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1

[Monitoring of the mangrove forest at Gandoca, Costa Rica (CARICOMP site)].  

PubMed

The mangrove forest at Gandoca, Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Gandoca-Manzanillo, Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, has been monitored since 1999, following the CARICOMP protocol. The dominant species was the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle. The peak of productivity and flowering was in July. The mangrove productivity decline from 2001 to 2004 while the temperature rised. Biomass (14 kg/m2) and density (9 trees/10 m2) in Gandoca were relatively low compared to other CARICOMP sites, while productivity in July in Costa Rica (4 g/m2/day) was intermediate, similar to most CARICOMP sites. PMID:18457111

Fonseca, Ana C; Cortés, Jorge; Zamora, Priscilla

2007-03-01

2

Applications of ALOS PALSAR for monitoring biophysical parameters of a degraded black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the last few decades mangrove forests worldwide have been experiencing high annual rates of loss and many of those that remain have undergone considerable degradation. To understand the condition of these forests, various optical remote sensing platforms have been used to map and monitor these wetlands, including the use of these data for biophysical parameter mapping. For many mangrove forests a reliable source of optical imagery is not possible given their location in quasi-permanent cloud cover or smoke covered regions. In such cases it is recommended that Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) be considered. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationships between various ALOS-PALSAR modes, acquired from eight images, and mangrove biophysical parameter data collected from a black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) dominated forest that has experienced considerable degradation. In total, structural data were collected from 61 plots representing the four common stand types found in this degraded forest of the Mexican Pacific: tall healthy mangrove (n = 17), dwarf healthy mangrove (n = 15), poor condition mangrove (n = 13), and predominantly dead mangrove (n = 16).Based on backscatter coefficients, significant negative correlation coefficients were observed between filtered single polarization ALOS PALSAR (6.25 m) HH backscatter and Leaf Area Index (LAI). When the dead stands were excluded (n = 45) the strength of these relationships increased. Moreover, significant negative correlation coefficients were observed with stand height, Basal Area (BA) and to a lesser degree with stem density and mean DBH. With the coarser spatial resolution dual-polarization and quad polarization data (12.5 m) only a few, and weaker, correlation coefficients were calculated between the mangrove parameters and the filtered HH backscatter. However, significant negative values were once again calculated for the HH when the 16 dead mangrove stands were removed from the sample. Conversely, strong positive significant correlation coefficients were calculated between the cross-polarization HV backscatter and LAI when the dead mangrove stands were considered. Although fewer in comparison to the HH correlations, a number of VV backscatter based relationships with mangrove parameters were observed from the quad polarization mode and, to a lesser extent, with the one single VV polarization data.In addition to backscatter coefficients, stepwise multiple regression models of the mangrove biophysical parameter data were developed based on texture parameters derived from the grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) of the ALOS data. A similar pattern to the backscatter relationships was observed for models based on the single polarization unfiltered data, with fairly strong coefficients of determination calculated for LAI and stem height when the dead stands were excluded. In contrast, similar coefficients of determination with biophysical parameters were observed for the dual and quad polarization multiple regression models when the dead stands were both included and excluded from the analyses. An estimated mangrove LAI map of the study area, derived from a multiple regression model of the quad polarization texture parameters, showed comparable spatial patterns of degradation to a map derived from higher spatial resolution optical satellite data.

Kovacs, J. M.; Lu, X. X.; Flores-Verdugo, F.; Zhang, C.; Flores de Santiago, F.; Jiao, X.

2013-08-01

3

A preliminary assessment of NigeriaSat-1 for sustainable mangrove forest monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangroves constitute an area of great ecological importance and regular assessment and monitoring of this ecosystem is an integral part of environmental management plan. The difficulty of access for ground survey has often limited the frequency of assessment of mangroves and remote sensing methods therefore provide a veritable means of assessment. However, accessibility to remotely sensed data as well as the cost have been major constraints for mangrove assessment in the developing countries. The launching of small satellites by some developing countries may therefore provide a solution to this problem. This paper is an attempt to evaluate the capability of NigeriaSat-1 which is one of the Disaster Management Constellation (DMC) small satellites for generation of baseline information on cover types and areal extents within the mangrove zone in Nigeria. This is important since cover information is always the first step for conservation and management. The study shows that the results obtained from NigeriaSat-1 have comparable accuracy with ASTER and Landsat ETM+. The findings documented in this paper could serve as a springboard for organized wetland management in Nigeria in particular and West Africa sub-region in general.

Salami, Ayobami T.; Akinyede, Joseph; de Gier, Alfred

4

The Role of Mangrove Ecosystems: Mangrove Forest Types and Biomass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Five physiognomic types of mangrove forests are identified on the basis of local topography, coastal position and relationship to terrestrial runoff and tidal flushing. Estimates of biomass, by compartment, are reported for an overwash forest, fringe fore...

S. C. Snedaker D. J. Pool

1973-01-01

5

Mathematical modelling of tidal currents in mangrove forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of mangrove forests on the flow structure in estuaries have been studied in this paper. An existing two-dimensional depth-integrated mathematical model has been refined to include both the effects of drag force induced by mangrove trees and the blockage effects on the mass fluxes through mangrove forests. To investigate the influence of mangrove trees on the flow structure

Y. Wu; Roger A. Falconer; J. Struve

2001-01-01

6

Allometry, biomass, and productivity of mangrove forests: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review 72 published articles to elucidate characteristics of biomass allocation and productivity of mangrove forests and also introduce recent progress on the study of mangrove allometry to solve the site- and species-specific problems. This includes the testing of a common allometric equation, which may be applicable to mangroves worldwide. The biomass of mangrove forests varies with age, dominant species,

Akira Komiyama; Jin Eong Ong; Sasitorn Poungparn

2008-01-01

7

Soil Respiration of Three Mangrove Forests on Sanibel Island, Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon cycling studies conducted in mangrove forests have typically focused on aboveground processes. Our understanding of carbon storage in these systems is therefore limited by the lack information on belowground processes such as fine root production and soil respiration. To our knowledge there exist no studies investigating temporal patterns in and environmental controls on soil respiration in multiple types of mangrove ecosystems concurrently. This study is part of a larger study on carbon storage in three mangrove forests on Sanibel Island, Florida. Here we report on eight months of soil respiration data within these forests that will ultimately be incorporated into an annual carbon budget for each habitat type. Soil respiration was monitored in the following three mangrove habitat types: a fringe mangrove forest dominated by Rhizophora mangle, a basin mangrove forest dominated by Avicennia germinans, and a higher elevation forest comprised of a mix of Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa, and non-woody salt marsh species. Beginning in June of 2010, we measured soil emissions of carbon dioxide at 5 random locations within three-100 m2 plots within each habitat type. Sampling was performed at monthly intervals and conducted over the course of three days. For each day, one plot from each habitat type was measured. In addition to soil respiration, soil temperature, salinity and gravimetric moisture content were also measured. Our data indicate the Black mangrove forest, dominated by Avicennia germinans, experiences the highest rates of soil respiration with a mean rate of 4.61 ± 0.60 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1. The mixed mangrove and salt marsh habitat has the lowest soil carbon emission rates with a mean of 2.78 ± 0.40 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1. Soil carbon effluxes appear to peak in the early part of the wet season around May to June and are lower and relatively constant the remainder of the year. Our data also suggest there are important but brief periods where effluxes are higher than reported in previous studies for mangrove ecosystems.

Cartwright, F.; Bovard, B. D.

2011-12-01

8

Ecological engineering for successful management and restoration of mangrove forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Great potential exists to reverse the loss of mangrove,forests worldwide,through the application of basic principles of ecological restoration using ecological engineering approaches, including careful cost evaluations prior to design and construction. Previous documented attempts to restore mangroves, where successful, have largely concentrated on creation of plantations of mangroves consisting of just a few species, and targeted for harvesting as

Roy R. Lewis III

9

Ecological engineering for successful management and restoration of mangrove forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Great potential exists to reverse the loss of mangrove forests worldwide through the application of basic principles of ecological restoration using ecological engineering approaches, including careful cost evaluations prior to design and construction. Previous documented attempts to restore mangroves, where successful, have largely concentrated on creation of plantations of mangroves consisting of just a few species, and targeted for harvesting

Roy R. Lewis

2005-01-01

10

Tidal Flow in Mangrove Forests and the Eddy Viscosity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydraulic resistance characteristics in tidal scale in mangrove forests on which soil-accumulation processes dependwere studied in the Aira-Gawa mangrove areaIriomote IslandJapanwhich is a riverine type mangrove area.The results are as follows. 1) In the mangrove swamp near the bank of the tidal creek the tidal current velocity prevails in the direction along the creekwhile in the inside of the

Yoshihiro MAZDASatoshi; Daijiro KOBASHI

11

Degradation of mangrove forests in South Sulawesi, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In South Sulawesi forests contain a large variety of genera and species of plants. These forests are important as sources of timber, fuelwood, food and many other minor products. The major concern over this important coastal resource is its increasing rate of exploitation. Prior to 1965 it was estimated that there were at least 110 000 hectares of mangrove forests

Baharuddin Nurkin; N. Marshall; D. J. Macintosh

1994-01-01

12

Socio-institutional dynamics and the political ecology of mangrove forest conservation in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangrove forests provide a range of ecological and socio-economic benefits in coastal zones throughout the world's tropical regions. Yet the conversion of mangrove forest, due in particular to aquaculture development, is occurring at a dramatic rate. Drawing on insights and concepts offered by political ecology and complex systems, processes of mangrove forest conversion and aquaculture development in the coastal zone

Derek Armitage

2002-01-01

13

Soil Respiration and Belowground Carbon Allocation in Mangrove Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangrove forests cover large areas of tropical and subtropical coastlines. They provide a wide range of ecosystem services\\u000a that includes carbon storage in above- and below ground biomass and in soils. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from soil, or soil respiration is important in the global carbon budget and is sensitive to increasing global\\u000a temperature. To understand the magnitude of mangrove

Catherine E. Lovelock

2008-01-01

14

Ecosystem Carbon Stocks of Micronesian Mangrove Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the least studied ecosystem services of mangroves is their value as global carbon (C) stocks. This is significant as\\u000a mangroves are subject to rapid rates of deforestation and therefore could be significant sources of atmospheric emissions.\\u000a Mangroves could be key ecosystems in strategies addressing the mitigation of climate change though reduced deforestation.\\u000a We quantified ecosystem C stocks at the

J. Boone Kauffman; Chris Heider; Thomas G. Cole; Kathleen A. Dwire; Daniel C. Donato

2011-01-01

15

Valuing mangrove benefits: contribution of mangrove forests to local livelihoods in Bhitarkanika Conservation Area, East Coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consumptive benefits of mangrove forests to subsistence economy receive little recognition. This paper quantifies the\\u000a value of provisioning services of mangrove forests to local livelihoods in terms of forestry and fishery products. To examine\\u000a the use of mangrove products, 324 households from 36 villages in the Bhitarkanika Conservation Area located in East Coast\\u000a of India were surveyed using structured

Syed Ainul Hussain; Ruchi Badola

2010-01-01

16

Mangrove Forest and Soil Development on a Rapidly Accreting Shore in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangrove forests are rapidly expanding their distribution in New Zealand, which is at the southern limit of their range. We\\u000a investigated how these expanding mangrove forests develop through time. We assessed patterns in forest structure and function\\u000a at the Firth of Thames, which is a rapidly accreting mangrove site in New Zealand where 1 km of mangrove of Avicennia marina has

Catherine E. Lovelock; Brian K. Sorrell; Nicole Hancock; Quan Hua; Andrew Swales

2010-01-01

17

Remotely based monitoring of the mangroves over Penang Island, Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangrove vegetations are normally present in river estuaries and along the coast where the land meets the sea. Remote sensing can be used to obtain mangrove distribution information. The objective of this study was to study the current condition of mangrove forest using remote sensing over Penang Island, Malaysia. An attempt has been made based on supervised Maximum Likelihood Classification (MLC), various land use and land cover classes have been mapped and classified. A red-green-blue (RGB) colour was used to display and quantify mangrove forest distribution using Thailand Earth Observation System (THEOS) satellite imagery. Reference data was based on ground truth. High accuracy of 91.7% was obtained in mapping of mangrove cover.

Beh, B. C.; Matjafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.

2010-10-01

18

Soil characteristics and nutrient status in a Northern Australian mangrove forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a study of soil factors in relation to plant growth for a tropical mangrove forest in northern Australia are\\u000a presented and discussed. Basic soil properties are described briefly in terms of particle size distribution, bulk density\\u000a and total carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. Soil redox potential, pH, salinity and extractable nitrogen and phosphorus were\\u000a monitored monthly over a

Kevin G. Boto; John T. Wellington

1984-01-01

19

Material flux in mangrove forest based on the field observation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangrove ecosystems play important roles in conservation of seashore lines and spawning and nursery of aquatic creatures. It is important to understand nutrient budgets and links between human activities and their effects on mangrove ecosystems. However, we have less knowledge about mangrove ecosystems than that about many other ecosystems. To quantify total material balances in the estuary centered in mangrove forest, we have measured nutrient cycling and CH4 and CO2 gas fluxes in Fukido mangrove creek, Ishigaki island, Okinawa, Japan. It was conducted over tidal cycles from 2006 to 2008. To understand the difference between weather conditions, we investigated on both of rainy day and fine day. Water budget in the river was controlled by tidal exchange at estuary and the input budget from upriver was not dominant for the total budget even if it"fs rain"DFrom estimation of suspended solids (SS) budgets, SS was flowed in the river from upriver significantly on rainy day (more than 5 times inflow of fine day). The amount of SS accumulation in mangrove forest on rainy day (316 kg/day) was about 10 times amount of fine day. Total nitrogen (T-N) and total phosphorus (T-P) budgets also showed accumulation in mangrove. The outflow of T-P to coastal area on rainy day was 0.046 kgPO4/day and nearly equal to fine day. In contrast, T-N outflow to coastal on rainy day (0.58 kgN/day) was about 100 times of fine day. T-N budget showed different behavior from T-P. Ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) was dissolved from mangrove forest (~3.83 kgN/day by the nutrient dissolution experiments) and flowed out to estuary under certain conditions. In addition"Cconcentrations of total organic carbon (TOC) in mangrove creeks increased on fine days (11.2~15.5 mgC/L) and decreased on rainy days(1.8~4.9 mgC/L). It suggested the TOC dissolution to creek water from mangrove carbon-rich sediments and dilution effects by rain. Continuous measurements of gas fluxes showed that the CH4 and CO2 emissions from the water were accelerated due to the drop in hydrostatic pressure during the falling tide. The magnitude of total carbon gas fluxes (~116kgC/day) was about ~50 percent of the carbon accumulation in the creek. Estimation of net carbon cycling in Fukido mangrove estuary including carbon gas emission indicated that the estuary functioned as sinks for carbon. We conclude that a mangrove ecosystem had unique functions different from common urban rivers, preventing excess sediment outflow on rainy day and supplying nutrients to coastal area on fine day. It would affect the coastal ecosystems and offer habitats to marine life including fish and coral.

Terada, K.; Koibuchi, Y.; Isobe, M.

2008-12-01

20

Sediment biogeochemistry in an East African mangrove forest (Gazi Bay, Kenya)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biogeochemistry of mangrove sediments was investigated in several mangrove forest communities in Gazi Bay, a coastal lagoon in Kenya, Africa. Carbon dioxide fluxes, sediment median grain sizes, sedimentary organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus contents and pore-water characteristics (ammonium, nitrate, sulfate and chloride) could be related to forest type. Mangrove sediments have pH values that range from 3.5 to 8.3

Jack J. Middelburg; Joop Nieuwenhuize; Frederik J. Slim; Boaz Ohowa

1996-01-01

21

Corticioid fungi (Basidiomycota) in mangrove forests of the islands of Iriomote and Okinawa, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen species of corticioid fungi (Basidiomycota) were collected from mangrove forests in the islands of Iriomote and Okinawa, Japan. All the species are new records for the Japanese mangrove forests. Of these species, 6 species are newly reported from Japan: Cerocorticium molle, Gloeocystidiellum moniliforme, G. wakullum, Hyphoderma ayresii, Phanerochaete tropica, and Phlebia acanthocystis. Their morphological descriptions, illustrations, and remarks based

Nitaro Maekawa; Hiroto Suhara; Kazuhiko Kinjo; Ryuichiro Kondo

2003-01-01

22

Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils of a mangrove forest affected by forest fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface soils affected by forest fires from Igbanko mangrove forest in Nigeria were analyzed for 16 EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The total PAHs concentrations in the soils ranged from 63 to 188?µg?kg dry weight (average: 108?µg?kg). The three predominant PAHs in the soils were naphthalene (Na), fluoranthene (Flu), and benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF). Compared to

Olatunbosun S. Sojinu; Oluwadayo O. Sonibare; Eddy Y. Zeng

2011-01-01

23

Material flux in mangrove forest based on the field observation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangrove ecosystems play important roles in conservation of seashore lines and spawning and nursery of aquatic creatures. It is important to understand nutrient budgets and links between human activities and their effects on mangrove ecosystems. However, we have less knowledge about mangrove ecosystems than that about many other ecosystems. To quantify total material balances in the estuary centered in mangrove

K. Terada; Y. Koibuchi; M. Isobe

2008-01-01

24

Monitoring urban forest health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewed interest in urban forestry has resulted in significant public investment in trees during the past few years, yet comprehensive urban forest monitoring programs are uncommon. Monitoring is an integral component of a program to sustain healthy community forests and long term flows of net benefits. Volunteer-based monitoring will promote continued public involvement and support in community forestry. To overcome

E. Gregory Mcpherson

1993-01-01

25

An Evaluation of Plotless Sampling Using Vegetation Simulations and Field Data from a Mangrove Forest  

PubMed Central

In vegetation science and forest management, tree density is often used as a variable. To determine the value of this variable, reliable field methods are necessary. When vegetation is sparse or not easily accessible, the use of sample plots is not feasible in the field. Therefore, plotless methods, like the Point Centred Quarter Method, are often used as an alternative. In this study we investigate the accuracy of different plotless sampling methods. To this end, tree densities of a mangrove forest were determined and compared with estimates provided by several plotless methods. None of these methods proved accurate across all field sites with mean underestimations up to 97% and mean overestimations up to 53% in the field. Applying the methods to different vegetation patterns shows that when random spatial distributions were used the true density was included within the 95% confidence limits of all the plotless methods tested. It was also found that, besides aggregation and regularity, density trends often found in mangroves contribute to the unreliability. This outcome raises questions about the use of plotless sampling in forest monitoring and management, as well as for estimates of density-based carbon sequestration. We give recommendations to minimize errors in vegetation surveys and recommendations for further in-depth research.

Hijbeek, Renske; Koedam, Nico; Khan, Md Nabiul Islam; Kairo, James Gitundu; Schoukens, Johan; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid

2013-01-01

26

Lateral fluxes of organic carbon in a mangrove forest partly contaminated with sewage wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateral fluxes of macrodetritus, particulate matter and dissolved organic carbon were determined. Samples were collected monthly at the mangrove forest–inshore water boundary and within the forest. Floating macrodetritus (mainly mangrove leaves) was collected by a net (2?mm mesh size). Dissolved and particulate matter were separated by filtration (0.45?µm filter) and centrifugation. Dissolved and particulate carbon were determined by a total

John F. Machiwa

1999-01-01

27

Surface elevation dynamics in a regenerating mangrove forest at Homebush Bay, Australia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Following the dieback of an interior portion of a mangrove forest at Homebush Bay, Australia, surface elevation tables and feldspar marker horizons were installed in the impacted, intermediate and control forest to measure vertical accretion, elevation change, and shallow subsidence. The objectives of the study were to determine current vertical accretion and elevation change rates as a guide to understanding mangrove dieback, ascertain the factors controlling surface elevation change, and investigate the sustainability of the mangrove forest under estimated sea-level rise conditions. The study demonstrates that the influences on surface dynamics are more complex than soil accretion and soil autocompaction alone. During strong vegetative regrowth in the impacted forest, surface elevation increase exceeded vertical accretion apparently as a result of belowground biomass production. In addition, surface elevation in all forest zones was correlated with total monthly rainfall during a severe El Ni?o event, highlighting the importance of rainfall to groundwater recharge and surface elevation. Surface elevation increase for all zones exceeded the 85-year sea level trend for Sydney Harbour. Since mean sea-level also decreased during the El Ni?o event, the decrease in surface elevation did not translate to an increase in inundation frequency or influence the sustainability of the mangrove forest. These findings indicate that subsurface soil processes such as organic matter accumulation and groundwater flux can significantly influence mangrove surface elevation, and contribute to the long-term sustainability of mangrove systems under a scenario of rising sea levels.

Rogers, K.; Saintilan, N.; Cahoon, D.

2005-01-01

28

RS Application for conducting change detection within the Sundarban Mangrove Forest, Bangladesh to meet REDD+ initiatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Forest Service (USFS) provided technical support to the Resource Information Management System (RIMS) unit of the Forest Department (FD) of Bangladesh in developing a method to monitor changes within the Sundarbans Reserve Forest using remote sensing and GIS technology to meet the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+) initiatives within Bangladesh. It included comparing the simple image differencing method with the Z-score outlier change detection method to examine changes within the mangroves of Bangladesh. Landsat data from three time periods (1989, 1999, 2009) were used to quantify change within four canopy cover classes (High, Medium, Low, and Very Low) within Sundarbans. The Z-score change analysis and image differencing was done for all the 6 reflective bands obtained from Landsat and two spectral indices NDVI and NDMI, derived from these bands for each year. Our results indicated very subtle changes in the mangrove forest within the past twenty years and the Z-score analysis was found to be more useful in capturing these subtle changes than the simple image difference method. Percent change in Z-score of NDVI provided the most meaningful index of vegetation change. It was used to summarize change for the entire study area by pixel, by canopy cover classes and the management compartment during this analysis. Our analysis showed less than 5% overall change in area within the mangroves for the entire study period. Percent change in forest canopy cover reduced from 4% in 1989-99 to 2% by 1999-2009 indicating an increase in forest canopy cover. Percent change in NDVI Z-score of each pixel was used to compute the overall percent change in z-score within the entire study area, mean percent change within each canopy cover class and management compartments from 1989 to 1999 and from 1999 to 2009. The above analysis provided insight to the spatial distribution of percent change in NDVI between the study periods and helped in identifying potential area for management intervention. The mean distribution of change from both study periods was observed within ± 20% SD.Our results were in agreement with the independent field study conducted by the US Forest Service earlier the same year for biomass and carbon stock estimation. The 10m field plots that showed a decline in carbon stock between 1995 and 2010 overall coincided with the compartments or region that showed a decline in forest canopy cover between 1999 and 2009 from the present analysis. These results led us to believe that the Z-score analysis can be a potential quantitatively rigorous tool to quantify change in ecosystems that are mostly stable and do not undergo drastic land use or land cover change. The field and remote sensing study together provided important scientific information and direction for future management of the forest resources, baseline information for long term monitoring of the forest, and identifying potential REDD+ Carbon financing projects in Sundarbans, as well as other potential REDD+ sites within forested area of Bangladesh. Given the rising concern and interest in REDD+ initiative we consider the Z-score analysis to be a potential tool in monitoring and providing a quick spatial assessment of change using remote sensing technology.

Biswas, T.; Maus, P.; Megown, K.

2011-12-01

29

Mangrove and peat swamp forests: refuge habitats for primates and felids.  

PubMed

Swamp forests may be important refuges for primates and felids where these taxa are threatened with habitat loss. Mangrove and peat swamp forests, impenetrable, wet habitats, inaccessible and uninhabitable for humans, may, in some regions, be the most significant remaining habitats for threatened species. They are nevertheless neglected in field studies compared to relatively species-rich, terrestrial tropical forests probably, in part, because of the difficulties associated with surveying them. As a result, maps of mammal distributions may overlook swamp forests although camera-trapping is gradually rectifying this gap. I have compiled and mapped records of over 60 primate and 20 felid taxa reported to use mangrove and peat swamp forests in Africa and Asia at 47 sites, of which 21 are Afrotropical mangrove, 25 are Indo-Malayan mangrove or peat swamp forest, and 1 is an outlying mangrove site in Japan. Eleven of these are designated Ramsar Sites. I highlight key sites of conservation priority on the basis of primate and felid species richness and composite 'threat scores'. Petit Loango in Gabon and Gunung Palung National Park in Indonesia emerged as top priority sites in Africa and Asia, respectively. Further research on the role of swamp forests in the ecology and persistence of threatened mammals is needed. PMID:23363595

Nowak, Katarzyna

2013-01-28

30

Qualitative distinction of congeneric and introgressive mangrove species in mixed patchy forest assemblages using high spatial resolution remotely sensed imagery (IKONOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a preliminary report of the ability of IKONOS multispectral satellite imagery with a very high spatial resolution of 1 metre to distinguish two mangrove species in Sri Lanka belonging to the same genus (Rhizophora apiculata and R. mucronata). Not only is this an advancement for the monitoring of forests, it is even more important considering their patchy

Elly Van Hiel; Loku Pulukkuttige Jayatissa; Nico Koedam

2004-01-01

31

Morphology and Expansion of a Tidal Flat and Mangrove Forest, Firth of Thames, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A morphological and sedimentological study was undertaken on a tidal flat/mangrove forest complex in the Firth of Thames (North Island, New Zealand), to elucidate patterns and rates of tidal flat progradation and associated mangrove habitat expansion along this wave-impacted mesotidal muddy coastline. Recent studies of mangrove habitat in the area document accelerated forest expansion over the past five decades. To better understand processes controlling progradation of unvegetated mudflats fronting mangrove forest, sediment cores and field observations were collected on a transect extending one km seaward of the mangrove fringe. Cores were X-radiographed and analyzed for grain size, water content, and the radioisotopes Pb-210, Be-7, and Cs-137 to evaluate sediment accumulation rates, and sediment mixing rates and depths. X-radiographs and Be-7 profiles indicate intense and rapid mixing (by waves) of the uppermost 3-7 cm of sediment on unvegetated flats. Pb-210 accumulation rates of 2-3 cm/y characterize the uppermost 40-50 cm of unvegetated flat sediments, much slower accumulation than the 5-10 cm/y accumulation rates observed in the seaward edges of mangrove forest. Our observations suggest that the wave-swept unvegetated mudflats accrete relatively slowly until an elevation threshold is reached that allows mangrove recruitment. Sediment accretion in the mangrove fringe remains low until vegetation is sufficiently dense to reduce wave exposure, whereupon more rapid sediment accumulation ensues, as the young trees mature. A simple sediment budget based on Pb-210 sedimentation rates and estimated local river sediment supply indicates that present sediment accumulation on the unvegetated mudflat exceeds present fluvial sediment discharge by a significant margin, suggesting that the system is not in steady state, but is still adjusting to massive sediment flux delivered following a period of forest clearance in the late 19th/early 20th century.

Bentley, S. J.; Swales, A.; Kahlmeyer, E.; Denommee, K.

2008-12-01

32

Variation in mangrove forest structure and sediment characteristics in Bocas del Toro, Panama  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mangrove forest structure and sediment characteristics were examined in the extensive mangroves of Bocas del Toro, Republic of Panama. Forest structure was characterized to determine if spatial vegetation patterns were repeated over the Bocas del Toro landscape. Using a series of permanent plots and transects we found that the forests of Bocas del Toro were dominated by Rhizophora mangle with very few individuals of Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa. Despite this low species diversity, there was large variation in forest structure and in edaphic conditions (salinity, concentration of available phosphorus, Eh and sulphide concentration). Aboveground biomass varied 20-fold, from 6.8 Mg ha-1 in dwarf forests to 194.3 Mg ha-1 in the forests fringing the land. But variation in forest structure was predictable across the intertidal zone. There was a strong tree height gradient from seaward fringe (mean tree height 3.9 m), decreasing in stature in the interior dwarf forests (mean tree height 0.7 m), and increasing in stature in forests adjacent to the terrestrial forest (mean tree height 4.1 m). The predictable variation in forest structure emerges due to the complex interactions among edaphic and plant factors. Identifying predictable patterns in forest structure will aid in scaling up the ecosystem services provided by mangrove forests in coastal landscapes. Copyright 2005 College of Arts and Sciences.

Lovelock, C. E.; Feller, I. C.; McKee, K. L.; Thompson, R.

2005-01-01

33

Patterns of secondary succession in a mangrove forest of Southern Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successional patterns were studied in mangrove forests which had developed recently in response to salinization of areas formerly supporting freshwater marshes along Biscayne Bay in North Miami, Florida. The population structures of these Induced Forests were compared with an adjacent Historical Forest which consisted of a nearly pure stand ofRhizophora mangle. A mixed forest ofRhizophora andLaguncularia racemosa had developed in

Marylyn C. Ball

1980-01-01

34

The dynamics of heavy metals through litterfall and decomposition in a red mangrove forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cycling of Zn, Mn and Fe through production, decomposition, and export of litter was studied at the Itacurussá Experimental Forest, a red mangrove forest in Southeast Brazil. The total litterfall was 8.69 t ha-1 yr-1. The heaf litter represented 56% to 100% of the total litterfall. The metal concentrations in the fallen leaves were: Mn = 230 ± 50

C. A. R. Silva; L. D. Lacerda; A. R. Ovalle; C. E. Rezende

1998-01-01

35

Mangrove structure, litter and macroalgal productivity in a northern?most forest of Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhizophora mangle L. dominated 10 overwash islands within Tampa Bay forming the northernmost mangrove forests on the west coast of Florida. The mean number of trees and basal area were 5040 trees ha-1 and 20.5?m2?ha-1, respectively. Basal areas ranged from 1.1 (Avicennia germinans (L.) Stern), to 2.6?m2?ha-1 (Laguncularia racemosa Gaertner), to 16.8 (R. mangle). Cockroach Bay mangroves are small (5.8–7.0?m

Clinton Dawes; Katherine Siar; Donald Marlett

1999-01-01

36

Mangrove forests in a peri-urban setting: the case of Mombasa (Kenya)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and regeneration patterns of the peri-urban mangrove vegetation of Mombasa at Tudor creek were studied along\\u000a belt transects at two forest sites of Kombeni and Tsalu. Based on the species importance values, the dominant mangrove species\\u000a were Rhizophora mucronata Lam. (Rhizophoraceae) and Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. (Avicenniaceae). Lumnitzera racemosa Willd., reported in an earlier floristic survey, was not

Mohamed Omar Said Mohamed; Griet Neukermans; James Gitundu Kairo; Farid Dahdouh-Guebas; Nico Koedam

2009-01-01

37

Mangrove forest sedimentation and its reference to sea level rise, Cananeia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of a mangrove ecosystem in Cananeia, Brazil, is assessed based on investigations of the site-specific temporal\\u000a rise in relative sea level during the past 50 years, 100-year sediment accumulation rates (SAR) and sources of organic matter\\u000a (OM). Addressing this, three sediment cores were collected in a transect, intertidal mud flat, mangrove margin and well into\\u000a the forest. The net

Christian J. Sanders; Joseph M. Smoak; A. Sathy Naidu; Denise R. Araripe; Lucian M. Sanders; Sambasiva R. Patchineelam

2010-01-01

38

Mangrove recruitment after forest disturbance is facilitated by herbaceous species in the Caribbean  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Plant communities along tropical coastlines are often affected by natural and human disturbances, but little is known about factors influencing recovery. We focused on mangrove forests, which are among the most threatened ecosystems globally, to examine how facilitation by herbaceous vegetation might improve forest restoration after disturbance. We specifically investigated whether recovery of mangrove forests in harsh environments is accelerated by nurse plants and whether the beneficial effects are species-specific. Quantification of standardized effects allowed comparisons across performance parameters and over time for: (1) net effect of each herbaceous species on mangrove survival and growth, (2) effects of pre- and post-establishment factors associated with each herbaceous species, and (3) need for artificial planting to enhance growth or survival of mangrove seedlings. Mangrove recruitment in a clear-cut forest in Belize was accelerated by the presence of Sesuvium portulacastrum (succulent forb) and Distichlis spicata (grass), two coastal species common throughout the Caribbean region. The net effect of herbaceous vegetation was positive, but the magnitude of effects on mangrove survival and growth differed by species. Because of differences in their vegetative structure and other features, species effects on mangroves also varied by mechanism: (1) trapping of dispersing propagules (both species), (2) structural support of the seedling (Distichlis), and/or (3) promotion of survival (Sesuvium) or growth (Distichlis) through amelioration of soil conditions (temperature, aeration). Artificial planting had a stronger positive effect on mangrove survival than did edaphic conditions, but planting enhanced mangrove growth more in Sesuvium than in Distichlis patches. Our study indicates that beneficial species might be selected based on features that provide multiple positive effects and that species comparisons may be improved using standardized effects. Our findings are not only relevant to the coastal environments found in the Caribbean region, but our assessment methods may be useful for developing site-specific information to restore disturbed mangrove forests worldwide, especially given the large pool of mangrove associates (>45 genera) available for screening. ?? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America.

McKee, K. L.; Rooth, J. E.; Feller, I. C.

2007-01-01

39

Assessment of mangrove forests in the Pacific region using Landsat imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The information on the mangrove forests for the Pacific region is scarce or outdated. A regional assessment based on a consistent methodology and data sources was needed to understand their true extent. Our investigation offers a regionally consistent, high resolution (30 m), and the most comprehensive mapping of mangrove forests on the islands of American Samoa, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Hawaii, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, New Caledonia, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, and Wallis and Futuna Islands for the year 2000. We employed a hybrid supervised and unsupervised image classification technique on a total of 128 Landsat scenes gathered between 1999 and 2004, and validated the results using existing geographic information science (GIS) datasets, high resolution imagery, and published literature. We also draw a comparative analysis with the mangrove forests inventory published by the Food and Agriculture Association (FAO) of the United Nations. Our estimate shows a total of 623755 hectares of mangrove forests in the Pacific region; an increase of 18% from FAO's estimates. Although mangrove forests are disproportionately distributed toward a few larger islands on the western Pacific, they are also significant in many smaller islands.

Bhattarai, Bibek; Giri, Chandra

2011-01-01

40

Fine root respiration in the mangrove Rhizophora mangle over variation in forest stature and nutrient availability.  

