cooler compared with air temperatures, and animal abundance was greater in wood with cooler temperatures. Animals inside the tunnels within the wood may avoid desiccation by escaping the higher temperatures. Animals co-existing in teredinid tunnelled wood ranged from animals found in terrestrial ecosystems including centipedes, crickets and spiders, and animals found in subtidal marine ecosystems such as fish, octopods and polychaetes. There was also evidence of breeding within teredinid-attacked wood, as many juvenile individuals were found, and they may also benefit from the cooler wood temperatures. Teredinid tunnelled wood is a key low-tide refuge for cryptic animals, which would otherwise be exposed to fishes and birds, and higher external temperatures. This study provides evidence that teredinids are ecosystem engineers and also provides an example of a mechanism whereby mangrove forests support intertidal biodiversity and nurseries through the wood-boring activity of teredinids. PMID:25276505

  9. A survey method for estimating potential levels of mangrove forest primary production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Bunt; K. G. Boto; G. Boto

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of net photosynthesis in mangrove communities by direct methods is technically and logistically difficult. Recording litter fall alone neglects other important components of production. A method has been developed which lends itself to ready application for obtaining survey estimates of photosynthetic yield. The procedure involves measurement of light attenuation through forest canopies attributable to photosynthetic utilization and standardized against

  10. Ecotourism to Protect the Reserve Mangrove Forest the Sundarbans and its Flora and Fauna

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. ABDUS SALAM; G. ROSS LINDSAY; MALCOLM C. M. BEVERIDGE

    2000-01-01

    Nature based tourism is increasing throughout the world. Most is based in national parks and restricted areas. UNESCO has declared 28% of the world's largest continuous mangrove forest, the Sundarbans, as a world heritage site in 1987. But having the world's densest population, it is difficult to protect the flora and fauna unless there are economic benefits to the country

  11. Mangrove Forest Cover Change in the Bangladesh Sundarbans from 1989-2000: A Remote Sensing Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Emch; Marc Peterson

    2006-01-01

    This paper quantifies mangrove forest cover change in the Sundarbans of southwest Bangladesh from 1989 to 2000 using Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite imagery. We used three image processing techniques: normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI), maximum likelihood classification, and subpixel classification. We compared change detection results using the three image processing methods. Traditional classifiers, such as maximum likelihood algorithms, do not

  12. Redox conditions and heavy metals distribution in mangrove forests receiving shrimp farm effluents (Teremba bay, New Caledonia)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Redox conditions and heavy metals distribution in mangrove forests receiving shrimp farm rocks and lateritic soils that are exploited for their richness in some heavy metals. We will endeavour heavy metals distributions in mangroves receiving shrimp farm effluents. Materials and methods Samples

  13. Leaf production and nutrient contents of the seagrass Thalassodendron ciliatum in the proximity of a mangrove forest (Gazi Bay, Kenya)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Hemminga; Gwada M. P; F. J. Slim; P. de Koeyer; J. Kazungu

    1995-01-01

    Mangrove forests, seagrass meadows and coral reefs may occur as adjacent ecosystems in tropical coastal zones, where tide-mediated chemical fluxes allow one system to influence another. Previously, stable carbon isotope (13C12C) analyses have been used to show that outwelling of carbon from the mangrove forest of Gazi Bay (Kenya) was followed by trapping of this element in the adjacent seagrass

  14. Ecuador's mangrove forest carbon stocks: A spatiotemporal analysis of living carbon holdings and their depletion since the advent of commercial aquaculture

    E-print Network

    Hamilton, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the living carbon lost from Ecuador's mangrove forests since the advent of export-focused shrimp aquaculture. We use remote sensing techniques to delineate the extent of mangroves and aquaculture at approximately decadal periods since the arrival of aquaculture in each Ecuadorian estuary. We then spatiotemporally calculate the carbon values of the mangrove forests and estimate the amount of carbon lost due to direct displacement by aquaculture. Additionally, we calculate the new carbon stocks generated due to mangrove reforestation or afforestation. This research introduces time and land use / land cover change (LUCC) into the tropical forest carbon literature and examines forest carbon loss at a higher spatiotemporal resolution than in many earlier analyses. We find that 80%, or 7,014,517 t of the living carbon lost in Ecuadorian mangrove forests can be attributed to direct displacement of mangrove forests by shrimp aquaculture. We also find that Intergovernmental Panel on Climate C...

  15. Seasonal abundance, distribution and recruitment of mud crabs ( Scylla spp.) in replanted mangroves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark E. Walton; Lewis Le Vay; Junemie H. Lebata; Joseph Binas; Jurgenne H. Primavera

    2006-01-01

    The abundance and distribution of mud crabs were studied in a replanted mangrove forest in Buswang, Aklan, Philippines. Two fishing gears, lift nets and bamboo traps, were used to monitor relative abundance of Scylla spp. populations from March 2002 to December 2003 inside the mangrove forest. A third gear, a stakenet set across a creek, was used to monitor crabs

  16. Airborne Laser Scanning Quantification of Disturbances from Hurricanes and Lightning Strikes to Mangrove Forests in Everglades National Park, USA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Keqi; Simard, Marc; Ross, Michael; Rivera-Monroy, Victor H.; Houle, Patricia; Ruiz, Pablo; Twilley, Robert R.; Whelan, Kevin R. T.

    2008-01-01

    Airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) measurements derived before and after Hurricanes Katrina and Wilma (2005) were used to quantify the impact of hurricanes and lightning strikes on the mangrove forest at two sites in Everglades National Park (ENP). Analysis of LIDAR measurements covering 61 and 68 ha areas of mangrove forest at the Shark River and Broad River sites showed that the proportion of high tree canopy detected by the LIDAR after the 2005 hurricane season decreased significantly due to defoliation and breakage of branches and trunks, while the proportion of low canopy and the ground increased drastically. Tall mangrove forests distant from tidal creeks suffered more damage than lower mangrove forests adjacent to the tidal creeks. The hurricanes created numerous canopy gaps, and the number of gaps per square kilometer increased from about 400?500 to 4000 after Katrina and Wilma. The total area of gaps in the forest increased from about 1?2% of the total forest area to 12%. The relative contribution of hurricanes to mangrove forest disturbance in ENP is at least 2 times more than that from lightning strikes. However, hurricanes and lightning strikes disturb the mangrove forest in a related way. Most seedlings in lightning gaps survived the hurricane impact due to the protection of trees surrounding the gaps, and therefore provide an important resource for forest recovery after the hurricane. This research demonstrated that LIDAR is an effective remote sensing tool to quantify the effects of disturbances such as hurricanes and lightning strikes in the mangrove forest.

  17. Dissolved inorganic carbon dynamics in the waters surrounding forested mangroves of the Ca Mau Province (Vietnam)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koné, Y. J.-M.; Borges, A. V.

    2008-04-01

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and ancillary data were obtained during the dry and rainy seasons in the waters surrounding two 10-year-old forested mangrove sites (Tam Giang and Kiên Vàng) located in the Ca Mau Province (South-West Vietnam). During both seasons, the spatial variations of partial pressure of CO 2 (pCO 2) were marked, with values ranging from 704 ppm to 11481 ppm during the dry season, and from 1209 ppm to 8136 ppm during the rainy season. During both seasons, DIC, pCO 2, total alkalinity (TAlk) and oxygen saturation levels (%O 2) were correlated with salinity in the mangrove creeks suggesting that a combination of lower water volume and longer residence time (leading to an increase in salinity due to evaporation) enhanced the enrichment in DIC, pCO 2 and TAlk, and an impoverishment in O 2. The low O 2 and high DIC and pCO 2 values suggest that heterotrophic processes in the water column and sediments controlled these variables. The latter processes were meaningful since the high DIC and TAlk values in the creek waters were related to some extent to the influx of pore waters, consistent with previous observations. This was confirmed by the stochiometric relationship between TAlk and DIC that shows that anaerobic processes control these variables, although this approach did not allow identifying unambiguously the dominant diagenetic carbon degradation pathway. During the rainy season, dilution led to significant decreases of salinity, TAlk and DIC in both mangrove creeks and adjacent main channels. In the Kiên Vàng mangrove creeks a distinct increase of pCO 2 and decrease of %O 2 were observed. The increase of TSM suggested enhanced inputs of organic matter probably from land surrounding the mangrove creeks, that could have led to higher benthic and water column heterotrophy. However, the flushing of water enriched in dissolved CO 2 originating from soil respiration and impoverished in O 2 could also have explained to some extent the patterns observed during the rainy season. Seasonal variations of pCO 2 were more pronounced in the Kiên Vàng mangrove creeks than in the Tam Giang mangrove creeks. The air-water CO 2 fluxes were 5 times higher during the rainy season than during the dry season in the Kiên Vàng mangrove creeks. In the Tam Giang mangrove creeks, the air-water CO 2 fluxes were similar during both seasons. The air-water CO 2 fluxes ranged from 27.1 mmol C m -2 d -1 to 141.5 mmol C m -2 d -1 during the dry season, and from 81.3 mmol m -2 d -1 to 154.7 mmol m -2 d -1 during the rainy season. These values are within the range of values previously reported in other mangrove creeks and confirm that the emission of CO 2 from waters surrounding mangrove forests are meaningful for the carbon budgets of mangrove forests.

  18. Differential rates of vertical accretion and elevation change among aerial root types in Micronesian mangrove forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krauss, K.W.; Allen, J.A.; Cahoon, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    Root systems in mangrove swamps have captured the attention of scientists for decades. Among the postulated roles of root structures include a contribution to the geomorphological stability of mangrove soils through sediment trapping and binding. In this study, we used feldspar marker horizons and sediment pins to investigate the influence of three different functional root types - prop roots in Rhizophora spp., root knees in Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, and pneumatophores in Sonneratia alba - on vertical accretion and elevation change in three mangrove forests in the Federated States of Micronesia. Prop roots facilitated vertical accretion (11.0 mm year-1) more than pneumatophores or bare soil controls (mean, 8.3 mm year-1). Sediment elevation, on the other hand, increased at an average rate of only 1.3 mm year-1 across all root types, with rate differences by root type, ranging from -0.2 to 3.4 mm year-1, being detected within river basins. This investigation demonstrates that prop roots can assist in the settling of suspended sediments from estuarine waters, yet prop root structures are not as successful as pneumatophores in maintaining sediment elevation over 2.5 years. As root densities increase over time, an increase in turbulence-induced erosion and in shallow subsidence as organic peat layers form is expected in Micronesian mangrove forests. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Nutrient Dynamics of a Futian Mangrove Forest in Shenzhen, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M. S.

    1997-10-01

    An ecological study was carried out to determine nutrient levels of sediments, plant tissues and nutrient dynamics in an Aegiceras corniculatum-Kandelia candeldominated forest in Futian Mangrove Nature Reserve, Shenzhen, the People's Republic of China. The average tree height of the mangrove is 4·5 m with no vertical stratification. Allometric methodology was used to measure the biomass, and yield a figure of 108·26 t ha -1. The annual growth of the forest (1992) 15·92 t ha -1and the litterfall rate amounted to 11·49 t ha -1. Nutrient stocks of N, P and K in this mangrove were 616·05, 128·63 and 801·17 kg ha -1, with an annual accumulation of 91·34, 14·74 and 130·60 kg ha -1, and with an annual return of 88·30, 12·85 and 29·32 kg ha -1in the form of litter, respectively. The annual uptake (accumulation+return) for N, P and K was 179·64, 27·59 and 159·92 kg ha -1, respectively, in 1992. It seems that this mangrove community is close to equilibrium in terms of import and export of N and P, but has an obvious conservation of K. Enrichment ratios of N, P and K were at 1·10, 0·81 and 0·76, respectively, lower than their counterparts in terrestrial forests. The turnover rate (the stock amount in the community/annual return) of N, P and K was estimated at 7, 10 and 27 years, respectively. Flow coefficients and translocation rates, which reveal the dynamic processes of nutrients between mangrove plants and sediments, are also discussed.

  20. The reduction effects of mangrove forest on a tsunami based on field surveys at Pakarang Cape, Thailand and numerical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Hideaki; Koshimura, Shunichi; Goto, Kazuhisa; Miyagi, Toyohiko; Imamura, Fumihiko; Ruangrassamee, Anat; Tanavud, Charlchai

    2009-01-01

    Using an integrated approach including satellite imagery analysis, field measurements, and numerical modeling, we investigated the damage to mangroves caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami at Pakarang Cape in Pang Nga Province, Thailand. Comparing pre- and post-tsunami satellite imagery of the study area, we found that approximately 70% of the mangrove forest was destroyed by the tsunami. Based on field observations, we found that the survival rate of mangroves increased with increasing stem diameter. Specifically, we found that 72% of Rhizophora trees with a 25-30 cm stem diameter survived the tsunami impact, whereas only 19% with a 15-20 cm stem diameter survived. We simulated the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami using the nonlinear shallow-water wave theory to reproduce the tsunami inundation flow and investigated the bending moment acting on the mangrove trees. Results of the numerical model showed that the tsunami inundated areas along the mangrove creeks, and its current velocity reached 5.0 m s -1. Based on the field measurements and numerical results, we proposed a fragility function for mangroves, which is the relationship between the probability of damage and the bending stress caused by the maximum bending moment. We refined the numerical model to include the damage probability of mangrove forests using the obtained fragility function to investigate the tsunami reduction effect of mangrove forest. Under simple numerical conditions related to the mangrove forest, ground level, and incident wave, the model showed that a mangrove forest of Rhizophora sp. with a density of 0.2 trees m -2 and a stem diameter of 15 cm in a 400 m wide area can reduce the tsunami inundation depth by 30% when the incident wave is assumed to have a 3.0 m inundation depth and a wave period of 30 min at the shoreline. However, 50% of the mangrove forest is destroyed by a 4.5 m tsunami inundation depth, and most of the mangrove forest is destroyed by a tsunami inundation depth greater than 6 m. The reduction effect of tsunami inundation depth decreased when the tsunami inundation depth exceeded 3 m, and was mostly lost when the tsunami inundation depth exceeded 6 m.

  1. Mangrove Action Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This nonprofit organization provides information about the biology and ecology of mangrove species, the distribution of mangrove forests and importance of mangrove ecosystems to wildlife and people worldwide. Photos, slide show, current issues and links to related sites are provided. Threats to mangroves are described and sustainable alternatives, based on pilot projects, are presented. Appropriate for grades 8 and up.

  2. Standing crop and aboveground biomass partitioning of a dwarf mangrove forest in Taylor River Slough, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coronado-Molina, C.; Day, J.W.; Reyes, E.; Perez, B.C.

    2004-01-01

    The structure and standing crop biomass of a dwarf mangrove forest, located in the salinity transition zone ofTaylor River Slough in the Everglades National Park, were studied. Although the four mangrove species reported for Florida occurred at the study site, dwarf Rhizophora mangle trees dominated the forest. The structural characteristics of the mangrove forest were relatively simple: tree height varied from 0.9 to 1.2 meters, and tree density ranged from 7062 to 23 778 stems haa??1. An allometric relationship was developed to estimate leaf, branch, prop root, and total aboveground biomass of dwarf Rhizophora mangle trees. Total aboveground biomass and their components were best estimated as a power function of the crown area times number of prop roots as an independent variable (Y = B ?? Xa??0.5083). The allometric equation for each tree component was highly significant (p<0.0001), with all r2 values greater than 0.90. The allometric relationship was used to estimate total aboveground biomass that ranged from 7.9 to 23.2 ton haa??1. Rhizophora mangle contributed 85% of total standing crop biomass. Conocarpus erectus, Laguncularia racemosa, and Avicennia germinans contributed the remaining biomass. Average aboveground biomass allocation was 69% for prop roots, 25% for stem and branches, and 6% for leaves. This aboveground biomass partitioning pattern, which gives a major role to prop roots that have the potential to produce an extensive root system, may be an important biological strategy in response to low phosphorus availability and relatively reduced soils that characterize mangrove forests in South Florida.

  3. Simulated and observed L-HH radar backscatter from tropical mangrove forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Wang; M. L. Imhoff

    1993-01-01

    We applied the Santa Barbara canopy backscatter model to model radar backscatter from mangrove forest stands in the Ganges delta of southern Bangladesh, and assessed the feasibility of delineating flooding boundaries within the stands. Modelled L-band (0-235 m wavelength) HH backscatter showed that canopy volume scattering dominated for stands under nonflooded ground surface. Double bounce trunk-ground term were enhanced by

  4. Hydrologic monitoring and analysis in the Sundarbans mangrove ecosystem, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahid, Shahriar Md.; Babel, Mukand S.; Bhuiyan, Abdur Rahman

    2007-01-01

    SummaryThe unique habitat of the Sundarbans mangrove ecosystem is dependent upon the hydrological regime. Therefore, a comprehensive study to understand the hydrologic behaviour and the changes that have taken place due to anthropogenic activities in and around the area is fundamental to the management of natural resources and environment. In the past, ad hoc and uncoordinated efforts were made due to the inherent inaccessibility and high cost of data collection. The present article documents the results of the hydrologic monitoring, modelling and analysis in the Sundarbans. The study results show that the annual maximum tidal range has increased by about 0.75 m in the eastern and central parts during the last two decades. About 60% area remains in higher salinity condition (>20 ppt) for at least 1.5 months in a year. Organic pollution in the waterways is within the Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) of Bangladesh with the average Dissolved Oxygen (DO) of 5.99 mg/L. Total Ammonia, Nitrate (NO 3-N) and Phosphate (PO 4-P) level are present in sufficient quantity for the aquatic life to survive and are within EQS limit. Lead and Chromium occasionally exceed EQS limit especially along the large barge routes in the western part. The data and information presented in the paper will serve as a baseline for future hydrological and environmental studies.

  5. Marbled Murrelet Effectiveness Monitoring Northwest Forest Plan

    E-print Network

    Jodice, Patrick

    Marbled Murrelet Effectiveness Monitoring Northwest Forest Plan 2001 Annual Summary Report Patrick Jodice Marbled Murrelet Module Lead Northwest Forest Plan Interagency Monitoring Program March 2002 Team Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station #12;Marbled Murrelet Effectiveness Monitoring Jodice

  6. Changes in Carbon Pool and Stand Structure of a Native Subtropical Mangrove Forest after Inter-Planting with Exotic Species Sonneratia apetala

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Weizhi; Yang, Shengchang; Chen, Luzhen; Wang, Wenqing; Du, Xiaona; Wang, Canmou; Ma, Yan; Lin, Guangxuan; Lin, Guanghui

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we compared stand structure, biomass and soil carbon pools, and litterfall production between a mixed mangrove forest consisting of Aegiceras corniculatum inter-planted with the exotic Sonneratia apetala and a native monospecific forest dominated by A. corniculatum in the intertidal area of Zhanjiang, Guangdong Province, southeast China. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that inter-planting fast growing exotic mangrove S. apetala into subtropical native mangrove forests will significantly increase C sequestration. Although the tree heights and basal diameters of S. apetala were significantly higher than those of A. corniculatum, the density of the 12-year-old S. apetala trees in the mixed forest was much smaller than that of A. corniculatum in the monospecific forest. In contrast to several previous studies on S. apetala forests planted directly on mangrove-free mudflats, the mixed mangrove forest showed no significant difference in either standing biomass or soil carbon pools from the native monospecific mangrove forest (p?=?0.294 and 0.073, respectively) twelve years after inter-planting with S. apetala. Moreover, carbon cycling was likely speeded up after inter-planting S. apetala due to higher litterfall input and lower C/N ratio. Thus, inter-planting fast-growing S. apetala into native mangrove forest is not an effective way to increase carbon sequestration in this subtropical mangrove forest. Given that exotic plant species may exert negative impact on native mangrove species and related epifauna, this fast-growing mangrove species is not suitable for mangrove plantation projects aiming mainly at enhancing carbon sequestration. PMID:24618793

  7. Landscape analysis and pattern of hurricane impact and circulation on mangrove forests of the everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, T.W.; Krauss, K.W.; Wells, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Everglades ecosystem contains the largest contiguous tract of mangrove forest outside the tropics that were also coincidentally intersected by a major Category 5 hurricane. Airborne videography was flown to capture the landscape pattern and process of forest damage in relation to storm trajectory and circulation. Two aerial video transects, representing different topographic positions, were used to quantify forest damage from video frame analysis in relation to prevailing wind force, treefall direction, and forest height. A hurricane simulation model was applied to reconstruct wind fields corresponding to the ground location of each video frame and to correlate observed treefall and destruction patterns with wind speed and direction. Mangrove forests within the storm's eyepath and in the right-side (forewind) quadrants suffered whole or partial blowdowns, while left-side (backwind) sites south of the eyewall zone incurred moderate canopy reduction and defoliation. Sites along the coastal transect sustained substantially more storm damage than sites along the inland transect which may be attributed to differences in stand exposure and/or stature. Observed treefall directions were shown to be non-random and associated with hurricane trajectory and simulated forewind azimuths. Wide-area sampling using airborne videography provided an efficient adjunct to limited ground observations and improved our spatial understanding of how hurricanes imprint landscape-scale patterns of disturbance. ?? 2009 The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  8. Controls on mangrove forest-atmosphere carbon dioxide exchanges in western Everglades National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Jordan G.; Engel, Vic; Fuentes, Jose D.; Zieman, Joseph C.; O'Halloran, Thomas L.; Smith, Thomas J., III; Anderson, Gordon H.

    2010-01-01

    We report on net ecosystem production (NEP) and key environmental controls on net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide (CO2) between a mangrove forest and the atmosphere in the coastal Florida Everglades. An eddy covariance system deployed above the canopy was used to determine NEE during January 2004 through August 2005. Maximum daytime NEE ranged from -20 to -25 ?mol (CO2) m-2 s-1 between March and May. Respiration (Rd) was highly variable (2.81 ± 2.41 ?mol (CO2) m-2 s-1), reaching peak values during the summer wet season. During the winter dry season, forest CO2 assimilation increased with the proportion of diffuse solar irradiance in response to greater radiative transfer in the forest canopy. Surface water salinity and tidal activity were also important controls on NEE. Daily light use efficiency was reduced at high (>34 parts per thousand (ppt)) compared to low (d by ~0.9 ?mol (CO2) m-2 s-1 and nighttime Rd by ~0.5 ?mol (CO2) m-2 s-1. The forest was a sink for atmospheric CO2, with an annual NEP of 1170 ± 127 g C m-2 during 2004. This unusually high NEP was attributed to year-round productivity and low ecosystem respiration which reached a maximum of only 3 g C m-2 d-1. Tidal export of dissolved inorganic carbon derived from belowground respiration likely lowered the estimates of mangrove forest respiration. These results suggest that carbon balance in mangrove coastal systems will change in response to variable salinity and inundation patterns, possibly resulting from secular sea level rise and climate change.

  9. Hydrological and geomorphological controls on a mangrove forest maintenance during the dry season in the Pacific Coast of Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderon, Heyddy; Weeda, Ruben; Uhlenbrook, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Hydrological and geomorphological processes are key to mangrove forest growth and development. However, very few studies have been carried out in Central American mangroves to understand their hydrological functioning. Here, a small mangrove forest (0.2 km2) in the South Pacific coast of Nicaragua was investigated to determine sources of freshwater inputs and fluxes of water and nutrients to the sea during the dry season. The general groundwater flow direction is from NE to SW towards the sea. The aquifer is composed of clay and alluvial deposits overlying a fractured shale unit. Shallow groundwater is influenced by a nearby town through infiltration of grey water and pit latrines. Groundwater from the mangrove showed Mn2+ and Fe2+ presence indicating occurrence of denitrification and the role of the mangrove as a nutrient sink. Also, refreshening and salinization processes were identified near the river, indicated by different water facies. Freshwater inputs from precipitation and groundwater discharge maintain adequate salt gradients. The water balance showed an increase of around 619 m3 d-1 in storage during a 22 study period during the dry season, which is reflected by increased hydraulic heads and river stage. Water storage is fostered by low conductivity soil materials and beach ridges parallel to the coast line, whereby the latter occassionally breach due to overtopping of surface water. These conditions favor forest subsistence during the dry season, allowing the mangrove to continue to provide ecological and economic benefits in terms of protection against flooding, habitat for numerous species and tourist attraction.

  10. Degradation of mangrove tissues and implications for peat formation in Belizean island forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, B.A.; McKee, K.L.

    2001-01-01

    1. Macrofaunal leaf consumption and degradation of leaves, woody twigs and roots were studied in mangrove island forests on a Belizean island. Factors influencing accumulation of organic matter deposited both above and below ground in this oligotrophic, autochothonous system were assessed. 2. Leaf degradation rates of Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove), Avicennia germinans (black mangrove) and Laguncularia racemosa (white mangrove) measured in mesh bags, were much faster in the lower than the upper intertidal zone. Mass loss was most rapid in A. germinans but zonal effects were much larger than species differences. 3. Exposure to invertebrates such as crabs and amphipods tripled overall rates of leaf litter breakdown. In the lower intertidal, crabs completely consumed some unbagged leaves within 23 days. Crabs also had an effect on some upper intertidal sites, where degradation of leaves placed in artificial burrows was 2.4 times faster than when placed on the soil surface. 4. In contrast to leaves (27??5% remaining after 230 days), roots and woody twigs were highly refractory (40??2% and 51??6% remaining after 584 and 540 days, respectively). Root degradation did not vary by soil depth, zone or species. Twigs of R. mangle and A. germinans degraded faster on the ground than in the canopy, whereas those of L. racemosa were highly resistant to decay regardless of position. 5. Peat formation at Twin Cays has occurred primarily through deposition and slow turnover of mangrove roots, rather than above-ground tissues that are either less abundant (woody twigs) or more readily removed (leaves).

  11. Ecuador's Mangrove Forest Carbon Stocks: A Spatiotemporal Analysis of Living Carbon Holdings and Their Depletion since the Advent of Commercial Aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Stuart E; Lovette, John

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the living carbon lost from Ecuador's mangrove forests since the advent of export-focused shrimp aquaculture. We use remote sensing techniques to delineate the extent of mangroves and aquaculture at approximately decadal periods since the arrival of aquaculture in each Ecuadorian estuary. We then spatiotemporally calculate the carbon values of the mangrove forests and estimate the amount of carbon lost due to direct displacement by aquaculture. Additionally, we calculate the new carbon stocks generated due to mangrove reforestation or afforestation. This research introduces time and LUCC (land use / land cover change) into the tropical forest carbon literature and examines forest carbon loss at a higher spatiotemporal resolution than in many earlier analyses. We find that 80 percent, or 7,014,517 t of the living carbon lost in Ecuadorian mangrove forests can be attributed to direct displacement of mangrove forests by shrimp aquaculture. We also find that IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) compliant carbon grids within Ecuador's estuaries overestimate living carbon levels in estuaries where substantial LUCC has occurred. By approaching the mangrove forest carbon loss question from a LUCC perspective, these findings allow for tropical nations and other intervention agents to prioritize and target a limited set of land transitions that likely drive the majority of carbon losses. This singular cause of transition has implications for programs that attempt to offset or limit future forest carbon losses and place value on forest carbon or other forest good and services. PMID:25738286

  12. Ecuador’s Mangrove Forest Carbon Stocks: A Spatiotemporal Analysis of Living Carbon Holdings and Their Depletion since the Advent of Commercial Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the living carbon lost from Ecuador’s mangrove forests since the advent of export-focused shrimp aquaculture. We use remote sensing techniques to delineate the extent of mangroves and aquaculture at approximately decadal periods since the arrival of aquaculture in each Ecuadorian estuary. We then spatiotemporally calculate the carbon values of the mangrove forests and estimate the amount of carbon lost due to direct displacement by aquaculture. Additionally, we calculate the new carbon stocks generated due to mangrove reforestation or afforestation. This research introduces time and LUCC (land use / land cover change) into the tropical forest carbon literature and examines forest carbon loss at a higher spatiotemporal resolution than in many earlier analyses. We find that 80 percent, or 7,014,517 t of the living carbon lost in Ecuadorian mangrove forests can be attributed to direct displacement of mangrove forests by shrimp aquaculture. We also find that IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) compliant carbon grids within Ecuador’s estuaries overestimate living carbon levels in estuaries where substantial LUCC has occurred. By approaching the mangrove forest carbon loss question from a LUCC perspective, these findings allow for tropical nations and other intervention agents to prioritize and target a limited set of land transitions that likely drive the majority of carbon losses. This singular cause of transition has implications for programs that attempt to offset or limit future forest carbon losses and place value on forest carbon or other forest good and services. PMID:25738286

  13. Carbon sequestration and annual increase of carbon stock in a mangrove forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, R.; Ganguly, D.; Chowdhury, C.; Dey, M.; Das, S.; Dutta, M. K.; Mandal, S. K.; Majumder, N.; De, T. K.; Mukhopadhyay, S. K.; Jana, T. K.

    2011-09-01

    Here we show carbon stock is lower in the tropical mangrove forest than in the terrestrial tropical forest and their annual increase exhibits faster turn over than the tropical forest. Variable for above ground biomass are in decreasing order of importance, breast height diameter ( d), height ( H) and wood density ( ?). The above ground biomass (AGB) and live below ground biomass (LBGB) held different biomass (39.93 ± 14.05 t C ha -1 versus 9.61 ± 3.37 t C ha -1). Carbon accrual to live biomass (4.71-6.54 Mg C ha -1 a -1) is more than offset by losses from litter fall (4.85 Mg C ha -1 a -1), and carbon sequestration differs significantly between live biomass (1.69 Mg C ha -1 a -1) and sediment (0.012 Mg C ha -1 a -1). Growth specific analyses of taxon density suggest that changes in resource availability and environmental constrains could be the cause of the annual increase in carbon stocks in the Sundarbans mangrove forest in contrast to the disturbance - recovery hypotheses.

  14. Variations in mangrove forest productivity in northern Australia and Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boto, K. G.; Bunt, J. S.; Wellington, J. T.

    1984-09-01

    A survey method previously developed for estimating potential net primary production (PN) of mangrove forests was applied at 19 widely separated sites in tropical northern Australia and six sites in the Gulf of Papua. These estimates are compared with previous results for mangrove forests at Hinchinbrook Island, north Queensland. Surveys of soil properties in these areas indicate that low availability of soil phosphorus is a major contributing factor to the consistently in PN estimates of Cape York and North-western Australian forests (range in PN=11-26; mean PN= 19kg C ha-1 day-1) compared with the Hinchin-brook Island and Gulf of Papua forests (range in PN=3-38; mean PN=26 kg C ha-1 day-1). The regional variation and possible effects of other soil properties, such as redox potential and salinity, are discussed briefly. It is suggested that the generally low salinities and moderate soil redox status may partially offset the effects of low soil P in the Cape York region.

  15. Nitrogen limitation of growth and nutrient dynamics in a disturbed mangrove forest, Indian River Lagoon, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feller, I.C.; Whigham, D.F.; McKee, K.L.; Lovelock, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine effects of nutrient enrichment on plant growth, nutrient dynamics, and photosynthesis in a disturbed mangrove forest in an abandoned mosquito impoundment in Florida. Impounding altered the hydrology and soil chemistry of the site. In 1997, we established a factorial experiment along a tree-height gradient with three zones, i.e., fringe, transition, dwarf, and three fertilizer treatment levels, i.e., nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), control, in Mosquito Impoundment 23 on the eastern side of Indian River. Transects traversed the forest perpendicular to the shoreline, from a Rhizophora mangle-dominated fringe through an Avicennia germinans stand of intermediate height, and into a scrub or dwarf stand of A. germinans in the hinterland. Growth rates increased significantly in response to N fertilization. Our growth data indicated that this site is N-limited along the tree-height gradient. After 2 years of N addition, dwarf trees resembled vigorously growing saplings. Addition of N also affected internal dynamics of N and P and caused increases in rates of photosynthesis. These findings contrast with results for a R. mangle-dominated forest in Belize where the fringe is N-limited, but the dwarf zone is P-limited and the transition zone is co-limited by N and P. This study demonstrated that patterns of nutrient limitation in mangrove ecosystems are complex, that not all processes respond similarly to the same nutrient, and that similar habitats are not limited by the same nutrient when different mangrove forests are compared.

  16. Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Monitor, Map, and Forecast Mangrove Extent and Deforestation in Myanmar for Enhanced Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, C. P.; Jensen, D.; Disla, C.

    2013-12-01

    Mangrove ecosystems offer several significant services including providing habitat and spawning grounds for a diverse range of species, protecting coastal communities from storms and other natural disasters, and contributing resources and income for local residents. Currently, Myanmar is undergoing a period of rapid economic development which has led to increased pressure on the extensive mangrove habitat in the Ayeyarwady River Delta in southern Myanmar. In this study, we partnered with the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute to examine changes to mangrove extent between 1989 and 2013 using Landsat 4, 7, and 8 imagery in combination with a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) generated from ASTER stereoscopic imagery. Classification was performed using a Random Forests model and accuracy was assessed using higher resolution ASTER imagery and local expertise on mangrove distribution. Results show a large and consistent decline in mangrove cover during the study period. The data provided by this assessment was subsequently used to forecast potential vulnerability and changes to mangrove habitat up to 2030. A multi-layered perceptron was used to model transition potentials for vulnerability forecasting. Forest managers in Myanmar will be able to use the mangrove change maps and forecasts to evaluate current policies and focus future ones to maximize effectiveness. Data and methodology resulting from this project will be useful for future mangrove and land-cover mapping projects in this region.

  17. Local and landscape effects on spatial patterns of mangrove forest during wetter and drier periods: Moreton Bay, Southeast Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eslami-Andargoli, L.; Dale, P. E. R.; Sipe, N.; Chaseling, J.

    2010-09-01

    Land use/cover and mangrove spatial changes were assessed for ten sites and their sub-catchments in Southeast Queensland, Australia. Two time periods were involved: 1972-1990, a period of relatively high rainfall, and 1990-2004, which was significantly drier. Aerial photographs and Landsat satellite imagery were used to map the inter-tidal wetlands and classify the land use/cover in the sub-catchments. A Maximum Likelihood Classification was used to map three types of land cover: agriculture, built-up and plantation forest. Mangroves (mainly Avicennia marina) were the focus as they have been recorded over recent decades encroaching into salt marsh. The Mangrove-Salt marsh Interface (MSI) Index was developed to quantify the relative opportunity for mangroves to expand into salt marshes, based on the shared boundary between them. The index showed a consistent relationship with mangrove expansion and change. To address problems of high dimensionality and multi-collinearity of predictor variables, a Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) model was used. A key finding of this research was that the contribution of environmental variables to spatial changes in the mangroves was altered following a reduction in rainfall. For example, agriculture had more influence on mangrove expansion and change during the wet period than during the dry period.

  18. Use of archive aerial photography for monitoring black mangrove populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted on the south Texas Gulf Coast to evaluate archive aerial color-infrared (CIR) photography combined with supervised image analysis techniques to quantify changes in black mangrove [Avicennia germinans (L.) L.] populations over a 26-year period. Archive CIR film from two study si...

  19. Keystone species and mangrove forest dynamics: the influence of burrowing by crabs on soil nutrient status and forest productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Thomas J.; Boto, Kevin G.; Frusher, Stewart D.; Giddins, Raymond L.

    1991-11-01

    The density of the burrowing crab fauna in a mangrove forest was reduced, using pitfall traps, to test the hypothesis that decreased burrowing would lead to: (1) increased soil sulphide concentrations; (2) altered nutrient concentrations; and (3) decreased forest productivity and growth. Experiments were conducted in Rhizophora-dominated forests in north Queensland, Australia, over a 12-month period. Crabs were trapped and removed from the experimental plots during 1 week each month for a year. Soil chemical and forest growth parameters were measured at monthly intervals in the experimental and appropriate control plots. Over the course of the experiment, soil sulphide and ammonium concentrations increased to levels which were significantly higher in plots from which crabs were being removed in comparison to controls. No differences were observed for either phosphate or nitrate plus nitrite. Cumulative forest growth, as measured by stipule fall, was significantly less in removal plots than in controls. Additionally, trees in the removal plots had significantly less reproductive output than did trees in control plots. These results support the hypothesis that burrowing by crabs is an important process in Australian Rhizophora forests. It appears that burrowing affects soil aeration which in turn affects the productivity and reproductive output of Rhizophora. Knowledge of the ecology of grapsid crabs from other continents, however, is very limited. It remains to be seen if the roles played by grapsid crabs are as important elsewhere as in Australia. This is particularly true for the Caribbean region from which many of our paradigms concerning mangrove forest ecology were developed.

  20. Commercial activities and subsistence utilization of mangrove forests around the Wouri estuary and the Douala-Edea reserve (Cameroon)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Worldwide there is growing research interest in the ethnobiology of mangrove forests. Notwithstanding that, little information has been published about ethnobiology of mangrove forests in Cameroon. The aims of this study were a) to analyze the harvesting methods and the local selling of mangrove wood products by loggers in the vicinity of Wouri estuary and b) to investigate the patterns of subsistence uses of mangrove wood products around the Douala-Edea reserve. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 120 active mangrove loggers in 23 Douala wood markets and 103 households located in three villages (Mbiako, Yoyo I and Yoyo II) close to Douala-Edea reserve. In each of the three densely populated villages, every second household was chosen for sampling while in all markets, mangrove loggers were chosen randomly. In addition, log diameters were measured in each market using a wooden foldable tape measure. A post hoc analysis (Newman-Keuls test) was performed in order to detect the common wood class diameter sold in the Douala wood markets. Results The analysis of the loggers' survey data has shown that large logs of Rhizophora with diameter greater than 40 cm were common in the Douala wood markets and were more closely associated with loggers who used chainsaws. In addition to the general mangroves wood products selling, the analysis on a subsistence level (households' survey) suggests the local population's dependence on mangroves, with multiple uses of Rhizophora racemosa Meyer, R. harrisonii Leechman, Avicennia germinans L. Stearn., Laguncularia racemosa Gaertn. f. and Conocarpus erectus L. timbers for furniture, fences, smoking fish, and fuelwood. Finally, Nypa fruticans (Thunb.) Wurmb. leaves were used as thatching material for house walls and roofs. Conclusion Our findings revealed that big logs of Rhizophora were commonly sold by the loggers. A majority of loggers (60%) reported that mangrove marketed wood constitute a principal source of income. Most of the villagers (85.83%) often depend on mangroves for subsistence needs and for them there is no substitute for mangrove wood. Therefore, more efforts should be undertaken at the national level to implement conservation, management and sustainable use of these coastal forests. PMID:19919680

  1. Modifications to the bottomless lift net for sampling nekton in tidal mangrove forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McIvor, C.C.; Silverman, N.L.

    2010-01-01

    Sampling fishes in vegetated intertidal wetlands is logistically challenging. We modified the 2 ?? 3-m2 bottomless lift net developed for sampling nekton (fish and decapod crustaceans) on the surface of salt marshes for use in tidal mangrove forests with a woody (as opposed to herbaceous) underground root system. As originally designed (Rozas, Mar Ecol Prog Ser 89:287-292, 1992), the lift net was buried directly in the marsh substrate. The net was raised at slack high tide thereby encircling nekton within the enclosed area. A chain-line on the net bottom prevented escape under the net once deployed. However, when we used this same design in tidal mangrove forests, the extensive woody roots and occasional slumping sediments resulted in uneven trenches that could not be cleared effectively during sample recovery. We made 3 modifications to the original net design: (i) lined the peat trenches with aluminum channels of uniform width and depth; (ii) replaced the previous chain-line with Velcro closures that directly attached the net to the inner face of the outer wall of the aluminum channel; and (iii) removed the subtidal pan previously used for concentrating the enclosed nekton at low tide, and filled in those depressions with on-site peat. In the modified version, the aluminum trench became the only subtidal refuge available to nekton, and it was from here that we collected the sample after the forest drained. These modifications permitted high clearing efficiency (93-100%) of fin-clipped individuals of two common species of estuarine resident fishes, Kryptolebias marmoratus (mangrove rivulus) and Bathygobius soporator (frillfin goby). Additionally, the density estimates of grass shrimp (Palaemonetes spp.) increased 10-fold post-modification. ?? 2010 US Government.

  2. Applying remote sensing techniques to monitor shifting wetland vegetation: A case study of Danshui River estuary mangrove communities, Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsai-Ming Lee; Hui-Chung Yeh

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply different remote sensing techniques to monitor shifting mangrove vegetation in the Danshui River estuary in Taipei, Taiwan, in order to evaluate a long-term wetland conservation strategy compromising between comprehensive wetland ecosystem management and urban development. In the Danshui estuary, mangrove dominated by Kandelia candel is the major vegetation, and a large area

  3. Community structure at two compartments of a disturbed mangrove forests at Pulau Langkawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norilani, W. I. Wan; Juliana, W. A. Wan; Salam, Muhamad Razali; Latiff, A.

    2014-09-01

    A study on floristic composition and estimation of above ground biomass of trees was carried out in two areas of disturbed mangroves at Kisap Forest Reserve, Pulau Langkawi. Two compartments that were selected was based on the different types of disturbances, i.e. compartment 5 (C5) was disrupted by human harvesting activities of mangrove trees for charcoal production, while compartment 7 (C7) was naturally disturbed from lightning strikes. In C5, a total of 1,217 trees measuring 1 cm DBH and above were enumerated in the plots of 0.25 ha which included 7 species and 5 genera in 3 families, i.e. Rhizophoraceae, Meliaceae and Avicenniaceae. In C7, a total of 390 individual trees of 8 species, 5 genera and 3 families were recorded. The three families recorded in C7 were also common in C5. Rhizophoraceae was recorded as the family with highest density in both compartments. Ceriops tagal had the highest density in C5, while Rhizophora apiculata was the most prominent species in the C7. Total basal area that represents tree coverage showed C5 had a value of 7.767 m2/ha with C. tagal as the major contributor at 5.022m2/ha. Total coverage in C7 was 18.184 m2/ha that was mostly contributed by R. apiculata at 11.135 m2/ha. Ceriops tagal (22.41 t/ha) and R. apiculata (111.75 t/ha), were the main contributors to the total biomass in C5 (37.34 t/ha) and C7 (162.29 t/ha), respectively. The distribution of individuals of six tree size classes in C7 was homogenous compared to that of C5, which had more saplings. In this study, the total biomass indicated that anthropogenic activities resulted in lower productivity of forest compared to natural disturbance. Therefore, conservation efforts of mangrove forest should be enhance in the management of mangrove forest in Pulau Langkawi.

  4. Creation of a high spatiotemporal resolution global database of continuous mangrove forest cover for the 21st Century (CGMFC-21): A big-data fusion approach

    E-print Network

    Hamilton, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    CGMFC-21 provides high resolution local, regional, national, and global estimates of annual mangrove forest levels using continuous data from 2000 through to 2012 with the goal of driving mangrove research questions pertaining to biodiversity, climate change, food security, livelihoods, fisheries support, and conservation that have been hindered until now by a lack of suitable data. CGMFC-21 provides the required spatiotemporal resolutions to not only set REDD baseline measures globally in a systematic manner, but also to account for forest degradation as well as deforestation on an annual basis. Countries showing relatively high levels of 21st Century mangrove loss include Myanmar, Guatemala, Malaysia, Cambodia, and Indonesia. Many nations that have reported mangrove deforestation in earlier periods such as Ecuador, Bangladesh and Nigeria, have stabilized their mangrove levels during this period. Indonesia remains by far the largest mangrove holding nation containing between 26.16% and 28.50% of the global m...

  5. Changes in mass and nutrient content of wood during decomposition in a south Florida mangrove forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Romero, L.M.; Smith, T. J., III; Fourqurean, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    1 Large pools of dead wood in mangrove forests following disturbances such as hurricanes may influence nutrient fluxes. We hypothesized that decomposition of wood of mangroves from Florida, USA (Avicennia germinans, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle), and the consequent nutrient dynamics, would depend on species, location in the forest relative to freshwater and marine influences and whether the wood was standing, lying on the sediment surface or buried. 2 Wood disks (8-10 cm diameter, 1 cm thick) from each species were set to decompose at sites along the Shark River, either buried in the sediment, on the soil surface or in the air (above both the soil surface and high tide elevation). 3 A simple exponential model described the decay of wood in the air, and neither species nor site had any effect on the decay coefficient during the first 13 months of decomposition. 4 Over 28 months of decomposition, buried and surface disks decomposed following a two-component model, with labile and refractory components. Avicennia germinans had the largest labile component (18 ?? 2% of dry weight), while Laguncularia racemosa had the lowest (10 ?? 2%). Labile components decayed at rates of 0.37-23.71% month -1, while refractory components decayed at rates of 0.001-0.033% month-1. Disks decomposing on the soil surface had higher decay rates than buried disks, but both were higher than disks in the air. All species had similar decay rates of the labile and refractory components, but A. germinans exhibited faster overall decay because of a higher proportion of labile components. 5 Nitrogen content generally increased in buried and surface disks, but there was little change in N content of disks in the air over the 2-year study. Between 17% and 68% of total phosphorus in wood leached out during the first 2 months of decomposition, with buried disks having the greater losses, P remaining constant or increasing slightly thereafter. 6 Newly deposited wood from living trees was a short-term source of N for the ecosystem but, by the end of 2 years, had become a net sink. Wood, however, remained a source of P for the ecosystem. 7 As in other forested ecosystems, coarse woody debris can have a significant impact on carbon and nutrient dynamics in mangrove forests. The prevalence of disturbances, such as hurricanes, that can deposit large amounts of wood on the forest floor accentuates the importance of downed wood in these forests. ?? 2005 British Ecological Society.

  6. Nitrogen vs. phosphorus limitation across an ecotonal gradient in a mangrove forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feller, I.C.; McKee, K.L.; Whigham, D.F.; O'Neill, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Mangrove forests are characterized by distinctive tree-height gradients that reflect complex spatial, within-stand differences in environmental factors, including nutrient dynamics, salinity, and tidal inundation, across narrow gradients. To determine patterns of nutrient limitation and the effects of nutrient availability on plant growth and within-stand nutrient dynamics, we used a factorial experiment with three nutrient treatment levels (control, N, P) and three zones along a tree-height gradient (fringe, transition, dwarf) on offshore islands in Belize. Transects were laid out perpendicular to the shoreline across a mangrove forest from a fringe stand along the seaward edge, through a stand of intermediate height, into a dwarf stand in the interior of the island. At three sites, three trees were fertilized per zone for 2 yr. Although there was spatial variability in response, growth by R. mangle was generally nitrogen (N) -limited in the fringe zone; phosphorus (P) -limited in the dwarf zone; and, N- and/or P-limited in the transition zone. Phosphorus-resorption efficiency decreased in all three zones, and N-resorption efficiency increased in the dwarf zone in response to P enrichment. The addition of N had no effect on either P or N resorption efficiencies. Belowground decomposition was increased by P enrichment in all zones, whereas N enrichment had no effect. This study demonstrated that essential nutrients are not uniformly distributed within mangrove ecosystems; that soil fertility can switch from conditions of N to P limitation across narrow ecotonal gradients; and, that not all ecological processes respond similarly to, or are limited by, the same nutrient.

  7. December 2012 When mangroves

    E-print Network

    N° 419 December 2012 When mangroves no longer protect the coastline Scientific news Actualidad cientifica Actualité scientifique The mangrove forests in the Guyanas (French Guiana, Surinam and Guyana unstable muddy coastline2 against erosion. However, most of the Guyana mangroves have been destroyed

  8. Is Matang Mangrove Forest in Malaysia Sustainably Rejuvenating after More than a Century of Conservation and Harvesting Management?

    PubMed Central

    Van der Stocken, Tom; Quispe Zuniga, Melissa; Mohd-Lokman, Husain; Sulong, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve (MMFR) in Peninsular Malaysia is under systematic management since 1902 and still considered as the best managed mangrove forest in the world. The present study on silvimetrics assessed the ongoing MMFR forest management, which includes a first thinning after 15 years, a second thinning after 20 years and clear-felling of 30-year old forest blocks, for its efficiency and productivity in comparison to natural mangroves. The estimated tree structural parameters (e.g. density, frequency) from three different-aged mangrove blocks of fifteen (MF15), twenty (MF20), and thirty (MF30) years old indicated that Bruguiera and Excoecaria spp. did not constitute a significant proportion of the vegetation (<5%), and hence the results focused majorly on Rhizophora apiculata. The density of R. apiculata at MF15, MF20 and MF30 was 4,331, 2,753 and 1,767 stems ha?1, respectively. In relation to ongoing practices of the artificial thinnings at MMFR, the present study suggests that the first thinning could be made earlier to limit the loss of exploitable wood due to natural thinning. In fact, the initial density at MF15 was expected to drop down from 6,726 to 1,858 trees ha?1 before the first thinning. Therefore the trees likely to qualify for natural thinning, though having a smaller stem diameter, should be exploited for domestic/commercial purposes at an earlier stage. The clear-felling block (MF30) with a maximum stem diameter of 30 cm was estimated to yield 372 t ha?1 of the above-ground biomass and suggests that the mangrove management based on a 30-year rotation is appropriate for the MMFR. Since Matang is the only iconic site that practicing sustainable wood production, it could be an exemplary to other mangrove locations for their improved management. PMID:25144689

  9. Is Matang Mangrove Forest in Malaysia sustainably rejuvenating after more than a century of conservation and harvesting management?

    PubMed

    Goessens, Arnaud; Satyanarayana, Behara; Van der Stocken, Tom; Quispe Zuniga, Melissa; Mohd-Lokman, Husain; Sulong, Ibrahim; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid

    2014-01-01

    Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve (MMFR) in Peninsular Malaysia is under systematic management since 1902 and still considered as the best managed mangrove forest in the world. The present study on silvimetrics assessed the ongoing MMFR forest management, which includes a first thinning after 15 years, a second thinning after 20 years and clear-felling of 30-year old forest blocks, for its efficiency and productivity in comparison to natural mangroves. The estimated tree structural parameters (e.g. density, frequency) from three different-aged mangrove blocks of fifteen (MF15), twenty (MF20), and thirty (MF30) years old indicated that Bruguiera and Excoecaria spp. did not constitute a significant proportion of the vegetation (<5%), and hence the results focused majorly on Rhizophora apiculata. The density of R. apiculata at MF15, MF20 and MF30 was 4,331, 2,753 and 1,767 stems ha(-1), respectively. In relation to ongoing practices of the artificial thinnings at MMFR, the present study suggests that the first thinning could be made earlier to limit the loss of exploitable wood due to natural thinning. In fact, the initial density at MF15 was expected to drop down from 6,726 to 1,858 trees ha(-1) before the first thinning. Therefore the trees likely to qualify for natural thinning, though having a smaller stem diameter, should be exploited for domestic/commercial purposes at an earlier stage. The clear-felling block (MF30) with a maximum stem diameter of 30 cm was estimated to yield 372 t ha(-1) of the above-ground biomass and suggests that the mangrove management based on a 30-year rotation is appropriate for the MMFR. Since Matang is the only iconic site that practicing sustainable wood production, it could be an exemplary to other mangrove locations for their improved management. PMID:25144689

  10. Leaf litter removal by the snail Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus) and sesarmid crabs in an East African mangrove forest (Gazi Bay, Kenya)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J Slim; M. A. Hemminga; C. Ochieng; N. T Jannink; E Cocheret de la Morinière; G. Van der Velde

    1997-01-01

    Quantitative data on leaf litter removal activity of macrozoobenthic organisms in the mangrove forests of East Africa are virtually non-existent. In the present study, litter removal activity was determined in two contrasting types of mangrove stands in Gazi Bay (Kenya). In the relatively elevated Ceriops tagal vegetation, which is only flooded during spring tides, the detritivorous snail Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus)

  11. Climate change influence on organic carbon remobilization, transport and burial in mangrove forests of Everglades National Park, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smoak, J. M.; Breithaupt, J.; Smith, T. J.; Sanders, C. J.

    2013-05-01

    Mangrove ecosystems store large quantities of organic carbon (OC), burying it in their soils at a greater rate than terrestrial forests, thus providing an important negative climate change feedback. However, mangrove ecosystem response to climate change-induced stressors will determine if mangrove ecosystems continue to be a sink for OC. The threats of rising sea level outpacing mangrove forest soil accretion and the increased wave energy associated with this rise are two potential climate change stressors that may alter the carbon balance in mangrove ecosystems. The threat from wave energy is amplified during storm events, which may become more intense and/or frequent with climate change. Climate change-amplified storms could increasingly damage mangrove forests along the coastline, remobilizing and exposing previously buried OC to oxidation, and contribute to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We investigate the fate of this remobilized OC by examining soil cores from two sites within Everglades National Park. Soil accretion rates and OC burial rates within a storm surge deposit are compared to long-term rates (i.e., last 100 years). The sites are 4 and 10 km inland from the coast and data show these mangrove soils are accreting at a rate sufficient to keep pace with the current rate of sea-level rise. The accretion rates range from 2.5 to 3.6 mm yr-1 and are much greater within the storm surge deposit, reaching as high as 6.5 mm yr-1. We also discovered enhanced rates of OC burial within this same storm surge deposit which are approximately 2-fold greater than the long-term rates. Our findings indicate that these enhanced accretion and OC burial rates are due to inland transport of marine carbonate material and OC remobilized from along the coast during the storm. Furthermore, we find OC burial rates within the storm deposit at the site 10 km inland are substantially greater than the site 4 km inland, while mass accumulation rates show the opposite trend. This is explained by the relative density difference in the OC and marine carbonate as the lower density organic matter is transported a greater distance inland. While an increase in tropical storm activity might produce more damage and loss of mangrove forest along open water (e.g., Gulf of Mexico), our findings suggest that inland sites may benefit from the storm surge material. In addition, not all of the remobilized OC is oxidized as a portion is transferred inland and subsequently buried, therefore limiting CO2 release to the atmosphere.

  12. Rapid seawater circulation through animal burrows in mangrove forests - A significant source of saline groundwater to the tropical coastal ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, J. F.; Stieglitz, T. C.; Hancock, G. J.

    2010-12-01

    A common approach for quantifying rates of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the coastal ocean is to use geochemical tracers that are part of the U- and Th-decay chains such as Rn-222 and short lived radium isotopes. These radionuclides are naturally enriched in groundwater relative to seawater and have well understood chemistries within the marine environment. They occur in both fresh (continental) and saline (marine) groundwaters and thus the water source is often ambiguous. Stieglitz (2005, Marine Pollution Bulletin 51, 51-59) has shown that some coastal areas within the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) lagoon (Australia) are enriched in the SGD tracer, Rn-222; he attributed this to four possible processes including the tidal flushing of mangrove forest floors. Here, we present a detailed investigation into the tidal circulation of seawater through animal burrows using Rn-222 and isotopes of radium in the Coral Creek mangrove forest, Hinchinbrook Island, Queensland, Australia. The study was conducted at the end of the dry season in a creek with no freshwater inputs. Significant export of radionuclides and salt from the forest into the creek indicates continuous tidally driven circulation through the burrows. Results demonstrate that the forest sediment is efficiently flushed, with a water flux of about 30 L/m2/ day of forest floor, which is equivalent to flushing about 10% of the total burrow volume per tidal cycle. Annual average circulation flux through mangrove forest floors are of the same order as annual river discharge in the central GBR. However, unlike the river discharge, the tidal circulation should be relatively stable throughout the year. This work documents the importance of animal burrows in maintaining productive sediments in these systems, and illustrates the physical process that supports large exports of organic and inorganic matter from mangrove forests to the coastal zone. It also illustrates the importance of considering saline groundwater sources when interpreting SGD radionuclide tracers in the coastal ocean.