PubMed

Root respiration uses a significant proportion of photosynthetically fixed carbon (C) and is a globally important source of C liberated from soils. Mangroves, which are an important and productive forest resource in many tropical and subtropical countries, sustain a high ratio of root to shoot biomass which may indicate that root respiration is a particularly important component in mangrove forest carbon budgets. Mangroves are often exposed to nutrient pollution from coastal waters. Here we assessed the magnitude of fine root respiration in mangrove forests in Belize and investigated how root respiration is influenced by nutrient additions. Respiration rates of excised fine roots of the mangrove, Rhizophora mangle L., were low (4.01 +/- 0.16 nmol CO(2) g(-1) s(-1)) compared to those measured in temperate tree species at similar temperatures. In an experiment where trees where fertilized with nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P) in low productivity dwarf forests (1-2 m height) and more productive, taller (4- 7 m height) seaward fringing forests, respiration of fine roots did not vary consistently with fertilization treatments or with forest stature. Fine roots of taller fringe trees had higher concentrations of both N and P compared to dwarf trees. Fertilization with P enhanced fine root P concentrations in both dwarf and fringe trees, but reduced root N concentrations compared to controls. Fertilization with N had no effect on root N or P concentrations. Unlike photosynthetic C gain and growth, which is strongly limited by P availability in dwarf forests at this site, fine root respiration (expressed on a mass basis) was variable, but showed no significant enhancements with nutrient additions. Variation in fine root production and standing biomass are, therefore, likely to be more important factors determining C efflux from mangrove sediments than variations in fine root respiration per unit mass. PMID:17169899

Lovelock, Catherine E; Ruess, Roger W; Feller, Ilka C

2006-12-01

41

Flux of nitrogen and sediment in a fringe mangrove forest in terminos lagoon, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluxes of dissolved inorganic and organic nitrogen, particulate nitrogen, and total suspended sediments were measured in a fringe mangrove forest using the flume technique during a 15-month period in Terminos Lagoon, Mexico. The 12-m flume extended through a fringe forest from a tidal creek to a basin forest. There was a net import of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (NH+4 and NO-2+NO-3)

Victor H. Rivera-Monroy; John W. Day; Robert R. Twilley; Francisco Vera-Herrera; Carlos Coronado-Molina

1995-01-01

42

Net primary productivity of two mangrove forest stands on the northwestern coast of Sri Lanka  

Microsoft Academic Search

Productivity studies were carried out from September, 1985 to August, 1987 in two mangrove stands, i.e. estuarine and island fringing, in Dutch bay, a lagoon situated on the northwestern coast of Sri Lanka. Net above-ground primary productivity was measured by monitoring litterfall and above-ground biomass increment. The average annual rate of litterfall in the estuarine and island-fringing mangrove stands are

M. D. Amarasinghe; S. Balasubramaniam

1992-01-01

43

Simulated populations of the black salt march mosquito ( Aedes taeniorhynchus) in a Florida mangrove forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulation model of the population dynamics of the black salt marsh mosquito (Aedes taeniorhynchus) in a mangrove basin forest in southwestern Florida is described. This mosquito is a major pest in coastal Florida, with large populations migrating many kilometres from the breeding site. The basic model realistically simulated annual population trends and the occurrence of larval broods. Model output

Scott A. Ritchie; Clay L. Montague

1995-01-01

44

Undergrowth species diversity of Sundarban mangrove forest (Bangladesh) in relation to salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undergrowth species diversity was investigated by random quadrat method. Ordination and Shannon-Wiener diversity index were produced by the CANOCO program and Cluster analysis was done by the SAS (Statistical Analylitical System, sixth version) program. 48 undergrowth species were recorded in the Sundarban mangrove forest belonging to the dominant families such as Fabaceae (Cynometra ramiflora, Dalbergia spinosa, Derris trifoliata), Poaceae (Myriostachya

S. Harun Rashid; Reinhard Böcker; A. B. M. E. Hossain; Saleh A. Khan

2008-01-01

45

Leaf consumption by Sesarma plicata in a mangrove forest at Jiulongjiang Estuary, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding ecology of Sesarma plicata (Grapsidae: Sesarminae), the most abundant crab species in a mangrove forest dominated by Kandelia candel at Jiulongjiang Estuary, China, was investigated through field and laboratory experiments. Feeding preference and consumption\\u000a rates were determined on mature, senescent and decomposed leaves of Kandelia candel, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Aegiceras corniculatum. In the laboratory, S. plicata preferred leaves

Guang-Cheng Chen; Yong Ye

2008-01-01

46

Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics in creek water of a southeast Asian mangrove forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water column dynamics of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in the main creek of the Bangrong mangrove forest, Phuket Island, Thailand, were examined during the dry season. Water sampled from the upper and lower reaches of the creek throughout entire neap and spring tide periods was incubated under saturated irradiation and in the dark. The activity of microbial primary producers and

Erik Kristensen; Pinsak Suraswadi

2002-01-01

47

Controls on mangrove forest-atmosphere carbon dioxide exchanges in western Everglades National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on net ecosystem production (NEP) and key environmental controls on net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide (CO2) between a mangrove forest and the atmosphere in the coastal Florida Everglades. An eddy covariance system deployed above the canopy was used to determine NEE during January 2004 through August 2005. Maximum daytime NEE ranged from ?20 to ?25 ?mol

Jordan G. Barr; Vic Engel; José D. Fuentes; Joseph C. Zieman; Thomas L. O’Halloran; Thomas J. Smith; Gordon H. Anderson

2010-01-01

48

Controls on mangrove forest-atmosphere carbon dioxide exchanges in western Everglades National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on net ecosystem production (NEP) and key environmental controls on net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide (CO2) between a mangrove forest and the atmosphere in the coastal Florida Everglades. An eddy covariance system deployed above the canopy was used to determine NEE during January 2004 through August 2005. Maximum daytime NEE ranged from -20 to -25 mumol

Jordan G. Barr; Vic Engel; José D. Fuentes; Joseph C. Zieman; Thomas L. O'Halloran; Thomas J. Smith; Gordon H. Anderson

2010-01-01

49

Evolution in Australasian Mangrove Forests: Multilocus Phylogenetic Analysis of the Gerygone Warblers (Aves: Acanthizidae)  

PubMed Central

The mangrove forests of Australasia have many endemic bird species but their evolution and radiation in those habitats has been little studied. One genus with several mangrove specialist species is Gerygone (Passeriformes: Acanthizidae). The phylogeny of the Acanthizidae is reasonably well understood but limited taxon sampling for Gerygone has constrained understanding of its evolution and historical biogeography in mangroves. Here we report on a phylogenetic analysis of Gerygone based on comprehensive taxon sampling and a multilocus dataset of thirteen loci spread across the avian genome (eleven nuclear and two mitochondrial loci). Since Gerygone includes three species restricted to Australia's coastal mangrove forests, we particularly sought to understand the biogeography of their evolution in that ecosystem. Analyses of individual loci, as well as of a concatenated dataset drawn from previous molecular studies indicates that the genus as currently defined is not monophyletic, and that the Grey Gerygone (G. cinerea) from New Guinea should be transferred to the genus Acanthiza. The multilocus approach has permitted the nuanced view of the group's evolution into mangrove ecosystems having occurred on multiple occasions, in three non-overlapping time frames, most likely first by the G. magnirostris lineage, and subsequently followed by those of G. tenebrosa and G. levigaster.

Nyari, Arpad S.; Joseph, Leo

2012-01-01

50

Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Soil Organic Carbon in Mangrove Forest Ecosystems (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetlands are recognized as potentially important carbon sinks, but few studies have focused on tropical and sub-tropical systems that accumulate organic carbon. Soil organic carbon (SOC) density was analyzed in multiple mangrove forests, representing 30 geographic locations and six forest types (total of 230 study plots overall). SOC density varied from 0.002 to 0.1 g cm-3, with an overall average

K. L. McKee

2010-01-01

51

Flux of nitrogen and sediment in a fringe mangrove forest in terminos lagoon, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluxes of dissolved inorganic and organic nitrogen, particulate nitrogen, and total suspended sediments were measured in a fringe mangrove forest using the flume technique during a 15-month period in Terminos Lagoon, Mexico. The 12-m flume extended through a fringe forest from a tidal creek to a basin forest. There was a net import of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (NH+4 and NO-2+NO-3) from the creek and basin forest, while particulate (PN) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) were exported to the creek and basin forest. The tidal creek was the principal source of NH+4 (0·53 g m-2 year-1) and NO-2+NO-3 (0·08 g m-2 year-1) to the fringe forest, while the basin forest was the main source of total suspended sediments (TSS; 210 g m-2 year-1). Net export of PN occurred from the fringe forest to the tidal creek (0·52 g m-2 year-1) while less PN was exported to the basin forest (0·06 g m-2 year-1). The decrease in salinity during the rainy season indicated that nutrient concentrations in the tidal creek may have been influenced by inputs from rainfall and river discharge to the lagoon. There was a net import of TSS to the fringe forest from both the creek and basin forests, but the net input was 3·5 times higher at the fringe/basin interface. Particulate material exported from the forest during ebb tides generally had a higher C/N ratio than particulate matter imported into the forest on the flooding tide. This suggested that there was a greater nitrogen demand during ebb tide caused by the export of nitrogen-deficient detritus from fringe and basin mangroves. The exchange of nutrients among the tidal creek, the fringe, and basin forests in Estero Pargo is strongly influenced by seasonal weather forcing, such as winter storms, that can influence the magnitude and direction of water flow. The net annual import of inorganic nitrogen and the export of DON and PN suggest, in contrast to other mangrove systems, that the fringe mangrove forest in Estero Pargo acts as a sink of inorganic nitrogen and as a source of dissolved and particulate nitrogen.

Rivera-Monroy, Victor H.; Day, John W.; Twilley, Robert R.; Vera-Herrera, Francisco; Coronado-Molina, Carlos

52

Petroleum pollution in mangrove forests sediments from Qeshm Island and Khamir Port-Persian Gulf, Iran.  

PubMed

The concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 22 individual PAH compounds in 42 surface sediments collected from the mangrove forest of Qeshm Island and Khamir Port (Persian Gulf) were analyzed. PAHs concentrations ranged from 259 to 5,376 ng g(-1) dry weight with mean and median values of 1,585 and 1,146 ng g(-1), respectively. The mangrove sediments had higher percentages of lower molecular weight PAHs and the PAH profiles were dominated by naphthalene. Ratio values of specific PAH compounds were calculated to evaluate the possible source of PAH contamination. This ratios suggesting that the mangrove sediments have a petrogenic input of PAHs. Sediment quality guidelines were conducted to assess the toxicity of PAH compounds. The levels of total PAHs at all of stations except one station, namely Q6, were below the effects range low. Also, concentrations of naphthalene in some stations exceeded the effects range median. PMID:22930186

Ebrahimi-Sirizi, Zohreh; Riyahi-Bakhtiyari, Alireza

2012-08-29

53

Seed predation by insects in tropical mangrove forests: extent and effects on seed viability and the growth of seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although insects are known to be important seed predators in most terrestrial forests, their role in marine tidal (mangrove) forests has not been examined. Surveys at 12 sites in tropical Australia showed that between 3.1 and 92.7 percent of the seeds or propagules of 12 mangrove tree species had been attacked by insects. Seeds\\/propagules of six species (Avicennia marina, Bruguiera

A. I. Robertson; R. Giddins; T. J. Smith

1990-01-01

54

Frequent water drinking by Zanzibar red colobus (Procolobus kirkii) in a mangrove forest refuge.  

PubMed

Isolated populations of Procolobus kirkii on Uzi Island, Zanzibar, use Rhizophora mucronata-dominated mangrove forest for refuge. Three groups, observed over 14 months, spent up to 85% of total observation time in mangroves with brief excursions to adjacent upland coral rag forest, habitat degraded by human cutting. A large proportion of monkeys' diets consisted of plant parts of five mangrove species. Water drinking was common and 326 water-drinking events were recorded at a rate of up to 0.87 drinks hr(-1). Groups used different strategies to obtain water including licking dew, drinking from treeholes, licking rain off leaves and tree trunks, and drinking from coral rock crevices with Cercopithecus mitis albogularis. Drinking frequency increased with time spent in and consumption of mangroves. Strategies for obtaining water were group-specific and likely the result of learning. Drinking appeared to be an acquired behavior in movement-restricted groups living in a habitat with low plant species diversity and limited salty foods. PMID:18651613

Nowak, Katarzyna

2008-11-01

55

Mangrove Action Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This nonprofit organization provides information about the biology and ecology of mangrove species, the distribution of mangrove forests and importance of mangrove ecosystems to wildlife and people worldwide. Photos, slide show, current issues and links to related sites are provided. Threats to mangroves are described and sustainable alternatives, based on pilot projects, are presented. Appropriate for grades 8 and up.

56

Weak diurnal changes in the biochemical properties and benthic macrofauna of urbanised mangrove forests and mudflats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diurnal changes in the biochemical properties and the benthic macrofaunal assemblage of sediments in urbanised mangrove forests\\u000a and their adjacent mudflats in Sydney Harbour were investigated. Behavioural and physiological changes in the microphytobenthos\\u000a between day and night were predicted to cause diurnal changes in the micro-scale depth distribution of chlorophylls a and b and colloidal carbohydrate. In addition, because macrofauna

T. J. Tolhurst

2009-01-01

57

Biosphere-atmosphere exchange of NOx in the tropical mangrove forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosphere-atmosphere exchange of NOx at the Sundarban mangrove forest along the northeast coast of the Bay of Bengal, India, showed uptake rates of ?0.84 to ?1.63 ng N m?2 s?1 during the day and both uptake and emission rates of ?0.36 to 5.19 ng N m?2 s?1 during the night from September to February. However, during the period from March

D. Ganguly; M. Dey; S. Sen; T. K. Jana

2009-01-01

58

Dissolved inorganic carbon dynamics in the waters surrounding forested mangroves of the Ca Mau Province (Vietnam)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and ancillary data were obtained during the dry and rainy seasons in the waters surrounding two 10-year-old forested mangrove sites (Tam Giang and Kiên Vàng) located in the Ca Mau Province (South-West Vietnam). During both seasons, the spatial variations of partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) were marked, with values ranging from 704ppm to 11481ppm during the

Y. J.-M. Koné; A. V. Borges

2008-01-01

59

Nitrogen vs. phosphorus limitation across an ecotonal gradient in a mangrove forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangrove forests are characterized by distinctive tree-height gradientsthat reflect complex spatial, within-stand differences in environmentalfactors,including nutrient dynamics, salinity, and tidal inundation, across narrowgradients. To determine patterns of nutrient limitation and the effects ofnutrient availability on plant growth and within-stand nutrient dynamics, weused a factorial experiment with three nutrient treatment levels (control, N,P)and three zones along a tree-height gradient (fringe, transition,

Ilka C. Feller; Karen L. McKee; Dennis F. Whigham; John P. O'Neill

2003-01-01

60

Patterns of mangrove forest structure and soil nutrient dynamics along the Shark River estuary, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basal area and productivity of managrove wetlands are described in relation to selected soil properties to understand\\u000a the general pattern of optimum forest stature at the mouth of estuaries in the Everglades, such as the Shark River Slough,\\u000a Florida (U.S.). The basal area of mangroves decreases from 40.4 m2 ha?1 and 39.7 m2 ha?1 at two stations 1.8 km

Ronghua Chen; Robert R. Twilley

1999-01-01

61

A field based statistical approach for validating a remotely sensed mangrove forest classification scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amongst the most threatened ecosystems on Earth, mangrove forests are also one of the more difficult to work in due to their\\u000a growth in mud and open water coastal zones and their dense tangled stems, branches and prop roots. Consequently, there has\\u000a been an impetus to employ remotely sensed imagery as a means for rapid inventory of these coastal wetlands.

John M. KovacsYali; Yali Liu; Chunhua Zhang; Francisco Flores-Verdugo; Francisco Flores de Santiago

62

Interhabitat differences in ant activity on plant foliage: ants at extrafloral nectaries of Hibiscus pernambucensis in sandy and mangrove forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between visiting ants and the extrafloral nectaries (EFN)-bearing shrub Hibiscus pernambucensis Arruda (Malvaceae) was investigated in two different coastal habitats - a permanently dry sandy forest and a regularly inundated mangrove forest. In both habitats the frequency of plants with ants and the mean number of ants per plant were much higher on H. pernambucensis than on non-nectariferous

Rodrigo Cogni; Andre V. L. Freitas; Paulo S. Oliveira

2003-01-01

63

Carbon and 3D structure estimates of Neotropical mangrove forests from Lidar, InSAR and field data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurately quantifying forest 3-D structure and biomass storage is of great importance for studies of the global carbon cycle, biodiversity and for future REDD projects. Mangrove forests have been shown to store very large amounts of Carbon, both above and belowground, with storage capacities even greater than tropical rainforests. They also present an ideal terrain for active remote sensing measurements

T. E. Fatoyinbo; M. Simard; C. Giri

2010-01-01

64

Forest Health Monitoring and Forest Inventory Analysis Programs Monitor Climate Change Effects in Forest Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) and Forest Inventory and Analyses (FIA) programs are integrated biological monitoring systems that use nationally standardized methods to evaluate and report on the health and sustainability of forest ecosystems in the United States. Many of the anticipated changes in forest ecosystems from climate change were also issues addressed in sections of FHM's National Technical Report

Kenneth W. Stolte

2001-01-01

65

Nitrogen limitation of growth and nutrient dynamics in a disturbed mangrove forest, Indian River Lagoon, Florida.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to determine effects of nutrient enrichment on plant growth, nutrient dynamics, and photosynthesis in a disturbed mangrove forest in an abandoned mosquito impoundment in Florida. Impounding altered the hydrology and soil chemistry of the site. In 1997, we established a factorial experiment along a tree-height gradient with three zones, i.e., fringe, transition, dwarf, and three fertilizer treatment levels, i.e., nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), control, in Mosquito Impoundment 23 on the eastern side of Indian River. Transects traversed the forest perpendicular to the shoreline, from a Rhizophora mangle-dominated fringe through an Avicennia germinans stand of intermediate height, and into a scrub or dwarf stand of A. germinans in the hinterland. Growth rates increased significantly in response to N fertilization. Our growth data indicated that this site is N-limited along the tree-height gradient. After 2 years of N addition, dwarf trees resembled vigorously growing saplings. Addition of N also affected internal dynamics of N and P and caused increases in rates of photosynthesis. These findings contrast with results for a R. mangle-dominated forest in Belize where the fringe is N-limited, but the dwarf zone is P-limited and the transition zone is co-limited by N and P. This study demonstrated that patterns of nutrient limitation in mangrove ecosystems are complex, that not all processes respond similarly to the same nutrient, and that similar habitats are not limited by the same nutrient when different mangrove forests are compared. PMID:12647149

Feller, Ilka C; Whigham, Dennis F; McKee, Karen L; Lovelock, Catherine E

2003-01-08

66

Commercial activities and subsistence utilization of mangrove forests around the Wouri estuary and the Douala-Edea reserve (Cameroon)  

PubMed Central

Background Worldwide there is growing research interest in the ethnobiology of mangrove forests. Notwithstanding that, little information has been published about ethnobiology of mangrove forests in Cameroon. The aims of this study were a) to analyze the harvesting methods and the local selling of mangrove wood products by loggers in the vicinity of Wouri estuary and b) to investigate the patterns of subsistence uses of mangrove wood products around the Douala-Edea reserve. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 120 active mangrove loggers in 23 Douala wood markets and 103 households located in three villages (Mbiako, Yoyo I and Yoyo II) close to Douala-Edea reserve. In each of the three densely populated villages, every second household was chosen for sampling while in all markets, mangrove loggers were chosen randomly. In addition, log diameters were measured in each market using a wooden foldable tape measure. A post hoc analysis (Newman-Keuls test) was performed in order to detect the common wood class diameter sold in the Douala wood markets. Results The analysis of the loggers' survey data has shown that large logs of Rhizophora with diameter greater than 40 cm were common in the Douala wood markets and were more closely associated with loggers who used chainsaws. In addition to the general mangroves wood products selling, the analysis on a subsistence level (households' survey) suggests the local population's dependence on mangroves, with multiple uses of Rhizophora racemosa Meyer, R. harrisonii Leechman, Avicennia germinans L. Stearn., Laguncularia racemosa Gaertn. f. and Conocarpus erectus L. timbers for furniture, fences, smoking fish, and fuelwood. Finally, Nypa fruticans (Thunb.) Wurmb. leaves were used as thatching material for house walls and roofs. Conclusion Our findings revealed that big logs of Rhizophora were commonly sold by the loggers. A majority of loggers (60%) reported that mangrove marketed wood constitute a principal source of income. Most of the villagers (85.83%) often depend on mangroves for subsistence needs and for them there is no substitute for mangrove wood. Therefore, more efforts should be undertaken at the national level to implement conservation, management and sustainable use of these coastal forests.

2009-01-01

67

Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Soil Organic Carbon in Mangrove Forest Ecosystems (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands are recognized as potentially important carbon sinks, but few studies have focused on tropical and sub-tropical systems that accumulate organic carbon. Soil organic carbon (SOC) density was analyzed in multiple mangrove forests, representing 30 geographic locations and six forest types (total of 230 study plots overall). SOC density varied from 0.002 to 0.1 g cm-3, with an overall average of 0.019 and 0.058 g cm-3 in mineral and organic soils, respectively. Sites spanned a latitudinal range from 37° S to 29° N, and carbon density was correlated with average annual temperature. However, high variation in SOC density within latitude indicated additional influences. At a regional scale, SOC density varied with forest type and generally increased with hydrologic energy. At a site in Panama, SOC density varied spatially with soil pore space, which influenced bulk density and soil temperature—indicating an influence of compaction and/or degree of decomposition. Carbon sequestration rates estimated from surface accretion of organic C were similar in organic (216 g C m-2 yr-1) and mineral (145 g C m-2 yr-1) soil types, but varied across geographic locations (41 to 591 g C m-2 yr-1). Subsurface inputs of carbon, which were estimated using measured rates of root matter accumulation and root carbon content, averaged 121 g m-2 yr-1, but exceeded 400 g m-2 yr-1 at several sites. Depths of mangrove peat varied across sites from < 1 m to over 10 m, indicating the potentially large carbon stores that can develop under certain conditions. Rates of carbon accretion at a site in Belize have varied from 90 to 300 g C m-2 yr-1 over 8000 yr. These patterns indicate spatial and temporal variability in SOC and suggest multiple controls on rates of carbon accumulation in mangrove ecosystems.

McKee, K. L.

2010-12-01

68

Overview of the Forest Health Monitoring Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the Forest Health Monitoring Pro- gram (FHM), a partnership among the USDA Forest Service, State Foresters, universities, and the USDI Bureau of Land Management. The purpose of FHM is to annually assess the condition of the nation's forested ecosystems in a standardized way. There are four components of the program-Detection Monitoring, Evaluation Monitoring, Intensive

Robert D. Mangold

69

Nutrition of mangroves.  

PubMed

Mangrove forests dominate the world's tropical and subtropical coastlines. Similar to other plant communities, nutrient availability is one of the major factors influencing mangrove forest structure and productivity. Many mangrove soils have extremely low nutrient availability, although nutrient availability can vary greatly among and within mangrove forests. Nutrient-conserving processes in mangroves are well developed and include evergreeness, resorption of nutrients prior to leaf fall, the immobilization of nutrients in leaf litter during decomposition, high root/shoot ratios and the repeated use of old root channels. Both nitrogen-use efficiency and nutrient resorption efficiencies in mangroves are amongst the highest recorded for angiosperms. A complex range of interacting abiotic and biotic factors controls the availability of nutrients to mangrove trees, and mangroves are characteristically plastic in their ability to opportunistically utilize nutrients when these become available. Nitrogen and phosphorus have been implicated as the nutrients most likely to limit growth in mangroves. Ammonium is the primary form of nitrogen in mangrove soils, in part as a result of anoxic soil conditions, and tree growth is supported mainly by ammonium uptake. Nutrient enrichment is a major threat to marine ecosystems. Although mangroves have been proposed to protect the marine environment from land-derived nutrient pollution, nutrient enrichment can have negative consequences for mangrove forests and their capacity for retention of nutrients may be limited. PMID:20566581

Reef, Ruth; Feller, Ilka C; Lovelock, Catherine E

2010-06-21

70

Mangroves of the Pacific Islands: research opportunities  

Treesearch

USA.gov Government Made Easy ... Description: The perception of mangroves by people in the Pacific islands and throughout all ... mangrove forests revealed numerous gaps in quantitative understanding of man-grove functions and values.

71

Dissolved mercury concentrations and reactivity in mangrove waters from the Itacurussa Experimental Forest, Sepetiba Bay, SE Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangrove waters from the Itacurussa Experimental Forest (IEF), SE Brazilare enriched in reactive-Hg (15 ± 2.0 pM) and total-Hg (28 ±2.5 pM) relative to open bay waters (4.5 ± 3.0 pM and 19 ±8.5 pM, for reactive-Hg and total-Hg respectively). Mercury concentrationsand reactivity varied according to tidal flux in mangrove creek waters.Reactive-Hg concentrations were higher in ebb tide waters ranging

L. D. Lacerda; L. F. F. Silva; R. V. Marins; S. Mounier; H. H. M. Paraquetti; J. Benaim

2001-01-01

72

Rapid seawater circulation through animal burrows in mangrove forests - A significant source of saline groundwater to the tropical coastal ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common approach for quantifying rates of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the coastal ocean is to use geochemical tracers that are part of the U- and Th-decay chains such as Rn-222 and short lived radium isotopes. These radionuclides are naturally enriched in groundwater relative to seawater and have well understood chemistries within the marine environment. They occur in both fresh (continental) and saline (marine) groundwaters and thus the water source is often ambiguous. Stieglitz (2005, Marine Pollution Bulletin 51, 51-59) has shown that some coastal areas within the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) lagoon (Australia) are enriched in the SGD tracer, Rn-222; he attributed this to four possible processes including the tidal flushing of mangrove forest floors. Here, we present a detailed investigation into the tidal circulation of seawater through animal burrows using Rn-222 and isotopes of radium in the Coral Creek mangrove forest, Hinchinbrook Island, Queensland, Australia. The study was conducted at the end of the dry season in a creek with no freshwater inputs. Significant export of radionuclides and salt from the forest into the creek indicates continuous tidally driven circulation through the burrows. Results demonstrate that the forest sediment is efficiently flushed, with a water flux of about 30 L/m2/ day of forest floor, which is equivalent to flushing about 10% of the total burrow volume per tidal cycle. Annual average circulation flux through mangrove forest floors are of the same order as annual river discharge in the central GBR. However, unlike the river discharge, the tidal circulation should be relatively stable throughout the year. This work documents the importance of animal burrows in maintaining productive sediments in these systems, and illustrates the physical process that supports large exports of organic and inorganic matter from mangrove forests to the coastal zone. It also illustrates the importance of considering saline groundwater sources when interpreting SGD radionuclide tracers in the coastal ocean.

Clark, J. F.; Stieglitz, T. C.; Hancock, G. J.

2010-12-01

73

Degradation of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates in tropical forest and mangrove soils.  

PubMed

Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are perceived to be a suitable alternative to petrochemical plastics because they have similar material properties, are environmentally degradable, and are produced from renewable resources. In this study, the in situ degradation of medium-chain-length PHA (PHAMCL) films in tropical forest and mangrove soils was assessed. The PHAMCL was produced by Pseudomonas putida PGA1 using saponified palm kernel oil (SPKO) as the carbon source. After 112 d of burial, there was 16.7% reduction in gross weight of the films buried in acidic forest soil (FS), 3.0% in the ones buried in alkaline forest soil by the side of a stream (FSst) and 4.5% in those buried in mangrove soil (MS). There was a slight decrease in molecular weight for the films buried in FS but not for the films buried in FSst and in MS. However, no changes were observed for the melting temperature, glass transition temperature, monomer compositions, structure, and functional group analyses of the films from any of the burial sites during the test period. This means that the integral properties of the films were maintained during that period and degradation was by surface erosion. Scanning electron microscopy of the films from the three sites revealed holes on the film surfaces which could be attributed to attack by microorganisms and bigger organisms such as detritivores. For comparison purposes, films of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a short-chain-length PHA, and polyethylene (PE) were buried together with the PHAMCL films in all three sites. The PHB films disintegrated completely in MS and lost 73.5% of their initial weight in FSst, but only 4.6% in FS suggesting that water movement played a major role in breaking up the brittle PHB films. The PE films did not register any weight loss in any of the test sites. PMID:16014996

Lim, Siew-Ping; Gan, Seng-Neon; Tan, Irene K P

2005-07-01

74

Modeling Productivity in Mangrove Forests as Impacted by Effective Soil Water Availability and Its Sensitivity to Climate Change Using Biome-BGC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystem dynamics and the responses to climate change in mangrove forests are poorly understood. We applied the biogeochemical\\u000a process model Biome-BGC to simulate the dynamics of net primary productivity (NPP) and leaf area index (LAI) under the present\\u000a and future climate conditions in mangrove forests in Shenzhen, Zhanjiang, and Qiongshan across the southern coast of China,\\u000a and in three monocultural

Zhongkui Luo; Osbert Jianxin Sun; Enli Wang; Hai Ren; Hualin Xu

2010-01-01

75

Carbon and 3D structure estimates of Neotropical mangrove forests from Lidar, InSAR and field data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurately quantifying forest 3-D structure and biomass storage is of great importance for studies of the global carbon cycle, biodiversity and for future REDD projects. Mangrove forests have been shown to store very large amounts of Carbon, both above and belowground, with storage capacities even greater than tropical rainforests. They also present an ideal terrain for active remote sensing measurements of vegetation structure because of the flat underlying topography. In this case, discrete lidar measurements, such as those of the ICESat/GLAS (Geoscience Laser Altimeter System) sensor are able to measure tree height at high accuracy within the footprint. In this study we combine and compare Lidar, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and polarimetric SARto derive mangrove 3D structure and biomass maps for Central and South America. In particular, we used field data, C-band SRTM InSAR and ICEsat/GLAS waveform returns to derive mean canopy height. We used the SRTM height measurements, L-band ALOS/PALSAR backscatter, Landsat TM derived mangrove cover maps, field measurements and published biomass data to estimate aboveground biomass and carbon. We also test and compare several height and biomass measurement techniques and estimate the error associated, with a focus on height-biomass relationships. This study provides the first systematic estimates of regional mangrove height and biomass of Central and South America.

Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Simard, M.; Giri, C.

2010-12-01

76

Plant biomass and nutrient flux in a managed mangrove forest in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes previously reported and new data. Data on biomass and nutrient content in different components of the mangrove trees are presented and estimates of the flux of these are attempted. As a first step to determining the quantitative relationship between the export of material and the areal extent of mangroves, the biomass and nutrients contained in the mangrove

Wooi-Khoon Gong; Jin-Eong Ong

1990-01-01

77

Decomposition of mangrove roots: Effects of location, nutrients, species identity and mix in a Kenyan forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangrove trees may allocate >50% of their biomass to roots. Dead roots often form peat, which can make mangroves significant carbon sinks and allow them to raise the soil surface and thus survive rising sea levels. Understanding mangrove root production and decomposition is hence of theoretical and applied importance. The current work explored the effects of species, site, and root

Mark Huxham; Joseph Langat; Fredrick Tamooh; Hilary Kennedy; Maurizio Mencuccini; Martin W. Skov; James Kairo

2010-01-01

78

Litter processing and population food intake of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus in a high intertidal forest in northern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study provides the first quantification of the population food intake of the litter-consuming mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Ocypodidae, L. 1763) in a New World mangrove forest. Diet, feeding periodicity, gastric evacuation rates and size-dependent consumption were determined for this intensively exploited semi-terrestrial crab in different types of mangrove forest. Unlike many other crabs Ucides cordatus is a continuous feeder, as shown by gastrointestinal contents over a day's cycle. Starvation experiments revealed that most gastric evacuation occurs during the first 12 h after feeding, following an exponential decay function. Evacuation rates (0.35 h-1 and 0.31 h-1) for small (carapace width CW 2.5 3.5 cm) and large (CW 6.5 7.5 cm) crabs, respectively, and the mean daily gastrointestinal contents were used to calculate the daily food intake (DFI) of U. cordatus for both sexes and different size classes. DFI was strongly correlated to body size and ranged from 19.8 to 6.0% of body dry weight in small and large crabs, respectively. The daily energy intake of U. cordatus (37.6 kJ for a 65 g wet weight specimen) was high when compared to other leaf-eating crabs. Litter fall and propagule production were calculated as 16.38 t ha-1 y-1, corresponding to a daily mean of 4.49 g m-2 in a high intertidal Rhizophora mangle forest stand. The estimated population food intake of Ucides cordatus (4.1 g dw m-2 d-1) corresponds to 81.3% of this production. This high litter removal rate, a low litter quantity in burrows and high consumption rates during field experiments suggest that the local crab population is food-limited in many parts of the study area. The very efficient coupling of forest litter production and crab litter consumption is possible due to the high crab density and the low inundation frequency of the mangrove forests, allowing for prolonged foraging periods. By processing the major part of the litter, U. cordatus helps to retain nutrients and energy within the mangrove ecosystem. The impact of this species on litter turnover in a New World mangrove is similar to or even higher than that of litter-feeding sesarmid crabs in the Indo-West Pacific region.

Nordhaus, I.; Wolff, M.; Diele, K.

2006-03-01

79

Passive Ozone Monitoring for Forest Health Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical levels of tropospheric ozone, established for the protection of crops and other plants, are now reported as being exceeded over large forested areas, giving rise to the need for an extensive monitoring program to confirm ambient levels within the forest and to detect related forest health effects. The requirement for an inexpensive monitor that can be used in remote

R. M. Cox; J. W. Malcolm

1999-01-01

80

Emission of CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere by sediments and open waters in two Tanzanian mangrove forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon gas balance was evaluated in an anthropogenically impacted (Mtoni) and a pristine (Ras Dege) mangrove forest in Tanzania. Exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) was measured for inundated and air-exposed sediments during day and night using in situ and laboratory incubations. In situ methane (CH4) emissions were measured in the dark during air exposure only. Emission of CO2 and CH4

Erik Kristensen; Mogens R. Flindt; Shadrack Ulomi; Alberto V. Borges; Gwenaël Abril; Steven Bouillon

2008-01-01

81

Forest Health Monitoring 2006 National Technical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Forest Health Monitoring Programs annual national technical report presents results of forest health analyses from a national perspective using data from a variety of sources. The report is organized according to the Criteria and Indicators for the Co...

B. L. Conkling M. J. Ambrose

2010-01-01

82

Forest Health Monitoring: 2007 National Technical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Forest Health Monitoring Program produces an annual technical report that has two main objectives. The first objective is to present information about forest health from a national perspective. The second objective is to present examples of useful tec...

B. L. Conkling

2011-01-01

83

FOREST HEALTH MONITORING FIELD METHODS GUIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

This EMAP-FHM methods Guide is intended to instruct forest Health Monitors when collecting data on forest health indicators; site condition, growth and regeneration, crown condition, tree damage and mortality assessment, photosynthetically active radiation, vegetation structure, ...

84

Interspecific variation of the bacterial community structure in the phyllosphere of the three major plant components of mangrove forests  

PubMed Central

Mangrove forests encompass a group of trees species that inhabit the intertidal zones, where soil is characterized by the high salinity and low availability of oxygen. The phyllosphere of these trees represent the habitat provided on the aboveground parts of plants, supporting in a global scale, a large and complex microbial community. The structure of phyllosphere communities reflects immigration, survival and growth of microbial colonizers, which is influenced by numerous environmental factors in addition to leaf physical and chemical properties. Here, a combination of culture-base methods with PCR-DGGE was applied to test whether local or plant specific factors shape the bacterial community of the phyllosphere from three plant species (Avicenia shaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle), found in two mangroves. The number of bacteria in the phyllosphere of these plants varied between 3.62 x 104 in A. schaeriana and 6.26 x 103 in R. mangle. The results obtained by PCR-DGGE and isolation approaches were congruent and demonstrated that each plant species harbor specific bacterial communities in their leaves surfaces. Moreover, the ordination of environmental factors (mangrove and plant species), by redundancy analysis (RDA), also indicated that the selection exerted by plant species is higher than mangrove location on bacterial communities at phyllosphere.

Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Taketani, Rodrigo Gouveia; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Luvizotto, Danice Mazzer; da Silva, Joao Luis; Nascimento, Rosely dos Santos; de Melo, Itamar Soares

2012-01-01

85

Litter dynamics in riverine mangrove forests in the Guayas River estuary, Ecuador  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that rates of litter turnover in mangroves are controlled by local geophysical processes such as tides has\\u000a been studied at sites with mostly small tides (<1?m) and minor crab consumption of leaf litter. Our study describes litter\\u000a dynamics of three riverine mangrove sites (M1, M2, M3), inhabited by the mangrove crab Ucides occidentalis, located in a macrotidal (>3?m)

Robert R. Twilley; Mireya Pozo; Victor H. Garcia; Victor H. Rivera-Monroy; Ramon Zambrano; Alejandro Bodero

1997-01-01

86

Forest fire monitoring with multiple small UAVs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frequent updates concerning the progress of a forest fire are essential for effective and safe fire fighting. Since a forest fire is typically inaccessible by ground vehicles due to mountainous terrain, small unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) are emerging as a promising means of monitoring large forest fires. We present an effective UAV path planning algorithm utilizing infrared images that are

David W. Casbeer; Randal W. Beard; T. W. McLain; Sai-Ming Li; R. K. Mehra

2005-01-01

87

FOREST HEALTH MONITORING - 1991 STATISTICAL SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

This is a statistical summary of forest measurement data from the Forest Health Monitoring Network. here are now 925 plots in the FHM national network, of which 628 plots are forested. sing a probability sampling design, the installed plots are located systematically throughout t...

88

Anoxic Decomposition in Sediments from a Tropical Mangrove Forest and the Temperate Wadden Sea: Implications of N and P Addition Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anoxic decomposition processes in sediments from a tropical mangrove forest (Bangrong, Thailand) and a salt marsh in the temperate Wadden Sea (Denmark) were compared, and the effects of increased ammonium and/or phosphate concentrations on the anoxic decomposition were studied. Sediment was incubated in jars (20-ml glass vials) and changes in porewater solutes were followed in a time series of 3 weeks. Furthermore, the short-term fate (days) of dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) added to Bangrong mangrove sediment was evaluated from phosphorus fractionation. Although the organic matter at both study sites had relatively high C:N and C:P ratios, the anoxic sediment decomposition was not affected by nutrient enrichments at the level applied in this study. The sediment metabolism (TCO 2and DOC production, and sulfate consumption) was 5-10 times higher in Wadden Sea sediment than in Bangrong mangrove sediment, probably due to the higher content of structural carbohydrates (e.g. cellulose) as indicated by higher C:N and C:P ratios in mangrove organic matter. This is substantiated by a lower nutrient release from Bangrong mangrove sediments and suggests a faster turnover of N and P by nutrient deficient bacteria in the mangrove sediment. DIP was released during anoxic decomposition in Wadden Sea sediment, but was retained in Bangrong mangrove sediment. Analysis of phosphorus fractions in Bangrong mangrove sediment revealed that added excess DIP was efficiently taken up by the sediment particles and primarily retrieved in the easily exchangeable and iron bound fractions. The studied mangrove forest sediment seems to be a phosphorus sink.

Holmboe, N.; Kristensen, E.; Andersen, F. Ø.

2001-08-01

89

Leaf removal by sesarmid crabs in Bangrong mangrove forest, Phuket, Thailand; with emphasis on the feeding ecology of Neoepisesarma versicolor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field measurements on leaf removal by populations of sesarmid crabs at different locations in the Bangrong mangrove forest, Phuket, Thailand, indicated that crabs on average can remove 87% of the daily leaf litter fall by ingestion or burial. The removal rate is correlated positively with the number of crab burrows and negatively with tidal inundation time. The results from the field were supplemented with observations on the behavior of Neoepisesarma versicolor in laboratory microcosms and a mangrove mesocosm. N. versicolor feeds primarily at night and total time spent feeding was up to an order of magnitude higher in the artificial microcosms than under simulated in situ conditions in the mesocosm. Most of the time during both day and night was spent resting near the entrance or inside burrows. N. versicolor mainly feeds on mangrove leaves and scraps of food material from the sediment surface. This is supported by examinations of stomach content, which showed that 62% is composed of higher plant material and 38% of detritus and mineral particles from the sediment. The nutritive value of leaves and detritus is insufficient to maintain crab growth. Sesarmid crabs may instead obtain the needed nutrients by occasional consumption of nitrogen-rich animal tissues, such as carcasses of fish and crustaceans, as indicated by the presence of animal remains in the stomach and the willingness of crabs to consume fish meat. Laboratory experiments on leaf consumption and leaf preferences of N. versicolor indicate that they preferentially feed on brown leaves, if available, followed by green and yellow leaves. If all species of sesarmid crabs in the Bangrong mangrove forest consume leaves at the same rate as N. versicolor, they could potentially ingest 52% of the total litter fall.

Thongtham, Nalinee; Kristensen, Erik; Puangprasan, Som-Ying

2008-12-01

90

Tree biomass and carbon stock of a community?managed mangrove forest in Bohol, Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangrove plays a significant role in climate change mitigation particularly in carbon absorption and minimizing the detrimental impacts of sea level rise, salt-water intrusion and tidal surges. In Bohol Province, Philippines, a small coastal island community known as Banacon is one of the successful cases in mangrove reforestation. Recognizing the site's potential for a carbon sequestration project, a biomass and

Leni D. Camacho; Dixon T. Gevaña; Antonio P. Carandang; Sofronio C. Camacho; Edwin A. Combalicer; Lucrecio L. Rebugio; Yeo-Chang Youn

2011-01-01

91

Primary producers sustaining macro-invertebrate communities in intertidal mangrove forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to the large number of studies on the trophic significance of mangrove primary production to the aquatic foodweb, there have been few attempts to provide an overview of the relative importance of different primary carbon sources to invertebrates in the intertidal mangrove habitats. We determined carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (ཉC, ཋN) in sediments, primary producers, and

S. Bouillon; N. Koedam; A. V. Raman; F. Dehairs

2002-01-01

92

Oviposition and larval habitat preferences of the saltwater mosquito, Aedes vigilax, in a subtropical mangrove forest in Queensland, Australia.  

PubMed

Our aim was to investigate the oviposition and larval habitats of the saltwater mosquito Aedes vigilax (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) in a mangrove forest system in subtropical Queensland, Australia. Eggshells (indicators of oviposition) and larvae were sampled in three habitat classes that were depicted in a schematic model. Two classes were in depressions or basins, either with hummocks or dense pneumatophore substrates, both of which retained water after tidal flooding. The third class was in freely flushed mangroves that corresponded with more frequent tidal connections than the depression classes. ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer tests were used to analyze the data. The null hypotheses were rejected: the hummock class was a significant habitat based on both eggshell and larval data. The conclusion was that mosquito production in the mangrove system was distributed unevenly between habitat classes, and that the hummock class had conditions suited to the requirements of the immature stages of Ae. vigilax. This research has the potential to inform mosquito management strategies by focusing treatment on the problem habitats and underpinning habitat modifications including reducing water retention in the basins. PMID:22938052

Knight, Jon; Griffin, Lachlan; Dale, Pat; Phinn, Stuart

2012-01-01

93

Monitoring sustainable forest management in different jurisdictions.  

PubMed

The concept of sustainable forest management (SFM) requires forest resource managers to monitor and collect information pertaining to their environmental, economic and social impact. There are increasing expectations from a variety of publics (government, customers, and other stakeholders) that forests be demonstrably well-managed, creating incentives for forest managers to design credible systems for assessing their management performance. It is against this background that local, national and international approaches to regulating forest practices have been evolving. This article reviews the different dimensions of governance as they relate to monitoring and information reporting in the forest sector. Specifically, it discusses the changing role of sovereignty, the effects of globalization and the emergence of civil society stakeholders in forestry-related decision-making. Concepts such as sovereignty and globalization have important implications for monitoring forest practices and for defining SFM. Whether SFM standard creation and enforcement involves a sovereign, shared-sovereignty or civil society approach will affect the level and nature of SFM monitoring. As a result, we need to better consider the concept of monitoring appropriate to the scale and intensity of operations, how monitoring and information reporting standards differ between jurisdictions, and what this means for independently verifying SFM at an inter-jurisdictional level. PMID:16160790

Hickey, Gordon M; Innes, John L

2005-09-01

94

Regeneration of Rhizophora mucronata (Lamk.) in degraded mangrove forest: Lessons from point pattern analyses of local tree interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial structural patterns emerging from local tree interactions influence growth, mortality and regeneration processes in forest ecosystems, and decoding them enhance the understanding of ecological mechanisms affecting forest regeneration. Point-Patterns analysis was applied for the very first time to mangrove ecology to explore the spatial structure of Rhizophora mucronata regeneration in a disturbed mangrove forest; and the pattern of associations of juvenile–adult trees. R. mucronata trees were mapped in plots of 50 m × 10 m located at the seaward, central and landward edge along 50 m wide transect in the forest, and the mapped patterns were analysed with pair correlation and mark-connection functions. The population density of R. mucronata differed along the tidal gradient with the highest density in the central region, and the least near the shoreline. The study revealed that short distance propagule dispersal, resulting in the establishment of juveniles in closed distance to the mother trees, might not be the driving force for distribution of this species. The spatial structural pattern of R. mucronata population along tidal gradient showed a characteristic spatial aggregation at small scale, but randomly distributed as the distances become larger. There was a distinct spatial segregation between recruits and adult trees, and hence spatially independent. Though, adult–adult trees associations did not show a clear spatial segregation pattern; the recruit–recruit species associations exhibited significant clustering in space. Although habitat heterogeneity might be responsible for the local scale aggregation in this population, the effect of plant–plant conspecific interactions is more probable to inform the long-term structure and dynamics of the population of R. mucronata, and ditto for the entire forest.

Olagoke, Adewole O.; Bosire, Jared O.; Berger, Uta

2013-07-01

95

Dispersal, establishment and survival of Ceriops tagal propagules in a north Australian mangrove forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of the ecology of mangroves show that a wide variety of factors, including salinity, desiccation, disturbance, competition\\u000a and predation, may affect the distribution and abundance of species. Field studies were done to examine the relative importance\\u000a of several of these factors in the establishment and early survival of Ceriops tagal, a species common in mid-to high-shore regions of mangrove

K. A. McGuinness

1996-01-01

96

Forest Health Monitoring National Technical Report, 2001.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Programs annual national report uses FHM data, as well as data from a variety of other programs, to provide an overview of forest health based on the criteria and indicators of sustainable forestry framework of the Santi...

2001-01-01

97

Forest Health Monitoring National Technical Report, 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Programs annual national report uses FHM data, as well as data from a variety of other programs, to provide an overview of forest health based on the criteria and indicators of sustainable forestry framework of the Santi...

2005-01-01

98

Forest Health Monitoring National Technical Report, 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Programs annual national report uses FHM data, as well as data from a variety of other programs, to provide an overview of forest health based on the criteria and indicators of sustainable forestry framework of the Santi...

2003-01-01

99

Monitoring for Ozone Injury in West Coast (Oregon, Washington, California) Forests in 1998. Forest Health Monitoring/West Coast Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1998, forest vegetation was monitored for ozone injury on permanent plots in two Sierra Nevada national forests in California, at three locations in Mount Rainier National Park in Washington, and at 68 forest health monitoring (FHM) locations throughou...

S. Campbell G. Smith P. Temple J. Pronos R. Rochefort C. Anderson

2000-01-01

100

Anoxic Decomposition in Sediments from a Tropical Mangrove Forest and the Temperate Wadden Sea: Implications of N and P Addition Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anoxic decomposition processes in sediments from a tropical mangrove forest (Bangrong, Thailand) and a salt marsh in the temperate Wadden Sea (Denmark) were compared, and the effects of increased ammonium and\\/or phosphate concentrations on the anoxic decomposition were studied. Sediment was incubated in jars (20-ml glass vials) and changes in porewater solutes were followed in a time series of

N. Holmboe; E. Kristensen; F. Ø. Andersen

2001-01-01

101

FOREST HEALTH MONITORING PLOT DESIGN AND LOGISTICS STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Concern over the condition of forests in relation to natural and manmade stresses has led to an interagency Forest Health Monitoring program. o improve the efficiency of forest monitoring, the forest group of EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program conducted a field...

102

Linking Forest Carbon Monitoring with Management Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing forests to increase carbon stocks or reduce emissions requires knowledge of how management practices effect carbon pools over time, and inexpensive techniques to monitor activities. Here we discuss our approach to integrate the multi-tier monitoring data from the North American Carbon Program (NACP) with management decisions by linking bottom-up and top-down ecosystem models with decision-support tools. Monitoring carbon stocks

R. Birdsey; Y. Pan; C. Potter; J. Hom; K. Clark; S. van Tuyl

2006-01-01

103

The role of freezing in setting the latitudinal limits of mangrove forests.  

PubMed

Mangrove trees dominate coastal vegetation in tropical regions, but are completely replaced by herbaceous salt marshes at latitudes above 32 degrees N and 40 degrees S. Because water deficit can increase damage caused by freezing, we hypothesized that mangroves, which experience large deficits as a result of saline substrates, would suffer freeze-induced xylem failure. Vulnerability to freeze-induced xylem embolism was examined in the most poleward mangrove species in North America, in an area where freezing is rare but severe, and in Australia, in an area where freezing is frequent but mild. Percentage loss in hydraulic conductivity was measured following manipulations of xylem tension; xylem sap ion concentration was determined using X-ray microanalysis. Species with wider vessels suffered 60-100% loss of hydraulic conductivity after freezing and thawing under tension, while species with narrower vessels lost as little as 13-40% of conductivity. These results indicate that freeze-induced embolism may play a role in setting the latitudinal limits of distribution in mangroves, either through massive embolism following freezing, or through constraints on water transport as a result of vessel size. PMID:17244052

Stuart, S A; Choat, B; Martin, K C; Holbrook, N M; Ball, M C

2007-01-01

104

Hydraulic Conductivity of Riparian Mangrove Forest Peat Adjacent to the Harney River, Everglades National Park: A Comparative Field Study of Field Saturated and Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity Methods.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Shark-Harney river estuary is located in the southwest region of Everglades National Park and is the principle outflow for the freshwater everglades slough. Periodic tidal inundation, rainfall and overland freshwater flow are the forcing functions on surface soil infiltration and drainage in the adjacent estuary mangrove forest peat. Empirical soil hydraulic conductivity (K) for the mangrove peat soil is needed for hydrologic modeling efforts such as "The Tides and Inflows in the Mangroves of the Everglades" (TIME). South Florida has a bi-seasonal weather pattern of a dry and mild winters and a wet tropical summers. During the drier winter months (November-May), the mangrove peat has a 30-60 cm, unsaturated vadose zone and in the wet summer months (June-October), the peat is totally saturated. This study's purpose is to determine reliable values of soil hydraulic conductivity for mangrove peat under both the unsaturated Kfs and saturated Ksat soil conditions. Rycroft (1975) reported that field measurements are the preferred method of testing hydraulic conductivity of peat. The principle field method used to determining soil hydraulic conductivity Kfs under unsaturated conditions utilized a cylindrical permeameter (Guelph Permeameter) and the auger-hole method was used to determine soil hydraulic conductivity Ksat under saturated soil conditions. The hydraulic conductivity K samples were taken along a 300-meter transect, perpendicular to the south Harney riverbank through a mixed mangrove riparian forest and ending in a freshwater sawgrass prairie. Initial measurements were recorded in May-June 2001. A second year measurement set will be collected in March-April 2002. Hydraulic conductivity K measurements were observed in shallow peat holes (15 cm) at five equally spaced sample sites (60 m) from the river edge. Soil cores were taken at each sampling site to determine soil profile and bulk density.

Anderson, G. H.; Smith, T. J.

2002-05-01

105

FOREST HEALTH MONITORING 1992 ACTIVITIES PLAN  

EPA Science Inventory

Forests, which cover approximately one-third of the United States, are an important part of the U.S. economy, culture, and ecology. n response to legislative mandate and for our environment, several government agencies have been working together to develop a program to monitor th...

106

FOREST CANOPY DENSITY MONITORING, USING SATELLITE IMAGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing use of satellite Remote Sensing for civilian use has proved to be the most cost effective means of mapping and monitoring environmental changes in terms of vegetation and non-renewable resources, especially in developing countries. Data can be obtained as frequently as required to provide information for determination of quantitative and qualitative changes in terrain. Forests as one part

M. Saei; A. A. Abkar

107

Toward global baselines and monitoring of forest cover for REDD: the Global Forest Cover Change project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring, Reporting, and Verification (MRV) procedures in support of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD) require the establishment of historical baselines of forest cover and changes, as well as consistent monitoring of subsequent forest gains and losses over time. Under the NASA MEaSUREs program, the Global Forest Cover Change project is using the USGS Global Land Survey (GLS)

J. O. Sexton; C. Huang; J. G. Masek; M. Feng; R. Narasimhan; E. F. Vermote; M. C. Hansen; R. E. Wolfe; S. Channan; J. R. Townshend

2010-01-01

108

Lack of correlation between surface macrofauna, meiofauna, erosion threshold and biogeochemical properties of sediments within an intertidal mudflat and mangrove forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the relationship between 10 selected properties of the sediments (chlorophyll a and b, colloidal and total carbohydrate, water concentration, sediment type, organic matter, erosion threshold and erosion rate)\\u000a and meio- and macrofauna within and among three different habitats in an urbanized intertidal mudflat\\/mangrove forest in Tambourine\\u000a Bay, Sydney Harbour, Australia. Many of the biogeochemical variables were significantly

T. J. Tolhurst; E. C. Defew; A. Dye

2010-01-01

109

Monitoring anthropogenic sewage pollution on mangrove creeks in southern Mozambique: a test of Palaemon concinnus Dana, 1852 (Palaemonidae) as a biological indicator.  

PubMed

Tropical coastal ecosystems, such as mangroves, have a great ecological and socioeconomic importance for adjacent systems and local populations, but intensive environmental impact monitoring is still lacking, mainly in East Africa. This study evaluated the potential anthropogenic disturbance on Palaemon concinnus population structure and fitness. Palaemon concinnus populations from one peri-urban (domestic sewage impacted) and two pristine mangrove creeks were studied by sampling nearly 100 shrimps per location every 15 days for 12 months. The shrimps at the peri-urban location were larger, experienced longer reproductive periods, presented higher proportion of ovigerous females and better embryo quality when compared with shrimps inhabiting pristine locations. Physiological indices (RNA/DNA ratio) were similar between shrimps at pristine and peri-urban mangroves. However, a higher level of parasitation by a Bopyridae isopod, Pseudione elongata indicated some degree of stress on the host at the peri-urban mangrove, with potential effects on the host population dynamics. PMID:21050628

Penha-Lopes, Gil; Torres, Paulo; Cannicci, Stefano; Narciso, Luis; Paula, José

2010-11-02

110

Land from the sea: The mangrove afforestation program of Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coastal areas of Bangladesh have a high cyclone frequency. The protection from cyclone damage afforded by the natural mangrove forests of the Sundarbans, led the Forest Department in 1966 to initiate a mangrove afforestation programme. These initial plantings proved highly successful in protecting and stabilizing coastal areas, and led to a large-scale mangrove afforestation initiative. To date, approximately 120

Peter Saenger; N A Siddiqi

1993-01-01

111

Forest Health Monitoring in the United States: First Four Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address the need for more effective methods for evaluating and assessing forest ecosystem health, the USDA-Forest Service and the US Environmental Protection Agency through its Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program developed the Forest Health Monitoring program. The program was initiated in 1990 and by 1994 was present in the major areas of the United States. This paper presents an

Craig J. Palmer

1999-01-01

112

Forest Health Monitoring Program in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Department of Agriculture's Forest Service and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are conducting a multiagency Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) pro- Sam. This program has 4 main components: Detection Monitonng, Evaluation Monitorin g, Intensive Site Ecosystem Monitorin g, and Research on Monitoring Techniques. The focus of the program is to evaluate forest ecosystems for condition, changes, and

K. W. Stoltel; H. G. Lund

113

Forest inventory and analysis: a national inventory and monitoring program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forests provide significant commodity and noncommodity values to the citizens of the United States. An important and substantial role in ensuring the continued health, productivity, and sustainability of these resources is a reliable and credible inventory and monitoring program. The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the US Forest Service has been monitoring and reporting on status, condition, and

W. Brad Smith

2002-01-01

114

Role of riverine mangrove forests in organic carbon export to the tropical coastal ocean: A preliminary mass balance for the Fly Delta (Papua New Guinea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A preliminary mass balance for organic carbon in the Fly Delta was constructed to determine the quantity and source of organic matter exported to the adjacent Gulf of Papua and Coral Sea. Total organic carbon input from the river to the delta is 1.7 × 1012 g C yr-1, composed almost equally of DOC and POC. Benthic and pelagic respiration in the delta accounts for 1.0 × 1012 g C yr-1, being a major sink for riverine organic carbon. Benthic flux measurements indicate that one third of all DOC entering the delta is taken up by sediments there. Mangrove forests export >3.0 × 1011 g C yr-1 POC to delta waters, and it appears that this mangrove carbon is exported to the adjacent shelf and deep sea. These results imply that little of the riverine supply of organic carbon reaches the Gulf of Papua, but that mangrove forests in the Fly and other rivers lining the gulf play a major role in river-shelf carbon exchange.

Robertson, A. I.; Alongi, D. M.

1995-09-01

115

Forest Health Monitoring In the Ngangao Forest, Taita Hills, Kenya: A Five Year Assessment Of Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) provides a standardized detection-level survey of forest and tree characteristics for large forested areas. We have adopted FHM methods from this temperate-based program to tropical forests in the Eastern Arc Mountains (EAM) of Kenya and Tanzania. This paper reports the first assessment of trend data in the EAM over a period from 2001 to 2006. Growth

Paul C. Rogers; Barbara O'Connell; James Mwang'ombe; Seif Madoffe; Gerard Hertel

2008-01-01

116

An effectiveness monitoring program for the northwest forest plan ...  

Treesearch

Description: The Northwest Forest Plan is a large-scale ecosystem ... identified for ecological monitoring include late-successional and old-growth forests, northern spotted owls, marbled murrelets, and aquatic and riparian ecosystems.

117

Seasonal abundance, distribution and recruitment of mud crabs (Scylla spp.) in replanted mangroves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abundance and distribution of mud crabs were studied in a replanted mangrove forest in Buswang, Aklan, Philippines. Two fishing gears, lift nets and bamboo traps, were used to monitor relative abundance of Scylla spp. populations from March 2002 to December 2003 inside the mangrove forest. A third gear, a stakenet set across a creek, was used to monitor crabs migrating out of the mangroves during the ebb tide. Scylla olivacea formed 99.3% and 70.3% of the catch in the mangrove and the stakenet, respectively. The percentage of Scylla tranquebarica increased from <1% in the mangrove catches to 29% in the stakenet. Scylla serrata was present at very low levels in both catches. The lack of modal progression in the size frequency plots and the year-round catch rate of gravid females suggested that recruitment was constant throughout the year. Even though relative abundance decreased over the study period indicating that the stock is being over-exploited, mud crab production is more than equivalent to that of most natural mangroves.

Walton, M. E.; Le Vay, L.; Lebata, J. H.; Binas, J.; Primavera, J. H.

2006-02-01

118

Mangrove Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Florida Plants Online provides this resource on mangroves, featuring brief annotations and links to dozens of mangrove-related pages. Although the pages described at Florida Plants Online vary in depth and quality, many are worthwhile.

2000-01-01

119

Comparing power among three sampling methods for monitoring forest vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared three methods of sampling forest vegetation for their ability to reliably estimate changes in spe- cies richness, plant abundance, and overstory basal area and composition. Methods include the US Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) method and two other methods being considered for use in monitoring National Parks in the Northern Great Lakes ecoregion. All methods were

Sarah E. Johnson; E. L. Mudrak; E. A. Beever; S. Sanders; D. M. Waller

2008-01-01

120

A review on the present status and management of mangrove wetland habitat resources in Bangladesh with emphasis on mangrove fisheries and aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mangrove forest of Bangladesh, the largest continuous mangrove bulk, is one of the most important features of the coastal area of the country. The existence of the mangrove has increased the values of other coastal and marine resources such as the coastal and marine fisheries by increasing productivity and supporting a wide biological diversity. The deltaic mangrove of Bangladesh

121

Hyperspectral Indices for Retrieval of Chlorophyll and Nitrogen in Mangroves Using SLC and HYMAP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal ecosystems, such as mangroves, pose a challenge for chlorophyll (CHL) and nitrogen (N) estimation using Hyperspectral. Mangroves have unique characteristics such as high humidity, wet soils (mud), water logged, and roots on the mangrove floors that provide strong influence to mangrove canopy spectra. This study aims to find optimum Hyperspectral indices for the estimation of CHL and N concentrations at canopy level using HYMAP data of mangrove forests. The common vegetation indices such as SR, NDVI, PVI, TSAVI, and OVI were applied on original spectra as well as first derivative spectra (using the Savitsky and Golay method). The first method was calculating the best indices to estimate CHL using radiative transfer model, SLC (soil-leaf-canopy). The results were tested to HYMAP data. The second method was calculating the best indices to estimate CHL and N from the HYMAP data which then tested to SLC. The first method provides disagreement between indices determined using SLC and applied to HYMAP data. The second method provides good agreement between indices determined using HYMAP data and applied to SLC. The best indices: for CHL estimation dSR=d?544/d?1736, for N estimation PVI = ?514 - 0.9*?676 - 0.1/1.3454. Information on CHL and N concentrations of mangroves are important to monitor nutrient enrichment of coastal zone and their effects to mangrove ecosystem.

Fauzi, A.; Schlerf, M.; Skidmore, A.; van Gils, H.; Heitkonig, I. M.

2011-12-01

122

Burrow morphology of Uca uruguayensis and Uca leptodactylus (Decapoda: Ocypodidae) from a subtropical mangrove forest in the western Atlantic.  

PubMed

The continuous excavation of burrows by fiddler crabs generates bioturbation in the sediment, which can be estimated from burrow morphology. The aim of the present study was to describe the burrow morphology of Uca uruguayensis and U. leptodactylus and its relationship with demography of resident individuals and to estimate the level of bioturbation in the sediment generated by each species. For all individuals from each of the 2 species, sex was determined and the carapace width (CW; mm) measured. Burrows were characterized according to burrow diameter (BD; mm), maximum burrow depth (MBD; mm) and burrow volume (BV; cm(3) ). The density of each species in the study area was also evaluated. In both species, the males were larger and occupied burrows with higher BV compared to females. Differences between sexes in relation to the burrow characteristics might reflect sexual dimorphism within the group and are probably related to the fact that males use the burrows for mating. BD and BV showed significant positive relationships with the size of resident crabs. The amount of sediment removed per burrow was estimated from mean BV: 10.78 cm(3) of sediment/burrow for U. uruguayensis and 12.38 cm(3) of sediment/burrow for U. leptodactylus. Despite the density and depth differences between the 2 species, the similarity in burrow volume suggests that U. uruguayensis and U. leptodactylus present the same importance in terms of the bioturbation process. Burrow morphology is highly associated with characteristics of the occupant, although extrinsic factors should also be considered, and its description can provide estimates on the bioturbation generated by Uca species in mangrove forests. PMID:24020469

Machado, Glauco B O; Gusmão-Junior, João B L; Costa, Tânia M

2012-11-14

123

Mangrove-Exported Nutrient Incorporation by Sessile Coral Reef Invertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal mangrove forests were historically considered as a source of organic matter (OM) for adjacent marine systems due to\\u000a high net primary production; yet recent research suggesting little uptake through the food web because of low nutritional\\u000a quality, challenges the concept of trophic linkage between mangrove forests and coral reefs. To examine the importance of\\u000a mangrove forests to coral reef

Elise F. Granek; Jana E. Compton; Donald L. Phillips

2009-01-01

124

The Significance of Forest Monitoring Programmes: the Finnish Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finland has been participating in the ICP Forests programme (the International Co-operative Programme on the Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests) based on international agreements on the long- range transportation of air pollutants (LRTAP) and other associated monitoring programmes (e.g. Forest Focus, ICP Integrated Monitoring, ICP Vegetation) since 1985. The knowledge gained during the years has greatly increased our understanding of the overall condition of our forests and the factors affecting forest condition, the processes underlying forest ecosystem functioning, and the potential threats to our forests posed by human activities, both at home and abroad. The success of the monitoring activities in Finland is largely based on the experience gained during the early 1980's with our own national acidification project and, during the late 1980's and early 1990"s, in a number of regional monitoring projects. Finland's membership of the European Union (entry in 1996) has enabled us to further develop the infrastructure and coverage of both our extensive and intensive level networks. This broadening of our ecological understanding and development of international collaboration are now providing us with an invaluable basis for addressing the new monitoring challenges (biodiversity, climate change). The results gained in our monitoring activities clearly demonstrate the value of long-term monitoring programmes. The main results have been regularly reported both at the European (e.g. http://www.icp- forests.org/Reports.htm) and national level (e.g. http://www.metla.fi/julkaisut/workingpapers/2007/mwp045- en.htm). However, the datasets have not been intensively explored and exploited, and few of the important methodological and ecological findings have been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals. This has, understandably, not been the first priority of the international monitoring programmes. A number of the intensive forest monitoring plots in Finland have recently been included in LTER platforms, thus potentially increasing scientific collaboration between researchers across different governmental institutes and education bodies.

Merila, P.; Derome, J.; Lindgren, M.

2007-12-01

125

Statistical evaluation of litterfall data from a forest monitoring study  

SciTech Connect

Study sites were established in the states of Washington and Oregon to determine the feasibility of using litterfall sampling as a biological monitoring technique. Detection of ecological impacts to forest communities caused by Pacific Northwest energy development was the monitoring goal. The study reported here was designed to evaluate the statistical precision of litterfall sampling and to assess the possibility of detecting both monthly and seasonal changes in litterfall. Four sites were established in closed canopy, mature forest stands and litterfall was monitored to relate characteristics of predominant forest communities in the Pacific Northwest to the observed sampling precision.

Skalski, J.R.; McShane, M.C.; Hinds, W.T.

1981-01-01

126

Monitoring the health of a forest: A Canadian approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Canada, acid rain is the generic term encompassing all forms of air pollution — wet and dry deposition, gaseous pollutant concentrations, and airborne particulates. It was because these pollutants, alone or in combination, may directly or indirectly affect the heath of Canada's forests, that in 1984, the Canadian Forestry Service initiated a national forest monitoring program (Acid Rain National

P. A. Addison

1989-01-01

127

Kelp Forest Monitoring. Channel Islands National Park (1991 Annual Report).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes the 1991 progress of the Channel Islands National Park Kelp Forest Monitoring Project. Population dynamics of 68 indicator species of algae, fish, and invertebrates were measured at 16 permanent transect sites in 1991 by divers usi...

D. Richards D. Kushner W. Avery

1993-01-01

128

Statistical Evaluation of Litterfall Data from a Forest Monitoring Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Study sites were established in the states of Washington and Oregon to determine the feasibility of using litterfall sampling as a biological monitoring technique. Detection of ecological impacts to forest communities caused by Pacific Northwest energy de...

J. R. Skalski M. C. McShane W. T. Hinds

1981-01-01

129

Design tool for inventory and monitoring - USDA Forest Service  

Treesearch

Description: Forest survey planning typically begins by determining the area to ... The Design Tool for Inventory and Monitoring (DTIM) is being developed by the ... and cost constraints, 6) selecting the sampling and plot designs and sample ...

130

Below-ground root yield and distribution in natural and replanted mangrove forests at Gazi bay, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimation of total biomass in woody ecosystems is important because of its relevance to nutrient turnover and the potential to store carbon. Most work on mangrove biomass, particularly in the Western Indian Ocean Region, has concentrated on the above-ground component; comparatively little is known on below-ground biomass. The current study was conducted at Gazi bay on the southern coast of

F. Tamooh; M. Huxham; M. Karachi; M. Mencuccini; J. G. Kairo; B. Kirui

2008-01-01

131

The mangrove-based coastal and nearshore fisheries of Bangladesh: ecology, exploitation and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mangrove forest of Bangladesh, the largest continuous mangrove forest of the world, is one of the most important coastal features of the country. The existence of the mangrove has increased the values of other coastal and marine resources such as the coastal and marine fisheries by increasing productivity and supporting a wide biological diversity. The artisanal fishery, which is

Mahfuzul Haque

2004-01-01

132

Forest Inventory and Analysis and Forest Health Monitoring: Piecing the Quilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Against the backdrop of a discussion about patchwork quilt assembly, the authors present background information on global grids. They show how to compose hexagons, an important task in systematically developing a subset of Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program plots from Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots. Finally, they outline the FHM and FIA grids, along with their current problems and

Joseph M. McCollum; Jamie K. Cochran

133

Using Vegetation Continuous Fields to Monitor Change in Forest Cover  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using continous fields of percent forest cover from MODIS data, an approach to monitor change has been developed. The algorithm utilizes a regression tree to automatically generate annual global estimates of forest cover. The 500 meter MODIS data represent an intermediate resolution appropriate for monitoring many types of human-induced land cover change. Three years of MODIS data have been processed and initial results show that deforestation events can be detected on an annual basis. Results from Brazil highlight clearing for agroindustrial purposes, particularly in Mato Grosso state. Field work in this region has been performed and reveals a good correspondence between MODIS-estimated percent forest cover and in situ forest cover measurements. These initial results point the way of operational change detection mapping of global forest cover and other biophysical parameters.

Hansen, M. C.; Defries, R. S.; Townshend, J. R.; Sohlberg, R. A.

2003-12-01

134

Refining the polytypic species concept of mangrove monitors (Squamata: Varanus indicus group): a new cryptic species from the Talaud Islands, Indonesia, reveals the underestimated diversity of Indo-Australian monitor lizards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The description of a new cryptic member of the mangrove monitor (Varanus indicus) (Daudin, 1802) group from Indonesia presents a refinement of the systematic concept for a polytypic complex of closely related species. The new species is recognised on the basis of morphological and molecular evidence. It is so far known only from the type locality, the remote Talaud Islands,

André KochA; Evy AridaB; Andreas Schmitz; Wolfgang Böhme; Thomas Ziegler

2009-01-01

135

Candida chanthaburiensis sp. nov., Candida kungkrabaensis sp. nov. and Candida suratensis sp. nov., three novel yeast species from decaying plant materials submerged in water of mangrove forests.  

PubMed

In a taxonomic study of yeasts isolated from decaying plant materials submerged in water of mangrove forests in Thailand, three strains isolated from tree bark (EM33(T)), a fallen leaf (EM40(T)) and a detached branch (SM56(T)) were found to represent three novel yeast species. On the basis of morphological, biochemical, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, the sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene, and the phylogenetic analysis, the three strains were assigned as three novel Candida species. They were named as Candida chanthaburiensis sp. nov. (type strain EM33(T) = BCC 23057(T) = NBRC 102176(T) = CBS 10926(T)), Candida kungkrabaensis sp. nov. (type strain EM40(T) = BCC 23060(T) = NBRC 102179(T) = CBS 10927(T)), and Candida suratensis sp. nov. (type strain SM56(T) = BCC 25961(T) = NBRC 103858(T) = CBS 10928(T)). PMID:20467812

Limtong, Savitree; Yongmanitchai, Wichien

2010-05-14

136

Forest Disturbance Monitoring Using Multi-satellite Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The forests in Northeastern China have been undergoing dramatic changes during the last several decades due to forest fire, insect infestation, massive logging, agricultural conversion, and afforestation. These changes affect the climate, the ecosystem, the economy and living heritage in the region and the carbon balance. For example, a forest fire, which burned from 6 May to 2 June 1987, destroyed nearly one million ha of forest in Northeastern China. Following the fire, various human activities affect the natural recovery of forests. To investigate these effects and the potentials to monitor the forest dynamics using remote sensing data, various satellite data including MODIS, Landsat 5 and 7 data, ERS SAR and JERS-1 SAR data were used in this study. The results are reported in this paper.