  13. Mangroves: Living Filters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pulse of the Planet

    2008-03-26

    In this two-minute radio program, a marine biology professor points out a number of the ecological functions that coastal mangrove forests perform. For example, he explains that mangrove forests serve as filters and nursery areas for fish. He contends that there are ecological and economic reasons to conserve mangroves. The archived program, part of the Pulse of the Planet radio show, is available here in text and audio formats. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  14. Turning the tide: how blue carbon and payments for ecosystem services (PES) might help save mangrove forests.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Tommaso; Binet, Thomas; Kairo, James Gitundu; King, Lesley; Madden, Sarah; Patenaude, Genevieve; Upton, Caroline; Huxham, Mark

    2014-12-01

    In this review paper, we aim to describe the potential for, and the key challenges to, applying PES projects to mangroves. By adopting a "carbocentric approach," we show that mangrove forests are strong candidates for PES projects. They are particularly well suited to the generation of carbon credits because of their unrivaled potential as carbon sinks, their resistance and resilience to natural hazards, and their extensive provision of Ecosystem Services other than carbon sequestration, primarily nursery areas for fish, water purification and coastal protection, to the benefit of local communities as well as to the global population. The voluntary carbon market provides opportunities for the development of appropriate protocols and good practice case studies for mangroves at a small scale, and these may influence larger compliance schemes in the future. Mangrove habitats are mostly located in developing countries on communally or state-owned land. This means that issues of national and local governance, land ownership and management, and environmental justice are the main challenges that require careful planning at the early stages of mangrove PES projects to ensure successful outcomes and equitable benefit sharing within local communities. PMID:24817088

  15. Litter processing and population food intake of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus in a high intertidal forest in northern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordhaus, Inga; Wolff, Matthias; Diele, Karen

    2006-03-01

    This study provides the first quantification of the population food intake of the litter-consuming mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Ocypodidae, L. 1763) in a New World mangrove forest. Diet, feeding periodicity, gastric evacuation rates and size-dependent consumption were determined for this intensively exploited semi-terrestrial crab in different types of mangrove forest. Unlike many other crabs Ucides cordatus is a continuous feeder, as shown by gastrointestinal contents over a day's cycle. Starvation experiments revealed that most gastric evacuation occurs during the first 12 h after feeding, following an exponential decay function. Evacuation rates (0.35 h -1 and 0.31 h -1) for small (carapace width CW 2.5-3.5 cm) and large (CW 6.5-7.5 cm) crabs, respectively, and the mean daily gastrointestinal contents were used to calculate the daily food intake (DFI) of U. cordatus for both sexes and different size classes. DFI was strongly correlated to body size and ranged from 19.8 to 6.0% of body dry weight in small and large crabs, respectively. The daily energy intake of U. cordatus (37.6 kJ for a 65 g wet weight specimen) was high when compared to other leaf-eating crabs. Litter fall and propagule production were calculated as 16.38 t ha -1 y -1, corresponding to a daily mean of 4.49 g m -2 in a high intertidal Rhizophora mangle forest stand. The estimated population food intake of Ucides cordatus (4.1 g dw m -2 d -1) corresponds to 81.3% of this production. This high litter removal rate, a low litter quantity in burrows and high consumption rates during field experiments suggest that the local crab population is food-limited in many parts of the study area. The very efficient coupling of forest litter production and crab litter consumption is possible due to the high crab density and the low inundation frequency of the mangrove forests, allowing for prolonged foraging periods. By processing the major part of the litter, U. cordatus helps to retain nutrients and energy within the mangrove ecosystem. The impact of this species on litter turnover in a New World mangrove is similar to or even higher than that of litter-feeding sesarmid crabs in the Indo-West Pacific region.

  16. The increased concentration of SO{sub 2} and threat to the largest mangrove forest of the world - the Sundarbans

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, J.U.; Ullah, S.S. [Jahangirnagar Univ. (Bangladesh); Carmichael, G.R. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Haque, R. [Khulna Univ. (Bangladesh)

    1996-12-31

    The atmospheric concentration of SO{sub 2} was monitored in two different sites, Khulna and Savar in Bangladesh as a part of Rains Asia Atmos Module, Phase I Project. The results show that the winter concentration of SO{sub 2} in Khulna is 3 to 4 times higher than the summer concentrations, which is also higher compared to measurements at Savar which is adjacent to Dhaka city. Based on these facts and seasonal wind pattern, trans-boundary air pollution has been suggested. Khulna is in the southwestern part of Bangladesh and this area harbors the largest mangrove forest of the world, the Sundarbans. Sundari trees are the main trees of the Sundarban ecosystem. During the last few years, many of the Sundari trees, which are quite susceptible to pH stress, are dying from the top. The unusual winter increase of atmospheric sulphurdioxide has been assigned to be one of the reasons for the top dying. Other factors might be the increase of salinity and diminished flow of water.

  17. Heavy metal concentrations in some macrobenthic fauna of the Sundarbans mangrove forest, south west coast of Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kawser Ahmed; Yousuf Mehedi; Rezaul Haque; Pulakesh Mondol

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metal concentrations in some macrobenthic fauna have been reported for the first time from the Sundarbans mangrove forest,\\u000a south west coast of Bangladesh, in the northern part of Bay of Bengal. The concentration of Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in macrobenthos\\u000a ranged from 235 ± 10.11 to 1,051 ± 38.42, 3.66 ± 0.89 to 7.55 ± 1.29, 76.8

  18. Diurnal variation of carbon dioxide and methane exchange above Sundarbans mangrove forest, in NW coast of India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S K Mukhophadhya; K L Das H Biswas; T K De; T K Jana

    2001-01-01

    A micrometeorological method was used to measure the diurnal exchange of carbon dioxide and methane over Sundar- bans mangrove forest at Lothian island under lapse and inversion micrometeorological conditions during 18th- 19th May, 1999. Concentration of CO2 and CH4 in the air were found to be 587.9± 51.5 and 0.903± 0.318 mg\\/m 3 and both vertical and lateral transport could

  19. Fine root productivity varies along nitrogen and phosphorus gradients in high-rainfall mangrove forests of Micronesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cormier, Nicole; Twilley, Robert R.; Ewel, Katherine C.; Krauss, Ken W.

    2015-01-01

    Belowground biomass is thought to account for much of the total biomass in mangrove forests and may be related to soil fertility. The Yela River and the Sapwalap River, Federated States of Micronesia, contain a natural soil resource gradient defined by total phosphorus (P) density ranging from 0.05 to 0.42 mg cm?3 in different hydrogeomorphic settings. We used this fertility gradient to test the hypothesis that edaphic conditions constrain mangrove productivity through differential allocation of biomass to belowground roots. We removed sequential cores and implanted root ingrowth bags to measure in situ biomass and productivity, respectively. Belowground root biomass values ranged among sites from 0.448 ± 0.096 to 2.641 ± 0.534 kg m?2. Root productivity (roots ?20 mm) did not vary significantly along the gradient (P = 0.3355) or with P fertilization after 6 months (P = 0.2968). Fine root productivity (roots ?2 mm), however, did vary significantly among sites (P = 0.0363) and ranged from 45.88 ± 21.37 to 118.66 ± 38.05 g m?2 year?1. The distribution of total standing root biomass and fine root productivity followed patterns of N:P ratios as hypothesized, with larger root mass generally associated with lower relative P concentrations. Many of the processes of nutrient acquisition reported from nutrient-limited mangrove forests may also occur in forests of greater biomass and productivity when growing along soil nutrient gradients.

  20. Emersion in the mangrove forest fish Rivulus marmoratus: A unique response to hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, D.C.; Koenig, C.C.; Davis, W.P.

    1987-01-01

    The mangrove forest fish Rivulus marmoratus (Cyprinodontidae) has frequently been observed out of water, a phenomenon generally attributed to habitat drying. The hypothesis that hydrogen sulfide, a substance characteristically found in their environment, can serve as a stimulus for emersion, is tested in this study. In the field R. marmoratus was found in water with low to moderate level of H{sub 2}S. In the laboratory, R marmora leaped from water contaminated with H{sub 2}S at ecologically relevant concentrations. Aquatic hypoxia did not induce emersion, but prey capture did. Oxygen consumption by both juveniles and adults decreased significantly in air. These results suggest that avoidance of H{sub 2}S and the ability to survive terrestrial conditions enable this species to permanently occupy an area of the forest unavailable to other fishes. Furthermore, because a variety of stimuli lead to emersion in R. marmoratus, terrestriality in this species is likely a generalized response to environmental stress as well as a means of exploiting terrestrial resources. 16 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  1. Discrimination of mangrove forests and characterization of adjoining land cover classes using temporal C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar data: A case study of Sundarbans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Tanumi; Patnaik, C.

    2013-08-01

    C-band dual polarization (HH, HV) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data from Radarsat-2 were used to discriminate and characterize mangrove forests of the Sundarbans. Multi-temporal data acquired during winter and rainy seasons were analysed for the segregation of mangrove forest area. A decision rule based classification involving combination of three-date HH (range -11 to -2 dB) with single-date cross-polarization ratio (2-8) was applied on the datasets for discriminating mangrove forests from other land cover classes. Application of textural measures (entropy and angular second moment) in the aforesaid decision rule based classification produced three broad homogeneous mangrove classes. The area covered by the most homogeneous class increased from January to March and decreased from July to September, and correlated well to the change in the phenological status of the mangroves. Extent of homogeneous areas was more in the eastern region of the Sundarbans than that of the central and western side. Thus, the study revealed that textural measures combined with multi-temporal HH backscatter and single-date cross-polarization ratio in a decision rule classification could be satisfactorily used for characterization of the mangrove forests.

  2. FOREST HEALTH MONITORING FIELD METHODS GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This EMAP-FHM methods Guide is intended to instruct forest Health Monitors when collecting data on forest health indicators; site condition, growth and regeneration, crown condition, tree damage and mortality assessment, photosynthetically active radiation, vegetation structure, ...

  3. Interspecific variation of the bacterial community structure in the phyllosphere of the three major plant components of mangrove forests

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Taketani, Rodrigo Gouveia; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Luvizotto, Danice Mazzer; da Silva, João Luis; Nascimento, Rosely dos Santos; de Melo, Itamar Soares

    2012-01-01

    Mangrove forests encompass a group of trees species that inhabit the intertidal zones, where soil is characterized by the high salinity and low availability of oxygen. The phyllosphere of these trees represent the habitat provided on the aboveground parts of plants, supporting in a global scale, a large and complex microbial community. The structure of phyllosphere communities reflects immigration, survival and growth of microbial colonizers, which is influenced by numerous environmental factors in addition to leaf physical and chemical properties. Here, a combination of culture-base methods with PCR-DGGE was applied to test whether local or plant specific factors shape the bacterial community of the phyllosphere from three plant species (Avicenia shaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle), found in two mangroves. The number of bacteria in the phyllosphere of these plants varied between 3.62 x 104 in A. schaeriana and 6.26 x 103 in R. mangle. The results obtained by PCR-DGGE and isolation approaches were congruent and demonstrated that each plant species harbor specific bacterial communities in their leaves surfaces. Moreover, the ordination of environmental factors (mangrove and plant species), by redundancy analysis (RDA), also indicated that the selection exerted by plant species is higher than mangrove location on bacterial communities at phyllosphere. PMID:24031877

  4. Typhoons exert significant but differential impacts on net ecosystem carbon exchange of subtropical mangrove forests in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Lu, W.; Yan, G.; Yang, S.; Lin, G.

    2014-10-01

    Typhoons are very unpredictable natural disturbances to subtropical mangrove forests in Asian countries, but little information is available on how these disturbances affect ecosystem level carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange of mangrove wetlands. In this study, we examined short-term effect of frequent strong typhoons on defoliation and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) of subtropical mangroves, and also synthesized 19 typhoons during a 4-year period between 2009 and 2012 to further investigate the regulation mechanisms of typhoons on ecosystem carbon and water fluxes following typhoon disturbances. Strong wind and intensive rainfall caused defoliation and local cooling effect during the typhoon season. Daily total NEE values decreased by 26-50% following some typhoons (e.g., W28-Nockten, W35-Molave and W35-Lio-Fan), but significantly increased (43-131%) following typhoon W23-Babj and W38-Megi. The magnitudes and trends of daily NEE responses were highly variable following different typhoons, which were determined by the balance between the variances of gross ecosystem production (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (RE). Furthermore, results from our synthesis indicated that the landfall time of typhoon, wind speed and rainfall were the most important factors controlling the CO2 fluxes following typhoon events. These findings indicate that different types of typhoon disturbances can exert very different effects on CO2 fluxes of mangrove ecosystems and that typhoon will likely have larger impacts on carbon cycle processes in subtropical mangrove ecosystems as the intensity and frequency of typhoons are predicted to increase under future global climate change scenarios.

  5. Effects of Hydrology on Red Mangrove Recruits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    Coastal wetlands along the Gulf of Mexico have been experiencing significant shifts in hydrology and salinity levels over the past century as a result of changes in sea level and freshwater drainage patterns. Local land management in coastal zones has also impacted the hydrologic regimes of salt marshes and mangrove areas. Parks and refuges in south Florida that contain mangrove forests have, in some cases, been ditched or impounded to control mosquito outbreaks and to foster wildlife use. And while mangroves dominate the subtropical coastlines of Florida and thrive in saltwater environments, little is known about how they respond to changes in hydrology under managed or variable tidal conditions. USGS researchers designed a study to evaluate the basic hydrological requirements of mangroves so that their health and survival may be more effectively managed in controlled impoundments and restored wetlands. Mangroves are commonly found in the intertidal zone (between low and high tides) in a rather broad spectrum of hydrologic settings. Because they thrive at the interface of land and sea, mangroves are subject to changes in freshwater flow (flow rate, nutrients, pollutants) and to marine influences (sea-level rise, salinity). Salinity has long been recognized as a controlling factor that determines the health and distribution of mangrove forests. Field and experimental observations indicate that most mangrove species achieve their highest growth potential under brackish conditions (modest salinity) between 10 and 20 parts per thousand (ppt). Yet, if provided with available propagules, successful regeneration, and limited competition from other plants, then mangroves can survive and thrive in freshwater systems as well. Because little is known about the growthand survival patterns of mangrove species relative to changing hydrology, USGS scientists conducted greenhouse and field experiments to determine how flooded or drained patterns of hydrology would influence growth of the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle (fig. 1). Red mangrove propagules (recruits) of select sizes and genotypes (i.e., genetically similar groups) were planted both in greenhouses and in the field. Seedling growth was monitored in both studies on a quarterly basis for over a year; measurements included shoot growth, seedling height, and a final harvest of plant biomass.

  6. Influence of human disturbance on patterns of leaf herbivory at Gazi Bay mangrove forest, Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C M Kihia; J M Mathooko; R K Ruwa; W A Shivoga

    2011-01-01

    Mangrove herbivores cause leaf serration, perforation and galls prior to leaf abscission. This study compared damage by herbivores on leaves of four mangrove species at sites under different levels of human physical disturbance, and provides further evidence of the indirect effects of man on these valuable habitats. From 2001 to 2003 leaves collected fortnightly using litter traps were examined for

  7. Nutrient dynamics and leaf litter decomposition in a subtropical mangrove forest at Oura Bay, Okinawa, Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. L. Mfilinge; N. Atta; M. Tsuchiya

    2002-01-01

    Dynamics of nutrients (carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus) in decomposing leaves was studied using litterbags in a subtropical mangrove dominated by Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) Lamk and Kandelia candel (L.) Druce (Okinawa, Japan). In addition to fresh yellow leaves, degradation of treated leaves (dried at 50°C and 80°C) was also investigated. Comparison was made between species, locations (lower and upper mangroves) and

  8. Decomposition of mangrove roots: Effects of location, nutrients, species identity and mix in a Kenyan forest

    E-print Network

    Mencuccini, Maurizio

    Decomposition of mangrove roots: Effects of location, nutrients, species identity and mix mangrove root production and decomposition is hence of theoretical and applied importance. The current work explored the effects of species, site, and root size and root nutrients on decomposition. Decomposition

  9. FOREST HEALTH MONITORING - 1991 STATISTICAL SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a statistical summary of forest measurement data from the Forest Health Monitoring Network. here are now 925 plots in the FHM national network, of which 628 plots are forested. sing a probability sampling design, the installed plots are located systematically throughout t...

  10. Regeneration of Rhizophora mangle in a Caribbean mangrove forest: interacting effects of canopy disturbance and a stem-boring beetle.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Wayne P; Quek, Swee P; Mitchell, Betsy J

    2003-11-01

    Current theory predicts that in low-density, seed-limited plant populations, seed predation will be more important than competition in determining the number of individuals that reach maturity. However, when plant density is high, competition for microsites suitable for establishment and growth is expected to have a relatively greater effect. This dichotomous perspective does not account for situations in which the risk of seed predation differs inside versus outside recruitment microsites. We report the results of a field experiment and sampling studies that demonstrate such an interaction between microsite quality and the risk of propagule predation in mangrove forests on the Caribbean coast of Panama, where it appears to play a key role in shaping the demography and dynamics of the mangrove, Rhizophora mangle. Rhizophora's water-borne propagules establish wherever they strand, but long-term sampling revealed that only those that do so in or near lightning-created canopy gaps survive and grow to maturity. These microsites afford better growth conditions than the surrounding understory and, as importantly, provide a refuge from predation by the scolytid beetle, Coccotrypes rhizophorae. This refuge effect was confirmed with a field experiment in which Rhizophora seedlings were planted at different positions relative to gap edges, from 5 m inside to 20 m outside the gap. Mortality due to beetle attack increased linearly from an average of 10% inside a gap to 72% at 20 m into the forest. The interaction between canopy disturbance and propagule predation may be having a large impact on the composition of our study forests. Being shade-tolerant, Rhizophora seedlings that escape or survive beetle attack can persist in the understory for years. However, the high rate of beetle-induced mortality effectively eliminates the contribution of advance regeneration by Rhizophora saplings to gap succession. This may explain why the shade-intolerant mangrove, Laguncularia racemosa, is able to co-dominate the canopy in low intertidal forests at our study sites. PMID:12920640

  11. Ecophysiology of mangroves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marilyn C. Ball

    1988-01-01

    Mangrove forests are of major ecological and commercial importance, yet the future of these resources is threatened by pollution, development and over-exploitation. There is an urgent need to develop sound management practices based on a functional understanding of the physical and biological processes underlying mangrove ecosystem dynamics. Such biological processes include dispersal (Rabinowitz 1978), herbivory (Smith 1987) and the physiological

  12. Oviposition and Larval Habitat Preferences of the Saltwater Mosquito, Aedes vigilax, in a Subtropical Mangrove Forest in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Jon; Griffin, Lachlan; Dale, Pat; Phinn, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the oviposition and larval habitats of the saltwater mosquito Aedes vigilax (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) in a mangrove forest system in subtropical Queensland, Australia. Eggshells (indicators of oviposition) and larvae were sampled in three habitat classes that were depicted in a schematic model. Two classes were in depressions or basins, either with hummocks or dense pneumatophore substrates, both of which retained water after tidal flooding. The third class was in freely flushed mangroves that corresponded with more frequent tidal connections than the depression classes. ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer tests were used to analyze the data. The null hypotheses were rejected: the hummock class was a significant habitat based on both eggshell and larval data. The conclusion was that mosquito production in the mangrove system was distributed unevenly between habitat classes, and that the hummock class had conditions suited to the requirements of the immature stages of Ae. vigilax. This research has the potential to inform mosquito management strategies by focusing treatment on the problem habitats and underpinning habitat modifications including reducing water retention in the basins. PMID:22938052

  13. Characterizing spatial and seasonal variability of carbon dioxide and water vapour fluxes above a tropical mixed mangrove forest canopy, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanda, Abhra; Akhand, Anirban; Manna, Sudip; Dutta, Sachinandan; Hazra, Sugata; Das, Indrani; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2013-04-01

    The above canopy carbon dioxide and water vapour fluxes were measured by micrometeorological gradient technique at three distant stations, within the world's largest mangrove ecosystem of Sundarban (Indian part), between April 2011 and March 2012. Quadrat analysis revealed that all the three study sites are characterized by a strong heterogeneity in the mangrove vegetation cover. At day time the forest was a sink for CO2, but its magnitude varied significantly from -0.39 to -1.33 mg m - 2 s - 1. The station named Jharkhali showed maximum annual fluxes followed by Henry Island and Bonnie Camp. Day time fluxes were higher during March and October, while in August and January the magnitudes were comparatively lower. The seasonal variation followed the same trend in all the sites. The spatial variation of CO2 flux above the canopy was mainly explained by the canopy density and photosynthetic efficiency of the mangrove species. The CO2 sink strength of the mangrove cover in different stations varied in the same way with the CO2 uptake potential of the species diversity in the respective sites. The relationship between the magnitude of day time CO2 uptake by the canopy and photosynthetic photon flux was defined by a non-linear exponential curve (R2 ranging from 0.51 to 0.60). Water vapour fluxes varied between 1.4 and 69.5 mg m - 2 s - 1. There were significant differences in magnitude between day and night time water vapour fluxes, but no spatial variation was observed.

  14. Sinomonas humi sp. nov., an amylolytic actinobacterium isolated from mangrove forest soil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Learn-Han; Azman, Adzzie-Shazleen; Zainal, Nurullhudda; Yin, Wai-Fong; Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima Ab; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2015-03-01

    Strain MUSC 117(T) was isolated from mangrove soil of the Tanjung Lumpur forest in Pahang, Malaysia. This bacterium was yellowish-white pigmented, Gram-staining-positive, rod-coccus shaped and non-motile. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence, strain MUSC 117(T) exhibited highest sequence similarity to Sinomonas atrocyanea DSM 20127(T) (98.0?%), Sinomonas albida LC13(T) (97.9?%) and Sinomonas soli CW 59(T) (97.8?%), and lower (<97.6?%) sequence similarity to other species of the genus Sinomonas. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed a low level of DNA-DNA relatedness (less than 27?%) between strain MUSC 117(T) and closely related species. Chemotaxonomically, the peptidoglycan type was A3?, containing the amino acids lysine, serine, glycine, alanine, glutamic acid and muramic acid. The whole-cell sugars detected were rhamnose, ribose, glucose, galactose and a smaller amount of mannose. The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and five unidentified glycolipids. The major fatty acids (>10.0?%) of the cell membrane were anteiso-C15?:?0 (39.4?%), C18?:?1?7c (17.7?%), anteiso-C17?:?0 (17.2?%) and iso-C16?:?0 (11.4?%). The predominant respiratory quinones detected were MK-9(H2) and MK-9. The DNA G+C content was 67.3 mol%. A comparison of BOX-PCR fingerprints indicated that strain MUSC 117(T) represented a unique DNA profile. Results based on a polyphasic approach showed that strain MUSC 117(T) represents a novel species of the genus Sinomonas, for which the name Sinomonas humi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Sinomonas humi sp. nov. is MUSC 117(T) (?=?DSM 29362(T)?=?MCCC 1K00410(T)?=?NBRC 110653(T)). PMID:25563924

  15. Vegetation Structure, Tree Volume and Biomass Estimation using Terrestrial Laser Scanning Remote Sensing: A Case Study of the Mangrove Forests in the Everglades National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feliciano, E. A.; Wdowinski, S.; Potts, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    Mangrove forests are being threatened by accelerated climate change, sea level rise and coastal projects. Carbon/above ground biomass (AGB) losses due to natural or human intervention can affect global warming. Thus, it is important to monitor AGB fluctuations in mangrove forests similar to those inhabiting the Everglades National Park (ENP). Tree volume and tree wood specific density are two important measurements for the estimation of AGB (mass = volume * density). Wood specific density is acquired in the laboratory by analyzing stem cores acquired in the field. However, tree volume is a challenging task because trees resemble tapered surfaces. The majority of published studies estimate tree volume and biomass using allometric equations, which describe the size, shape, volume or AGB of a given population of trees. However, these equations can be extremely general and might not give a representative value of volume or AGB for a specific tree species. In order to have precise biomass estimations, other methodologies for tree volume estimation are needed. To overcome this problem, we use a state-of-the-art remote sensing tool known as ground-based LiDAR a.k.a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS), which can be used to precisely measure vegetation structure and tree volume from its 3-D point cloud. We surveyed three mangrove communities: (Rhizophora mangle, Laguncuria racemosa and Avicennia germinans) in three different sites along Shark River Slough (SRS), which is the primary source of water to the ENP. Our sites included: small-, intermediate- and tall- size mangroves. Our ground measurements included both: traditional forestry surveys and TLS surveys for tree attributes (tree height and diameter at breast height (DBH)) comparison. These attributes are used as input to allometric equations for the estimation of tree volume and AGB. A total of 25 scans were collected in 2011 with a Leica ScanStation C10 TLS. The 3-D point cloud acquired from the TLS data revealed that trees could be modeled as a combination of tapered geometric surfaces called frustums. The volume of the various geometric frustums can be estimated using specific mathematical formulas. We compared our TLS-derived tree volume/AGB versus published allometric equation-derived tree volume/AGB for our mangrove sites. Preliminary results yielded a good agreement between the TLS-derived and the allometric-derived biomass measurements, with TLS slightly underestimating it. In addition, we compared hand-measured tree attributes vs. TLS-measured tree attributes. Preliminary results showed that DBH can be precisely estimated with TLS. In the other hand, tree height can be estimated in places where there is low vegetation density due to point cloud occlusion and shadowing. We suggest that TLS shows potential to fill the gap between traditional forestry measurements and airborne LiDAR for forestry applications.

  16. Export of inorganic carbon from two Southeast Asian mangrove forests to adjacent estuaries as estimated by the stable isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyajima, Toshihiro; Tsuboi, Yoshie; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Koike, Isao

    2009-03-01

    The influence of mangrove forests on the dynamics of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in tropical estuaries was estimated quantitatively using newly developed isotope (?13C) mass balance models that take into account both the input of DIC and the air-water exchange of CO2. To this aim, the concentration and ?13C of DIC were determined across the salinity gradient of two river estuaries facing the Andaman Sea. The longitudinal distribution of DIC could be explained by conservative mixing of the river water and seawater DIC in the low-discharge period (March 2006), while a net accumulation of DIC up to 190 ?mol L-1 was observed in the high-discharge period (December 2006). ?13CDIC values were generally lower than expected for the mixing of the river water and seawater DIC, due to the 13C-depleted DIC inputs from the riverside mangroves. The concentration of mangrove-derived DIC in the estuarine waters was estimated by the proposed models to be as much as 856 ?mol L-1, and was higher during the low-discharge period. This suggested that the mangroves exported much higher levels of DIC to the estuaries than indicated by the net accumulation of DIC. Our results confirm that mangroves function as an effective CO2 pump that takes CO2 from the atmosphere and releases it into estuarine waters. This study illustrates that ?13CDIC is a sensitive and quantitative indicator for DIC emission to the sea from coastal wetlands including mangroves.

  17. Forest health monitoring: Field methods guide

    SciTech Connect

    Tallent-Halsell, N.G.

    1994-10-01

    This guide is intended to instruct Forest Health Monitors when collecting data on forest health indicators; site condition, growth and regeneration, crown condition, tree damage and mortality assessment, photosynthetically active radiation, vegetation structure, ozone bioindicator species, lichen community structure and field logistics. This guide contains information on measuring, observing and recording data related to the above listed forest health indicators. Pertinent quality assurance information is also included.

  18. Understanding sources of carbon from a coastal mangrove forest: Shark River - Everglades National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palya, A. P.; Anderson, W. T.; Jaffe, R.; Swart, P. K.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical and subtropical estuaries, particularly those occupied by mangrove forests, sequester a large amount of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to be stored in biomass and ultimately in sediments. However, a significant portion of this carbon is lost as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) exported to the ocean. Therefore, the processes that transform and transport DOC within estuarine systems are an important part of the global carbon cycle. Analysis of stable carbon isotopes can provide insight on carbon dynamics in these coastal environments. Although DOC is the largest pool of reduced carbon in the ocean, few measurements of ?13C-DOC have been made for marine waters. Low DOC:DIC ratios and interference from large halide concentrations make such measurements difficult, time consuming, and costly. We have developed an approach that allows for the simultaneous measurement of DOC and ?13C-DOC in marine waters. By coupling a carbon analyzer utilizing a wet chemical oxidation technique to a high sensitivity cavity ring down spectrometer (WCO-CRDS), we are able to analyze ?13C-DOC of marine waters with DOC concentrations as low as 3 ppm C. Our approach uses an ambient atmospheric CO2 CRDS system originally designed to measure at 300 ppm (pCO2) which is an order-of-magnitude more sensitive than standard CRDS systems. This method for seawater analysis was developed by maximizing both the sample and sodium persulfate reagent volumes used in the oxidation reaction, as well as increasing the sodium persulfate concentration. Additionally, we operate the WCO-CRDS system using ultra high purity nitrogen as a carrier gas to prevent the oxidation of halides which reduces damage to the machines. These parameters allow for complete oxidation of the DOC in the sample, which was confirmed using two DOC standards mixed in an artificial seawater with a salinity around 30 g/L, and produces a sufficient volume of CO2 for detection and measurement by the CRDS. This configuration enables us to analyze up to 24 samples per day, allowing for a more rapid sample throughput than alternative ?13C-DOC analytical methods including WCO-IRMS. This method was applied to marine samples collected from Shark River (SR) located on the western edge of Everglades National Park. DOC concentrations for water in this estuary typically fall between 2 and 18 ppm, with salinities that range from fresh to marine (~30) where SR empties into the Gulf of Mexico. Water samples were collected from Florida Coastal Everglades LTER sampling sites located in SR and analyzed for DOC concentration and ?13C-DOC composition. DOC concentration ranged from 6 to 15 ppm and ?13C-DOC values were between -32 and -27.8‰. These results are also compared to the ?13C-DIC data from the same samples. These results indicate that mangroves are the major contributor to the DOC pool in SR. The new WCO-CRDS method will enable us to continue analysis of DOC and ?13C-DOC in marine waters, such as the Shark River estuary, to better understand C dynamics. With this approach will be able to build a dataset to help identify spatial and temporal variations in and controls on DOC and ?13C-DOC in these coastal marine settings, which are an important interface between atmospheric and oceanic carbon reservoirs.

  19. Biodiversity of meiofauna in the intertidal khe nhan mudflat, can gio mangrove forest, vietnam with special emphasis on free living nematodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, Quang Ngo; Vanreusel, Ann; Thanh, Nguyen Vu; Smol, Nic

    2007-09-01

    The ecological aspect of meiofaunal communities in Can Gio mangrove forest, Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam has not been investigated before. The composition, distribution, density and biodiversity of meiofaunal communities were studied along an intertidal transect at the Khe Nhan mudflat. Each time, three replicate samples were collected in four stations along a transect following the water line from low tide level up to the mangrove forest edge. In total, 18 meiofaunal taxa were found with the dominant taxa belonging to Nematoda, Copepoda, Sarcomastigophora and Polychaeta. The densities of meiofauna ranged from 1156 inds/10 cm2 to 2082 inds/10 cm2. The increase in densities from the mangrove forest edge towards the low water line was significant. Along the mudflat transect, the biodiversity (expressed by different indices) was relatively high at different taxonomic levels but did not vary significantly along the mudflat except for taxa richness. Eighty nematode genera belonging to 24 families with Comesomatidae having the highest abundance 33.8 % were found. Theristus and Neochromadora decreased in densities from the lower water line towards the mangrove forest edge, while Paracomesoma and Hopperia are typical and more abundant at the middle of the mudflat. Halalaimus increased from high on the mudflat to the low water line.

  20. Hurricane disturbance and recovery of energy balance, CO 2 fluxes and canopy structure in a mangrove forest of the Florida Everglades

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jordan G. Barr; Vic Engel; Thomas J. Smith; José D. Fuentes

    Eddy covariance (EC) estimates of carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes and energy balance are examined to investigate the functional responses of a mature mangrove forest to a disturbance generated by Hurricane Wilma on October 24, 2005 in the Florida Everglades. At the EC site, high winds from the hurricane caused nearly 100% defoliation in the upper canopy and widespread tree mortality.

  1. Hurricane disturbance and recovery of energy balance, CO2 fluxes and canopy structure in a mangrove forest of the Florida Everglades

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jordan G. Barr; Vic Engel; Thomas J. Smith; Jose D. Fuentes

    2012-01-01

    Eddy covariance (EC) estimates of carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes and energy balance are examined to investigate the functional responses of a mature mangrove forest to a disturbance generated by Hurricane Wilma on October 24, 2005 in the Florida Everglades. At the EC site, high winds from the hurricane caused nearly 100% defoliation in the upper canopy and widespread tree mortality.

  2. Hyperspectral forest monitoring and imaging implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodenough, David G.; Bannon, David

    2014-05-01

    The forest biome is vital to the health of the earth. Canada and the United States have a combined forest area of 4.68 Mkm2. The monitoring of these forest resources has become increasingly complex. Hyperspectral remote sensing can provide a wealth of improved information products to land managers to make more informed decisions. Research in this area has demonstrated that hyperspectral remote sensing can be used to create more accurate products for forest inventory (major forest species), forest health, foliar biochemistry, biomass, and aboveground carbon. Operationally there is a requirement for a mix of airborne and satellite approaches. This paper surveys some methods and results in hyperspectral sensing of forests and discusses the implications for space initiatives with hyperspectral sensing

  3. Mosquitoes of the mangrove forests of India: part 5--Chorao, Goa, and Vikhroli, Maharashtra.

    PubMed

    Rajavel, A R; Natarajan, R; Vaidyanathan, K; Soniya, V P

    2007-06-01

    Mosquitoes of 14 species belonging to 9 subgenera and 9 genera were recorded in Chorao mangroves of Goa, and 12 species belonging to 9 subgenera and 7 genera in the mangroves of Vikhroli, Maharashtra, in India. Genera recorded were Aedes, Anopheles, Armigeres, Culex, Mansonia, Ochlerotatus, Orthopodomyia, Toxorhynchites, Uranotaenia, and Verrallina. Species common to both the mangroves were Ae. albopictus, Ae. novalbopictus, An. subpictus, Cx. sitiens, Oc. wardi, Ur. atra, and Ve. lugubris. Tree holes, crab holes, and swamp pools were the common larval habitats in Chorao, but tree holes were absent in Vikhroli. Adults of Ae. albopictus, Ae. novalbopictus, Ar. subalbatus, Cx. gelidus Cx. sitiens, Ma. indiana, Ur. atra, and Ve. lugubris were found landing on humans. Aedes novalbopictus, Oc. wardi, and Or. anopheloides are new records for the state of Goa. PMID:17847838

  4. Root proliferation in decaying roots and old root channels: A nutrient conservation mechanism in oligotrophic mangrove forests?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, K.L.

    2001-01-01

    1. In oligotrophic habitats, proliferation of roots in nutrient-rich microsites may contribute to overall nutrient conservation by plants. Peat-based soils on mangrove islands in Belize are characterized by the presence of decaying roots and numerous old root channels (0.1-3.5 cm diameter) that become filled with living and highly branched roots of Rhizophora mangle and Avicennia germinans. The objectives of this study were to quantify the proliferation of roots in these microsites and to determine what causes this response. 2. Channels formed by the refractory remains of mangrove roots accounted for only 1-2% of total soil volume, but the proportion of roots found within channels varied from 9 to 24% of total live mass. Successive generations of roots growing inside increasingly smaller root channels were also found. 3. When artificial channels constructed of PVC pipe were buried in the peat for 2 years, those filled with nutrient-rich organic matter had six times more roots than empty or sand-filled channels, indicating a response to greater nutrient availability rather than to greater space or less impedance to root growth. 4. Root proliferation inside decaying roots may improve recovery of nutrients released from decomposing tissues before they can be leached or immobilized in this intertidal environment. Greatest root proliferation in channels occurred in interior forest zones characterized by greater soil waterlogging, which suggests that this may be a strategy for nutrient capture that minimizes oxygen losses from the whole root system. 5. Improved efficiency of nutrient acquisition at the individual plant level has implications for nutrient economy at the ecosystem level and may explain, in part, how mangroves persist and grow in nutrient-poor environments.

  5. Landscape Carbon Monitoring and Analysis at the Experimental Forest Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Birdsey; Randall Kolka; Marie-Louise Smith; Michael Ryan; David Hollinger; Linda Heath; Coeli Hoover

    Current forest monitoring capability lacks many of the observations needed for complete forest carbon accounting over large areas. An improved observation and monitoring system is undergoing pilot testing at several forest sites in the U.S. This initiative is part of the interagency North American Carbon Program (NACP), and builds on existing capability at the Forest Service network of experimental forests.

  6. Sedimentology of onshore tsunami deposits of the Indian Ocean tsunami, 2004 in the mangrove forest of the Curieuse Marine National Park, Seychelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nentwig, V.; Bahlburg, H.; Monthy, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Seychelles were severely affected by the December 26, 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean. Since the tsunami history of small islands often remains unclear due to a young historiography we conducted a study of onshore tsunami deposits on the Seychelles in order to understand the scale of impact of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and potential predecessors. As part of this project we found and studied onshore tsunami deposits in the mangrove forest at Old Turtle Pond bay on the east coast of Curieuse Island. The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused a change of habitat due to sedimentation of an extended sand sheet in the mangrove forest. We present results of the first detailed sedimentological study of onshore tsunami deposits of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami conducted on the Seychelles. The Curieuse mangrove forest at Old Turtle Pond bay is part of the Curieuse Marine National Park. It is thus protected from anthropogenic interference. Towards the sea it was shielded until the tsunami by a 500 m long and 1.5 m high causeway which was set up in 1909 as a sediment trap. The causeway was destroyed by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. The silt to fine sand sized and organic rich mangrove soil was subsequently covered by carbonate fine to medium sand (1.5 to 2.1 ?) containing coarser carbonate shell debris which had been trapped outside the mangrove bay before the tsunami. The tsunami deposited a sand sheet which is organized into different lobes. They extend landwards to different inundation distances as a function of morphology. Maximum inundation distance is 200 m. The sediments often cover the pneumatophores of the mangroves. No landward fining trend of the sand sheet has been observed. On the different sand lobes carbonate-cemented sandstone debris ranging in size from 0.5 up to 12 cm occurs. Also numerous mostly fragmented shells of bivalves and molluscs were distributed on top of the sand lobes. Intact bivalve shells were mostly positioned with the convex side upwards. On small ledges of a granitic body at 120 m from the shore fragmented and complete shells were deposited at different elevations of up to 4 m. This implies a run up height of at least 4 m above sea level at this distance from the shore. Our study presents the mapping of the tsunamigenic sand lobes, their grain size distribution and petrographic variations of their components compared to the mangrove soil. The difference in the grain size and amount of organic material of the mangrove soil compared to the sand lobes indicate that the coarser material was entrained from outside of the mangrove forest by the tsunami. The similarity of the grain size distributions of the sediment of the sand lobes and of a reference beach/intertidal sample suggests the lagoon between the mangrove forest and the causeway as the probable sediment source area. The fact that the mangrove forest is surrounded by granitic hills and the appearance of the carbonate sandstone debris mostly on the surface of the sand sheets supports this assumption.

  7. FOREST HEALTH MONITORING PLOT DESIGN AND LOGISTICS STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern over the condition of forests in relation to natural and manmade stresses has led to an interagency Forest Health Monitoring program. o improve the efficiency of forest monitoring, the forest group of EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program conducted a field...

  8. National Satellite Forest Monitoring systems for REDD+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonckheere, I. G.

    2012-12-01

    Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) is an effort to create a financial value for the carbon stored in forests, offering incentives for developing countries to reduce emissions from forested lands and invest in low-carbon paths to sustainable development. "REDD+" goes beyond deforestation and forest degradation, and includes the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. In the framework of getting countries ready for REDD+, the UN-REDD Programme assists developing countries to prepare and implement national REDD+ strategies. For the monitoring, reporting and verification, FAO supports the countries to develop national satellite forest monitoring systems that allow for credible measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of REDD+ activities. These are among the most critical elements for the successful implementation of any REDD+ mechanism. The UN-REDD Programme through a joint effort of FAO and Brazil's National Space Agency, INPE, is supporting countries to develop cost- effective, robust and compatible national monitoring and MRV systems, providing tools, methodologies, training and knowledge sharing that help countries to strengthen their technical and institutional capacity for effective MRV systems. To develop strong nationally-owned forest monitoring systems, technical and institutional capacity building is key. The UN-REDD Programme, through FAO, has taken on intensive training together with INPE, and has provided technical help and assistance for in-country training and implementation for national satellite forest monitoring. The goal of the support to UN-REDD pilot countries in this capacity building effort is the training of technical forest people and IT persons from interested REDD+ countries, and to set- up the national satellite forest monitoring systems. The Brazilian forest monitoring system, TerraAmazon, which is used as a basis for this initiative, allows countries to adapt it to country needs and the training on the TerraAmazon system is a tool to enhance existing capacity on carbon monitoring systems. The support with the National Forest Monitoring System will allow these countries to follow all actions related to the implementation of its national REDD+ policies and measures. The monitoring system will work as a platform to obtain information on their REDD+ results and actions, related directly or indirectly to national REDD+ strategies and may also include actions unrelated to carbon assessment, such as forest law enforcement. With the technical assistance of FAO, INPE and other stakeholders, the countries will set up an autonomous operational forest monitoring system. An initial version and the methodologies of the system for DRC and PNG has been launched in Durban, South Africa during COP 17 and in 2012 Paraguay, Viet Nam and Zambia will be launched in Doha, Qatar at COP 18. The access to high-quality satellite data for these countries is crucial for the set-up.

  9. Hydraulic Conductivity of Riparian Mangrove Forest Peat Adjacent to the Harney River, Everglades National Park: A Comparative Field Study of Field Saturated and Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity Methods.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, G. H.; Smith, T. J.

    2002-05-01

    The Shark-Harney river estuary is located in the southwest region of Everglades National Park and is the principle outflow for the freshwater everglades slough. Periodic tidal inundation, rainfall and overland freshwater flow are the forcing functions on surface soil infiltration and drainage in the adjacent estuary mangrove forest peat. Empirical soil hydraulic conductivity (K) for the mangrove peat soil is needed for hydrologic modeling efforts such as "The Tides and Inflows in the Mangroves of the Everglades" (TIME). South Florida has a bi-seasonal weather pattern of a dry and mild winters and a wet tropical summers. During the drier winter months (November-May), the mangrove peat has a 30-60 cm, unsaturated vadose zone and in the wet summer months (June-October), the peat is totally saturated. This study's purpose is to determine reliable values of soil hydraulic conductivity for mangrove peat under both the unsaturated Kfs and saturated Ksat soil conditions. Rycroft (1975) reported that field measurements are the preferred method of testing hydraulic conductivity of peat. The principle field method used to determining soil hydraulic conductivity Kfs under unsaturated conditions utilized a cylindrical permeameter (Guelph Permeameter) and the auger-hole method was used to determine soil hydraulic conductivity Ksat under saturated soil conditions. The hydraulic conductivity K samples were taken along a 300-meter transect, perpendicular to the south Harney riverbank through a mixed mangrove riparian forest and ending in a freshwater sawgrass prairie. Initial measurements were recorded in May-June 2001. A second year measurement set will be collected in March-April 2002. Hydraulic conductivity K measurements were observed in shallow peat holes (15 cm) at five equally spaced sample sites (60 m) from the river edge. Soil cores were taken at each sampling site to determine soil profile and bulk density.

  10. Mangrove Rehabilitation and Intertidal Biodiversity: a Study in the Ranong Mangrove Ecosystem, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macintosh, D. J.; Ashton, E. C.; Havanon, S.

    2002-09-01

    The diversity, abundance, biomass and community structure of crustacean and molluscan macrofauna were studied in the Ranong mangrove forest ecosystem on the Andaman Sea coast of southern Thailand. After a history of commercial exploitation the mangroves along the Klong Ngao tidal creek have been assigned conservation status within a new Ranong Biosphere Reserve established in 1997. Over the past 12 years, several areas of mangrove destroyed or degraded by wood harvesting, tin mining and aquaculture, have been rehabilitated on a pilot basis by planting monocultures of mangrove seedlings using four common local species ( Rhizophora apiculata, R. mucronata, Bruguiera cyclindrica and Ceriops tagal). These plantation forests with different past management histories were compared with a natural, mixed, mature mangrove forest which has been conserved for about 40 years. Macrofauna were sampled within a 100 m 2 vegetation quadrat in each study site. Crustaceans were sampled quantitatively by 3×15 min timed hand catches per site. Molluscs were sampled in 3× m 2 quadrats positioned around three randomly selected trees in each vegetation quadrat. The lowest crustacean and molluscan diversity was recorded from the former tin mining site. The highest diversity was recorded from a Rhizophora plantation in the natural mixed forest area for both crustaceans and molluscs. The vegetation community structure was not correlated with the environmental variables measured, or with macrofauna community structure. Of the environmental parameters chosen, the crustacean community structure was best expressed by shore level, while for molluscan diversity and abundance it was soil moisture content. The macrofauna community structure at the tin mining site was significantly different to the other sites, and was dominated by a single species of crab, Metaplax elegans. Grapsid crabs, especially sesarmid species, dominated over ocypodid crabs in the mature forest site, whereas Uca species and other ocypodids were more abundant than grapsids in the degraded concession forest area. Snails of the families Neritidae and Ellobiidae were the most abundant molluscs in the mature forest, whereas Littoriinidae, Assimineidae and Potamidae species were more representative of the younger plantation sites. The findings from this study suggest that some of these well represented families of mangrove macrofauna could be used as indicators of ecological change as part of a long term environmental monitoring programme in Ranong and other areas in Southeast Asia where mangroves are being rehabilitated.

  11. Differential responses of net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide to light and temperature between spring and neap tides in subtropical mangrove forests.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Lu, Weizhi; Chen, Hui; Luo, Yiqi; Lin, Guanghui

    2014-01-01

    The eddy flux data with field records of tidal water inundation depths of the year 2010 from two mangroves forests in southern China were analyzed to investigate the tidal effect on mangrove carbon cycle. We compared the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and its responses to light and temperature, respectively, between spring tide and neap tide inundation periods. For the most time of the year 2010, higher daytime NEE values were found during spring tides than during neap tides at both study sites. Regression analysis of daytime NEE to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) using the Landsberg model showed increased sensitivity of NEE to PAR with higher maximum photosynthetic rate during spring tides than neap tides. In contrast, the light compensation points acquired from the regression function of the Landsberg model were smaller during spring tides than neap tides in most months. The dependence of nighttime NEE on soil temperature was lower under spring tide than under neap tides. All these results above indicated that ecosystem carbon uptake rates of mangrove forests were strengthened, while ecosystem respirations were inhibited during spring tides in comparison with those during neap tides, which needs to be considered in modeling mangrove ecosystem carbon cycle under future sea level rise scenarios. PMID:25133267

  12. Differential Responses of Net Ecosystem Exchange of Carbon Dioxide to Light and Temperature between Spring and Neap Tides in Subtropical Mangrove Forests

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Lu, Weizhi; Chen, Hui; Luo, Yiqi; Lin, Guanghui

    2014-01-01

    The eddy flux data with field records of tidal water inundation depths of the year 2010 from two mangroves forests in southern China were analyzed to investigate the tidal effect on mangrove carbon cycle. We compared the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and its responses to light and temperature, respectively, between spring tide and neap tide inundation periods. For the most time of the year 2010, higher daytime NEE values were found during spring tides than during neap tides at both study sites. Regression analysis of daytime NEE to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) using the Landsberg model showed increased sensitivity of NEE to PAR with higher maximum photosynthetic rate during spring tides than neap tides. In contrast, the light compensation points acquired from the regression function of the Landsberg model were smaller during spring tides than neap tides in most months. The dependence of nighttime NEE on soil temperature was lower under spring tide than under neap tides. All these results above indicated that ecosystem carbon uptake rates of mangrove forests were strengthened, while ecosystem respirations were inhibited during spring tides in comparison with those during neap tides, which needs to be considered in modeling mangrove ecosystem carbon cycle under future sea level rise scenarios. PMID:25133267

  13. Assessing forest products usage and local residents' perception of environmental changes in peri-urban and rural mangroves of Cameroon, Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Deforestation is one of the most ubiquitous forms of land degradation worldwide. Although remote sensing and aerial photographs can supply valuable information on land/use cover changes, they may not regularly be available for some tropical coasts (e.g., Cameroon estuary) where cloud cover is frequent. With respect to mangroves, researchers are now employing local knowledge as an alternative means of understanding forest disturbances. This paper was primarily aimed at assessing the mangrove forest products usage, along with the local people's perceptions on environmental changes, between Littoral (Cameroon estuary) and Southern (mouth of the Nyong River and Mpalla village) regions of Cameroon. Methods The data from both locations were obtained through conducting household interviews and field observations. Results In the Cameroon estuary (Littoral region), 69.23% of respondents (mostly elders) could distinguish two to four mangrove plants, whereas the informants (65.45%) in the mouth of the Nyong River and Mpalla village (mostly young people interviewed from the Southern region) are familiar with only one or two commonly found mangroves. Also, more respondents from the Cameroon estuary are depending on mangroves for fuelwood (Rhizophora spp.) and housing (Rhizophora spp., Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn and Nypa fruticans (Thumb.) Wurmb.) purposes, in contrast to Nyong River mouth and Mpalla village. Although local people perceived wood extraction as a greater disruptive factor, there are several causes for mangrove depletion in the Cameroon estuary. Among others, over-harvesting, clear-felled corridors, sand extraction and housing were found important. Furthermore, a decline in mangrove fauna composition (in terms of fishery products) was recorded in the Littoral as well as Southern regions. However, the causes of such perceived negative changes were not similar in both cases. Conclusions Findings of this study highlight the need to improve sustainable management of the mangrove ecosystems through afforestation (in large impacted areas), selective removal of senescent tree stems and branches (in little damage stands), regulating sand extraction and housing activities, and creating awareness and law enforcement. PMID:22146073

  14. Monitoring the forest carbon changes Osamu Ochiai

    E-print Network

    are participating ·Global warming and estimation of the terrestrial carbon JERS-1 1992~1998 L-HH ALOS 2006~ L of the project ·Forest change and its global monitoring from the space is the issue for the global environmental

  15. Burrows of the semi-terrestrial crab Ucides cordatus enhance CO2 release in a North Brazilian mangrove forest.

    PubMed

    Pülmanns, Nathalie; Diele, Karen; Mehlig, Ulf; Nordhaus, Inga

    2014-01-01

    Ucides cordatus is an abundant mangrove crab in Brazil constructing burrows of up to 2 m depth. Sediment around burrows may oxidize during low tides. This increase in sediment-air contact area may enhance carbon degradation processes. We hypothesized that 1) the sediment CO2 efflux rate is greater with burrows than without and 2) the reduction potential in radial profiles in the sediment surrounding the burrows decreases gradually, until approximating non-bioturbated conditions. Sampling was conducted during the North Brazilian wet season at neap tides. CO2 efflux rates of inhabited burrows and plain sediment were measured with a CO2/H2O gas analyzer connected to a respiration chamber. Sediment redox potential, pH and temperature were measured in the sediment surrounding the burrows at horizontal distances of 2, 5, 8 and 15 cm at four sediment depths (1, 10, 30 and 50 cm) and rH values were calculated. Sediment cores (50 cm length) were taken to measure the same parameters for plain sediment. CO2 efflux rates of plain sediment and individual crab burrows with entrance diameters of 7 cm were 0.7-1.3 µmol m(-2) s(-1) and 0.2-0.4 µmol burrows(-1) s(-1), respectively. CO2 released from a Rhizophora mangle dominated forest with an average of 1.7 U. cordatus burrows(-1) m(-2) yielded 1.0-1.7 µmol m(-2) s(-1), depending on the month and burrow entrance diameter. Laboratory experiments revealed that 20-60% of the CO2 released by burrows originated from crab respiration. Temporal changes in the reduction potential in the sediment surrounding the burrows did not influence the CO2 release from burrows. More oxidized conditions of plain sediment over time may explain the increase in CO2 release until the end of the wet season. CO2 released by U. cordatus and their burrows may be a significant pathway of CO2 export from mangrove sediments and should be considered in mangrove carbon budget estimates. PMID:25313661

  16. Burrows of the Semi-Terrestrial Crab Ucides cordatus Enhance CO2 Release in a North Brazilian Mangrove Forest

    PubMed Central

    Pülmanns, Nathalie; Diele, Karen; Mehlig, Ulf; Nordhaus, Inga

    2014-01-01

    Ucides cordatus is an abundant mangrove crab in Brazil constructing burrows of up to 2 m depth. Sediment around burrows may oxidize during low tides. This increase in sediment-air contact area may enhance carbon degradation processes. We hypothesized that 1) the sediment CO2 efflux rate is greater with burrows than without and 2) the reduction potential in radial profiles in the sediment surrounding the burrows decreases gradually, until approximating non-bioturbated conditions. Sampling was conducted during the North Brazilian wet season at neap tides. CO2 efflux rates of inhabited burrows and plain sediment were measured with a CO2/H2O gas analyzer connected to a respiration chamber. Sediment redox potential, pH and temperature were measured in the sediment surrounding the burrows at horizontal distances of 2, 5, 8 and 15 cm at four sediment depths (1, 10, 30 and 50 cm) and rH values were calculated. Sediment cores (50 cm length) were taken to measure the same parameters for plain sediment. CO2 efflux rates of plain sediment and individual crab burrows with entrance diameters of 7 cm were 0.7–1.3 µmol m?2 s?1 and 0.2–0.4 µmol burrows?1 s?1, respectively. CO2 released from a Rhizophora mangle dominated forest with an average of 1.7 U. cordatus burrows?1 m?2 yielded 1.0–1.7 µmol m?2 s?1, depending on the month and burrow entrance diameter. Laboratory experiments revealed that 20–60% of the CO2 released by burrows originated from crab respiration. Temporal changes in the reduction potential in the sediment surrounding the burrows did not influence the CO2 release from burrows. More oxidized conditions of plain sediment over time may explain the increase in CO2 release until the end of the wet season. CO2 released by U. cordatus and their burrows may be a significant pathway of CO2 export from mangrove sediments and should be considered in mangrove carbon budget estimates. PMID:25313661

  17. Heavy metal concentrations in some macrobenthic fauna of the Sundarbans mangrove forest, south west coast of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Kawser; Mehedi, Yousuf; Haque, Rezaul; Mondol, Pulakesh

    2011-06-01

    Heavy metal concentrations in some macrobenthic fauna have been reported for the first time from the Sundarbans mangrove forest, south west coast of Bangladesh, in the northern part of Bay of Bengal. The concentration of Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in macrobenthos ranged from 235 ± 10.11 to 1,051 ± 38.42, 3.66 ± 0.89 to 7.55 ± 1.29, 76.8 ± 8.55 to 98.5 ± 6.49, 0.46 ± 0.11 to 0.859 ± 0.2 and 4.66 ± 1.17 to 6.77 ± 2.1 ?g/g, respectively. Significant variations (p???0.05) in heavy metal concentrations have been observed among the mud crab, mudskipper and gastropod. However, heavy metal burdens did not vary significantly among the hermit and horseshoe crabs. In mud crab, horseshoe crab and gastropod, heavy metal concentrations were recorded in the sequence: Fe > Zn > Pb > Cu > Cd. Hermit crab and mudskipper contained heavy metals in the order of Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd. Fe and Zn concentrations were found significantly (p???0.05) higher in macrobenthos. The lead (Pb) concentration found in the edible portion of macrobenthos exceeded the international permissible limits certified by the WHO. Bioconcentration factors >1.00 obtained for Fe (17.05 in mudskipper) and Cd (1.87 in gastropod) indicated that these metals were highly bioaccumulated and biomagnified in benthic fauna of Sundarbans. The findings of this study refer to the potential impact of heavy metals in the mangrove ecosystem of Bangladesh. PMID:20711859

  18. Hidden in the mangrove forest: the cryptic intertidal mite Carinozetes mangrovi sp. nov. (Acari, Oribatida, Selenoribatidae).