Sun, G.; Williams, D. L.; Masek, J.; Ranson, K. J.

2001-12-01

137

Short-term dissolved oxygen patterns in sub-tropical mangroves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangrove forests in subtropical areas are highly heterogeneous environments, influenced by diverse physical structures and tidal flushing regimes. An important component of tidal water is the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO), as it affects aquatic organisms such as fish (directly: respiration and behaviour) and immature mosquitoes (directly: trigger for egg-hatch; indirectly: fish predation of larvae). Changes in DO may be important over relatively small time scales such as minutes and days, but, at such scales it has received little investigation. The aim of this study was to address this knowledge gap, monitoring DO at small time intervals (1 min) over tidal flooding events (hours - days) in two contrasting subtropical mangrove systems. These represented a range of mangrove tidal hydrology: a well-connected fringing mangrove forest in south-east Queensland and a more complex mangrove basin forest in northern New South Wales with impeded tidal connections. The results indicated that patterns of DO varied diurnally and by mangrove system. In the fringing forest, where the substrate was exposed before and after flooding, the highest mean DO concentration was during the day, followed by evening, with pre-dawn the lowest (6.8, 6.5 and 6.1 mg/l, respectively). DO patterns differed by tide stage and time of day with falling DO especially during late evening and pre-dawn as tides ebbed. In the mangrove basin forest the pattern was reversed, but also depended on the distance the tide had travelled across the basin. Before tidal incursion, standing water in the basin was anoxic (DO 0 mg/l). As tidal water flooded into the systems there was a greater increase in DO closer to the tide source than further away, with a DO concentration of 7.6 mg/l compared to 5.4 mg/l. The observations were interpreted in the light of processes and potential impacts on aquatic organisms (fish and immature mosquitoes). The most significant observation was that in the mangrove basin DO concentrations suitable for aquatic organisms (such as fish) persisted for only a relatively small period during the tide (˜1 h), with hypoxic conditions for the remainder. This combination of conditions is favourable to immature mosquitoes.

Knight, Jon M.; Griffin, Lachlan; Dale, Pat E. R.; Sheaves, Marcus

2013-10-01

138

Community-based Monitoring of Natural Resource Use and Forest Quality in Montane Forests and Miombo Woodlands of Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

A community-based monitoring system that focuses on natural resource use and forest quality in montane evergreen forest and miombo woodland areas was developed and implemented in 23 villages in 2002 as part of a participatory forest management regime in Iringa District, Tanzania. The scheme was developed to suit the needs and capacities of locally-elected natural resource committees managing and monitoring

Elmer Topp-Jørgensen; Michael K. Poulsen; Jens Friis Lund; John F. Massao

2005-01-01

139

Forest Monitoring by using Polarimetric SAR: A Preliminary Result  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global Forest Watch ranks Indonesia as one of the top five tropical forest-rich countries in the world, with more than a hundred million hectares. Rainforestweb.org claimed that Indonesia has already lost an estimated 72 percent of its original frontier forest, and half of what remains is currently threatened. About 21 percent of Indonesia's forests are protected. Since the forest activities are high, comprehensive monitoring should be done in the period of time. Common approaches for forest resources monitoring in Indonesia is by using Landsat TM or SPOT Multispectral data. However, some parts of Sumatra, Borneo and West Papua are almost cloud-covered and it was difficult to find sufficient images. In this situation, SAR has significant advantages to fill gaps on forest resource data. Many SAR data have been tested for forestry application, including STAR-1, ERS-1, JERS-1, Radarsat, and DORSAR. However, very limited application is utilizing polarimetric radar dataset. In this paper, we present preliminary results on current trend on polarimetric SAR classification based on Entropy-Alpha feature space. This activity is managed under Envisat research AO#869 granted to second author.

Trisasongko, B.; Raimadoya, M.

2003-04-01

140

Monitoring forest structure at landscape level: a case study of Scots pine forest in NE Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to investigate the change in spatial-temporal configuration of secondary forest succession and generate measurements\\u000a for monitoring the changes in structural plant diversity in Yaln?zçam Scots pine forest in NE Turkey from 1972 to 2005. The\\u000a successional stages were mapped using the combination of Geographic Information System (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS),\\u000a aerial photos and high resolution satellite

Salih Terzio?lu; Emin Zeki Ba?kent; Ali ?hsan Kad?o?ullar?

2009-01-01

141

Using Forest Health Monitoring to assess aspen forest cover change in the southern Rockies ecoregion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term qualitative observations suggest a marked decline in quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) primarily due to advancing succession and fire suppression. This study presents an ecoregional coarse-grid analysis of the current aspen situation using Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) data from Idaho, Wyoming, and Colorado.A unique feature of aspen forests in western North America is regeneration primarily by asexual “suckering” although

Paul Rogers

2002-01-01

142

Everglades: Mangrove Tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pictured is a mangrove tree situated in the marsh of the Everglades. This tree is especially adapted to survive in this environment as they can survive in salt water and fresh water environments. There are three species of mangrove trees that can be found in the Everglades. These include: the red mangrove, the black mangrove, and the white mangrove. These

Chet Smolski

1978-01-01

143

Monitoring Forest Succession Using Multitemporal Landsat Images: Factors of Uncertainties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study evaluates uncertainty factors in using multitemporal Landsat images for subtle change detection, including atmosphere, topography, phenology, sun and view angles. The study is based on monitoring forest succession with a set of multiple Landsat TM/ETM+ images spanning 15 years over the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest in the Western Cascades of Oregon. The algorithms for removing atmospheric effects from remotely sensed images evaluated include a new version of dark object subtraction (DOS3) method, the dense dark vegetation (DDV) method, the path radiance (PARA) approach, and the 6S radiative transfer codes. We found that the DOS3 approach under-corrects the image, and the recently developed DDV and PARA approaches can produce surface reflectance values closely matching those produced by 6S using in situ measurements of atmospheric aerosol optical depth. Atmospheric effects reduce NDVI and Greenness, and increase Brightness and Wetness. Topography modifies Brightness and Greenness, but has minimal effects on NDVI and Wetness, and it interacts with sun angle. Forest stands at late successional stages are more sensitive to topography than younger stands. Though the study areas are covered predominantly by evergreen needle leaf forests, phenological effect is significant. Sun angle effects are confounded with phenology, and reflectance values for stands at different successional stages are related to sun angles nonlinearly. Though Landsat has a small field of view angle, the view angle effects from overlapping Landsat scenes for a mountainous forested landscape may not be ignored when monitoring forest succession with multitemporal images.

Song, C.

2004-05-01

144

An Effectiveness Monitoring Program for the Northwest Forest Plan: New Approaches to Common Monitoring Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Northwest Forest Plan is a large-scale ecosystem management plan for federal lands in the Pacific Nol_hwest of the United States. An effectiveness monitoring program has been developed to determine the extent to which the goals and objectives of this Plan are being achieved. Priority resources identified tbr ecological monitoring include late-successional and old-growth forests, northern spotted owls, marbled mun'elets,

Craig Palmer; Barry Mulder; Barry Noon

145

Role and design of water quality monitoring on forested watersheds  

SciTech Connect

The role of water quality monitoring is important for resolving issues related to the selection of Best Management Practices for silvicultural nonpoint source pollution control. Water quality monitoring provides direct information related to the suitability of various management options and to the simulation of water quality processes. In addition to the traditional physical and chemical parameters, the monitoring should focus on other environmental and biological indicators of ecosystem structure and function. A framework for designing water quality monitoring systems is presented that includes the special conditions exhibited by forested watersheds.

Chen, Y.D.; Rasmussen, T.C.

1993-01-01

146

Lattice Boltzmann Inverse Modeling of a Tracer Release in an Everglades Mangrove Estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tidally-dominated Shark River is a major drainage of south Florida. The river passes through and nourishes North America's largest mangrove forest. Strong tidal flows in the river extend more than 12 km upstream from the river's mouth at the Gulf of Mexico. In November 2010, a deliberate release of SF6 tracer into the river was followed for several days to study the river's transport characteristics. During the tracer release and monitoring, tides led to a stage variation of about 0.8 m close to the Gulf and about 0.3 m in the river upstream of the tracer release point. The mangrove forest adjacent to the river is flooded at high tide and consists of mangrove roots and pneumatophores above highly porous peat root mass. Tracer movement and its analysis by conventional methods are complicated by these tidal flows and potentially by interaction with the mangrove zone groundwater. A 30-m resolution 2-dimensional Lattice Boltzmann model was constructed for a 30 x 21 km region of this part of southwestern Florida. Tidal stage boundaries were applied to the east and west edges of the domain. Based on aerial photography and a thresholding process, the domain was separated into open channels representing the complex river network and a porous medium representing the mangrove forest. SF6 concentrations were not monitored in these flood waters or groundwater during this experiment. The objective is to match the simulations to the SF6 observations in order to better understand chemical transport in this environment and to permit simulation of the transport of other species. Numerous conceptual and computational challenges have to be surmounted to apply Lattice Boltzmann methods to this problem.

Sukop, M. C.; Pearson, A. J.; Engel, V.; Ho, D. T.; Ferron Smith, S.

2011-12-01

147

A review on the present status and management of mangrove wetland habitat resources in Bangladesh with emphasis on mangrove fisheries and aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mangrove forest of Bangladesh, the largest continuous mangrove bulk, is one of the most important features of the coastal\\u000a area of the country. The existence of the mangrove has increased the values of other coastal and marine resources such as\\u000a the coastal and marine fisheries by increasing productivity and supporting a wide biological diversity. The deltaic mangrove\\u000a of Bangladesh

2005-01-01

148

Monitoring the sustainability of the Southern forest - Treesearch  

Treesearch

The new sampling design provides for continuous monitoring and reporting, with the ... agencies, universities, nongovernmental organizations, and the forest industry. ... products, and potential uses of remote sensing instruments for on-plot measurements; e.g., global positioning system units, lasers, and camera systems.

149

Monitoring human larynx by random forests using questionnaire data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with noninvasive monitoring of human larynx using subject's questionnaire data. By applying random forests (RF), questionnaire data are categorized into a healthy class and several classes of disorders including: cancerous, noncancerous, diffuse, nodular, paralysis, and an overall pathological class. The most important questionnaire statements are determined using RF variable importance evaluations. To explore multidimensional data, t-Distributed

Antanas Verikas; Marija Bacauskiene; Adas Gelzinis; Virgilijus Uloza

2011-01-01

150

How is FIA helping other countries monitor their forests?  

Treesearch

... Publications, Recreational Activities, Research and Development, State and Private ... Monitoring Across Borders: 2010 Joint Meeting of the Forest Inventory and ... of efficient plot configurations and sampling designs tor remote areas with high ... This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on ...

151

An estimation of CO 2 fixation capacity in mangrove forest using two methods of CO 2 gas exchange and growth curve analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many coastal areas of South-East Asia, attempts have been made to revive coastal ecosystem by initiating projects that\\u000a encourage planting of mangrove trees. Compared to the terrestrial trees, mangrove trees possess a higher carbon fixation capacity.\\u000a It becomes a very significant option for clean development mechanism (CDM) program. However, a reliable method to estimate\\u000a CO2 fixation capacity of mangrove

Yosuke Okimoto; Akihiro Nose; Keizo Ikeda; Sakae Agarie; Kenzo Oshima; Yutaka Tateda; Takashi Ishii; Dang D. Nhan

2008-01-01

152

Monitoring Fires in Southwestern Amazonia Rain Forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From mid-July to mid-October 2005, an environmental disaster unfolded in the trinational region of Madre de Dios, Peru; Acre, Brazil; and Pando, Bolivia (the MAP region), in southwestern Amazonia. A prolonged dry season and human-initiated fires resulted in smoke pollution affecting more than 400,000 persons, fire damage to over 300,000 hectares of rain forest, and over US$50 million of direct economic losses. Indicators suggest that anomalous drought conditions could occur again this year.

Brown, I. Foster; Schroeder, Wilfrid; Setzer, Alberto; de Los Rios Maldonado, Monica; Pantoja, Nara; Duarte, Alejandro; Marengo, Jose

2006-06-01

153

Molecular Insights into Plant-Microbial Processes and Carbon Storage in Mangrove Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangrove forests, in tropical and subtropical coastal zones, are among the most productive ecosystems, representing a significant global carbon sink. We report new molecular insights into the functional relationship among microorganisms, mangrove trees and sediment geochemistry. The interactions among these elements were studied in peat-based mangrove sediments (Twin Cays, Belize) subjected to a long-term fertilization experiment with N and P,

I. C. Romero; S. E. Ziegler; M. Fogel; M. Jacobson; J. A. Fuhrman; D. G. Capone

2009-01-01

154

Mangrove production and carbon sinks: A revision of global budget estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangrove forests are highly productive but globally threatened coastal ecosystems, whose role in the carbon budget of the coastal zone has long been debated. Here we provide a comprehensive synthesis of the available data on carbon fluxes in mangrove ecosystems. A reassessment of global mangrove primary production from the literature results in a conservative estimate of ~218 +\\/- 72 Tg

Steven Bouillon; Alberto V. Borges; Edward Castañeda-Moya; Karen Diele; Thorsten Dittmar; Norman C. Duke; Erik Kristensen; Shing Y. Lee; Cyril Marchand; Jack J. Middelburg; Victor H. Rivera-Monroy; Thomas J. Smith; Robert R. Twilley

2008-01-01

155

Airborne Laser Mapping of Mangroves on the Biscayne Bay Coast, Miami, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a method using airborne laser mapping data to describe the vertical structure of a coastal mangrove forest in southeastern Florida. Mangroves are critical to coastal processes and the maintenance of vital habitats; however they are also highly threatened due to coastal development and rising sea levels. Access to mangroves for detailed ground surveys is extremely

Keqi Zhang; Patricia A. Houle; Michael S. Ross; Pablo L. Ruiz; Marc Simard

2006-01-01

156

Mangrove production and carbon sinks: A revision of global budget estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangrove forests are highly productive but globally threatened coastal ecosystems, whose role in the carbon budget of the coastal zone has long been debated. Here we provide a comprehensive synthesis of the available data on carbon fluxes in mangrove ecosystems. A reassessment of global mangrove primary production from the literature results in a conservative estimate of ?218 ± 72 Tg

Steven Bouillon; Alberto V. Borges; Edward Castañeda-Moya; Karen Diele; Thorsten Dittmar; Norman C. Duke; Erik Kristensen; Shing Y. Lee; Cyril Marchand; Jack J. Middelburg; Victor H. Rivera-Monroy; Thomas J. Smith; Robert R. Twilley

2008-01-01

157

The Loss of Species: Mangrove Extinction Risk and Geographic Areas of Global Concern  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangrove species are uniquely adapted to tropical and subtropical coasts, and although relatively low in number of species, mangrove forests provide at least US $1.6 billion each year in ecosystem services and support coastal livelihoods worldwide. Globally, mangrove areas are declining rapidly as they are cleared for coastal development and aquaculture and logged for timber and fuel production. Little is

Beth A. Polidoro; Kent E. Carpenter; Lorna Collins; Norman C. Duke; Aaron M. Ellison; Joanna C. Ellison; Elizabeth J. Farnsworth; Edwino S. Fernando; Kandasamy Kathiresan; Nico E. Koedam; Suzanne R. Livingstone; Toyohiko Miyagi; Gregg E. Moore; Vien Ngoc Nam; Jin Eong Ong; Jurgenne H. Primavera; Severino G. Salmo; Jonnell C. Sanciangco; Sukristijono Sukardjo; Yamin Wang; Jean Wan Hong Yong; Dennis Marinus Hansen

2010-01-01

158

Monitoring and mapping eastern Ontario's 1998 forest ice storm damage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between January 4--9, 1998, a severe ice storm struck northeastern North America. Ice loading and high winds contributed to forest damage in Eastern Ontario, a region whose economy and identity depends on an intact forest resource for maple syrup production and other activities. This thesis was a component of a larger study by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR) to address the needs of the maple syrup industry resulting from the ice storm, including temporal monitoring of forest response to damage to assess forest treatment effects, and mapping local to regional scale forest damage for economic impact assessment and compensation. This work is divided into two parts to address each of these needs separately. Part I uses field measured optical instrument-based Leaf Area Index (LAI) as a damage indicator for local monitoring, while Part II applies pre and post-storm Landsat satellite imagery and environmental data, and interpolation of plot-based damage estimates to produce two separate forest damage maps. LAI and post storm LAI change were determined to be suitable damage indicators, being significantly related to initial visual damage estimates while changing through time to reflect LAI recovery in the majority of plots that were measured. Neural network modeling with Landsat and environmental data was 69.3% accurate in classifying low-to-moderate and high damage with 50% crown loss as the threshold between these two classes. Interpolation produced slightly higher mapping accuracies, but lower Kappa statistics due to a reduced number of plots used for validation. These maps were compared with aerial sketch and freezing precipitation maps produced by the OMNR and Environment Canada, respectively. Overall, there was little agreement among maps due to the patchy nature of forest damage and differences among assessment scales.

Olthof, Ian

159

Tropical forest monitoring and remote sensing: A new era of transparency in forest governance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent of tropical deforestation is now being tracked by actors in the nongovernmental, aca- demic, private and government sectors using several different sources of satellite imagery. This paper presents an overview of the satellite systems that can be used for operational forest monitor- ing in the tropics and examines some recent trends in their use. It also reviews various

Douglas O. Fuller

2006-01-01

160

Bacterial communities reflect the spatial variation in pollutant levels in Brazilian mangrove sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of oil from oceanic oil spills converges on coastal ecosystems such as mangrove forests. A major challenge to\\u000a mangrove bioremediation is defining the mangrove’s pollution levels and measuring its recuperation from pollution. Bioindicators\\u000a can provide a welcome tool for defining such recovery. To determine if the microbial profiles reflected variation in the pollutants,\\u000a samples from different locations within

R. Peixoto; G. M. Chaer; F. L. Carmo; F. V. Araújo; J. E. Paes; A. Volpon; G. A. Santiago; A. S. Rosado

2011-01-01

161

Wind damage effects of Hurricane Andrew on mangrove communities along the southwest coast of Florida, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On August 24, 1992, Hurricane Andrew downed and defoliated an extensive swath of mangrove trees across the lower Florida peninsula. Permanent field sites were established to assess the extent of forest damage and to monitor the rate and process of forest recovery. Canopy trees suffered the highest mortality particularly for sites within and immediately north of the storm's eyewall. The type and extent of site damage, windthrow, branch loss, and defoliation generally decreased exponentially with increasing distance from the storm track. Forest damage was greater for sites in the storm's right quadrant than in the left quadrant tor the same given distance from the storm center. Stand exposure, both horizontally and vertically, increased the susceptibility and probability of forest damage and accounted for much of the local variability. Slight species differences were found. Laguncularia racemosa exceeded Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle in damage tendency under similar wind conditions. Azimuths of downed trees were strongly correlated with maximum wind speed and vector based on a hurricane simulation of the storm. Lateral branch loss and leaf defoliation on sites without windthrow damage indicated a degree of crown thinning and light penetration equivalent to treefall gaps under normally intact forest conditions. Mangrove species and forests are susceptible to catastrophic disturbance by hurricanes; the impacts of which are significant to changes in forest structure and function.

Doyle, T.W.; Smith, T.J., III; Robblee., M.B.

1995-01-01

162

Siberian taiga forest regeneration monitoring with winter LANDSAT ETM+ images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring the post-fire regeneration is important for Siberian taiga forest where fires occur frequently. Satellite images taken in summer have been often used in analyses of vegetation. However, in the sparse stands of Siberian taiga forest with varied types of forest floors, it is difficult to extract high trees' conditions and distributions from those images. Instead, we used for the analysis the LANDSAT ETM+ images taken in winter, when almost all high tree species there had fallen their leaves down and the forest floor was covered homogeneously by snow, which had very high reflectance in visible and low reflectance in longer wavelength. Bands 2 (visible), 4 (near-infrared), and 5 (mid-infrared) of the winter ETM+ images are compared with stands' basal area (BA) and height density (HD) that represents a relative congestion of the forest crown above observed from the floor. The results show that the total BA has a correlation with the visible band where the contrast of reflectance between trees and snow is maximum, while total HD has a relationship with the middle infrared band where the contrast is minimum. In addition, the near infrared has a relation ship with the BA of pines that are the only evergreen species of the region. Since HD has a positive correlation with the stand density, HD can be then interpreted to stand density and DBH.

Takao, G.; Kushida, K.; Maximov, T. C.; Kononov, A. V.; Desyatkin, R. M.; Fedorov, A. N.; Torgovkin, Y. Y.

2001-12-01

163

Preliminary work of mangrove ecosystem carbon stock mapping in small island using remote sensing: above and below ground carbon stock mapping on medium resolution satellite image  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangrove forest is an important ecosystem located in coastal area that provides various important ecological and economical services. One of the services provided by mangrove forest is the ability to act as carbon sink by sequestering CO2 from atmosphere through photosynthesis and carbon burial on the sediment. The carbon buried on mangrove sediment may persist for millennia before return to

Pramaditya Wicaksono; Projo Danoedoro; Hartono Hartono; Udo Nehren; Lars Ribbe

2011-01-01

164

Acid leachable trace metals in sediment cores from Sunderban Mangrove Wetland, India: an approach towards regular monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the first document to identify the enrichment pattern of acid leachable trace metals (ALTMs) such as Fe,\\u000a Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, Co, Mo, Ag, As and Ba and their relationship with sediment quality parameters (pH, organic carbon,\\u000a carbonates and texture) in core sediments (<63 ?m particle size) from Indian Sunderban mangrove wetland, formed at the estuarine

M. P. Jonathan; S. K. Sarkar; P. D. Roy; M. Chatterjee; B. D. Bhattacharya; A. Bhattacharya; K. K. Satpathy

2010-01-01

165

Monitoring of impact of anthropogenic inputs on water quality of mangrove ecosystem of Uran, Navi Mumbai, west coast of India.  

PubMed

Surface water samples were collected from substations along Sheva creek and Dharamtar creek mangrove ecosystems of Uran (Raigad), Navi Mumbai, west coast of India. Water samples were collected fortnightly from April 2009 to March 2011 during spring low and high tides and were analyzed for pH, Temperature, Turbidity, Total solids (TS), Total dissolved solids (TDS), Total suspended solids (TSS), Dissolved oxygen (DO), Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Carbon dioxide (CO2), Chemical oxygen demand (COD), Salinity, Orthophosphate (O-PO4), Nitrite-nitrogen (NO2-N), Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), and Silicates. Variables like pH, turbidity, TDS, salinity, DO, and BOD show seasonal variations. Higher content of O-PO4, NO3-N, and silicates is recorded due to discharge of domestic wastes and sewage, effluents from industries, oil tanking depots and also from maritime activities of Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT), hectic activities of Container Freight Stations (CFS), and other port wastes. This study reveals that water quality from mangrove ecosystems of Uran is deteriorating due to industrial pollution and that mangrove from Uran is facing the threat due to anthropogenic stress. PMID:23856298

Pawar, Prabhakar R

2013-07-13

166

Coastal resource degradation in the tropics: does the tragedy of the commons apply for coral reefs, mangrove forests and seagrass beds.  

PubMed

The keynote paper by Garrett Hardin 44 years ago introduced the term 'tragedy of the commons' into our language (Hardin, 1968); this term is now used widely, but it is neither universally accepted nor fully understood. Irrespective, the 'tragedy of the commons' is an increasing reality for more than 500 million people that rely on the biodiversity resources and services of tropical coral reefs, mangrove forests, seagrass beds and associated fisheries. These natural resources continue to decline despite major advances in our scientific understanding of how ecosystems and human populations interact, and the application of considerable conservation and management efforts at scales from local user communities to oceans. Greater effort will be required to avert increasing damage from over-exploitation, pollution and global climate change; all deriving from increasing exploitation driven by poverty and progress i.e. continuing to expand development indefinitely and extraction of resources at industrial scales. However, the 'tragedy' concept has been widely criticized as a simple metaphor for a much larger set of problems and solutions. We argue that the 'tragedy' is essentially real and will continue to threaten the lives of millions of people unless there are some major moral and policy shifts to reverse increasing damage to coastal habitats and resources. We agree with the conclusion by Hardin that the solution to the tragedy will not be through the application of natural sciences, but via implementing exceedingly difficult and controversial moral decisions. An extreme example of a moral and controversial direction suggested by Hardin was in re-examining the 'freedom to breed' as an inherent human value. The need for 'moral decisions' is even greater in 2012. PMID:22349467

Wilkinson, Clive; Salvat, Bernard

2012-02-18

167

Quantifying Typhoon Impact on Net Carbon Ecosystem Exchange in a Sub-tropical Mangrove Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although typhoon is a natural disturbance for mangrove forests, research of typhoon impact on net carbon ecosystem exchange (NEE) of mangrove wetlands has not reached final conclusion. In this study we investigated possible effects of typhoons with different forces on the NEE of a subtropical mangrove forest in Fujian, China (117°23'E, 23°55'N). In 2010, Typhoon Lionrock, Fanapi and Megi made landfall with a speed of 23, 35 and 38 m s-1 near our mangrove field station in Zhangjiang Estuary National Mangrove Nature Reserve on September 2, September 20 and October 23, respectively. In October 2009, total of 16 litter traps and an eddy covariance system were instated at this field station. Litter production was monitored at the biweekly intervals while the NEE was measured continuously. The litter production and NEE values were compared before and after each typhoon landed. Strong winds and torrential rains from these typhoons caused the amount of litter production more than double over the same period a year before when there was no typhoon landing. Moreover, about 5~25% green leaves and twigs were found in the litter traps after the typhoons, indicating significant defoliation by the typhoons. Typhoon Lionrock and Fanapi did not significantly reduce NEE, while Typhoo Fanapi reduced gross ecosystem production (GEP) by about 12%. However, NEE was increased by Typhoon Megi, which resulted from lower daily ecosystem respiration (Re) following the typhoon. Our results indicate that, although theses typhoons caused significant defoliation, they had little effect on ecosystem carbon exchange over the short periods following the typhoons.

Chen, H.; Lu, W.; Yan, G.; Yang, S.; Lin, G.

2011-12-01

168

[The mangrove and others vegetation associations in de Gandoca lagoon, Limón, Costa Rica].  

PubMed

Six plant associations were identified at Gandoca Lagoon by photointerpretation and field verification: a) mangroves, b) palm trees swamp, and palm trees with Acrostichum aureum and A. danaefolium, c) mixed palm trees, d) very humid tropical rain forest, and e) tropical beach vegetation. The mangroves cover 12.5 ha surrounding the lagoon and extend 2 km up the Gandoca River. Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove) was the dominant species, with Avicennia germinans (black mangrove), Laguncularia racemosa (white mangrove) and Conocarpus erectus (buttonwood) also present. Moving inland the mangroves grade into a tropical rain forest. Gandoca, the largest and best preserved mangrove of Caribbean Costa Rica, tripled its area from 1976 to 2000. Possible causes include sedimentation and the Limón earthquake, which may have subside the lagoon area. PMID:15264546

Coll, M; Fonseca, A C; Cortés, J

2001-12-01

169

Growth and population dynamics during early stages of the mangrove Kandelia candel in Halong Bay, North Viet Nam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantifying the dynamics of the early stages in the life cycle of mangroves is essential to predict the distribution, species composition and structure of mangrove forests, and their maintenance and recovery from perturbations. The growth and population dynamics of two stands of the mangrove Kandelia candel in Halong Bay (Viet Nam) were examined for 1 year. Growth was highly seasonal,

Hoang Thi Ha; Carlos M. Duarte; Nguyen Hoang Tri; Jorge Terrados; Jens Borum

2003-01-01

170

Use of a 15N tracer to determine linkages between a mangrove and an upland freshwater swamp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangrove forests and adjacent upland freshwater swamps are important components of subsistence-based economies of Pacific islands. Mangroves provide valuable firewood (Rhizophora apiculata) and mangrove crabs (Scylla serrata); intact freshwater swamps are often used for agroforestry (e.g., taro cultivation). While these two systems are connected hydrologically via groundwater and surface flows, little information is available on how they may be biogeochemically

R. A. MacKenzie; N. Cormier

2005-01-01

171

Restoration of Mangrove Habitat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This technical note provides general guidelines for restoration of mangrove habitat. In the United States, mangroves naturally occur in Florida, Louisiana, and Texas. They also occur naturally in other areas that fall under Corps of Engineers jurisdiction...

R. Lewis B. Streever R. F. Theriot

2000-01-01

172

Dynamics of suspended sediment exchange and transport in a degraded mangrove creek in Kenya.  

PubMed

This study focuses on sediment exchange dynamics in Mwache Creek, a shallow tidal mangrove wetland in Kenya. The surface area of the creek is 17 km2 at high water spring. The creek experiences semidiurnal tides with tidal ranges of 3.2 m and 1.4 m during spring and neap tides, respectively. The creek is ebb dominant in the frontwater zone main channel and is flood dominant in the backwater zone main channel. During rainy season, the creek receives freshwater and terrigenous sediments from the seasonal Mwache River. Heavy supply of terrigenous sediments during the El Niño of 1997-1998 led to the huge deposition of sediments (10(60 tonnes) in the wetland that caused massive destruction of the mangrove forest in the upper region. In this study, sea level, tidal discharges, tidal current velocities, salinity, total suspended sediment concentrations (TSSC) and particulate organic sediment concentrations (POSC) measured in stations established within the main channel and also within the mangrove forests, were used to determine the dynamics of sediment exchange between the frontwater and backwater zones of the main channel including also the exchange with mangrove forests. The results showed that during wet seasons, the high suspended sediment concentration associated with river discharge and tidal resuspension of fine channel-bed sediment accounts for the inflow of highly turbid water into the degraded mangrove forest. Despite the degradation of the mangrove forest, sediment outflow from the mangrove forest was considerably less than the inflow. This caused a net trapping of sediment in the wetland. The net import of the sediment dominated in spring tide during both wet and dry season and during neap tide in the wet season. However, as compared to heavily vegetated mangrove wetlands, the generally degraded Mwache Creek mangrove wetland sediment trapping efficiency is low as the average is about 30% for the highly degraded backwater zone mangrove forest and 65% in the moderately degraded frontwater zone mangrove forest. PMID:12572826

Kitheka, Johnson U; Ongwenyi, George S; Mavuti, Kenneth M

2002-12-01

173

Project Of Investigation About Growth Of Afforestation Mangrove In Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the mangrove which was played back artificially by intended afforestation it designates that related characteristic of growth circumstance and growth environment of the mangrove plant which is grown is evaluated as purpose of this study. Revival of the mangrove in Thailand with afforestation makes the ecosystem revive which consists simultaneously with the mangrove, makes the fishing industry profit at neighborhood possible, makes the life of the people of the locale rich. In addition, the mangrove carries out the role of the anti wave forest, the case of the Sumatra open sea earthquake makes the damage decrease by the tidal wave. The people of the locale re-have recognized concerning the inevitability of the mangrove. Difference has occurred in the amount of mangrove growth depending upon the growth place, the fact that these causes are investigated is something which urges the growth of the efficient mangrove at the time of future afforestation being active. In addition, also comparison of growth circumstance of the mangrove due to natural growth and the mangrove due to afforestation becomes the important research resource. Concretely, it measures growth circumstance (height of tree and diameter etc.) and also, growth environment (the amount of solar radiation, salinity density in substrate and tidal change etc.) and evaluate both correlations. As for evaluation of growth environment of the afforestation mangrove we should evaluate with central value. Because of that, there is a necessity which executes amount of growth measurement with statistical technique. Therefore, with the amount of growth measurement with lumbering, it is unsuitable to the measurement on this study. Regarding this subject of study, growth investigation of the group of trees is executed making use of non destructive physical amount (height of tree and diameter etc.) measurement. It measures at several dozen threes in plural afforestation area, evaluates the growth environment of each afforestation mangrove and the related characteristic of growth circumstance.

Ibuki, R.

2007-12-01

174

Monitoring Design for Riparian Forests in the Pacific Northwest. Research Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this project is to recommend a broadly-acceptale efficient and effective methodology for characterizing streamside riparian attributes in forested settings at the site grain for regional monitoring. The authors consider monitoring design in th...

P. L. Ringold J. Barker M. Bollman G. Bradshaw W. Carson S. Cline M. Fiorella J. Stepp

1997-01-01

175

A Framework for Assessment and Monitoring of Small Mammals in a Lowland Tropical Forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development projects in tropical forests can impact biodiversity.Assessment and monitoring programs based on the principles of adaptive management assist managers to identify and reduce suchimpacts. The small mammal community is one important component ofa forest ecosystem that may be impacted by development projects. In 1996, a natural gas exploration project was initiated in a Peruvian rainforest. The Smithsonian Institution's Monitoring

Sergio Solari; Juan José Rodriguez; Elena Vivar; Paul M. Velazco

2002-01-01

176

FAO UN-REDD- INPE Joint Programme on Forest Monitoring Systems based on RS and GIS techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capacity Development and Training for National Forest Monitoring Systems for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD+) REDD+, which stands for 'Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries' - is an effort to create a financial value for the carbon stored in forests, offering incentives for developing countries to reduce emissions from forested

I. G. Jonckheere

2010-01-01

177

Atmospheric CO2 flux from mangrove surrounding waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) was measured at daily and weekly time scales in the waters surrounding mangrove forests in Papua New Guinea, the Bahamas and India. The pCO2 values range from 380 to 4800 ?atm. These data, together with previously published data, suggest that overall oversaturation of CO2 with respect to atmospheric equilibrium in surface waters is a general feature of mangrove forests, though the entire ecosystems (sediment, water and vegetation) are probably sinks for atmospheric CO2. The computed CO2 fluxes converge to about +50 mmolC m-2 day-1. If this conservative value is extrapolated for worldwide mangrove ecosystems, the global emission of CO2 to the atmosphere is about 50 106 tC year-1. Based on this tentative estimate, mangrove waters appear to be regionally a significant source of CO2 to the atmosphere and should be more thoroughly investigated, especially at seasonal time scale.

Borges, A. V.; Djenidi, S.; Lacroix, G.; Théate, J.; Delille, B.; Frankignoulle, M.

2003-06-01

178

Nutrient Enrichment Increases Mortality of Mangroves  

PubMed Central

Nutrient enrichment of the coastal zone places intense pressure on marine communities. Previous studies have shown that growth of intertidal mangrove forests is accelerated with enhanced nutrient availability. However, nutrient enrichment favours growth of shoots relative to roots, thus enhancing growth rates but increasing vulnerability to environmental stresses that adversely affect plant water relations. Two such stresses are high salinity and low humidity, both of which require greater investment in roots to meet the demands for water by the shoots. Here we present data from a global network of sites that documents enhanced mortality of mangroves with experimental nutrient enrichment at sites where high sediment salinity was coincident with low rainfall and low humidity. Thus the benefits of increased mangrove growth in response to coastal eutrophication is offset by the costs of decreased resilience due to mortality during drought, with mortality increasing with soil water salinity along climatic gradients.