    PubMed

    Pfingstl, Tobias; Lienhard, Andrea; Jagersbacher-Baumann, Julia

    2014-08-01

    The small archipelago of Bermuda is a geologically young landmass in the Western Atlantic Ocean and recently turned out to be inhabited by a number of intertidal oribatid mites. One newly described species, Carinozetes bermudensis, showed an unusual vast range of habitats like sandy beaches, rocky substrate and mangroves. In the present study, 13 Bermudian populations of C. bermudensis were analysed to verify species integrity of specimens from different microhabitats. A morphometric analysis of 17 continuous variables as well as a molecular genetic investigation of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I revealed the existence of a new species Carinozetes mangrovi sp. nov., inhabiting exclusively intertidal algae growing on mangrove roots. Although both species are morphologically nearly identical, the configuration of the genus-specific ventral carinae represents a clear diagnostic character. The high genetic divergence of approximately 12 % of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene sequence between C. bermudensis and C. mangrovi sp. nov. suggests that these two species diverged before the emergence of the Bermuda islands. Accordingly, both of them are older than the geologically young archipelago of Bermuda. PMID:24687175

  19. Occurrence of species-rich crab fauna in a human-impacted mangrove forest questions the application of community analysis as an environmental assessment tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geist, Simon Joscha; Nordhaus, Inga; Hinrichs, Saskia

    2012-01-01

    Diversity and composition of the intertidal brachyuran crab community in the Segara Anakan Lagoon (SAL), Java, Indonesia, during the dry season of 2005 and the rainy season of 2006, shows that crab community composition and structure alone appeared to be poor indicators for the state of a forest in terms of tree diversity and wood-cutting intensity. The lagoon is surrounded by the largest mangrove stand in Java and is under constant anthropogenic pressure, mainly due to logging, land conversion for agriculture, overfishing and industrial pollution. This study aims to determine the crab community composition at different sites of the lagoon in relation to vegetation composition and sediment parameters. In addition it investigates if mangrove crabs can be used as bioindicators to describe the environmental state of mangrove forests (tree diversity, degree of logging). It was assumed to find a low crab diversity and species richness and a strong dominance of a single species at highly disturbed forest sites compared to moderately disturbed sites. A stratified, hierarchical design was used to sample the crab fauna at 13 stations distributed over the entire lagoon. Additionally, abiotic parameters and vegetation composition were recorded. In total 6463 crabs were caught belonging to 49 species, 5 superfamilies and 10 families, with Ocypodidae and Sesarmidae being the families of most note. Mean density of adult crabs was 27.7 individuals*m -2 and mean biomass was 12.8 g wet mass*m -2 or 1.3 g ash free dry mass*m -2. Density and biomass varied strongly within and between stations but they where within the range reported for other mangrove forests of the Indo-West-Pacific. Species composition was significantly different between stations. The distribution of facultatively leaf-feeding grapsid crabs was related to vegetation parameters (tree, seedling and undergrowth density), but the occurrence of single crab and tree species was not correlated. The distribution of ocypodid crabs, feeding on detritus and microphytobenthos, correlated with sediment characteristics like median grain size and organic content. The crab community was strongly dominated by one species at six stations, however, this was not correlated to the degree of logging. Leaf-feeding crab and mangrove tree diversity was correlated at areas of one hectare (stations), but not at a lower spatial scale (areas of 100 m 2, "zone"). Species richness of leaf-feeding crabs was not linked to forest diversity. Hence a functional relation between leaf-feeding crab and tree species diversity could not be proven.

  20. Land from the sea: The mangrove afforestation program of Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Saenger; N A Siddiqi

    1993-01-01

    The coastal areas of Bangladesh have a high cyclone frequency. The protection from cyclone damage afforded by the natural mangrove forests of the Sundarbans, led the Forest Department in 1966 to initiate a mangrove afforestation programme. These initial plantings proved highly successful in protecting and stabilizing coastal areas, and led to a large-scale mangrove afforestation initiative. To date, approximately 120

  1. Mangrove Resources

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Florida Plants Online provides this resource on mangroves, featuring brief annotations and links to dozens of mangrove-related pages. Although the pages described at Florida Plants Online vary in depth and quality, many are worthwhile.

  2. Distribution of actinomycetes, their antagonistic behaviour and the physico-chemical characteristics of the world's largest tidal mangrove forest.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Anindita; Santra, Subhas Chandra; Mukherjee, Joydeep

    2008-09-01

    We examined the relationship between distribution of actinomycetes and antagonistic behaviour with the physico-chemical characteristics of the Sundarbans, off the Bay of Bengal, India. Soil/sediment samples were collected from three regions: near to the sea, intertidal regions and mangrove forests. For the enumeration of actinomycetes, four treatments combining dilution with distilled or sea water with or without heating followed by plating onto starch-casein, glycerol-arginine and starch-nitrate media were done. Dilution with seawater, heating and plating onto starch-casein yielded maximum number of actinomycetes. The highest number of actinomycetes was isolated from an intertidal region having alluvial soil and the lowest from a site containing sandy sediments. Antimicrobial activity was dependent upon seawater. Antimicrobial score of an actinomycetes strain was calculated allotting maximum points to the isolate showing activity against all the test bacteria, next lower point to the isolate showing activity against one less the total and so on. The antagonistic potential (AP) of a sampling site was the ratio of total antimicrobial score of the isolates and their number. The high AP sites were influenced by tides, while the low AP sites were not. Pearson's correlation between soil chemical parameters and microbiological parameters revealed soil nitrogen as the key factor determining the antagonistic activity. PMID:18679673

  3. Monitoring the changes of redox potential, pH and electrical conductivity of the mangrove soils in northern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hseu, Z Y; Chen, Z S

    2000-07-01

    The redox potential (Eh), pH and electrical conductivity (EC) of the marsh soils of the Chuwei mangrove, located in the estuarine of the Tansui River in northern Taiwan were monitored for two years (from October 1995 to September 1997). The soils of selected pedons were studied, and the soils were classified based on Keys to Soil Taxonomy. The soil pH values tended to be neutral due to the impact of seawater on the mangrove marsh. The amounts of organic carbon found in this study area were much less than those generally encountered in the wetland soils of temperate regions in the world. The base saturation percentages of the soils were almost 100%, the exchangeable Na being particularly predominant. The concentrations of various cations of water in this ecosystem were in the order of Na+ > Mg2+ > K+ = Ca2+, and those of anions of water were in the order of Cl- > SO4(2-) > NO3- > PO4(3-). In spite of seasonal flooding changes, highly reduced states (100 to -200 mV of Eh values) existed throughout the two-year study. The spatial and temporal variations of the Eh values of the surface soil (0-20 cm) were higher than those of the subsoils (20-100 cm). The EC values of the soils from the surface to a depth of 100-cm were generally more than 20 dS/m. The marsh soils of the Chuwei mangrove were, thus, classified as Halic Endoaquents or Halic Fluvaquents. PMID:10943948

  4. Global Change Impacts on Mangrove Ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Karen L.

    2004-01-01

    Mangroves are tropical/subtropical communities of primarily tree species that grow in the intertidal zone. These tidal forests are important coastal ecosystems that are valued for a variety of ecological and societal goods and services. Major local threats to mangrove ecosystems worldwide include clearcutting and trimming of forests for urban, agricultural, or industrial expansion; hydrological alterations; toxic chemical spills; and eutrophication. In many countries with mangroves, much of the human population resides in the coastal zone, and their activities often negatively impact the integrity of mangrove forests. In addition, eutrophication, which is the process whereby nutrients build up to higher than normal levels in a natural system, is possibly one of the most serious threats to mangroves and associated ecosystems such as coral reefs. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at the National Wetlands Research Center are working to more fully understand global impacts on these significant ecosystems. Changes in climate and other factors may also affect mangroves, but in complex ways. Global warming may promote expansion of mangrove forests to higher latitudes and accelerate sea-level rise through melting of polar ice or steric expansion of oceans. Changes in sea level would alter flooding patterns and the structure and areal extent of mangroves. Climate change may also alter rainfall patterns, which would in turn change local salinity regimes and competitive interactions of mangroves with other wetland species. Increases in frequency or intensity of tropical storms and hurricanes in combination with sea-level rise may alter erosion and sedimentation rates in mangrove forests. Another global change factor that may directly affect mangrove growth is increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), caused by burning of fossil fuels and other factors. Elevated CO2 concentration may increase mangrove growth by stimulating photosynthesis or improving water use efficiency, but the consequences of this growth enhancement for the ecosystem are unknown.

  5. Impact of typhoon disturbance on the diversity of key ecosystem engineers in a monoculture mangrove forest plantation, Can Gio Biosphere Reserve, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diele, K.; Tran Ngoc, D. M.; Geist, S. J.; Meyer, F. W.; Pham, Q. H.; Saint-Paul, U.; Tran, T.; Berger, U.

    2013-11-01

    Mangrove crabs as key ecosystem engineers may play an important role in the recovery process of storm-damaged forests. Yet, their response to storm disturbance is largely unknown. Here we compare the ground-dwelling brachyuran crab community of intact mangrove stands with that of typhoon gaps having experienced 100% tree mortality. Field work was conducted in two adjacent areas in Can Gio Biosphere Reserve, southern Vietnam. In each area, an 18-20 yr old monoculture Rhizophora apiculata stand served as control and was compared with typhoon gaps where downed stems had been removed or left on-site. The gaps were 14 and 20 months old when studied in the dry and rainy season 2008, respectively. Time-based sampling of ground-dwelling crabs with hand or shovel was conducted by 4 persons inside 100 m2 plots for 30 min (7 replicate plots per area, treatment and month). Abiotic (sediment pH, salinity, temperature, grain size, water content, carbon and nitrogen content), and biotic measures (e.g. canopy coverage, woody debris, number of trees, leaf litter) were also taken. Despite complete canopy loss, total crab abundance has not changed significantly (in contrast to biomass) and all 12 species found in the forest were also found in the gaps, demonstrating their robustness. Another 9 gap-exclusive species were recorded and average species number and Shannon diversity were thus higher in the gaps. Perisesarma eumolpe was the most abundant species, both in the forest and in the gaps, and a shift from sesarmids (typical forest species) to ocypodids (generally more prominent in open areas) has not occurred. The persistence of litter-feeding sesarmid crabs prior to the re-establishment of a mangrove canopy is likely to depend on the availability of woody debris on the ground of the gaps, fuelling a mangrove detritus based food web, rather than one based on microphytobenthos and deposit-feeding ocypodids. The presence of burrowing crabs in the gaps suggests that important ecosystem engineering activities are still performed. However, bioturbation may be reduced as crab biomass and body size were smaller in the gaps. Follow-up assessments and field experiments are needed to understand the crabs' role in processing the woody debris, their long-term community dynamics and possible feed-backs between species shifts and gap regeneration.

  6. Measurement of exchange of CO2 in mangrove forest of Sundarbans using micrometeorological method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. MUKHOPADHYAY; T. K. JANA; T. K. DE; S. SEN

    Attempt has been made for the individual measurement of CO2 fluxes in the Sundarban forest and in the water ways near Jambu Island by using micrometeorological me- thod during 12-13 February 1998. The gas fluxes were measured directly over a short enough time period at variable flux controlling conditions. This environment has been found to be sink for CO2 during

  7. Monotoring of mangrove ecosystem in relation with exploration and production activities

    SciTech Connect

    Alamsyah, C.; Dwistiadi, D.

    1996-11-01

    From Indonesia`s initial 13 million hectares of mangrove forests, presently only 2.6 million hectares remains which must be certainly protected. Mangrove swamps are of considerable ecological importance not only because of their use as spawning and feeding grounds for a many variety of fish and shrimps but also of economical importance and last but not least as coastal protection. In such a sensitive ecosystem, i.e. in the mangrove swamp area of Mahakam Delta in East Kalimantan, Indonesia, TOTAL Indonesie, an affiliate of the French oil company {open_quotes}TOTAL{close_quotes} and one of the production sharing contractors of PERTAMINA, the Indonesian owned state oil company, has undertaken its E&P operations since 1974. Realizing the sensitivity of the mangrove area, TOTAL Indonesie has undertaken continuous monitoring of the environment as part of its Environmental Management System. This monitoring is very important not only to measure the impact to the mangrove ecosystem in particular due to TOTAL Indonesie activities but also as a feed back for the environmental management. Physicochemical and biological aspects of the environment are monitored and various measurements are taken covering: (1) Hydrology and hydrodynamics of the water streams i.e. the water quality, productivity and flow characteristic of the region (2) Sedimentation and biodegradation (3) The influence of accidental and chronic pollution mangrove ecosystem (3) Sensitivity of the mangroves. The above monitoring has led to the conclusion that after more than 20 years of operation, there has significant adverse impact to the mangrove ecosystem by the exploration and production activities of Indonesie.

  8. Effects of flooding and warming on soil organic matter mineralization in Avicennia germinans mangrove forests and Juncus roemerianus salt marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, David Bruce; Brown, Jewel A.; Jimenez, Kristine L.

    2014-02-01

    Under a changing climate, coastal wetlands experience sea level rise, warming, and vegetation change, all of which may influence organic matter mineralization. In coastal wetlands of subtropical west-central Florida (USA), we investigated how soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) mineralization respond to soil water, temperature, and ecosystem type (Avicennia germinans mangrove forest vs. Juncus roemerianus salt marsh). We evaluated how soil respiration and mineral N concentration varied along a soil moisture gradient, and whether these relationships differed between ecosystem types. Then, we manipulated soils in a 28-d laboratory incubation to evaluate how potentially mineralizable C and N respond to temperature (23 vs. 27 °C), soil hydroperiod (inundated 4 vs. 20 h/d), and soil source. Soil saturation and inundation suppressed short-term (minutes to weeks) C mineralization from near-surface soils. Soil CO2 efflux declined by 65% as soil moisture increased from 75% to 85%, and potentially mineralizable C was 18% lower with a 20-h hydroperiod than with a 4-h hydroperiod. Organic C quality appears to be greater in A. germinans than in J. roemerianus soils, as A. germinans soils had higher field CO2 efflux rates and greater mineralizable C:N (despite lower total C:N). Increasing incubation temperature from 23 to 27 °C elevated potentially mineralizable C by 40%, indicating that two symptoms of climate change (increased inundation from sea level rise, and warming) may have opposing effects on soil C mineralization. Temperature sensitivity of C mineralization was high for long-hydroperiod soils, however, suggesting that protection of soil organic matter (SOM) due to prolonged inundation will be undermined by warming. Potentially mineralizable N was greater in J. roemerianus soils, although in situ mineral N was not different between ecosystems, instead correlating positively with SOM. These results indicate that models forecasting soil elevation responses to climate change might include inundation effects on mineralization rates.

  9. Aliiglaciecola coringensis sp. nov., isolated from a water sample collected from mangrove forest in Coringa, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vasundhera; Sharma, Gunjan; Srinivas, T N R; Anil Kumar, P

    2014-12-01

    A Gram-negative, rod shaped, motile, aerobic bacterium, designated as strain AK49(T) was isolated from a water sample from a mangrove forest in Coringa village, Andhra Pradesh, India. Strain AK49(T) was observed to form yellow coloured, smooth, circular, convex colonies on marine agar, with entire margins. Cells of strain AK49(T) are 0.5-1.0 µm wide and 1.5-3.5 µm long. Growth was observed at 25-37 °C (optimum 30 °C), 2-6 % NaCl (optimum 2 %) and pH 6-8 (optimum 7). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain AK49(T) is closely related to two species recently reclassified as members of the genus Aliiglaciecola: Aliiglaciecola lipolytica JCM 15139(T) (sequence similarity 95.43 %) and Aliiglaciecola litoralis JCM 15896(T) (sequence similarity 96.91 %). The major cellular fatty acids of strain AK49(T) were found to include C16:0, C18:1?7c and summed feature 3 (C16:1?7c/C15:0 iso-2-OH). The polar lipid content of cell membrane was found to include phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified aminolipid, an unidentified lipid and an unidentified glycolipid. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain AK49(T) was determined to be 41.9 mol%. Based on the taxonomic methods, including chemotaxonomic, phenotypic and phylogenetic approaches, strain AK49(T) is described here as a novel species belonging to the genus Aliiglaciecola, for which the name Aliiglaciecola coringensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Aliiglaciecola coringensis sp. nov. is AK49(T) (=MTCC 12003(T )= JCM19197(T)). PMID:25216983

  10. Seedling recruitment patterns in a Belizean mangrove forest: effects of establishment ability and physico-chemical factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen L. McKee

    1995-01-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the relative importance of factors affecting seedling establishment and survival on a mangrove-dominated island in Belize. An examination of spatial patterns of seedling relative densities in relation to reproductive adults and physico-chemical conditions provided correlative information on factors affecting mangrove regeneration patterns. Distance from reproductive adults explained 89–94% of the variation in relative

  11. Mangroves as filters of shrimp pond effluent: predictions and biogeochemical research needs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. Robertson; M. J. Phillips

    1995-01-01

    Preliminary estimates of the ratio of mangrove forest: shrimp pond area necessary to remove nutrients from shrimp pond effluent are made using budgets of nitrogen and phosphorus output for semi-intensive and intensive shrimp ponds combined with estimates of total net primary production in Rhizophora-dominated mangrove forests in tropical coastal areas. If effluent is delivered directly to mangrove forest plots, it

  12. Microbacterium mangrovi sp. nov., an amylolytic actinobacterium isolated from mangrove forest soil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Learn-Han; Azman, Adzzie-Shazleen; Zainal, Nurullhudda; Eng, Shu-Kee; Ab Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-10-01

    Strain MUSC 115(T) was isolated from mangrove soil of the Tanjung Lumpur river in the state of Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. Cells of this strain stained Gram-positive and were non-spore-forming, short rods that formed yellowish-white colonies on different agar media. The taxonomy of strain MUSC 115(T) was studied by a polyphasic approach, and the organism showed a range of phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic properties consistent with those of the genus Microbacterium. The cell-wall peptidoglycan was of type B2?, containing the amino acids ornithine, alanine, glycine, glutamic acid and homoserine. The muramic acid was of the N-glycolyl form. The predominant menaquinones detected were MK-12, MK-13 and MK-11. The polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphoglycolipid, diphosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified lipids, three unidentified phospholipids and four unidentified glycolipids. The major fatty acids of the cell membrane were anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0. The whole-cell sugars detected were ribose, glucose, mannose and galactose. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence, strain MUSC 115(T) showed the highest sequence similarity to Microbacterium immunditiarum SK 18(T) (98.1%), M. ulmi XIL02(T) (97.8%) and M. arborescens DSM 20754(T) (97.5%) and lower sequence similarity to strains of other species of the genus Microbacterium. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed a low level of DNA-DNA relatedness (less than 24%) between strain MUSC 115(T) and the type strains of closely related species. Furthermore, BOX-PCR fingerprint comparison also indicated that strain MUSC 115(T) represented a unique DNA profile. The DNA G+C content determined was 70.9 ± 0.7 mol%, which is lower than that of M. immunditiarum SK 18(T). Based on the combination of genotypic and phenotypic data, it is proposed that strain MUSC 115(T) represents a novel species of the genus Microbacterium, for which the name Microbacterium mangrovi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MUSC 115(T) ( = MCCC 1K00251(T) = DSM 28240(T) = NBRC 110089(T)). PMID:25056298

  13. Numerical modelling of tsunami mitigation by mangroves Putu Harry Gunawan

    E-print Network

    Mancini, Simona

    Numerical modelling of tsunami mitigation by mangroves Putu Harry Gunawan LAMA (Laboratoire d'Analyse et de Mathmatiques Appliques) UPEM putu-harry.gunawan@univ.paris-est.fr Abstract Figure 1: Mangrove-Tsunami Model. The role of mangroves (coastal forests) in the mitigation of tsunami impacts is a debated topic

  14. Complete larval and early juvenile development of the mangrove crab

    E-print Network

    Schubart, Christoph

    Complete larval and early juvenile development of the mangrove crab Perisesarma fasciatum. INTRODUCTION Sesarmid crabs are among the most diverse and import- ant faunal components of mangrove forest in the mangroves of these continents. Two of the more conspicuous and species-rich genera of African, Asian

  15. Ecology of the mangroves of south Florida: a community profile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Odum; C. C. McIvor; T. J. Smith

    1982-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the community structure and ecosystem processes of the mangrove forests of south Florida. This description is based upon a compilation of data and hypotheses from published and unpublished sources. Information covered ranges from details of mangrove distribution, primary production, and diseases to asepcts of reproduction, biomass partitioning, and adaptations to stress. Mangrove ecosystems are

  16. Microhabitat associations of a semi-terrestrial fish, Kryptolebias marmoratus (Poey 1880) in a mosquito-ditched mangrove forest, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richards, Travis M.; Krebs, Justin M.; McIvor, Carole C.

    2011-01-01

    Mangrove rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus) is one of the few species of fish that is semi-terrestrial and able to use exposed intertidal and potentially supratidal habitats for prolonged periods of time. Based on previous work demonstrating frequent use of subterranean crab burrows as well as damp leaf litter and logs, we examined the microhabitat associations of rivulus in a mosquito-ditched mangrove forest on the Gulf coast of Florida near the northern limit of its distribution. We captured 161 rivulus on 20 dates between late April and mid-December 2007 using trench traps. Fish ranged in size from 7 to 35 mm SL. Peak abundance in mid-summer coincided with recruitment of a new year-class. The three study sites occurred within 0.5 km of one another, and experienced similar water temperatures and salinities. Nevertheless, they differed in their degree of tidal inundation, standing stock of leaf litter, and density of entrances to fiddler crab burrows. We consistently observed the highest mean catches of rivulus away from permanent subtidal waters of mosquito ditches, at intermediate relative elevations, and where leaf litter was locally abundant. Density of entrances to crab burrows was apparently unrelated to rivulus distribution or abundance in these forests.

  17. Environmental monitoring and assessment program forest health monitoring quality assurance project plan for detection monitoring project

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, S.P.; Alexander, S.A.; Barnard, J.E.

    1995-05-01

    The Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAP) is written specifically for the Detection Minitoring project of the interagency Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) program. Sections 1 through 3 briefly explain key features of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), the FHM program, and their interrelationship, respectively. Section 4 describes the general quality assurance (QA) requirements for the FHM Detection Monitoring project. Section 5 contains the separate QAPs for each forest condition indicator: site condition and tree growth and regeneration, tree crown condition, tree damage assessment, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), vegetation structure, ozone bioindicator plants, and lichen communities.

  18. Monitoring global forest cover using data mining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Varun Mithal; Ashish Garg; Shyam Boriah; Michael Steinbach; Vipin Kumar; Christopher Potter; Steven Klooster; Juan Carlos Castilla-Rubio

    2011-01-01

    Forests are a critical component of the planet's ecosystem. Unfortunately, there has been significant degradation in forest cover over recent decades as a result of logging, conversion to crop, plantation, and pasture land, or disasters (natural or man made) such as forest fires, floods, and hurricanes. As a result, significant attention is being given to the sustainable use of forests.

  19. The Significance of Forest Monitoring Programmes: the Finnish Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merila, P.; Derome, J.; Lindgren, M.

    2007-12-01

    Finland has been participating in the ICP Forests programme (the International Co-operative Programme on the Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests) based on international agreements on the long- range transportation of air pollutants (LRTAP) and other associated monitoring programmes (e.g. Forest Focus, ICP Integrated Monitoring, ICP Vegetation) since 1985. The knowledge gained during the years has greatly increased our understanding of the overall condition of our forests and the factors affecting forest condition, the processes underlying forest ecosystem functioning, and the potential threats to our forests posed by human activities, both at home and abroad. The success of the monitoring activities in Finland is largely based on the experience gained during the early 1980's with our own national acidification project and, during the late 1980's and early 1990"s, in a number of regional monitoring projects. Finland's membership of the European Union (entry in 1996) has enabled us to further develop the infrastructure and coverage of both our extensive and intensive level networks. This broadening of our ecological understanding and development of international collaboration are now providing us with an invaluable basis for addressing the new monitoring challenges (biodiversity, climate change). The results gained in our monitoring activities clearly demonstrate the value of long-term monitoring programmes. The main results have been regularly reported both at the European (e.g. http://www.icp- forests.org/Reports.htm) and national level (e.g. http://www.metla.fi/julkaisut/workingpapers/2007/mwp045- en.htm). However, the datasets have not been intensively explored and exploited, and few of the important methodological and ecological findings have been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals. This has, understandably, not been the first priority of the international monitoring programmes. A number of the intensive forest monitoring plots in Finland have recently been included in LTER platforms, thus potentially increasing scientific collaboration between researchers across different governmental institutes and education bodies.

  20. Classification of mangroves vegetation species using texture analysis on Rapideye satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslani, M. A.; Mustapha, M. A.; Lihan, T.; Juliana, W. A. Wan

    2013-11-01

    Mangroves are unique ecosystem structures that are typically made up of salt tolerant species of vegetation that can be found in tropical and subtropical climate country. Mangrove ecosystem plays important role and also is known as highly productive ecosystem with high diversity of flora and fauna. However, these ecosystems have been declining over time due to the various kinds of direct and indirect pressures. Thus, there is an increasing need to monitor and assess this ecosystem for better conservation and management efforts. The multispectral RapidEye satellite image was used to identify the mangrove vegetation species within the Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve in Perak, Malaysia using texture analysis. Classification was implemented using the maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) method. Total of eleven main mangrove species were found in the satellite image of the study site which includes Rhizophora mucronata, Rhizophora apiculata, Bruguiera parviflora, Bruguiera cylindrica, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Avicennia alba, Avicennia officinalis, Sonneratia alba, Sonneratia caseolaris, Sonneratia ovata and Xylocarpus granatum. The classification results showed that the textured image produced high overall classification assessment recorded at 84% and kappa statistic of 0.8016. Meanwhile, the non-textured image produces 80% of overall accuracy and kappa statistic of 0.7061. The classification result indicated the capability of high resolution satellite image to classify the mangrove species and inclusion of texture information in the classification increased the classification accuracy.

  1. Satellite Data Aid Monitoring of Nation's Forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service’s Asheville, North Carolina-based Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center and Prineville, Oregon-based Western Wildlands Environmental Threat Assessment Center partnered with Stennis Space Center and other agencies to create an early warning system to identify, characterize, and track disturbances from potential forest threats. The result was ForWarn, which is now being used by federal and state forest and natural resource managers.

  2. ANNUAL REPORT: FOREST HEALTH MONITORING, NEW ENGLAND 1990

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication reports the findings of the 1990 (first) Northeastern Forest Health Monitoring field season. he objectives were to establish baseline conditions for assessing attributes of forest health. ield visits were made to 263 sample plots across the 6 New England states, ...

  3. Ecology of the mangroves of south Florida: a community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Odum, W.E.; McIvor, C.C.; Smith, T.J. III

    1982-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the community structure and ecosystem processes of the mangrove forests of south Florida. This description is based upon a compilation of data and hypotheses from published and unpublished sources. Information covered ranges from details of mangrove distribution, primary production, and diseases to asepcts of reproduction, biomass partitioning, and adaptations to stress. Mangrove ecosystems are considered in terms of zonation, succession, litter fall and decomposition, carbon export, and energy flow. Most of the components of mangrove communities are cataloged and discussed; these include mircoorganisms, plants other than mangroves, invertebrates, fishes, reptiles, amphibians, birds, and mammals. Finally, two sections summarize the value of mangrove ecosystems to man and present ways to manage this type of habitat. It is concluded that mangrove forests, which cover between 430,000 and 500,000 acres (174,000 to 202,000 ha) in Florida, are a resource of great value and should be protected and preserved wherever possible.

  4. Seasonal coupling of a tropical mangrove forest and an estuarine water column: enhancement of aquatic primary productivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor H. Rivera-Monroy; Christopher J. Madden; John W. Day; Robert R. Twilley; Francisco Vera-Herrera; Hernán Alvarez-Guillén

    1998-01-01

    Seasonal and spatial patterns of aquatic primary production were compared in a tidal creek (Estero Pargo) bordered by mangroves\\u000a and open waters of Terminos Lagoon, Mexico. Comparisions were made during a 17-month period in 1990–91 that spanned dry, rainy,\\u000a and storm or 'Norte' seasons. Annual net primary productivity was 478 g C m-2 yr-1 in the lagoon and 285 g

  5. Forest structure and species distribution along soil salinity and pH gradient in mangrove swamps of the Sundarbans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HEMA JOSHI; M. GHOSE

    An analysis has been made in the Sundarbans mangroves to relate the community structure and distribution of species with soil salinity and pH gradients. Soil salinity (13.0 to 31.2 ppt) decreased with increasing distance from the tidal coast but no such trend was noticed in soil pH (7.0 to 7.9). Freque ncy of tidal inundation seemed to affect soil salinity.

  6. Comparing annual MODIS and PRODES forest cover change data for advancing monitoring of Brazilian forest cover

    E-print Network

    Camara, Gilberto

    a a Geographic Information Science Center of Excellence, South Dakota State University, United States b Brazilian Keywords: Forest Land cover Monitoring Change detection Deforestation MODIS Annual forest cover loss Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were compared with annual deforestation data from the PRODES

  7. Short-term dissolved oxygen patterns in sub-tropical mangroves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Jon M.; Griffin, Lachlan; Dale, Pat E. R.; Sheaves, Marcus

    2013-10-01

    Mangrove forests in subtropical areas are highly heterogeneous environments, influenced by diverse physical structures and tidal flushing regimes. An important component of tidal water is the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO), as it affects aquatic organisms such as fish (directly: respiration and behaviour) and immature mosquitoes (directly: trigger for egg-hatch; indirectly: fish predation of larvae). Changes in DO may be important over relatively small time scales such as minutes and days, but, at such scales it has received little investigation. The aim of this study was to address this knowledge gap, monitoring DO at small time intervals (1 min) over tidal flooding events (hours - days) in two contrasting subtropical mangrove systems. These represented a range of mangrove tidal hydrology: a well-connected fringing mangrove forest in south-east Queensland and a more complex mangrove basin forest in northern New South Wales with impeded tidal connections. The results indicated that patterns of DO varied diurnally and by mangrove system. In the fringing forest, where the substrate was exposed before and after flooding, the highest mean DO concentration was during the day, followed by evening, with pre-dawn the lowest (6.8, 6.5 and 6.1 mg/l, respectively). DO patterns differed by tide stage and time of day with falling DO especially during late evening and pre-dawn as tides ebbed. In the mangrove basin forest the pattern was reversed, but also depended on the distance the tide had travelled across the basin. Before tidal incursion, standing water in the basin was anoxic (DO 0 mg/l). As tidal water flooded into the systems there was a greater increase in DO closer to the tide source than further away, with a DO concentration of 7.6 mg/l compared to 5.4 mg/l. The observations were interpreted in the light of processes and potential impacts on aquatic organisms (fish and immature mosquitoes). The most significant observation was that in the mangrove basin DO concentrations suitable for aquatic organisms (such as fish) persisted for only a relatively small period during the tide (?1 h), with hypoxic conditions for the remainder. This combination of conditions is favourable to immature mosquitoes.

  8. Baseline data on forest loss and associated uncertainty: advances in national forest monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, Johanne; Goetz, Scott J.

    2015-02-01

    Countries participating in climate change mitigation via the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation mechanism are required to establish national forest monitoring systems. The design of national forest monitoring system includes provision of transparent, consistent and accurate estimates of emissions and removals from forests, while also taking into account national circumstances and capabilities. One key component of these systems lies in satellite remote sensing approaches and techniques to determine baseline data on forest loss against which future rates of change can be evaluated. Advances in approaches meeting these criteria for measuring, reporting and verification purposes are therefore of tremendous interest. A robust example advancing such approaches, focused on Peru, is provided in the recent paper of Potapov et al (2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 124012).

  9. Taiga forest stands and SAR: Monitoring for subarctic global change

    SciTech Connect

    Way, J.; Kwok, R.; Viereck, L.; Slaughter, C.; Dobson, C.

    1992-03-01

    In preparation for the first European Earth Remote Sensing (ERS-1) mission, a series of multitemporal, multifrequency, multipolarization aircraft synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data sets were acquired over the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest near Fairbanks, Alaska in March 1988. Significant change in radar backscatter was observed over the two-week experimental period due to changing environmental conditions. These preliminary results are presented to illustrate the opportunity afforded by the ERS-1 SAR to monitor temporal change in forest ecosystems.

  10. Beaver Monitoring Protocol for Forest Service Region 2 Revised May 2008 1 USDA FOREST SERVICE REGION 2

    E-print Network

    Beck, Jeffrey L.

    Beaver Monitoring Protocol for Forest Service Region 2 ­ Revised May 2008 1 USDA FOREST SERVICE REGION 2 MONITORING PROTOCOL FOR AMERICAN BEAVER (Castor canadensis): EXAMPLES FROM THE BIGHORN AND BLACK HILLS NATIONAL FORESTS (Photo from Nature of New England Website ­ http://www.nenature.com/Beaver

  11. A framework for use of wireless sensor networks in forest fire detection and monitoring

    E-print Network

    Ulusoy, �zgür

    industrial or social activities. Another alterna- tive technology for detecting forest fires is the useA framework for use of wireless sensor networks in forest fire detection and monitoring Yunus Emre sensor networks Forest fire detection Environmental monitoring a b s t r a c t Forest fires are one

  12. Breeding Bird Monitoring in Western Great Lakes National Forests 1991-2007

    E-print Network

    Netoff, Theoden

    Breeding Bird Monitoring in Western Great Lakes National Forests 1991-2007 Report to Chequamegon.J. Niemi. 2008. Breeding bird monitoring in Great Lakes National Forests 1991-2007. NRRI Technical Report

  13. Mangroves enhance the biomass of coral reef fish communities in the Caribbean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Mumby; Alasdair J. Edwards; J. Ernesto Arias-González; Kenyon C. Lindeman; Paul G. Blackwell; Angela Gall; Malgosia I. Gorczynska; Alastair R. Harborne; Claire L. Pescod; Henk Renken; Colette C. C. Wabnitz; Ghislane Llewellyn

    2004-01-01

    Mangrove forests are one of the world's most threatened tropical ecosystems with global loss exceeding 35% (ref. 1). Juvenile coral reef fish often inhabit mangroves, but the importance of these nurseries to reef fish population dynamics has not been quantified. Indeed, mangroves might be expected to have negligible influence on reef fish communities: juvenile fish can inhabit alternative habitats and

  14. 22th International Meeting on org. geochem. The fate of organic matter in mangrove sediments

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    22th International Meeting on org. geochem. The fate of organic matter in mangrove sediments. Several field trips allowed to sample twinned sedimentary cores from both the mangroves. The development and age of mangrove marshes and forests was assessed by parallel studies performed by ecologists

  15. Organic carbon sources and transformations in mangrove sediments: A Rock-Eval pyrolysis approach

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Organic carbon sources and transformations in mangrove sediments: A Rock-Eval pyrolysis approach C from the mangroves of French Guiana. These forests develop on moving mudbanks and have a lifetime their efficiency as mangrove plant tracers. The decrease in values of TPS2 (pyrolysis temperature corresponding

  16. January 29, 2003 14:21 MGD TJ686-04 Remote Sensing of Mangrove Change

    E-print Network

    Wang, Y.Q. "Yeqiao"

    January 29, 2003 14:21 MGD TJ686-04 Remote Sensing of Mangrove Change along the Tanzania Coast & Francis 0149-0419/03 $12.00 + .00 DOI: 10.1080/01490410390181243 Remote Sensing of Mangrove Change along to the understanding of the changes in distribution and total area of mangrove forests along the mainland Tanzania

  17. A Global Trend towards the Loss of Evolutionarily Unique Species in Mangrove Ecosystems

    E-print Network

    Davies, Jonathan

    A Global Trend towards the Loss of Evolutionarily Unique Species in Mangrove Ecosystems Barnabas HGill University, Montreal, Canada Abstract The mangrove biome stands out as a distinct forest type at the interface between terrestrial, estuarine, and near-shore marine ecosystems. However, mangrove species

  18. Distribution Pattern of Shrimps and Fish Among Avicenniaand RhizophoraMicrohabitats in the Pagbilao Mangroves, Philippines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Ronnback; M. Troell; N. Kautsky; J. H. Primavera

    1999-01-01

    For sustainable management of mangrove ecosystems, there is a pressing need to increase our knowledge of fish and invertebrates associated with this system. This study sampled microhabitats (89–258m2) inside the mangrove forest at Pagbilao, the Philippines, on two consecutive spring tides using stake nets. Distribution patterns of shrimps and fish were compared among four microhabitats that differed in dominant mangrove

  19. Mangrove outwelling: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Y. Lee

    1995-01-01

    The export of detritus and faunal biomass from mangroves has long been considered as an important support for offshore biological production and has been widely used as an argument for mangrove conservation. This functional role of the mangroves, like many other paradigms in mangrove ecology, has seldom been put to rigorous test since the hypothesis was postulated about 25 years

  20. Application of Remote Sensing Technologies for Forest Cover Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agoltsov, Alexander; Sizov, Oleg; Rubtsova, Natalia

    2014-05-01

    Today we don't have full and reliable information about forests in Russia, so it is impossible to make any well-timed decision for forest management. Update of all this information by means of traditional methods (fieldwork) is a time-consuming and in fact impossible task. Also we do not think that using of the reports without objective information for cameral data actualization is an appropriate method in such situation. So our company uses remote sensing data and technologies to resolve this problem. Nowadays numerous satellites record numerous images every day. Remote sensing data are widespread and accessible, so we can use them as the source of actual and reliable information about current status of the Forest Fund. Furthermore regular monitoring allows extracting the information about the location and intensity of forests' changes like degradation and destruction. First of all we create a georeferenced data set to cover the area of interest with orthomosaic in targeting scale depending on the goals of the project (1:25 000 - 1:10 000). For example, we can do a mosaic from RapidEye (Germany) imagery with GSD = 6.5 m or from WorldView-2 (USA) imagery with GSD = 0.5 m. The next step is to create vector layers to describe the content of images. We use visual and contemporary automatic interpretation techniques. The benefit of such approach that we can extract not only information about forests (like boundary) but also the information about roads, hydrographic objects, power lines and so on. During vectorization except relevant orthomosaic we can use multi-temporal composites of images based on archive of satellite imagery. This helps us not only to detect general changes but detect illegal logging, areas affected by fires, windfalls. Then this information can be used for different products e.g. forest cover statistics, forest cover change statistics, maps of forest management and also we can analyze transport accessibility and economic assessment of forests.

  1. Monitoring Fires in Southwestern Amazonia Rain Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, I. Foster; Schroeder, Wilfrid; Setzer, Alberto; de Los Rios Maldonado, Monica; Pantoja, Nara; Duarte, Alejandro; Marengo, Jose

    2006-06-01

    From mid-July to mid-October 2005, an environmental disaster unfolded in the trinational region of Madre de Dios, Peru; Acre, Brazil; and Pando, Bolivia (the MAP region), in southwestern Amazonia. A prolonged dry season and human-initiated fires resulted in smoke pollution affecting more than 400,000 persons, fire damage to over 300,000 hectares of rain forest, and over US$50 million of direct economic losses. Indicators suggest that anomalous drought conditions could occur again this year.

  2. Dynamics of Sundarban estuarine ecosystem: eutrophication induced threat to mangroves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suman Manna; Kaberi Chaudhuri; Somenath Bhattacharyya; Maitree Bhattacharyya

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sundarbans is the largest chunk of mangrove forest and only tiger mangrove land in the world. Compared to the rich species diversity and uniqueness, very few studies have so far been conducted here, mainly due to its inaccessibility. This study explores water quality, density of biomass, species diversity, phytoplankton abundance and bacterial population of a tidal creek in Sunderban

  3. Severe hail damage to mangroves at Port Curtis, Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. Houston

    1999-01-01

    A hailstorm in October 1994 was found to have moderately or severely impacted on 5.3% of the mangrove forests in Port Curtis. All mangrove species showed evidence of hail damage, including the three most common species (Rhizophora stylosa, Ceriops tagal and Avicennia marina). Physical effects of hail damage included stripping of leaves from plants, holes punched through leaves, bruising to

  4. Climate change mitigation through reforestation in Godavari mangroves in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raghavendra G. Rao

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to emphasise mangrove reforestation as a countermeasure for climate change mitigation and adaptation in the Godavari Delta in India. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Restoration of the mangrove forest in the Godavari Delta near Kakinada town in the south-eastern Indian state of Andhra Pradesh is carried out with participatory involvement of local communities depending for

  5. The emergence of modern type rain forests and mangroves and their traces in the palaeobotanical record during the Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, Barbara; Coiffard, Clément

    2014-05-01

    The origin of modern rain forests is still very poorly known. This ecosystem could have potentially fully evolved only after the development of relatively high numbers of flowering plant families adapted to rain forest conditions. During the early phase of angiosperm evolution in the early Cretaceous the palaeo-equatorial region was located in a seasonally dry climatic belt, so that during this phase, flowering plants often show adaptations to drought, rather than to continuously wet climate conditions. Therefore it is not surprising that except for the Nymphaeales, the most basal members of extant angiosperm families have members that do not necessarily occur in the continuously wet tropics today. However, during the late Early Cretaceous several clades emerged that later would give rise to families that are typically found today mostly in (shady) moist places in warmer regions. This is especially seen among the monocotyledons, a group of the mesangiosperms, that developed in many cases large leaves often with very specific venation patterns that make these leaves very unique and well recognizable. Especially members of three groups are here of interest: the arum family (Araceae), the palms (Arecaceae) and the Ginger and allies (Zingiberales). The earliest fossil of Araceae are restricted to low latitudes during the lower Cretaceous. Arecaceae and Zingiberales do not appear in the fossil record before the early late Cretaceous and occur at mid latitudes. During the Late Cretaceous, Araceae are represented at mid latitudes by non-tropical early diverging members and at low latitudes by derived rainforest members. Palms became widespread during the Late Cretataceous and also Nypa, a typical element of tropical to subtropical mangrove environments evolved during this time period. During the Paleocene Arecaceae appear to be restricted to lower latitudes as well as Zingiberales. All three groups are again widespread during the Eocene, reaching higher latitudes and probably diversifying at mid latitudes. Later on, they slowly became restricted to lower latitudes as seen today. This fluctuation appears to be linked to climate change and are still reflected by the regional diversity of these groups, which reflect rather well rain forest evolution. When tracing the fossil record of rain forest plants we clearly see a pattern that suggests the onset of this type of environment during the late Late Cretaceous and spread during the early Tertiary with phases of retreat during the Oligocene and from the mid-Miocene onwards.

  6. Monitoring and mapping eastern Ontario's 1998 forest ice storm damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olthof, Ian

    Between January 4--9, 1998, a severe ice storm struck northeastern North America. Ice loading and high winds contributed to forest damage in Eastern Ontario, a region whose economy and identity depends on an intact forest resource for maple syrup production and other activities. This thesis was a component of a larger study by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR) to address the needs of the maple syrup industry resulting from the ice storm, including temporal monitoring of forest response to damage to assess forest treatment effects, and mapping local to regional scale forest damage for economic impact assessment and compensation. This work is divided into two parts to address each of these needs separately. Part I uses field measured optical instrument-based Leaf Area Index (LAI) as a damage indicator for local monitoring, while Part II applies pre and post-storm Landsat satellite imagery and environmental data, and interpolation of plot-based damage estimates to produce two separate forest damage maps. LAI and post storm LAI change were determined to be suitable damage indicators, being significantly related to initial visual damage estimates while changing through time to reflect LAI recovery in the majority of plots that were measured. Neural network modeling with Landsat and environmental data was 69.3% accurate in classifying low-to-moderate and high damage with 50% crown loss as the threshold between these two classes. Interpolation produced slightly higher mapping accuracies, but lower Kappa statistics due to a reduced number of plots used for validation. These maps were compared with aerial sketch and freezing precipitation maps produced by the OMNR and Environment Canada, respectively. Overall, there was little agreement among maps due to the patchy nature of forest damage and differences among assessment scales.

  7. Nutrient Controls on Biocomplexity of Mangrove Ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Karen L.

    2004-01-01

    Mangrove forests are important coastal ecosystems that provide a variety of ecological and societal services. These intertidal, tree-dominated communities along tropical coastlines are often described as 'simple systems,' compared to other tropical forests with larger numbers of plant species and multiple understory strata; however, mangrove ecosystems have complex trophic structures, and organisms exhibit unique physiological, morphological, and behavioral adaptations to environmental conditions characteristic of the land-sea interface. Biogeochemical functioning of mangrove forests is also controlled by interactions among the microbial, plant, and animal communities and feedback linkages mediated by hydrology and other forcing functions. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at the National Wetlands Research Center are working to understand more fully the impact of nutrient variability on these delicate and important ecosystems.

  8. Concept and feasibility study for the integrated evaluation of environmental monitoring data in forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine Augustin; Jan Evers; Hans-Peter Dietrich; Johannes Eichhorn; Thomas Haussmann; Regina Icke; Ansgar Isenberg; Wolfgang Lux; Monica Musio; Hans Pretzsch; Winfried Riek; Thomas Rötzer; Bernd Schultze; Andreas Schulze; Jörg Schröder; Walter Seidling; Nicole Wellbrock; Klaus von Wilpert; Barbara Wolff

    2005-01-01

    In the 1970s unexpected forest damages, called “new type of forest damage” or “forest decline”, were observed in Germany and\\u000a other European countries. The Federal Republic of Germany and the German Federal States implemented a forest monitoring system\\u000a in the early 1980s, in order to monitor and assess the forest condition. Due to the growing public awareness of possible adverse

  9. Monitoring of impact of anthropogenic inputs on water quality of mangrove ecosystem of Uran, Navi Mumbai, west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Prabhakar R

    2013-10-15

    Surface water samples were collected from substations along Sheva creek and Dharamtar creek mangrove ecosystems of Uran (Raigad), Navi Mumbai, west coast of India. Water samples were collected fortnightly from April 2009 to March 2011 during spring low and high tides and were analyzed for pH, Temperature, Turbidity, Total solids (TS), Total dissolved solids (TDS), Total suspended solids (TSS), Dissolved oxygen (DO), Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Carbon dioxide (CO2), Chemical oxygen demand (COD), Salinity, Orthophosphate (O-PO4), Nitrite-nitrogen (NO2-N), Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), and Silicates. Variables like pH, turbidity, TDS, salinity, DO, and BOD show seasonal variations. Higher content of O-PO4, NO3-N, and silicates is recorded due to discharge of domestic wastes and sewage, effluents from industries, oil tanking depots and also from maritime activities of Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT), hectic activities of Container Freight Stations (CFS), and other port wastes. This study reveals that water quality from mangrove ecosystems of Uran is deteriorating due to industrial pollution and that mangrove from Uran is facing the threat due to anthropogenic stress. PMID:23856298

  10. Saltmarsh boundary modulates dispersal of mangrove propagules: implications for mangrove migration with sea-level rise.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Jennifer M; Bell, Susan S

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have empirically examined the suite of mechanisms that underlie the distributional shifts displayed by organisms in response to changing climatic condition. Mangrove forests are expected to move inland as sea-level rises, encroaching on saltmarsh plants inhabiting higher elevations. Mangrove propagules are transported by tidal waters and propagule dispersal is likely modified upon encountering the mangrove-saltmarsh ecotone, the implications of which are poorly known. Here, using an experimental approach, we record landward and seaward dispersal and subsequent establishment of mangrove propagules that encounter biotic boundaries composed of two types of saltmarsh taxa: succulents and grasses. Our findings revealed that propagules emplaced within saltmarsh vegetation immediately landward of the extant mangrove fringe boundary frequently dispersed in the seaward direction. However, propagules moved seaward less frequently and over shorter distances upon encountering boundaries composed of saltmarsh grasses versus succulents. We uniquely confirmed that the small subset of propagules dispersing landward displayed proportionately higher establishment success than those transported seaward. Although impacts of ecotones on plant dispersal have rarely been investigated in situ, our experimental results indicate that the interplay between tidal transport and physical attributes of saltmarsh vegetation influence boundary permeability to propagules, thereby directing the initial phase of shifting mangrove distributions. The incorporation of tidal inundation information and detailed data on landscape features, such as the structure of saltmarsh vegetation at mangrove boundaries, should improve the accuracy of models that are being developed to forecast mangrove distributional shifts in response to sea-level rise. PMID:25760867

  11. Saltmarsh Boundary Modulates Dispersal of Mangrove Propagules: Implications for Mangrove Migration with Sea-Level Rise

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Jennifer M.; Bell, Susan S.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have empirically examined the suite of mechanisms that underlie the distributional shifts displayed by organisms in response to changing climatic condition. Mangrove forests are expected to move inland as sea-level rises, encroaching on saltmarsh plants inhabiting higher elevations. Mangrove propagules are transported by tidal waters and propagule dispersal is likely modified upon encountering the mangrove-saltmarsh ecotone, the implications of which are poorly known. Here, using an experimental approach, we record landward and seaward dispersal and subsequent establishment of mangrove propagules that encounter biotic boundaries composed of two types of saltmarsh taxa: succulents and grasses. Our findings revealed that propagules emplaced within saltmarsh vegetation immediately landward of the extant mangrove fringe boundary frequently dispersed in the seaward direction. However, propagules moved seaward less frequently and over shorter distances upon encountering boundaries composed of saltmarsh grasses versus succulents. We uniquely confirmed that the small subset of propagules dispersing landward displayed proportionately higher establishment success than those transported seaward. Although impacts of ecotones on plant dispersal have rarely been investigated in situ, our experimental results indicate that the interplay between tidal transport and physical attributes of saltmarsh vegetation influence boundary permeability to propagules, thereby directing the initial phase of shifting mangrove distributions. The incorporation of tidal inundation information and detailed data on landscape features, such as the structure of saltmarsh vegetation at mangrove boundaries, should improve the accuracy of models that are being developed to forecast mangrove distributional shifts in response to sea-level rise. PMID:25760867

  12. Hurricane disturbance and recovery of energy balance, CO 2 fluxes and canopy structure in a mangrove forest of the Florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, J.G.; Engel, V.; Smith, T.J.; Fuentes, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Eddy covariance (EC) estimates of carbon dioxide (CO 2) fluxes and energy balance are examined to investigate the functional responses of a mature mangrove forest to a disturbance generated by Hurricane Wilma on October 24, 2005 in the Florida Everglades. At the EC site, high winds from the hurricane caused nearly 100% defoliation in the upper canopy and widespread tree mortality. Soil temperatures down to -50cm increased, and air temperature lapse rates within the forest canopy switched from statically stable to statically unstable conditions following the disturbance. Unstable conditions allowed more efficient transport of water vapor and CO 2 from the surface up to the upper canopy layer. Significant increases in latent heat fluxes (LE) and nighttime net ecosystem exchange (NEE) were also observed and sensible heat fluxes (H) as a proportion of net radiation decreased significantly in response to the disturbance. Many of these impacts persisted through much of the study period through 2009. However, local albedo and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer) data (the Enhanced Vegetation Index) indicated a substantial proportion of active leaf area recovered before the EC measurements began 1year after the storm. Observed changes in the vertical distribution and the degree of clumping in newly emerged leaves may have affected the energy balance. Direct comparisons of daytime NEE values from before the storm and after our measurements resumed did not show substantial or consistent differences that could be attributed to the disturbance. Regression analyses on seasonal time scales were required to differentiate the storm's impact on monthly average daytime NEE from the changes caused by interannual variability in other environmental drivers. The effects of the storm were apparent on annual time scales, and CO 2 uptake remained approximately 250gCm -2yr -1 lower in 2009 compared to the average annual values measured in 2004-2005. Dry season CO 2 uptake was relatively more affected by the disturbance than wet season values. Complex leaf regeneration dynamics on damaged trees during ecosystem recovery are hypothesized to lead to the variable dry versus wet season impacts on daytime NEE. In contrast, nighttime CO 2 release (i.e., nighttime respiration) was consistently and significantly greater, possibly as a result of the enhanced decomposition of litter and coarse woody debris generated by the storm, and this effect was most apparent in the wet seasons compared to the dry seasons. The largest pre- and post-storm differences in NEE coincided roughly with the delayed peak in cumulative mortality of stems in 2007-2008. Across the hurricane-impacted region, cumulative tree mortality rates were also closely correlated with declines in peat surface elevation. Mangrove forest-atmosphere interactions are interpreted with respect to the damage and recovery of stand dynamics and soil accretion processes following the hurricane. ?? 2011.

  13. Hurricane disturbance and recovery of energy balance, CO2 fluxes and canopy structure in a mangrove forest of the Florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Jordan G.; Engel, Vic; Smith, Thomas J., III; Fuentes, Jose D.

    2012-01-01

    Eddy covariance (EC) estimates of carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes and energy balance are examined to investigate the functional responses of a mature mangrove forest to a disturbance generated by Hurricane Wilma on October 24, 2005 in the Florida Everglades. At the EC site, high winds from the hurricane caused nearly 100% defoliation in the upper canopy and widespread tree mortality. Soil temperatures down to -50 cm increased, and air temperature lapse rates within the forest canopy switched from statically stable to statically unstable conditions following the disturbance. Unstable conditions allowed more efficient transport of water vapor and CO2 from the surface up to the upper canopy layer. Significant increases in latent heat fluxes (LE) and nighttime net ecosystem exchange (NEE) were also observed and sensible heat fluxes (H) as a proportion of net radiation decreased significantly in response to the disturbance. Many of these impacts persisted through much of the study period through 2009. However, local albedo and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer) data (the Enhanced Vegetation Index) indicated a substantial proportion of active leaf area recovered before the EC measurements began 1 year after the storm. Observed changes in the vertical distribution and the degree of clumping in newly emerged leaves may have affected the energy balance. Direct comparisons of daytime NEE values from before the storm and after our measurements resumed did not show substantial or consistent differences that could be attributed to the disturbance. Regression analyses on seasonal time scales were required to differentiate the storm's impact on monthly average daytime NEE from the changes caused by interannual variability in other environmental drivers. The effects of the storm were apparent on annual time scales, and CO2 uptake remained approximately 250 g C m-2 yr-1 lower in 2009 compared to the average annual values measured in 2004–2005. Dry season CO2 uptake was relatively more affected by the disturbance than wet season values. Complex leaf regeneration dynamics on damaged trees during ecosystem recovery are hypothesized to lead to the variable dry versus wet season impacts on daytime NEE. In contrast, nighttime CO2 release (i.e., nighttime respiration) was consistently and significantly greater, possibly as a result of the enhanced decomposition of litter and coarse woody debris generated by the storm, and this effect was most apparent in the wet seasons compared to the dry seasons. The largest pre- and post-storm differences in NEE coincided roughly with the delayed peak in cumulative mortality of stems in 2007–2008. Across the hurricane-impacted region, cumulative tree mortality rates were also closely correlated with declines in peat surface elevation. Mangrove forest–atmosphere interactions are interpreted with respect to the damage and recovery of stand dynamics and soil accretion processes following the hurricane.