Lovelock, Catherine E.; Ball, Marilyn C.; Martin, Katherine C.; C. Feller, Ilka

2009-01-01

179

Removal of Zinc from Tidal Water by Sediments of a Mangrove Ecosystem: A Radiotracer Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of 65Zn from tidal water by underlaying sediment cores collected in a mangrove forest and a tidal creek that drains this forest\\u000a in Sepetiba Bay (SE Brazil) was investigated. After 30-h experiments in laboratory microcosms, the 65Zn half-removal times from tidal creek and mangrove forest sediments were 8.7?±?1.8 and 9.2?±?0.9 h respectively. Depth penetration\\u000a of 65Zn was mainly restricted

E. C. Machado; W. Machado; L. F. Bellido; S. R. Patchineelam; A. V. B. Bellido

2008-01-01

180

Microbial diversity in Brazilian mangrove sediments - a mini review  

PubMed Central

The importance and protection of mangrove ecosystems has been recognized in Brazilian Federal law since 1965. Being protected in law, however, has not always guaranteed their protection in practice. Mangroves are found in coastal and estuarine locations, which are prime real estate for the growth of cities, ports and other economic activities important for Brazilian development. In this mini-review we introduce what mangroves are and why they are so important. We give a brief overview of the microbial diversity found in mangrove sediments and then focus on diversity studies from Brazilian mangroves. We highlight the breadth and depth of knowledge about mangrove microbial communities gained from studying Brazilian mangroves. We report on the exciting findings of molecular microbial ecology methods that have been very successfully applied to study bacterial communities. We note that there have been fewer studies that focus on fungal communities and that fungal diversity studies deserve more attention. The review ends with a look at how a combination of new molecular biology methods and isolation studies are being developed to monitor and conserve mangrove ecosystems and their associated microbial communities. These recent studies are having a global impact and we hope they will help to protect and re-establish mangrove ecosystems.

Ghizelini, Angela Michelato; Mendonca-Hagler, Leda Cristina Santana; Macrae, Andrew

2012-01-01

181

Biodegradation of Enteromorpha prolifera by mangrove degrading microcommunity with physical–chemical pretreatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacteria involved in the biodegradation of Enteromorpha prolifera (EP) are largely unknown, especially in offshore mangrove environments. In order to obtain the bacterial EP-degrading communities,\\u000a sediments from a typical mangrove forest were sampled on the roots of mangrove in Dongzhai Port (Haikou, China). The sediments were enriched with crude EP powders as the sole carbon source. The bacterial composition

Chao Zhao; Lingwei Ruan

182

Forest Watch: Using Student Data to Monitor Forest Response to Ground-Level Ozone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest Watch, a k-12 science outreach program begun at the University of New Hampshire (UNH) in 1991, has engaged pre-college students in providing UNH researchers with data on the annual response of white pine (Pinus strobus; a bio-indicator species for ozone exposure) to ground-level ozone across the New England region. Each year, student-collected growth and foliar symptomology data for 5 pine trees adjacent to their schools, along with first-year foliar samples, are submitted to UNH. Key foliar symptoms and student data are compared with summer monthly (JJA) maximum ozone concentrations collected by state and federal ozone monitoring stations across the region. To date, tree health indicators are inversely correlated (r2=0.83;p=0.10) with ozone concentrations: low ozone levels correlate with symptoms of good health (spectral indices diagnostic of high foliar chlorophyll levels and moisture content, normal incremental growth, low number of foliar symptoms), while summers characterized by high ozone concentrations correlate with symptoms of reduced health (low chlorophyll indices and moisture content, reduced incremental growth, increased number of foliar symptoms). In drought years (1999, 2001, 2002, 2003) few foliar symptoms of ozone damage are seen even though ozone levels were high, likely due to drought-induced stomatal closure. Based on student data since 1998, either low ozone summers, or drought summers have resulted in improved health in the sampled trees (n=30). Based on the success of Forest Watch in New England, we are exploring the extension of the program to Colorado as Front Range Forest Watch, operated from Colorado State University (CSU). The primary objective is to develop a student-scientist-local agency project that addresses real ecological issues in northern Colorado, including ozone pollution, and to provide pre-college students and teachers authentic science experiences. CSU runs a GK-12 program with Poudre School District in northern Colorado, which infuses ecology graduate students into the public school system to assist in the delivery of science content. The extension of Forest Watch to northern Colorado will provide a test-bed for the possible extension of the program to the rest of the state.

Spencer, S.; Rock, B. N.

2006-12-01

183

Forest Disturbance Monitoring Using Multi-satellite Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The forests in Northeastern China have been undergoing dramatic changes during the last several decades due to forest fire, insect infestation, massive logging, agricultural conversion, and afforestation. These changes affect the climate, the ecosystem, the economy and living heritage in the region and the carbon balance. For example, a forest fire, which burned from 6 May to 2 June 1987,

G. Sun; D. L. Williams; J. Masek; K. J. Ranson

2001-01-01

184

Monitoring in support of the Pacific Northwest forest plan: A report on requirements and key questions  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes the monitoring requirements identified in the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Pacific Northwest Forest Plan and presents the key questions the future monitoring program should strive to answer. The key questions, developed from the standards and guidelines and the objectives of the ROD and the Forest Plan, are broad but do illustrate the types and amounts of data that are needed. The document was organized around the plans` three types of monitoring - implementation, effectiveness, and validation - and the three strategies of the Forest Plan, namely, Late-Succession/Old Growth Maintenance, Aquatic Conservation, and Socioeconomic Sustainability.

Mitchell, G.A.

1995-04-01

185

Create a Mangrove Tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this group activity, learners will explore the characteristics, functions and uniqueness of the mangrove tree. One learner dresses as a red mangrove while the group discusses and simulates high and low tide, salinity levels, salt balance, root systems, habitat, propagules (structures for reproduction), and dispersal. This demonstration works best as a review activity. If some materials (mangrove leaves, propagules, figurines of crabs and small fish) are not readily available, pictures or drawings can be substituted.

Aquarium, The F.

2010-01-01

186

Detection and analysis of forest cover changes of Indian Sundarbans using satellite data.  

PubMed

This study shows the forest cover estimation of Sundarban delta with the help of remote sensing together with Geographical Information System (GIS) and K-means clustering technique. GIS mainly deals with gathering repetitive coverage by satellites and aircrafts of real time forestry information that, finally enables to compile gross forest vegetation resource data of the area under investigation in a single format and monitor the changes. The main study area is the salinity prone south-western part of Sundarbans among Lothian, South-Surendranagar and Dhanchi Islands. Conservation of forestry and the mangroves of these Islands have been studied by the periodic remote-sensed data analysis. This paper also highlights the problems associated with the forest conservation and provides suggestions and schemes for protection and conservation of mangrove forest in Sundarban region. PMID:23029932

Roy, Utpal; Mandal, Achintya K; Mukherjee, Somnath

2011-07-01

187

Identifying, managing and monitoring conflicts between forest biodiversity conservation and other human interests in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, circumstances where various human activities and interests clash with the conservation of forest biodiversity are examined, with particular focus on the drivers behind the conflicts. After identifying past and current human-related threats potentially leading to conflicts in forests, the paper will focus on conflict management and monitoring, with an emphasis on inclusionary stakeholder networks and a range

Jari Niemelä; Juliette Young; Didier Alard; Miren Askasibar; Klaus Henle; Richard Johnson; Mikko Kurttila; Tor-Björn Larsson; Simone Matouch; Peter Nowicki; Rosa Paiva; Luigi Portoghesi; René Smulders; Alan Stevenson; Urmas Tartes; Allan Watt

2005-01-01

188

Design of automatic forest fire positioning system based on video monitoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fire prevention is always the focus of attention worldwide, and an important aspect on which governments invest heavily in ecological protection. All of the geographic information (such as latitude and longitude, elevation) has become the public data at the areas deployed forest fire prevention system based on the video monitoring system. It is more expediently to set up the

Han Ning; Yang Guang-qun; Wang Yuan-yuan

2010-01-01

189

Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments from Mangrove Zone in Zhangjiang River Estuary, South China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of selected heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg and Pb) in surface sediments from 18 sites were examined in Zhangjiang Estuary Mangrove National Natural Reserve (ZEMNNR), which is the largest natural mangrove forest north of the Tropic of Cancer in China. The ranges of heavy metals expressed in mug\\/g sediment dry weight were as follows: Cr (48.14

Minggang Cai; Yun Wanga; Canrong Qiu; Jing Lin; Bihua Qian; Shuiying Huang; Jionghui Sun; Xiaoyan Liu; Xiaomeng Li; Shaozhou Xie; Bozhou Fang

2009-01-01

190

Between Land and Sea: Livelihoods and Environmental Changes in Mangrove Ecosystems of Senegal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike the global trend, the area of mangrove forest increased in the estuaries of Low Casamance and Sine-Saloum, Senegal, between 1986 and 2006. We collected multisource data (social and spatial) and applied a mix of qualitative and quantitative analytical methods to investigate the human–mangrove interactions during this period and to understand the causes of the observed increase. Our research demonstrates

Giulia Conchedda; Eric F. Lambin; Philippe Mayaux

2011-01-01

191

Northern Spotted Owl Effectiveness Monitoring Plan for the Northwest Forest Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes options for effectiveness monitoring of long-term status and trends of the northern spotted owl to evaluate the success of the Northern Forest Plan in arresting downard population trends, and in maintaining and restoring the habitat ...

J. Lint B. Noon R. Anthony E. Forsman M. Raphael M. Collopy E. Starkey

1999-01-01

192

Participatory forest monitoring: an assessment of the accuracy of simple cost–effective methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

International forest policies have recently increased the focus on involvement of local communities in forest monitoring and\\u000a management as a strategy to improve biodiversity conservation efforts and local livelihood in developing countries. However,\\u000a little is known about feasible methods, costs and accuracy of participatory monitoring schemes in developing countries. This\\u000a paper examines the costs, accuracy and local reproducibility of three

Mikkel Hooge Holck

2008-01-01

193

SAR forest canopy penetration depth as an indicator for forest health monitoring based on leaf area index (LAI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest health monitoring may be done with remote sensing. Satellite based SAR is one promising technology as it works day and night and with cloud cover, and because it is sensitive to 3D properties. We here apply an interferometry based XDEM approach, where we assumed that an increasing defoliation would cause an increasing X band penetration downwards into the canopy

Svein Solberg; Dan Johan Weydahl; Erik Næsset

194

Spatial heterogeneity and kinetic regulation of arsenic dynamics in mangrove sediments: the Sundarbans, Bangladesh.  

PubMed

The biogeochemistry of arsenic (As) in sediments is regulated by multiple factors such as particle size, dissolved organic matter (DOM), iron mobilization, and sediment binding characteristics, among others. Understanding the heterogeneity of factors affecting As deposition and the kinetics of mobilization, both horizontally and vertically, across sediment depositional environments was investigated in Sundarban mangrove ecosystems, Bengal Delta, Bangladesh. Sediment cores were collected from 3 different Sundarbans locations and As concentration down the profiles were found to be more associated with elevated Fe and Mn than with organic matter (OM). At one site chosen for field monitoring, sediment cores, pore and surface water, and in situ diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) measurements (which were used to model As sediment pore-water concentrations and resupply from the solid phase) were sampled from four different subhabitats. Coarse-textured riverbank sediment porewaters were high in As, but with a limited resupply of As from the solid phase compared to fine-textured and high organic matter content forest floor sediments, where porewater As was low, but with much higher As resupply. Depositional environment (overbank verses forest floor) and biological activity (input of OM from forest biomass) considerably affected As dynamics over very short spatial distances in the mosaic of microhabitats that constitute a mangrove ecosystem. PMID:22834808

Sumon, Mahmud H; Hossain, Mahmud; Williams, Paul N; Mestrot, Adrien; Norton, Gareth J; Deacon, Claire M; Meharg, Andrew A

2012-08-10

195

Potential for Monitoring Snow Cover in Boreal Forests by Combining MODIS Snow Cover and AMSR-E SWE Maps.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Monitoring of snow cover extent and snow water equivalent (SWE) in boreal forests is important for determining the amount of potential runoff and beginning date of snowmelt. The great expanse of the boreal forest necessitates the use of satellite measurem...

D. K. Hall G. A. Riggs J. L. Foster

2009-01-01

196

Urban Forest Health Monitoring in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand the urban forest resource and its numerous values, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service has initiated a pilot pro- gram to sample the urban tree population in Indiana, Wisconsin, and New Jersey and statewide urban street tree populations in Maryland, Wisconsin, and Massachusetts. Results from the pilot study in Indiana revealed that about 92.7 million urban

David J. Nowak; Daniel Twardus; Robert Hoehn; Manfred Mielke; Bill Smith; Jeffrey T. Walton; Daniel E. Crane; Anne Cumming; Jack C. Stevens

197

Forest Health Assessment and Monitoring – Issues for Consideration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part of this paper has been prepared for the lecture Forest Health Assessment-Criteria,Methods and Problems given by the author at the UIMPuniversity course Sanidad Forestal en el Bosques Mediterraneos yTemplados. Implicacion de la Contaminacion Atmosferica y del Cambio Global, held in Valencia, Spain, October, 1995.

Marco Ferretti

1997-01-01

198

Importance of different carbon sources for macroinvertebrates and fishes of an interlinked mangrove-mudflat ecosystem (Tanzania)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangroves function as important shelter and feeding habitats for marine fauna, but the degree to which mangrove-derived carbon contributes to local food webs has long been debated. In this study, stable isotope analysis was used as a technique to elucidate the role of mangrove carbon in the diets of the macroinvertebrate and fish fauna of an intertidal fringing mangrove forest and adjacent intertidal/subtidal mudflats in a macrotidal Tanzanian estuary. The expectation was that sessile species and those with low motility depend to a larger extent on local carbon sources than highly motile species. A clear distinction in ? 13C was present between primary producers from mangrove and mudflat habitats. Macroinvertebrates revealed a gradient in their ? 13C where Sesarma crabs were the only species that directly utilised mangrove carbon by feeding on mangrove leaves/detritus. Uca crabs and the gastropod Littoraria scabra showed a higher dependence on microphytobenthos from the mangrove substratum. Among the fish fauna, the amphibious mudskipper was the only species to which the mangroves were accessible during low tide. Consequently this was the only fish species for which it was clear that it fed in the mangrove habitat, most commonly on mangrove-associated Uca crabs. All other species of sessile as well as motile macroinvertebrates and fish from the mangrove and mudflat habitat showed a high degree of utilisation of mudflat carbon. Overall, mangrove carbon thus contributed little to the mangrove and mudflat food webs, despite the high tidal amplitude and the resulting potential for exchange of carbon and fauna in the estuary studied here. Utilisation of mangrove carbon appears to depend more on the ecology of the species in consideration (e.g., species-specific use of zones within the mangrove habitat) than on their potential motility or tolerance to exposure during low tide.

Kruitwagen, G.; Nagelkerken, I.; Lugendo, B. R.; Mgaya, Y. D.; Bonga, S. E. Wendelaar

2010-08-01

199

Mangroves enhance the biomass of coral reef fish communities in the Caribbean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangrove forests are one of the world's most threatened tropical ecosystems with global loss exceeding 35% (ref. 1). Juvenile coral reef fish often inhabit mangroves, but the importance of these nurseries to reef fish population dynamics has not been quantified. Indeed, mangroves might be expected to have negligible influence on reef fish communities: juvenile fish can inhabit alternative habitats and fish populations may be regulated by other limiting factors such as larval supply or fishing. Here we show that mangroves are unexpectedly important, serving as an intermediate nursery habitat that may increase the survivorship of young fish. Mangroves in the Caribbean strongly influence the community structure of fish on neighbouring coral reefs. In addition, the biomass of several commercially important species is more than doubled when adult habitat is connected to mangroves. The largest herbivorous fish in the Atlantic, Scarus guacamaia, has a functional dependency on mangroves and has suffered local extinction after mangrove removal. Current rates of mangrove deforestation are likely to have severe deleterious consequences for the ecosystem function, fisheries productivity and resilience of reefs. Conservation efforts should protect connected corridors of mangroves, seagrass beds and coral reefs.

Mumby, Peter J.; Edwards, Alasdair J.; Ernesto Arias-González, J.; Lindeman, Kenyon C.; Blackwell, Paul G.; Gall, Angela; Gorczynska, Malgosia I.; Harborne, Alastair R.; Pescod, Claire L.; Renken, Henk; C. C. Wabnitz, Colette; Llewellyn, Ghislane

2004-02-01

200

Preliminary work of mangrove ecosystem carbon stock mapping in small island using remote sensing: above and below ground carbon stock mapping on medium resolution satellite image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangrove forest is an important ecosystem located in coastal area that provides various important ecological and economical services. One of the services provided by mangrove forest is the ability to act as carbon sink by sequestering CO2 from atmosphere through photosynthesis and carbon burial on the sediment. The carbon buried on mangrove sediment may persist for millennia before return to the atmosphere, and thus act as an effective long-term carbon sink. Therefore, it is important to understand the distribution of carbon stored within mangrove forest in a spatial and temporal context. In this paper, an effort to map carbon stocks in mangrove forest is presented using remote sensing technology to overcome the handicap encountered by field survey. In mangrove carbon stock mapping, the use of medium spatial resolution Landsat 7 ETM+ is emphasized. Landsat 7 ETM+ images are relatively cheap, widely available and have large area coverage, and thus provide a cost and time effective way of mapping mangrove carbon stocks. Using field data, two image processing techniques namely Vegetation Index and Linear Spectral Unmixing (LSU) were evaluated to find the best method to explain the variation in mangrove carbon stocks using remote sensing data. In addition, we also tried to estimate mangrove carbon sequestration rate via multitemporal analysis. Finally, the technique which produces significantly better result was used to produce a map of mangrove forest carbon stocks, which is spatially extensive and temporally repetitive.

Wicaksono, Pramaditya; Danoedoro, Projo; Hartono, Hartono; Nehren, Udo; Ribbe, Lars

2011-10-01

201

Integrated use of SRS Data &GIS Technique for Monitoring Changes in Riverine Forest of Sindh, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deforestation / depletion in forest area threaten the sustainability of agricultural production systems and en-danger the economy of the country. Every year extensive areas of arable agricultural and forestlands are degraded and turned into wastelands, due to natural causes or human interventions. There are several causes of deforestation, such as expansion in agricultural area, urban development, forest fires, commercial logging, illicit cutting, grazing, constructions of dams / reservoirs and barrages, com munication links, etc. Depletion in forest cover, therefore, has an important impact on socio - economic development and ecological balance. High population growth rate in Pakistan is one of the main causes for the rapid deterioration of physical environment and natural resource base. In view of this, it is felt necessary to carryout land -u s e studies focusing on strategies for mapping the past and present conditions and extent of forests and rangelands using Satellite Remote Sensing (SRS) data and GIS t echnology. The SRS and GIS technology provides a possible means of monitoring and mapping changes occurring in natural resources and the environment on a continuing basis. The riverine forests of Sindh mostly grow along the River Indus in the flood plains, spread over an area of 241,000 ha are disappearing very rapidly. Construction of dams / barrages on the upper reaches of the River Indus for hydroelectric power and irrigation works have significantly reduced the discharge of fresh water into the lower Indus basin and as a result, 100,000 acres of forests have disappeared. Furthermore, the heavy floods that occurred in 1978, 1988, 1992 and 1997, altered the course of the River Indus in many places, especially in the lower reaches, this has also damaged the riverine forests of Sindh. An integrated approach involving analysis of SRS data from 1977 to 1998 and GIS technique have been used to evaluate the geographic ex-tent and distribution of the riverine forests of Sindh and to monitor temporal changes in the forest cover between 1977 &1990 and 1990 &1998. The integrated landuse forest cover maps of riverine forest, shows temporal changes in the forest cover between 1977 &1990 and 1990 &1998, as well as in the River Indus course. The digital thematic maps based on SRS data and GIS technology can supplement existing conventional ground based sources of information for monitoring changes in forest cover on a regular basis, which can be helpful for forest resource management and planning and monitoring environmental changes.

Siddiqui, M.; Ali, Z.

202

Ecosystem development after mangrove wetland creation: plant-soil change across a 20-year chronosequence  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mangrove wetland restoration and creation efforts are increasingly proposed as mechanisms to compensate for mangrove wetland losses. However, ecosystem development and functional equivalence in restored and created mangrove wetlands are poorly understood. We compared a 20-year chronosequence of created tidal wetland sites in Tampa Bay, Florida (USA) to natural reference mangrove wetlands. Across the chronosequence, our sites represent the succession from salt marsh to mangrove forest communities. Our results identify important soil and plant structural differences between the created and natural reference wetland sites; however, they also depict a positive developmental trajectory for the created wetland sites that reflects tightly coupled plant-soil development. Because upland soils and/or dredge spoils were used to create the new mangrove habitats, the soils at younger created sites and at lower depths (10-30 cm) had higher bulk densities, higher sand content, lower soil organic matter (SOM), lower total carbon (TC), and lower total nitrogen (TN) than did natural reference wetland soils. However, in the upper soil layer (0-10 cm), SOM, TC, and TN increased with created wetland site age simultaneously with mangrove forest growth. The rate of created wetland soil C accumulation was comparable to literature values for natural mangrove wetlands. Notably, the time to equivalence for the upper soil layer of created mangrove wetlands appears to be faster than for many other wetland ecosystem types. Collectively, our findings characterize the rate and trajectory of above- and below-ground changes associated with ecosystem development in created mangrove wetlands; this is valuable information for environmental managers planning to sustain existing mangrove wetlands or mitigate for mangrove wetland losses.

Osland, Michael J.; Spivak, Amanda C.; Nestlerode, Janet A.; Lessmann, Jeannine M.; Almario, Alejandro E.; Heitmuller, Paul T.; Russell, Marc J.; Krauss, Ken W.; Alvarez, Federico; Dantin, Darrin D.; Harvey, James E.; From, Andrew S.; Cormier, Nicole; Stagg, Camille L.

2012-01-01

203

Global climate change mitigation and sustainable forest management--The challenge of monitoring and verification  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, sustainable forest management is discussed within the historical and theoretical framework of the sustainable development debate. The various criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management put forth by different institutions are critically explored. Specific types of climate change mitigation policies/projects in the forest sector are identified and examined in the light of the general criteria for sustainable forest management. Areas of compatibility and contradiction between the climate mitigation objectives and the minimum criteria for sustainable forest management are identified and discussed. Emphasis is put on the problems of monitoring and verifying carbon benefits associated with such projects given their impacts on pre-existing policy objectives on sustainable forest management. The implications of such policy interactions on assignment of carbon credits from forest projects under Joint Implementation/Activities Implemented Jointly initiatives are discussed. The paper concludes that a comprehensive monitoring and verification regime must include an impact assessment on the criteria covered under other agreements such as the Biodiversity and/or Desertification Conventions. The actual carbon credit assigned to a specific project should at least take into account the negative impacts on the criteria for sustainable forest management. The value of the impacts and/or the procedure to evaluate them need to be established by interested parties such as the Councils of the respective Conventions.

Makundi, Willy R.

1997-12-31

204

Simulated sea level change alters anatomy, physiology, growth, and reproduction of red mangrove ( Rhizophora mangle L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical coastal forestsmangroves – will be one of the first ecosystems to be affected by altered sea levels accompanying\\u000a global climate change. Responses of mangrove forests to changing sea levels depend on reactions of individual plants, yet\\u000a such responses have not been addressed experimentally. We report data from a long-term greenhouse study that assessed physiological\\u000a and individual growth

Aaron M. Ellison; Elizabeth J. Farnsworth

1997-01-01

205

Sediment and Nutrient Deposition Associated with Hurricane Wilma in Mangroves of the Florida Coastal Everglades  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of mangrove biomass and forest structure along Shark River estuary in the Florida Coastal Everglades (FCE)\\u000a has been correlated with elevated total phosphorus concentration in soils thought to be associated with storm events. The\\u000a passage of Hurricane Wilma across Shark River estuary in 2005 allowed us to quantify sediment deposition and nutrient inputs\\u000a in FCE mangrove forests associated

Edward Castañeda-Moya; Robert R. Twilley; Victor H. Rivera-Monroy; Keqi Zhang; Stephen E. Davis; Michael Ross

2010-01-01

206

MONITORING IN SUPPORT OF THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST FOREST PLAN: A REPORT ON REQUIREMENTS AND KEY QUESTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This document summarizes the monitoring requirements identified in the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Pacific Northwest Forest Plan and presents the key questions the future monitoring program should strive to answer. he key questions, developed from the standards and guideline...

207

Forest ecosystem inventory and monitoring as a framework for terrestrial natural renewable resource survey programmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The established practice of forest ecosystem inventory and monitoring is recognised as a main support for terrestrial natural renewable resource survey programmes. Inventory and monitoring programmes focused on an overall assessment of ecosystem attributes evolving into global environmental survey programmes have been devised, but implementation is still quite contradictory. The state-of-the-art is discussed here, with special reference to the European

Piermaria Corona; Gherardo Chirici; Marco Marchetti

2002-01-01

208

Taiga Forest Stands and SAR: Monitoring for Subarctic Global Change.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In preparation for the first European Earth Remote Sensing (ERS-1) mission, a series of multitemporal, multifrequency, multipolarization aircraft synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data sets were acquired over the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest near Fairba...

J. Way R. Kwok L. Viereck C. Slaughter C. Dobson

1992-01-01

209

Summary of mortality statistics and forest health monitoring results ...  

Treesearch

Research & Development ... Tree mortality is the primary FIA variable for analyzing forest health. Recent FIA inventories of New York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia reveal that the current rate of mortality, expressed as percent of basal area ...

210

Soil Disturbance Monitoring in the USDA Forest Service, Pacific ...  

Treesearch

... quality resulting from project implementation affect long-term forest productivity and ... This protocol eventually became a national model for conducting soil ... Land managers and research scientists are also working to develop models that  ...

211

Biocomplexity in mangrove ecosystems.  

PubMed

Mangroves are an ecological assemblage of trees and shrubs adapted to grow in intertidal environments along tropical coasts. Despite repeated demonstration of their economic and societal value, more than 50% of the world's mangroves have been destroyed, 35% in the past two decades to aquaculture and coastal development, altered hydrology, sea-level rise, and nutrient overenrichment. Variations in the structure and function of mangrove ecosystems have generally been described solely on the basis of a hierarchical classification of the physical characteristics of the intertidal environment, including climate, geomorphology, topography, and hydrology. Here, we use the concept of emergent properties at multiple levels within a hierarchical framework to review how the interplay between specialized adaptations and extreme trait plasticity that characterizes mangroves and intertidal environments gives rise to the biocomplexity that distinguishes mangrove ecosystems. The traits that allow mangroves to tolerate variable salinity, flooding, and nutrient availability influence ecosystem processes and ultimately the services they provide. We conclude that an integrated research strategy using emergent properties in empirical and theoretical studies provides a holistic approach for understanding and managing mangrove ecosystems. PMID:21141670

Feller, I C; Lovelock, C E; Berger, U; McKee, K L; Joye, S B; Ball, M C

2010-01-01

212

An Application of Remote Sensing Data in Mapping Landscape-Level Forest Biomass for Monitoring the Effectiveness of Forest Policies in Northeastern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring the dynamics of forest biomass at various spatial scales is important for better understanding the terrestrial carbon cycle as well as improving the effectiveness of forest policies and forest management activities. In this article, field data and Landsat image data acquired in 1999 and 2007 were utilized to quantify spatiotemporal changes of forest biomass for Dongsheng Forestry Farm in Changbai Mountain region of northeastern China. We found that Landsat TM band 4 and Difference Vegetation Index with a 3 × 3 window size were the best predictors associated with forest biomass estimations in the study area. The inverse regression model with Landsat TM band 4 predictor was found to be the best model. The total forest biomass in the study area decreased slightly from 2.77 × 106 Mg in 1999 to 2.73 × 106 Mg in 2007, which agreed closely with field-based model estimates. The area of forested land increased from 17.9 × 103 ha in 1999 to 18.1 × 103 ha in 2007. The stabilization of forest biomass and the slight increase of forested land occurred in the period following implementations of national forest policies in China in 1999. The pattern of changes in both forest biomass and biomass density was altered due to different management regimes adopted in light of those policies. This study reveals the usefulness of the remote sensing-based approach for detecting and monitoring quantitative changes in forest biomass at a landscape scale.

Wang, Xinchuang; Shao, Guofan; Chen, Hua; Lewis, Bernard J.; Qi, Guang; Yu, Dapao; Zhou, Li; Dai, Limin

2013-09-01

213

Kelp forest monitoring. Channel Islands National Park (1990 annual report). Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The 1990 results of the Channel Islands National Park Kelp Forest Monitoring Project are described in this report. Sixty-eight species of algae, fish , and invertebrates were monitored annually at 16 permanent sites around the five islands within the park. Survey techniques utilized SCUBA and surface-supplied-air, and included quadrats, band transects, random point contacts, size frequencies, fish and video transects, photogrammetric plots, size frequency measurements, and species list surveys. In 1990, eight sites had healthy kelp forests, while three others had remnants or signs of a developing forest, though dominated by purple sea urchins. Four sites were dominated by purple sea urchins and one was dominated by red sea urchins. Four sites had high to moderate densities of white sea urchins, but two of those had dense kelp forests over most of the transect.

Richards, D.; Avery, W.; Kushner, D.

1993-06-01

214

Diversity, disturbance, and sustainable use of Neotropical forests: insects as indicators for conservation monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable use of tropical forest systems requires continuous monitoring of biological diversity and ecosystem functions. This can be efficiently done with ‘early warning‘ (short-cycle) indicator groups of non-economical insects, whose population levels and resources are readily measured. Twenty-one groups of insects are evaluated as focal indicator taxa for rapid assessment of changes in Neotropical forest systems. Composite environmental indices for

Keith S. Brown Jr

1997-01-01

215

CLIMATE DATA AND ANALYSIS FOR THE NEW ENGLAND FOREST HEALTH MONITORING PROJECT (NEFHM/EMAP FORESTS)  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper describes the development of climatological information products to support ecological data collection and analysis. Characteristics of climatological persistence and recurrence that are critical to New England forest health and productivity are identified. he appropri...

216

Use of Multi-Year MODIS Phenological Data Projects to Detect and Monitor Forest Distributions at Regional and National Scales.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This presentation discusses an effort to use select MODIS phenological products for forest disturbance monitoring at the regional and CONUS scales. Forests occur on 1/3 of the U.S. land base and include regionally prevalent forest disturbances that can th...

J. Gasser J. Smoot J. Spruce K. Ross W. W. Hargrove

2010-01-01

217

Nutrient fluxes in a semi-arid microtidal mangrove wetland in the Gulf of California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient (C, N and P) fluxes were monitored in a microtidal semi-arid mangrove system, which links a semi-enclosed shallow coastal lagoon with the Gulf of California. We assessed the role of the mangrove ecosystem as a nutrient sink\\/source and determined how mangrove litterfall rates, tidal regime and climate factors influence these fluxes. Despite high seasonal differences in DOC, POC, N-NO3?

S. Sánchez-Carrillo; R. Sánchez-Andrés; L. C. Alatorre; D. G. Angeler; M. Álvarez-Cobelas; J. A. Arreola-Lizárraga

2009-01-01

218

Gross forest cover loss in temperate forests: biome-wide monitoring results using MODIS and Landsat data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temperate forest is a complex biome due to the diversity of forest types, forest cover change dynamics and forest use management practices. While temperate forests play an important role in the global carbon cycle, their net carbon exchange is uncertain. Quantifying forest cover change is an important step in documenting disturbance regimes and carbon exchange estimates. Biome-wide gross forest

Peter Potapov; Matthew C. Hansen; Stephen V. Stehman; Kyle Pittman; Svetlana Turubanova

2009-01-01

219

Latitudinal Variation In Mangrove Height And Biomass in East Africa Using SRTM Elevation Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the foundations of biogeography states that productivity and biomass are highest at the equator and decrease as latitude increases. This relationship was confirmed for mangrove ecosystems by Sanger and Snedaker in 1993, based on a review of mangrove biomass and litterfall studies. Recent advances in remote sensing technology have permitted the estimation of mangrove biomass using landcover maps and data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). A test of this paradigm of mangrove ecology, using Mozambique as a case study, did not confirm the relationship between mangrove biomass and latitude. In this study, we produced a height and biomass map of mangrove forests of the whole Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region, which spans from Somalia in the North (12N) to South Africa in the S (28S), including Madagascar. Landsat ETM+ data was used to produce landcover maps and SRTM elevation data to produce height and biomass maps for the WIO region. Based on our results, we did not find a significant correlation between latitude and height/biomass in mangrove forests. Our results suggest that that freshwater input and type of geographical setting (lagoons, bays, deltas and open coast) are more important in determining mangrove height and biomass.

Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Simard, M.; Shugart, H. H.

2007-12-01

220

Monitoring Environmental State of Alaskan Forests with AIRSAR.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During March 1988 and May 1991, the JPL airborne synthetic aperture radar, AIRSAR, collected sets of multi-temporal imagery of the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest near Fairbanks, Alaska. These data sets consist of series of multi-polarized images collec...

K. C. Mcdonald J. Way E. Rignot C. Williams L. Viereck

1992-01-01

221

Estimating tree growth from complex forest monitoring data.  

PubMed

Understanding tree growth as a function of tree size is important for a multitude of ecological and management applications. Determining what limits growth is of central interest, and forest inventory permanent plots are an abundant source of long-term information but are highly complex. Observation error and multiple sources of shared variation (spatial plot effects, temporal repeated measures, and a mosaic of sampling intervals) make these data challenging to use for growth estimation. We account for these complexities and incorporate potential limiting factors (tree size, competition, and resource supply) into a hierarchical state-space model. We estimate the diameter growth of white fir (Abies concolor) in the Sierra Nevada of California from forest inventory data, showing that estimating such a model is feasible in a Bayesian framework using readily available modeling tools. In this forest, white fir growth depends strongly on tree size, total plot basal area, and unexplained variation between individual trees. Plot-level resource supply variables (representing light, water, and nutrient availability) do not have a strong impact on inventory-size trees. This approach can be applied to other networks of permanent forest plots, leading to greater ecological insights on tree growth. PMID:24147402

Eitzel, Melissa; Battles, John; York, Robert; Knape, Jonas; de Valpine, Perry

2013-09-01

222

CLASSIFICATION, PROTECTION, AND MONITORING OF NONTIDAL FLOODPLAIN FOREST COMMUNITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

New Jersey,s floodplain forests (FFs) contain 57 rare plant species, 25 of which are State Endangered. The acreage of FF has been substantially reduced over the past 200 years, and upland buffers have also been diminished. Threats to FF communities include stream degradation, ...

223

Monitoring a Deciduous Forest Regeneration Following a Severe Ice Storm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf Area Index (LAI) has been used to estimate the carbon budget in several studies and is now mapped routinely from satellite imagery. In this study, overstory forest damage and its regeneration are assessed using in-situ LAI measurements taken from 1997 to 2007 with three optical systems (LAI-2000, TRAC, and different digital hemispherical photography camera systems) following an intense freezing

S. G. Leblanc

2008-01-01

224

NATIONAL FOREST SOIL QUALITY MONITORING IN THE US FOREST SERVICE FOREST INVENTORY AND ANALYSIS INDICATORS OF FOREST HEALTH AND SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Montreal Process was formed in 1994 to develop an internationally agreed upon set of criteria and indicators for the conservation and sustainable management of temperate and boreal forests. In response to this effort, the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) implemented a nat...

225

Mangrove Structure on the Eastern Coast of Samar Island, Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mangrove forest in the Eastern Coast of Samar Island plays an important role in the protection of the coastline with the coconut plantation. No information is available that will guide land managers and policy makers on the status of this coastal resource. In 1997 an assessment was conducted to determine the tree density, canopy height, basal area, and density

Antonio B. Mendoza; Danilo P. Alura

226

Short-term mangrove browsing by feral water buffalo: conflict between natural resources, wildlife and subsistence interests?  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Management of the natural environment and its resources leads to conflicts between different stake- holders worldwide. Recently mangrove browsing by feral water buffalo in the East-Godavari Delta (India) has been considered a threat to the regeneration of mangroves by the local Forest Department, which led to conflicts between the authorities and local herds- men who have an ancient tradition

F. DAHDOUH-GUEBAS; D. VRANCKEN; T. RAVISHANKAR; N. KOEDAM

2006-01-01

227

Food preferences of mangrove crabs related to leaf nitrogen compounds in the Segara Anakan Lagoon, Java, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large amounts of leaf litter produced by tropical mangrove forests serve as a major food source for the benthic fauna. The reasons for the preferential consumption of mangrove leaves by crabs are unclear as yet. We investigated the diet, food preferences and consumption rates of 8 dominant grapsoid crab species (Perisesarma spp., Episesarma spp., Metopograpsus latifrons, and Metaplax elegans)

Inga Nordhaus; Tabea Salewski; Tim C. Jennerjahn

2011-01-01

228

Effects of urban wastewater on crab and mollusc assemblages in equatorial and subtropical mangroves of East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangrove forests are known to accomplish crucial ecosystem functions and services. They are nursery areas for fish, prawns and crabs, which provide coastal communities with a variety of food, timber and chemicals, and protect coasts from catastrophic events, such as tsunamis. Recently, a novel ecological service has been proposed for mangrove systems, namely natural wastewater treatment wetlands. This hypothesis was

Stefano Cannicci; Fabrizio Bartolini; Farid Dahdouh-Guebas; Sara Fratini; Carlos Litulo; Adriano Macia; Elisha J. Mrabu; Gil Penha-Lopes; José Paula

2009-01-01

229

Forest Vegetation Monitoring and Foliar Chemistry of Red Spruce and Red Maple at Acadia National Park in Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The USDA Forest Service Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) program indicators, including forest mensuration, crown condition classification,\\u000a and damage and mortality indicators were used in the Cadillac Brook and Hadlock Brook watershed forests at Acadia National\\u000a Park (ANP) along coastal Maine. Cadillac Brook watershed burned in a wildfire in 1947. Hadlock Brook watershed, undisturbed\\u000a for several centuries, serves as the reference

G. Bruce Wiersma; Jose Alexander Elvir; Janet D. Eckhoff

2007-01-01

230

The Loss of Species: Mangrove Extinction Risk and Geographic Areas of Global Concern  

PubMed Central

Mangrove species are uniquely adapted to tropical and subtropical coasts, and although relatively low in number of species, mangrove forests provide at least US $1.6 billion each year in ecosystem services and support coastal livelihoods worldwide. Globally, mangrove areas are declining rapidly as they are cleared for coastal development and aquaculture and logged for timber and fuel production. Little is known about the effects of mangrove area loss on individual mangrove species and local or regional populations. To address this gap, species-specific information on global distribution, population status, life history traits, and major threats were compiled for each of the 70 known species of mangroves. Each species' probability of extinction was assessed under the Categories and Criteria of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Eleven of the 70 mangrove species (16%) are at elevated threat of extinction. Particular areas of geographical concern include the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of Central America, where as many as 40% of mangroves species present are threatened with extinction. Across the globe, mangrove species found primarily in the high intertidal and upstream estuarine zones, which often have specific freshwater requirements and patchy distributions, are the most threatened because they are often the first cleared for development of aquaculture and agriculture. The loss of mangrove species will have devastating economic and environmental consequences for coastal communities, especially in those areas with low mangrove diversity and high mangrove area or species loss. Several species at high risk of extinction may disappear well before the next decade if existing protective measures are not enforced.

Polidoro, Beth A.; Carpenter, Kent E.; Collins, Lorna; Duke, Norman C.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Ellison, Joanna C.; Farnsworth, Elizabeth J.; Fernando, Edwino S.; Kathiresan, Kandasamy; Koedam, Nico E.; Livingstone, Suzanne R.; Miyagi, Toyohiko; Moore, Gregg E.; Ngoc Nam, Vien; Ong, Jin Eong; Primavera, Jurgenne H.; Salmo, Severino G.; Sanciangco, Jonnell C.; Sukardjo, Sukristijono; Wang, Yamin; Yong, Jean Wan Hong

2010-01-01

231

FORMA: Forest Monitoring for Action— Rapid Identification of Pantropical Deforestation Using Moderate-Resolution Remotely Sensed Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rising concern about carbon emissions from deforestation has led donors to finance UN-REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries), a program that offers direct compensation for forest conservation. Sustainable operation of UN-REDD and other direct-compensation programs will require a transparent, credible, frequently updated system for monitoring deforestation. In this paper, we introduce FORMA (Forest Monitoring for

Dan Hammer; Robin Kraft; David Wheeler

2009-01-01

232

Global Status of Mangrove Ecosystems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Mangroves are the characteristic littoral plant formations of tropical/subtropical sheltered coastlines. Presented is a detailed report which discusses uses made of mangrove ecosystems and attempts to resolve conflicts arising from these uses. Areas considered include cause/consequence of mangrove destruction, legislative/administrative aspects,…

Saenger, P., Ed.; And Others

1983-01-01

233

FOREST HEALTH MONITORING PROTOCOL APPLIED TO ROADSIDE TREES IN MARYLAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Maryland Roadside Tree Law places trees in all public road rights-of-way in the State of Maryland, U.S., under the jurisdiction of the Maryland Department of Natural Resources-Forest Service. Passed in 1914, this law is one of the oldest tree conser- vation laws in the United States. However, little statisti- cal data have ever been generated related to Maryland's roadside

Anne Buckelew Cumming; Michael F. Galvin; Robert J. Rabaglia; Jonathan R. Cumming; Daniel B. Twardus

234

Assessing relatedness and redundancy of forest monitoring and change indicators.  

PubMed

Information on changes in forest structure and composition is required for informed, adaptive management and conservation. As the collection of such information requires field studies that are expensive, difficult, and time consuming, the prioritization of metrics can be of significant value. This study evaluates a number of metrics used to assess changes in forest structure and composition for a set of 59 forests in five countries - Kenya, India, Nepal, Uganda and USA. Changes in tree density are significantly positively correlated with changes in species richness, and changes in sapling/shrub density are significantly positively correlated with changes in species richness. Thus, rapid assessments of tree density change can be used to prioritize locations where there may be rapid deterioration in tree diversity, where the collection of detailed information on changes in species composition may be prioritized. Changes in tree density do not reflect changes in shrub and sapling density. The shrub and sapling layer appears to respond differently to human or natural disturbances compared to the tree layer, and may require separate assessment. Changes in tree DBH and tree height are not completely congruent, indicating that measurements of DBH and height may be required to accurately estimate changes in above ground carbon storage over time, for programs such as REDD that provide payment for carbon sequestration services. PMID:22115515

Nagendra, Harini

2011-11-15

235

Forest health monitoring: Southeast loblolly/shortleaf pine demonstration interim report  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development is conducting an Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) with other federal agencies to establish the status of and trends in the ecological health of the Nation's natural resources. The forest component of EMAP is a multiagency effort referred to as Forest Health Monitoring (FHM). The FHM program conducted a two year demonstration study to test a suite of indicators considered important in assessing forest health. The study is referred to in this report as the Southeast Loblolly/Shortleaf Pine Demonstration, or SE DEMO. The interim report describes the results from the first year of the SE DEMO. The use of such data is encouraged by EMAP to foster a better understanding of the anticipated performance of an indicator prior to large investments in funding for field research. These data were used to the extent possible to determine the current status of each indicator with respect to the six criteria.

Lewis, T.E.; Conkling, B.L.

1994-04-01

236

Biomass and Carbon Sequestration in Community Mangrove Plantations and a Natural Regeneration Stand in the Ayeyarwady Delta, Myanmar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangroves in the Ayeyarwady Delta is one of the most threatened ecosystems, and is rapidly disappearing as in many tropical countries. The deforestation and degradation of mangrove forest in the Ayeryarwady Delta results in the shortage of wood resources and declining of environmental services that have been provided by the mangrove ecosystem. Cyclone Nargis struck the Ayeyarwady Delta on 2 May 2008 with an intensity unprecedented in the history of Myanmar. The overexploitation of mangroves because of local demands for fuel wood and charcoal and the conversion of mangrove forest land into agricultural land or shrimp farms over the past decades have increased the loss of human life and the damage to settlements caused by the Cyclone.The biomass study was conducted in September of 2006 in Bogale Township in the Ayeyarwady Delta and continued monitoring in September of each year from 2007 to 2010. Above and below ground biomass was studied in six years old mangrove plantations of Avicenia marina (Am), Avicenia officinalis (Ao) and Sonneratia apetala (Sa) and a naturally regenerated stand under regeneration improving felling operation (NR: consists of Ceriops decandra, Bruguiera sexangula, and Aegicerus corniculatum) protected for seven years since 2000. These stands were established by small-scale Community Forestry scheme on abandoned paddy fields where natural mangroves once existed. Common allometric equations were developed for biomass estimation by performing regressions between dry weights of trees as dependent variables and biometric parameters such as stem diameter, height and wood density as independent variables. The above and below ground biomass in NR stand (70 Mg ha-1 and 104 Mg ha-1) was the greatest (P < 0.001), and followed by Sa plantation (69 Mg ha-1 and 32 Mg ha-1), Am plantation (25 Mg ha-1 and 27 Mg ha-1) and Ao plantation (21 Mg ha-1 and 26 Mg ha-1). The total carbon stock in biomass was 73 Mg C ha-1 in NR stand, 43 Mg C ha-1 in Sa plantation, 21 Mg C ha-1 in Am plantation and 18 Mg C ha-1 in Ao plantation respectively. The averaged total soil carbon stock up to 1 m soil depth in plantation site was estimated to be 167 ± 58 Mg C ha-1 which was nearly two times higher than that of current paddy fields 85 ± 17 Mg C ha-1. These facts suggest the feasibility of the mangrove plantation and induced natural regeneration as a carbon sequestration tool. The establishment of mangrove plantations appeared to be one measure for reducing the risk of cyclone damage after the Cyclone Nargis. This may reduce future human loss by cyclones and also improve the life of local people by increasing timber resources and environmental services.

Thant, Y. M.; Kanzaki, M.; nil

2011-12-01

237

Kelp forest monitoring. Channel Islands National Park (1991 annual report). Final technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document describes the 1991 progress of the Channel Islands National Park Kelp Forest Monitoring Project. Population dynamics of 68 indicator species of algae, fish, and invertebrates were measured at 16 permanent transect sites in 1991 by divers using SCUBA and surface-supply-air. Survey dives were conducted at seven other locations for comparisons and general information. In 1991, nine sites had

D. Richards; D. Kushner; W. Avery

1993-01-01

238

A Total Validation Approach for assessing the RST technique in forest fire detection and monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have shown that high temporal resolution sensors such as AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) aboard NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) satellites, MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) aboard EOS (Earth Observing System) satellites and, more recently, SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) aboard MSG (Meteosat Second Generation) platforms, are suitable for detecting and monitoring forest fires.

Giuseppe Mazzeo; Giuseppe Baldassarre; Rosita Corrado; Carolina Filizzola; Nicola Genzano; Francesco Marchese; Rossana Paciello; Nicola Pergola; Valerio Tramutoli

2010-01-01

239

Kelp forest monitoring 1993 annual report. Channel Islands National Park. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1993 results of the Channel Islands National Park Kelp Forest Monitoring Project are described in this report. Population dynamics of 68 taxa or categories of algea, fish, and invertebrates were measured at 16 permanent sites around the five islands within the park. Survey techniques utilized SCUBA and surface-supplied-air, and included quadrats, band transects, random contacts, fish transects, video transects,

D. Kushner; R. Walder; L. Gorodezky; D. Lerma; D. Richards

1993-01-01

240

A NOVEL TECHNIQUE FOR MONITORING HIGHLY CRYPTIC LIZARD SPECIES IN FORESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are few effective or efficient methods for monitoring arboreal forest lizards, especially in areas with low lizard densities. This is problematic for their conservation and research. I developed a novel technique for capturing lizards using closed-cell foam covers as artificial retreats placed on tree trunks. I tested the method at three sites in New Zealand by comparing lizard occupancy

TRENT P. BELL

241

The roles of nearest neighbor methods in imputing missing data in forest inventory and monitoring databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost universally, forest inventory and monitoring databases are incomplete, ranging from missing data for only a few records and a few variables, common for small land areas, to missing data for many observations and many variables, common for large land areas. For a wide variety of applications, nearest neighbor (NN) imputation methods have been developed to fill in observations of

BIANCA N. I. ESKELSON; Hailemariam Temesgen; Valerie Lemay; TARA M. BARRETT; NICHOLAS L. CROOKSTON; ANDREW T. HUDAK

2009-01-01

242

Natural Hazards Monitoring:Forest Fires, Droughts And Floods - The Example Of European Pilot Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the subject of naturalhazards and the use of existing remote sensing systemsin the different phases of disaster management forsome specific natural hazards: forest fires, droughtsand floods. It centers on the applicability of remotesensing for increasing preparedness, providing earlywarnings, monitoring the hazards in real time, andassessing the damage so that relief can be provided. Comparison of the information

J. San Miguel-Ayanz; J. Vogt; A. De Roo; G. Schmuck

2000-01-01

243

Monitoring of new plantation development in tropical rain forests using JERS-1 SAR data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors studied the applicability of multi temporal SAR data obtained from JERS-1 SAR for monitoring the change in tropical rain forest conditions due to plantation development. The test site was the southern part of Sumatra Island, Indonesia. A total of seven JERS-1 SAR and one ERS-2 SAR data from 1992 to 1997 were analyzed together with two optical data,

S. Takeuchi; Y. Suga; Y. Oguro; T. Konishi

2000-01-01

244

Forest condition and chemical characteristics of atmospheric depositions: research and monitoring network in Lombardy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1987, the Regional Forestry Board of Lombardy and the Water Research Institute of the National Research Council have been carrying out surveys of forest conditions and the response of the ecosystem to environmental factors. The study approach is based on a large number of permanent plots for extensive monitoring (Level 1). At this level, crown condition is assessed annually,

Raffaella BALESTRINI; Antonio TAGLIAFERRI; Gianni TARTARI; Flaminio DI GIROLAMO

245

ALOS PALSAR ScanSAR in support of the Brazilian Forest Monitoring Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an assessment of the use of the ALOS PALSAR, Kyoto and Carbon Initiative and ScanSAR data for the Brazilian Forest Monitoring Program. Using deforestation polygons mapped by INPE's DETER project, PALSAR ScanSAR multi- temporal images were analyzed for the detection of deforestation patterns. The obtained result shows that approximately 50% of the polygons could be detected by

Silvana Amaral; Francesco Holecz; Dalton M. Valeriano; Arango Sánchez Gildardo; Arley Ferreira de Souza

2009-01-01

246

Traditional and medicinal uses of mangroves  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review examines the recent investigations on the biological activities of extracts and chemicals identified from mangroves (mangroves, mangrove minors and mangal associates). It describes how people have and are using mangroves on a traditional basis. It also describes the world's mangrove resources and products, in terms of their economical importance, medicinal values and other uses and functions. The economical

W. M. Bandaranayake; Townsville MC

1998-01-01

247

The effect of a protected area on the tradeoffs between short-run and long-run benefits from mangrove ecosystems.  

PubMed

Protected areas are used to sustain biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, protected areas can create tradeoffs spatially and temporally among ecosystem services, which can affect the welfare of dependent local communities. This study examines the effect of a protected area on the tradeoff between two extractive ecosystem services from mangrove forests: cutting mangroves (fuelwood) and harvesting the shrimp and fish that thrive if mangroves are not cut. We demonstrate the effect in the context of Saadani National Park (SANAPA) in Tanzania, where enforcement of prohibition of mangrove harvesting was strengthened to preserve biodiversity. Remote sensing data of mangrove cover over time are integrated with georeferenced household survey data in an econometric framework to identify the causal effect of mangrove protection on income components directly linked to mangrove ecosystem services. Our findings suggest that many households experienced an immediate loss in the consumption of mangrove firewood, with the loss most prevalent in richer households. However, all wealth classes appear to benefit from long-term sustainability gains in shrimping and fishing that result from mangrove protection. On average, we find that a 10% increase in the mangrove cover within SANAPA boundaries in a 5-km(2) radius of the subvillage increases shrimping income by approximately twofold. The creation of SANAPA shifted the future trajectory of the area from one in which mangroves were experiencing uncontrolled cutting to one in which mangrove conservation is providing gains in income for the local villages as a result of the preservation of nursery habitat and biodiversity. PMID:21873182

McNally, Catherine G; Uchida, Emi; Gold, Arthur J

2011-08-22

248

Painting the world REDD: addressing scientific barriers to monitoring emissions from tropical forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In December 2010, parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) agreed to encourage reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from forest losses with the financial support of developed countries. This important international agreement followed about seven years of effort among governments, non-governmental organizations (NGO) and the scientific community, and is called REDD+, the program for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation. REDD+ could achieve its potential to slow emissions from deforestation and forest degradation either as a new market option to offset emissions from developed nations, or as a mitigation option for developing countries themselves. Aside from representing an important step towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions, a growing list of potential co-benefits to REDD+ include improved forestry practices, forest restoration, sustainable development, and biodiversity protection. Indeed the agreement is heralded as a win-win for climate change mitigation and tropical forest conservation, and it could end up contributing to a global economy based on carbon and ecosystem services. That's good news, and some governments are now working to become 'REDD ready' in preparation for the forthcoming international program. This is important because, according to the agreements made by governments in the UNFCCC, developing countries which voluntarily decide to take part in REDD+ must establish their own national forest monitoring system to report changes in emissions from forests (UNFCCC 2009). But as of today, no developing country has implemented a system for monitoring, reporting and verifying (MRV) emission reductions for REDD+. Of course, it is all still very new, but many REDD-type projects have been underway for years now (Parker et al 2008), and many MRV practitioners involved in those projects are the same people being asked to help with government-led, national MRV programs. Yet going from the project scale to program readiness is a big step for all involved, and many are finding that it is not easy. Current barriers to national monitoring of forest carbon stocks and emissions range from technical to scientific, and from institutional to operational. In fact, a recent analysis suggested that about 3% of tropical countries currently have the capacity to monitor and report on changes in forest cover and carbon stocks (Herold 2009). But until now, the scientific and policy-development communities have had little quantitative information on exactly which aspects of national-scale monitoring are most uncertain, and how that uncertainty will affect REDD+ performance reporting. A new and remarkable study by Pelletier, Ramankutty and Potvin (2011) uses an integrated, spatially-explicit modeling technique to explore and quantify sources of uncertainty in carbon emissions mapping throughout the Republic of Panama. Their findings are sobering: deforestation rates would need to be reduced by a full 50% in Panama in order to be detectable above the statistical uncertainty caused by several current major monitoring problems. The number one uncertainty, accounting for a sum total of about 77% of the error, rests in the spatial variation of aboveground carbon stocks in primary forests, secondary forests and on fallow land. The poor quality of and insufficient time interval between land-cover maps account for the remainder of the overall uncertainty. These findings are a show-stopper for REDD+ under prevailing science and technology conditions. The Pelletier et al study highlights the pressing need to improve the accuracy of forest carbon and land cover mapping assessments in order for REDD+ to become viable, but how can the uncertainties be overcome? First, with REDD+ nations required to report their emissions, and with verification organizations wanting to check on the reported numbers, there is a clear need for shared measurement and monitoring approaches. One of the major stumbling blocks actually starts with the scientific community, which needs not only to develop h

Asner, Gregory P.

2011-06-01

249

Monitoring late-successional forest biodiversity in the Pacific ...  

Treesearch

Science.gov - We Participate · USA.gov ... Monitoring Science and Technology Symposium: Unifying Knowledge for Sustainability in the Western ... This plan was designed to maintain and restore species and ecosystems associated with late ...

250

Monitoring forest change at ecotones in the Colorado Rockies  

SciTech Connect

We are assessing the potential effect of global climate change on the Front Range of the Colorado Rockies, including Rocky Mountain National Park. Our objective is quantify the abiotic and biotic controls on forest distribution and productivity as a basis for assessing potential vegetation change for a range of projected climate scenarios. A series of long-term vegetation transects are being established to relate soil characteristics (e.g., soil type, texture, moisture, nitrogen content) and microclimate (air and soil temperature) to vegetation characteristics (e.g., basal area, leaf area index, tree age structure, resource use efficiency, primary production) across lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) ecotones. Results from five 200+ ectonal transects (68 20 m x 20 m plots; over 3,753 trees) show that basal area gradients from lodgepole pine to spruce-fir (Picea engelmannii, Abies lasiocarpa), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) forests are correlated strongly (but not linearly), to soil texture and summer soil moisture. Factors controlling species-specific radial growth patterns along ecotones are more complex.

Stohlgren, T.J.; Bachand, R.R. (Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, CO (United States))

1994-06-01

251

An Early Warning System for Identification and Monitoring of Disturbances to Forest Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest ecosystems are susceptible to damage due to threat events like wildfires, insect and disease attacks, extreme weather events, land use change, and long-term climate change. Early identification of such events is desired to devise and implement a protective response. The mission of the USDA Forest Service is to sustain the health, diversity, and productivity of the nation's forests. However, limited resources for aerial surveys and ground-based inspections are insufficient for monitoring the large areas covered by the U.S. forests. The USDA Forest Service, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and NASA Stennis Space Center are developing an early warning system for the continuous tracking and long-term monitoring of disturbances and responses in forest ecosystems using high resolution satellite remote sensing data. Geospatiotemporal data mining techniques were developed and applied to normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) products derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) MOD 13 data at 250 m resolution on eight day intervals. Representative phenologically similar regions, or phenoregions, were developed for the conterminous United States (CONUS) by applying a k-means clustering algorithm to the NDVI data spanning the full eight years of the MODIS record. Annual changes in the phenoregions were quantitatively analyzed to identify the significant changes in phenological behavior. This methodology was successfully applied for identification of various forest disturbance events, including wildfire, tree mortality due to Mountain Pine Beetle, and other insect infestation and diseases, as well as extreme events like storms and hurricanes in the United States. Where possible, the results were validated and quantitatively compared with aerial and ground-based survey data available from different agencies. This system was able to identify most of the disturbances reported by aerial and ground-based surveys, and it also identified affected areas that were not covered by any of the surveys. Analysis results and validation data will be presented.

Marshall, A. A.; Hoffman, F. M.; Kumar, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Spruce, J.; Mills, R. T.

2011-12-01

252

Spatial and temporal variation of nitrous oxide and methane flux between subtropical mangrove sediments and the atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

We quantified spatial and temporal variations of the fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) and associated abiotic sediment parameters across a subtropical river estuary sediment dominated by grey mangrove (Avicennia marina). N2O and CH4 fluxes from sediment were measured adjacent to the river (“fringe”) and in the mangrove forest (“forest”) at 3-h intervals throughout the day during autumn,

Diane E. Allen; Ram C. Dalal; Heinz Rennenberg; Rikke Louise Meyer; Steven Reeves; Susanne Schmidt

2007-01-01

253

Monitoring changes in riverine forests of Sindh-Pakistan using remote sensing and GIS techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Depletion in the forest area threatens the sustainability of agricultural production systems and en-dangers the economy of the country. Every year extensive areas of arable agricultural and forestlands are degraded and turned into wastelands over time, due to natural causes or human interventions. Depletion in forest cover, therefore, has an important impact on socio-economic development and ecological balance. High population growth rate in Pakistan is one of the main causes for rapid deterioration of the physical environment and natural resource base. In view of this, it was felt necessary to carryout landuse studies focusing on mapping the past and present conditions and the extent of forests and rangelands using satellite remote sensing (SRS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) technologies. The SRS and GIS technologies provide a possible means of monitoring and mapping the changes occurring in natural resources and the environment on a continuous basis. The riverine forests of Sindh mostly growing along the river Indus in the flood plains are spread over an area of 241,000 ha but are disappearing very rapidly. Construction of dams/barrages on the upper reaches of the river Indus for hydroelectric power and irrigation works have significantly reduced the discharge of fresh water into the lower Indus basin and as a result 100,000 acres of forests have disappeared. Furthermore, heavy floods that occurred in 1978, 1988, 1992 and 1997, altered the course of the River Indus in many places, especially in the lower reaches, this has also damaged the riverine forests of Sindh. An integrated approach involving analysis of SRS data from 1977 to 1998 and GIS technique have been used to evaluate the geographic extent and distribution of the riverine forests of Sindh and to monitor temporal changes in the forest cover between 1977 and 1990; 1990 and 1998; and 1977 and 1998. The integrated landuse forest cover maps have shown not only the temporal changes that occur in the riverine forest but also in the river Indus course between 22 years period.

Siddiqui, M. N.; Jamil, Z.; Afsar, J.

254

National Forest Health Monitoring Program: Maryland and Massachusetts Street Tree Monitoring Pilot Projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Urban forests have many components: park trees, small woodlands, riparian buffers, street trees, and others. While some communities conduct city-wide inventories of street tree populations, there has been no comprehensive, statewide sampling to characteri...

B. Cumming D. B. Twardus W. D. Smith

2006-01-01

255

Molecular Insights into Plant-Microbial Processes and Carbon Storage in Mangrove Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangrove forests, in tropical and subtropical coastal zones, are among the most productive ecosystems, representing a significant global carbon sink. We report new molecular insights into the functional relationship among microorganisms, mangrove trees and sediment geochemistry. The interactions among these elements were studied in peat-based mangrove sediments (Twin Cays, Belize) subjected to a long-term fertilization experiment with N and P, providing an analog for eutrophication. The composition and ?13C of bacterial PLFA showed that bacteria and mangrove trees had similar nutrient limitation patterns (N in the fringe mangrove zone, P in the interior zone), and that fertilization with N or P can affect bacterial metabolic processes and bacterial carbon uptake (from diverse mangrove sources including leaf litter, live and dead roots). PCR amplified nifH genes showed a high diversity (26% nifH novel clones) and a remarkable spatial and temporal variability in N-fixing microbial populations in the rhizosphere, varying primarily with the abundance of dead roots, PO4-3 and H2S concentrations in natural and fertilized environments. Our results indicate that eutrophication of mangrove ecosystems has the potential to alter microbial organic matter remineralization and carbon release with important implications for the coastal carbon budget. In addition, we will present preliminary data from a new study exploring the modern calibration of carbon and hydrogen isotopes of plant leaf waxes as a proxy recorder of past environmental change in mangrove ecosystems.

Romero, I. C.; Ziegler, S. E.; Fogel, M.; Jacobson, M.; Fuhrman, J. A.; Capone, D. G.

2009-12-01

256

Modelling secondary succession of neotropical mangroves: Causes and consequences of growth reduction in pioneer species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangrove forest structure is the result of interactions between species responses to abiotic stress factors, disturbance, dispersal and competition. The combination of abiotic conditions and disturbance history may determine the growth potential of the species, whereas dispersal, competition and external or biogenic changes in abiotic conditions may tune their succession. Even in forests with only a few species, this set

Uta Berger; Moira Adams; Volker Grimm; Hanno Hildenbrandt

2006-01-01

257

Redox stratification and heavy metal partitioning in Avicennia-dominated mangrove sediments: a geochemical model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangrove forest sediments can provide a sink for trace metals because the mangroves create a baffle that promotes the accumulation of fine-grained organic matter-rich sediment, which is usually sulphidic due to the presence of sulphate-reducing bacteria. Direct adsorption, complexing with organic matter, and the formation of insoluble sulphides all contribute to the trapping of metals. The concentration and chemical speciation

Malcolm W. Clark; David McConchie; D. W. Lewis; Peter Saenger

1998-01-01

258

Phosphorus fractionation in sediments of the Pichavaram mangrove ecosystem, south-eastern coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present study examined phosphorus dynamics through delineation of source as well as availability of phosphorus and its fractionation\\u000a within the intertidal sediments of Pichavaram mangrove ecosystem. Twelve sediment samples and two cores were collected from\\u000a the mangrove forest along with estuarine area (Vellar-Coleroon) during January 2005. Sediments were analyzed for total phosphorus\\u000a and its fractionation using operationally defined chemical sequential

Rajesh Kumar Ranjan; A. L. Ramanathan; Rita Chauhan; Gurmeet Singh

2011-01-01

259

A conceptual model of ecological interactions in the mangrove estuaries of the Florida Everglades  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brackish water ecotone of coastal bays and lakes, mangrove forests, salt marshes, tidal creeks, and upland hammocks separates\\u000a Florida Bay, Biscayne Bay, and the Gulf of Mexico from the freshwater Everglades. The Everglades mangrove estuaries are characterized\\u000a by salinity gradients that vary spatially with topography and vary seasonally and inter-annually with rainfall, tide, and\\u000a freshwater flow from the Everglades.

Steven M. Davis; Daniel L. Childers; Jerome J. Lorenz; Harold R. Wanless; Todd E. Hopkins

2005-01-01

260

Recovery Deficiency Following Tree Mortality in Mangroves of Two Caribbean Islands: Field Survey and Statistical Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangrove species are well adapted to the harsh ecological conditions of their environment throughout the tropics. However,\\u000a in the islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique (Lesser Antilles), deficient forest recovery was evidenced in 43 mangrove sites\\u000a (>1000 m2) affected by apparently natural tree mortality. Such sites were recorded from four chronological sets of aerial photographs\\u000a between 1950 and 1995, and field-investigated

Jean-Marie Flower; Daniel Imbert

2006-01-01

261

The use of remote sensing for monitoring environmental indicators: The case of the Incomati estuary, Mozambique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Incomati river basin is a transboundary basin shared by three countries: South Africa, Mozambique and Swaziland. To assess the water requirements of the environment, as stated in the Tripartite Interim Agreement (TIA) signed by the three riparian countries in Johannesburg in 2002, Mozambique needs to monitor the ecological state of the river, including the estuary. A monitoring system has to be established that can evaluate the environmental fresh water requirements based on appropriate indicators that reflect the health of the Incomati estuary. The estuary of the Incomati has important ecological functions but it also is an important socio-economic resource. Local communities depend on the estuary’s natural resources. Modifications of the river flow regime by upstream developments impact on the productivity of the estuary, diminishing fish and shrimp production, reducing biomass of natural vegetation such as grasses, reeds and mangroves and increasing salt intrusion. A decrease in estuary productivity consequently affects the incomes and living conditions of these communities. Based on an understanding of the effects of different pressures on the estuary ecosystem some indicators for monitoring the environmental state of the estuary are suggested, including the extent and vitality of mangrove forests. This latter indicator is further elaborated in the paper. Remote sensing techniques were used to identify and quantify mangrove forests in two selected areas of the estuary (Xefina Pequeña Island and Benguelene Island). Five satellite images covering a period of 20 years (1984 2003) showed that the area covered by non-degraded mangroves significantly decreased on both islands, by 25% in Xefina Pequeña Island and 40% in Benguelene Island. Moreover, the study of biomass reflection using NDVI also showed a significant decline in biomass densities over the last 20 years. Possible causes of these changes are reviewed: natural rainfall trends, modifications of the river flow regime, and increasing harvesting levels of mangrove woods. The findings presented in this paper show that mangrove forests are relevant indicators of the state of the estuary, which can be assessed by means of remote sensing techniques. Follow-up research is required that will establish the relative importance of the causal factors on the vitality of the estuarine mangrove forests. It is concluded that remotely sensed images may provide important data for an environmental monitoring system.

Lemarie, Margarita; van der Zaag, Pieter; Menting, Geert; Baquete, Evaristo; Schotanus, Daniel

262

Remote sensing monitoring and driving force analysis to forest and greenbelt in Zhuhai  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an important city in the southern part of Chu Chiang Delta, Zhuhai is one of the four special economic zones which are opening up to the outside at the earliest in China. With pure and fresh air and trees shading the street, Zhuhai is a famous beach port city which is near the mountain and by the sea. On the basis of Garden City, the government of Zhuhai decides to build National Forest City in 2011, which firstly should understand the situation of greenbelt in Zhuhai in short term. Traditional methods of greenbelt investigation adopt the combination of field surveying and statistics, whose efficiency is low and results are not much objective because of artificial influence. With the adventure of the information technology such as remote sensing to earth observation, especially the launch of many remote sensing satellites with high resolution for the past few years, kinds of urban greenbelt information extraction can be carried out by using remote sensing technology; and dynamic monitoring to spatial pattern evolvement of forest and greenbelt in Zhuhai can be achieved by the combination of remote sensing and GIS technology. Taking Landsat5 TM data in 1995, Landsat7 ETM+ data in 2002, CCD and HR data of CBERS-02B in 2009 as main information source, this research firstly makes remote sensing monitoring to dynamic change of forest and greenbelt in Zhuhai by using the combination of vegetation coverage index and three different information extraction methods, then does a driving force analysis to the dynamic change results in 3 months. The results show: the forest area in Zhuhai shows decreasing tendency from 1995 to 2002, increasing tendency from 2002 to 2009; overall, the forest area show a small diminution tendency from 1995 to 2009. Through the comparison to natural and artificial driving force, the artificial driving force is the leading factor to the change of forest and greenbelt in Zhuhai. The research results provide a timely and reliable scientific basis for the Zhuhai Government in building National Forest City. Keywords: forest and greenbelt; remote sensing; dynamic monitoring; driving force; vegetation coverage

Yuliang Qiao, Pro.

263

Characterization of a forest-tundra ecotone in Northern Canada: long-term monitoring possibilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecotones are gradual transitions between two adjacent ecological systems. They are characterized by their spatial properties which are reflected in an ecotone width and location. Characteristics of width and location of an ecotone vary across time, during succession or with environmental changes. Moreover, it has been shown that ecotones are good indicators of local and global changes. Furthermore, if only one main environmental factor drives this gradual change the shape of the ecotone is evident as a sigmoid wave. We explored a two-dimensional sigmoid wave curve fitting algorithm that describes the ecotone for classified remote sensing data of a forest-tundra ecotone in the Northwest Territories of Canada. The estimated location and width of the forest-tundra ecotone were validated with digital land cover data. The algorithm was able to accurately delineate the forest-tundra ecotone based upon a classified remote sensing image and is robust for various algorithm parameter settings. Given the robustness of the algorithm and the easy implementation it should be considered a valuable tool to assess long-term global change of the forest-tundra ecotone. However, to assure successful long-term monitoring some issues related to remote sensing of high latitude forest-tundra areas should be addressed. Optical remote sensing observations are limited to the short growing season. In Arctic tundra regions the limited drainage of the permafrost soil also creates a large amount of standing water and shallow lakes. Furthermore, as in all optical remote sensing analyses cloud cover hampers the acquisition of useful vegetation cover data. All these factors interfere with the acquisition and/or processing of remote sensing data. These challenges should be addressed before (automated) long-term monitoring of the forest-tundra ecotone becomes viable.

Hufkens, K.