  14. A new approach to spatially explicit modelling of forest dynamics: spacing, ageing and neighbourhood competition of mangrove trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uta Berger; Hanno Hildenbrandt

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to spatially explicit modelling that enables the influence of neighbourhood effects on the dynamics of forests and plant communities to be analysed. We refer to this approach as ‘field of neighbourhood’ (FON). It combines the ‘neighbourhood philosophy’ of grid-based models with the description of individual spacing in the ‘zone of influence’ (ZOI) approach. The

  15. Net Change in Forest Density, 1873-2001: Using Historical Maps to Monitor

    E-print Network

    of the United States" depicting broad categories of evergreen and deciduous forests, and arable and dry prairiesa Net Change in Forest Density, 1873-2001: Using Historical Maps to Monitor Long-term Forest Trends Research Map NRS-4United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service #12;b Abstract European settlement

  16. An Overview of the Forest Bird Monitoring Program in Ontario, Canada1 Daniel A. Welsh2

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    An Overview of the Forest Bird Monitoring Program in Ontario, Canada1 Daniel A. Welsh2 Abstract trends in forest birds. The Forest Bird Monitoring Program (FBMP) was designed to describe changes birds (species composition and relative abundance), and to develop regionally accurate habitat

  17. Air Pollution and Climate Change Effects on Health of the Ukrainian Forests: Monitoring and Evaluation 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor F. Buksha; Valentina L. Meshkova; Oleg M. Radchenko; Alexander S. Sidorov

    Forests in the Ukraine are affected by environmental pollution, intensive forestry practice, and recreational uses. These factors make them sensitive to impacts of climate change. Since 1989 Ukraine has participated in the International Cooperative Program on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP-Forests). A network of monitoring plots has been established in 14 administrative regions and in

  18. Mangrove Colonization: Mangrove Progression Over the Growing Pak Phanang (SE Thailand) Mud Flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panapitukkul, N.; Duarte, C. M.; Thampanya, U.; Kheowvongsri, P.; Srichai, N.; Geertz-Hansen, O.; Terrados, J.; Boromthanarath, S.

    1998-07-01

    A combination of remote sensing techniques and in situmeasurements along a chronosequence was used to elucidate the rate of progression of the mangrove forest in the Pak Phanang Bay (SE Thailand), a large bay with an extended and rapidly accreting mud flat. The examination of black and white aerial photographs of the forest in 1966, 1974, 1989 and 1995, and satellite images in 1985, 1990 and 1994 revealed that the mangrove forest located in the eastern bank of the bay was progressing over the mud flat. The rate of progression was estimated, from examination of changes in the position of the forest edge with time in the series of images, to average 38·6 m year -1over the 28-year interval encompassed by the images. Mangrove progression rates were fastest between 1966 and 1974 and slowest between 1974 and 1985, remaining uniform at about 30 m year -1thereafter. The in situexamination of vegetation along transects in the area of fastest mangrove progression showed an average progression rate of 53·12±5·86 m year -1, quite similar to the estimate (48·4 m year -1) derived from remote sensing techniques for the area where the transects were surveyed. Avicennia albawas found to dominate the vegetation at the progressing edge of the mangrove, followed by Sonneratia caseolaris, with Rhizophora apiculatabeing present only occasionally. The fast colonization of A. albaover the mud flat was supported by a large export flux of mangrove propagules from the channels draining the mangrove forest, which averaged 3715±920 and 1900±808 fruits day -1in each of the channels examined. Extrapolation of the long-term mean mangrove progression rate observed along the eastern bank of the Pak Phanang Bay suggested that this mangrove forest will increase by 33 ha year -1. These results provide evidence that natural mangrove colonization can be a rapid process if sufficient propagules of the pioneer species ( A. albaand S. caseolaris) are available, and point, therefore, to alternative management plans to promote and enhance natural colonization processes.

  19. Coastal resource degradation in the tropics: does the tragedy of the commons apply for coral reefs, mangrove forests and seagrass beds.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Clive; Salvat, Bernard

    2012-06-01

    The keynote paper by Garrett Hardin 44 years ago introduced the term 'tragedy of the commons' into our language (Hardin, 1968); this term is now used widely, but it is neither universally accepted nor fully understood. Irrespective, the 'tragedy of the commons' is an increasing reality for more than 500 million people that rely on the biodiversity resources and services of tropical coral reefs, mangrove forests, seagrass beds and associated fisheries. These natural resources continue to decline despite major advances in our scientific understanding of how ecosystems and human populations interact, and the application of considerable conservation and management efforts at scales from local user communities to oceans. Greater effort will be required to avert increasing damage from over-exploitation, pollution and global climate change; all deriving from increasing exploitation driven by poverty and progress i.e. continuing to expand development indefinitely and extraction of resources at industrial scales. However, the 'tragedy' concept has been widely criticized as a simple metaphor for a much larger set of problems and solutions. We argue that the 'tragedy' is essentially real and will continue to threaten the lives of millions of people unless there are some major moral and policy shifts to reverse increasing damage to coastal habitats and resources. We agree with the conclusion by Hardin that the solution to the tragedy will not be through the application of natural sciences, but via implementing exceedingly difficult and controversial moral decisions. An extreme example of a moral and controversial direction suggested by Hardin was in re-examining the 'freedom to breed' as an inherent human value. The need for 'moral decisions' is even greater in 2012. PMID:22349467

  20. Mapping Belize´s Coastal Mangrove Forests: experiments with conjunctive use of SPOT, L- and X-band SAR and SRTM data. 

    E-print Network

    Marin Herrera, Mario A.

    2010-08-11

    Four experimental classifications of coastal mangroves in Belize were developed using Definiens software using various combinations of SPOT multispectral data and ALOS L-band PALSAR data combined with digital surface models ...

  1. Quantifying Typhoon Impact on Net Carbon Ecosystem Exchange in a Sub-tropical Mangrove Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Lu, W.; Yan, G.; Yang, S.; Lin, G.

    2011-12-01

    Although typhoon is a natural disturbance for mangrove forests, research of typhoon impact on net carbon ecosystem exchange (NEE) of mangrove wetlands has not reached final conclusion. In this study we investigated possible effects of typhoons with different forces on the NEE of a subtropical mangrove forest in Fujian, China (117°23'E, 23°55'N). In 2010, Typhoon Lionrock, Fanapi and Megi made landfall with a speed of 23, 35 and 38 m s-1 near our mangrove field station in Zhangjiang Estuary National Mangrove Nature Reserve on September 2, September 20 and October 23, respectively. In October 2009, total of 16 litter traps and an eddy covariance system were instated at this field station. Litter production was monitored at the biweekly intervals while the NEE was measured continuously. The litter production and NEE values were compared before and after each typhoon landed. Strong winds and torrential rains from these typhoons caused the amount of litter production more than double over the same period a year before when there was no typhoon landing. Moreover, about 5~25% green leaves and twigs were found in the litter traps after the typhoons, indicating significant defoliation by the typhoons. Typhoon Lionrock and Fanapi did not significantly reduce NEE, while Typhoo Fanapi reduced gross ecosystem production (GEP) by about 12%. However, NEE was increased by Typhoon Megi, which resulted from lower daily ecosystem respiration (Re) following the typhoon. Our results indicate that, although theses typhoons caused significant defoliation, they had little effect on ecosystem carbon exchange over the short periods following the typhoons.

  2. Monitoring Forest Regrowth Using a Multi-Platform Time Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabol, Donald E., Jr.; Smith, Milton O.; Adams, John B.; Gillespie, Alan R.; Tucker, Compton J.

    1996-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, the forests of western Washington and Oregon have been extensively harvested for timber. This has resulted in a heterogeneous mosaic of remaining mature forests, clear-cuts, new plantations, and second-growth stands that now occur in areas that formerly were dominated by extensive old-growth forests and younger forests resulting from fire disturbance. Traditionally, determination of seral stage and stand condition have been made using aerial photography and spot field observations, a methodology that is not only time- and resource-intensive, but falls short of providing current information on a regional scale. These limitations may be solved, in part, through the use of multispectral images which can cover large areas at spatial resolutions in the order of tens of meters. The use of multiple images comprising a time series potentially can be used to monitor land use (e.g. cutting and replanting), and to observe natural processes such as regeneration, maturation and phenologic change. These processes are more likely to be spectrally observed in a time series composed of images taken during different seasons over a long period of time. Therefore, for many areas, it may be necessary to use a variety of images taken with different imaging systems. A common framework for interpretation is needed that reduces topographic, atmospheric, instrumental, effects as well as differences in lighting geometry between images. The present state of remote-sensing technology in general use does not realize the full potential of the multispectral data in areas of high topographic relief. For example, the primary method for analyzing images of forested landscapes in the Northwest has been with statistical classifiers (e.g. parallelepiped, nearest-neighbor, maximum likelihood, etc.), often applied to uncalibrated multispectral data. Although this approach has produced useful information from individual images in some areas, landcover classes defined by these techniques typically are not consistent for the same scene imaged under different illumination conditions, especially in the mountainous regions. In addition, it is difficult to correct for atmospheric and instrumental differences between multiple scenes in a time series. In this paper, we present an approach for monitoring forest cutting/regrowth in a semi-mountainous portion of the southern Gifford Pinchot National Forest using a multisensor-time series composed of MSS, TM, and AVIRIS images.

  3. Monitoring Regional Forest Disturbances across the US with Near Real Time MODIS NDVI Products included in the ForWarn Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargrove, William W.; Gasser, Gerald; Norman, Steve; Spruce, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    U.S. forests occupy approx.1/3 of total land area (approx. 304 million ha). Since 2000, a growing number of regionally evident forest disturbances have occurred due to abiotic and biotic agents. Regional forest disturbances can threaten human life and property, bio-diversity and water supplies. Timely regional forest disturbance monitoring products are needed to aid forest health management work. Near Real Time (NRT) twice daily MODIS NDVI data provide a means to monitor U.S. regional forest disturbances every 8 days. Since 2010, these NRT forest change products have been produced and posted on the US Forest Service ForWarn Early Warning System for Forest Threats.

  4. An assessment of metal contamination in mangrove sediments and leaves from Punta Mala Bay, Pacific Panama

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lindsey H. Defew; James M. Mair; Hector M. Guzman

    2005-01-01

    Due to the growing rate of urbanisation in many tropical coastal areas, there continues to be an increasing concern in relation to the impact of anthropogenic activities on mangrove forests. Punta Mala Bay is located on the Pacific coast of Panama and suffers from intense anthropogenic activities that are potentially harmful to the remaining mangrove forests. Field observations reveal that

  5. The composition of sedimentary organic matter in relation to the dynamic features of a mangrove-fringed coast in

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    The composition of sedimentary organic matter in relation to the dynamic features of a mangrove Author Keywords: Mangrove sediments; Organic matter; Rock-Eval analyses; Organic petrography; Redox of 2-m-deep cores was examined in relation to the evolution of mangrove forest, on the basis

  6. Origin and evolution of the unique Australo-Papuan mangrove- restricted avifauna: novel insights form molecular phylogenetic and comparative phylogeographic analyses

    E-print Network

    Nyá ri, Á rpá d S.

    2011-04-22

    Coastal mangrove forests of Australo-Papua harbor the world's richest avifauna restricted to mangroves, however their biogeographic origins and evolutionary processes shaping their current distributions are not well ...

  7. Estimation of ammonia exchange at the land–ocean boundary condition of Sundarban mangrove, northeast coast of Bay of Bengal, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Biswas; A. Chatterjee; S. K. Mukhopadhya; T. K. De; S. Sen; T. K. Jana

    2005-01-01

    The Sundarban mangrove forest (4264km2) is about 3% of the total area of the world mangrove is interdependent on the coastal aquatic subecosystem (1781km2). Ammonia concentration and flux measurements in the mangrove ecosystem and measurements in such tropical land–ocean boundary conditions are few and far between. A micrometeorological method was used to measure ammonia exchange over Sundarban mangrove forest and

  8. Biology of mangroves and mangrove Ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kathiresan; B. L. Bingham

    2001-01-01

    Mangroves are woody plants that grow at the interface between land and sea in tropical and sub-tropical latitudes where they exist in conditions of high salinity, extreme tides, strong winds, high temperatures and muddy, anaerobic soils. There may be no other group of plants with such highly developed morphological and physiological adaptations to extreme conditions.Because of their environment, mangroves are

  9. Project Of Investigation About Growth Of Afforestation Mangrove In Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibuki, R.

    2007-12-01

    At the mangrove which was played back artificially by intended afforestation it designates that related characteristic of growth circumstance and growth environment of the mangrove plant which is grown is evaluated as purpose of this study. Revival of the mangrove in Thailand with afforestation makes the ecosystem revive which consists simultaneously with the mangrove, makes the fishing industry profit at neighborhood possible, makes the life of the people of the locale rich. In addition, the mangrove carries out the role of the anti wave forest, the case of the Sumatra open sea earthquake makes the damage decrease by the tidal wave. The people of the locale re-have recognized concerning the inevitability of the mangrove. Difference has occurred in the amount of mangrove growth depending upon the growth place, the fact that these causes are investigated is something which urges the growth of the efficient mangrove at the time of future afforestation being active. In addition, also comparison of growth circumstance of the mangrove due to natural growth and the mangrove due to afforestation becomes the important research resource. Concretely, it measures growth circumstance (height of tree and diameter etc.) and also, growth environment (the amount of solar radiation, salinity density in substrate and tidal change etc.) and evaluate both correlations. As for evaluation of growth environment of the afforestation mangrove we should evaluate with central value. Because of that, there is a necessity which executes amount of growth measurement with statistical technique. Therefore, with the amount of growth measurement with lumbering, it is unsuitable to the measurement on this study. Regarding this subject of study, growth investigation of the group of trees is executed making use of non destructive physical amount (height of tree and diameter etc.) measurement. It measures at several dozen threes in plural afforestation area, evaluates the growth environment of each afforestation mangrove and the related characteristic of growth circumstance.

  10. New Approaches to Forest Monitoring using Remote Sensing

    E-print Network

    forest area Within-region forest cover loss as percent of land area (s.e.) Percent of total biome area Landsat ·Enhancing use of Landsat data #12;Mapping the Boreal zone ­ forest cover and forest cover loss 2000 to 2005 Mapping the Boreal zone ­ forest cover and forest cover loss 2000 to 2005 a - South Dakota

  11. Dynamics of suspended sediment exchange and transport in a degraded mangrove creek in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kitheka, Johnson U; Ongwenyi, George S; Mavuti, Kenneth M

    2002-12-01

    This study focuses on sediment exchange dynamics in Mwache Creek, a shallow tidal mangrove wetland in Kenya. The surface area of the creek is 17 km2 at high water spring. The creek experiences semidiurnal tides with tidal ranges of 3.2 m and 1.4 m during spring and neap tides, respectively. The creek is ebb dominant in the frontwater zone main channel and is flood dominant in the backwater zone main channel. During rainy season, the creek receives freshwater and terrigenous sediments from the seasonal Mwache River. Heavy supply of terrigenous sediments during the El Niño of 1997-1998 led to the huge deposition of sediments (10(60 tonnes) in the wetland that caused massive destruction of the mangrove forest in the upper region. In this study, sea level, tidal discharges, tidal current velocities, salinity, total suspended sediment concentrations (TSSC) and particulate organic sediment concentrations (POSC) measured in stations established within the main channel and also within the mangrove forests, were used to determine the dynamics of sediment exchange between the frontwater and backwater zones of the main channel including also the exchange with mangrove forests. The results showed that during wet seasons, the high suspended sediment concentration associated with river discharge and tidal resuspension of fine channel-bed sediment accounts for the inflow of highly turbid water into the degraded mangrove forest. Despite the degradation of the mangrove forest, sediment outflow from the mangrove forest was considerably less than the inflow. This caused a net trapping of sediment in the wetland. The net import of the sediment dominated in spring tide during both wet and dry season and during neap tide in the wet season. However, as compared to heavily vegetated mangrove wetlands, the generally degraded Mwache Creek mangrove wetland sediment trapping efficiency is low as the average is about 30% for the highly degraded backwater zone mangrove forest and 65% in the moderately degraded frontwater zone mangrove forest. PMID:12572826

  12. Inorganic and organic carbon biogeochemistry in the Gautami Godavari estuary (Andhra Pradesh, India) during pre-monsoon: The local impact of extensive mangrove forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouillon, Steven; Frankignoulle, Michel; Dehairs, Frank; Velimirov, Branko; Eiler, Alexander; Abril, GwenaëL.; Etcheber, Henri; Borges, Alberto Vieira

    2003-12-01

    The distribution and sources of organic and inorganic carbon were studied in the Gautami Godavari estuary (Andhra Pradesh, India) and in a mangrove ecosystem in its delta during pre-monsoon. In the oligohaline and mesohaline section (salinity 0-15) of the estuary, internal production of total alkalinity (TAlk) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) was recorded, and the ?13CDIC profile suggests that carbonate dissolution may be an important process determining the DIC dynamics in this section of the Godavari. The partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) was fairly low along the entire salinity gradient, (293-500 ppm), but much higher and more variable (1375-6437 ppm) in the network of tidal mangrove creeks in the delta. Here, variations in the concentration and ?13C of the DIC pool were shown to result largely from the mineralization of organic matter. The present study clearly identifies the mangrove creeks as an active site of mineralization and CO2 efflux to the atmosphere, but shows that these changes in the aquatic biogeochemistry are a localized feature, rapidly fading in the adjacent Kakinada Bay. Our data indicate that mineralization of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of mangrove origin, and its subsequent efflux as CO2 to the atmosphere may represent an important fate for mangrove carbon. Although further quantification of this process in a variety of systems is required, we suggest that some of the current ideas on the role of mangroves in the carbon budget of the coastal zone may need to be reconsidered.

  13. BIRD COMMUNITIES AND HABITAT AS ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF FOREST CONDITION IN REGIONAL MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological indicators for long-term monitoring programs are needed to detect and assess changing environmental conditions, We developed and tested community-level environmental indicators for monitoring forest bird populations and associated habitat. We surveyed 197 sampling plo...

  14. Long-Term Monitoring of Dzanga Bai Forest Elephants: Forest Clearing Use Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Turkalo, Andrea K.; Wrege, Peter H.; Wittemyer, George

    2013-01-01

    Individual identification of the relatively cryptic forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis) at forest clearings currently provides the highest quality monitoring data on this ecologically important but increasingly threatened species. Here we present baseline data from the first 20 years of an individually based study of this species, conducted at the Dzanga Clearing, Central African Republic. A total of 3,128 elephants were identified over the 20-year study (1,244 adults; 675 females, 569 males). It took approximately four years for the majority of elephants visiting the clearing to be identified, but new elephants entered the clearing every year of the study. The study population was relatively stable, varying from 1,668 to 1,864 individuals (including juveniles and infants), with increasingly fewer males than females over time. The age-class distribution for females remained qualitatively unchanged between 1995 and 2010, while the proportion of adult males decreased from 20% to 10%, likely reflecting increased mortality. Visitation patterns by individuals were highly variable, with some elephants visiting monthly while others were ephemeral users with visits separated by multiple years. The number of individuals in the clearing at any time varied between 40 and 100 individuals, and there was little evidence of a seasonal pattern in this variation. The number of elephants entering the clearing together (defined here as a social group) averaged 1.49 (range 1–12) for males and 2.67 (range 1–14) for females. This collation of 20 years of intensive forest elephant monitoring provides the first detailed, long term look at the ecology of bai visitation for this species, offering insight to the ecological significance and motivation for bai use, social behavior, and threats to forest elephants. We discuss likely drivers (rainfall, compression, illegal killing, etc.) influencing bai visitation rates. This study provides the baseline for future demographic and behavioral studies of this population. PMID:24386460

  15. Early Warning and Monitoring System for Forest and Grassland Fires by remote sensing data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Zhou; Shirong Chen; Weiqi Zhou; Litao Wang

    2004-01-01

    Frequently happening forest and grassland fires do a lot of economic and environment damages and even threaten the people's lives. Forest and grassland fires, as a natural hazard, can be predicted, controlled and, in many cases, prevented. This paper focuses on the development and applications of the Early Warning and Monitoring System for Forest and Grassland Fires (EWMS\\/FGF), which was

  16. Use of Multi-Year MODIS Phenological Data Products to Detect and Monitor Forest Disturbances at Regional and National Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph; Hargrove, William W.; Gasser, Jerry; Smoot, James; Ross, Kenton

    2010-01-01

    This presentation discusses an effort to use select MODIS phenological products for forest disturbance monitoring at the regional and CONUS scales. Forests occur on 1/3 of the U.S. land base and include regionally prevalent forest disturbances that can threaten forest sustainability. Regional and CONUS forest disturbance monitoring is needed for a national forest threat early warning system being developed by the USDA Forest Service with help from NASA, ORNL, and USGS. MODIS NDVI phenology products are being used to develop forest disturbance monitoring capabilities of this EWS.

  17. Disentangling the effects of climate, species, and management on growth and mortality of southeast Asian mangroves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Patrick; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Robinson, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    Mangrove forests are one of the most biologically important ecosystems of the littoral tropics. They provide a wide range of ecosystem services including tsunami protection, food production, and waste processing. They are also rapidly disappearing due to increasing rates of clearance for development and aquaculture. It remains unclear how mangroves will respond to changing climatic conditions. Here we discuss the results of a long-term study that explored the interacting effects of climate, species, and management practices on annual variability of growth and mortality of mangroves in peninsular Thailand. The 15-year study period included the extreme 1997-98 ENSO event that led to widespread drought-induced mortality and forest fires across the region, but which appeared to have little impact on the mangroves. Our results provide an important, and much-needed, framework for conservation and forest management planning in these mangrove forests given future concerns and uncertainty about climate change in the tropics.

  18. Nutrient Enrichment Increases Mortality of Mangroves

    PubMed Central

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Ball, Marilyn C.; Martin, Katherine C.; C. Feller, Ilka

    2009-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment of the coastal zone places intense pressure on marine communities. Previous studies have shown that growth of intertidal mangrove forests is accelerated with enhanced nutrient availability. However, nutrient enrichment favours growth of shoots relative to roots, thus enhancing growth rates but increasing vulnerability to environmental stresses that adversely affect plant water relations. Two such stresses are high salinity and low humidity, both of which require greater investment in roots to meet the demands for water by the shoots. Here we present data from a global network of sites that documents enhanced mortality of mangroves with experimental nutrient enrichment at sites where high sediment salinity was coincident with low rainfall and low humidity. Thus the benefits of increased mangrove growth in response to coastal eutrophication is offset by the costs of decreased resilience due to mortality during drought, with mortality increasing with soil water salinity along climatic gradients. PMID:19440554

  19. Microbial diversity in Brazilian mangrove sediments – a mini review

    PubMed Central

    Ghizelini, Angela Michelato; Mendonça-Hagler, Leda Cristina Santana; Macrae, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The importance and protection of mangrove ecosystems has been recognized in Brazilian Federal law since 1965. Being protected in law, however, has not always guaranteed their protection in practice. Mangroves are found in coastal and estuarine locations, which are prime real estate for the growth of cities, ports and other economic activities important for Brazilian development. In this mini-review we introduce what mangroves are and why they are so important. We give a brief overview of the microbial diversity found in mangrove sediments and then focus on diversity studies from Brazilian mangroves. We highlight the breadth and depth of knowledge about mangrove microbial communities gained from studying Brazilian mangroves. We report on the exciting findings of molecular microbial ecology methods that have been very successfully applied to study bacterial communities. We note that there have been fewer studies that focus on fungal communities and that fungal diversity studies deserve more attention. The review ends with a look at how a combination of new molecular biology methods and isolation studies are being developed to monitor and conserve mangrove ecosystems and their associated microbial communities. These recent studies are having a global impact and we hope they will help to protect and re-establish mangrove ecosystems. PMID:24031949

  20. Microbial diversity in Brazilian mangrove sediments - a mini review.

    PubMed

    Ghizelini, Angela Michelato; Mendonça-Hagler, Leda Cristina Santana; Macrae, Andrew

    2012-10-01

    The importance and protection of mangrove ecosystems has been recognized in Brazilian Federal law since 1965. Being protected in law, however, has not always guaranteed their protection in practice. Mangroves are found in coastal and estuarine locations, which are prime real estate for the growth of cities, ports and other economic activities important for Brazilian development. In this mini-review we introduce what mangroves are and why they are so important. We give a brief overview of the microbial diversity found in mangrove sediments and then focus on diversity studies from Brazilian mangroves. We highlight the breadth and depth of knowledge about mangrove microbial communities gained from studying Brazilian mangroves. We report on the exciting findings of molecular microbial ecology methods that have been very successfully applied to study bacterial communities. We note that there have been fewer studies that focus on fungal communities and that fungal diversity studies deserve more attention. The review ends with a look at how a combination of new molecular biology methods and isolation studies are being developed to monitor and conserve mangrove ecosystems and their associated microbial communities. These recent studies are having a global impact and we hope they will help to protect and re-establish mangrove ecosystems. PMID:24031949

  1. NASA LCLUC Program: An Integrated Forest Monitoring System for Central Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laporte, Nadine; LeMoigne, Jacqueline; Elkan, Paul; Desmet, Olivier; Paget, Dominique; Pumptre, Andrew; Gouala, Patrice; Honzack, Miro; Maisels, Fiona

    2004-01-01

    Central Africa has the second largest unfragmented block of tropical rain forest in the world; it is also one of the largest carbon and biodiversity reservoirs. With nearly one-third of the forest currently allocated for logging, the region is poised to undergo extensive land-use change. Through the mapping of the forests, our Integrated Forest Monitoring System for Central Africa (INFORMS) project aims to monitor habitat alteration, support biodiversity conservation, and promote better land-use planning and forest management. Designed as an interdisciplinary project, its goal is to integrate data acquired from satellites with field observations from forest inventories, wildlife surveys, and socio-economic studies to map and monitor forest resources. This project also emphasizes on collaboration and coordination with international, regional, national, and local partners-including non-profit, governmental, and commercial sectors. This project has been focused on developing remote sensing products for the needs of forest conservation and management, insuring that research findings are incorporated in forest management plans at the national level. The societal impact of INFORMS can be also appreciated through the development of a regional remote sensing network in central Africa. With a regional office in Kinshasa, (www.OSFAC.org), the contribution to the development of forest management plans for 1.5 million hectares of forests in northern Republic of Congo (www.tt-timber.com), and the monitoring of park encroachments in the Albertine region (Uganda and DRC) (www.albertinerift.org).

  2. A socio-ecological assessment aiming at improved forest resource management and sustainable ecotourism development in the mangroves of Tanbi Wetland National Park, The Gambia, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Satyanarayana, Behara; Bhanderi, Preetika; Debry, Mélanie; Maniatis, Danae; Foré, Franka; Badgie, Dawda; Jammeh, Kawsu; Vanwing, Tom; Farcy, Christine; Koedam, Nico; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid

    2012-07-01

    Although mangroves dominated by Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle are extending over 6000 ha in the Tanbi Wetland National Park (TWNP) (The Gambia), their importance for local populations (both peri-urban and urban) is not well documented. For the first time, this study evaluates the different mangrove resources in and around Banjul (i.e., timber, non-timber, edible, and ethnomedicinal products) and their utilization patterns, including the possibility of ecotourism development. The questionnaire-based results have indicated that more than 80% of peri-urban population rely on mangroves for timber and non-timber products and consider them as very important for their livelihoods. However, at the same time, urban households demonstrate limited knowledge on mangrove species and their ecological/economic benefits. Among others, fishing (including the oyster-Crassostrea cf. gasar collection) and tourism are the major income-generating activities found in the TWNP. The age-old practices of agriculture in some parts of the TWNP are due to scarcity of land available for agriculture, increased family size, and alternative sources of income. The recent focus on ecotourism (i.e., boardwalk construction inside the mangroves near Banjul city) received a positive response from the local stakeholders (i.e., users, government, and non-government organizations), with their appropriate roles in sharing the revenue, rights, and responsibilities of this project. Though the guidelines for conservation and management of the TWNP seem to be compatible, the harmony between local people and sustainable resource utilization should be ascertained. PMID:22351596

  3. Advancing Indonesian forest resource monitoring using multi-source remotely sensed imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margono, B. A.; Turubanova, S.; Potapov, P.; Hansen, M.

    2013-12-01

    Indonesia experiences the third highest rate of deforestation among tropical countries (FAO, 2005, 2010, Hansen et al 2008, 2009). Providing timely and accurate forest data at the national scale is crucial to combat deforestation and forest degradation in support climate change mitigation and biodiversity conservation policy initiatives. Indonesia's national communication to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 2009 reveals a substantial role of forests as well as peatlands in contributing projected national carbon emission under business as usual. Further, in 2009 the government of Indonesia pledged to reduce national carbon emissions from between 26% to 41% of business as usual by 2020 while maintaining annual economic growth at 7%. The forests and wetlands therefore are becoming major interest for climate change mitigation in Indonesia. Our work here documents timely natural primary forests extent and loss within various types of physiographical formations. We present a hybrid approach to quantify the extent and change of primary forests for different composition and structure using a per-pixel supervised classification mapping combined with a GIS-based fragmentation analysis (Margono et al 2012). We also demonstrate the mapping of Indonesia's wetlands cover as a single thematic class (including peatlands, freshwater wetlands and mangroves) using topographical indices (derived from SRTM elevation data) combined with optical (Landsat) and radar (ALOS PALSAR) image data. We provided analysis within different physiographic formations (uplands and lowlands) defined using DEM data. The loss of Indonesia's primary intact and primary degraded forests, within wetlands and non-wetlands covers, as well as in the upland was quantified to provide suitable information for the objectives of the UNFCCC Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD and REDD+) program.

  4. Evaluating compact SAR polarimetry for tropical forest monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trisasongko, Bambang H.

    2015-01-01

    Fully polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) or PolSAR has been proven useful for diverse applications related to environment. Nevertheless, problems are arising since satellite-borne PolSAR requires special arrangements on data acquisition and consumes higher energy for signal transmission. Complexity of data acquisition and analysis can be reduced using compact polarimetry. The technique has been demonstrated to some extent; however, tests on various environments are still required. This paper assesses compact polarimetry on a tropical forest fringe, especially to monitor expanding oil palm estate and forest disturbance, in comparison to fully polarimetric mode. PALSAR data of Manokwari, Indonesia, were collected from JAXA through RA4.1029 project. In this paper, linear 45 degrees transmission is evaluated to detect various land cover classes using Wishart supervised classifier. Tonal discrepancies between both polarimetric modes are evident, suggesting compact polarimetry has limitation to recover information contained in fully polarimetric mode. However, Wishart classification procedure indicates that compact polarimetry is still useful for mapping.

  5. Cumulative impacts of hurricanes on Florida mangrove ecosystems: Sediment deposition, storm surges and vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, T. J., III; Anderson, G.H.; Balentine, K.; Tiling, G.; Ward, G.A.; Whelan, K.R.T.

    2009-01-01

    Hurricanes have shaped the structure of mangrove forests in the Everglades via wind damage, storm surges and sediment deposition. Immediate effects include changes to stem size-frequency distributions and to species relative abundance and density. Long-term impacts to mangroves are poorly understood at present. We examine impacts of Hurricane Wilma on mangroves and compare the results to findings from three previous storms (Labor Day, Donna, Andrew). Surges during Wilma destroyed ??? 1,250 ha of mangroves and set back recovery that started following Andrew. Data from permanent plots affected by Andrew and Wilma showed no differences among species or between hurricanes for stem mortality or basal area lost. Hurricane damage was related to hydro-geomorphic type of forest. Basin mangroves suffered significantly more damage than riverine or island mangroves. The hurricane by forest type interaction was highly significant. Andrew did slightly more damage to island mangroves. Wilma did significantly more damage to basin forests. This is most likely a result of the larger and more spatially extensive storm surge produced by Wilma. Forest damage was not related to amount of sediment deposited. Analyses of reports from Donna and the Labor Day storm indicate that some sites have recovered following catastrophic disturbance. Other sites have been permanently converted into a different ecosystem, namely intertidal mudflats. Our results indicate that mangroves are not in a steady state as has been recently claimed. ?? 2009 The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  6. Food web structure in exotic and native mangroves: a Hawaii-Puerto Rico comparison.

    PubMed

    Demopoulos, Amanda W J; Fry, Brian; Smith, Craig R

    2007-09-01

    Plant invasions can fundamentally alter detrital inputs and the structure of detritus-based food webs. We examined the detrital pathways in mangrove food webs in native (Puerto Rican) and introduced (Hawaiian) Rhizophora mangle forests using a dual isotope approach and a mixing model. Based on trophic-level fractionation of 0-1 per thousand for delta(13)C and 2-3 per thousand for delta(15)N, among the invertebrates, only nematodes, oligochaetes, and nereid polychaetes from native mangroves exhibited stable isotopes consistent with a mangrove-derived diet. Certain fauna, in particular tubificid oligochaetes, had delta(13)C values consistent with the consumption of mangrove leaves, but they were depleted in (15)N, suggesting their primary nitrogen source was low in (15)N, and was possibly N(2)-fixing bacteria. In introduced mangroves, all feeding groups appeared to rely heavily on non-mangrove sources, especially phytoplankton inputs. Mixing model results and discriminant analysis showed clear separation of introduced and native mangrove sites based on differential food source utilization within feeding groups, with stronger and more diverse use of benthic foods observed in native forests. Observed differences between native and invasive mangrove food webs may be due to Hawaiian detritivores being poorly adapted to utilizing the tannin-rich, nitrogen-poor mangrove detritus. In addition, differential utilization of mangrove detritus between native and introduced mangroves may be a consequence of forest age. We postulate that increasing mangrove forest age may promote diversification of bacterial food webs important in N and S cycling. Our results also suggest a potentially important role for sulfur bacteria in supporting the most abundant infaunal consumers, nematodes, in the most mature systems. PMID:17587064

  7. Food web structure in exotic and native mangroves: A Hawaii-Puerto Rico comparison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demopoulos, A.W.J.; Fry, B.; Smith, C.R.

    2007-01-01

    Plant invasions can fundamentally alter detrital inputs and the structure of detritus-based food webs. We examined the detrital pathways in mangrove food webs in native (Puerto Rican) and introduced (Hawaiian) Rhizophora mangle forests using a dual isotope approach and a mixing model. Based on trophic-level fractionation of 0-1??? for ?? 13C and 2-3??? for ?? 15N, among the invertebrates, only nematodes, oligochaetes, and nereid polychaetes from native mangroves exhibited stable isotopes consistent with a mangrove-derived diet. Certain fauna, in particular tubificid oligochaetes, had ?? 13C values consistent with the consumption of mangrove leaves, but they were depleted in 15N, suggesting their primary nitrogen source was low in 15N, and was possibly N 2-fixing bacteria. In introduced mangroves, all feeding groups appeared to rely heavily on non-mangrove sources, especially phytoplankton inputs. Mixing model results and discriminant analysis showed clear separation of introduced and native mangrove sites based on differential food source utilization within feeding groups, with stronger and more diverse use of benthic foods observed in native forests. Observed differences between native and invasive mangrove food webs may be due to Hawaiian detritivores being poorly adapted to utilizing the tannin-rich, nitrogen-poor mangrove detritus. In addition, differential utilization of mangrove detritus between native and introduced mangroves may be a consequence of forest age. We postulate that increasing mangrove forest age may promote diversification of bacterial food webs important in N and S cycling. Our results also suggest a potentially important role for sulfur bacteria in supporting the most abundant infaunal consumers, nematodes, in the most mature systems. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  8. Mangrove loss leads to fish hyperutilization of seagrass beds in a UNESCO biosphere reserve.

    PubMed

    Bologna, P A X

    2014-05-01

    Hurricanes severely damaged a mangrove forest in a UNESCO biosphere reserve in the U.S. Virgin Islands. The system has yet to recover and when alternative habitats have been destroyed, it is shown that juvenile fishes will hyperutilize seagrass beds at densities significantly greater than in areas that maintain functioning mangroves. Despite over a decade of recovery time, the affected mangrove system remains inhospitable to juvenile fishes. PMID:24773547

  9. Sea level rise and tigers: predicted impacts to Bangladesh’s Sundarbans mangroves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colby Loucks; Shannon Barber-Meyer; Adam Barlow; Ruhul Mohaiman Chowdhury

    2010-01-01

    The Sundarbans mangrove ecosystem, shared by India and Bangladesh, is recognized as a global priority for biodiversity conservation.\\u000a Sea level rise, due to climate change, threatens the long term persistence of the Sundarbans forests and its biodiversity.\\u000a Among the forests’ biota is the only tiger (Panthera tigris) population in the world adapted for life in mangrove forests. Prior predictions on

  10. Monitoring Forest Change and Ice Storm Disturbance to Forest Structure Using Echidna° Ground-Based Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, T.; Strahler, A. H.; Schaaf, C.; Yang, X.; zhao, F.; Woodcock, C. E.; Jupp, D. L.; Culvenor, D.; Lovell, J.; Newnham, G.; Li, X.; Wang, J.

    2011-12-01

    The ground-based, upward-scanning, near-infrared (1064 nm), full-waveform lidar, the Echidna° Validation Instrument (EVI), built by CSIRO Australia, is used to monitor forest change over a 2- or 3-year time period through changes in retrievals of mean stem diameter, stem density, basal area, above-ground standing biomass, leaf area index, foliage profile, and canopy height. The changes were validated by comparison with direct field measurements, or in the case of canopy height, with data from the Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS). Site-level EVI-retrieved values of mean DBH, stem count density, basal area and above-ground biomass matched the field measurements well, with R2 values of 0.84, 0.97, 0.96 and 0.98 respectively. Furthermore, the changes in EVI retrievals had the same trend as the change in field measurements over these 2-3 year periods. Based on five scans within each 1-ha plot, we focused on detecting forest change over a 2- or 3-year period at three New England forest stands: a second-growth conifer stand thinned as a shelterwood, an aging hemlock plantation, and a young second-growth hardwood stand. The first stand provided the opportunity to look for change in a stand containing many co-dominant and intermediate trees recently released by removal of selected over-story trees, while the other two stands suffered significant damage in an ice storm during the change period. At the shelterwood conifer site at Howland Experimental Forest, mean DBH, aboveground biomass, and leaf area index (LAI) all increased between 2007 and 2009. An ice storm struck the Harvard Forest in December, 2008, providing the opportunity to detect damage between 2007 and 2009 or 2010 with EVI scans at two sites : hemlock and hardwood. Retrieved leaf area index (LAI) was 13 percent lower in the hemlock site in 2009 and 10 percent lower in the hardwood site in 2010 as compared to 2007. The decrease of LAI quantifies a loss of biomass from the canopy, and broken tops were both recorded by the field teams and visible in the Echidna scans in the 2010 data. Stem density decreased and mean DBH increased at both sites, as smaller and weaker trees were felled by the ice. Canopy heights derived from the EVI-retrieved foliage profile closely matched those derived from the airborne Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS).

  11. Taking Root: Enduring Effect of Rhizosphere Bacterial Colonization in Mangroves

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Fernando N.; Egas, Conceição; Almeida, Adelaide; Cunha, Angela; Mendonça-Hagler, Leda C. S.; Smalla, Kornelia

    2010-01-01

    Background Mangrove forests are of global ecological and economic importance, but are also one of the world's most threatened ecosystems. Here we present a case study examining the influence of the rhizosphere on the structural composition and diversity of mangrove bacterial communities and the implications for mangrove reforestation approaches using nursery-raised plants. Methodology/Principal Findings A barcoded pyrosequencing approach was used to assess bacterial diversity in the rhizosphere of plants in a nursery setting, nursery-raised transplants and native (non-transplanted) plants in the same mangrove habitat. In addition to this, we also assessed bacterial composition in the bulk sediment in order to ascertain if the roots of mangrove plants affect sediment bacterial composition. We found that mangrove roots appear to influence bacterial abundance and composition in the rhizosphere. Due to the sheer abundance of roots in mangrove habitat, such an effect can have an important impact on the maintenance of bacterial guilds involved in nutrient cycling and other key ecosystem functions. Surprisingly, we also noted a marked impact of initial nursery conditions on the rhizosphere bacterial composition of replanted mangrove trees. This result is intriguing because mangroves are periodically inundated with seawater and represent a highly dynamic environment compared to the more controlled nursery environment. Conclusions/Significance In as far as microbial diversity and composition influences plant growth and health, this study indicates that nursery conditions and early microbial colonization patterns of the replants are key factors that should be considered during reforestation projects. In addition to this, our results provide information on the role of the mangrove rhizosphere as a habitat for bacteria from estuarine sediments. PMID:21124923

  12. Nitrate ammonification in mangrove soils: a hidden source of nitrite?

    PubMed Central

    Balk, Melike; Laverman, Anniet M.; Keuskamp, Joost A.; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate reduction is considered to be a minor microbial pathway in the oxidation of mangrove-derived organic matter due to a limited supply of nitrate in mangrove soils. At a limited availability of this electron acceptor compared to the supply of degradable carbon, nitrate ammonification is thought to be the preferential pathway of nitrate reduction. Mangrove forest mutually differ in their productivity, which may lead to different available carbon to nitrate ratios in their soil. Hence, nitrate ammonification is expected to be of more importance in high- compared to low-productive forests. The hypothesis was tested in flow-through reactors that contain undisturbed mangrove soils from high-productive Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle forests in Florida and low-productive Avicennia marina forests in Saudi Arabia. Nitrate was undetectable in the soils from both regions. It was assumed that a legacy of nitrate ammonification would be reflected by a higher ammonium production from these soils upon the addition of nitrate. Unexpectedly, the soils from the low-productive forests in Saudi Arabia produced considerably more ammonium than the soils from the high-productive forests in Florida. Hence, other environmental factors than productivity must govern the selection of nitrate ammonification or denitrification. A rather intriguing observation was the 1:1 production of nitrite and ammonium during the consumption of nitrate, more or less independent from sampling region, location, sampling depth, mangrove species and from the absence or presence of additional degradable carbon. This 1:1 ratio points to a coupled production of ammonium and nitrite by one group of nitrate-reducing microorganisms. Such a production of nitrite will be hidden by the presence of active nitrite-reducing microorganisms under the nitrate-limited conditions of most mangrove forest soils. PMID:25784903

  13. Monitoring Strategies for REDD+: Integrating Field, Airborne, and Satellite Observations of Amazon Forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Douglas; Souza, Carlos, Jr.; Souza, Carlos, Jr.; Keller, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale tropical forest monitoring efforts in support of REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation plus enhancing forest carbon stocks) confront a range of challenges. REDD+ activities typically have short reporting time scales, diverse data needs, and low tolerance for uncertainties. Meeting these challenges will require innovative use of remote sensing data, including integrating data at different spatial and temporal resolutions. The global scientific community is engaged in developing, evaluating, and applying new methods for regional to global scale forest monitoring. Pilot REDD+ activities are underway across the tropics with support from a range of national and international groups, including SilvaCarbon, an interagency effort to coordinate US expertise on forest monitoring and resource management. Early actions on REDD+ have exposed some of the inherent tradeoffs that arise from the use of incomplete or inaccurate data to quantify forest area changes and related carbon emissions. Here, we summarize recent advances in forest monitoring to identify and target the main sources of uncertainty in estimates of forest area changes, aboveground carbon stocks, and Amazon forest carbon emissions.

  14. Mangrove Key Islets

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Beyond the mangrove key islets that make up the Ten Thousand Islands, lies the Gulf of Mexico. The Ten Thousand Islands are comprised of hundreds of mangrove islands that extend northward from the northwest corner of Everglades National Park. These uninhabited islands stretch for 60-miles al...

  15. Temporal mangrove dynamics in relation to coastal development in Pacific Panama

    E-print Network

    Bermingham, Eldredge

    monospecific stands with a large number of seedlings indicating that the forest was rejuvenating. The mangrove and their response to reoccurring human impacts. q 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Mangrove; Aerial, they are threatened by increasing human populations, food production, coastal developments and wood extraction (Field

  16. United States Department of Mangroves of the Pacific Islands:Agriculture

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    . The perception of mangroves by people in the Pacific islands and throughout all the world has changed in the pastUnited States Department of Mangroves of the Pacific Islands:Agriculture Forest Service Research Opportunities Pacific Southwest Research Station Ariel E. Lugo General Technical Report PSW-118 #12;Lugo

  17. Surface Elevation Change And Vertical Accretion In Created Mangroves In Tampa Bay, Florida, Usa

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mangroves protect coastlines, provide faunal habitat, and store large quantities of carbon (C). In South Florida and other parts of the Gulf of Mexico, large wetland areas, including mangrove forests, have been removed, degraded, or damaged. Wetland creation efforts have been use...

  18. Monitoring environmental state of Alaskan forests with AIRSAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Kyle C.; Way, Jobea; Rignot, Eric; Williams, Cindy; Viereck, Les; Adams, Phylis

    1992-01-01

    During March 1988 and May 1991, the JPL airborne synthetic aperture radar, AIRSAR, collected sets of multi-temporal imagery of the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest near Fairbanks, Alaska. These data sets consist of series of multi-polarized images collected at P-, L-, and C-bands each over a period of a few days. The AIRSAR campaigns were complemented with extensive ground measurements that included observations of both static canopy characteristics such as forest architecture as well as properties that vary on short term time scales such as canopy dielectric conditions. Observations exist for several stands of deciduous and coniferous species including white spruce (Picea glauca), black spruce (Picea mariana), and balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera). Although the duration of each campaign was fairly short, significant changes in environmental conditions caused notable variations in the physiological state of the canopies. During the 1988 campaign, environmental conditions ranged from unseasonably warm to more normal subfreezing temperatures. This permitted AIRSAR observations of frozen and thawed canopy states. During May 1991, ice jams that occurred along the river caused many stands to flood while the subsequent clearing of the river then allowed the waters to recede, leaving a snow covered ground surface. This allowed observations of several stands during both flooded and nonflooded conditions. Furthermore, the local weather varied from clear sunny days to heavy overcast days with some occurrence of rain. Measurements of leaf water potential indicated that this caused significant variations in canopy water status, allowing SAR observations of water stressed and unstressed trees. Mean backscatter from several stands is examined for the various canopy physiological states. The changes in canopy backscatter that occur as a function of environmental and physiological state are analyzed. Preliminary results of a backscatter signature modeling analysis are presented. The implications of using SAR to monitor canopy phenological state are addressed.

  19. Framework for video-based monitoring of forest insect defoliation and discoloration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Feifei; Wang, Yafei; Qiao, Yanyou

    2015-01-01

    Pest damage is a general problem that disturbs the growth of forests, influencing carbon sequestration and causing economic losses. In the past decades, many studies have been conducted to monitor and detect forest insect damage using satellite remote sensing technology. Satellite remote sensing has a satellite or aerial vision allowing the monitoring of extensive forest areas, but it usually requires constant time periods and is prone to cloud interference. To enable more efficient and effective monitoring of forest pest damage, a video-based monitoring framework is presented. This framework comprises three key parts: (1) video positioning of forest insect damage based on digital elevation model (DEM) and the parameters obtained from the pan-tilt-zoom camera, (2) integration of two-dimensional/three-dimensional geographic information system and video surveillance to provide more intuitionistic monitoring and assistance for positioning, (3) on-site verification conducted by ground surveys and guided through global positioning system (GPS) integrated in the embedded devices. The experiment was carried out over two forest areas to validate the proposed method. Results showed that the framework bears a sound positioning accuracy and high detection ratio, which could be effectively used in detecting and monitoring forest insect defoliation and discoloration.

  20. Interagency Collaborators Develop and Implement ForWarn, a National, Near Real Time Forest Monitoring Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    ForWarn is a satellite-based forest monitoring tool that is being used to detect and monitor disturbances to forest conditions and forest health. It has been developed through the synergistic efforts, capabilities and contributions of four federal agencies, including the US Forest Service Eastern Forest and Western Wildland Environmental Threat Assessment Centers, NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC), Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and US Geological Survey Earth (USGS) Earth Research Observation System (EROS), as well as university partners, including the University of North Carolina Asheville's National Environmental Modeling and Analysis Center (NEMAC). This multi-organizational partnership is key in producing a unique, path finding near real-time forest monitoring system that is now used by many federal, state and local government end-users. Such a system could not have been produced so effectively by any of these groups on their own. The forests of the United States provide many societal values and benefits, ranging from ecological, economic, cultural, to recreational. Therefore, providing a reliable and dependable forest and other wildland monitoring system is important to ensure the continued health, productivity, sustainability and prudent use of our Nation's forests and forest resources. ForWarn does this by producing current health indicator maps of our nation's forests based on satellite data from NASA's MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensors. Such a capability can provide noteworthy value, cost savings and significant impact at state and local government levels because at those levels of government, once disturbances are evident and cause negative impacts, a response must be carried out. The observations that a monitoring system like ForWarn provide, can also contribute to a much broader-scale understanding of vegetation disturbances.

  1. Spatial heterogeneity and kinetic regulation of arsenic dynamics in mangrove sediments: the Sundarbans, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sumon, Mahmud H; Hossain, Mahmud; Williams, Paul N; Mestrot, Adrien; Norton, Gareth J; Deacon, Claire M; Meharg, Andrew A

    2012-08-21

    The biogeochemistry of arsenic (As) in sediments is regulated by multiple factors such as particle size, dissolved organic matter (DOM), iron mobilization, and sediment binding characteristics, among others. Understanding the heterogeneity of factors affecting As deposition and the kinetics of mobilization, both horizontally and vertically, across sediment depositional environments was investigated in Sundarban mangrove ecosystems, Bengal Delta, Bangladesh. Sediment cores were collected from 3 different Sundarbans locations and As concentration down the profiles were found to be more associated with elevated Fe and Mn than with organic matter (OM). At one site chosen for field monitoring, sediment cores, pore and surface water, and in situ diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) measurements (which were used to model As sediment pore-water concentrations and resupply from the solid phase) were sampled from four different subhabitats. Coarse-textured riverbank sediment porewaters were high in As, but with a limited resupply of As from the solid phase compared to fine-textured and high organic matter content forest floor sediments, where porewater As was low, but with much higher As resupply. Depositional environment (overbank verses forest floor) and biological activity (input of OM from forest biomass) considerably affected As dynamics over very short spatial distances in the mosaic of microhabitats that constitute a mangrove ecosystem. PMID:22834808

  2. Regional Breeding Bird Monitoring in Western Great Lakes National Forests1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JoAnn Hanowski; Jim Lind; Nick Danz; Gerald Niemi; Tim Jones

    We established breeding bird monitoring programs in three National Forests in northern Minnesota (Superior and Chippewa in 1991) and northern Wisconsin (Che- quamegon in 1992). A total of 134, 169, and 132 stands (1,272 survey points) have been surveyed annually in these forests through 2002. We examined trends in rel- ative abundance for 53 species in the Chequamegon, 51 species

  3. Monitoring, Classification, and Characterization of Interior Alaska Forests Using AIRSAR and ERS-1 SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, C. L.; McDonald, K.; Rignot, E.; Viereck, L. A.; Way, J. B.; Zimmerman, R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews research since 1988 into the capabilities of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for monitoring, classification, and characterization of the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest on the floodplain of the Tanana River and adjacent uplands.

  4. Detection and analysis of forest cover changes of Indian Sundarbans using satellite data.

    PubMed

    Roy, Utpal; Mandal, Achintya K; Mukherjee, Somnath

    2011-07-01

    This study shows the forest cover estimation of Sundarban delta with the help of remote sensing together with Geographical Information System (GIS) and K-means clustering technique. GIS mainly deals with gathering repetitive coverage by satellites and aircrafts of real time forestry information that, finally enables to compile gross forest vegetation resource data of the area under investigation in a single format and monitor the changes. The main study area is the salinity prone south-western part of Sundarbans among Lothian, South-Surendranagar and Dhanchi Islands. Conservation of forestry and the mangroves of these Islands have been studied by the periodic remote-sensed data analysis. This paper also highlights the problems associated with the forest conservation and provides suggestions and schemes for protection and conservation of mangrove forest in Sundarban region. PMID:23029932

  5. A satellite-based method for monitoring seasonality in the overstory leaf area index of Siberian larch forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideki Kobayashi; Nicolas Delbart; Rikie Suzuki; Keiji Kushida

    2010-01-01

    Reliable monitoring of the leaf area index (LAI) is required to further understand the carbon, water, and energy cycles of forests. In this study, we proposed a new satellite-based method to estimate the overstory LAI (LAIo) separately from the understory LAI (LAIu) for larch forests covering eastern Siberia. We modeled forest scenes representative of larch forest structure, with particular consideration

  6. Southern limit of the Western South Atlantic mangroves: Assessment of the potential effects of global warming from a biogeographical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Mário Luiz Gomes; Estrada, Gustavo Calderucio Duque; Fernandez, Viviane; Tognella, Mônica Maria Pereira

    2012-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the exact location of the latitudinal limit of western South Atlantic mangroves, and to describe how these forests develop at this limit; as well as to analyze the potential responses of these communities to global warming. The study was carried out along the coast of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Specific studies on mangrove structure were carried out in the Santo Antônio Lagoon (28°28'34?S; 48°51'40?W). The coastline of Santa Catarina was surveyed for the occurrence of mangrove species. In the mangrove located at the southernmost distributional limit, the forest structure was characterized. Mean height and diameter, trunks density and basal area were calculated. Climatic and oceanographic factors controlling the occurrence and development of the mangrove forests at their latitudinal limit were analyzed, as well as the possible changes of this limit based on global warming scenarios. The results confirmed that the Santo Antônio Lagoon is the southern limit of the western South Atlantic mangroves. At this limit, the mangrove forests show a low degree of development, defined by low mean diameter and height, and high trunks density and trunks/tree ratio. The observed structural pattern and the local alternation of these forests with salt marsh species are typical of mangrove forests at their latitudinal limits. The absence of mangroves south of Laguna and forest structure at the latitudinal limit are controlled by rigorous climate and oceanographic characteristics. In response to the planetary warming process, we expect that mangroves will expand southward, as a consequence of an increase in air and ocean surface temperatures, a reduction in the incidence of frosts, an increased influence of the Brazil Current and a decreased influence of the Falkland Current, and the availability of sheltered estuarine systems for the establishment of new mangroves.