2009-04-01

264

Ground floor vegetation assessment within the intensive (Level II) monitoring of forest ecosystems in Germany: chances and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a part of the ‘Intensive Forest Monitoring Programme’ of ICP Forests, ground floor vegetation has been surveyed along with\\u000a parameters of other relevant components of the forest ecosystems and their environment at 80 permanent plots all over Germany.\\u000a Its floristic composition and their changes can therefore be linked to a wide variety of potentially influencing factors,\\u000a scrutinising recent hypotheses

Walter Seidling

2005-01-01

265

Tropical forest cover change in the 1990s and options for future monitoring  

PubMed Central

Despite the importance of the world's humid tropical forests, our knowledge concerning their rates of change remains limited. Two recent programmes (FAO 2000 Forest Resources Assessment and TREES II), exploiting the global imaging capabilities of Earth observing satellites, have recently been completed to provide information on the dynamics of tropical forest cover. The results from these independent studies show a high degree of conformity and provide a good understanding of trends at the pan-tropical level. In 1990 there were some 1150 million?ha of tropical rain forest with the area of the humid tropics deforested annually estimated at 5.8 million?ha (approximately twice the size of Belgium). A further 2.3 million?ha of humid forest is apparently degraded annually through fragmentation, logging and/or fires. In the sub-humid and dry tropics, annual deforestation of tropical moist deciduous and tropical dry forests comes to 2.2 and 0.7 million?ha, respectively. Southeast Asia is the region where forests are under the highest pressure with an annual change rate of ?0.8 to ?0.9%. The annual area deforested in Latin America is large, but the relative rate (?0.4 to ?0.5%) is lower, owing to the vast area covered by the remaining Amazonian forests. The humid forests of Africa are being converted at a similar rate to those of Latin America (?0.4 to ?0.5% per year). During this period, secondary forests have also been established, through re-growth on abandoned land and forest plantations, but with different ecological, biophysical and economic characteristics compared with primary forests. These trends are significant in all regions, but the extent of new forest cover has proven difficult to establish. These results, as well as the lack of more detailed knowledge, clearly demonstrate the need to improve sound scientific evidence to support policy. The two projects provide useful guidance for future monitoring efforts in the context of multilateral environmental agreements and of international aid, trade and development partnerships. Methodologically, the use of high-resolution remote sensing in representative samples has been shown to be cost-effective. Close collaboration between tropical institutions and inter-governmental organizations proved to be a fruitful arrangement in the different projects. To properly assist decision-making, monitoring and assessments should primarily be addressed at the national level, which also corresponds to the ratification level of the multilateral environmental agreements. The Forest Resources Assessment 2000 deforestation statistics from countries are consistent with the satellite-based estimates in Asia and America, but are significantly different in Africa, highlighting the particular need for long-term capacity-building activities in this continent.

Mayaux, Philippe; Holmgren, Peter; Achard, Frederic; Eva, Hugh; Stibig, Hans-Jurgen; Branthomme, Anne

2005-01-01

266

Assessment and monitoring of long-term forest cover changes in Odisha, India using remote sensing and GIS.  

PubMed

Deforestation and fragmentation are important concerns in managing and conserving tropical forests and have global significance. In the Indian context, in the last one century, the forests have undergone significant changes due to several policies undertaken by government as well as increased population pressure. The present study has brought out spatiotemporal changes in forest cover and variation in forest type in the state of Odisha (Orissa), India, during the last 75 years period. The mapping for the period of 1924-1935, 1975, 1985, 1995 and 2010 indicates that the forest cover accounts for 81,785.6 km(2) (52.5 %), 56,661.1 km(2) (36.4 %), 51,642.3 km(2) (33.2 %), 49,773 km(2) (32 %) and 48,669.4 km(2) (31.3 %) of the study area, respectively. The study found the net forest cover decline as 40.5 % of the total forest and mean annual rate of deforestation as 0.69 % year(-1) during 1935 to 2010. There is a decline in annual rate of deforestation during 1995 to 2010 which was estimated as 0.15 %. Forest type-wise quantitative loss of forest cover reveals large scale deforestation of dry deciduous forests. The landscape analysis shows that the number of forest patches (per 1,000) are 2.463 in 1935, 10.390 in 1975, 11.899 in 1985, 12.193 in 1995 and 15.102 in 2010, which indicates high anthropogenic pressure on the forests. The mean patch size (km(2)) of forest decreased from 33.2 in 1935 to 5.5 in 1975 and reached to 3.2 by 2010. The study demonstrated that monitoring of long term forest changes, quantitative loss of forest types and landscape metrics provides critical inputs for management of forest resources. PMID:22996824

Reddy, C Sudhakar; Jha, C S; Dadhwal, V K

2012-09-21

267

A case for using Plethodontid salamanders for monitoring biodiversity and ecosystem integrity of North American forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Terrestrial salamanders of the family P!ethodontidae have unique attributes that make them excellent indicators of biodiversity and ecosystem integrity in forested habitats. Their longevity, small territory size, site fidelity, sensitivity to natural and anthropogenic perturbations, tendency to occur in high densities, and low sampling costs mean that counts of plethodontid salamanders provide numerous advantages over counts of other North American forest organisms for indicating environmental change. Furthermore, they are tightly linked physiologically to microclimatic and successional processes that influence the distribution and abundance of numerous other hydrophilic but difficult-to-study forest-dwelling plants and animals. Ecosystem processes such as moisture cycling, food-web dynamics, and succession, with their related structural and microclimatic variability, all affect forest biodiversity and have been shown to affect salamander populations as well. We determined the variability associated with sampling for plethodontid salamanders by estimating the coefficient of variation (CV) from available time-series data. The median coefficient of variation indicated that variation in counts of individuals among studies was much lower in plethodonticis (27%) than in lepidoptera (93%), passerine birds (57%), small mammals (69%), or other amphibians (37-46%), which means plethodontid salamanders provide an important statistical advantage over other species for monitoring long-term forest health.

Welsh, H.H., Jr.; Droege, S.

2001-01-01

268

Development of Lichen Response Indexes Using a Regional Gradient Modeling Approach for Large-Scale Monitoring of Forests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Development of a regional lichen gradient model from community data is a powerful tool to derive lichen indexes of response to environmental factors for large-scale and long-term monitoring of forest ecosystems. The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Pro...

P. Neitlich S. Will-Wolf

2010-01-01

269

Monitoring of New Plantation Development in Tropical Rain Forests Using JERS-1 SAR Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors studied the applicability of multi temporal SAR data obtained from JERS-1 SAR for monitoring the change in tropical rain forest conditions due to plantation development. The test site was the southern part of Sumatra Island, Indonesia. A total of seven JERS-1 SAR and one ERS-2 SAR data from 1992 to 1997 were analyzed together with two optical data, MOS-1 MESSR in 1990 and SPOT HRV in 1997. The result of this study verified that the backscatter change in multi temporal JERS-1 SAR data can be used effectively to monitor the process of plantation development in the test site, which accompanies the burning of felled tree trunks after deforestation, one of the causes for forest fire and serious smoke

Takeuchi, S.; Suga, Y.; Oguro, Y.; Konishi, T.

270

Drivers of cyanobacterial diversity and community composition in mangrove soils in south-east Brazil.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria act as primary producers of carbon and nitrogen in nutrient-poor ecosystems such as mangroves. This important group of microorganisms plays a critical role in sustaining the productivity of mangrove ecosystems, but the structure and function of cyanobacteria assemblages can be perturbed by anthropogenic influences. The aim of this work was to assess the community structure and ecological drivers that influence the cyanobacterial community harboured in two Brazilian mangrove soils, and examine the long-term effects of oil contamination on these keystone species. Community fingerprinting results showed that, although cyanobacterial communities are distinct between the two mangroves, the structure and diversity of the assemblages exhibit similar responses to environmental gradients. In each ecosystem, cyanobacteria occupying near-shore areas were similar in composition, indicating importance of marine influences for structuring the community. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequences revealed the presence of diverse cyanobacterial communities in mangrove sediments, with clear differences among mangrove habitats along a transect from shore to forest. While near-shore sites in both mangroves were mainly occupied by Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus genera, sequences retrieved from other mangrove niches were mainly affiliated with uncultured cyanobacterial 16S rRNA. The most intriguing finding was the large number of potentially novel cyanobacteria 16S rRNA sequences obtained from a previously oil-contaminated site. The abundance of cyanobacterial 16S rRNA sequences observed in sites with a history of oil contamination was significantly lower than in the unimpacted areas. This study emphasized the role of environmental drivers in determining the structure of cyanobacterial communities in mangrove soils, and suggests that anthropogenic impacts may also act as ecological filters that select cyanobacterial taxa. These results are an important contribution to our understanding of the composition and relative abundance of previously poorly described cyanobacterial assemblages in mangrove ecosystems. PMID:22816485

Rigonato, Janaina; Kent, Angela D; Alvarenga, Danillo O; Andreote, Fernando D; Beirigo, Raphael M; Vidal-Torrado, Pablo; Fiore, Marli F

2012-07-23

271

Jewel Scarabs (Chrysina sp.) in Honduras: Key Species for Cloud Forest Conservation Monitoring?  

PubMed Central

Jewel scarabs, beetles in the genus Chrysina Kirby (Coleoptera: Rutelinae: Scarabaeidae), receive their name from the bright, often gold, green elytra that reflect light like a precious stone. Jewel scarabs are commonly observed at light traps in Mesoamerican cloud forests, and their association with mountain forests makes them potentially interesting candidates for cloud forest conservation monitoring. The absence of survey protocols and identification tools, and the little ecological information available are barriers. In the present study, collection of Chrysina species assembled during biodiversity surveys by Operation Wallacea in Cusuco National Park (CNP), Honduras, were studied. The aim of this overview is to provide an easy to use identification tool for in the field, hopefully stimulating data collection on these beetles. Based on the data associated with the collection localities, elevation distribution of the species in the park was analyzed. The limited data points available were complemented with potential distribution areas generated with distribution models based on climate and elevation data. This study is aimed at initializing the development of a survey protocol for Chrysina species that can be used in cloud forest conservation monitoring throughout Central America. A list of Chrysina species recorded from Honduras so far is provided. The six identified and one unidentified species recorded from CNP are easy to identify in the field based on color and straightforward morphological characteristics. Literature research revealed ten species currently recorded from Honduras. This low species richness in comparison with surrounding Central American countries indicates the poor knowledge of this genus in Honduras. Chrysina species richness in CNP increases with elevation, thereby making the genus one of a few groups of organisms where this correlation is observed, and rendering it a suitable invertebrate representative for cloud forest habitats in Central America.

Jocque, M.; Vanhove, M.P.M.; Creedy, T.J.; Burdekin, O.; Nunez-Mino, J.M.; Casteels, J.

2013-01-01

272

Mangroves as Nurseries: Shrimp Populations in Mangrove and Non-mangrove Habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 4845 penaeids belonging to nine species—Metapenaeus anchistus,M. ensis,M. moyebi,M. philippinensis,Penaeus merguiensis,P. monodon,P. semisulcatus,P. latisulcatusandMetapenaeopsis palmensis—were collected by pocket seine monthly over 13 months from mangrove and non-mangrove sites in Guimaras, Philippines. The restricted distribution of the three dominant species—M. ensisandP. merguiensisto the brackish water riverine mangrove, andM. anchistusto the high-salinity island mangrove and tidal flat—is probably related

J. H. Primavera

1998-01-01

273

Mangroves found in Dominica (West Indies)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangroves has been described for the whole Caribbean are in their different habitats. The island of Dominica (West Indies) has always been excluded from the distribution area due to supposed inadequated conditions for mangrove growth. However, there are small areas with proper edaphic conditions for mangal in which black mangrove (Avicennia germinans L.) and white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa L.) has

M. Clfisener Godt

1990-01-01

274

Atmospheric CO2 flux from mangrove surrounding waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) was measured at daily and weekly time scales in the waters surrounding mangrove forests in Papua New Guinea, the Bahamas and India. The pCO2 values range from 380 to 4800 muatm. These data, together with previously published data, suggest that overall oversaturation of CO2 with respect to atmospheric equilibrium in surface waters is a

A. V. Borges; S. Djenidi; G. Lacroix; J. Théate; B. Delille; M. Frankignoulle

2003-01-01

275

Atmospheric CO2 flux from mangrove surrounding waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) was measured at daily and weekly time scales in the waters surrounding mangrove forests in Papua New Guinea, the Bahamas and India. The pCO2 values range from 380 to 4800 ?atm. These data, together with previously published data, suggest that overall oversaturation of CO2 with respect to atmospheric equilibrium in surface waters is a

A. V. Borges; S. Djenidi; G. Lacroix; J. Théate; B. Delille; M. Frankignoulle

2003-01-01

276

Multitemporal analysis of landscape metrics for monitoring forested patterns in coastal and mountainous areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of forested areas for the maintaining of an acceptable landscape balance is crucial. As an example, they contribute to higher biodiversity levels directly and to cleaner fluvial waters indirectly, thus, the degradation of such ecosystems has strong repercussions on many ecological processes. In order to preserve their natural stability, monitoring forest temporal dynamics is very important for a correct management, particularly, in fragile Mediterranean environments that are highly vulnerable to both natural and human-induced perturbations. For analysing the evolution of forested patterns, especially in areas with a strong human presence, landscape metrics are a basilar tool since they allow for evaluating the structure of landscape patterns at different spatio-temporal scales and the relationship between natural environment and human environment. Starting from this premise, we selected a set of Landscape Metrics to evaluate the temporal dynamics of forested covers in two different environments (coastal and mountainous) located in Basilicata Region, Southern Italy. The first one (area A) is located along the Ionian coast and is largely characterized by evergreen forests; in such an area, even if many sites are protected by the European Community (SCI), forests are subjected to a strong incidence of human activities mainly linked to agriculture and tourism as well as to frequent fire events and coastal erosion processes that favour salt-water intrusion. The second one (area B) is a high heterogeneous mountainous area, which also comprehends alluvial planes. The particular configuration of the territory allows for the presence of a very rich faunal and vegetation biodiversity; thus, it is partially under the protection of a National Park, but there are also many critical anthropical activities (e.g. oil drilling, agriculture, etc.). The landscape ecology analyses were performed on multi temporal land cover maps, obtained from hybrid classifications of a time series of Landsat-TM subscenes: for area A, we used five images covering the period 1987-2006; and for area B, three images covering the period 1993-1998. The analysis of landscape structure and dynamics were performed by elaborating metrics based on patch number, size, shape and arrangements of different land cover types. At landscape level, area A provided quite low levels of Evenness (SHEI<0,70) and Diversity (SHDI~1.0) for the analyzed period. Metrics at patch and class levels, particularly for patch dimensions (MPS), complexity (FRACT) and Interdispersion (IJI) showed a little expansion of the urban sites and no important changes for the large agricultural areas. On the contrary, for natural areas a process of fragmentation has been revealed for coniferous forests in the period 1987-1998 when they show an alternation with a less structured and herbaceous vegetation. For area B, the landscape level shows, in the studied period, stable high values of Evenness (SHEI>0.80) and medium values of Diversity (SHDI~1.8). Metrics for patch and class levels reveal, instead, an increment in size and complexity for anthropical vegetation and a decrement for natural forested areas (mainly beeches) accompanied by a high variability of the transitional areas located along the edges of forested sites. On the whole, the combined interpretation of metrics at different levels of landscape structure and at different time steps revealed an increasing trend of forest isolation and fragmentation, which can enhance their sensitivity. The obtained results for both areas suggest that the institution of protected areas is not a complete solution for the maintaining of forest ecosystems balance without a correct management of the surrounding areas. In order to increase the connectivity among forested patches and, more in general, to improve the ecosystem functionality, the ecological analysis of satellite time series represents an operative tool for an efficient intervention planning, such as the location of the most suitable sites for ecological restoration activities.

Carone, M. T.; Imbrenda, V.; Lanfredi, M.; Macchiato, M.; Simoniello, T.

2009-04-01

277

Dynamics of organic and inorganic carbon across contiguous mangrove and seagrass systems (Gazi Bay, Kenya)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the water column biogeochemistry in adjacent mangrove and seagrass systems in Gazi Bay (Kenya), with a focus on assessing the sources and cycling of organic and inorganic carbon. Mangrove and seagrass-derived material was found to be the dominant organic carbon sources in the water column, and could be distinguished on the basis of their ?13C signatures and particulate organic carbon:total suspended matter (POC/TSM) ratios. Spatially, a distinct boundary existed whereby the dominance of mangrove-derived material decreased sharply close to the interface between the mangrove forest and the dense seagrass beds. The latter is consistent with the reported export of mangrove-derived material, which is efficiently trapped in the adjacent seagrass beds. There were significant net inputs of POC and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) along the Kidogoweni salinity gradient, for which the ?13CPOC signatures were consistent with those of mangroves. DOC was the dominant form of organic carbon in both mangrove and seagrass beds, with DOC/POC ratios typically between 3 and 15. Dynamics of dissolved inorganic carbon in the creeks were strongly influenced by diagenetic C degradation in the intertidal mangrove areas, resulting in significant CO2 emission from the water column to the atmosphere. Although highest partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) values and areal CO2 flux rates were observed in the mangrove creeks, and the water column above the seagrass beds was in some locations a net sink of CO2, most of the ecosystems' emission of CO2 to the atmosphere occurred in the seagrass beds adjacent to the mangrove forest. The presence of dense seagrass beds thus had a strong effect on the aquatic biogeochemistry, and resulted in trapping and further mineralization of mangrove-derived POC, intense O2 production and CO2 uptake. The adjacent seagrass beds provide a large area with conditions favorable to exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere, thereby limiting export of mangrove-derived organic and inorganic carbon toward the coastal ocean.

Bouillon, Steven; Dehairs, Frank; Velimirov, Branko; Abril, GwenaëL.; Borges, Alberto Vieira

2007-06-01

278

Report Evaluates Importance of Coral Reefs and Mangroves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirty percent of the world's coral reefs are seriously damaged, and possibly no pristine reefs remain, according to a 24 January report by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) issued in the wake of the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. ``The Indian Ocean tsunami brought a lot of attention to coral reefs and mangroves,'' said Sue Wells, lead author of the report, In the Front Line: Shoreline Protection and other Ecosystem Services from Mangroves and Coral Reefs. ``Were they badly damaged? Did they play a role in buffering damage on shore?''

Kumar, Mohi

2006-02-01

279

Kelp forest monitoring. Channel Islands National Park (1991 annual report). Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the 1991 progress of the Channel Islands National Park Kelp Forest Monitoring Project. Population dynamics of 68 indicator species of algae, fish, and invertebrates were measured at 16 permanent transect sites in 1991 by divers using SCUBA and surface-supply-air. Survey dives were conducted at seven other locations for comparisons and general information. In 1991, nine sites had healthy kelp forests. Five others had some kelp growing on or near the transect, but were dominated somewhat by sea urchins. White sea urchins were present in moderate to high numbers at four sites with declines at two sites and an increase at one. Juvenile fish recruitment was down in 1991; however, young-of-year rockfish were numerous at San Miguel Island and juvenile sheepland and garibaldi were common at Santa Barbra and Anacapa Islands. Abalone recruitment modules proved effective at concentrating juveniles of several species. This year was a poor recruitment year for abalone.

Richards, D.; Kushner, D.; Avery, W.

1993-06-01

280

Forest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Become an expert on the Forest habitat!! Begin your search for information by reading below. You can click on the underlined words to take you to the website you want to go to. Have fun! Read carefully. You can learn about the Broadleaf forest or the Coniferous forest! Kathryn! You can learn a lot about worms from Herman the Worm. Read the information to learn about worms! You can also visit Earthworms to learn more! Colter! You can learn about American Black Bears and Black Bears! Click the underlined words and read read read! Happy trails! ...

Ryan, Ms.

2013-02-12

281

The influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on mangrove dynamics over 60 years: The Somone Estuary, Senegal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although such ecosystems are fragile, this study shows that the anthropogenic damages inflicted on the mangrove forests of West Africa can be reversed over a relatively short time period if environmental conditions are favorable. The mangrove ecosystem of the microtidal Somone Estuary, Senegal, has undergone extreme changes during the last century. The area occupied by mangrove forest was estimated with a diachronic study by GIS for the period 1946-2006. Between 1946 and 1978, 85% of the area was progressively replaced by unvegetated mudflats in the intertidal zones and by barren area in the supratidal zones. Until 1990, this was mainly a result of traditional wood harvesting. The impact was exacerbated by the closing off of the estuary to the sea (1967-1969 and 1987) and by an extended drought (1970 onwards), which resulted in a lack of renewal of water, hypersalinization and acidification. The main factors controlling mangrove evolution in the Somone ecosystem, however, are anthropogenic. Until 1990, traditional wood cutting (for wood and oyster harvesting) was practiced by the local population. Between 1978 and 1989, a small area occupied by the mangroves was stabilized. Since 1992, a modification of mangrove logging and a new reforestation policy resulted in an exponential increase of mangrove area progressively replacing intertidal mudflats. Such success in the restoration of the ecosystem reforestation is supported by favorable environmental conditions: tidal flooding, groundwater influence, rainfall during the wet season, low net accretion rate of about 0.2-0.3 cm year-1, and a ban on the cutting of mangrove wood. The rate of mangrove loss from 1946 to 1978 was 44,000 m2 year-1, but this has been offset by restoration efforts resulting in an increase in mangrove area from 1992 to 2006 of 63,000 m2 year-1.

Sakho, Issa; Mesnage, Valérie; Deloffre, Julien; Lafite, Robert; Niang, Isabelle; Faye, Guilgane

2011-07-01

282

Prawn landings and their relationship with the extent of mangroves and shallow waters in western peninsular Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated changes in landings of all prawns, white prawns (mainly Penaeus merguiensis), mangrove extent, rainfall and the area of shallow water in western peninsular Malaysia. The most important state for both the landings of all prawns and white prawns was Perak where about 50% of all prawns and 35% of white prawns were landed. This is also the state with the largest, and most stable, extent of mangrove forest reserve (40?000 ha) and the largest area of shallow water (<5 m deep). Juvenile prawns from Perak may contribute to the landings of the nearby, adjacent states of Penang and Selangor, where the second highest landings for white prawns and total prawns, respectively, were found. The area of shallow water accounted for the greatest proportion of variation in landings of both all prawns and white prawns, and was the most significant variable fitted to multiple regressions of landings and coastal attributes (area of shallow water, mangrove area, length of coastline). Although there was a significant linear relationship between the landings of total prawns and mangrove area in both the 1980s and 1990s, this was not the case for the mangrove-dependent white prawns where a significant relationship was found only for the 1990s. Furthermore, landings of all prawns and white prawns in Selangor and Johor, where large losses of mangrove forest reserve have been recorded, appear to have been maintained or increased in the 1990s. The lack of a clear relationship between mangrove loss and prawn landings may be due to the migration of prawns from adjacent areas or that other attributes of mangroves, such as the length of mangrove-water interface, may be more important for the growth and survival of prawn populations than total area of mangroves.

Loneragan, N. R.; Ahmad Adnan, N.; Connolly, R. M.; Manson, F. J.

2005-04-01

283

Natural Hazards Monitoring:Forest Fires, Droughts And Floods - The Example Of European Pilot Projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews the subject of naturalhazards and the use of existing remote sensing systemsin the different phases of disaster management forsome specific natural hazards: forest fires, droughtsand floods. It centers on the applicability of remotesensing for increasing preparedness, providing earlywarnings, monitoring the hazards in real time, andassessing the damage so that relief can be provided. Comparison of the information provided by existingsystems and that needed for operational use of remotesensing in disaster management is also addressed. Thecapability of some of the future sensors to complywith the needs in the field of natural hazards isdiscussed. In this context current pilot projectscarried on at the European Commission Joint ResearchCentre are presented.

San Miguel-Ayanz, J.; Vogt, J.; de Roo, A.; et al.

284

Forest Fire Monitoring with an Adaptive In-Network Aggregation Scheduling in Wireless Sensor Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a novel in-network aggregation scheduling scheme for forest fire monitoring in a wireless sensor network. This adaptively configures both the timeout and the collecting period according to the potential level of a fire occurrence. At normal times, the proposed scheme decreases a timeout that is a wait time for packets sent from child nodes and makes the collecting period longer. That reduces the dissipated energy of the sensor node. Conversely, the proposed scheme increases the timeout and makes the collecting period shorter during fire occurrences in order to achieve more accurate data aggregation and early fire detection.

Baek, Jang Woon; Nam, Young Jin; Seo, Dae-Wha

285

Spatio-temporal variation of macrobenthic communities in the mangrove-fringed Segara Anakan lagoon, Indonesia, affected by anthropogenic activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benthic macrofauna of the Segara Anakan lagoon, Java, Indonesia and its fringing mangroves were investigated between May\\u000a 2004 and August 2006. This lagoon has been affected by various human activities for decades, in particular fishing, effluents\\u000a from agriculture and industry, and illegal deforestation. In total, 163 taxa were identified, including 127 species occurring\\u000a in the mangrove forest and 59

Inga Nordhaus; Fadlan Aji Hadipudjana; Ronald Janssen; Joko Pamungkas

2009-01-01

286

A Total Validation Approach for assessing the RST technique in forest fire detection and monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several studies have shown that high temporal resolution sensors such as AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) aboard NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) satellites, MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) aboard EOS (Earth Observing System) satellites and, more recently, SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) aboard MSG (Meteosat Second Generation) platforms, are suitable for detecting and monitoring forest fires. At the same time, many satellite-based techniques have been proposed for fire detection, but most of them, based on single image fixed-thresholds, often generate false alarms mainly due to the contribution of the reflected solar radiation in daytime, atmospheric effects, etc., so that they result to have scarce reliability when applied in an operational scenario. Other algorithms, which are quite reliable thanks to their multitemporal and/or contextual nature, may turn out to be hardly applicable so that they cannot be inserted in whatever operative schemes. An innovative approach, named RST - Robust Satellite Technique, already applied for the monitoring of major natural and environmental risks has been recently used for fire detection and monitoring. The RST approach is based on local (in space and time) thresholds which are automatically computed on the basis of long temporal series of satellite data. It demonstrated already good performances in many cases of applications, but recently for the first time a total validation approach (TVA) was experimented in collaboration with administrators, decision makers and local agencies, in order to evaluate the actual reliability and sensitivity of RST in a pre-operational context. TVA, based on a systematic study of the origin of each hot spot identified by RST, allowed us to recognize most of them as actual thermal anomalies (associated to small fires, to variations of thermal emission in industrial plants, etc.) and not as false alarms simply because not associated to officially documented forest fires. Some results of recent campaigns both of winter and summer fire detection and monitoring in Italy will be shown and discussed.

Mazzeo, Giuseppe; Baldassarre, Giuseppe; Corrado, Rosita; Filizzola, Carolina; Genzano, Nicola; Marchese, Francesco; Paciello, Rossana; Pergola, Nicola; Tramutoli, Valerio

2010-05-01

287

Proceedings of the International Workshop on Sustainable ForestManagement: Monitoring and Verification of Greenhouse Gases  

SciTech Connect

The International Workshop on Sustainable Forest Management: Monitoring and Verification of Greenhouse Gases was held in San Jose, Costa Rica, July 29-31, 1996. The main objectives of the workshop were to: (1) assemble key practitioners of forestry greenhouse gas (GHG) or carbon offset projects, remote sensing of land cover change, guidelines development, and the forest products certification movement, to offer presentations and small group discussions on findings relevant to the crucial need for the development of guidelines for monitoring and verifying offset projects, and (2) disseminate the findings to interested carbon offset project developers and forestry and climate change policy makers, who need guidance and consistency of methods to reduce project transaction costs and increase probable reliability of carbon benefits, at appropriate venues. The workshop brought together about 45 participants from developed, developing, and transition countries. The participants included researchers, government officials, project developers, and staff from regional and international agencies. Each shared his or her perspectives based on experience in the development and use of methods for monitoring and verifying carbon flows from forest areas and projects. A shared sense among the participants was that methods for monitoring forestry projects are well established, and the techniques are known and used extensively, particularly in production forestry. Introducing climate change with its long-term perspective is often in conflict with the shorter-term perspective of most forestry projects and standard accounting principles. The resolution of these conflicts may require national and international agreements among the affected parties. The establishment of guidelines and protocols for better methods that are sensitive to regional issues will be an important first step to increase the credibility of forestry projects as viable mitigation options. The workshop deliberations led to three primary outputs: (1) a Workshop Statement in the JI Quarterly, September, 1996; (2) the publication of a series of selected peer-reviewed technical papers from the workshop in a report of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL. 40501); and (3) a special issue of the journal ''Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change'', Kluwer Academic Publishers. The outputs will be distributed to practitioners in this field and to negotiators attending the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) deliberations leading up to the Third conference of Parties in Kyoto, in December 1997.

Sathaye (Ed.), Jayant; Makundi (Ed.), Willy; Goldberg (Ed.),Beth; Andrasko (Ed.), Ken; Sanchez (Ed.), Arturo

1997-07-01

288

Community based mangrove management: a review on status and sustainability.  

PubMed

Community Based Mangrove Management (CBMM) has been advocated by both academia and governing agencies as a viable alternative for sustainably managing the ecologically important mangrove forests which are disappearing rapidly worldwide. Drawing insights from diverse sustainability issues, capabilities and performances of worldwide CBMM initiatives were examined in this paper. Higher numbers of CBMM initiatives were reported from South Asia and lesser from South America and Africa. Identification of the causes of degradation at a site and use-specific zonal replantations with respect to species associations were identified as major criteria of ecological sustainability. Regarding economic sustainability, transformation of potential uses of mangroves known by local communities into actual ones was found to be necessary. Proper disbursement of accrued benefits among community members irrespective of their socio-cultural status is also a major concern. Restructuring of CBMM institutions by ensuring participation of subsistence based users in decision-making and resource sharing have been identified as a prime determinant of institutional sustainability. However, limited number of studies on socio-political and institutional aspects as well as impacts of globalization induced socio-cultural transformations of communities on CBMM had been actually found. More focused researches on these aspects had been recommended for better community management of these highly stressed forests. PMID:22595074

Datta, Debajit; Chattopadhyay, R N; Guha, P

2012-05-16

289

Property Right Regimes and Sustainable Forest Management: Lessons from Fourteen years of Monitoring of Forest Resources in Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Sub-Saharan Africa, deforestation and forest degradation have been the major problems facing natural forest resource management. Lack of clearly defined and enforced property rights, leading to a de facto open access situation have been pointed out as the major causes. National governments have been urged to remedy the situation through tenure changes such as privatisation and decentralization. This paper

Namaalwa Justine; Abwoli Banana; William Gombya-Ssembajwe

290

ICP-Forests (International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests): Quality Assurance procedure in plant diversity monitoring.  

PubMed

Knowledge of accuracy and precision rates is particularly important for long-term studies. Vegetation assessments include many sources of error related to overlooking and misidentification, that are usually influenced by some factors, such as cover estimate subjectivity, observer biased species lists and experience of the botanist. The vegetation assessment protocol adopted in the Italian forest monitoring programme (CONECOFOR) contains a Quality Assurance programme. The paper presents the different phases of QA, separates the 5 main critical points of the whole protocol as sources of random or systematic errors. Examples of Measurement Quality Objectives (MQOs) expressed as Data Quality Limits (DQLs) are given for vascular plant cover estimates, in order to establish the reproducibility of the data. Quality control activities were used to determine the "distance" between the surveyor teams and the control team. Selected data were acquired during the training and inter-calibration courses. In particular, an index of average cover by species groups was used to evaluate the random error (CV 4%) as the dispersion around the "true values" of the control team. The systematic error in the evaluation of species composition, caused by overlooking or misidentification of species, was calculated following the pseudo-turnover rate; detailed species censuses on smaller sampling units were accepted as the pseudo-turnover which always fell below the 25% established threshold; species density scores recorded at community level (100 m(2) surface) rarely exceeded that limit. PMID:19557230

Allegrini, Maria-Cristina; Canullo, Roberto; Campetella, Giandiego

2009-03-03

291

Study on the mangrove ecosystem services value change in Zhangjiang River estuary based on remote sensing and grey relational analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The services of ecosystem are critical to human existence and prosperity, providing necessary ecological products for human production and life as well as indispensable natural conditions for life system. The Natural Mangrove Reserve in Zhangjiang River Estuary is one of the most important National Natural Mangrove Reserve in China. Its environment has been degrading during the past decades for people neglecting the ecosystem services function value which is hard to currency turn. Thus, it is necessary to monitor and assess the Mangrove Reserve" dynamics, both to gain a better understanding of their basic biology and to help guide conservation and restoration efforts. Using Landsat TM/ETM+ Satellite data acquired in 1989, 1992, 1998, 2001 and an Aster image from the year 2003, the land use of the Reserve and its environment were extracted adopting the supervised Maximum Likelihood Classification Algorithm. The changes of land use and ecosystem services value were analyzed using Costanza"s method of evaluating the global ecosystem service values. The total value change of ecosystem services in the study area per year are 2945.95×104$, 2861.74×104$, 2904.05×104$, 2794.67×104$, 2730.82×104$ respectively during the four periods (1989-1992, 1992-1998, 1998-2001, 2001-2003). The ecosystem services value change has a close relationship with W&B, population, build-up and forest. The results indicate that the ecosystem services value in the study area has been constantly deteriorating due to the human activities imposed on it, which is highly associated with the local expanding of build-up and brackish water fishponds all the while. And the downward trend of the ecosystem services value has become even more acute, with the development of the local economy.

Zhang, Dongshui; Lan, Zhangren; Wang, Qinmin; Wang, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Wei; Li, Zheng

2007-11-01

292

The Use of a Mangrove Plantation as a Constructed Wetland for Municipal Wastewater Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study evaluated the possibility of using mangrove plantation to treat municipal wastewater. Two types of pilot scale (100 x 150 m2) free water surface constructed wetlands were set up at the Royal Laem Phak Bia Environmental Research and Development Project in central Thailand. One system is a natural Avicennia marina dominated forest system. The other system is a new

Kanokporn Boonsong; Somkiat Piyatiratitivorakul; Pipat Patanapolpaiboon

2002-01-01

293

Canopy interactions of rainfall in an off-shore mangrove ecosystem dominated by Rhizophora mangle (Belize)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bulk precipitation, throughfall and stemflow were collected to study anthropogenic effects on above-ground nutrient cycling in an off-shore mangrove forest (Rhizophora mangle L.) on Twin Cays, Belize. Samples were collected in a nitrogen limited fringe and phosphorus limited dwarf zone, and from an adjacent nitrogen fertilized fringe and a phosphorus fertilized dwarf zone. Inorganic cations and anions, dissolved organic carbon

Wolfgang Wanek; Julia Hofmann; Ilka C. Feller

2007-01-01

294

The use of passive sampling to monitor forest exposure to O 3, NO 2 and SO 2: a review and some case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of passive sampler systems is reviewed and discussed. These devices are able to determine both spatial and temporal differences in canopy exposure, as is demonstrated by their use in extensive monitoring of air-pollution exposure in forest health plots. Categorising forest health monitoring plots according to air-pollution exposure permits cause–effect analysis of certain forest health responses. In addition, passive

Roger M Cox

2003-01-01

295

Dynamics of mangrove-marsh ecotones in subtropical coastal wetlands: fire, sea-level rise, and water levels  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ecotones are areas of sharp environmental gradients between two or more homogeneous vegetation types. They are a dynamic aspect of all landscapes and are also responsive to climate change. Shifts in the position of an ecotone across a landscape can be an indication of a changing environment. In the coastal Everglades of Florida, USA, a dominant ecotone type is that of mangrove forest and marsh. However, there is a variety of plants that can form the marsh component, including sawgrass (Cladium mariscus [L.] Pohl), needlegrass rush (Juncus roemerianus Scheele), and spikerush (Eleocharis spp.). Environmental factors including water depth, soil type, and occurrence of fires vary across these ecotones, influencing their dynamics. Altered freshwater inflows from upstream and increasing sea level over the past 100 years may have also had an impact. We analyzed a time series of historical aerial photographs for a number of sites in the coastal Everglades and measured change in position of mangrove–marsh ecotones. For three sites, detailed maps were produced and the area of marsh, mangrove, and other habitats was determined for five periods spanning the years 1928 to 2004. Contrary to our initial hypothesis on fire, we found that fire did not prevent mangrove expansion into marsh areas but may in fact assist mangroves to invade some marsh habitats, especially sawgrass. Disparate patterns in mangrove–marsh change were measured at two downstream sites, both of which had multiple fires over from 1948 to 2004. No change in mangrove or marsh area was measured at one site. Mangrove area increased and marsh area decreased at the second of these fire-impacted sites. We measured a significant increase in mangrove area and a decline in marsh area at an upstream site that had little occurrence of fire. At this site, water levels have increased significantly as sea level has risen, and this has probably been a factor in the mangrove expansion.