  7. Participatory forest monitoring: an assessment of the accuracy of simple cost–effective methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikkel Hooge Holck

    2008-01-01

    International forest policies have recently increased the focus on involvement of local communities in forest monitoring and\\u000a management as a strategy to improve biodiversity conservation efforts and local livelihood in developing countries. However,\\u000a little is known about feasible methods, costs and accuracy of participatory monitoring schemes in developing countries. This\\u000a paper examines the costs, accuracy and local reproducibility of three

  8. Sulphur-oxidizing and sulphate-reducing communities in Brazilian mangrove sediments.

    PubMed

    Varon-Lopez, Maryeimy; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Fasanella, Cristiane Cipolla; Durrer, Ademir; Melo, Itamar Soares; Kuramae, Eiko Eurya; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    2014-03-01

    Mangrove soils are anaerobic environments rich in sulphate and organic matter. Although the sulphur cycle is one of the major actors in this ecosystem, little is known regarding the sulphur bacteria communities in mangrove soils. We investigated the abundance, composition and diversity of sulphur-oxidizing (SOB) and sulphate-reducing (SRB) bacteria in sediments from three Brazilian mangrove communities: two contaminated, one with oil (OilMgv) and one with urban waste and sludge (AntMgv), and one pristine (PrsMgv). The community structures were assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and clone libraries, using genes for the enzymes adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate reductase (aprA) and sulphite reductase (Dsr) (dsrB). The abundance for qPCR showed the ratio dsrB/aprA to be variable among mangroves and higher according to the gradient observed for oil contamination in the OilMgv. The PCR-DGGE patterns analysed by Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling revealed differences among the structures of the three mangrove communities. The clone libraries showed that Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria were the most abundant groups associated with sulphur cycling in mangrove sediments. We conclude that the microbial SOB and SRB communities in mangrove soils are different in each mangrove forest and that such microbial communities could possibly be used as a proxy for contamination in mangrove forests. PMID:24033859

  9. Chemical ecology of red mangroves, Rhizophora mangle, in the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fry, Brian; Cormier, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The coastal red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle L., was introduced to the Hawaiian Islands from Florida 100 yr ago and has spread to cover many shallow intertidal shorelines that once were unvegetated mudflats. We used a field survey approach to test whether mangroves at the land-ocean interface could indicate watershed inputs, especially whether measurements of leaf chemistry could identify coasts with high nutrient inputs and high mangrove productivities. During 2001-2002, we sampled mangroves on dry leeward coasts of southern Moloka'i and O'ahu for 14 leaf variables including stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (delta13C, delta15N), macronutrients (C, N, P), trace elements (B, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn), and cations (Na, Mg, K, Ca). A new modeling approach using leaf Na, N, P, and delta13C indicated two times higher productivity for mangroves in urban versus rural settings, with rural mangroves more limited by low N and P nutrients and high-nutrient urban mangroves more limited by freshwater inputs and salt stress. Leaf chemistry also helped identify other aspects of mangrove dynamics: especially leaf delta15N values helped identify groundwater N inputs, and a combination of strongly correlated variables (C, N, P, B, Cu, Mg, K, Ca) tracked the mangrove growth response to nutrient loading. Overall, the chemical marker approach is an efficient way to survey watershed forcing of mangrove forest dynamics.

  10. FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING EFFECTS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE ON MANGROVE ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mangrove ecosystems perhaps represent the most diverse combination of floral, faunal and physical elements among coastal habitats. angrove forests are globally widespread in the tropics and subtropics and provide a dynamic interface between the sea and the land. angrove ecosystem...

  11. Options for monitoring and estimating historical carbon emissions from forest degradation in the context of REDD+.

    PubMed

    Herold, Martin; Román-Cuesta, Rosa María; Mollicone, Danilo; Hirata, Yasumasa; Van Laake, Patrick; Asner, Gregory P; Souza, Carlos; Skutsch, Margaret; Avitabile, Valerio; Macdicken, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Measuring forest degradation and related forest carbon stock changes is more challenging than measuring deforestation since degradation implies changes in the structure of the forest and does not entail a change in land use, making it less easily detectable through remote sensing. Although we anticipate the use of the IPCC guidance under the United Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), there is no one single method for monitoring forest degradation for the case of REDD+ policy. In this review paper we highlight that the choice depends upon a number of factors including the type of degradation, available historical data, capacities and resources, and the potentials and limitations of various measurement and monitoring approaches. Current degradation rates can be measured through field data (i.e. multi-date national forest inventories and permanent sample plot data, commercial forestry data sets, proxy data from domestic markets) and/or remote sensing data (i.e. direct mapping of canopy and forest structural changes or indirect mapping through modelling approaches), with the combination of techniques providing the best options. Developing countries frequently lack consistent historical field data for assessing past forest degradation, and so must rely more on remote sensing approaches mixed with current field assessments of carbon stock changes. Historical degradation estimates will have larger uncertainties as it will be difficult to determine their accuracy. However improving monitoring capacities for systematic forest degradation estimates today will help reduce uncertainties even for historical estimates. PMID:22115360

  12. Options for monitoring and estimating historical carbon emissions from forest degradation in the context of REDD+

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Measuring forest degradation and related forest carbon stock changes is more challenging than measuring deforestation since degradation implies changes in the structure of the forest and does not entail a change in land use, making it less easily detectable through remote sensing. Although we anticipate the use of the IPCC guidance under the United Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), there is no one single method for monitoring forest degradation for the case of REDD+ policy. In this review paper we highlight that the choice depends upon a number of factors including the type of degradation, available historical data, capacities and resources, and the potentials and limitations of various measurement and monitoring approaches. Current degradation rates can be measured through field data (i.e. multi-date national forest inventories and permanent sample plot data, commercial forestry data sets, proxy data from domestic markets) and/or remote sensing data (i.e. direct mapping of canopy and forest structural changes or indirect mapping through modelling approaches), with the combination of techniques providing the best options. Developing countries frequently lack consistent historical field data for assessing past forest degradation, and so must rely more on remote sensing approaches mixed with current field assessments of carbon stock changes. Historical degradation estimates will have larger uncertainties as it will be difficult to determine their accuracy. However improving monitoring capacities for systematic forest degradation estimates today will help reduce uncertainties even for historical estimates. PMID:22115360

  13. Elevated rates of organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus accumulation in a highly impacted mangrove wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Christian J.; Eyre, Bradley D.; Santos, Isaac R.; Machado, Wilson; Luiz-Silva, Wanilson; Smoak, Joseph M.; Breithaupt, Joshua L.; Ketterer, Michael E.; Sanders, Luciana; Marotta, Humberto; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel

    2014-04-01

    The effect of nutrient enrichment on mangrove sediment accretion and carbon accumulation rates is poorly understood. Here we quantify sediment accretion through radionuclide tracers to determine organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) accumulation rates during the previous 60 years in both a nutrient-enriched and a pristine mangrove forest within the same geomorphological region of southeastern Brazil. The forest receiving high nutrient loads has accumulated OC, TN, and TP at rates that are fourfold, twofold, and eightfold respectively, higher than those from the undisturbed mangrove. Organic carbon and TN stable isotopes (?13C and ?15N) reflect an increased presence of organic matter (OM) originating with either phytoplankton, benthic algae, or another allochthonous source within the more rapidly accumulated sediments of the impacted mangrove. This suggests that the accumulation rate of OM in eutrophic mangrove systems may be enhanced through the addition of autochthonous and allochthonous nonmangrove material.

  14. Long-term forest monitoring in Switzerland: Assessing climate, climate change impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Kraeuchi, N. [Swiss Federal Inst. for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses successional characteristics of forest ecosystems as influenced by a changing environment, and it focuses on the potential risks resulting from this change. In the early 90`s, a long-term forest monitoring program has been established in Switzerland. The primary aim of this program is to identify and evaluate changes in the structure and function of selected forest ecosystems. To assess the potential risks arising with changing weather patterns, a total of 15 monitoring plots have been chosen according to different selection criteria, namely site homogeneity and site sensitivity to climate change and air pollution. To assess these risks, FORSUM a forest succession model for Central Europe is applied to analyze the forest succession on the LTFER plots based on the new IPCC 95 climate scenarios. Forest succession models can be used to evaluate climate change impacts on forest ecosystems, even though some parameters are highly uncertain or are even unknown. Detailed analysis of the 15 case studies will help to identify high and low risk forest areas in Switzerland and to evaluate the long-term sustainability of Swiss forest, currently at a risk from a number of anthropogenic and biogenic stresses.

  15. GHG monitoring over Paris megacity and Orléans forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Te, Y. V.; Jeseck, P.; Zanon, T.; Boursier, C.; Janssen, C.; Deutscher, N. M.; Warneke, T.; Notholt, J.; Lac, C.; Dieudonné, E.; Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Xueref-remy, I. C.

    2012-12-01

    In a growing world with more than 7 billion inhabitants and big emerging countries such as China, Brazil and India, emissions of anthropogenic pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs) are increasing continuously. Their monitoring and control in megacities have become a major challenge for scientists and public health authorities in environmental research area. The ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer (QualAir FTS[a], model IFS 125HR) of the QualAir platform located in downtown Paris at University Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), is a scientific research instrument dedicated to the survey of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and urban air quality. Equipped with a sun-tracker, the remote sensing QualAir FTS relies on solar infrared absorption for monitoring trace gas concentrations and their variability in the Ile-de-France region[b]. Concentrations of atmospheric GHGs, especially CO2, CH4 and N2O, are retrieved by the radiative transfer model PROFFIT[c]. Because Paris is the third largest European megacity, the QualAir FTS can provide new and complementary measurements as compared to existing ground-based FTS network stations (NDACC and TCCON) located in unpolluted environments, such as the TCCON-Orléans station[d] situated in the forest of Orléans (100 km south of Paris). In the effort to integrate QualAir FTS into the TCCON network, simultaneous FTS measurements of GHGs at Paris and Orléans have been performed. We will emphasize on comparisons of CO2 from these two sites. Our comparison will be completed by high-resolved direct CO2 modeling outputs from the Meso-NH model, and ground in situ measurements at different sites (Orléans/Trainou, Paris/Jussieu, Paris/Eiffel Tower). Parts of the data were acquired in the framework of the French CO2-MEGAPARIS project[e, f], whose main goal is to quantify CO2 emissions from the Paris area. The present data intercomparison will help to reduce uncertainties in carbon cycle models and to better characterize regional GHG fluxes, especially with respect to anthropogenic emission sources (urban versus rural) and trends. References: [a] Té et al., J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 29, 911-921, 2012 [b] Té et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum., 81, 103102, 2010 [c] Hase et al., JQSRT, 87, 25-52, 2004 [d] https://tccon-wiki.caltech.edu/Sites/Orleans [e] http://co2-megaparis.lsce.ipsl.fr/ [f] Xueref-Remy et al., Abstract n°A13F-0277, AGU Fall Meeting 2010, San Francisco, USA

  16. Monitoring forest land from high altitude and from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Forest inventory, forest stress, and standardization and calibration studies are presented. These include microscale photointerpretation of forest and nonforest land classes, multiseasonal film densities for automated forest and nonforest land classification, trend and spread of bark beetle infestations from 1968 through 1971, aerial photography for determining optimum levels of stand density to reduce such infestations, use of airborne spectrometers and multispectral scanners for previsual detection of Ponderosa pine trees under stress from insects and diseases, establishment of an earth resources technology satellite test site in the Black Hills and the identification of natural resolution targets, detection of root disease impact on forest stands by sequential orbital and suborbital multispectral photography, and calibration of color aerial photography.

  17. Monitoring forest land from high altitude and from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The significant findings are reported for remote sensing of forest lands conducted during the period October 1, 1965 to December 31, 1972. Forest inventory research included the use of aircraft and space imagery for forest and nonforest land classification, and land use classification by automated procedures, multispectral scanning, and computerized mapping. Forest stress studies involved previsual detection of ponderosa pine under stress from insects and disease, bark bettle infestations in the Black Hills, and root disease impacts on forest stands. Standardization and calibration studies were made to develop a field test of an ERTS-matched four-channel spectrometer. Calibration of focal plane shutters and mathematical modeling of film characteristic curves were also studied. Documents published as a result of all forestry studies funded by NASA for the Earth Resources Survey Program from 1965 through 1972 are listed.

  18. Les mangroves En Nouvelle-Caldonie, la mangrove est

    E-print Network

    Les mangroves En Nouvelle-Calédonie, la mangrove est un écosytème remarquable du point de vue de sa richesse floristique (24 espèces, dont 1 endémique). La superficie couverte par les mangroves est monde. La mangrove stabilise le trait de côte et sert de barrière contre l'érosion. La dispersion des

  19. Hyperspectral band selection and classification of Hyperion image of Bhitarkanika mangrove ecosystem, eastern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashokkumar, L.; Shanmugam, S.

    2014-10-01

    Tropical mangrove forests along the coast evolve dynamically due to constant changes in the natural ecosystem and ecological cycle. Remote sensing has paved the way for periodic monitoring and conservation of such floristic resources, compared to labour intensive in-situ observations. With the laboratory quality image spectra obtained from hyperspectral image data, species level discrimination in habitats and ecosystems is attainable. One of the essential steps before classification of hyperspectral image data is band selection. It is important to eliminate the redundant bands to mitigate the problems of Hughes effect that are likely to affect further image analysis and classification accuracy. This paper presents a methodology for the selection of appropriate hyperspectral bands from the EO-1 Hyperion image for the identification and mapping of mangrove species and coastal landcover types in the Bhitarkanika coastal forest region, eastern India. Band selection procedure follows class based elimination procedure and the separability of the classes are tested in the band selection process. Individual bands are de-correlated and redundant bands are removed from the bandwise correlation matrix. The percent contribution of class variance in each band is analysed from the factors of PCA component ranking. Spectral bands are selected from the wavelength groups and statistically tested. Further, the band selection procedure is compared with similar techniques (Band Index and Mutual information) for validation. The number of bands in the Hyperion image was reduced from 196 to 88 by the Factor-based ranking approach. Classification was performed by Support Vector Machine approach. It is observed that the proposed Factor-based ranking approach performed well in discriminating the mangrove species and other landcover units compared to the other statistical approaches. The predominant mangrove species Heritiera fomes, Excoecaria agallocha and Cynometra ramiflora are spectral identified and the health status of these species are assessed by the selected band. Further, the performance of this band selection approaches are evaluated in multi-sensor image fusion for better mapping of mangrove ecosystems, wherein spatial resolution is enhanced while retaining the optimal number of hyperspectral bands.

  20. Marbled Murrelet Effectiveness Monitoring Bentivoglio et al. April 2002 Northwest Forest Plan

    E-print Network

    Jodice, Patrick

    Marbled Murrelet Effectiveness Monitoring Bentivoglio et al. April 2002 Northwest Forest Plan Marbled Murrelet Effectiveness Monitoring 2000 Annual Report Naomi Bentivoglio1 (Team Leader), Jim Baldwin & Wildlife Service, 911 NE 11th Ave., Portland, OR 97232 Tel:541.750.7393 email:jodicep@ucs.orst.edu #12;iiMarbled

  1. MONITORING IN SUPPORT OF THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST FOREST PLAN: A REPORT ON REQUIREMENTS AND KEY QUESTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document summarizes the monitoring requirements identified in the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Pacific Northwest Forest Plan and presents the key questions the future monitoring program should strive to answer. he key questions, developed from the standards and guideline...

  2. Mangrove habitat partitioning by Ucides cordatus (Ucididae): effects of the degree of tidal flooding and tree-species composition during its life cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunderlich, A. C.; Pinheiro, M. A. A.

    2013-06-01

    Environmental factors strongly affect mangrove crabs, and some factors modulate population structure and habitat partitioning during the crabs' life cycle. However, the effect of these environmental factors on habitat selection by mangrove crabs is still unknown. We evaluated habitat selection by the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus in mangrove forests with different degrees of predominance of Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa or Avicennia schaueriana, two tidal flooding levels (less- and more-flooded), and two biological periods (breeding and non-breeding seasons). Sampling was conducted in four mangrove forests with different influences of these biotic and abiotic parameters. We used the data for sex ratio to explain environmental partitioning by this species. Females predominated in R. mangle mangroves, independently of the biological period (breeding or non-breeding seasons), and males predominated only in the less-flooded L. racemosa mangroves. The flooding level affected the sex ratio of U. cordatus, with a predominance of males in less-flooded mangroves, independently of the biological period; and a gender balance in the more-flooded mangroves only during the breeding season. Outside the breeding season, the largest specimens were recorded in the R. mangle mangroves, but in the breeding season, the largest crabs were recorded in the L. racemosa mangroves with a higher level of flooding. These results suggest that tree-species composition and tidal flooding level can have a significant effect on the habitat partitioning of sexes and sizes of the mangrove crab U. cordatus both during and outside the breeding season.

  3. Integrated use of SRS Data &GIS Technique for Monitoring Changes in Riverine Forest of Sindh, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, M.; Ali, Z.

    Deforestation / depletion in forest area threaten the sustainability of agricultural production systems and en-danger the economy of the country. Every year extensive areas of arable agricultural and forestlands are degraded and turned into wastelands, due to natural causes or human interventions. There are several causes of deforestation, such as expansion in agricultural area, urban development, forest fires, commercial logging, illicit cutting, grazing, constructions of dams / reservoirs and barrages, com munication links, etc. Depletion in forest cover, therefore, has an important impact on socio - economic development and ecological balance. High population growth rate in Pakistan is one of the main causes for the rapid deterioration of physical environment and natural resource base. In view of this, it is felt necessary to carryout land -u s e studies focusing on strategies for mapping the past and present conditions and extent of forests and rangelands using Satellite Remote Sensing (SRS) data and GIS t echnology. The SRS and GIS technology provides a possible means of monitoring and mapping changes occurring in natural resources and the environment on a continuing basis. The riverine forests of Sindh mostly grow along the River Indus in the flood plains, spread over an area of 241,000 ha are disappearing very rapidly. Construction of dams / barrages on the upper reaches of the River Indus for hydroelectric power and irrigation works have significantly reduced the discharge of fresh water into the lower Indus basin and as a result, 100,000 acres of forests have disappeared. Furthermore, the heavy floods that occurred in 1978, 1988, 1992 and 1997, altered the course of the River Indus in many places, especially in the lower reaches, this has also damaged the riverine forests of Sindh. An integrated approach involving analysis of SRS data from 1977 to 1998 and GIS technique have been used to evaluate the geographic ex-tent and distribution of the riverine forests of Sindh and to monitor temporal changes in the forest cover between 1977 &1990 and 1990 &1998. The integrated landuse forest cover maps of riverine forest, shows temporal changes in the forest cover between 1977 &1990 and 1990 &1998, as well as in the River Indus course. The digital thematic maps based on SRS data and GIS technology can supplement existing conventional ground based sources of information for monitoring changes in forest cover on a regular basis, which can be helpful for forest resource management and planning and monitoring environmental changes.

  4. Comparison of NASA OMI and MLS Ozone Products with US Forest Service Ground-based Ozone Monitoring Data for US Forest Service Air Quality / Forest Management Decision Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, S.; Brooks, A.; Moussa, Y.; Spencer, T.; Thompson, J.

    2013-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone, formed when nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) react with sunlight, is a significant threat to the health of US National Forests. Approximately one third of ozone is absorbed by plants during the uptake of carbon dioxide. This increases the vegetation's susceptibility to drought, beetle infestation, and wildfire. Currently the US Forest Service has ground monitoring stations sparsely located across the country. This project looks specifically at the area surrounding several Class I Wilderness Areas in the Appalachian region. These areas are the highest priority for protection from air pollutants. The Forest Service must interpolate ozone concentrations for areas between these monitoring stations. Class I Wilderness Areas are designated by the Forest Service and are defined as a total 5000 acres or greater when the Clean Air Act was passed in 1977. This Act mandated that the EPA create national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for six major air pollutants including ground-level ozone. This project assessed the feasibility of incorporating NASA ozone data into Forest Service ozone monitoring in an effort to enhance the accuracy and precision of ozone exposure measurements in Class I Wilderness Areas and other federally managed lands in order to aid in complying with the Clean Air Act of 1977. This was accomplished by establishing a method of comparison between a preliminary data product produced at the Goddard Space Flight Center that uses OMI/MLS data to derive global tropospheric ozone measurements and Forest Service ozone monitoring station measurements. Once a methodology for comparison was established, statistical comparisons of these data were performed to assess the quantitative differences.

  5. Global climate change mitigation and sustainable forest management--The challenge of monitoring and verification

    SciTech Connect

    Makundi, Willy R.

    1997-12-31

    In this paper, sustainable forest management is discussed within the historical and theoretical framework of the sustainable development debate. The various criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management put forth by different institutions are critically explored. Specific types of climate change mitigation policies/projects in the forest sector are identified and examined in the light of the general criteria for sustainable forest management. Areas of compatibility and contradiction between the climate mitigation objectives and the minimum criteria for sustainable forest management are identified and discussed. Emphasis is put on the problems of monitoring and verifying carbon benefits associated with such projects given their impacts on pre-existing policy objectives on sustainable forest management. The implications of such policy interactions on assignment of carbon credits from forest projects under Joint Implementation/Activities Implemented Jointly initiatives are discussed. The paper concludes that a comprehensive monitoring and verification regime must include an impact assessment on the criteria covered under other agreements such as the Biodiversity and/or Desertification Conventions. The actual carbon credit assigned to a specific project should at least take into account the negative impacts on the criteria for sustainable forest management. The value of the impacts and/or the procedure to evaluate them need to be established by interested parties such as the Councils of the respective Conventions.

  6. Extent of Mangrove Nursery Habitats Determines the Geographic Distribution of a Coral Reef Fish in a South-Pacific Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Paillon, Christelle; Wantiez, Laurent; Kulbicki, Michel; Labonne, Maylis; Vigliola, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the drivers of species' geographic distribution has fundamental implications for the management of biodiversity. For coral reef fishes, mangroves have long been recognized as important nursery habitats sustaining biodiversity in the Western Atlantic but there is still debate about their role in the Indo-Pacific. Here, we combined LA-ICP-MS otolith microchemistry, underwater visual censuses (UVC) and mangrove cartography to estimate the importance of mangroves for the Indo-Pacific coral reef fish Lutjanus fulviflamma in the archipelago of New Caledonia. Otolith elemental compositions allowed high discrimination of mangroves and reefs with 83.8% and 98.7% correct classification, respectively. Reefs were characterized by higher concentrations of Rb and Sr and mangroves by higher concentrations of Ba, Cr, Mn and Sn. All adult L. fulviflamma collected on reefs presented a mangrove signature during their juvenile stage with 85% inhabiting mangrove for their entire juvenile life (about 1 year). The analysis of 2942 UVC revealed that the species was absent from isolated islands of the New Caledonian archipelago where mangroves were absent. Furthermore, strong positive correlations existed between the abundance of L. fulviflamma and the area of mangrove (r?=?0.84 for occurrence, 0.93 for density and 0.89 for biomass). These results indicate that mangrove forest is an obligatory juvenile habitat for L. fulviflamma in New Caledonia and emphasize the potential importance of mangroves for Indo-Pacific coral reef fishes. PMID:25140697

  7. Extent of mangrove nursery habitats determines the geographic distribution of a coral reef fish in a South-Pacific archipelago.

    PubMed

    Paillon, Christelle; Wantiez, Laurent; Kulbicki, Michel; Labonne, Maylis; Vigliola, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the drivers of species' geographic distribution has fundamental implications for the management of biodiversity. For coral reef fishes, mangroves have long been recognized as important nursery habitats sustaining biodiversity in the Western Atlantic but there is still debate about their role in the Indo-Pacific. Here, we combined LA-ICP-MS otolith microchemistry, underwater visual censuses (UVC) and mangrove cartography to estimate the importance of mangroves for the Indo-Pacific coral reef fish Lutjanus fulviflamma in the archipelago of New Caledonia. Otolith elemental compositions allowed high discrimination of mangroves and reefs with 83.8% and 98.7% correct classification, respectively. Reefs were characterized by higher concentrations of Rb and Sr and mangroves by higher concentrations of Ba, Cr, Mn and Sn. All adult L. fulviflamma collected on reefs presented a mangrove signature during their juvenile stage with 85% inhabiting mangrove for their entire juvenile life (about 1 year). The analysis of 2942 UVC revealed that the species was absent from isolated islands of the New Caledonian archipelago where mangroves were absent. Furthermore, strong positive correlations existed between the abundance of L. fulviflamma and the area of mangrove (r?=?0.84 for occurrence, 0.93 for density and 0.89 for biomass). These results indicate that mangrove forest is an obligatory juvenile habitat for L. fulviflamma in New Caledonia and emphasize the potential importance of mangroves for Indo-Pacific coral reef fishes. PMID:25140697

  8. Measuring Mangrove Type, Structure And Carbon Storage With UAVSAR And ALOS/PALSAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Cornforth, W.; Pinto, N.; Simard, M.; Pettorelli, N.

    2011-12-01

    Mangrove forests provide a great number of ecosystem services ranging from shoreline protection (e.g. against erosion, tsunamis and storms), nutrient cycling, fisheries production, building materials and habitat. Mangrove forests have been shown to store very large amounts of Carbon, both above and belowground, with storage capacities even greater than tropical rainforests. But as a result of their location and economic value, they are among the most rapidly changing landscapes in the World. Mangrove extent is limited 1) in total extent to tidally influenced coastal areas and 2) to tropical and subtropical regions. This can lead to difficulties mapping mangrove type (such as degraded vs non degraded, scrub vs tall, dense vs sparse) because of cloud cover and limited access to high-resolution optical data. To accurately quantify the effect of land use and climate change on tropical wetland ecosystems, we must develop effective mapping methodologies that take into account not only extent, but also the structure and health of the ecosystem. This must be done by including Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. In this research, we used L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar data from the ALOS/PALSAR and UAVSAR instruments over selected sites in the Americas (Sierpe, Costa Rica and Everglades, Florida)and Asia (Sundarbans). In particular, we used the SAR data in combination with other remotely sensed data and field data to 1) map mangrove extent 2) determine mangrove type, health and adjascent land use, and 3) estimate aboveground biomass and carbon storage for entire mangrove systems. We used different classification methodologies such as polarimetric decomposition, unsupervised classification and image segmentation to map mangrove type. Because of the high resolution of the radar data, and its ability to interact with forest volume, we are able to identify mangrove zones and differentiate between mangroves and other forests/land uses. We also integrated InSAR data (SRTM), spaceborne Lidar (GLAS) and field data, in combination with the SAR data to derive aboveground biomass and carbon storage in mangroves. We successfully produced maps of mangrove extent, type, health and carbon storage by using L-band SAR data. Our results show that both UAVSAR and ALOS/PALSAR data alone are effective datasets for mapping mangrove extent, type and other land use. By combining multiple datasets, we were able to determine mangrove biomass without an upper estimation limit and with low error.

  9. Mangroves - what are they worth

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, B.

    1983-01-01

    This paper is based on a study for FAO and on the management and utilization of mangroves in Asia and the Pacific. Land use options are examined in relation to the different roles which mangroves play (provision of firewood, charcoal, timber and pulp; wildlife; fisheries and aquaculture; and agriculture). Special attention is paid to mangrove management in Malaysia. (Refs 26)

  10. Global Status of Mangrove Ecosystems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saenger, P., Ed.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Mangroves are the characteristic littoral plant formations of tropical/subtropical sheltered coastlines. Presented is a detailed report which discusses uses made of mangrove ecosystems and attempts to resolve conflicts arising from these uses. Areas considered include cause/consequence of mangrove destruction, legislative/administrative aspects,…

  11. Radiocarbon dating and wood density chronologies of mangrove trees in arid Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Santini, Nadia S; Hua, Quan; Schmitz, Nele; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2013-01-01

    Mangrove trees tend to be larger and mangrove communities more diverse in tropical latitudes, particularly where there is high rainfall. Variation in the structure, growth and productivity of mangrove forests over climatic gradients suggests they are sensitive to variations in climate, but evidence of changes in the structure and growth of mangrove trees in response to climatic variation is scarce. Bomb-pulse radiocarbon dating provides accurate dates of recent wood formation and tree age of tropical and subtropical tree species. Here, we used radiocarbon techniques combined with X-ray densitometry to develop a wood density chronology for the mangrove Avicennia marina in the Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia (WA). We tested whether wood density chronologies of A. marina were sensitive to variation in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation Index, which reflects temperature fluctuations in the Pacific Ocean and is linked to the instrumental rainfall record in north WA. We also determined growth rates in mangrove trees from the Exmouth Gulf, WA. We found that seaward fringing A. marina trees (~10 cm diameter) were 48 ± 1 to 89 ± 23 years old (mean ± 1 ?) and that their growth rates ranged from 4.08 ± 2.36 to 5.30 ± 3.33 mm/yr (mean ± 1 ?). The wood density of our studied mangrove trees decreased with increases in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation Index. Future predicted drying of the region will likely lead to further reductions in wood density and their associated growth rates in mangrove forests in the region. PMID:24265797

  12. Radiocarbon Dating and Wood Density Chronologies of Mangrove Trees in Arid Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Santini, Nadia S.; Hua, Quan; Schmitz, Nele; Lovelock, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    Mangrove trees tend to be larger and mangrove communities more diverse in tropical latitudes, particularly where there is high rainfall. Variation in the structure, growth and productivity of mangrove forests over climatic gradients suggests they are sensitive to variations in climate, but evidence of changes in the structure and growth of mangrove trees in response to climatic variation is scarce. Bomb-pulse radiocarbon dating provides accurate dates of recent wood formation and tree age of tropical and subtropical tree species. Here, we used radiocarbon techniques combined with X-ray densitometry to develop a wood density chronology for the mangrove Avicennia marina in the Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia (WA). We tested whether wood density chronologies of A. marina were sensitive to variation in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation Index, which reflects temperature fluctuations in the Pacific Ocean and is linked to the instrumental rainfall record in north WA. We also determined growth rates in mangrove trees from the Exmouth Gulf, WA. We found that seaward fringing A. marina trees (?10 cm diameter) were 48±1 to 89±23 years old (mean ± 1?) and that their growth rates ranged from 4.08±2.36 to 5.30±3.33 mm/yr (mean ±1?). The wood density of our studied mangrove trees decreased with increases in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation Index. Future predicted drying of the region will likely lead to further reductions in wood density and their associated growth rates in mangrove forests in the region. PMID:24265797

  13. Sediment CO2 efflux from cleared and intact temperate mangroves and tidal flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulmer, R. H.; Schwendenmann, L.; Lundquist, C. J.

    2015-02-01

    Temperate mangroves in Southern Australia and New Zealand have been increasing in area over the past 50 years, whereas tropical mangroves have declined by 30-50% over a similar time frame. Tropical mangroves are understood to be an important carbon sink and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions following clearance are estimated to be comparable or greater than CO2 emissions following the clearance of many terrestrial forest systems. Recreational and amenity values or perceived loss of other estuarine habitats due to expanding temperate mangrove forests have resulted in clearing of temperate mangroves. In this study, we investigated the impact of temperate mangrove clearance on CO2 efflux from the sediment to the atmosphere along with a range of other biotic and abiotic factors. Significantly higher CO2 efflux rates were measured in cleared (1.34 ± 0.46 ?mol m2 s-1) and intact mangrove sites (2.31 ± 0.72 ?mol m2 s-1) than in tidal flats (-0.23 ± 0.27 ?mol m2 s-1). Site and sediment characteristics such as sediment carbon and nitrogen concentration, chlorophyll ? concentration, grain size, mangrove height, macrofaunal abundance, sediment temperature and moisture were strongly correlated with sediment CO2 efflux. Our results suggest that carbon stored within temperate mangrove sediment is released over a period of years to decades after mangrove clearance. CO2 efflux from intact and cleared temperate mangroves was found to be comparable to rates observed in the tropics. Disturbance of the surface biofilm resulted in elevated CO2 efflux across all habitats, suggesting the important role of surface biofilm communities in mediating CO2 efflux.

  14. Mangrove crabs as ecosystem engineers; with emphasis on sediment processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Kristensen

    2008-01-01

    The benthic fauna in mangrove forests is usually dominated by burrowing sesarmid (Grapsidae) and fiddler crabs (Ocypodidae). They are herbivores that retain, bury, macerate and ingest litter and microalgal mats. Most species within these two groups actively dig and maintain burrows in the sediment as a refuge from predation and environmental extremes. Based on the current knowledge on the biology

  15. MANGROVE-EXPORTED NUTRIENT INCORPORATION BY SESSILE CORAL REEF INVERTEBRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal mangrove forests were historically considered as a source of organic matter (OM) for adjacent marine systems due to high net primary production; yet recent research suggesting little uptake through the food web because of low nutritional quality, challenges the concept of...

  16. Study on the forest vegetation restoration monitoring using HJ-1A hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuan, Zhang; Fawang, Ye; Haixia, He; Hongcheng, Liu

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, Xunke County was studied using HJ-1A hyperspectral data for monitoring vegetation restoration after forest fires. The pre-processing procedure including data format conversion, image mosaicing and atmospheric correction. Support vector machine classification was used to perform surface feature identification based on the extracted spectral end-members. On that basis, the image area was divided into seven categories and statistical analysis of classification types was performed. The results showed that HJ-1A hyperspectral data had great potential in fine classification of surface features and the accuracy of classification was 91.8%. The mild and severe fire-affected area extraction provided useful reference for disaster recovery monitoring. Furthermore, the distinction between coniferous forest and broadleaved forest can offer useful information for forest fire prevention and early warning to some extent.

  17. The loss of species: mangrove extinction risk and geographic areas of global concern.

    PubMed

    Polidoro, Beth A; Carpenter, Kent E; Collins, Lorna; Duke, Norman C; Ellison, Aaron M; Ellison, Joanna C; Farnsworth, Elizabeth J; Fernando, Edwino S; Kathiresan, Kandasamy; Koedam, Nico E; Livingstone, Suzanne R; Miyagi, Toyohiko; Moore, Gregg E; Ngoc Nam, Vien; Ong, Jin Eong; Primavera, Jurgenne H; Salmo, Severino G; Sanciangco, Jonnell C; Sukardjo, Sukristijono; Wang, Yamin; Yong, Jean Wan Hong

    2010-01-01

    Mangrove species are uniquely adapted to tropical and subtropical coasts, and although relatively low in number of species, mangrove forests provide at least US $1.6 billion each year in ecosystem services and support coastal livelihoods worldwide. Globally, mangrove areas are declining rapidly as they are cleared for coastal development and aquaculture and logged for timber and fuel production. Little is known about the effects of mangrove area loss on individual mangrove species and local or regional populations. To address this gap, species-specific information on global distribution, population status, life history traits, and major threats were compiled for each of the 70 known species of mangroves. Each species' probability of extinction was assessed under the Categories and Criteria of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Eleven of the 70 mangrove species (16%) are at elevated threat of extinction. Particular areas of geographical concern include the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of Central America, where as many as 40% of mangroves species present are threatened with extinction. Across the globe, mangrove species found primarily in the high intertidal and upstream estuarine zones, which often have specific freshwater requirements and patchy distributions, are the most threatened because they are often the first cleared for development of aquaculture and agriculture. The loss of mangrove species will have devastating economic and environmental consequences for coastal communities, especially in those areas with low mangrove diversity and high mangrove area or species loss. Several species at high risk of extinction may disappear well before the next decade if existing protective measures are not enforced. PMID:20386710

  18. The Loss of Species: Mangrove Extinction Risk and Geographic Areas of Global Concern

    PubMed Central

    Polidoro, Beth A.; Carpenter, Kent E.; Collins, Lorna; Duke, Norman C.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Ellison, Joanna C.; Farnsworth, Elizabeth J.; Fernando, Edwino S.; Kathiresan, Kandasamy; Koedam, Nico E.; Livingstone, Suzanne R.; Miyagi, Toyohiko; Moore, Gregg E.; Ngoc Nam, Vien; Ong, Jin Eong; Primavera, Jurgenne H.; Salmo, Severino G.; Sanciangco, Jonnell C.; Sukardjo, Sukristijono; Wang, Yamin; Yong, Jean Wan Hong

    2010-01-01

    Mangrove species are uniquely adapted to tropical and subtropical coasts, and although relatively low in number of species, mangrove forests provide at least US $1.6 billion each year in ecosystem services and support coastal livelihoods worldwide. Globally, mangrove areas are declining rapidly as they are cleared for coastal development and aquaculture and logged for timber and fuel production. Little is known about the effects of mangrove area loss on individual mangrove species and local or regional populations. To address this gap, species-specific information on global distribution, population status, life history traits, and major threats were compiled for each of the 70 known species of mangroves. Each species' probability of extinction was assessed under the Categories and Criteria of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Eleven of the 70 mangrove species (16%) are at elevated threat of extinction. Particular areas of geographical concern include the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of Central America, where as many as 40% of mangroves species present are threatened with extinction. Across the globe, mangrove species found primarily in the high intertidal and upstream estuarine zones, which often have specific freshwater requirements and patchy distributions, are the most threatened because they are often the first cleared for development of aquaculture and agriculture. The loss of mangrove species will have devastating economic and environmental consequences for coastal communities, especially in those areas with low mangrove diversity and high mangrove area or species loss. Several species at high risk of extinction may disappear well before the next decade if existing protective measures are not enforced. PMID:20386710

  19. Caribbean mangroves adjust to rising sea level through biotic controls on change in soil elevation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Feller, I.C.

    2007-01-01

    Aim The long-term stability of coastal ecosystems such as mangroves and salt marshes depends upon the maintenance of soil elevations within the intertidal habitat as sea level changes. We examined the rates and processes of peat formation by mangroves of the Caribbean Region to better understand biological controls on habitat stability. Location Mangrove-dominated islands on the Caribbean coasts of Belize, Honduras and Panama were selected as study sites. Methods Biological processes controlling mangrove peat formation were manipulated (in Belize) by the addition of nutrients (nitrogen or phosphorus) to Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove), and the effects on the dynamics of soil elevation were determined over a 3-year period using rod surface elevation tables (RSET) and marker horizons. Peat composition and geological accretion rates were determined at all sites using radiocarbon-dated cores. Results The addition of nutrients to mangroves caused significant changes in rates of mangrove root accumulation, which influenced both the rate and direction of change in elevation. Areas with low root input lost elevation and those with high rates gained elevation. These findings were consistent with peat analyses at multiple Caribbean sites showing that deposits (up to 10 m in depth) were composed primarily of mangrove root matter. Comparison of radiocarbon-dated cores at the study sites with a sea-level curve for the western Atlantic indicated a tight coupling between peat building in Caribbean mangroves and sea-level rise over the Holocene. Main conclusions Mangroves common to the Caribbean region have adjusted to changing sea level mainly through subsurface accumulation of refractory mangrove roots. Without root and other organic inputs, submergence of these tidal forests is inevitable due to peat decomposition, physical compaction and eustatic sea-level rise. These findings have relevance for predicting the effects of sea-level rise and biophysical processes on tropical mangrove ecosystems.

  20. Biogeochemical cycling of sulfur and iron in sediments of a south-east Asian mangrove, Phuket Island, Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marianne Holmer; Erik Kristensen; Gary Banta; Kim Hansen; MIKAEL HJORTH JENSEN; Nipuvan Bussawarit

    1994-01-01

    Benthic sulfate reduction and sediment pools of sulfur and iron were examined during January 1992 at 3 stations in the Ao Nam Bor mangrove, Phuket, Thailand. Patterns of sulfate reduction rates (0–53 cm) reflected differences in physical and biological conditions at the 3 stations, and highest rates were found at the vegetated site within the mangrove (Rhizophora apiculata) forest. Due

  1. Long-term forest monitoring in Switzerland: Assessing climate change impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Kraeuchi, N. [Swiss Federal Inst. for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Birmensdorf (Switzerland)

    1996-09-01

    This paper discusses successional characteristics of forest ecosystems as influenced by a changing environment, and it focuses on the potential risks resulting from this change. In the early 90`s, a long-term forest monitoring program was established in Switzerland. The primary aim of this program is to identify and evaluate changes in the composition, structure and function of selected forest ecosystems. To assess the potential risks arising with changing weather patterns, a total of 15 monitoring plots were chosen according to specific selection criteria, namely site homogeneity and site sensitivity to climate change and air pollution. Transition characteristics from one mature forest community type to another is strongly modified by different environmental factors such as temperature and precipitation. During climate change, the transition depends on the rate and extent of the forcing factors, the speed of migration and the stability of the communities as they become increasingly maladapted to local climates. It is unknown whether all systems will stabilize in a new equilibrium, and, some forest species may be unable to keep pace with shifts in climatic zones. To assess these risks, FORSUM, a forest succession model for Central Europe, is applied to explain the forest succession on the Long-term Forest Ecosystem Research plots based on the new IPCC 95 climate scenarios. Continuous model improvement based on an increasing number of site specific data-series for model parameterization will help to identify high and low risk forest areas in Switzerland and to evaluate the long-term sustainability of Swiss forests, currently at risk from a number of anthropogenic and biogenic stresses.

  2. A Project to Map and Monitor Baldcypress Forests in Coastal Louisiana, Using Landsat, MODIS, and ASTER Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph; Sader, Steven; Smoot, James

    2012-01-01

    Cypress swamp forests of Louisiana offer many important ecological and economic benefits: wildlife habitat, forest products, storm buffers, water quality, and recreation. Such forests are also threatened by multiple factors: subsidence, salt water intrusion, sea level rise, persistent flooding, hydrologic modification, hurricanes, insect and nutria damage, timber harvesting, and land use conversion. Unfortunately, there are many information gaps regarding the type, location, extent, and condition of these forests. Better more up to date swamp forest mapping products are needed to aid coastal forest conservation and restoration work (e.g., through the Coastal Forest Conservation Initiative or CFCI). In response, a collaborative project was initiated to develop, test and demonstrate cypress swamp forest mapping products, using NASA supported Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS satellite data. Research Objectives are: Develop, test, and demonstrate use of Landsat and ASTER data for computing new cypress forest classification products and Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS satellite data for detecting and monitoring swamp forest change

  3. Report of the First GEO Forest Monitoring Symposium 4-7 November 2008, Foz do Iguau, Brazil

    E-print Network

    Report of the First GEO Forest Monitoring Symposium 4-7 November 2008, Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil Edited for emerging partnerships amongst non-governmental organizations and local communities. The GEO Forest. In this context, the Symposium endorses the proposed GEO Task on Forest Carbon Tracking and recommends strong

  4. Sample project: establishing a global forest monitoring capability using multi-resolution and multi-temporal remotely sensed data sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Matt; Stehman, Steve; Loveland, Tom; Vogelmann, Jim; Cochrane, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Quantifying rates of forest-cover change is important for improved carbon accounting and climate change modeling, management of forestry and agricultural resources, and biodiversity monitoring. A practical solution to examining trends in forest cover change at global scale is to employ remotely sensed data. Satellite-based monitoring of forest cover can be implemented consistently across large regions at annual and inter-annual intervals. This research extends previous research on global forest-cover dynamics and land-cover change estimation to establish a robust, operational forest monitoring and assessment system. The approach integrates both MODIS and Landsat data to provide timely biome-scale forest change estimation. This is achieved by using annual MODIS change indicator maps to stratify biomes into low, medium and high change categories. Landsat image pairs can then be sampled within these strata and analyzed for estimating area of forest cleared.

  5. CLIMATE DATA AND ANALYSIS FOR THE NEW ENGLAND FOREST HEALTH MONITORING PROJECT (NEFHM/EMAP FORESTS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the development of climatological information products to support ecological data collection and analysis. Characteristics of climatological persistence and recurrence that are critical to New England forest health and productivity are identified. he appropri...

  6. Biomass and Carbon Sequestration in Community Mangrove Plantations and a Natural Regeneration Stand in the Ayeyarwady Delta, Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thant, Y. M.; Kanzaki, M.; nil

    2011-12-01

    Mangroves in the Ayeyarwady Delta is one of the most threatened ecosystems, and is rapidly disappearing as in many tropical countries. The deforestation and degradation of mangrove forest in the Ayeryarwady Delta results in the shortage of wood resources and declining of environmental services that have been provided by the mangrove ecosystem. Cyclone Nargis struck the Ayeyarwady Delta on 2 May 2008 with an intensity unprecedented in the history of Myanmar. The overexploitation of mangroves because of local demands for fuel wood and charcoal and the conversion of mangrove forest land into agricultural land or shrimp farms over the past decades have increased the loss of human life and the damage to settlements caused by the Cyclone.The biomass study was conducted in September of 2006 in Bogale Township in the Ayeyarwady Delta and continued monitoring in September of each year from 2007 to 2010. Above and below ground biomass was studied in six years old mangrove plantations of Avicenia marina (Am), Avicenia officinalis (Ao) and Sonneratia apetala (Sa) and a naturally regenerated stand under regeneration improving felling operation (NR: consists of Ceriops decandra, Bruguiera sexangula, and Aegicerus corniculatum) protected for seven years since 2000. These stands were established by small-scale Community Forestry scheme on abandoned paddy fields where natural mangroves once existed. Common allometric equations were developed for biomass estimation by performing regressions between dry weights of trees as dependent variables and biometric parameters such as stem diameter, height and wood density as independent variables. The above and below ground biomass in NR stand (70 Mg ha-1 and 104 Mg ha-1) was the greatest (P < 0.001), and followed by Sa plantation (69 Mg ha-1 and 32 Mg ha-1), Am plantation (25 Mg ha-1 and 27 Mg ha-1) and Ao plantation (21 Mg ha-1 and 26 Mg ha-1). The total carbon stock in biomass was 73 Mg C ha-1 in NR stand, 43 Mg C ha-1 in Sa plantation, 21 Mg C ha-1 in Am plantation and 18 Mg C ha-1 in Ao plantation respectively. The averaged total soil carbon stock up to 1 m soil depth in plantation site was estimated to be 167 ± 58 Mg C ha-1 which was nearly two times higher than that of current paddy fields 85 ± 17 Mg C ha-1. These facts suggest the feasibility of the mangrove plantation and induced natural regeneration as a carbon sequestration tool. The establishment of mangrove plantations appeared to be one measure for reducing the risk of cyclone damage after the Cyclone Nargis. This may reduce future human loss by cyclones and also improve the life of local people by increasing timber resources and environmental services.

  7. CLASSIFICATION, PROTECTION, AND MONITORING OF NONTIDAL FLOODPLAIN FOREST COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    New Jersey,s floodplain forests (FFs) contain 57 rare plant species, 25 of which are State Endangered. The acreage of FF has been substantially reduced over the past 200 years, and upland buffers have also been diminished. Threats to FF communities include stream degradation, ...

  8. Estimating tree growth from complex forest monitoring data.

    PubMed

    Eitzel, Melissa; Battles, John; York, Robert; Knape, Jonas; de Valpine, Perry

    2013-09-01

    Understanding tree growth as a function of tree size is important for a multitude of ecological and management applications. Determining what limits growth is of central interest, and forest inventory permanent plots are an abundant source of long-term information but are highly complex. Observation error and multiple sources of shared variation (spatial plot effects, temporal repeated measures, and a mosaic of sampling intervals) make these data challenging to use for growth estimation. We account for these complexities and incorporate potential limiting factors (tree size, competition, and resource supply) into a hierarchical state-space model. We estimate the diameter growth of white fir (Abies concolor) in the Sierra Nevada of California from forest inventory data, showing that estimating such a model is feasible in a Bayesian framework using readily available modeling tools. In this forest, white fir growth depends strongly on tree size, total plot basal area, and unexplained variation between individual trees. Plot-level resource supply variables (representing light, water, and nutrient availability) do not have a strong impact on inventory-size trees. This approach can be applied to other networks of permanent forest plots, leading to greater ecological insights on tree growth. PMID:24147402

  9. Modeling Biological Invasion: The Case Of Dengue And Mangrove

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lye, Koh Hock; Yean, Teh Su; Ismail, Ahmad Izani Md.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that organism invades territory in the form of wave fronts whose characteristics are determined primarily by environmental conditions such as hydrology, salinity, climate, carrying capacity and resource. In this invited paper, we will consider two ecosystems, one comprising mosquitoes of the species Aedes aegypti that are the vector of dengue fever while the second consists of coastal ecosystem composed of mixtures of mangrove and hardwood hammocks in south Florida. Their dispersal dynamics modeled by simulations DEER and MANHAM will be discussed. Implications regarding approaches for the eradication of A. aegypti and the replanting or recovery of coastal mangrove forests will be presented.

  10. Forest Vegetation Monitoring and Foliar Chemistry of Red Spruce and Red Maple at Acadia National Park in Maine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Bruce Wiersma; Jose Alexander Elvir; Janet D. Eckhoff

    2007-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) program indicators, including forest mensuration, crown condition classification,\\u000a and damage and mortality indicators were used in the Cadillac Brook and Hadlock Brook watershed forests at Acadia National\\u000a Park (ANP) along coastal Maine. Cadillac Brook watershed burned in a wildfire in 1947. Hadlock Brook watershed, undisturbed\\u000a for several centuries, serves as the reference

  11. The effect of a protected area on the tradeoffs between short-run and long-run benefits from mangrove ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    McNally, Catherine G.; Uchida, Emi; Gold, Arthur J.

    2011-01-01

    Protected areas are used to sustain biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, protected areas can create tradeoffs spatially and temporally among ecosystem services, which can affect the welfare of dependent local communities. This study examines the effect of a protected area on the tradeoff between two extractive ecosystem services from mangrove forests: cutting mangroves (fuelwood) and harvesting the shrimp and fish that thrive if mangroves are not cut. We demonstrate the effect in the context of Saadani National Park (SANAPA) in Tanzania, where enforcement of prohibition of mangrove harvesting was strengthened to preserve biodiversity. Remote sensing data of mangrove cover over time are integrated with georeferenced household survey data in an econometric framework to identify the causal effect of mangrove protection on income components directly linked to mangrove ecosystem services. Our findings suggest that many households experienced an immediate loss in the consumption of mangrove firewood, with the loss most prevalent in richer households. However, all wealth classes appear to benefit from long-term sustainability gains in shrimping and fishing that result from mangrove protection. On average, we find that a 10% increase in the mangrove cover within SANAPA boundaries in a 5-km2 radius of the subvillage increases shrimping income by approximately twofold. The creation of SANAPA shifted the future trajectory of the area from one in which mangroves were experiencing uncontrolled cutting to one in which mangrove conservation is providing gains in income for the local villages as a result of the preservation of nursery habitat and biodiversity. PMID:21873182

  12. The effect of a protected area on the tradeoffs between short-run and long-run benefits from mangrove ecosystems.

    PubMed

    McNally, Catherine G; Uchida, Emi; Gold, Arthur J

    2011-08-23

    Protected areas are used to sustain biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, protected areas can create tradeoffs spatially and temporally among ecosystem services, which can affect the welfare of dependent local communities. This study examines the effect of a protected area on the tradeoff between two extractive ecosystem services from mangrove forests: cutting mangroves (fuelwood) and harvesting the shrimp and fish that thrive if mangroves are not cut. We demonstrate the effect in the context of Saadani National Park (SANAPA) in Tanzania, where enforcement of prohibition of mangrove harvesting was strengthened to preserve biodiversity. Remote sensing data of mangrove cover over time are integrated with georeferenced household survey data in an econometric framework to identify the causal effect of mangrove protection on income components directly linked to mangrove ecosystem services. Our findings suggest that many households experienced an immediate loss in the consumption of mangrove firewood, with the loss most prevalent in richer households. However, all wealth classes appear to benefit from long-term sustainability gains in shrimping and fishing that result from mangrove protection. On average, we find that a 10% increase in the mangrove cover within SANAPA boundaries in a 5-km(2) radius of the subvillage increases shrimping income by approximately twofold. The creation of SANAPA shifted the future trajectory of the area from one in which mangroves were experiencing uncontrolled cutting to one in which mangrove conservation is providing gains in income for the local villages as a result of the preservation of nursery habitat and biodiversity. PMID:21873182

  13. Carbon Sequestration Potential in Mangrove Wetlands of Southern of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chokkalingam, L.; Ponnambalam, K.; Ponnaiah, J. M.; Roy, P.; Sankar, S.

    2012-12-01

    Mangrove forest and the soil on which it grows are major sinks of atmospheric carbon. We present the results of a study on the carbon sequestration in the ground biomass of Avicennia marina including the organic carbon deposition, degradation and preservation in wetland sediments of Muthupet mangrove forest (southeast coast of India) in order to evaluate the influence of forests in the global carbon cycle. The inventory for estimating the ground biomass of Avicennia marina was carried out using random sampling technique (10 m × 10 m plot) with allometric regression equation. The carbon content in different vegetal parts (leaves, stem and root) of mangrove species and associated marshy vegetations was estimated using the combustion method. We observe that the organic carbon was higher (ca. 54.8%) recorded in the stems of Aegiceras corniculatum and Salicornia brachiata and lower (ca. 30.3%) in the Sesuvium portulacastrum leaves. The ground biomass and carbon sequestration of Avicennia marina are 58.56±12.65 t/ ha and 27.52±5.95 mg C/ha, respectively. The depth integrated organic carbon model profiles indicate an average accumulation rate of 149.75gC/m2.yr and an average remineralization rate of 32.89gC/m2.yr. We estimate an oxidation of ca. 21.85% of organic carbon and preservation of ca. 78.15% of organic carbon in the wetland sediments. Keywords: Above ground biomass, organic carbon, sequestration, mangrove, wetland sediments, Muthupet.

  14. The distribution and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrate fauna in Pondicherry mangroves, India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Species distribution, abundance and diversity of mangrove benthic macroinvertebrate fauna and the relationships to environmental conditions are important parts of understanding the structure and function of mangrove ecosystems. In this study seasonal variation in the distribution of macrobenthos and related environmental parameters were explored at four mangrove stations along the Pondicherry coast of India, from September 2008 to July 2010. Multivariate statistical analyses, including cluster analysis, principal component analysis and non-multidimensional scales plot were employed to help define trophic status, water quality and benthic characteristic at the four monitoring stations. Results Among the 528 samples collected over 168 ha of mangrove forest 76 species of benthic macroinvertebrate fauna were identified. Macrofauna were mainly composed of deposit feeders, dominated numerically by molluscs and crustaceans. Statistical analyses yielded the following descriptors of benthic macroinvertebrate fauna species distribution: densities between 140–1113 ind. m-2, dominance 0.17-0.50, diversity 1.80-2.83 bits ind-1, richness 0.47-0.74 and evenness 0.45-0.72, equitability 0.38-0.77, berger parker 0.31-0.77 and fisher alpha 2.46-5.70. Increases of species diversity and abundance were recorded during the post monsoon season at station 1 and the lowest diversity was recorded at station 2 during the monsoon season. The pollution indicator organisms Cassidula nucleus, Melampus ceylonicus, Sphaerassiminea minuta were found only at the two most polluted regions, i.e. stations 3 and 4. Benthic macroinvertebrate fauna abundances were inversely related to salinity at the four stations, Based on Bray-Curtis similarity through hierarchical clustering implemented in PAST, it was possible to define three distinct benthic assemblages at the stations. Conclusions From a different multivariate statistical analysis of the different environmental parameters regarding species diversity and abundance of benthic macroinvertebrate fauna, it was found that benthic communities are highly affected by all the environmental parameters governing the distribution and diversity variation of the macrofaunal community in Pondicherry mangroves. Salinity, dissolved oxygen levels, organic matter content, sulphide concentration were the most significant parameters. PMID:23937801

  15. FAOFAO''s Support tos Support to National Forest Monitoring and AssessmentNational Forest Monitoring and Assessment

    E-print Network

    and trees outside forests Uses and users of resources Improving information management systems Long term) ´´´´ . (+ 10m)(-10m) 20m Towards end of the plot 3.99 m Measurement Point (MP) 10 m Plot central line RSP3 Other (values, environmental problems...) Geo-referenced data Awareness of legislation Change reason

  16. A Lesson from Mangroves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the importance of interpretive programs in the Northern Territory of Australia. Describes the typical interpretive approach of local school science curricula, which serve 20,000 Aboriginal children. Addresses the curriculum framework, learning strategies, and process skill development, illustrating them through a lesson on mangroves. (TW)

  17. Temperature monitoring and Forest Fires in Góis Council, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, M. A. S.; Costa, M. E. G.

    2012-04-01

    In our school the activities linked with sciences are developed in a partnership with other school subjects. Interdisciplinary projects are always valued from beginning to end of a project. It is common for teachers of different areas to work together in a Science project. Research of English written articles is very important not only for the development of our students' scientific literacy but also as a way of widening knowledge and a view on different perspectives of life instead of being limited to research of any articles in Portuguese language. As in this area there is a strong occurrence of forest fires, we are going to study the influence of temperature and its occurrence. For this study we have selected six meteorological stations, distributed through the region and placed in different altitudes. Through the analysis of the temperatures we have verified the lack of data from some stations, so we have proceeded to the homogenisation of the series, using the correlation coefficient of a reference series. In a second stage we will analyse forest fires episodes in the region, with data collected from the Civil Protection and the Meteorological Institute from 1980 to 2010 and correlate this with the series of temperatures for the different areas selected for this study. This research allows an evaluation of the forest fire propagation in the region and recognise the most affected areas.

  18. Organic carbon burial rates in mangrove sediments: strengthening the global budget

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breithaupt, J.; Smoak, Joseph M.; Smith, Thomas J., III; Sanders, Christian J.; Hoare, Armando

    2012-01-01

    Mangrove wetlands exist in the transition zone between terrestrial and marine environments and as such were historically overlooked in discussions of terrestrial and marine carbon cycling. In recent decades, mangroves have increasingly been credited with producing and burying large quantities of organic carbon (OC). The amount of available data regarding OC burial in mangrove soils has more than doubled since the last primary literature review (2003). This includes data from some of the largest, most developed mangrove forests in the world, providing an opportunity to strengthen the global estimate. First-time representation is now included for mangroves in Brazil, Colombia, Malaysia, Indonesia, China, Japan, Vietnam, and Thailand, along with additional data from Mexico and the United States. Our objective is to recalculate the centennial-scale burial rate of OC at both the local and global scales. Quantification of this rate enables better understanding of the current carbon sink capacity of mangroves as well as helps to quantify and/or validate the other aspects of the mangrove carbon budget such as import, export, and remineralization. Statistical analysis of the data supports use of the geometric mean as the most reliable central tendency measurement. Our estimate is that mangrove systems bury 163 (+40; -31) g OC m-2 yr-1 (95% C.I.). Globally, the 95% confidence interval for the annual burial rate is 26.1 (+6.3; -5.1) Tg OC. This equates to a burial fraction that is 42% larger than that of the most recent mangrove carbon budget (2008), and represents 10–15% of estimated annual mangrove production. This global rate supports previous conclusions that, on a centennial time scale, 8–15% of all OC burial in marine settings occurs in mangrove systems.

  19. Monitoring Forest Carbon Sequestration with Remote Sensing and Carbon Cycle Modeling

    E-print Network

    Lefsky, Michael

    Monitoring Forest Carbon Sequestration with Remote Sensing and Carbon Cycle Modeling DAVID P. Carbon-cycle process models cou- pled to regional climate databases can provide information on potential the current status of the global carbon cycle and to meeting re- quirements in the United Nations Framework

  20. Monitoring fluoride pollution in Flathead National Forest and Glacier National Park

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1972-01-01

    During August 1971, a study was conducted to monitor fluoride pollution in Flathead National Forest and Glacier National Park, near Columbia Falls, Montana. The study was done as a followup to a 1970 fluoride study (Carlson and Dewey 1971) of pollution caused by fluoride emissions from the Anaconda Aluminum Company at Columbia Falls. During the 1970 study fluoride emissions by

  1. Satellite monitoring for carbon monoxide and particulate matter during forest fire episodes in Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sukitpaneenit, Manlika; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi

    2014-04-01

    This study explored the use of satellite data to monitor carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM) in Northern Thailand during the dry season when forest fires are known to be an important cause of air pollution. Satellite data, including Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) CO, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer aerosol optical depth (MODIS AOD), and MODIS fire hotspots, were analyzed with air pollution data measured at nine automatic air quality monitoring stations in the study area for February-April months of 2008-2010. The correlation analysis showed that daily CO and PM with size below 10 ?m (PM10) were associated with the forest fire hotspot counts, especially in the rural areas with the maximum correlation coefficient (R) of 0.59 for CO and 0.65 for PM10. The correlations between MODIS AOD and PM10, between MOPITT CO and CO, and between MODIS AOD and MOPITT CO were also analyzed, confirming the association between these variables. Two forest fire episodes were selected, and the dispersion of pollution plumes was studied using the MOPITT CO total column and MODIS AOD data, together with the surface wind vectors. The results showed consistency between the plume dispersion, locations of dense hotspots, ground monitoring data, and prevalent winds. The satellite data were shown to be useful in monitoring the regional transport of forest fire plumes. PMID:24326733

  2. Monitoring Boreal Forest Owls in Ontario Using Tape Playback Surveys with Volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles M. Francis; Michael S. W. Bradstreet

    Long Point Bird Observatory ran pilot surveys in 1995 and 1996 to monitor boreal forest owls in Ontario using roadside surveys with tape playback of calls. A minimum of 791 owls on 84 routes in 1995, and 392 owls on 88 routes in 1996; nine different species were detected. Playback improved the response rate for Barred (Strix varia), Boreal (Aegolius

  3. BRYOPHYTE SPECIES DIVERSITY OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS IN SLOVENIA (INTENSIVE MONITORING PROGRAMME)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lado KUTNAR

    As part of the Intensive Monitoring Programme (IM) of Forest Ecosystems in Slovenia, the bryophyte flora and vegetation have been studied on 11 IM plots and 64 vegetation sub-plots (10×10 m). On the IM plots, high species diversity of bryophytes has been assessed. The total number of bryophytes was 109; among them 82 species belonging to the mosses (Bryophyta) and

  4. Poleward expansion of mangroves is a threshold response to decreased frequency of extreme cold events.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, Kyle C; Kellner, James R; Forde, Alexander J; Gruner, Daniel S; Parker, John D; Rodriguez, Wilfrid; Feller, Ilka C

    2014-01-14

    Regional warming associated with climate change is linked with altered range and abundance of species and ecosystems worldwide. However, the ecological impacts of changes in the frequency of extreme events have not been as well documented, especially for coastal and marine environments. We used 28 y of satellite imagery to demonstrate that the area of mangrove forests has doubled at the northern end of their historic range on the east coast of Florida. This expansion is associated with a reduction in the frequency of "extreme" cold events (days colder than -4 °C), but uncorrelated with changes in mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation, and land use. Our analyses provide evidence for a threshold response, with declining frequency of severe cold winter events allowing for poleward expansion of mangroves. Future warming may result in increases in mangrove cover beyond current latitudinal limits of mangrove forests, thereby altering the structure and function of these important coastal ecosystems. PMID:24379379

  5. The impact of encroachment of mangroves into saltmarshes on saltwater mosquito habitats.

    PubMed

    Dale, Pat; Eslami-Andargoli, Leila; Knight, Jon

    2013-12-01

    Will mangrove encroachment into saltmarshes affect saltwater mosquito habitats? To address this, we synthesized information from two perspectives: 1) at a detailed level, the immature mosquito habitat within mangroves; 2) at a more general or regional level, changes due to mangrove expansion into saltmarshes. This is a synthesis of two research projects. One showed that mosquito larval habitats in mangroves are complex, related to the detailed interactions between topography and tidal patterns and that not all parts of a mangrove forest are suitable habitat. The other, based on remote sensing and analysis of rainfall data, showed that mangrove encroachment in eastern Australia is related to both climate and human land use over several decades (1972-2004). An important question emerged: when mangroves encroach into saltmarshes will they displace saltmarsh immature mosquito habitats or will they replace them with mangrove ones? There is no simple answer: it will vary with climate change and sea level scenario and how these affect the system. We conclude that mosquito management, which is locally implemented, needs to be integrated with land use planning systems, which often operate at a more general level. PMID:24581363

  6. Mangrove peat analysis and reconstruction of vegetation history at the Pelican Cays, Belize

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, K.L.; Faulkner, P.L.

    2000-01-01

    The substrate beneath mangrove forests in the Pelican Cays complex is predominately peat composed mainly of mangrove roots. Leaves and wood account for less than 20% of the peat mass. At Cat Cay, the depth of the peat ranges from 0.2 m along the shoreline to 1.65 m in the island center, indicating that the island has expanded horizontally as well as vertically through below-ground, biogenic processes. Mangrove roots thus play a critical role in the soil formation, vertical accretion, and stability of these mangrove cays. The species composition of fossil roots changes markedly with depth: Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove) was the initial colonizer on a coral base, followed by Avicennia germinans (black mangrove), which increased in abundance and expanded radially from the center of the island. The center of the Avicennia stand ultimately died, leaving an unvegetated, shallow pond. The peat thus retains a record of mangrove development, succession, and deterioration in response to sea-level change and concomitant hydroedaphic conditions controlling dispersal, establishment, growth, and mortality of mangroves on oceanic islands in Belize.

  7. Spectral characterization of mangrove leaves in the Brazilian Amazonian Coast: Turiaçu Bay, Maranhão State.

    PubMed

    Rebelo-Mochel, Flávia; Ponzoni, Flávio J

    2007-12-01

    Mangrove communities are tropical systems which have fewer species than tropical forests, especially in Latin America and display a single architecture, usually lacking the various strata commonly found in other forest ecosystems. The identification of mangrove communities by orbital data is not a difficult task but the most interesting challenge is to identify themselves by the dominant species. The first step toward that floristic identification is the spectral characterization of detached leaves. Leaves from four species of mangrove trees were spectrally characterized considering the Directional Hemispherical Reflectance Factor (DHRF) determined through radiometric measurements using an integrating sphere LICOR 1800 attached to a spectroradiometer SPECTRON SE-590. In the visible bands (0.45-0.69 microm) the button-shaped mangrove Conocarpus erectus was brighter and the red mangrove Rhizophora mangle was darker than the other two species which shows very close DHRF values. Otherwise the black mangrove Avicennia germinans and the white mangrove Laguncularia racemosa can be distinguished from one another in the Near Infra Red (NIR) region (0.76-0.90 microm and in this region of the spectrum the DHRF of C. erectus and R. mangle become very close. PMID:18066436

  8. Painting the world REDD: addressing scientific barriers to monitoring emissions from tropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asner, Gregory P.

    2011-06-01

    In December 2010, parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) agreed to encourage reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from forest losses with the financial support of developed countries. This important international agreement followed about seven years of effort among governments, non-governmental organizations (NGO) and the scientific community, and is called REDD+, the program for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation. REDD+ could achieve its potential to slow emissions from deforestation and forest degradation either as a new market option to offset emissions from developed nations, or as a mitigation option for developing countries themselves. Aside from representing an important step towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions, a growing list of potential co-benefits to REDD+ include improved forestry practices, forest restoration, sustainable development, and biodiversity protection. Indeed the agreement is heralded as a win-win for climate change mitigation and tropical forest conservation, and it could end up contributing to a global economy based on carbon and ecosystem services. That's good news, and some governments are now working to become 'REDD ready' in preparation for the forthcoming international program. This is important because, according to the agreements made by governments in the UNFCCC, developing countries which voluntarily decide to take part in REDD+ must establish their own national forest monitoring system to report changes in emissions from forests (UNFCCC 2009). But as of today, no developing country has implemented a system for monitoring, reporting and verifying (MRV) emission reductions for REDD+. Of course, it is all still very new, but many REDD-type projects have been underway for years now (Parker et al 2008), and many MRV practitioners involved in those projects are the same people being asked to help with government-led, national MRV programs. Yet going from the project scale to program readiness is a big step for all involved, and many are finding that it is not easy. Current barriers to national monitoring of forest carbon stocks and emissions range from technical to scientific, and from institutional to operational. In fact, a recent analysis suggested that about 3% of tropical countries currently have the capacity to monitor and report on changes in forest cover and carbon stocks (Herold 2009). But until now, the scientific and policy-development communities have had little quantitative information on exactly which aspects of national-scale monitoring are most uncertain, and how that uncertainty will affect REDD+ performance reporting. A new and remarkable study by Pelletier, Ramankutty and Potvin (2011) uses an integrated, spatially-explicit modeling technique to explore and quantify sources of uncertainty in carbon emissions mapping throughout the Republic of Panama. Their findings are sobering: deforestation rates would need to be reduced by a full 50% in Panama in order to be detectable above the statistical uncertainty caused by several current major monitoring problems. The number one uncertainty, accounting for a sum total of about 77% of the error, rests in the spatial variation of aboveground carbon stocks in primary forests, secondary forests and on fallow land. The poor quality of and insufficient time interval between land-cover maps account for the remainder of the overall uncertainty. These findings are a show-stopper for REDD+ under prevailing science and technology conditions. The Pelletier et al study highlights the pressing need to improve the accuracy of forest carbon and land cover mapping assessments in order for REDD+ to become viable, but how can the uncertainties be overcome? First, with REDD+ nations required to report their emissions, and with verification organizations wanting to check on the reported numbers, there is a clear need for shared measurement and monitoring approaches. One of the major stumbling blocks actually starts with the scientific community, which needs not only to develop h

  9. Potential for Expanding the Near Real Time ForWarn Regional Forest Monitoring System to Include Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Gasser, Gerald; Hargrove, William; Smoot, James; Kuper, Philip D.

    2014-01-01

    The on-line near real time (NRT) ForWarn system is currently deployed to monitor regional forest disturbances within the conterminous United States (CONUS), using daily MODIS Aqua and Terra NDVI data to derive monitoring products. The Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003 mandated such a system. Work on ForWarn began in 2006 with development and validation of retrospective MODIS NDVI-based forest monitoring products. Subsequently, NRT forest disturbance monitoring products were demonstrated, leading to the actual system deployment in 2010. ForWarn provides new CONUS forest disturbance monitoring products every 8 days, using USGS eMODIS data for current NDVI. ForWarn currently does not cover Alaska, which includes extensive forest lands at risk to multiple biotic and abiotic threats. This poster discusses a case study using Alaska eMODIS Terra data to derive ForWarn like forest change products during the 2010 growing season. The eMODIS system provides current MODIS Terra NDVI products for Alaska. Resulting forest change products were assessed with ground, aerial, and Landsat reference data. When cloud and snow free, these preliminary products appeared to capture regional forest disturbances from insect defoliation and fires; however, more work is needed to mitigate cloud and snow contamination, including integration of eMODIS Aqua data.

  10. A conceptual model of ecological interactions in the mangrove estuaries of the Florida Everglades

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven M. Davis; Daniel L. Childers; Jerome J. Lorenz; Harold R. Wanless; Todd E. Hopkins

    2005-01-01

    A brackish water ecotone of coastal bays and lakes, mangrove forests, salt marshes, tidal creeks, and upland hammocks separates\\u000a Florida Bay, Biscayne Bay, and the Gulf of Mexico from the freshwater Everglades. The Everglades mangrove estuaries are characterized\\u000a by salinity gradients that vary spatially with topography and vary seasonally and inter-annually with rainfall, tide, and\\u000a freshwater flow from the Everglades.

  11. Monitoring forest change at ecotones in the Colorado Rockies

    SciTech Connect

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Bachand, R.R. (Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, CO (United States))

    1994-06-01

    We are assessing the potential effect of global climate change on the Front Range of the Colorado Rockies, including Rocky Mountain National Park. Our objective is quantify the abiotic and biotic controls on forest distribution and productivity as a basis for assessing potential vegetation change for a range of projected climate scenarios. A series of long-term vegetation transects are being established to relate soil characteristics (e.g., soil type, texture, moisture, nitrogen content) and microclimate (air and soil temperature) to vegetation characteristics (e.g., basal area, leaf area index, tree age structure, resource use efficiency, primary production) across lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) ecotones. Results from five 200+ ectonal transects (68 20 m x 20 m plots; over 3,753 trees) show that basal area gradients from lodgepole pine to spruce-fir (Picea engelmannii, Abies lasiocarpa), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) forests are correlated strongly (but not linearly), to soil texture and summer soil moisture. Factors controlling species-specific radial growth patterns along ecotones are more complex.

  12. Leaf-consumption levels in subtropical mangroves of Paranaguá Bay (SE Brazil)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luiz Francisco Ditzel Faraco; Paulo da Cunha Lana

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure leaf consumption levels, mainly by insect herbivores and the tree-dwelling crab Aratus pisonii (H. Milne Edwards, 1837), in mangrove forests of a large subtropical estuarine system in the South Atlantic Ocean, to determine if patterns of herbivory varied with forest structure, tree species and marked seasonal differences in rainfall and temperature. We

  13. Mangroves as Nurseries: Shrimp Populations in Mangrove and Non-mangrove Habitats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Primavera

    1998-01-01

    A total of 4845 penaeids belonging to nine species—Metapenaeus anchistus,M. ensis,M. moyebi,M. philippinensis,Penaeus merguiensis,P. monodon,P. semisulcatus,P. latisulcatusandMetapenaeopsis palmensis—were collected by pocket seine monthly over 13 months from mangrove and non-mangrove sites in Guimaras, Philippines. The restricted distribution of the three dominant species—M. ensisandP. merguiensisto the brackish water riverine mangrove, andM. anchistusto the high-salinity island mangrove and tidal flat—is probably related

  14. Monitoring of environmental conditions in taiga forests using ERS-1 SAR

    SciTech Connect

    Rignot, E.; Way, J.B.; McDonald, K. (Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States)); Viereck, L.; Williams, C.; Adams, P.; Payne, C.; Wood, W. (Inst. of Northern Forestry, Fairbanks, AK (United States)); Shi, J. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States))

    1994-08-01

    Synthetic-aperture radar images of forest site near Manley Hot Springs (64[degree]N, 151[degree]W), Alaska, were collected between August 1991 and December 1991, day and night, every 3 days, at C-band frequency ([lambda] = 5.7 cm), vertical receive and transmit polarization, by the European Space Agency First Remote Sensing Satellite, ERS-1. During the same period, air and soil temperatures and dielectric and gravimetric moisture properties of the forest canopy and forest floor were monitored in three forest stands dominated, respectively, by black spruce (Picea mariana), white spruce (Picea glauca), and balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera). The calibrated ERS-1 radar backscatter values, [sigma][degree], of the forest stands are shown to exhibit a pronounced temporal pattern, with little separability between tree species. The largest change in [sigma][degree], a 3-dB decrease almost independent of tree species, is observed in early winter when the soil and vegetation freeze. In the summer, temporal fluctuations in [sigma][degree] are about 1--2 dB in magnitude, depending on tree species. Diurnal variations in [sigma][degree] are as large as 2 dB during fall freeze-up, and less than 1 dB in summer and winter. These temporal variations in radar backscatter from the forest are interpreted using the MIMICS radar backscatter model and the in situ surface observations as due to changes in the dielectric properties of the forest floor and forest canopy induced by precipitation (summer), drought (fall), and freezing (fall-winter) events. In winter, [sigma][degree] increases across the entire landscape, probably because of volume scattering from large depth hoar ice crystals forming in the snow pack.

  15. Mangrove removal in the belize cays: effects on mangrove-associated fish assemblages in the intertidal and subtidal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, D.S.; Reyier, E.A.; Davis, W.P.; McIvor, C.C.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effects of mangrove cutting on fish assemblages in Twin Cays, Belize, in two habitat types. We conducted visual censuses at two sites in adjoining undisturbed/disturbed (30%–70% of shoreline fringe removed) sub-tidal fringing Rhizophora mangle Linnaeus, 1753. Observers recorded significantly more species and individuals in undisturbed sites, especially among smaller, schooling species (e.g., atherinids, clupeids), where densities were up to 200 times greater in undisturbed habitat. Multivariate analyses showed distinct species assemblages between habitats at both sites. In addition, extensive trapping with wire minnow traps within the intertidal zone in both undisturbed and disturbed fringing and transition (landward) mangrove forests was conducted. Catch rates were low: 638 individuals from 24 species over 563 trap-nights. Trap data, however, indicated that mangrove disturbance had minimal effect on species composition in either forest type (fringe/transition). Different results from the two methods (and habitat types) may be explained by two factors: (1) a larger and more detectable species pool in the subtidal habitat, with visual "access" to all species, and (2) the selective nature of trapping. Our data indicate that even partial clearing of shoreline and more landward mangroves can have a significant impact on local fish assemblages.

  16. Food sources of macro-invertebrates in an important mangrove ecosystem of Vietnam determined by dual stable isotope signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tue, Nguyen Tai; Hamaoka, Hideki; Sogabe, Atsushi; Quy, Tran Dang; Nhuan, Mai Trong; Omori, Koji

    2012-08-01

    Dual stable isotope signatures (?13C and ?15N) were applied to determine the contribution of mangrove materials and other organic carbon sources to the invertebrate community in an ecologically important mangrove ecosystem of Vietnam. We have analyzed 181 specimens of 30 invertebrate species and found ?13C and ?15N ranging from - 14.5 to - 26.8‰ and from 1.3 to 12.1‰, respectively. From taxa measured for stable isotopes, polychaete, gastropods, bivalves, and grapsid crabs living in mangrove forest showed relative low ?13C values, while fiddler crabs inhabiting in the land-water ecotone showed the highest ?13C values. The ?13C showed that just a few mangrove inhabitants directly relied on the mangrove materials. The wide ranges of ?13C and ?15N signatures indicated that the invertebrates utilized heterogeneous diets, comprising benthic microalgae, marine phytoplankton, particulate organic matter, sediment organic matter, mangrove detritus, and meiofauna and rotten animal tissues as the supplemental nutrient food sources. Moreover, the significant correlation between ?13C values and body sizes of invertebrates showed that snails Littoraria melanostoma and Terebralia sulcata, bivalve Glauconome virens, and portunid crab Scylla serrata exhibited ontogenetic shifts in diets. The present study showed that adjacent habitats such as tidal flat and mangrove creeks seem to contribute an important microalgal food resource for invertebrates and highlighted the need for conservations of mangrove forests and the adjacent habitats.

  17. Operational multi-sensor design for forest carbon monitoring to support REDD+ in Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braswell, B. H.; Hagen, S. C.; Harris, N.; Saatchi, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have been requested to establish robust and transparent national forest monitoring systems (NFMS) that use a combination of remote sensing and ground-based forest carbon inventory approaches to estimate anthropogenic forest-related greenhouse gas emissions and removals, reducing uncertainties as far as possible. A country's NFMS should also be used for data collection to inform the assessment of national or subnational forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels (RELs/RLs). In this way, the NFMS forms the link between historical assessments and current/future assessments, enabling consistency in the data and information to support the implementation of REDD+ activities in countries. The creation of a reliable, transparent, and comprehensive NFMS is currently limited by a dearth of relevant data that are accurate, low-cost, and spatially resolved at subnational scales. We are developing, evaluating, and validating several critical components of an NFMS in Kalimantan, Indonesia, focusing on the use of LiDAR and radar imagery for improved carbon stock and forest degradation information. Our goal is to evaluate sensor and platform tradeoffs systematically against in situ investments, as well as provide detailed tracking and characterization of uncertainty in a cost-benefit framework. Kalimantan is an ideal area to evaluate the use of remote sensing methods because measuring forest carbon stocks and their human caused changes with a high degree of certainty in areas of dense tropical forests has proven to be difficult. While the proposed NFMS components are being developed at the subnational scale for Kalimantan, we are targeting these methods for applicability across broader geographies and for implementation at various scales. Our intention is for this research to advance the state of the art of Measuring, Reporting, and Verification (MRV) system methodologies in ways that are both technical and operational. First, because a primary focus of carbon monitoring systems, especially in developing countries, is on cost-effectiveness, our analysis of optimal inputs of information from various satellite, airborne, and in situ measurements will provide practical information that countries can use to consider the tradeoffs. Second, because quantifying and understanding uncertainty is critical both in an Earth science research context and with regard to payment for ecosystem services, our development of reusable methods for tracking and evaluating uncertainty within a carbon monitoring system will provide a framework for stakeholders and researchers to understand and minimize errors across MRV components.

  18. Evaluation of a Regional Monitoring Program's Statistical Power to Detect Temporal Trends in Forest Health Indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perles, Stephanie J.; Wagner, Tyler; Irwin, Brian J.; Manning, Douglas R.; Callahan, Kristina K.; Marshall, Matthew R.

    2014-09-01

    Forests are socioeconomically and ecologically important ecosystems that are exposed to a variety of natural and anthropogenic stressors. As such, monitoring forest condition and detecting temporal changes therein remain critical to sound public and private forestland management. The National Parks Service's Vital Signs monitoring program collects information on many forest health indicators, including species richness, cover by exotics, browse pressure, and forest regeneration. We applied a mixed-model approach to partition variability in data for 30 forest health indicators collected from several national parks in the eastern United States. We then used the estimated variance components in a simulation model to evaluate trend detection capabilities for each indicator. We investigated the extent to which the following factors affected ability to detect trends: (a) sample design: using simple panel versus connected panel design, (b) effect size: increasing trend magnitude, (c) sample size: varying the number of plots sampled each year, and (d) stratified sampling: post-stratifying plots into vegetation domains. Statistical power varied among indicators; however, indicators that measured the proportion of a total yielded higher power when compared to indicators that measured absolute or average values. In addition, the total variability for an indicator appeared to influence power to detect temporal trends more than how total variance was partitioned among spatial and temporal sources. Based on these analyses and the monitoring objectives of the Vital Signs program, the current sampling design is likely overly intensive for detecting a 5 % trend·year-1 for all indicators and is appropriate for detecting a 1 % trend·year-1 in most indicators.

  19. Evaluation of a regional monitoring program's statistical power to detect temporal trends in forest health indicators.

    PubMed

    Perles, Stephanie J; Wagner, Tyler; Irwin, Brian J; Manning, Douglas R; Callahan, Kristina K; Marshall, Matthew R

    2014-09-01

    Forests are socioeconomically and ecologically important ecosystems that are exposed to a variety of natural and anthropogenic stressors. As such, monitoring forest condition and detecting temporal changes therein remain critical to sound public and private forestland management. The National Parks Service's Vital Signs monitoring program collects information on many forest health indicators, including species richness, cover by exotics, browse pressure, and forest regeneration. We applied a mixed-model approach to partition variability in data for 30 forest health indicators collected from several national parks in the eastern United States. We then used the estimated variance components in a simulation model to evaluate trend detection capabilities for each indicator. We investigated the extent to which the following factors affected ability to detect trends: (a) sample design: using simple panel versus connected panel design, (b) effect size: increasing trend magnitude, (c) sample size: varying the number of plots sampled each year, and (d) stratified sampling: post-stratifying plots into vegetation domains. Statistical power varied among indicators; however, indicators that measured the proportion of a total yielded higher power when compared to indicators that measured absolute or average values. In addition, the total variability for an indicator appeared to influence power to detect temporal trends more than how total variance was partitioned among spatial and temporal sources. Based on these analyses and the monitoring objectives of the Vital Signs program, the current sampling design is likely overly intensive for detecting a 5 % trend·year(-1) for all indicators and is appropriate for detecting a 1 % trend·year(-1) in most indicators. PMID:25028183

  20. Natural Products from Mangrove Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dong-Bo; Ye, Wan-Wan; Han, Ying; Deng, Zi-Xin; Hong, Kui

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are woody plants located in tropical and subtropical intertidal coastal regions. The mangrove ecosystem is becoming a hot spot for natural product discovery and bioactivity survey. Diverse mangrove actinomycetes as promising and productive sources are worth being explored and uncovered. At the time of writing, we report 73 novel compounds and 49 known compounds isolated from mangrove actinomycetes including alkaloids, benzene derivatives, cyclopentenone derivatives, dilactones, macrolides, 2-pyranones and sesquiterpenes. Attractive structures such as salinosporamides, xiamycins and novel indolocarbazoles are highlighted. Many exciting compounds have been proven as potential new antibiotics, antitumor and antiviral agents, anti-fibrotic agents and antioxidants. Furthermore, some of their biosynthetic pathways have also been revealed. This review is an attempt to consolidate and summarize the past and the latest studies on mangrove actinomycetes natural product discovery and to draw attention to their immense potential as novel and bioactive compounds for marine drugs discovery. PMID:24798926

  1. Natural products from mangrove actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong-Bo; Ye, Wan-Wan; Han, Ying; Deng, Zi-Xin; Hong, Kui

    2014-05-01

    Mangroves are woody plants located in tropical and subtropical intertidal coastal regions. The mangrove ecosystem is becoming a hot spot for natural product discovery and bioactivity survey. Diverse mangrove actinomycetes as promising and productive sources are worth being explored and uncovered. At the time of writing, we report 73 novel compounds and 49 known compounds isolated from mangrove actinomycetes including alkaloids, benzene derivatives, cyclopentenone derivatives, dilactones, macrolides, 2-pyranones and sesquiterpenes. Attractive structures such as salinosporamides, xiamycins and novel indolocarbazoles are highlighted. Many exciting compounds have been proven as potential new antibiotics, antitumor and antiviral agents, anti-fibrotic agents and antioxidants. Furthermore, some of their biosynthetic pathways have also been revealed. This review is an attempt to consolidate and summarize the past and the latest studies on mangrove actinomycetes natural product discovery and to draw attention to their immense potential as novel and bioactive compounds for marine drugs discovery. PMID:24798926

  2. A case for using Plethodontid salamanders for monitoring biodiversity and ecosystem integrity of North American forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, H.H., Jr.; Droege, S.

    2001-01-01

    Terrestrial salamanders of the family P!ethodontidae have unique attributes that make them excellent indicators of biodiversity and ecosystem integrity in forested habitats. Their longevity, small territory size, site fidelity, sensitivity to natural and anthropogenic perturbations, tendency to occur in high densities, and low sampling costs mean that counts of plethodontid salamanders provide numerous advantages over counts of other North American forest organisms for indicating environmental change. Furthermore, they are tightly linked physiologically to microclimatic and successional processes that influence the distribution and abundance of numerous other hydrophilic but difficult-to-study forest-dwelling plants and animals. Ecosystem processes such as moisture cycling, food-web dynamics, and succession, with their related structural and microclimatic variability, all affect forest biodiversity and have been shown to affect salamander populations as well. We determined the variability associated with sampling for plethodontid salamanders by estimating the coefficient of variation (CV) from available time-series data. The median coefficient of variation indicated that variation in counts of individuals among studies was much lower in plethodonticis (27%) than in lepidoptera (93%), passerine birds (57%), small mammals (69%), or other amphibians (37-46%), which means plethodontid salamanders provide an important statistical advantage over other species for monitoring long-term forest health.

  3. Primates Decline Rapidly in Unprotected Forests: Evidence from a Monitoring Program with Data Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Rovero, Francesco; Mtui, Arafat; Kitegile, Amani; Jacob, Philipo; Araldi, Alessandro; Tenan, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Growing threats to primates in tropical forests make robust and long-term population abundance assessments increasingly important for conservation. Concomitantly, monitoring becomes particularly relevant in countries with primate habitat. Yet monitoring schemes in these countries often suffer from logistic constraints and/or poor rigor in data collection, and a lack of consideration of sources of bias in analysis. To address the need for feasible monitoring schemes and flexible analytical tools for robust trend estimates, we analyzed data collected by local technicians on abundance of three species of arboreal monkey in the Udzungwa Mountains of Tanzania (two Colobus species and one Cercopithecus), an area of international importance for primate endemism and conservation. We counted primate social groups along eight line transects in two forest blocks in the area, one protected and one unprotected, over a span of 11 years. We applied a recently proposed open metapopulation model to estimate abundance trends while controlling for confounding effects of observer, site, and season. Primate populations were stable in the protected forest, while the colobines, including the endemic Udzungwa red colobus, declined severely in the unprotected forest. Targeted hunting pressure at this second site is the most plausible explanation for the trend observed. The unexplained variability in detection probability among transects was greater than the variability due to observers, indicating consistency in data collection among observers. There were no significant differences in both primate abundance and detectability between wet and dry seasons, supporting the choice of sampling during the dry season only based on minimizing practical constraints. Results show that simple monitoring routines implemented by trained local technicians can effectively detect changes in primate populations in tropical countries. The hierarchical Bayesian model formulation adopted provides a flexible tool to determine temporal trends with full account for any imbalance in the data set and for imperfect detection. PMID:25714404

  4. Monitoring forest conditions in a protected Mediterranean coastal area by the analysis of multiyear NDVI data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Maselli

    2004-01-01

    The operational utilization of remote sensing techniques for monitoring terrestrial ecosystems is often constrained by problems of under-sampling in space and time, particularly in heterogeneous and unstable Mediterranean environments. The current work deals with the use of the NOAA-AVHRR and Landsat-TM\\/ETM+ images to produce long-term NDVI data series characterising coniferous and broadleaved forests in a protected coastal area in Tuscany

  5. Global characterization and monitoring of forest cover using Landsat data: opportunities and challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Townshend; Jeffrey G. Masek; Chengquan Huang; Eric. F. Vermote; Feng Gao; Saurabh Channan; Joseph O. Sexton; Min Feng; Ramghuram Narasimhan; Dohyung Kim; Kuan Song; Danxia Song; Xiao-Peng Song; Praveen Noojipady; Bin Tan; Matthew C. Hansen; Mengxue Li; Robert E. Wolfe

    2012-01-01

    The compilation of global Landsat data-sets and the ever-lowering costs of computing now make it feasible to monitor the Earth's land cover at Landsat resolutions of 30 m. In this article, we describe the methods to create global products of forest cover and cover change at Landsat resolutions. Nevertheless, there are many challenges in ensuring the creation of high-quality products.

  6. Primates decline rapidly in unprotected forests: evidence from a monitoring program with data constraints.

    PubMed

    Rovero, Francesco; Mtui, Arafat; Kitegile, Amani; Jacob, Philipo; Araldi, Alessandro; Tenan, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Growing threats to primates in tropical forests make robust and long-term population abundance assessments increasingly important for conservation. Concomitantly, monitoring becomes particularly relevant in countries with primate habitat. Yet monitoring schemes in these countries often suffer from logistic constraints and/or poor rigor in data collection, and a lack of consideration of sources of bias in analysis. To address the need for feasible monitoring schemes and flexible analytical tools for robust trend estimates, we analyzed data collected by local technicians on abundance of three species of arboreal monkey in the Udzungwa Mountains of Tanzania (two Colobus species and one Cercopithecus), an area of international importance for primate endemism and conservation. We counted primate social groups along eight line transects in two forest blocks in the area, one protected and one unprotected, over a span of 11 years. We applied a recently proposed open metapopulation model to estimate abundance trends while controlling for confounding effects of observer, site, and season. Primate populations were stable in the protected forest, while the colobines, including the endemic Udzungwa red colobus, declined severely in the unprotected forest. Targeted hunting pressure at this second site is the most plausible explanation for the trend observed. The unexplained variability in detection probability among transects was greater than the variability due to observers, indicating consistency in data collection among observers. There were no significant differences in both primate abundance and detectability between wet and dry seasons, supporting the choice of sampling during the dry season only based on minimizing practical constraints. Results show that simple monitoring routines implemented by trained local technicians can effectively detect changes in primate populations in tropical countries. The hierarchical Bayesian model formulation adopted provides a flexible tool to determine temporal trends with full account for any imbalance in the data set and for imperfect detection. PMID:25714404

  7. Mangroves: obligate or facultative halophytes? A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenqing Wang; Zhongzheng Yan; Siyang You; Yihui Zhang; Luzhen Chen; Guanghui Lin

    Salinity plays significant roles in regulating the growth and distribution of mangroves, and the salt tolerance mechanisms\\u000a of mangroves have been the focus of research for several decades. There are contradictory views regarding the relationship\\u000a between mangroves and salt: (1) Mangroves are facultative halophytes, i.e. freshwater is a physiological requirement and salt\\u000a water is an ecological requirement for mangroves because

  8. Effects of nutrient enrichment on mangrove leaf litter decomposition.

    PubMed

    Keuskamp, Joost A; Hefting, Mariet M; Dingemans, Bas J J; Verhoeven, Jos T A; Feller, Ilka C

    2015-03-01

    Nutrient enrichment of mangroves, a common phenomenon along densely populated coastlines, may negatively affect mangrove ecosystems by modifying internal carbon and nutrient cycling. The decomposition of litter exerts a strong influence on these processes and is potentially modified by eutrophication. This study describes effects of N and P enrichment on litter decomposition rate and mineralisation/immobilisation patterns. By making use of reciprocal litter transplantation experiments among fertiliser treatments, it was tested if nutrient addition primarily acts on the primary producers (i.e. changes in litter quantity and quality) or on the microbial decomposers (i.e. changes in nutrient limitation for decomposition). Measurements were done in two mangrove forests where primary production was either limited by N or by P, which had been subject to at least 5 years of experimental N and P fertilisation. Results of this study indicated that decomposers were always N-limited regardless of the limitation of the primary producers. This leads to a differential nutrient limitation between decomposers and primary producers in sites where mangrove production was P-limited. In these sites, fertilisation with P caused litter quality to change, resulting in a higher decomposition rate. This study shows that direct effects of fertilisation on decomposition through an effect on decomposer nutrient availability might be non-significant, while the indirect effects through modifying litter quality might be quite substantial in mangroves. Our results show no indication that eutrophication increases decomposition without stimulating primary production. Therefore we do not expect a decline in carbon sequestration as a result of eutrophication of mangrove ecosystems. PMID:25497680

  9. Outline and examples for integrated evaluations of data from the intensive (Level II) monitoring of forest ecosystems in Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Seidling

    2005-01-01

    Data are collected at plots of the intensive forest monitoring programme (Level II monitoring) in Germany by the federal states\\u000a and stored in a nation-wide database with the main task of contributing to a better understanding of the impacts of air pollutants\\u000a and other environmental factors on forest ecosystems. Within this feasibility study these data were screened with the intention

  10. Automated In-Situ Laser Scanner for Monitoring Forest Leaf Area Index

    PubMed Central

    Culvenor, Darius S.; Newnham, Glenn J.; Mellor, Andrew; Sims, Neil C.; Haywood, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    An automated laser rangefinding instrument was developed to characterize overstorey and understorey vegetation dynamics over time. Design criteria were based on information needs within the statewide forest monitoring program in Victoria, Australia. The ground-based monitoring instrument captures the key vegetation structural information needed to overcome ambiguity in the estimation of forest Leaf Area Index (LAI) from satellite sensors. The scanning lidar instrument was developed primarily from low cost, commercially accessible components. While the 635 nm wavelength lidar is not ideally suited to vegetation studies, there was an acceptable trade-off between cost and performance. Tests demonstrated reliable range estimates to live foliage up to a distance of 60 m during night-time operation. Given the instrument's scan angle of 57.5 degrees zenith, the instrument is an effective tool for monitoring LAI in forest canopies up to a height of 30 m. An 18 month field trial of three co-located instruments showed consistent seasonal trends and mean LAI of between 1.32 to 1.56 and a temporal LAI variation of 8 to 17% relative to the mean. PMID:25196006

  11. Automated in-situ laser scanner for monitoring forest Leaf Area Index.

    PubMed

    Culvenor, Darius S; Newnham, Glenn J; Mellor, Andrew; Sims, Neil C; Haywood, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    An automated laser rangefinding instrument was developed to characterize overstorey and understorey vegetation dynamics over time. Design criteria were based on information needs within the statewide forest monitoring program in Victoria, Australia. The ground-based monitoring instrument captures the key vegetation structural information needed to overcome ambiguity in the estimation of forest Leaf Area Index (LAI) from satellite sensors. The scanning lidar instrument was developed primarily from low cost, commercially accessible components. While the 635 nm wavelength lidar is not ideally suited to vegetation studies, there was an acceptable trade-off between cost and performance. Tests demonstrated reliable range estimates to live foliage up to a distance of 60 m during night-time operation. Given the instrument's scan angle of 57.5 degrees zenith, the instrument is an effective tool for monitoring LAI in forest canopies up to a height of 30 m. An 18 month field trial of three co-located instruments showed consistent seasonal trends and mean LAI of between 1.32 to 1.56 and a temporal LAI variation of 8 to 17% relative to the mean. PMID:25196006

  12. Mangrove expansion and rainfall patterns in Moreton Bay, Southeast Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eslami-Andargoli, L.; Dale, Per; Sipe, N.; Chaseling, J.

    2009-11-01

    Changes in rainfall pattern have been suggested as a mechanism for the landward incursion of mangrove into salt marsh. The aim of the research was to assess the relationship between rainfall patterns and the spatial distribution of mangrove forests at study sites in Moreton Bay, Southeast Queensland, Australia, over a 32-year period from 1972 to 2004. To identify periods of relatively consistent rainfall patterns points at which rainfall patterns changed (change-points) were identified using the non-parametric Pettitt-Mann-Whitney-Statistic and the cumulative sum technique. The change-points were then used to define the temporal periods over which changes to mangrove area were assessed. Both mangrove and salt marsh area were measured by digitizing aerial photographs acquired in 1972, 1990 (the year with the most significant change-point), and 2004. The rates of change in mangrove area pre-1990 (a wetter period) and post-1990 (a drier period) were estimated. A significant positive relationship was demonstrated between rainfall variables and landward mangrove expansion, but not for seaward expansion. We concluded that rainfall variability is one of the principal factors influencing the rate of upslope encroachment of mangrove. However, the rate of expansion may vary from site to site due to site-specific geomorphological and hydrological characteristics and the level of disturbance in the catchment.

  13. Rapid Losses of Surface Elevation following Tree Girdling and Cutting in Tropical Mangroves

    PubMed Central

    Lang'at, Joseph Kipkorir Sigi; Kairo, James G.; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Bouillon, Steven; Skov, Martin W.; Waldron, Susan; Huxham, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The importance of mangrove forests in carbon sequestration and coastal protection has been widely acknowledged. Large-scale damage of these forests, caused by hurricanes or clear felling, can enhance vulnerability to erosion, subsidence and rapid carbon losses. However, it is unclear how small-scale logging might impact on mangrove functions and services. We experimentally investigated the impact of small-scale tree removal on surface elevation and carbon dynamics in a mangrove forest at Gazi bay, Kenya. The trees in five plots of a Rhizophora mucronata (Lam.) forest were first girdled and then cut. Another set of five plots at the same site served as controls. Treatment induced significant, rapid subsidence (?32.1±8.4 mm yr?1 compared with surface elevation changes of +4.2±1.4 mm yr?1 in controls). Subsidence in treated plots was likely due to collapse and decomposition of dying roots and sediment compaction as evidenced from increased sediment bulk density. Sediment effluxes of CO2 and CH4 increased significantly, especially their heterotrophic component, suggesting enhanced organic matter decomposition. Estimates of total excess fluxes from treated compared with control plots were 25.3±7.4 tCO2 ha?1 yr?1 (using surface carbon efflux) and 35.6±76.9 tCO2 ha?1 yr?1 (using surface elevation losses and sediment properties). Whilst such losses might not be permanent (provided cut areas recover), observed rapid subsidence and enhanced decomposition of soil sediment organic matter caused by small-scale harvesting offers important lessons for mangrove management. In particular mangrove managers need to carefully consider the trade-offs between extracting mangrove wood and losing other mangrove services, particularly shoreline stabilization, coastal protection and carbon storage. PMID:25244646

  14. Sea level and turbidity controls on mangrove soil surface elevation change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2014-01-01

    Increases in sea level are a threat to seaward fringing mangrove forests if levels of inundation exceed the physiological tolerance of the trees; however, tidal wetlands can keep pace with sea level rise if soil surface elevations can increase at the same pace as sea level rise. Sediment accretion on the soil surface and belowground production of roots are proposed to increase with increasing sea level, enabling intertidal habitats to maintain their position relative to mean sea level, but there are few tests of these predictions in mangrove forests. Here we used variation in sea level and the availability of sediments caused by seasonal and inter-annual variation in the intensity of La Nina-El Nino to assess the effects of increasing sea level on surface elevation gains and contributing processes (accretion on the surface, subsidence and root growth) in mangrove forests. We found that soil surface elevation increased with mean sea level (which varied over 250mm during the study) and with turbidity at sites where fine sediment in the water column is abundant. In contrast, where sediments were sandy, rates of surface elevation gain were high, but not significantly related to variation in turbidity, and were likely to be influenced by other factors that deliver sand to the mangrove forest. Root growth was not linked to soil surface elevation gains, although it was associated with reduced shallow subsidence, and therefore may contribute to the capacity of mangroves to keep pace with sea level rise. Our results indicate both surface (sedimentation) and subsurface (root growth) processes can influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with sea level rise within the same geographic location, and that current models of tidal marsh responses to sea level rise capture the major feature of the response of mangroves where fine, but not coarse, sediments are abundant.

  15. Sea level and turbidity controls on mangrove soil surface elevation change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Adame, Maria Fernanda; Bennion, Vicki; Hayes, Matthew; Reef, Ruth; Santini, Nadia; Cahoon, Donald R.

    2015-02-01

    Increases in sea level are a threat to seaward fringing mangrove forests if levels of inundation exceed the physiological tolerance of the trees; however, tidal wetlands can keep pace with sea level rise if soil surface elevations can increase at the same pace as sea level rise. Sediment accretion on the soil surface and belowground production of roots are proposed to increase with increasing sea level, enabling intertidal habitats to maintain their position relative to mean sea level, but there are few tests of these predictions in mangrove forests. Here we used variation in sea level and the availability of sediments caused by seasonal and inter-annual variation in the intensity of La Nina-El Nino to assess the effects of increasing sea level on surface elevation gains and contributing processes (accretion on the surface, subsidence and root growth) in mangrove forests. We found that soil surface elevation increased with mean sea level (which varied over 250 mm during the study) and with turbidity at sites where fine sediment in the water column is abundant. In contrast, where sediments were sandy, rates of surface elevation gain were high, but not significantly related to variation in turbidity, and were likely to be influenced by other factors that deliver sand to the mangrove forest. Root growth was not linked to soil surface elevation gains, although it was associated with reduced shallow subsidence, and therefore may contribute to the capacity of mangroves to keep pace with sea level rise. Our results indicate both surface (sedimentation) and subsurface (root growth) processes can influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with sea level rise within the same geographic location, and that current models of tidal marsh responses to sea level rise capture the major feature of the response of mangroves where fine, but not coarse, sediments are abundant.

  16. Airborne Laser Scanner Mapping as a Monitoring Method for Forest Ecosystem Dynamics of Mts. Shirakami, Northeastern Japan, World Heritage Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, H.; Saito, M.; Sato, H.; Nakashizuka, T.; Mimura, K.; Mori, K.; Otsubo, M.; Suhama, T.; Mitani, A.

    2005-12-01

    Shiramakami Mts. situated in the mountains of northeastern Japan is registered as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO, because the area includes the last remaining virgin stand of Siebold's beech (Fagus crenata)forest, the typical Japanese climax temperate forest. The registered area consists of 10,139ha core zone plus 6800 ha buffer zone and covers about one third of the Shirakami mountains which are a heavily dissected range with summits rising to just over 1200 m. In the Shirakami-sanchi World Heritage site, it is important to develop suitable monitoring method for conservation and management. UNESCO requires to report site condition and how we investigate. For this purpose various investigations have been conducted to clarify the nature of forest by collecting basic field data on climate, topography and biology. But it is not fully carried out to grasp the forest ecosystem in the whole area because of inaccessibility to the site with steep topography and long winter. Since the primeval beech forest ecosystem is prerequisite factors for registration of Mts. Shirakami as World Heritage, it is primarily important to monitor the change in structure and composition of the beech forests in the area. In this sense, the forest 3D structure (tree height, canopy density, canopy regeneration) and its dynamics are useful information to investigate. However, it requires large amount of labors to know in a large area for long-term. Thus, we need to develop an effective monitoring method, which can observe the forest ecosystem in an efficient way. This research project has been taken with two objectives (i) to clarify the forest ecosystem dynamics for conserving forest ecosystem, (ii) to develop a monitoring method in large scale of forest ecosystem by using airborne sensor systems. In FY2003 and 2004, the measurements by airborne laser scanner and hyper-spectral sensor were done around Mt. Kushiisi south slope monitoring site. Also, ground observations on structure and composition of the forest (tree height, diameter of tree crown, tree species, and topographical feature) were obtained at 3 test sites for verification of air survey data. Airborne laser scanning was carried out both in early Summer and late Autumn in order to get DSM and DTM. Then we could achieve height of the forest, subtracting DTM from DSM. The 3D density of a laser scanner pulse of the summer expressed the qualitative features of forest 3D structure of each monitoring well, though several detailed evaluations are still required for quantitative features.

  17. Dynamics of organic and inorganic carbon across contiguous mangrove and seagrass systems (Gazi Bay, Kenya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouillon, Steven; Dehairs, Frank; Velimirov, Branko; Abril, GwenaëL.; Borges, Alberto Vieira

    2007-06-01

    We report on the water column biogeochemistry in adjacent mangrove and seagrass systems in Gazi Bay (Kenya), with a focus on assessing the sources and cycling of organic and inorganic carbon. Mangrove and seagrass-derived material was found to be the dominant organic carbon sources in the water column, and could be distinguished on the basis of their ?13C signatures and particulate organic carbon:total suspended matter (POC/TSM) ratios. Spatially, a distinct boundary existed whereby the dominance of mangrove-derived material decreased sharply close to the interface between the mangrove forest and the dense seagrass beds. The latter is consistent with the reported export of mangrove-derived material, which is efficiently trapped in the adjacent seagrass beds. There were significant net inputs of POC and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) along the Kidogoweni salinity gradient, for which the ?13CPOC signatures were consistent with those of mangroves. DOC was the dominant form of organic carbon in both mangrove and seagrass beds, with DOC/POC ratios typically between 3 and 15. Dynamics of dissolved inorganic carbon in the creeks were strongly influenced by diagenetic C degradation in the intertidal mangrove areas, resulting in significant CO2 emission from the water column to the atmosphere. Although highest partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) values and areal CO2 flux rates were observed in the mangrove creeks, and the water column above the seagrass beds was in some locations a net sink of CO2, most of the ecosystems' emission of CO2 to the atmosphere occurred in the seagrass beds adjacent to the mangrove forest. The presence of dense seagrass beds thus had a strong effect on the aquatic biogeochemistry, and resulted in trapping and further mineralization of mangrove-derived POC, intense O2 production and CO2 uptake. The adjacent seagrass beds provide a large area with conditions favorable to exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere, thereby limiting export of mangrove-derived organic and inorganic carbon toward the coastal ocean.

  18. DOES THE AUTECOLOGY OF THE MANGROVE RIVULUS FISH (RIVULUS MARMORATUS) REFLECT A PARADIGM FOR MANGROVE ECOSYSTEM SENSITIVITY?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The killifish Rivulus marmoratus, mangrove rivulus, represents the one of the two potentially truly "mangrove dependent" fish species in western Atlantic mangrove ecosystems. he distribution of this species closely parallels the range of red mangroves. hese plants and fish exhibi...

  19. Monitoring thirty years of land cover change: Secondary forest succession in the Artvin Forest planning unit of Northeastern Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Günay Çakir; Fatih Sivrikaya; Salih Terzioglu; Sedat Keles; Emin Zeki Baskent

    2007-01-01

    As a major topic in forest ecosystems, determining plant successional changes is crucial to understanding the vegetation dynamics, composition and environmental disturbance of forest landscapes. This study is designed to evaluate the consequences of human and natural impacts on changes in secondary forest succession land cover from 1972 to 2002 in the Artvin Forest Planning Unit, in NE Turkey. This

  20. Belowground Dynamics in Mangrove Ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Karen L.

    2004-01-01

    MANGROVE ECOSYSTEMS Mangrove ecosystems are tropical/subtropical communities of primarily tree species that grow in the intertidal zone. These tidal communities are important coastal ecosystems that are valued for a variety of ecological and societal goods and services (fig. 1). Mangrove wetlands are important filters of materials moving between the land and sea, trapping sediment, nutrients, and pollutants in runoff from uplands and preventing their direct introduction into sensitive marine ecosystems such as seagrass beds and coral reefs. Mangroves serve as nursery grounds and refuge for a variety of organisms and are consequently vital to the biological productivity of coastal waters. Furthermore, because mangroves are highly resilient to disturbances such as hurricanes, they represent a self-sustaining, protective barrier for human populations living in the coastal zone. Mangrove ecosystems also contribute to shoreline stabilization through consolidation of unstable mineral sediments and peat formation. In order to help conserve mangrove ecoystems, scientists with the United States Geological Survey (USGS) at the National Wetlands Research Center are working to more fully understand the dynamics that impact these vital ecosystems.

  1. A review of mangrove and coastal ecosystems in West Africa and their possible relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, D. M.; Lawson, G. W.

    1990-11-01

    Mangrove forest, which in West Africa covers an area of over 27 000 km 2 of deltas, estuaries and lagoons, is intimately linked to the offshore coastal ecosystem. Regularly influenced and disturbed by seasonal freshwater and diurnal tidal flooding, it exhibits features of an immature ecosystem, namely low species diversity and high productivity. The excess organic production is exploited by many marine species especially fishes and crustaceans that enter the mangrove environment as juveniles and return to the sea as adults for reproductive purposes. The beneficial effects on marine fisheries of this net energy outflow are at risk from anthropogenic influences causing pollution or destruction of the mangrove ecosystem. Intense interdisciplinary work on this problem is in progress on the lagoons of the Ivory Coast but further research on other parts of the West African mangrove ecosystem, especially on the Niger delta, needs to be undertaken to provide the scientific basis for the proper management of this valuable natural resource.

  2. Use of Current 2010 Forest Disturbance Monitoring Products for the Conterminous United States in Aiding a National Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation discusses contributions of near real time (NRT) MODIS forest disturbance detection products for the conterminous United States to an emerging national forest threat early warning system (EWS). The latter is being developed by the USDA Forest Service’s Eastern and Western Environmental Threat Centers with help from NASA Stennis Space Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Building off work done in 2009, this national and regional forest disturbance detection and viewing capability of the EWS employs NRT MODIS NDVI data from the USGS eMODIS group and historical NDVI data from standard MOD13 products. Disturbance detection products are being computed for 24 day composites that are refreshed every 8 days. Products for 2010 include 42 dates of the 24 day composites. For each compositing date, we computed % change in forest maximum NDVI products for 2010 with respect to each of three historical baselines of 2009, 2007-2009, and 2003-2009. The three baselines enable one to view potential current, recent, and longer term forest disturbances. A rainbow color table was applied to each forest change product so that potential disturbances (NDVI drops) were identified in hot color tones and growth (NDVI gains) in cold color tones. Example products were provided to end-users responsible for forest health monitoring at the Federal and State levels. Large patches of potential forest disturbances were validated based on comparisons with available reference data, including Landsat and field survey data. Products were posted on two internet mapping systems for US Forest Service internal and collaborator use. MODIS forest disturbance detection products were computed and posted for use in as little as 1 day after the last input date of the compositing period. Such products were useful for aiding aerial disturbance detection surveys and for assessing disturbance persistence on both inter- and intra-annual scales. Multiple 2010 forest disturbance events were detected across the nation, including damage from ice storms, tornados, caterpillars, bark beetles, and wildfires. This effort enabled improved NRT forest disturbance monitoring capabilities for this nation-wide forest threat EWS.

  3. Monitoring Regional Forest Disturbances across the US with Near Real Time MODIS NDVI Products included in the ForWarn Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, J.; Norman, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Forest threats across the US have become increasingly evident in recent years. These include regionally extensive disturbances (e.g., from drought, bark beetle outbreaks, and wildfires) that can occur across multiyear durations and result in extensive forest mortality. In addition, forests can be subject to ephemeral, sometimes yearly defoliation from various insects and types of storm damage. After prolonged severe disturbance, signs of forest recovery can vary in terms of satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values. The increased extent and threat of forest disturbances in part led to the enactment of the 2003 Healthy Forest Restoration Act, which mandated that a national forest threat Early Warning System (EWS) be deployed. In response, the US Forest Service collaborated with NASA, DOE Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the USGS Eros Data Center to build the near real time ForWarn forest threat EWS for monitoring regionally evident forest disturbances, starting on-line operations in 2010. Given the diversity of disturbance types, severities, and durations, ForWarn employs multiple historical baselines used with current NDVI to derive a suite of six nationwide 'weekly' forest change products. ForWarn uses daily 232 meter MODIS Aqua and Terra satellite NDVI data, including MOD13 products for deriving historical baseline NDVIs and eMODIS products for compiling current NDVI. Separately pre-processing the current and historical NDVIs, the Time Series Product Tool and the Phenological Parameters Estimation Tool are used to temporally reduce noise, fuse, and aggregate MODIS NDVIs into 24 day composites refreshed every 8 days with 46 dates of forest change products per year. The 24 day compositing interval typically enables new disturbances to be detected, while minimizing the frequency of residual atmospheric contamination. ForWarn's three standard forest change products compare current NDVI to that from the previous year, previous 3 years, and all previous years since 2000. Other forest change products added in 2013 include one for quicker disturbance detection and two others that adjust for seasonal fluctuations in normal vegetation phenology. This product suite and ForWarn's geospatial data viewer allow end users to view and assess disturbance dynamics for many regionally evident biotic and abiotic forest disturbances throughout a given current year. ForWarn's change products are also being used for forest change trend analysis and for developing regional forest overstory mortality products. They are used to alert forest health specialists about new regional forest disturbances. Such alerts also typically consider available Landsat, aerial, and ground data as well as communications with forest health specialists and previous experience. ForWarn products have been used to detect and track many types of regional disturbances for multiple forest types, including defoliation from caterpillars and severe storms, as well as mortality from both biotic and abiotic agents (e.g., bark beetles, drought, fire, anthropogenic clearing). ForWarn provides forest change products that could be combined with other geospatial data on forest biomass to help assess forest disturbance carbon impacts within the conterminous US.

  4. Enhancing Medium Spatial Resolution Forest Cover Change Monitoring with a MODIS-Based Disturbance Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.; Huang, C.; Sexton, J. O.; Channan, S.; Song, D.; Song, X.; Townshend, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    1. INTRODUCTION Since the opening of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Landsat data archive, demands and possibility to document land surface change using Landsat data in large area is increasing. Especially, a global scale monitoring of forest change is required to serve as a baseline for any efforts to cut the carbon emission from deforestation. Several algorithms are being developed for the monitoring of forest change in large area using medium spatial resolution data. Due to its large data volume and difficulties in collecting retrospective ground reference data, automated approaches such as Training Data Automation - Support Vector Machine (TDA-SVM) are developed. To enhance the quality of the results from such methods, this study proposes a method to augment training data using the disturbance information from MODIS and Land Surface Temperature time series. 2. METHOD TDA-SVM is an algorithm to automate whole procedure of forest cover change monitoring using Landsat data. The TDA procedure automatically generates training data from a pair of satellite image. Derived training data is used to produce forest cover change maps. However, current TDA-SVM makes commission errors in some cases. These errors are due to the lack of training samples at the spectral boundary between classes. To add more training samples at spectral boundary, Disturbance Index (DI) is used. This approach is based on strong correlation between vegetation amount and surface temperature. First, Landsat pixels at a spectral boundary between classes are identified by TDA. Second, Disturbance Indices for each 1 km MODIS pixels are calculated to identify the area of which DI is lower than the natural variance. Boundary pixels aggregated into 1km are compared to the DI of spatially corresponding MODIS pixel. Finally, selected boundary pixels of which corresponding DI is lower than natural variability are updated as persistent non-forest. These updated pixels are added as additional training samples to the original training data to compose a new change map. 3. CONCLUSION Based on the developmental work carried out by the group, we observe that the augmentation of training data based on the disturbance information from MODIS and Land Surface Temperature time series data greatly improves the quality of forest cover change detection results (Figure 1); Figure1. Preliminary result.

  5. (abstract) Monitoring Seasonal Change in Taiga Forests Using ERS-1 SAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, JoBea; Rignot, Eric; McDonald, Kyle; Viereck, Leslie; Williams, Cynthia; Adams, Phyllis; Payne, Cheryl; Wood, William

    1993-01-01

    Sensitivity of radar backscatter to the dielectric and geometric character of forested regions suggests significant changes in backscatter are expected with season due to freezing temperatures, snow, wind, leaf fall, and drought. The first European Remote Sensing Satellite, ERS-1, offers a unique opportunity to monitor a complete seasonal cycle for the Alaskan taiga forest ecosystem with synthetic aperture radar. During the 3-day repeat Commissioning Phase of ERS-1, from August 1991to December 1991, ERS-1 SAR data were collected in the region of Manley Hot Springs, Alaska, along the Tanana River, west of Fairbanks. In parallel with the SAR data collection, meteorological data from three weather stations positioned in three forest stands were collected continuously along with in situ measurements of the dielectric and moisture properties of the canopy and of ground cover which were collected during each overflight. The in situ data were collected in floodplain forest stands dominated by balsam poplar, white spruce, and black spruce. These results from the Commissioning Phase as well as preliminary results from the 35-day Repeat Phase will be presented.

  6. Near real-time monitoring systems for adaptive management and improved forest governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musinsky, J.; Tabor, K.; Cano, A.

    2012-12-01

    The destruction and degradation of the world's forests from deforestation, illegal logging and fire has wide-ranging environmental and economic impacts, including biodiversity loss, the degradation of ecosystem services and the emission of greenhouse gases. In an effort to strengthen local capacity to respond to these threats, Conservation International has developed a suite of near real-time satellite monitoring systems generating daily alerts, maps and reports of forest fire, fire risk, deforestation and degradation that are used by national and sub-national government agencies, NGO's, scientists, communities, and the media to respond to and report on threats to forest resources. Currently, the systems support more than 1000 subscribers from 45 countries, focusing on Madagascar, Indonesia, Bolivia and Peru. This presentation will explore the types of innovative applications users have found for these data, challenges they've encountered in data acquisition and accuracy, and feedback they've given on the usefulness of these systems for REDD+ implementation, protected areas management and improved forest governance.;

  7. Mangrove crabs as ecosystem engineers; with emphasis on sediment processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Erik

    2008-02-01

    The benthic fauna in mangrove forests is usually dominated by burrowing sesarmid (Grapsidae) and fiddler crabs (Ocypodidae). They are herbivores that retain, bury, macerate and ingest litter and microalgal mats. Most species within these two groups actively dig and maintain burrows in the sediment as a refuge from predation and environmental extremes. Based on the current knowledge on the biology and ecology of these crabs, it seems obvious that their activities have considerable impact on ecosystem functioning. However, no convincing conceptual framework has yet been defined into which the role of these crabs can be identified and characterized. The attributes by which these abundant animals affect the microbial and biogeochemical functional diversity fit well into the concept of ecosystem engineering. The conceptualization of mangrove benthic communities within this framework is distinguished and documented by examples provided from the most recent literature on mangrove ecosystem functioning. It appears that the features and processes driving the engineering effects on distribution and activity of associated organisms operate differently for sesarmid and fiddler crabs. The most obvious and well-documented difference between engineering effects of the two types of crab seems to be associated with foraging. More attention must be devoted in the future to elucidate engineering aspects related to crab burrows in mangrove environments. Particularly comparative work on the burrow-dwelling life styles of the two types of crab is needed.

  8. Three Conservation Applications of Astronaut Photographs of Earth: Tidal Flat Loss (Japan), Elephant Impacts on Vegetation (Botswana), and Seagrass and Mangrove Monitoring (Australia)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Robinson, Julie A.; Minorukashiwagi; Maggiesuzuki; Duanenellis, M.; Bussing, Charles E.; Leelong, W. J.; McKenzie, Andlen J.

    2000-01-01

    NASA photographs taken from low Earth orbit can provide information relevant to conservation biology. This data source is now more accessible due to improvements in digitizing technology, Internet file transfer, and availability of image processing software. We present three examples of conservation-related projects that benefited from using orbital photographs. (1) A time series of photographs from the Space Shuttle showing wetland conversion in Japan was used as a tool for communicating about the impacts of tidal flat loss. Real-time communication with astronauts about a newsworthy event resulted in acquiring current imagery. These images and the availability of other high resolution digital images from NASA provided timely public information on the observed changes. (2) A Space Shuttle photograph of Chobe National Park in Botswana was digitally classified and analyzed to identify the locations of elephant-impacted woodland. Field validation later confirmed that areas identified on the image showed evidence of elephant impacts. (3) A summary map from intensive field surveys of seagrasses in Shoalwater Bay, Australia was used as reference data for a supervised classification of a digitized photograph taken from orbit. The classification was able to distinguish seagrasses, sediments and mangroves with accuracy approximating that in studies using other satellite remote sensing data. Orbital photographs are in the public domain and the database of nearly 400,000 photographs from the late 1960s to the present is available at a single searchable location on the Internet. These photographs can be used by conservation biologists for general information about the landscape and in quantitative applications.

  9. Kelp forest monitoring 1994 annual report. Channel Islands National Park. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kushner, D.; Lerma, D.; Richards, D.

    1994-12-31

    The 1994 results of the Channel Islands Natonal Park Kelp Forest Monitoring Project are described in this report. Population dynamics of 68 taxa or categories of algae, fish, and invertebrates were measured at 16 permanent sites around the five islands within the park. Survey techniques utilized SCUBA and surface-supplied-air, and included quadrants, band transects, random point contacts, fish transects, video transects, size frequency measurements, artificial recruitment modules, and species list surveys. Temperature data was collected using temperature loggers deployed at each of the sixteen sites. Size frequency measurements were taken from artificial recruitment modules at ten sites. In 1994, 13 sites had giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, forests, one site was dominated by the aggregating red sea cucumber, Pachythyone rubra, one site was dominated by red sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus francisanus, and another by purple sea urchins, S. purpuratus. Wasting disease was observed in sea stars and wasting syndrome was apparent in sea urchins.

  10. Monitoring Regional Forest Disturbances across the US with near Real Time MODIS NDVI Products Resident to the ForWarn Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William W.; Gasser, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Forest threats across the US have become increasingly evident in recent years. Sometimes these have resulted in regionally evident disturbance progressions (e.g., from drought, bark beetle outbreaks, and wildfires) that can occur across multiyear durations and have resulted in extensive forest overstory mortality. In addition to stand replacement disturbances, other forests are subject to ephemeral, sometimes yearly defoliation from various insects and varying types and intensities of ephemeral damage from storms. Sometimes, after prolonged severe disturbance, signs of recovery in terms of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) can occur. The growing prominence and threat of forest disturbances in part have led to the formation and implementation of the 2003 Healthy Forest Restoration Act which mandated that national forest threat early warning system be developed and deployed. In response, the US Forest Service collaborated with NASA, DOE Oakridge National Laboratory, and the USGS Eros Data Center to build and roll-out the near real time ForWarn early warning system for monitoring regionally evident forest disturbances. Given the diversity of disturbance types, severities, and durations, ForWarn employs multiple historical baselines that are used with current NDVI to derive a suite of six forest change products that are refreshed every 8 days. ForWarn employs daily quarter kilometer MODIS NDVI data from the Aqua and Terra satellites, including MOD13 data for deriving historical baseline NDVIs and eMODIS 7 NDVI for compiling current NDVI. In doing so, the Time Series Product Tool and the Phenological Parameters Estimation Tool are used to temporally de-noise, fuse, and aggregate current and historical MODIS NDVIs into 24 day composites refreshed every 8 days with 46 dates of products per year. The 24 day compositing interval enables disturbances to be detected, while minimizing the frequency of residual atmospheric contamination. Forest change products are computed versus the previous 1, previous 3, and all previous years in the MODIS record for a given 24 day interval. Other "weekly" forest change products include one computed using an adaptive length compositing method for quicker detection of disturbances, two others that adjust for seasonal fluctuations in normal vegetation phenology (e.g., early versus late springs). This overall approach enables forest disturbance dynamics from a variety of regionally evident biotic and abiotic forest disturbances to be viewed and assessed through the calendar year. The change products are also being utilized for forest change trend analysis and for developing regional forest overstory mortality products. ForWarn's forest change products are used to alert forest health specialists about new forest disturbances. Such alerts are also typically based on available Landsat, aerial, and ground data as well as communications with forest health specialists and previous experience. ForWarn products have been used to detect and track many types of regional disturbances to multiple forest types, including defoliation from caterpillars and severe storms, as well as mortality from both biotic and abiotic agents (e.g., bark beetles, drought, fire, anthropogenic clearing). ForWarn offers products that could be combined with other geospatial data on forest biomass to assess forest disturbance carbon impacts within the conterminous US.

  11. Forest bird monitoring protocol for strategic habitat conservation and endangered species management on O'ahu Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Island of O'ahu, Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Banko, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the results of a pilot forest bird survey and a consequent forest bird monitoring protocol that was developed for the O'ahu Forest National Wildlife Refuge, O'ahu Island, Hawai'i. The pilot survey was conducted to inform aspects of the monitoring protocol and to provide a baseline with which to compare future surveys on the Refuge. The protocol was developed in an adaptive management framework to track bird distribution and abundance and to meet the strategic habitat conservation requirements of the Refuge. Funding for this research was provided through a Science Support Partnership grant sponsored jointly by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS).

  12. Mangroves in peril: unprecedented degradation rates of peri-urban mangroves in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosire, J. O.; Kaino, J. J.; Olagoke, A. O.; Mwihaki, L. M.; Ogendi, G. M.; Kairo, J. G.; Berger, U.; Macharia, D.

    2013-10-01

    Marine ecosystems are experiencing unprecedentedly high degradation rates than any other ecosystem on the planet, which in some instances are up to four times that of rainforests. Mangrove ecosystems have especially been impacted by compounded anthropogenic pressures leading to significant cover reductions of between 35 and 50% (equivalent to 1-2% loss pa) for the last half century. The main objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that peri-urban mangroves suffering from compounded and intense pressures may be experiencing higher degradation rates than the global mean (and/or national mean for Kenya) using Mombasa mangroves (comprising of Tudor and Mwache creeks) as a case study. Stratified sampling was used to sample along 22 and 10 belt transects in Mwache and Tudor respectively, set to capture stand heterogeneity in terms of species composition and structure in addition to perceived human pressure gradients using proximity to human habitations as a proxy. We acquired SPOT (HRV/ HRVIR/ HRS) imageries of April 1994, May 2000 and January 2009 and a vector mangrove map of 1992 at a scale of 1 : 50 000 for cover change and species composition analysis. Results from image classification of the 2009 image had 80.23% overall accuracy and Cohen's Kappa of 0.77, thus proving satisfactory for use in this context. Structural data indicate that complexity index (CI) which captures stand structural development was higher in Mwache at 1.80 compared to Tudor at 1.71. From cover change data, Tudor had lost 86.9% of the forest between 1992 and 2009, compared to Mwache at 45.4% representing very high hitherto undocumented degradation rates of 5.1 and 2.7% pa, respectively. These unprecedentedly high degradation rates, which far exceed not only the national mean (for Kenya of 0.7% pa) but the global mean as well, strongly suggest that these mangroves are highly threatened due to compounded pressures. Strengthening of governance regimes through enforcement and compliance to halt illegal wood extraction, improvement of land-use practices upstream to reduce soil erosion, restoration in areas where natural regeneration has been impaired, provision of alternative energy sources/building materials and a complete moratorium on wood extraction especially in Tudor creek to allow recovery are some of the suggested management interventions.

  13. Mangroves in peril: unprecedented degradation rates of peri-urban mangroves in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosire, J. O.; Kaino, J. J.; Olagoke, A. O.; Mwihaki, L. M.; Ogendi, G. M.; Kairo, J. G.; Berger, U.; Macharia, D.

    2014-05-01

    Marine ecosystems are experiencing unprecedented degradation rates higher than any other ecosystem on the planet, which in some instances are up to 4 times those of rainforests. Mangrove ecosystems have especially been impacted by compounded anthropogenic pressures leading to significant cover reductions of between 35 and 50% (equivalent to 1-2% loss pa) for the last half century. The main objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that peri-urban mangroves suffering from compounded and intense pressures may be experiencing higher degradation rates than the global mean (and/or national mean for Kenya) using Mombasa mangroves (comprising Tudor and Mwache creeks) as a case study. Stratified sampling was used to sample along 22 and 10 belt transects in Mwache and Tudor respectively, set to capture stand heterogeneity in terms of species composition and structure in addition to perceived human pressure gradients using proximity to human habitations as a proxy. We acquired SPOT (HRV/ HRVIR/ HRS) images of April 1994, May 2000 and January 2009 and a vector mangrove map of 1992 at a scale of 1:50 000 for cover change and species composition analysis. Results from image classification of the 2009 image had 80.23% overall accuracy and Cohen's kappa of 0.77, thus proving satisfactory for use in this context. Structural data indicate that complexity index (CI) which captures stand structural development was higher in Mwache at 1.80 compared to Tudor at 1.71. From cover change data, Tudor lost 86.9% of the forest between 1992 and 2009, compared to Mwache at 45.4%, representing very high hitherto undocumented degradation rates of 5.1 and 2.7% pa, respectively. These unprecedentedly high degradation rates, which far exceed not only the national mean (for Kenya of 0.7% pa) but the global mean as well, strongly suggest that these mangroves are highly threatened due to compounded pressures. Strengthening of governance regimes through enforcement and compliance to halt illegal wood extraction, improvement of land-use practices upstream to reduce soil erosion, restoration in areas where natural regeneration has been impaired, provision of alternative energy sources/building materials and a complete moratorium on wood extraction especially in Tudor Creek to allow recovery are some of the suggested management interventions.

  14. Assessing ecosystem carbon stocks of Indonesia's threatened wetland forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, M.; Kauffman, B.; Murdiyarso, D.; Kurnianto, S.

    2011-12-01

    Over millennia, atmospheric carbon dioxide has been sequestered and stored in Indonesia's tropical wetland forests. Waterlogged conditions impede decomposition, allowing the formation of deep organic soils. These globally significant C pools are highly vulnerable to deforestation, degradation and climate change which can potentially switch their function as C sinks to long term sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Also at risk are critical ecosystem services which sustain millions of people and the conservation of unique biological communities. The multiple benefits derived from wetland forest conservation makes them attractive for international C offset programs such as the proposed Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+) mechanism. Yet, ecosystem C pools and fluxes in wetland forests remain poorly quantified. Significant knowledge gaps exist regarding how land use changes impact C dynamics in tropical wetlands, and very few studies have simultaneously assessed above- and belowground ecosystem C pools in Indonesia's freshwater peat swamps and mangroves. In addition, most of what is known about Indonesia's tropical wetland forests is derived from few geographic locations where long-standing research has focused, despite their broad spatial distribution. Here we present results from an extensive survey of ecosystem C stocks across several Indonesian wetland forests. Ecosystem C stocks were measured in freshwater peat swamp forests in West Papua, Central Kalimantan, West Kalimantan, and Sumatra. Carbon storage was also measured for mangrove forests in W. Papua, W. Kalimantan, and Sumatra. One overarching goal of this research is to support the development of REDD+ for tropical wetlands by informing technical issues related to carbon measuring, monitoring, and verification (MRV) and providing baseline data about the variation of ecosystem C storage across and within several Indonesian wetland forests.

  15. An Effort to Map and Monitor Baldcypress Forest Areas in Coastal Louisiana, Using Landsat, MODIS, and ASTER Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Sader, Steve; Smoot, James

    2012-01-01

    This presentation discusses a collaborative project to develop, test, and demonstrate baldcypress forest mapping and monitoring products for aiding forest conservation and restoration in coastal Louisiana. Low lying coastal forests in the region are being negatively impacted by multiple factors, including subsidence, salt water intrusion, sea level rise, persistent flooding, hydrologic modification, annual insect-induced forest defoliation, timber harvesting, and conversion to urban land uses. Coastal baldcypress forests provide invaluable ecological services in terms of wildlife habitat, forest products, storm buffers, and water quality benefits. Before this project, current maps of baldcypress forest concentrations and change did not exist or were out of date. In response, this project was initiated to produce: 1) current maps showing the extent and location of baldcypress dominated forests; and 2) wetland forest change maps showing temporary and persistent disturbance and loss since the early 1970s. Project products are being developed collaboratively with multiple state and federal agencies. Products are being validated using available reference data from aerial, satellite, and field survey data. Results include Landsat TM- based classifications of baldcypress in terms of cover type and percent canopy cover. Landsat MSS data was employed to compute a circa 1972 classification of swamp and bottomland hardwood forest types. Landsat data for 1972-2010 was used to compute wetland forest change products. MODIS-based change products were applied to view and assess insect-induced swamp forest defoliation. MODIS, Landsat, and ASTER satellite data products were used to help assess hurricane and flood impacts to coastal wetland forests in the region.

  16. Spatio-temporal variation of macrobenthic communities in the mangrove-fringed Segara Anakan lagoon, Indonesia, affected by anthropogenic activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inga Nordhaus; Fadlan Aji Hadipudjana; Ronald Janssen; Joko Pamungkas

    2009-01-01

    The benthic macrofauna of the Segara Anakan lagoon, Java, Indonesia and its fringing mangroves were investigated between May\\u000a 2004 and August 2006. This lagoon has been affected by various human activities for decades, in particular fishing, effluents\\u000a from agriculture and industry, and illegal deforestation. In total, 163 taxa were identified, including 127 species occurring\\u000a in the mangrove forest and 59

  17. Comparing different approaches for an effective monitoring of forest fires based on MSG/SEVIRI images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laneve, Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    The remote sensing sensors on board of geostationary satellite, as consequence of the high frequency of the observations, allow, in principle, the monitoring of these phenomena characterized by a fast dynamics. The only condition for is that the events to be monitored should be enough strong to be recognizable notwithstanding the low spatial resolution of the present geostationary systems (MSG/SEVIRI, GOES Imager, MTSAT). Apart from meteorological phenomena other events, like those associated with forest fires and/or volcanic eruption, are characterized by a very fast dynamics. These events are also associated with a very strong signal that make them observable by geostationary satellite in a quasi-continuous way. However, in order to make possible the detection of small fires by using the low resolution multi-spectral imagery provided by geostationary sensor like SEVIRI (3x3 km2 at the equator) new algorithms, capable to exploit it high observation frequency, has been developed. This paper is devoted to show the results obtained by comparing some of these algorithms trying to highlight their advantages and limits. The algorithms herein considered are these developed by CRPSM (SFIDE®), UNIBAS/CNR (RST-FIRES) and ESA-ESRIN (MDIFRM). In general, the new approaches proposed by each one of them are capable to promptly detect small fires making possible an operational utilization of the satellite based fire detection system in the fire fighting phases. In fact, these algorithms are quite different from these introduced in the past and specifically devoted to fire detection using low resolution multi-spectral imagery on LEO (Low Earth Orbit) satellite. Thanks to these differences they are capable of detecting sub-hectare (0.2 ha) forest fires providing an useful instrument for monitoring quasi-continuously forest fires, estimating the FRP (Fire Radiative Power), evaluating the burned biomass, retrieving the emission in the atmosphere.

  18. Monitoring of the effects of fire in North American boreal forests using ERS SAR imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasischke, E. S.; French, N. H. F.; Bourgeau-Chavez, L. L.

    1997-01-01

    ERS synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery represents a tool for monitoring the effects of fires in boreal regions. Fire-scar signatures from ERS SAR collected over Canada and Alaska are presented. The temporal variability exhibited throughout the growing season is underlined. The investigation showed that these signatures have a seasonal trend related to the patterns of soil moisture originating from snow melts in the spring and precipitation during the growing season. These signatures appear in all the regions of the North American boreal forest and remain visible for up to 13 years after a fire.

  19. Queen Angelfish Hides in Mangrove Prop Roots

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A Queen Angelfish peers through the safety of the mangrove roots across the rich colors and textures of corals, sponges, urchins, and algae. Queen Angelfish feed almost exclusively on sponges, which are abundant in these mangroves....

  20. MANGROVE-DERIVED NUTRIENTS AND CORAL REEFS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the consequences of the declining global cover of mangroves due to anthropogenic disturbance necessitates consideration of how mangrove-derived nutrients contribute to threatened coral reef systems. We sampled potential sources of organic matter and a suite of sessi...

  1. Community based mangrove management: a review on status and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Datta, Debajit; Chattopadhyay, R N; Guha, P

    2012-09-30

    Community Based Mangrove Management (CBMM) has been advocated by both academia and governing agencies as a viable alternative for sustainably managing the ecologically important mangrove forests which are disappearing rapidly worldwide. Drawing insights from diverse sustainability issues, capabilities and performances of worldwide CBMM initiatives were examined in this paper. Higher numbers of CBMM initiatives were reported from South Asia and lesser from South America and Africa. Identification of the causes of degradation at a site and use-specific zonal replantations with respect to species associations were identified as major criteria of ecological sustainability. Regarding economic sustainability, transformation of potential uses of mangroves known by local communities into actual ones was found to be necessary. Proper disbursement of accrued benefits among community members irrespective of their socio-cultural status is also a major concern. Restructuring of CBMM institutions by ensuring participation of subsistence based users in decision-making and resource sharing have been identified as a prime determinant of institutional sustainability. However, limited number of studies on socio-political and institutional aspects as well as impacts of globalization induced socio-cultural transformations of communities on CBMM had been actually found. More focused researches on these aspects had been recommended for better community management of these highly stressed forests. PMID:22595074

  2. How to catch the patch? A dendrometer study of the radial increment through successive cambia in the mangrove Avicennia

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Elisabeth M. R.; Jambia, Abudhabi H.; Schmitz, Nele; De Ryck, Dennis J. R.; De Mey, Johan; Kairo, James G.; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Beeckman, Hans; Koedam, Nico

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Successive vascular cambia are involved in the secondary growth of at least 200 woody species from >30 plant families. In the mangrove Avicennia these successive cambia are organized in patches, creating stems with non-concentric xylem tissue surrounded by internal phloem tissue. Little is known about radial growth and tree stem dynamics in trees with this type of anatomy. This study aims to (1) clarify the process of secondary growth of Avicennia trees by studying its patchiness; and (2) study the radial increment of Avicennia stems, both temporary and permanent, in relation to local climatic and environmental conditions. A test is made of the hypothesis that patchy radial growth and stem dynamics enable Avicennia trees to better survive conditions of extreme physiological drought. Methods Stem variations were monitored by automatic point dendrometers at four different positions around and along the stem of two Avicennia marina trees in the mangrove forest of Gazi Bay (Kenya) during 1 year. Key Results Patchiness was found in the radial growth and shrinkage and swelling patterns of Avicennia stems. It was, however, potentially rather than systematically present, i.e. stems reacted either concentrically or patchily to environment triggers, and it was fresh water availability and not tidal inundation that affected radial increment. Conclusions It is concluded that the ability to develop successive cambia in a patchy way enables Avicennia trees to adapt to changes in the prevailing environmental conditions, enhancing its survival in the highly dynamic mangrove environment. Limited water could be used in a more directive way, investing all the attainable resources in only some locations of the tree stem so that at least at these locations there is enough water to, for example, overcome vessel embolisms or create new cells. As these locations change with time, the overall functioning of the tree can be maintained. PMID:24510216

  3. Time-Series Analysis of Coastal Erosion in the Sundarbans Mangrove

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmudur Rahman, M.

    2012-07-01

    Mangrove forests are fragile coastal ecosystems and could be one of the most vulnerable ecosystems to global climate change and sea-level rise. These forests are formed in the fringe of land and ocean and characterized by the regular inundation of tidal water. Because of the changes in sea-level and dynamic energy system in the transition zone between land and sea due to climate change, erosion in different coastal zones of the world could be accelerated. The objective of this study is to find out the nature and pattern of erosion that can threaten mangrove forest ecosystems. The study area is located in Sundarbans mangrove, the largest continuous mangrove forest in the world. The study utilized time-series data of Landsat Multi-spectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) during 1970s to 2010s. Time-series change analysis was done along the selected transect lines. The erosion rates in the Sundarbans Mangrove are variable and it is very difficult to get a conclusive result from the analysis of those points whether the erosion rate has been accelerated in the recent past. The average rates of erosion for the eastern and western parts are 14 m/year and 15 m/year respectively obtained form the ten selected transect lines. It is unclear that how much coastal erosion is linked to the global warming and sea-level rise or whether any other associated factors such as geological and anthropogenic induced land subsidence, changes in sediment supply or other local factors are driving these changes. Further studies should be conducted in different mangrove ecosystems of the world to explore whether similar patterns of coastal erosion are visible there.

  4. Height and Biomass of Mangroves in Africa from ICEsat/GLAS and SRTM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fatoyinbo, Temilola E.; Simard, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The accurate quantification of forest 3-D structure is of great importance for studies of the global carbon cycle and biodiversity. These studies are especially relevant in Africa, where deforestation rates are high and the lack of background data is great. Mangrove forests are ecologically significant and it is important to measure mangrove canopy heights and biomass. The objectives of this study are to estimate: 1. The total area, 2. Canopy height distributions and 3. Aboveground biomass of mangrove forests in Africa. To derive mangrove 3-D structure and biomass maps, we used a combination of mangrove maps derived from Landsat ETM+, LiDAR canopy height estimates from ICEsat/GLAS (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite/Geoscience Laser Altimeter System) and elevation data from SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) for the African continent. More specifically, we extracted mangrove forest areas on the SRTM DEM using Landsat based landcover maps. The LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) measurements from the large footprint GLAS sensor were used to derive local estimates of canopy height and calibrate the Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data from SRTM. We then applied allometric equations relating canopy height to biomass in order to estimate above ground biomass (AGB) from the canopy height product. The total mangrove area of Africa was estimated to be 25 960 square kilometers with 83% accuracy. The largest mangrove areas and greatest total biomass was 29 found in Nigeria covering 8 573 km2 with 132 x10(exp 6) Mg AGB. Canopy height across Africa was estimated with an overall root mean square error of 3.55 m. This error also includes the impact of using sensors with different resolutions and geolocation error which make comparison between measurements sensitive to canopy heterogeneities. This study provides the first systematic estimates of mangrove area, height and biomass in Africa. Our results showed that the combination of ICEsat/GLAS and SRTM data is well suited for vegetation 3-D mapping on a continental scale.

  5. Potential of VIIRS Data for Regional Monitoring of Gypsy Moth Defoliation: Implications for Forest Threat Early Warning System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Spruce; R. E. Ryan; J. C. Smoot; D. L. Prados; R. D. McKellip; S. A. Sader; G. Gasser; G. May; W. Hargrove

    2007-01-01

    A NASA RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) experiment was conducted to assess the potential of VIIRS (Visible\\/Infrared Imager\\/Radiometer Suite) data for monitoring non-native gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) defoliation of forests. This experiment compares defoliation detection products computed from simulated VIIRS and from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series products as potential inputs to a forest threat EWS (Early Warning System)

  6. Monitoring of environmental conditions in the Alaskan forests using ERS-1 SAR data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, Eric; Way, Jobea; Mcdonald, Kyle; Viereck, Leslie; Adams, Phyllis

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary results from an analysis of the multitemporal radar backscatter signatures of tree species acquired by European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data are presented. Significant changes in radar backscatter are detected. Correlation of these differences with ground truth observations indicate that these are due to changes in soil and liquid water content as a result of freeze/thaw events. C-band observations acquired by the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Airborne SAR (JPL AIRSAR) instrument demonstrate the potential of a C-band radar instrument to monitor drought/flood events. The potential of ERS-1 for monitoring phenologic changes in the forest and for classifying tree species is less promising.

  7. Global Characterization and Monitoring of Forest Cover Using Landsat Data: Opportunities and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townshend, John R.; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Huang, ChengQuan; Vermote, Eric F.; Gao, Feng; Channan, Saurabh; Sexton, Joseph O.; Feng, Min; Narasimhan, Ramghuram; Kim, Dohyung; Song, Kuan; Song, Danxia; Song, Xiao-Peng; Noojipady, Praveen; Tan, Bin; Hansen, Matthew C.; Li, Mengxue; Wolfe, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    The compilation of global Landsat data-sets and the ever-lowering costs of computing now make it feasible to monitor the Earth's land cover at Landsat resolutions of 30 m. In this article, we describe the methods to create global products of forest cover and cover change at Landsat resolutions. Nevertheless, there are many challenges in ensuring the creation of high-quality products. And we propose various ways in which the challenges can be overcome. Among the challenges are the need for atmospheric correction, incorrect calibration coefficients in some of the data-sets, the different phenologies between compilations, the need for terrain correction, the lack of consistent reference data for training and accuracy assessment, and the need for highly automated characterization and change detection. We propose and evaluate the creation and use of surface reflectance products, improved selection of scenes to reduce phenological differences, terrain illumination correction, automated training selection, and the use of information extraction procedures robust to errors in training data along with several other issues. At several stages we use Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer data and products to assist our analysis. A global working prototype product of forest cover and forest cover change is included.

  8. Kelp forest monitoring 1992 annual report. Channel Islands National Park. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, D.; Kushner, D.

    1992-12-31

    The 1992 results of the Channel Islands Natioanl Park Kelp Forest Monitoring Project are described in this report. Population dynamics of 68 taxa or categories of algae, fish, and invertebrates were measured at 16 permanent sites around the five islands within the park. Survey techniques utilized SCUBA and surface-supplied-air, and included quadrats, band transects, random point contacts, fish and video transects, photogrammetric plots, size frequency measurements, artifical recruitment habitats, and species list surveys. Some batheothermograph data was collected. In 1992, nine sites and healthy kelp forests while seven were mostly barren. The seven barren sites consisted of one that was dominated by the aggregated red sea cucumber, Pachythyone rubra, one was barren with high sedimentation, one was domainated by red sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus franciscanus, and four sites were dominated by purple sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, three of which had signs of a developing kelp forest. Wasting disease was observed in sea stars and a wasting syndrome was observed in sea urchins. Fish recruitment appeared to be late this year. Size frequency measurements were taken from artificial recruitment modules (previously named `abalone recruitment modules`) at six of the sites.

  9. Mangrove carbon sink. Do burrowing crabs contribute to sediment carbon storage? Evidence from a Kenyan mangrove system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreetta, Anna; Fusi, Marco; Cameldi, Irene; Cimò, Filippo; Carnicelli, Stefano; Cannicci, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Mangrove ecosystems are acknowledged as a significant carbon reservoir, with a potential key role as carbon sinks. Little however is known on sediment/soil capacity to store organic carbon and the impact of benthic fauna on soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in mangrove C-poor soils. This study aimed to investigate the effects of macrobenthos on SOC storage and dynamic in mangrove forest at Gazi Bay (Kenya). Although the relatively low amount of organic carbon (OC%) in these soils, they resulted in the presence of large ecosystem carbon stock comparable to other forest ecosystems. SOC at Gazi bay ranged from 3.6 kg m- 2 in a Desert-like belt to 29.7 kg m- 2 in the Rhizophora belt considering the depth soil interval from 0 cm to 80 cm. The high spatial heterogeneity in the distribution and amount of SOC seemed to be explained by different dominant crab species and their impact on the soil environment. A further major determinant was the presence, in the subsoil, of horizons rich in organic matter, whose dating pointed to their formation being associated with sea level rise over the Holocene. Dating and soil morphological characters proved to be an effective support to discuss links between the strategies developed by macrobenthos and soil ecosystem functioning.

  10. Unmanned aerial systems for forest reclamation monitoring: throwing balloons in the air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Rita; Vaz, Eric; Panagopoulos, Thomas; Guerrero, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Wildfires are a recurrent phenomenon in Mediterranean landscapes, deteriorating environment and ecosystems, calling out for adequate land management. Monitoring burned areas enhances our abilities to reclaim them. Remote sensing has become an increasingly important tool for environmental assessment and land management. It is fast, non-intrusive, and provides continuous spatial coverage. This paper reviews remote sensing methods, based on space-borne, airborne or ground-based multispectral imagery, for monitoring the biophysical properties of forest areas for site specific management. The usage of satellite imagery for land use management has been frequent in the last decades, it is of great use to determine plants health and crop conditions, allowing a synergy between the complexity of environment, anthropogenic landscapes and multi-temporal understanding of spatial dynamics. Aerial photography increments on spatial resolution, nevertheless it is heavily dependent on airborne availability as well as cost. Both these methods are required for wide areas management and policy planning. Comprising an active and high resolution imagery source, that can be brought at a specific instance, reducing cost while maintaining locational flexibility is of utmost importance for local management. In this sense, unmanned aerial vehicles provide maximum flexibility with image collection, they can incorporate thermal and multispectral sensors, however payload and engine operation time limit flight time. Balloon remote sensing is becoming increasingly sought after for site specific management, catering rapid digital analysis, permitting greater control of the spatial resolution as well as of datasets collection in a given time. Different wavelength sensors may be used to map spectral variations in plant growth, monitor water and nutrient stress, assess yield and plant vitality during different stages of development. Proximity could be an asset when monitoring forest plants vitality. Early predictions of re-vegetation success facilitate precise and timely diagnosis of stress, thus remedial actions can be taken at localized detail.

  11. Long-Term Assessment of an Innovative Mangrove Rehabilitation Project: Case Study on Carey Island, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Motamedi, Shervin; Hashim, Roslan; Zakaria, Rozainah; Song, Ki-Il; Sofawi, Bakrin

    2014-01-01

    Wave energy and storm surges threaten coastal ecology and nearshore infrastructures. Although coastal structures are conventionally constructed to dampen the wave energy, they introduce tremendous damage to the ecology of the coast. To minimize environmental impact, ecofriendly coastal protection schemes should be introduced. In this paper, we discuss an example of an innovative mangrove rehabilitation attempt to restore the endangered mangroves on Carey Island, Malaysia. A submerged detached breakwater system was constructed to dampen the energy of wave and trap the sediments behind the structure. Further, a large number of mangrove seedlings were planted using different techniques. Further, we assess the possibility of success for a future mangrove rehabilitation project at the site in the context of sedimentology, bathymetry, and hydrogeochemistry. The assessment showed an increase in the amount of silt and clay, and the seabed was noticeably elevated. The nutrient concentration, the pH value, and the salinity index demonstrate that the site is conducive in establishing mangrove seedlings. As a result, we conclude that the site is now ready for attempts to rehabilitate the lost mangrove forest. PMID:25097894

  12. Long-term assessment of an innovative mangrove rehabilitation project: case study on Carey Island, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Motamedi, Shervin; Hashim, Roslan; Zakaria, Rozainah; Song, Ki-Il; Sofawi, Bakrin

    2014-01-01

    Wave energy and storm surges threaten coastal ecology and nearshore infrastructures. Although coastal structures are conventionally constructed to dampen the wave energy, they introduce tremendous damage to the ecology of the coast. To minimize environmental impact, ecofriendly coastal protection schemes should be introduced. In this paper, we discuss an example of an innovative mangrove rehabilitation attempt to restore the endangered mangroves on Carey Island, Malaysia. A submerged detached breakwater system was constructed to dampen the energy of wave and trap the sediments behind the structure. Further, a large number of mangrove seedlings were planted using different techniques. Further, we assess the possibility of success for a future mangrove rehabilitation project at the site in the context of sedimentology, bathymetry, and hydrogeochemistry. The assessment showed an increase in the amount of silt and clay, and the seabed was noticeably elevated. The nutrient concentration, the pH value, and the salinity index demonstrate that the site is conducive in establishing mangrove seedlings. As a result, we conclude that the site is now ready for attempts to rehabilitate the lost mangrove forest. PMID:25097894

  13. Heavy metal contamination in a vulnerable mangrove swamp in South China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yutao; Qiu, Qiu; Xin, Guorong; Yang, Zhongyi; Zheng, Jing; Ye, Zhihong; Li, Shaoshan

    2013-07-01

    Concentrations of six heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, Cr, and Pb) in sediments and fine roots, thick roots, branches, and leaves of six mangrove plant species collected from the Futian mangrove forest, South China were measured. The results show that both the sediments and plants in Futian mangrove ecosystem are moderately contaminated by heavy metals, with the main contaminants being Zn and Cu. All investigated metals showed very similar distribution patterns in the sediments, implying that they had the same anthropogenic source(s). High accumulations of the heavy metals were observed in the root tissues, especially the fine roots, and much lower concentrations in the other organs. This indicates that the roots strongly immobilize the heavy metals and (hence) that mangrove plants possess mechanisms that limit the upward transport of heavy metals and exclude them from sensitive tissues. The growth performance of propagules and 6-month-old seedlings of Bruguiera gymnorhiza in the presence of contaminating Cu and Cd was also examined. The results show that this plant is not sufficiently sensitive to heavy metals after its propagule stage for its regeneration and growth to be significantly affected by heavy metal contamination in the Futian mangrove ecosystem. However, older mangrove seedlings appeared to be more metal-tolerant than the younger seedlings due to their more efficient exclusion mechanism. Thus, the effects of metal contamination on young seedlings should be assessed when evaluating the risks posed by heavy metals in an ecosystem. PMID:23203819

  14. Rehabilitation of Mangrove Ecosystems: An Overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D Field

    1999-01-01

    The concept and goals of mangrove ecosystem rehabilitation are considered and contrasted with ideas of ecosystem restoration. Three reasons for mangrove rehabilitation: conservation and landscaping; multiple use systems for high sustainable yield and protection of coastal areas, are then examined in detail. In each case, the underlying philosophy and limitations are presented. The practical problems of site selection for mangrove

  15. Effects of urban wastewater on crab and mollusc assemblages in equatorial and subtropical mangroves of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannicci, Stefano; Bartolini, Fabrizio; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Fratini, Sara; Litulo, Carlos; Macia, Adriano; Mrabu, Elisha J.; Penha-Lopes, Gil; Paula, José

    2009-09-01

    Mangrove forests are known to accomplish crucial ecosystem functions and services. They are nursery areas for fish, prawns and crabs, which provide coastal communities with a variety of food, timber and chemicals, and protect coasts from catastrophic events, such as tsunamis. Recently, a novel ecological service has been proposed for mangrove systems, namely natural wastewater treatment wetlands. This hypothesis was based on experimental data collected mainly in Chinese mangrove systems, which proved that mangrove soils were efficient in absorbing nutrients. Moreover, sewage loading seemed harmless to both plants and benthic communities in these systems. However, before promoting the use of natural mangroves as pollution buffers, or constructed mangrove wetlands as sewage treatment facilities, more data are needed on their overall tolerance to organic loading. Differences in macrobenthos patterns were thus investigated between peri-urban mangroves and sites not affected by sewage disposal in East Africa. We assessed differences in epifaunal assemblages, comprising crabs and molluscs, employing multivariate ACI unbalanced analyses to compare peri-urban mangrove swamps with those characteristic of non-urban mangroves with similar ecological traits. The sampling design was spatially nested, replicates being assessed at equatorial (southern Kenya) and subtropical (southern Mozambique) sites. The results manifested a consistent increase in crab biomass at the peri-urban sites in both Kenya and Mozambique. Moreover, the peri-urban systems were richer than the non-urban mangroves, both in terms of fiddler crabs ( Uca spp.) which feed on benthic microalgae and bacteria, and sesarmids, such as Perisesarma guttatum and Neosarmatium meinerti, which feed on both substratum and leaf litter. The abundance of gastropods, in contrast, decreased significantly, especially in Kenya, mainly due to the disappearance of the mud whelk Terebralia palustris. The results thus indicate that, in East African mangrove systems, domestic wastewater has detectable effects on crabs and molluscs, suggesting their usefulness as bioindicators of its effects in mangroves. Transformed benthic patterns at the peri-urban sites indicated the need for further study of the actual potential of natural mangrove forests to absorb pollution in sewage treatment.

  16. Monitoring Post-Fire Vegetation Rehabilitation Projects: A Common Approach for Non-Forested Ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wirth, Troy A.; Pyke, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Emergency Stabilization and Rehabilitation (ES&R) and Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) treatments are short-term, high-intensity treatments designed to mitigate the adverse effects of wildfire on public lands. The federal government expends significant resources implementing ES&R and BAER treatments after wildfires; however, recent reviews have found that existing data from monitoring and research are insufficient to evaluate the effects of these activities. The purpose of this report is to: (1) document what monitoring methods are generally used by personnel in the field; (2) describe approaches and methods for post-fire vegetation and soil monitoring documented in agency manuals; (3) determine the common elements of monitoring programs recommended in these manuals; and (4) describe a common monitoring approach to determine the effectiveness of future ES&R and BAER treatments in non-forested regions. Both qualitative and quantitative methods to measure effectiveness of ES&R treatments are used by federal land management agencies. Quantitative methods are used in the field depending on factors such as funding, personnel, and time constraints. There are seven vegetation monitoring manuals produced by the federal government that address monitoring methods for (primarily) vegetation and soil attributes. These methods vary in their objectivity and repeatability. The most repeatable methods are point-intercept, quadrat-based density measurements, gap intercepts, and direct measurement of soil erosion. Additionally, these manuals recommend approaches for designing monitoring programs for the state of ecosystems or the effect of management actions. The elements of a defensible monitoring program applicable to ES&R and BAER projects that most of these manuals have in common are objectives, stratification, control areas, random sampling, data quality, and statistical analysis. The effectiveness of treatments can be determined more accurately if data are gathered using an approach that incorporates these six monitoring program design elements and objectives, as well as repeatable procedures to measure cover, density, gap intercept, and soil erosion within each ecoregion and plant community. Additionally, using a common monitoring program design with comparable methods, consistently documenting results, and creating and maintaining a central database for query and reporting, will ultimately allow a determination of the effectiveness of post-fire rehabilitation activities region-wide.

  17. The Economical Microbolometer-Based Environmental Radiometer Satellite (EMBERSAT) Designed for Forest Fire Detection and Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lancaster, Redgie S.; Skillman, David R.; Welch, Wayne; Spinhirne, James D.; Manizade, Kathrine F.; Beecken, Brian P.

    2003-01-01

    Thermal infrared imagery from several satellite instruments, such as the NOAA AVHRR and the NASA MODIS, is presently used to detect and map forest fires. But while these radiometers can identify fires they are designed and optimized for cloud detection, providing relatively low spatial resolution and quickly saturating even for small fires. Efforts to detect and monitor forest fires from space would benefit from the development of single-sensor satellites designed specifically for this purpose. With the advent of uncooled thermal detectors, and thus the absence of aggressive cooling, the possibility of developing small satellites for the purpose of fire detection and monitoring becomes practical and cost-effective. Thus is the case with the Economical Microbolometer Based Environmental Radiometer Satellite (EMBERSat) program. The objective of this program is to develop a single, prototype satellite that will provide multiband thermal imagery with a spatial resolution of 250m and a dynamic range of 300-1000K. The thermal imaging payload has flight heritage in the Infrared Spectral Imaging Radiometer that flew aboard mission STS-85 and the spacecraft is a variant of the SimpleSat bus launched from the shuttle Columbia as part of STS-109. The EMBERSat program is a technology demonstration initiative with the eventual goal of providing high-resolution thermal imagery to both the scientific community and the public.

  18. The Economical Microbolometer-Based Environmental Radiometer Satellite (EMBERSat) Designed for Forest Fire Detection and Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lancaster, Redgie S.; Skillman, David R.; Welch, Wayne C.; Spinhirne, James D.; Manizade, Katherine F.; Beecken, Brian P.

    2004-01-01

    Thermal infrared imagery from several satellite instruments, such as the NOAA AVHRR and the NASA MODIS, is presently used to detect and map forest fires. But while these radiometers can identify fires they are designed and optimized for cloud detection, providing relatively low spatial resolution and quickly saturating even for small fires. Efforts to detect and monitor forest fires from space would benefit from the development of single-sensor satellites designed specifically for this purpose. With the advent of uncooled thermal detectors, and thus the absence of aggressive cooling, the possibility of developing small satellites for the purpose of fire detection and monitoring becomes practical and cost-effective. Thus is the case with the Economical Microbolometer Based Environmental Radiometer Satellite (EMBERSat) program. The objective of this program is to develop a single, prototype satellite that will provide multiband thermal imagery with a spatial resolution of 250m and a dynamic range of 300-1000K. The thermal imaging payload has flight heritage in the Infrared Spectral Imaging Radiometer that flew aboard mission STS-85 and the spacecraft is a variant of the SimpleSat bus launched from the shuttle Columbia as part of STS-105. The EMBERSat program is a technology demonstration initiative with the eventual goal of providing high-resolution thermal imagery to both the scientific community and the public.

  19. Designing, implementing and monitoring social impact mitigation strategies: Lessons from Forest Industry Structural Adjustment Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Loxton, Edwina A., E-mail: Edwina.Loxton@anu.edu.au [Fenner School of Environment and Society, The Australian National University, Canberra, 0200 (Australia); Schirmer, Jacki, E-mail: Jacki.Schirmer@canberra.edu.au [Fenner School of Environment and Society, The Australian National University, Canberra, 0200 (Australia) [Fenner School of Environment and Society, The Australian National University, Canberra, 0200 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Forestry, Hobart, 7001 (Australia); Kanowski, Peter, E-mail: P.Kanowski@cgiar.org [Fenner School of Environment and Society, The Australian National University, Canberra, 0200 (Australia) [Fenner School of Environment and Society, The Australian National University, Canberra, 0200 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Forestry, Hobart, 7001 (Australia)

    2013-09-15

    Social impact mitigation strategies are implemented by the proponents of policies and projects with the intent of reducing the negative, and increasing the positive social impacts of their activities, and facilitating the achievement of policy/project goals. Evaluation of mitigation strategies is critical to improving their future success and cost-effectiveness. This paper evaluates two Forest Industry Structural Adjustment Packages (FISAP) implemented in Australia in the 1990s to 2000s as part of broader policy changes that reduced access to timber from publicly owned native forests. It assesses the effectiveness of the structure, design, implementation and monitoring of the FISAPs, and highlights the interactions between these four elements and their influence on social impacts. The two FISAPs were found to be effective in terms of reducing negative impacts, encouraging positive impacts and contributing towards policy goals, although they did not mitigate negative impacts in all cases, and sometimes interacted with external factors and additional policy changes to contribute to significant short and long term negative impacts. -- Highlights: ? Mitigation strategies aim to reduce negative and enhance positive social impacts ? Mitigation strategy design, implementation, and monitoring are critical to success ? Effective mitigation enhanced the capacity of recipients to respond to change ? Mitigation strategies influenced multiple interacting positive and negative impacts ? Success required good communication, transparency, support, resources and timing.

  20. The Role Of Gender In The Mangrove: Heterogeneity Of Technologies And Local Institutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo Andrés Ramos; Diana Lucia Maya; Juan Camilo Cárdenas

    2004-01-01

    We study how Women and Men choose technologies and design local rules for defining strategies of extraction and conservation of the mangrove forest, based on extensive field work in the Pacific Coast of Colombia which includes economic experiments, community workshops, rapid rural appraisal techniques and personal interviews. The paper will explore how gender can create certain conditions for a differentiated

  1. Culture independent molecular analysis of bacterial communities in the mangrove sediment of Sundarban, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abhrajyoti Ghosh; Nirmalya Dey; Amit Bera; Amit Tiwari; KB Sathyaniranjan; Kalyan Chakrabarti; Dhrubajyoti Chattopadhyay

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sundarban is the world's largest coastal sediment comprising of mangrove forest which covers about one million hectares in the south-eastern parts of India and southern parts of Bangladesh. The microbial diversity in this sediment is largely unknown till date. In the present study an attempt has been made to understand the microbial diversity in this sediment using a cultivation-independent

  2. Factors limiting the intertidal distribution of the mangrove species Xylocarpus granatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Allen; Ken W. Krauss; Robert D. Hauff

    2003-01-01

    The tree species Xylocarpus granatum is commonly described as occurring in the upper intertidal zone of mangrove forests, but mature trees are occasionally found at lower elevations. In the Utwe River basin, on the Pacific island of Kosrae, we investigated the relative importance of several biotic and abiotic factors that may control the intertidal distribution of X. granatum. Factors we

  3. Spatial distribution and abundances of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in mangrove sediments

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meng; Cao, Huiluo; Hong, Yiguo

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the diversity, spatial distribution, and abundances of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in sediment samples of different depths collected from a transect with different distances to mangrove forest in the territories of Hong Kong. Both the archaeal and bacterial amoA genes (encoding ammonia monooxygenase subunit A) from all samples supported distinct phylogenetic groups, indicating the presences of niche-specific AOA and AOB in mangrove sediments. The higher AOB abundances than AOA in mangrove sediments, especially in the vicinity of the mangrove trees, might indicate the more important role of AOB on nitrification. The spatial distribution showed that AOA had higher diversity and abundance in the surface layer sediments near the mangrove trees (0 and 10 m) but lower away from the mangrove trees (1,000 m), and communities of AOA could be clustered into surface and bottom sediment layer groups. In contrast, AOB showed a reverse distributed pattern, and its communities were grouped by the distances between sites and mangrove trees, indicating mangrove trees might have different influences on AOA and AOB community structures. Furthermore, the strong correlations among archaeal and bacterial amoA gene abundances and their ratio with NH4+, salinity, and pH of sediments indicated that these environmental factors have strong influences on AOA and AOB distributions in mangrove sediments. In addition, AOA diversity and abundances were significantly correlated with hzo gene abundances, which encodes the key enzyme for transformation of hydrazine into N2 in anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria, indicating AOA and anammox bacteria may interact with each other or they are influenced by the same controlling factors, such as NH4+. The results provide a better understanding on using mangrove wetlands as biological treatment systems for removal of nutrients. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00253-010-2929-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20953601

  4. Dynamics of mangrove-marsh ecotones in subtropical coastal wetlands: fire, sea-level rise, and water levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Thomas J., III; Foster, Ann M.; Tiling-Range, Ginger; Jones, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Ecotones are areas of sharp environmental gradients between two or more homogeneous vegetation types. They are a dynamic aspect of all landscapes and are also responsive to climate change. Shifts in the position of an ecotone across a landscape can be an indication of a changing environment. In the coastal Everglades of Florida, USA, a dominant ecotone type is that of mangrove forest and marsh. However, there is a variety of plants that can form the marsh component, including sawgrass (Cladium mariscus [L.] Pohl), needlegrass rush (Juncus roemerianus Scheele), and spikerush (Eleocharis spp.). Environmental factors including water depth, soil type, and occurrence of fires vary across these ecotones, influencing their dynamics. Altered freshwater inflows from upstream and increasing sea level over the past 100 years may have also had an impact. We analyzed a time series of historical aerial photographs for a number of sites in the coastal Everglades and measured change in position of mangrove–marsh ecotones. For three sites, detailed maps were produced and the area of marsh, mangrove, and other habitats was determined for five periods spanning the years 1928 to 2004. Contrary to our initial hypothesis on fire, we found that fire did not prevent mangrove expansion into marsh areas but may in fact assist mangroves to invade some marsh habitats, especially sawgrass. Disparate patterns in mangrove–marsh change were measured at two downstream sites, both of which had multiple fires over from 1948 to 2004. No change in mangrove or marsh area was measured at one site. Mangrove area increased and marsh area decreased at the second of these fire-impacted sites. We measured a significant increase in mangrove area and a decline in marsh area at an upstream site that had little occurrence of fire. At this site, water levels have increased significantly as sea level has risen, and this has probably been a factor in the mangrove expansion.

  5. Alteration of the chemical composition of mangrove ( Laguncularia racemosa) leaf litter fall by freeze damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, William L.; Bowles, Justin W.; Erickson, Amy A.; Stafford, Nate; Bell, Susan S.; Thomas, Melanie

    2006-06-01

    Resorption, the remobilization and subsequent transport of leaf constituents (e.g. N, C, and P) into the perennial structures of the plant prior to leaf abscission, may be interrupted or prevented by stressors that interfere with the normal course of leaf senescence. Mangroves that lie along the latitudinal extremes of their distribution are susceptible to freeze damage that may periodically disrupt the normal resorptive process. On January 24, 2003, the white mangroves ( Laguncularia racemosa) in a northern portion of Tampa Bay, Florida were exposed to freezing temperatures for 8 h. The leaves of these trees were noticeably withered by this freeze event. Over a four-month period following the freeze, we compared the subsequent rate of leaf litter production at this site to that of two, apparently undamaged, fringing mangrove forests in Tampa Bay. We also examined the carbon and nitrogen concentrations of the leaf litter from the litter traps at these three sites and compared it to that of green, yellow (nearly senescent), and freeze-damaged leaves hand-picked from the mangroves. A pronounced pulse of leaf litter fall (maximum: 7 g dw m -2 d -1) was found at the putatively freeze-damaged site but not at the two comparison sites. In addition, the leaf litter at the freeze-damaged site was richer in nitrogen and carbon, and had a lower C:N than litter collected at the comparison sites. Comparison of the elemental composition of this leaf litter with leaves hand-picked from the mangroves suggests that the freeze event killed the leaves of L. racemosa, interrupting the process of resorption. This perturbation to nutrient flow may have implications for mangrove forest structure and the entry of mangrove material into food webs.

  6. Air-water gas exchange and CO2 flux in a mangrove-dominated estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ho, David T.; Ferrón, Sara; Engel, Victor C.; Larsen, Laurel G.; Barr, Jordan G.

    2014-01-01

    Mangrove forests are highly productive ecosystems, but the fate of mangrove-derived carbon remains uncertain. Part of that uncertainty stems from the fact that gas transfer velocities in mangrove-surrounded waters are not well determined, leading to uncertainty in air-water CO2 fluxes. Two SF6 tracer release experiments were conducted to determine gas transfer velocities (k(600)?=?8.3?±?0.4 and 8.1?±?0.6?cm?h?1), along with simultaneous measurements of pCO2 to determine the air-water CO2 fluxes from Shark River, Florida (232.11?±?23.69 and 171.13?±?20.28?mmol C m?2 d?1), an estuary within the largest contiguous mangrove forest in North America. The gas transfer velocity results are consistent with turbulent kinetic energy dissipation measurements, indicating a higher rate of turbulence and gas exchange than predicted by commonly used wind speed/gas exchange parameterizations. The results have important implications for carbon fluxes in mangrove ecosystems.

  7. [Trophic analysis and trophodynamic functioning of mangrove fish fauna of New Caledonia].

    PubMed

    Thollot, P; Kulbicki, M; Harmelin-Vivien, M

    1999-07-01

    Fish communities from geomorphologically different mangrove forests showed distinct trophic structures. A mangrove area located near fringing reefs (Bouraké) was dominated by large invertebrate (> 2 mm) feeders (40.7% of total wet weight of the fish fauna) and herbivores (26.7%) whilst an estuarine mangrove (Ouenghi) was characterized by detritus feeders (28.2%), piscivorous (18.2%) and large invertebrate feeders (17.9%). In spite of these differences in trophic structure, similar food webs occurred in both areas, whereas the intensity of fluxes between trophic compartments was different. Resident species were usually at the base of the trophic structure. This component of the fish fauna used available sources of energy, such as microalgae in Bouraké or detritus and phytoplankton in Ouenghi. In contrast, transient species were high level predators, mainly piscivorous and large invertebrate feeders. These species actively contributed to net exports of energy from mangrove areas to nearby coastal habitats. Food webs and energy fluxes associated with trophic migration of fishes were particularly important in non-estuarine mangrove forests because of hydrologic conditions (salinity and turbidity) which were more suitable to the invasion of numerous marine foraging species (carangids, lutjanids, sphyraenids). PMID:10488435

  8. Temporal changes in physical, chemical and biological sediment parameters in a tropical estuary after mangrove deforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellegaard, Marianne; Nguyen, Ngoc Tuong Giang; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Michelsen, Anders; Nguyen, Ngoc Lam; Doan, Nhu Hai; Kristensen, Erik; Weckström, Kaarina; Son, Tong Phuoc Hoang; Lund-Hansen, Lars Chresten

    2014-04-01

    Dated sediment cores taken near the head and mouth of a tropical estuary, Nha-Phu/Binh Cang, in south central Viet Nam were analyzed for changes over time in physical, chemical and biological proxies potentially influenced by removal of the mangrove forest lining the estuary. A time-series of satellite images was obtained, which showed that the depletion of the mangrove forest at the head of the estuary was relatively recent. Most of the area was converted into aquaculture ponds, mainly in the late 1990's. The sediment record showed a clear increase in sedimentation rate at the head of the estuary at the time of mangrove deforestation and a change in diatom assemblages in the core from the mouth of the estuary indicating an increase in the water column turbidity of the entire estuary at the time of the mangrove deforestation. The proportion of fine-grained sediment and the ?13C signal both increased with distance from the head of the estuary while the carbon content decreased. The nitrogen content and the ?15N signal were more or less constant throughout the estuary. The proportion of fine-grained material and the chemical proxies were more or less stable over time in the core from the mouth while they varied synchronously over time in the core from the head of the estuary. The sediment proxies combined show that mangrove deforestation had large effects on the estuary with regard to both the physical and chemical environment with implications for the biological functioning.

  9. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Sustainable ForestManagement: Monitoring and Verification of Greenhouse Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye (Ed.), Jayant; Makundi (Ed.), Willy; Goldberg (Ed.),Beth; Andrasko (Ed.), Ken; Sanchez (Ed.), Arturo

    1997-07-01

    The International Workshop on Sustainable Forest Management: Monitoring and Verification of Greenhouse Gases was held in San Jose, Costa Rica, July 29-31, 1996. The main objectives of the workshop were to: (1) assemble key practitioners of forestry greenhouse gas (GHG) or carbon offset projects, remote sensing of land cover change, guidelines development, and the forest products certification movement, to offer presentations and small group discussions on findings relevant to the crucial need for the development of guidelines for monitoring and verifying offset projects, and (2) disseminate the findings to interested carbon offset project developers and forestry and climate change policy makers, who need guidance and consistency of methods to reduce project transaction costs and increase probable reliability of carbon benefits, at appropriate venues. The workshop brought together about 45 participants from developed, developing, and transition countries. The participants included researchers, government officials, project developers, and staff from regional and international agencies. Each shared his or her perspectives based on experience in the development and use of methods for monitoring and verifying carbon flows from forest areas and projects. A shared sense among the participants was that methods for monitoring forestry projects are well established, and the techniques are known and used extensively, particularly in production forestry. Introducing climate change with its long-term perspective is often in conflict with the shorter-term perspective of most forestry projects and standard accounting principles. The resolution of these conflicts may require national and international agreements among the affected parties. The establishment of guidelines and protocols for better methods that are sensitive to regional issues will be an important first step to increase the credibility of forestry projects as viable mitigation options. The workshop deliberations led to three primary outputs: (1) a Workshop Statement in the JI Quarterly, September, 1996; (2) the publication of a series of selected peer-reviewed technical papers from the workshop in a report of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL. 40501); and (3) a special issue of the journal ''Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change'', Kluwer Academic Publishers. The outputs will be distributed to practitioners in this field and to negotiators attending the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) deliberations leading up to the Third conference of Parties in Kyoto, in December 1997.

  10. Forest

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Ryan

    2013-02-12

    Become an expert on the Forest habitat!! Begin your search for information by reading below. You can click on the underlined words to take you to the website you want to go to. Have fun! Read carefully. You can learn about the Broadleaf forest or the Coniferous forest! Kathryn! You can learn a lot about worms from Herman the Worm. Read the information to learn about worms! You can also visit Earthworms to learn more! Colter! You can learn about American Black Bears and Black Bears! Click the underlined words and read read read! Happy trails! ...

  11. [Effects mangrove conversion to pasture on density and shell size of two gastropods in the Turbo River Delta (Urabá Gulf, Caribbean coast of Colombia)].

    PubMed

    Blanco, Juan F; Castaño, María C

    2012-12-01

    Mangrove deforestation is widespread in the Greater Caribbean but its impact on macrobenthos has not been evaluated to date. In order to assess the impact of mangrove conversion to pasture, densities and shell sizes of two dominant gastropods (Neritina virginea and Melampus coffeus) were compared among four mangrove types: 1) Rhizophora mangle-dominated fringing mangroves, 2) Avicennia germinans-dominated basin mangroves, 3) Mixed-species basin mangroves, and 4) A. germinans- basin mangroves converted to pastures, in the Turbo River Delta (Urabá Gulf, Colombia). Mangrove types were polygon-delimited with satellite images and color aerial photographs were taken in 2009. Various (n<5) polygons per mangrove type were sampled in January, July and December 2009, and a total (n<20) 0.025m2-quadrats were randomly placed along each polygon. Forest structure variables, pore-water physicochemical variables and sediment-grain metrics were measured in the four mangrove types. Mean density and size of both gastropod species were measured. The results showed that the mean density and size of both species were significantly greater in R. mangle-fringing mangroves. N. virginea density decreased gradually towards the A. germinans-basin mangroves seemly related to the diadromous life-history. This species nearly disappeared in the neighboring pastures because individuals were constrained to a few remaining flooded areas. In the pastures, M. coffeus individuals were clumped in the remaining A. germinans trees due to its climbing behavior as a pulmonate. We hypothesize that the decline of these two gastropods was related to physical microhabitat (e.g. trees, prop roots, and seedlings) degradation, and alteration of soil properties (e.g. temperature, pH, organic matter content). Finally, we also hypothesize that the local extinction of N. virginea due to clear-cutting may exert strong negative effects on the ecosystem function because it is a dominant omnivore. PMID:23342523

  12. Herbivore responses to nutrient enrichment and landscape heterogeneity in a mangrove ecosystem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilka C. Feller; Anne Chamberlain

    2007-01-01

    Complex gradients in forest structure across the landscape of offshore mangrove islands in Belize are associated with nutrient\\u000a deficiency and flooding. While nutrient availability can affect many ecological processes, here we investigate how N and P\\u000a enrichment interact with forest structure in three distinct zones (fringe, transition, dwarf) to alter patterns of herbivory\\u000a as a function of folivory, loss of

  13. Weathering of a petroleum spill in a tropical mangrove swamp

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, S.J.; Alexander, R.; Kagi, R.I. [Curtin Univ., Perth (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    In August 1987, an indeterminate amount of petroleum condensate was released from a buried pipe leading to contamination of a tropical mangrove swamp surrounding a tidal creek in North Western Australia. Since no bioremediation was attempted at this site, we have monitored the natural weathering of the condensate by detailed analysis of the petroleum hydrocarbons extracted from sediment samples collected on 11 occasions over a 3 year period.

  14. Forest Biodiversity Monitoring for REDD+: A Case Study of Actors' Views in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entenmann, Steffen K.; Kaphegyi, Thomas A. M.; Schmitt, Christine B.

    2014-02-01

    The climate change mitigation mechanism Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD+) is currently being negotiated under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Integrating biodiversity monitoring into REDD+ facilitates compliance with the safeguards stipulated by the UNFCCC to exclude environmental risks. Interviews with actors engaged in REDD+ implementation and biodiversity conservation at the national and sub-national level in Peru ( n = 30) and a literature review ( n = 58) were conducted to pinpoint constraints and opportunities for monitoring effects of REDD+ management interventions on biodiversity, and to identify relevant biodiversity data and indicators. It was found that particularly sub-national actors, who were frequently involved in REDD+ pilot projects, acknowledge the availability of biodiversity data. Actors at both the national and sub-national levels, however, criticized data gaps and data being scattered across biodiversity research organizations. Most of the literature reviewed (78 %) included indicators on the state of certain biodiversity aspects, especially mammals. Indicators for pressure on biodiversity, impacts on environmental functions, or policy responses to environmental threats were addressed less frequently (31, 21, and 10 %, respectively). Integrating biodiversity concerns in carbon monitoring schemes was considered to have potential, although few specific examples were identified. The involvement of biodiversity research organizations in sub-national REDD+ activities enhances monitoring capacities. It is discussed how improvements in collaboration among actors from the project to the national level could facilitate the evaluation of existing information at the national level. Monitoring changes in ecosystem services may increase the ecological and socioeconomic viability of REDD+.

  15. Forest biodiversity monitoring for REDD+: a case study of actors' views in Peru.

    PubMed

    Entenmann, Steffen K; Kaphegyi, Thomas A M; Schmitt, Christine B

    2014-02-01

    The climate change mitigation mechanism Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD+) is currently being negotiated under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Integrating biodiversity monitoring into REDD+ facilitates compliance with the safeguards stipulated by the UNFCCC to exclude environmental risks. Interviews with actors engaged in REDD+ implementation and biodiversity conservation at the national and sub-national level in Peru (n = 30) and a literature review (n = 58) were conducted to pinpoint constraints and opportunities for monitoring effects of REDD+ management interventions on biodiversity, and to identify relevant biodiversity data and indicators. It was found that particularly sub-national actors, who were frequently involved in REDD+ pilot projects, acknowledge the availability of biodiversity data. Actors at both the national and sub-national levels, however, criticized data gaps and data being scattered across biodiversity research organizations. Most of the literature reviewed (78 %) included indicators on the state of certain biodiversity aspects, especially mammals. Indicators for pressure on biodiversity, impacts on environmental functions, or policy responses to environmental threats were addressed less frequently (31, 21, and 10 %, respectively). Integrating biodiversity concerns in carbon monitoring schemes was considered to have potential, although few specific examples were identified. The involvement of biodiversity research organizations in sub-national REDD+ activities enhances monitoring capacities. It is discussed how improvements in collaboration among actors from the project to the national level could facilitate the evaluation of existing information at the national level. Monitoring changes in ecosystem services may increase the ecological and socioeconomic viability of REDD+. PMID:24178126

  16. Expanding the Boundaries of Data Collection at the Harvard Forest: Construction of an Aerial Tram for Forest Re-growth Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, F.; Vanscoy, M.; Siqueira, P.; Carroll, D.; Boddicker, L.

    2013-12-01

    As the largest terrestrial carbon pool and the foundation for some of the planet's most diverse ecosystems, forests are a precious resource and a rich source of information. Our understanding of how forests respond to stress has nevertheless been limited by the impracticability of continuous data collection. We proposed to design and construct an aerial tram to address this issue and to better study forest growth, carbon cycling, light emission and absorption, and vegetation stress. The tram was constructed and proof of concept was executed, with plans to install the tram over a section of previously clear-cut forest. With nine sensors, including a four-channel net radiometer, an ultrasonic sensor, an optical camera, and multiple spectral reflectance sensors, the tram expands both the scope and frequency of potential data collection. Suspended over the forest canopy, the tram is designed to run off of solar power and to travel between two towers fifty meters apart, collecting measurements nominally once every meter. The tram is able to generate repeated measurements throughout the day and over multiple seasons, facilitating cross-seasonal and multiannual comparisons. Communications between the tram and a central data repository take place via a wireless connection, and are available in near real-time. Data obtained from this system can used to monitor the carbon budget at a local scale and inform resource management and carbon sequestration practices. This tram also opens vast opportunities for collaborative research.

  17. Operations of cleanrooms during a forest fire including protocols and monitoring results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheson, Bruce A.; Egges, Joanne; Pirkey, Michael S.; Lobmeyer, Lynette D.

    2012-10-01

    Contamination-sensitive space flight hardware is typically built in cleanroom facilities in order to protect the hardware from particle contamination. Forest wildfires near the facilities greatly increase the number of particles and amount of vapors in the ambient outside air. Reasonable questions arise as to whether typical cleanroom facilities can adequately protect the hardware from these adverse environmental conditions. On Monday September 6, 2010 (Labor Day Holiday), a large wildfire ignited near the Boulder, Colorado Campus of Ball Aerospace. The fire was approximately 6 miles from the Boulder City limits. Smoke levels from the fire stayed very high in Boulder for the majority of the week after the fire began. Cleanroom operations were halted temporarily on contamination sensitive hardware, until particulate and non-volatile residue (NVR) sampling could be performed. Immediate monitoring showed little, if any effect on the cleanroom facilities, so programs were allowed to resume work while monitoring continued for several days and beyond in some cases. Little, if any, effect was ever noticed in the monitoring performed.

  18. A multivariate study of mangrove morphology (Rhizophora mangle) using both above and below-water plant architecture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, R.A.; Bell, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    A descriptive study of the architecture of the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle L., habitat of Tampa Bay, FL, was conducted to assess if plant architecture could be used to discriminate overwash from fringing forest type. Seven above-water (e.g., tree height, diameter at breast height, and leaf area) and 10 below-water (e.g., root density, root complexity, and maximum root order) architectural features were measured in eight mangrove stands. A multivariate technique (discriminant analysis) was used to test the ability of different models comprising above-water, below-water, or whole tree architecture to classify forest type. Root architectural features appear to be better than classical forestry measurements at discriminating between fringing and overwash forests but, regardless of the features loaded into the model, misclassification rates were high as forest type was only correctly classified in 66% of the cases. Based upon habitat architecture, the results of this study do not support a sharp distinction between overwash and fringing red mangrove forests in Tampa Bay but rather indicate that the two are architecturally undistinguishable. Therefore, within this northern portion of the geographic range of red mangroves, a more appropriate classification system based upon architecture may be one in which overwash and fringing forest types are combined into a single, "tide dominated" category. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-168. 1998. 129 Monitoring Watersheds and Streams1

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    to the stream. Agriculture can change soil structure, increase compaction, reduce infiltration rates, and increase surface runoff and erosion. Conversion from forest to pasture can result in substantial changes to detect changes caused by land management activities. Successful monitoring requires that objectives

  20. USING C-BAND SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR DATA TO MONITOR FORESTED WETLAND HYDROLOGY IN MARYLAND'S COASTAL PLAIN.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wetland hydrology (inundation and soil moisture) is the dominant control on wetland function and extent, but scientists predict that it will be altered due to climate change and anthropogenic impact. Unfortunately, broad-scale forested wetland hydrology is difficult to monitor with ground-based and ...

  1. Monitoring expansion of plantations in Lao tropical forests using Landsat time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phompila, Chittana; Lewis, Megan; Clarke, Kenneth; Ostendorf, Bertram

    2014-11-01

    Clearing of native forest for plantation expansion is a significant component of land use change in many tropical regions. The continuing expansion of plantations has many environmental consequences, including the loss and fragmentation of habitat, alteration of nutrient cycling processes, reduction in environmentally sequestered carbon, increased soil erosion and land degradation, and loss of biodiversity. The primary goal of this research was to develop and test remote sensing methods to detect the expansion of plantations in the southern part of the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). We used Landsat satellite imagery acquired between 2003 and 2012. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to three Landsat temporal image pairs (2003-2006, 2006-2009 and 2009-2012) to identify areas of change. Change identification accuracy was evaluated by comparison against 1,240 random sample locations which had been independently classified from Google Earth imagery from 2006 and 2012. It was found that one of the principal components detected change in areas of plantation in the study area, with producer's accuracy of 92% and user's accuracy of 79%. This method was relatively easy to implement, involved no image purchase costs, and could be used by ecologists or forestry managers seeking to monitor forest loss or plantation expansion.

  2. Soil Moisture Limitations on Monitoring Boreal Forest Regrowth Using Spaceborne L-Band SAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasischke, Eric S.; Tanase, Mihai A.; Bourgeau-Chavez, Laura L.; Borr, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    A study was carried out to investigate the utility of L-band SAR data for estimating aboveground biomass in sites with low levels of vegetation regrowth. Data to estimate biomass were collected from 59 sites located in fire-disturbed black spruce forests in interior Alaska. PALSAR L-band data (HH and HV polarizations) collected on two dates in the summer/fall of 2007 and one date in the summer of 2009 were used. Significant linear correlations were found between the log of aboveground biomass (range of 0.02 to 22.2 t ha-1) and (L-HH) and (L-HV) for the data collected on each of the three dates, with the highest correlation found using the LHV data collected when soil moisture was highest. Soil moisture, however, did change the correlations between L-band and aboveground biomass, and the analyses suggest that the influence of soil moisture is biomass dependent. The results indicate that to use L-band SAR data for mapping aboveground biomass and monitoring forest regrowth will require development of approaches to account for the influence that variations in soil moisture have on L-band microwave backscatter, which can be particularly strong when low levels of aboveground biomass occur

  3. Aboveground allometric models for freeze-affected black mangroves (Avicennia germinans): equations for a climate sensitive mangrove-marsh ecotone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osland, Michael J.; Day, Richard H.; Larriviere, Jack C.; From, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Across the globe, species distributions are changing in response to climate change and land use change. In parts of the southeastern United States, climate change is expected to result in the poleward range expansion of black mangroves (Avicennia germinans) at the expense of some salt marsh vegetation. The morphology of A. germinans at its northern range limit is more shrub-like than in tropical climes in part due to the aboveground structural damage and vigorous multi-stem regrowth triggered by extreme winter temperatures. In this study, we developed aboveground allometric equations for freeze-affected black mangroves which can be used to quantify: (1) total aboveground biomass; (2) leaf biomass; (3) stem plus branch biomass; and (4) leaf area. Plant volume (i.e., a combination of crown area and plant height) was selected as the optimal predictor of the four response variables. We expect that our simple measurements and equations can be adapted for use in other mangrove ecosystems located in abiotic settings that result in mangrove individuals with dwarf or shrub-like morphologies including oligotrophic and arid environments. Many important ecological functions and services are affected by changes in coastal wetland plant community structure and productivity including carbon storage, nutrient cycling, coastal protection, recreation, fish and avian habitat, and ecosystem response to sea level rise and extreme climatic events. Coastal scientists in the southeastern United States can use the identified allometric equations, in combination with easily obtained and non-destructive plant volume measurements, to better quantify and monitor ecological change within the dynamic, climate sensitive, and highly-productive mangrove-marsh ecotone.

  4. Aboveground allometric models for freeze-affected black mangroves (Avicennia germinans): equations for a climate sensitive mangrove-marsh ecotone.

    PubMed

    Osland, Michael J; Day, Richard H; Larriviere, Jack C; From, Andrew S

    2014-01-01

    Across the globe, species distributions are changing in response to climate change and land use change. In parts of the southeastern United States, climate change is expected to result in the poleward range expansion of black mangroves (Avicennia germinans) at the expense of some salt marsh vegetation. The morphology of A. germinans at its northern range limit is more shrub-like than in tropical climes in part due to the aboveground structural damage and vigorous multi-stem regrowth triggered by extreme winter temperatures. In this study, we developed aboveground allometric equations for freeze-affected black mangroves which can be used to quantify: (1) total aboveground biomass; (2) leaf biomass; (3) stem plus branch biomass; and (4) leaf area. Plant volume (i.e., a combination of crown area and plant height) was selected as the optimal predictor of the four response variables. We expect that our simple measurements and equations can be adapted for use in other mangrove ecosystems located in abiotic settings that result in mangrove individuals with dwarf or shrub-like morphologies including oligotrophic and arid environments. Many important ecological functions and services are affected by changes in coastal wetland plant community structure and productivity including carbon storage, nutrient cycling, coastal protection, recreation, fish and avian habitat, and ecosystem response to sea level rise and extreme climatic events. Coastal scientists in the southeastern United States can use the identified allometric equations, in combination with easily obtained and non-destructive plant volume measurements, to better quantify and monitor ecological change within the dynamic, climate sensitive, and highly-productive mangrove-marsh ecotone. PMID:24971938

  5. Aboveground Allometric Models for Freeze-Affected Black Mangroves (Avicennia germinans): Equations for a Climate Sensitive Mangrove-Marsh Ecotone

    PubMed Central

    Osland, Michael J.; Day, Richard H.; Larriviere, Jack C.; From, Andrew S.

    2014-01-01

    Across the globe, species distributions are changing in response to climate change and land use change. In parts of the southeastern United States, climate change is expected to result in the poleward range expansion of black mangroves (Avicennia germinans) at the expense of some salt marsh vegetation. The morphology of A. germinans at its northern range limit is more shrub-like than in tropical climes in part due to the aboveground structural damage and vigorous multi-stem regrowth triggered by extreme winter temperatures. In this study, we developed aboveground allometric equations for freeze-affected black mangroves which can be used to quantify: (1) total aboveground biomass; (2) leaf biomass; (3) stem plus branch biomass; and (4) leaf area. Plant volume (i.e., a combination of crown area and plant height) was selected as the optimal predictor of the four response variables. We expect that our simple measurements and equations can be adapted for use in other mangrove ecosystems located in abiotic settings that result in mangrove individuals with dwarf or shrub-like morphologies including oligotrophic and arid environments. Many important ecological functions and services are affected by changes in coastal wetland plant community structure and productivity including carbon storage, nutrient cycling, coastal protection, recreation, fish and avian habitat, and ecosystem response to sea level rise and extreme climatic events. Coastal scientists in the southeastern United States can use the identified allometric equations, in combination with easily obtained and non-destructive plant volume measurements, to better quantify and monitor ecological change within the dynamic, climate sensitive, and highly-productive mangrove-marsh ecotone. PMID:24971938

  6. Distinguishing mangrove species with laboratory measurements of hyperspectral leaf reflectance

    E-print Network

    Wang, Le

    Distinguishing mangrove species with laboratory measurements of hyperspectral leaf reflectance LE step in developing classification procedures for remotely acquired hyperspectral mapping of mangrove canopies, we conducted a laboratory study of mangrove leaf spectral reflectance at a study site

  7. Mangrove expansion and saltmarsh decline at mangrove poleward limits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saintilan, Neil; Wilson, Nicholas C.; Rogers, Kerrylee; Rajkaran, Anusha; Krauss, Ken W.

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are species of halophytic intertidal trees and shrubs derived from tropical genera and are likely delimited in latitudinal range by varying sensitivity to cold. There is now sufficient evidence that mangrove species have proliferated at or near their poleward limits on at least five continents over the past half century, at the expense of salt marsh. Avicennia is the most cold-tolerant genus worldwide, and is the subject of most of the observed changes. Avicennia germinans has extended in range along the US Atlantic coast and expanded into salt marsh as a consequence of lower frost frequency and intensity in the southern USA. The genus has also expanded into salt marsh at its southern limit in Peru, and on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Mangroves of several species have expanded in extent and replaced salt marsh where protected within mangrove reserves in Guangdong Province. In south-eastern Australia, the expansion of Avicennia marina into salt marshes is now well documented, and Rhizophora stylosa has extended its range southward, while showing strong population growth within estuaries along its southern limits in northern New South Wales. Avicennia marina has extended its range southwards in South Africa. The changes are consistent with the pole-ward extension of temperature thresholds co-incident with sea-level rise, although the specific mechanism of range extension might be complicated by limitations on dispersal or other factors. The shift from salt marsh to mangrove dominance on subtropical and temperate shorelines has important implications for ecological structure, function, and global change adaptation.

  8. Mangrove expansion and salt marsh decline at mangrove poleward limits.

    PubMed

    Saintilan, Neil; Wilson, Nicholas C; Rogers, Kerrylee; Rajkaran, Anusha; Krauss, Ken W

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are species of halophytic intertidal trees and shrubs derived from tropical genera and are likely delimited in latitudinal range by varying sensitivity to cold. There is now sufficient evidence that mangrove species have proliferated at or near their poleward limits on at least five continents over the past half century, at the expense of salt marsh. Avicennia is the most cold-tolerant genus worldwide, and is the subject of most of the observed changes. Avicennia germinans has extended in range along the USA Atlantic coast and expanded into salt marsh as a consequence of lower frost frequency and intensity in the southern USA. The genus has also expanded into salt marsh at its southern limit in Peru, and on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Mangroves of several species have expanded in extent and replaced salt marsh where protected within mangrove reserves in Guangdong Province, China. In south-eastern Australia, the expansion of Avicennia marina into salt marshes is now well documented, and Rhizophora stylosa has extended its range southward, while showing strong population growth within estuaries along its southern limits in northern New South Wales. Avicennia marina has extended its range southwards in South Africa. The changes are consistent with the poleward extension of temperature thresholds coincident with sea-level rise, although the specific mechanism of range extension might be complicated by limitations on dispersal or other factors. The shift from salt marsh to mangrove dominance on subtropical and temperate shorelines has important implications for ecological structure, function, and global change adaptation. PMID:23907934

  9. Dynamics of Sundarban estuarine ecosystem: eutrophication induced threat to mangroves

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sundarbans is the largest chunk of mangrove forest and only tiger mangrove land in the world. Compared to the rich species diversity and uniqueness, very few studies have so far been conducted here, mainly due to its inaccessibility. This study explores water quality, density of biomass, species diversity, phytoplankton abundance and bacterial population of a tidal creek in Sunderban estuary during the post and pre monsoon period of 2008-09. Results Phytoplankton community was observed to be dominated by diatoms (Biacillariophyceae) followed by Pyrrophyceae (Dinoflagellates) and Chlorophyceae. A total of 46 taxa belonging to 6 groups were recorded. Other algal groups were Cyanophyceae, Euglenophyceae and Chrysophyceae. Species diversity was highest in summer (March) and lowest in winter season (November) in all the sample stations indicating its close correlation with ambient temperature. Species evenness was fairly high in all five stations throughout the study period. Present study indicated that dissolved oxygen, nutrients and turbidity are the limiting factors for the phytoplankton biomass. The estuary was in eutrophic condition (Chlorophyll-a ?10 ?g/L) in winter. During the month of May phytoplankton biomass declined and at high salinity level (21.2PSU) new phytoplankton species take over, which are definitely better resilient to the high saline environment. Bio-indicator species like Polykrikos schwartzil, Dinophysis norvegica and Prorocentrum concavum points to moderately polluted water quality of the estuary. Conclusion Eutrophication as well as presence of toxic Dinoflagellates and Cyanophyceae in the tidal creek of Sundarban estuary definitely revealed the deteriorated status of the water quality. The structure and function of the mangrove food web is unique, driven by both marine and terrestrial components. But little attention has been paid so far to the adaptive responses of mangrove biota to the various disturbances, and now our work unfolds the fact that marine status of Sundarban estuary is highly threatened which in turn will affect the ecology of the mangrove. This study indicates that ecosystem dynamics of the world heritage site Sundarban may facilitate bioinvasion putting a question mark on the sustainability of mangroves. PMID:20699005

  10. Use of a 15N tracer to determine linkages between a mangrove and an upland freshwater swamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenzie, R. A.; Cormier, N.

    2005-05-01

    Mangrove forests and adjacent upland freshwater swamps are important components of subsistence-based economies of Pacific islands. Mangroves provide valuable firewood (Rhizophora apiculata) and mangrove crabs (Scylla serrata); intact freshwater swamps are often used for agroforestry (e.g., taro cultivation). While these two systems are connected hydrologically via groundwater and surface flows, little information is available on how they may be biogeochemically or ecologically linked. For example, mangrove leaf litter was once thought to be an important food source for resident and transient nekton and invertebrates, but this value may have been overestimated. Instead, nutrients or allochthonous material (e.g., phytoplankton, detritus) delivered via groundwater or surface water from upland freshwater swamps may play a larger role in mangrove food webs. Understanding the linkages between these two ecologically and culturally important ecosystems will help us to understand the potential impacts of hydrological alterations that occur when roads or bridges are constructed through them. We conducted a 15N tracer study in the Yela watershed on the island of Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia. K15NO3 was continually added at trace levels for 4 weeks to the Yela River in an upland freshwater swamp adjacent to a mangrove forest. Nitrate and ammonium pools, major primary producers, macroinvertebrates, and fish were sampled from stations 5 m upstream (freshwater swamp) and 138, 188, 213, and 313 m downstream (mangrove) from the tracer addition. Samples were collected once a week prior to, during, and after the 15N addition for a total of 6 weeks. Preliminary results revealed no significant enrichment (< 1 ‰) in the 15N isotope composition of either resident shrimp (Macrobrachium sp.) or mudskipper fish (Periophthalmus sp.). However, the 15N signature of ammonium pools was enriched 10-60 ‰ by the end of the third week. These results suggest that the tracer was present in the mangrove but was either unavailable to higher organisms or was incorporated into organic matter not utilized by shrimp or mudskippers.

  11. Tropical forest monitoring, combining satellite and social data, to inform management and livelihood implications: Case studies from Indonesian West Timor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Rohan

    2012-06-01

    Deforestation in the world's tropics is an urgent international issue. One response has been the development of satellite based monitoring initiatives largely focused on the carbon rich forests of western Indonesia. In contrast this study focuses on one eastern Indonesian district, Kabupaten Kupang, which has some of the largest and least studied tracts of remaining forest in West Timor. A combination of remote sensing, GIS and social science methods were used to describe the state of forests in Kabupaten Kupang, how and why they are changing. Using satellite imagery, case studies and on-ground interviews, this study explores the proposition that transdisciplinary local social, cultural and biophysical knowledge is important for effectively using remotely sensed data as a tool to inform local management policies. When compared to some other parts of Indonesia, the rate and extent of deforestation in West Timor was found to be relatively small and a satellite based assessment alone could conclude that it is not a critical issue. However this study showed that when on-ground social data are coupled with (such) satellite-based data a more complex picture emerges, related to key livelihood issues. The causes of forest cover change were found to be multivariate and location specific, requiring management approaches tailored to local social issues. This study suggests that integrative research can maximise the utility of satellite data for understanding causation and thus informing management strategies. In addition, the satellite based assessment found that at the time of the study less than 4% of forested land was within national parks and nature reserves and less than a third of the protected catchment forest zone was forested. These data suggest considerable scope for upland re-forestation activities or the redrawing of protected forest boundaries.

  12. Multi?taxon and forest structure sampling for identification of indicators and monitoring of old?growth forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Blasi; M. Marchetti; U. Chiavetta; M. Aleffi; P. Audisio; M. M. Azzella; G. Brunialti; G. Capotorti; E. Del Vico; E. Lattanzi; A. M. Persiani; S. Ravera; A. Tilia; S. Burrascano

    2010-01-01

    The most commonly used old?growth forest indicators are structural attributes; nevertheless, they do not necessarily represent the biodiversity value of old?growth forests. The aim of this study is to analyse the relationships between species richness data of different taxa and structural indicators of old?growth and to identify taxonomic\\/functional groups, species and structural attributes that may be used as indicators of

  13. A new empirical index for assessing the vulnerability of peri-urban mangroves.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Augusto de Oliveira Brunow; Lana, Paulo da Cunha

    2014-12-01

    Environmental vulnerability can be understood as a function of exposure to impacts and the sensitivity and adaptive capacity of ecological systems towards environmental tensors. The present study empirically evaluated the vulnerability of forest stands that make up the subtropical Perequê River mangrove (Paranaguá Bay, S Brazil) as the basis for a more appropriate management of its resources. This mangrove is located in the coastal municipality of Pontal do Paraná (Paraná, Brazil) and is part of the Perequê River Mangrove Natural Park, which is still not under a management plan. This study aimed to contribute to the future management plan of this conservation unit through an environmental diagnosis and an empirical evaluation of its vulnerability. The primary data, collected from 51 plots of 100 m(2) each, involved the evaluation of: 1) the exposure to solid waste, deforestation, trails, landfills, and constructions; 2) the degree of sensitivity according to the environmental conditions of each plot; and 3) the adaptive capacity according to the recovery and reproductive potential and structural complexity of the forests. These data were integrated to compose the empirical index of environmental vulnerability (VI) expressed as VI = (SI + EI) - ACI where SI is the sensitivity sub-index, EI is the exposure sub-index, and ACI is the adaptive capacity sub-index. Empirical indices calculated for local forests varied significantly due to differences in values of SI, EI and ACI. This variability defines the local mangrove as a mosaic of vulnerability conditions and suggests that the planning and implementation of local management actions consider such environmental heterogeneity. Applying or extending these actions should be based on local forest conditions at short spatial scales and should not be applied to the mangrove as a whole. PMID:25093304

  14. Tracking Large Area Mangrove Deforestation with Time-Series of High Fidelity MODIS Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, A. F.; Dragoni, D.; Didan, K.

    2011-12-01

    Mangrove forests are important coastal ecosystems of the tropical and subtropical regions. These forests provide critical ecosystem services, fulfill important socio-economic and environmental functions, and support coastal livelihoods. But these forest are also among the most vulnerable ecosystems, both to anthropogenic disturbance and climate change. Yet, there exists no map or published study showing detailed spatiotemporal trends of mangrove deforestation at local to regional scales. There is an immediate need of producing such detailed maps to further study the drivers, impacts and feedbacks of anthropogenic and climate factors on mangrove deforestation, and to develop local and regional scale adaptation/mitigation strategies. In this study we use a time-series of high fidelity imagery from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for tracking changes in the greenness of mangrove forests of Kalimantan Island of Indonesia. A novel method of filtering satellite data for cloud, aerosol, and view angle effects was used to produce high fidelity MODIS time-series images at 250-meter spatial resolution and three-month temporal resolution for the period of 2000-2010. Enhanced Vegetation Index 2 (EVI2), a measure of vegetation greenness, was calculated from these images for each pixel at each time interval. Temporal variations in the EVI2 of each pixel were tracked as a proxy to deforestaton of mangroves using the statistical method of change-point analysis. Results of these change detection were validated using Monte Carlo simulation, photographs from Google-Earth, finer spatial resolution images from Landsat satellite, and ground based GIS data.

  15. A birds-eye view of biological connectivity in mangrove systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buelow, Christina; Sheaves, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Considerable advances in understanding of biological connectivity have flowed from studies of fish-facilitated connectivity within the coastal ecosystem mosaic. However, there are limits to the information that fish can provide on connectivity. Mangrove-bird communities have the potential to connect coastal habitats in different ways and at different scales than fish, so incorporation of these links into our models of coastal ecosystem mosaics affords the opportunity to greatly increase the breadth of our understanding. We review the habitat and foraging requirements of mangrove-bird functional groups to understand how bird use of mangroves facilitates biological connectivity in coastal ecosystem mosaics, and how that connectivity adds to the diversity and complexity of ecological processes in mangrove ecosystems. Avian biological connectivity is primarily characterized by foraging behavior and habitat/resource requirements. Therefore, the consequence of bird links for coastal ecosystem functioning largely depends on patterns of habitat use and foraging, and potentially influences nutrient cycling, top-down control and genetic information linkage. Habitats that experience concentrated bird guano deposition have high levels of nitrogen and phosphorus, placing particular importance on the consequences of avian nutrient translocation and subsidization for coastal ecosystem functioning. High mobility allows mangrove-bird communities to link mangrove forests to other mangrove, terrestrial and marine-pelagic systems. Therefore, the spatial scale of coastal connectivity facilitated by birds is substantially more extensive than fish-facilitated connectivity. In particular, migratory birds link habitats at regional, continental and inter-continental scales as they travel among seasonally available feeding areas from breeding grounds to non-breeding grounds; scales at which there are few fish equivalents. Knowledge of the nature and patterns of fish connectivity have contributed to shifting the initial, historical perception of mangrove-ecosystem functioning from that of a simple system based on nutrient and energy retention, to a view that includes fish-facilitated energy export. In a similar way, understanding the nature and implications of mangrove connectivity through bird movements and migrations affords new possibilities for revising our view of the extent of functional links between mangroves and other ecosystems.

  16. Spectral matching in Hyperion images for improved characterization of Mangrove ecosystems in southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padma, S.; Sanjeevi, S.

    2014-11-01

    Mangrove ecosystem study is one of the main beneficiaries of the application of hyperspectral data and spectral matching techniques. Diversity and density of mangrove species leads to complexity of the ecosystem. Hence, species level mapping becomes difficult. Though hyperspectral images are appropriate for such a mapping, different mangrove species with closely matching spectra pose a challenge. This paper proposes a novel hyperspectral matching algorithm by integrating the stochastic Jeffries-Matusita measure (JM) and deterministic Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) to accurately map most species of the mangrove ecosystem. The JM-SAM algorithm signifies the combination of an quantitative angle measure (SAM) and an qualitative distance measure (JM). The spectral capabilities of both the measures are orthogonally projected using tangent and sine functions to result in the combined algorithm. The developed JM-SAM algorithm is implemented to discriminate the mangrove species and the landcover classes of Pichavaram and Muthupet mangrove forests of southern India using the Hyperion datasets. The developed algorithm is extended in a supervised framework for improved classification of the Hyperion image. The reference spectra of the mangrove species and other cover types are extracted from the Hyperion image. From the values of relative spectral discriminatory probability and relative discriminatory entropy value, it can be inferred that hybrid JM-SAM matching measure results in improved discriminability than the individual SAM and JM algorithms. This performance is reflected in the classification results where the JM-SAM (TAN) and JM-SAM (SIN) matching algorithms yielded an improved accuracy of (86.25%,85%) and (88.10%, 86.96) for both the study sites.

  17. Effects of vegetation and sewage load on mangrove crab condition using experimental mesocosms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Valter; Penha-Lopes, Gil; Paula, José

    2009-09-01

    Constructed wetlands, especially mangroves, have been studied for their usefulness in sewage treatment but the effects of mangrove vegetation and a sewage load on mangrove macrofauna have been given little attention. Ocypodid crabs are important components of mangrove forests and constitute good bioindicators of the functioning of the ecosystem as a whole. In constructed mangrove mesocosms, three vegetation treatments (bare substratum, and Avicennia marina and Rhizophora mucronata seedlings) were subjected to 0, 20, 60 and 100% sewage loads from a nearby hotel. The physiological condition of introduced Uca annulipes and Uca inversa was evaluated in terms of their RNA/DNA ratio after one, five and twelve months, and used as an indicator of ecological function in the system. Crab condition in 0% sewage load was similar to that of wild crabs throughout, suggesting no significant effects of the mesocosms on their RNA/DNA ratio. Overall, both species coped well with the administered sewage loads, suggesting good ecological function in the system. Both species manifested similar patterns in RNA/DNA ratio, being more affected by seasonal fluctuations than by sewage load and vegetation presence and type. Higher RNA/DNA ratios were recorded in the long compared to the short rainy season. Sewage enhanced crab condition in the bare substratum and R. mucronata treatments, especially after one year, probably as a result of enhanced food availability. Uca inversa may be more sensitive to sewage pollution than U. annulipes. In A. marina, no difference in crab condition was observed between sewage loads, and this mangrove yielded the best reduction in sewage impacts. Our results support the usefulness of constructed mangrove areas in sewage treatment, especially if planted with A. marina and inhabited by physiologically healthy ocypodid crabs to enhance the system's performance.

  18. Analysing ethnobotanical and fishery-related importance of mangroves of the East-Godavari Delta (Andhra Pradesh, India) for conservation and management purposes

    PubMed Central

    Dahdouh-Guebas, F; Collin, S; Lo Seen, D; Rönnbäck, P; Depommier, D; Ravishankar, T; Koedam, N

    2006-01-01

    Mangrove forests, though essentially common and wide-spread, are highly threatened. Local societies along with their knowledge about the mangrove also are endangered, while they are still underrepresented as scientific research topics. With the present study we document local utilization patterns, and perception of ecosystem change. We illustrate how information generated by ethnobiological research can be used to strengthen the management of the ecosystem. This study was conducted in the Godavari mangrove forest located in the East-Godavari District of the state Andhra Pradesh in India, where mangroves have been degrading due to over-exploitation, extensive development of aquaculture, and pollution from rural and urbanized areas (Kakinada). One hundred interviews were carried out among the fisherfolk population present in two mangrove zones in the study area, a wildlife sanctuary with strong conservation status and an adjacent zone. Results from the interviews indicated that Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh., a dominant species in the Godavari mangroves, is used most frequently as firewood and for construction. Multiple products of the mangrove included the bark of Ceriops decandra (Griff.) Ding Hou to dye the fishing nets and improve their durability, the bark of Aegiceras corniculatum (L.) Blanco to poison and catch fish, and the leaves of Avicennia spp. and Excoecaria agallocha L. as fodder for cattle. No medicinal uses of true mangrove species were reported, but there were a few traditional uses for mangrove associates. Utilization patterns varied in the two zones that we investigated, most likely due to differences in their ecology and legal status. The findings are discussed in relation with the demographic and socio-economic traits of the fisherfolk communities of the Godavari mangroves and indicate a clear dependency of their livelihood on the mangrove forest. Reported changes in the Godavari mangrove cover also differed in the two zones, with significantly less perceptions of a decrease in the protected area, as compared to the adjacent non-protected area. A posteriori comparisons between sequential satellite imagery (retrospective till 1977) and respondents that were at least 15 years back then, revealed a mangrove decrease which was however perceived to different extents depending on the area with which the fishermen were familiar. While local needs had not been incorporated in the existing policy, we created a framework on how data on ethnobotanical traditions, fishery-related activities and local people's perceptions of change can be incorporated into management strategies. PMID:16681845

  19. Spatio-temporal variations in the composition of organic matter in surface sediments of a mangrove receiving shrimp farm effluents (New Caledonia).

    PubMed

    Aschenbroich, Adélaïde; Marchand, Cyril; Molnar, Nathalie; Deborde, Jonathan; Hubas, Cédric; Rybarczyk, Hervé; Meziane, Tarik

    2015-04-15

    In order to investigate spatio-temporal variations in the composition and origin of the benthic organic matter (OM) at the sediment surface in mangrove receiving shrimp farm effluents, fatty acid (FA) biomarkers, natural stable isotopes (?(13)C and ?(15)N), C:N ratios and chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentrations were determined during the active and the non-active period of the farm. Fatty acid compositions in surface sediments within the mangrove forest indicated that organic matter inputs varied along the year as a result of farm activity. Effluents were the source of fresh particulate organic matter for the mangrove, as evidenced by the unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) distribution. The anthropogenic MUFA 18:1?9 was not only accumulated at the sediment surface in some parts of the mangrove, but was also exported to the seafront. Direct release of bacteria and enhanced in situ production of fungi, as revealed by specific FAs, stimulated mangrove litter decomposition under effluent runoff condition. Also, microalgae released from ponds contributed to maintain high benthic chl-a concentrations in mangrove sediments in winter and to a shift in microphytobenthic community assemblage. Primary production was high whether the farm released effluent or not which questioned the temporary effect of shrimp farm effluent on benthic microalgae dynamic. This study outlined that mangrove benthic organic matter was qualitatively and quantitatively affected by shrimp farm effluent release and that responses to environmental condition changes likely depended on mangrove stand characteristics. PMID:25634734

  20. Structure, Aboveground Biomass, and Soil Characterization of Avicennia marina in Eastern Mangrove Lagoon National Park, Abu Dhabi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsumaiti, Tareefa Saad Sultan

    Mangrove forests are national treasures of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and other arid countries with limited forested areas. Mangroves form a crucial part of the coastal ecosystem and provide numerous benefits to society, economy, and especially the environment. Mangrove trees, specifically Avicennia marina, are studied in their native habitat in order to characterize their population structure, aboveground biomass, and soil properties. This study focused on Eastern Mangrove Lagoon National Park in Abu Dhabi, which was the first mangrove protected area to be designated in UAE. In situ measurements were collected to estimate Avicennia marina status, mortality rate (%), height (m), crown spread (m), stem number, diameter at breast height (cm), basal area (m), and aboveground biomass (t ha-1 ). Small-footprint aerial light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data acquired by UAE were processed to characterize mangrove canopy height and aboveground biomass density. This included extraction of LIDAR-derived height percentile statistics, segmentation of the forest into structurally homogenous units, and development of regression relationships between in situ reference and remote sensing data using a machine learning approach. An in situ soil survey was conducted to examine the soils' physical and chemical properties, fertility status, and organic matter. The data of soil survey were used to create soil maps to evaluate key characteristics of soils, and their influence on Avicennia marina in Eastern Mangrove Lagoon National Park. The results of this study provide new insights into Avicennia marina canopy population, structure, aboveground biomass, and soil properties in Abu Dhabi, as data in such arid environments is lacking. This valuable information can help in managing and preserving this unique ecosystem.

  1. Design to monitor trend in abundance and presence of American beaver (Castor canadensis) at the national forest scale.

    PubMed

    Beck, Jeffrey L; Dauwalter, Daniel C; Gerow, Kenneth G; Hayward, Gregory D

    2010-05-01

    Wildlife conservationists design monitoring programs to assess population dynamics, project future population states, and evaluate the impacts of management actions on populations. Because agency mandates and conservation laws call for monitoring data to elicit management responses, it is imperative to design programs that match the administrative scale for which management decisions are made. We describe a program to monitor population trends in American beaver (Castor canadensis) on the US Department of Agriculture, Black Hills National Forest (BHNF) in southwestern South Dakota and northeastern Wyoming, USA. Beaver have been designated as a management indicator species on the BHNF because of their association with riparian and aquatic habitats and its status as a keystone species. We designed our program to monitor the density of beaver food caches (abundance) within sampling units with beaver and the proportion of sampling units with beavers present at the scale of a national forest. We designated watersheds as sampling units in a stratified random sampling design that we developed based on habitat modeling results. Habitat modeling indicated that the most suitable beaver habitat was near perennial water, near aspen (Populus tremuloides) and willow (Salix spp.), and in low gradient streams at lower elevations. Results from the initial monitoring period in October 2007 allowed us to assess costs and logistical considerations, validate our habitat model, and conduct power analyses to assess whether our sampling design could detect the level of declines in beaver stated in the monitoring objectives. Beaver food caches were located in 20 of 52 sampled watersheds. Monitoring 20 to 25 watersheds with beaver should provide sufficient power to detect 15-40% declines in the beaver food cache index as well as a twofold decline in the odds of beaver being present in watersheds. Indices of abundance, such as the beaver food cache index, provide a practical measure of population status to conduct long-term monitoring across broad landscapes such as national forests. PMID:19396556

  2. Methane flux from mangrove sediments along the southwestern coast of Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Sotomayor, D.; Corredor, J.E.; Morell, J.M. (Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayagueez (Puerto Rico))

    1994-03-01

    Although the sediments of coastal marine mangrove forests have been considered a minor source of atmospheric methane, these estimate have been based on sparse data from similar areas. We have gathered evidence that shows that external nutrient and freshwater loading in mangrove sediments may have a significant effect on methane flux. Experiments were performed to examine methane fluxes from anaerobic sediments in a mangrove forest subjected to secondary sewage effluents on the southwestern coast of Puerto Rico. Emission rates were measured in situ using a static chamber technique, and subsequent laboratory analysis of samples was by gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector. Results indicate that methane flux rates were lowest at the landward fringe nearest to the effluent discharge, higher in the seaward fringe occupied by red mangroves, and highest in the transition zone between black and red mangrove communities, with average values of 4 mg CH[sub 4] m[sup [minus]2] d[sup [minus]1], 42 mg CH[sub 4] m[sup [minus]2] d[sup [minus]1], and 82 mg CH[sub 4] m[sup [minus]2] d[sup [minus]1], respectively. Overall mean values show these sediments may emit as much as 40 times more methane than unimpacted pristine areas. Pneumatophores of Aviciennia germinans have been found to serve as conduits to the atmosphere for this gas. Fluctuating water level overlying the mangrove sediment is an important environmental factor controlling seasonal and interannual CH[sub 4] flux variations. Environmental controls such as freshwater inputs and increased nutrient loading influence in situ methane emissions from these environments. 34 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. FAO UN-REDD- INPE Joint Programme on Forest Monitoring Systems based on RS and GIS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonckheere, I. G.; FAO UN-REDD MRV Team

    2010-12-01

    Capacity Development and Training for National Forest Monitoring Systems for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD+) REDD+, which stands for ’Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries’ - is an effort to create a financial value for the carbon stored in forests, offering incentives for developing countries to reduce emissions from forested lands and invest in low-carbon paths to sustainable development. The UN-REDD Programme, a collaborative partnership between FAO, UNDP and UNEP launched in September 2008, supports countries to develop capacity to REDD+ and to implement a future REDD+ mechanism in a post-2012 climate regime. The programme works at both the national and global scale, through support mechanisms for country-driven REDD strategies and international consensus-building on REDD+ processes. The UN-REDD Programme gathers technical teams from around the world to develop common approaches, analyses and guidelines on issues such as measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of carbon emissions and flows, remote sensing, and greenhouse gas inventories. Within the partnership, FAO supports countries on technical issues related to forestry and the development of cost effective and credible MRV processes for emission reductions. While at the international level, it fosters improved guidance on MRV approaches, including consensus on principles and guidelines for MRV and training programmes. It provides guidance on how best to design and implement REDD+, to ensure that forests continue to provide multiple benefits for livelihoods and biodiversity to societies while storing carbon at the same time. Other areas of work include national forest assessments and monitoring of in-country policy and institutional change. FAO and INPE (Brazilian Space Agency) have joint forces through a MoU signed last year in Copenhagen. A major joint programme has been agreed upon to set up national forest satellite monitoring systems in the developing countries and to train them in order to get them ready for REDD+. The outcomes about the role of satellite remote sensing technologies as a tool for monitoring, assessment, reporting and verification of carbon credits and co-benefits under the REDD+ mechanism are here presented.

  4. Mass tree mortality leads to mangrove peat collapse at Bay Islands, Honduras after Hurricane Mitch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, D.R.; Hensel, P.; Rybczyk, J.; McKee, K.L.; Proffitt, C.E.; Perez, B.C.

    2003-01-01

    We measured sediment elevation and accretion dynamics in mangrove forests on the islands of Guanaja and Roatan, Honduras, impacted by Hurricane Mitch in 1998 to determine if collapse of underlying peat was occurring as a result of mass tree mortality. Little is known about the balance between production and decomposition of soil organic matter in the maintenance of sediment elevation of mangrove forests with biogenic soils. Sediment elevation change measured with the rod surface elevation table from 18 months to 33 months after the storm differed significantly among low, medium and high wind impact sites. Mangrove forests suffering minimal to partial mortality gained elevation at a rate (5 mm yeara??1) greater than vertical accretion (2 mm yeara??1) measured from artificial soil marker horizons, suggesting that root production contributed to sediment elevation. Basin forests that suffered mass tree mortality experienced peat collapse of about 11 mm yeara??1 as a result of decomposition of dead root material and sediment compaction. Low soil shear strength and lack of root growth accompanied elevation decreases. Model simulations using the Relative Elevation Model indicate that peat collapse in the high impact basin mangrove forest would be 37 mm yeara??1 for the 2 years immediately after the storm, as root material decomposed. In the absence of renewed root growth, the model predicts that peat collapse will continue for at least 8 more years at a rate (7 mm yeara??1) similar to that measured (11 mm yeara??1). Mass tree mortality caused rapid elevation loss. Few trees survived and recovery of the high impact forest will thus depend primarily on seedling recruitment. Because seedling establishment is controlled in large part by sediment elevation in relation to tide height, continued peat collapse could further impair recovery rates.

  5. Mangrove production and carbon sinks: A revision of global budget estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouillon, S.; Borges, A.V.; Castaneda-Moya, E.; Diele, K.; Dittmar, T.; Duke, N.C.; Kristensen, E.; Lee, S.-Y.; Marchand, C.; Middelburg, J.J.; Rivera-Monroy, V. H.; Smith, T. J., III; Twilley, R.R.

    2008-01-01

    Mangrove forests are highly productive but globally threatened coastal ecosystems, whose role in the carbon budget of the coastal zone has long been debated. Here we provide a comprehensive synthesis of the available data on carbon fluxes in mangrove ecosystems. A reassessment of global mangrove primary production from the literature results in a conservative estimate of ???-218 ?? 72 Tg C a-1. When using the best available estimates of various carbon sinks (organic carbon export, sediment burial, and mineralization), it appears that >50% of the carbon fixed by mangrove vegetation is unaccounted for. This unaccounted carbon sink is conservatively estimated at ??? 112 ?? 85 Tg C a-1, equivalent in magnitude to ??? 30-40% of the global riverine organic carbon input to the coastal zone. Our analysis suggests that mineralization is severely underestimated, and that the majority of carbon export from mangroves to adjacent waters occurs as dissolv