Smith, Thomas J.; Foster, Ann M.; Tiling-Range, Ginger; Jones, John W.

2013-01-01

296

Spatial distribution and abundances of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in mangrove sediments  

PubMed Central

We investigated the diversity, spatial distribution, and abundances of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in sediment samples of different depths collected from a transect with different distances to mangrove forest in the territories of Hong Kong. Both the archaeal and bacterial amoA genes (encoding ammonia monooxygenase subunit A) from all samples supported distinct phylogenetic groups, indicating the presences of niche-specific AOA and AOB in mangrove sediments. The higher AOB abundances than AOA in mangrove sediments, especially in the vicinity of the mangrove trees, might indicate the more important role of AOB on nitrification. The spatial distribution showed that AOA had higher diversity and abundance in the surface layer sediments near the mangrove trees (0 and 10 m) but lower away from the mangrove trees (1,000 m), and communities of AOA could be clustered into surface and bottom sediment layer groups. In contrast, AOB showed a reverse distributed pattern, and its communities were grouped by the distances between sites and mangrove trees, indicating mangrove trees might have different influences on AOA and AOB community structures. Furthermore, the strong correlations among archaeal and bacterial amoA gene abundances and their ratio with NH4+, salinity, and pH of sediments indicated that these environmental factors have strong influences on AOA and AOB distributions in mangrove sediments. In addition, AOA diversity and abundances were significantly correlated with hzo gene abundances, which encodes the key enzyme for transformation of hydrazine into N2 in anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria, indicating AOA and anammox bacteria may interact with each other or they are influenced by the same controlling factors, such as NH4+. The results provide a better understanding on using mangrove wetlands as biological treatment systems for removal of nutrients. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00253-010-2929-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Li, Meng; Cao, Huiluo; Hong, Yiguo

2010-01-01

297

Spatial distribution and abundances of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in mangrove sediments.  

PubMed

We investigated the diversity, spatial distribution, and abundances of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in sediment samples of different depths collected from a transect with different distances to mangrove forest in the territories of Hong Kong. Both the archaeal and bacterial amoA genes (encoding ammonia monooxygenase subunit A) from all samples supported distinct phylogenetic groups, indicating the presences of niche-specific AOA and AOB in mangrove sediments. The higher AOB abundances than AOA in mangrove sediments, especially in the vicinity of the mangrove trees, might indicate the more important role of AOB on nitrification. The spatial distribution showed that AOA had higher diversity and abundance in the surface layer sediments near the mangrove trees (0 and 10 m) but lower away from the mangrove trees (1,000 m), and communities of AOA could be clustered into surface and bottom sediment layer groups. In contrast, AOB showed a reverse distributed pattern, and its communities were grouped by the distances between sites and mangrove trees, indicating mangrove trees might have different influences on AOA and AOB community structures. Furthermore, the strong correlations among archaeal and bacterial amoA gene abundances and their ratio with NH (4) (+) , salinity, and pH of sediments indicated that these environmental factors have strong influences on AOA and AOB distributions in mangrove sediments. In addition, AOA diversity and abundances were significantly correlated with hzo gene abundances, which encodes the key enzyme for transformation of hydrazine into N(2) in anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria, indicating AOA and anammox bacteria may interact with each other or they are influenced by the same controlling factors, such as NH (4) (+) . The results provide a better understanding on using mangrove wetlands as biological treatment systems for removal of nutrients. PMID:20953601

Li, Meng; Cao, Huiluo; Hong, Yiguo; Gu, Ji-Dong

2010-10-16

298

An Examination of Governance Arrangements at Kisakasaka Mangrove Reserve in Zanzibar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study employs insights largely derived from critical reflections on the common pool resources (CPR) theory to examine\\u000a the current governance arrangements in place to manage the mangrove forest at Kisakasaka, in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Kisakasaka\\u000a was used as a site for a community-based management pilot project of forest resources in Zanzibar. After some initial success\\u000a in setting up a local

Fred Saunders; Salim M. Mohammed; Narriman Jiddawi; Sara Sjöling

2008-01-01

299

Operations of cleanrooms during a forest fire including protocols and monitoring results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contamination-sensitive space flight hardware is typically built in cleanroom facilities in order to protect the hardware from particle contamination. Forest wildfires near the facilities greatly increase the number of particles and amount of vapors in the ambient outside air. Reasonable questions arise as to whether typical cleanroom facilities can adequately protect the hardware from these adverse environmental conditions. On Monday September 6, 2010 (Labor Day Holiday), a large wildfire ignited near the Boulder, Colorado Campus of Ball Aerospace. The fire was approximately 6 miles from the Boulder City limits. Smoke levels from the fire stayed very high in Boulder for the majority of the week after the fire began. Cleanroom operations were halted temporarily on contamination sensitive hardware, until particulate and non-volatile residue (NVR) sampling could be performed. Immediate monitoring showed little, if any effect on the cleanroom facilities, so programs were allowed to resume work while monitoring continued for several days and beyond in some cases. Little, if any, effect was ever noticed in the monitoring performed.

Matheson, Bruce A.; Egges, Joanne; Pirkey, Michael S.; Lobmeyer, Lynette D.

2012-10-01

300

Monitoring changes in forest and other land use forms in Istanbul.  

PubMed

This study introduces the monitoring system to be established within this project, it aims to determine changes occurring within forested areas, settlement areas and other land use forms located at the peripheral area of Istanbul during consecutive decades. The first phase of the study was completed in 1998 and published, covering the period from 1984 to 1994. This study is the second phase of the first one and implemented to determine land use changes which have occurred on the same site from 1994 to 2000. Standard topographic maps with 1/25 000 scale, forest management maps with the same scale, results of the previous study, orthophoto maps of the year 2000 that were produced from aerial color photographs of the site with 1/5 000 scale, and 4-band IRS_LISS III multispectral satellite data for July 2000 were used as data. The changes in land use within the study area occurring during a six year period were studied. PMID:16850880

Yener, Hakan; Koç, Ayhan

2006-01-01

301

Development history and bibliography of the US Forest Service crown-condition indicator for forest health monitoring.  

PubMed

Comprehensive assessment of individual-tree crown condition by the US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program has its origins in the concerns about widespread forest decline in Europe and North America that developed in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Programs such as the US National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, US National Vegetation Survey, Canadian Acid Rain National Early Warning System, and joint US-Canadian North American Sugar Maple Decline Project laid the groundwork for the development of the US Forest Service crown-condition indicator. The crown-condition assessment protocols were selected and refined through literature review, peer review, and field studies in several different forest types during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Between 1980 and 2011, 126 publications relating specifically to the crown-condition indicator were added to the literature. The majority of the articles were published by the US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service or other State or Federal government agency, and more than half were published after 2004. PMID:23054283

Randolph, KaDonna C

2012-10-06

302

An Ecosystem Report on the Panama Canal: Monitoring the Status of the Forest Communities and the Watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1996, the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute and the Republic of Panama's Environmental Authority, with support fromthe United States Agency for International Development, undertook a comprehensive program to monitor the ecosystem of the Panama Canal watershed. The goals were to establish baselineindicators for the integrity of forest communities and rivers. Based on satellite image classification and ground surveys, the2790 km2

Roberto Ibáñez; Richard Condit; George Angehr; Salomón Aguilar; Tomas GarcÍa; Raul MartÍnez; Amelia Sanjur; Robert Stallard; S. Joseph Wright; A. Stanley Rand

2002-01-01

303

Towards the harmonization between National Forest Inventory and Forest Condition Monitoring. Consistency of plot allocation and effect of tree selection methods on sample statistics in Italy.  

PubMed

In the frame of a process aiming at harmonizing National Forest Inventory (NFI) and ICP Forests Level I Forest Condition Monitoring (FCM) in Italy, we investigated (a) the long-term consistency between FCM sample points (a subsample of the first NFI, 1985, NFI_1) and recent forest area estimates (after the second NFI, 2005, NFI_2) and (b) the effect of tree selection method (tree-based or plot-based) on sample composition and defoliation statistics. The two investigations were carried out on 261 and 252 FCM sites, respectively. Results show that some individual forest categories (larch and stone pine, Norway spruce, other coniferous, beech, temperate oaks and cork oak forests) are over-represented and others (hornbeam and hophornbeam, other deciduous broadleaved and holm oak forests) are under-represented in the FCM sample. This is probably due to a change in forest cover, which has increased by 1,559,200 ha from 1985 to 2005. In case of shift from a tree-based to a plot-based selection method, 3,130 (46.7%) of the original 6,703 sample trees will be abandoned, and 1,473 new trees will be selected. The balance between exclusion of former sample trees and inclusion of new ones will be particularly unfavourable for conifers (with only 16.4% of excluded trees replaced by new ones) and less for deciduous broadleaves (with 63.5% of excluded trees replaced). The total number of tree species surveyed will not be impacted, while the number of trees per species will, and the resulting (plot-based) sample composition will have a much larger frequency of deciduous broadleaved trees. The newly selected trees have-in general-smaller diameter at breast height (DBH) and defoliation scores. Given the larger rate of turnover, the deciduous broadleaved part of the sample will be more impacted. Our results suggest that both a revision of FCM network to account for forest area change and a plot-based approach to permit statistical inference and avoid bias in the tree sample composition in terms of DBH (and likely age and structure) are desirable in Italy. As the adoption of a plot-based approach will keep a large share of the trees formerly selected, direct tree-by-tree comparison will remain possible, thus limiting the impact on the time series comparability. In addition, the plot-based design will favour the integration with NFI_2. PMID:23224704

Gasparini, Patrizia; Di Cosmo, Lucio; Cenni, Enrico; Pompei, Enrico; Ferretti, Marco

2012-12-08

304

Tropical forest monitoring, combining satellite and social data, to inform management and livelihood implications: Case studies from Indonesian West Timor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deforestation in the world's tropics is an urgent international issue. One response has been the development of satellite based monitoring initiatives largely focused on the carbon rich forests of western Indonesia. In contrast this study focuses on one eastern Indonesian district, Kabupaten Kupang, which has some of the largest and least studied tracts of remaining forest in West Timor. A combination of remote sensing, GIS and social science methods were used to describe the state of forests in Kabupaten Kupang, how and why they are changing. Using satellite imagery, case studies and on-ground interviews, this study explores the proposition that transdisciplinary local social, cultural and biophysical knowledge is important for effectively using remotely sensed data as a tool to inform local management policies. When compared to some other parts of Indonesia, the rate and extent of deforestation in West Timor was found to be relatively small and a satellite based assessment alone could conclude that it is not a critical issue. However this study showed that when on-ground social data are coupled with (such) satellite-based data a more complex picture emerges, related to key livelihood issues. The causes of forest cover change were found to be multivariate and location specific, requiring management approaches tailored to local social issues. This study suggests that integrative research can maximise the utility of satellite data for understanding causation and thus informing management strategies. In addition, the satellite based assessment found that at the time of the study less than 4% of forested land was within national parks and nature reserves and less than a third of the protected catchment forest zone was forested. These data suggest considerable scope for upland re-forestation activities or the redrawing of protected forest boundaries.

Fisher, Rohan

2012-06-01

305

Unusually negative nitrogen isotopic compositions (?15N) of mangroves and lichens in an oligotrophic, microbially-influenced ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extremes in ?15N values in mangrove tissues and lichens (range =+4 to -22‰) were measured from a mangrove forest ecosystem located on Twin Cays, offshore islands in Belize, Central America. The N isotopic compositions and concentrations of NH4+/NH3 in porewater, rainwater, and atmospheric ammonia, and the ?15N of lichens, mangrove leaves, roots, stems, and wood were examined to study the biogeochemical processes important for establishing these unusual N isotopic ratios. Dwarfed Rhizophora mangle trees had the most negative ?15N, whereas fringing Rhizophora trees, the most positive ?15N values. Porewater ammonium concentrations had little relationship to N isotopic fractionation in mangrove tissues. In dwarfed mangroves, the ?15N of fine and coarse roots were 6-9‰ more positive than leaf tissue from the same tree, indicating different sources of N for root and leaf tissues. When P was added to dwarfed mangrove trees without added N, ?15N increased within one year from -12‰ to -2‰, approaching the ?15N of porewater ammonium (?15N=+4‰). Isotopically depleted ammonia in the atmosphere (?15N=-19‰) and in rainwater (?15N=-10‰) were found on Twin Cays. We propose that foliar uptake of these atmospheric sources by P-stressed, dwarfed mangrove trees and lichens can explain their very negative ?15N values. In environments where P is limiting for growth, uptake of atmospheric N by Rhizophora mangle may be an important adaptive strategy.

Fogel, M. L.; Wooller, M. J.; Cheeseman, J.; Smallwood, B. J.; Roberts, Q.; Romero, I.; Meyers, M. J.

2008-12-01

306

State of the World's Forests 2003  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations presents this biannual report on the status of the world's forests. Available as a series of downloadable documents, this comprehensive report addresses recent developments in the forest sector such as agricultural expansion and mangrove conversion, conservation and sustainable development, forestry education and other institutional concerns, international policy, and other issues.

2008-09-04

307

FAO UN-REDD- INPE Joint Programme on Forest Monitoring Systems based on RS and GIS techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Capacity Development and Training for National Forest Monitoring Systems for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD+) REDD+, which stands for ’Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries’ - is an effort to create a financial value for the carbon stored in forests, offering incentives for developing countries to reduce emissions from forested lands and invest in low-carbon paths to sustainable development. The UN-REDD Programme, a collaborative partnership between FAO, UNDP and UNEP launched in September 2008, supports countries to develop capacity to REDD+ and to implement a future REDD+ mechanism in a post-2012 climate regime. The programme works at both the national and global scale, through support mechanisms for country-driven REDD strategies and international consensus-building on REDD+ processes. The UN-REDD Programme gathers technical teams from around the world to develop common approaches, analyses and guidelines on issues such as measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of carbon emissions and flows, remote sensing, and greenhouse gas inventories. Within the partnership, FAO supports countries on technical issues related to forestry and the development of cost effective and credible MRV processes for emission reductions. While at the international level, it fosters improved guidance on MRV approaches, including consensus on principles and guidelines for MRV and training programmes. It provides guidance on how best to design and implement REDD+, to ensure that forests continue to provide multiple benefits for livelihoods and biodiversity to societies while storing carbon at the same time. Other areas of work include national forest assessments and monitoring of in-country policy and institutional change. FAO and INPE (Brazilian Space Agency) have joint forces through a MoU signed last year in Copenhagen. A major joint programme has been agreed upon to set up national forest satellite monitoring systems in the developing countries and to train them in order to get them ready for REDD+. The outcomes about the role of satellite remote sensing technologies as a tool for monitoring, assessment, reporting and verification of carbon credits and co-benefits under the REDD+ mechanism are here presented.

Jonckheere, I. G.; FAO UN-REDD MRV Team

2010-12-01

308

Use of a 15N tracer to determine linkages between a mangrove and an upland freshwater swamp  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangrove forests and adjacent upland freshwater swamps are important components of subsistence-based economies of Pacific islands. Mangroves provide valuable firewood (Rhizophora apiculata) and mangrove crabs (Scylla serrata); intact freshwater swamps are often used for agroforestry (e.g., taro cultivation). While these two systems are connected hydrologically via groundwater and surface flows, little information is available on how they may be biogeochemically or ecologically linked. For example, mangrove leaf litter was once thought to be an important food source for resident and transient nekton and invertebrates, but this value may have been overestimated. Instead, nutrients or allochthonous material (e.g., phytoplankton, detritus) delivered via groundwater or surface water from upland freshwater swamps may play a larger role in mangrove food webs. Understanding the linkages between these two ecologically and culturally important ecosystems will help us to understand the potential impacts of hydrological alterations that occur when roads or bridges are constructed through them. We conducted a 15N tracer study in the Yela watershed on the island of Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia. K15NO3 was continually added at trace levels for 4 weeks to the Yela River in an upland freshwater swamp adjacent to a mangrove forest. Nitrate and ammonium pools, major primary producers, macroinvertebrates, and fish were sampled from stations 5 m upstream (freshwater swamp) and 138, 188, 213, and 313 m downstream (mangrove) from the tracer addition. Samples were collected once a week prior to, during, and after the 15N addition for a total of 6 weeks. Preliminary results revealed no significant enrichment (< 1 ‰) in the 15N isotope composition of either resident shrimp (Macrobrachium sp.) or mudskipper fish (Periophthalmus sp.). However, the 15N signature of ammonium pools was enriched 10-60 ‰ by the end of the third week. These results suggest that the tracer was present in the mangrove but was either unavailable to higher organisms or was incorporated into organic matter not utilized by shrimp or mudskippers.

MacKenzie, R. A.; Cormier, N.

2005-05-01

309

Socioeconomic Monitoring of the Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest and Five Local Communities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines socioeconomic changes that occurred between 1990 and 2003 associated with implementation of the Northwest Forest Plan (the Plan) in and around lands managed by the Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest in Washington state. Our findings a...

C. Dillingham C. Moseley C. Stuart E. Donoghue E. Grinspoon L. Meierotto M. R. Poe N. Toth R. Mazza S. Charnley

2008-01-01

310

Remote sensing of tropical forest environments: towards the monitoring of environmental resources for sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential to derive indicators of sustainable resource use from satellite remote sensing is discussed. Particular attention focuses on indicators related to land cover condition and type in tropical forest environments. This includes the mapping of forest cover, estimation of biomass and biodiversity as well as the impacts of extreme events such as drought on the forest. Each of these

G. M. Foody

2003-01-01

311

Use of forest inventory and monitoring data in the spruce budworm decision support system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana Clem.) outbreaks cause severe mortality and growth loss of spruce and fir forest over much of eastern North America. The spruce budworm decision support system (DSS) links prediction and interpretation models to the ARC\\/INFO GIS, under an ArcView graphical user interface. It assists forest managers to predict budworm outbreak effects on forest structure and productivity, forecast

David A MacLean; Wayne E MacKinnon; Kevin B Porter; Kathy P Beaton; Gerry Cormier; Shawn Morehouse

2000-01-01

312

Sap flow measurements of Ceriops tagal and Rhizophora mucronata mangrove trees by deuterium tracing and lysimetry.  

PubMed

Mangrove forest trees grow in severe conditions such as diurnal submersion and high salinity surface and subsurface waters. This study focuses on two species on Mayotte Island, i.e. Ceriops tagal and Rhizophora mucronata, living in the middle range of the coastal mangrove. The seedlings of these trees were planted in a tropical greenhouse with an original pump system built to reproduce the natural tidal effect. The water used by these saplings, in two contrasted salinity conditions, was measured by lysimetry. For adult species, the trees' water consumption was measured on the field side after being injected with heavy water (D(2)O). Our work shows that this isotopic technique also works in saline conditions, and a water consumption of around 1 ± 0.2 L per day and per centimeter of diameter was found. These values are discussed as follows: the techniques used, the distinctive features of the mangrove trees, and other factors affecting the water absorption. PMID:21913251

Lambs, Luc; Saenger, Anaïs

2011-10-15

313

Dynamics in mangroves assessed by high-resolution and multi-temporal satellite data: a case study in Zhanjiang Mangrove National Nature Reserve (ZMNNR), P. R. China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangrove forests are declining across the globe, mainly because of human intervention, and therefore require an evaluation of their past and present status (e.g. areal extent, species-level distribution, etc.) to implement better conservation and management strategies. In this paper, mangrove cover dynamics at Gaoqiao (P. R. China) were assessed through time using 1967, 2000 and 2009 satellite imagery (sensors Corona KH-4B, Landsat ETM+, GeoEye-1 respectively). Firstly, multi-temporal analysis of satellite data was undertaken, and secondly biotic and abiotic differences were analysed between the different mangrove stands, assessed through a supervised classification of a high-resolution satellite image. A major decline in mangrove cover (-36%) was observed between 1967 and 2009 due to rice cultivation and aquaculture practices. Moreover, dike construction has prevented mangroves from expanding landward. Although a small increase of mangrove area was observed between 2000 and 2009 (+24%), the ratio mangrove / aquaculture kept decreasing due to increased aquaculture at the expense of rice cultivation in the vicinity. From the land-use/cover map based on ground-truth data (5 × 5 m plot-based tree measurements) (August-September, 2009) as well as spectral reflectance values (obtained from pansharpened GeoEye-1), both Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and small Aegiceras corniculatum are distinguishable at 73-100% accuracy, whereas tall A. corniculatum was correctly classified at only 53% due to its mixed vegetation stands with B. gymnorrhiza (overall classification accuracy: 85%). In the case of sediments, sand proportion was significantly different between the three mangrove classes. Overall, the advantage of very high resolution satellite images like GeoEye-1 (0.5 m) for mangrove spatial heterogeneity assessment and/or species-level discrimination was well demonstrated, along with the complexity to provide a precise classification for non-dominant species (e.g. Kandelia obovata) at Gaoqiao. Despite limitations such as geometric distortion and single panchromatic band, the 42 yr old Corona declassified images are invaluable for land-use/cover change detections when compared to recent satellite data sets.

Leempoel, K.; Satyaranayana, B.; Bourgeois, C.; Zhang, J.; Chen, M.; Wang, J.; Bogaert, J.; Dahdouh-Guebas, F.

2013-08-01

314

Potential of VIIRS Data for Regional Monitoring of Gypsy Moth Defoliation: Implications for Forest Threat Early Warning System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A NASA RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) experiment was conducted to assess the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) data for monitoring non-native gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) defoliation of forests. This experiment compares defoliation detection products computed from simulated VIIRS and from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series products as potential inputs to a forest threat EWS (Early Warning System) being developed for the USFS (USDA Forest Service). Gypsy moth causes extensive defoliation of broadleaved forests in the United States and is specifically identified in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2003. The HFRA mandates development of a national forest threat EWS. This system is being built by the USFS, and NASA is aiding integration of needed satellite data products into this system, including MODIS products. This RPC experiment enabled the MODIS follow-on, VIIRS, to be evaluated as a data source for EWS forest monitoring products. The experiment included 1) assessment of MODIS-simulated VIIRS NDVI products, and 2) evaluation of gypsy moth defoliation mapping products from MODIS-simulated VIIRS and from MODIS NDVI time series data. This experiment employed MODIS data collected over the approx. 15 million acre mid-Appalachian Highlands during the annual peak defoliation time frame (June 10 through July 27) during 2000-2006. NASA Stennis Application Research Toolbox software was used to produce MODIS-simulated VIIRS data and NASA Stennis Time Series Product Tool software was employed to process MODIS and MODIS-simulated VIIRS time series data scaled to planetary reflectance. MODIS-simulated VIIRS data was assessed through comparison to Hyperion-simulated VIIRS data using data collected during gypsy moth defoliation. Hyperion- simulated MODIS data showed a high correlation with actual MODIS data. MODIS-simulated VIIRS data for the same date showed moderately high correlation with Hyperion-simulated VIIRS data, even though the datasets were collected about a half an hour apart during changing weather conditions. MODIS products (MOD02, MOD09, and MOD13) and MOD02-simulated VIIRS time series data were used to generate defoliation mapping products based on image classification and image differencing change detection techniques. Accuracy of final defoliation mapping products was assessed by image interpretation of over 170 randomly sampled locations found on Landsat and ASTER data in conjunction with defoliation map data from the USFS. The MOD02-simulated VIIRS 400-m NDVI classification produced a similar overall accuracy to the MOD02 250-m NDVI classification. MOD02 and MOD02-simulated VIIRS data both showed promise as data sources for regional monitoring of forest disturbance due to insect defoliation.

Spruce, J. P.; Ryan, R. E.; Smoot, J. C.; Prados, D. L.; McKellip, R. D.; Sader, S. A.; Gasser, G.; May, G.; Hargrove, W.

2007-12-01

315

Behavior and space utilization of two common fishes within Caribbean mangroves: implications for the protective function of mangrove habitats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Behaviors, activity budgets, and spatial locations of reef-associated schoolmaster snapper ( Lutjanus apodus) and non-reef-associated checkered puffer ( Sphoeroides testudineus) were cataloged in mangrove forests in Caribbean Honduras to see how and where they spent their time and whether this changed as they grew. For schoolmasters, swimming was the most common behavior, while checkered puffers spent the majority of their time resting. Both remained completely within (as opposed to outside) the mangrove roots and in the lower half of the water column most of the time. However, as the size of the fish increased there was a clear decrease in the time spent both within the root system and closer to the substrate; the larger fish spent more time higher up in the water column and outside the root system. This was observed in both the schoolmaster and the puffer; the schoolmaster subsequently moves to reefs while the puffer does not. Coupled with limited feeding, the results suggest a primarily protective function for mangroves.

MacDonald, J. A.; Shahrestani, S.; Weis, J. S.

2009-09-01

316

Mobile monitoring along a street canyon and stationary forest air monitoring of formaldehyde by means of a micro-gas analysis system.  

PubMed

A micro-gas analysis system (?GAS) was developed for mobile monitoring and continuous measurements of atmospheric HCHO. HCHO gas was trapped into an absorbing/reaction solution continuously using a microchannel scrubber in which the microchannels were patterned in a honeycomb structure to form a wide absorbing area with a thin absorbing solution layer. Fluorescence was monitored after reaction of the collected HCHO with 2,4-pentanedione (PD) in the presence of acetic acid/ammonium acetate. The system was portable, battery-driven, highly sensitive (limit of detection = 0.01 ppbv) and had good time resolution (response time 50 s). The results revealed that the PD chemistry was subject to interference from O(3). The mechanism of this interference was investigated and the problem was addressed by incorporating a wet denuder. Mobile monitoring was performed along traffic roads, and elevated HCHO levels in a street canyon were evident upon mapping of the obtained data. The system was also applied to stationary monitoring in a forest in which HCHO formed naturally via reaction of biogenic compounds with oxidants. Concentrations of a few ppbv-HCHO and several-tens of ppbv of O(3) were then simultaneously monitored with the ?GAS in forest air monitoring campaigns. The obtained 1 h average data were compared with those obtained by 1 h impinger collection and offsite GC-MS analysis after derivatization with o-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine (PFBOA). From the obtained data in the forest, daily variations of chemical HCHO production and loss are discussed. PMID:22508343

Toda, Kei; Tokunaga, Wataru; Gushiken, Yosuke; Hirota, Kazutoshi; Nose, Teppei; Suda, Daisaku; Nagai, Jun; Ohira, Shin-Ichi

2012-04-17

317

Biogenic controls on the air-water carbon dioxide exchange in the Sundarban mangrove environment, northeast coast of Bay of Bengal, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sundarban mangrove forest (4,264 km 2 ) constitutes about 3% of the total area of the world mangrove. We measured diurnal and seasonal variations of air-water CO2 exchange in relation to the occurrence of phytoplankton during January-December 2001. Diurnal variations of airflows showed that the minimum and maximum CO2 flux of 216.2 mmol m 22 h 21 and 49.9

H. Biswas; S. K. Mukhopadhyay; T. K. De; S. Sen; T. K. Jana

2004-01-01

318

A satellite-based method for monitoring seasonality in the overstory leaf area index of Siberian larch forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliable monitoring of the leaf area index (LAI) is required to further understand the carbon, water, and energy cycles of forests. In this study, we proposed a new satellite-based method to estimate the overstory LAI (LAIo) separately from the understory LAI (LAIu) for larch forests covering eastern Siberia. We modeled forest scenes representative of larch forest structure, with particular consideration of the typical clumped shoot structure of larch. Three-dimensional radiative transfer simulations were then conducted under various forest conditions to establish the relationships between LAIo and seasonal increases in the normalized difference water index after leaf appearance. Model-based sensitivity analyses indicated a maximum error of up to 26% under known noise levels. Averaged at the continental scale, total LAI from our estimates, the CYCLOPES version 3.1, and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer MOD15 Collection 5 (main algorithm) showed similar ranges in summer. However, spatial pattern of LAI was slightly different, with smoother variability for CYCLOPES LAI. Our LAI and CYLOPES effective LAI reproduced a realistic seasonal variation with exact timing of spring increase in LAIo. The main drawbacks of MOD15 Collection 5 were unrealistically strong temporal variability, and the fact that LAI began to increase earlier than the overstory leaf appearance date. Overall, the results show that our new method is a good alternative to MOD15 Collection 5 and CYCLOPES, as it provides separate estimates of LAIo and LAIu and true LAI instead of effective LAI.

Kobayashi, Hideki; Delbart, Nicolas; Suzuki, Rikie; Kushida, Keiji

2010-03-01

319

Bacterial communities reflect the spatial variation in pollutant levels in Brazilian mangrove sediment.  

PubMed

The majority of oil from oceanic oil spills converges on coastal ecosystems such as mangrove forests. A major challenge to mangrove bioremediation is defining the mangrove's pollution levels and measuring its recuperation from pollution. Bioindicators can provide a welcome tool for defining such recovery. To determine if the microbial profiles reflected variation in the pollutants, samples from different locations within a single mangrove with a history of exposure to oil were chemically characterised, and the microbial populations were evaluated by a comprehensive range of conventional and molecular methods. Multivariate ordination of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) microbial community fingerprints revealed a pronounced separation between the sediment and rhizosphere samples for all analysed bacterial communities (Bacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Pseudomonas). A Mantel test revealed significant relationships between the sediment chemical fertility and oil-derived pollutants, most of the bacterial community fingerprints from sediment samples, and the counts by different cultivation strategies. The level of total petroleum hydrocarbons was significantly associated with the Bacteria and Betaproteobacteria fingerprints, whereas anthracene and the total level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were associated with the Actinobacteria. These results show that microbial communities from the studied mangrove reflect the spatial variation of the chemicals in the sediment, demonstrating the specific influences of oil-derived pollutants. PMID:20803251

Peixoto, R; Chaer, G M; Carmo, F L; Araújo, F V; Paes, J E; Volpon, A; Santiago, G A; Rosado, A S

2010-08-29

320

Mangrove production and carbon sinks: A revision of global budget estimates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangrove forests are highly productive but globally threatened coastal ecosystems, whose role in the carbon budget of the coastal zone has long been debated. Here we provide a comprehensive synthesis of the available data on carbon fluxes in mangrove ecosystems. A reassessment of global mangrove primary production from the literature results in a conservative estimate of ˜218 ± 72 Tg C a-1. When using the best available estimates of various carbon sinks (organic carbon export, sediment burial, and mineralization), it appears that >50% of the carbon fixed by mangrove vegetation is unaccounted for. This unaccounted carbon sink is conservatively estimated at ˜112 ± 85 Tg C a-1, equivalent in magnitude to ˜30-40% of the global riverine organic carbon input to the coastal zone. Our analysis suggests that mineralization is severely underestimated, and that the majority of carbon export from mangroves to adjacent waters occurs as dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). CO2 efflux from sediments and creek waters and tidal export of DIC appear to be the major sinks. These processes are quantitatively comparable in magnitude to the unaccounted carbon sink in current budgets, but are not yet adequately constrained with the limited published data available so far.

Bouillon, Steven; Borges, Alberto V.; CastañEda-Moya, Edward; Diele, Karen; Dittmar, Thorsten; Duke, Norman C.; Kristensen, Erik; Lee, Shing Y.; Marchand, Cyril; Middelburg, Jack J.; Rivera-Monroy, Victor H.; Smith, Thomas J.; Twilley, Robert R.

2008-06-01

321

Water level observations in mangrove swamps during two hurricanes in Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Little is known about the effectiveness of mangroves in suppressing water level heights during landfall of tropical storms and hurricanes. Recent hurricane strikes along the Gulf Coast of the United States have impacted wetland integrity in some areas and hastened the need to understand how and to what degree coastal forested wetlands confer protection by reducing the height of peak water level. In recent years, U.S. Geological Survey Gulf Coast research projects in Florida have instrumented mangrove sites with continuous water level recorders. Our ad hoc network of water level recorders documented the rise, peak, and fall of water levels (?? 0.5 hr) from two hurricane events in 2004 and 2005. Reduction of peak water level heights from relatively in-line gages associated with one storm surge event indicated that mangrove wetlands can reduce water level height by as much as 9.4 cm/km inland over intact, relatively unchannelized expanses. During the other event, reductions were slightly less for mangroves along a river corridor. Estimates of water level attenuation were within the range reported in the literature but erred on the conservative side. These synoptic data from single storm events indicate that intact mangroves may support a protective role in reducing maximum water level height associated with surge. ?? 2009 The Society of Wetland Scientists.

Krauss, K. W.; Doyle, T. W.; Doyle, T. J.; Swarzenski, C. M.; From, A. S.; Day, R. H.; Conner, W. H.

2009-01-01

322

Clearcutting forestry and Eurasian boreal forest grouse: Long-term monitoring of sympatric capercaillie Tetrao urogallus and black grouse T. tetrix reveals unexpected effects on their population performances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along the succession gradient of the boreal forest ecosystem, black grouse Tetrao tetrix inhabits the early and capercaillie Tetrao urogallus the latest stages. When converting old forest to clearcuts and plantations, commercial forestry has therefore been assumed to affect capercaillie negatively and to be favourable to black grouse. During a 30-year period (1979–2008) we monitored sympatric populations of the two

Per Wegge; Jørund Rolstad

2011-01-01

323

BEZKRÊGOWCE JAKO OBIEKT MONITORINGU BIOLOGICZNEGO W PUSZCZY BIA£OWIESKIEJ INVERTEBRATES AS A BIOLOGICAL MONITORING OBJECT IN BIA£OWIEA PRIMEVAL FOREST  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Invertebrate monitoring project has been conducted in Bia³owie¿a Primeval Forest since 1988. The main goal of the project is to determine the long term population dynamics and community compositions of particular invertebrate groups of lowland temperate forests. A secondary goal is to test for correlations with selected environmental factors. Invertebrates are collected using Moerickes traps (yellow pan traps), Barbers

Jerzy M. GUTOWSKI

324

Performance assessment of a Robust Satellite Techniques (RST-FIRES) for forest fire detection and monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, an advanced satellite technique for forest fire detection and monitoring named RST-FIRES, based on the well known Robust Satellite Techniques (RST) approach, is presented. Performances of this technique, both in terms of reliability and sensitivity, have been analyzed in different (winter/summer) fire regimes, after 3 years of pre-operational sperimentation in 3 Italian Regions (Lombardy, Sicily and Basilicata). Results achieved by using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) have been compared with the ones obtained by using traditional multichannels and contextuals algorithms. The potential of RST-FIRES in promptly detecting the beginning of fire events by means of sensors like Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) flying aboard Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) geostationary satellites is also analyzed and discussed here. The achieved results demonstrates the high capabilities of RST-FIRES in indentifying even small fires with a very low (<10%) false positive rate under different observational conditions (day/night; winter/summer). In addition, they confirm the RST-FIRES potential to be used in operational contexts requiring to join reliable early warning and efficient support to decisions systems.

Mazzeo, G.; Filizzola, C.; Coviello, I.; Marchese, F.; Corrado, R.; Lacava, T.; Paciello, R.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

2012-04-01

325

Continuous monitoring of forest fires in the Mediterranean area using MSG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fires represent one of the main factors of degradation and destruction of the Italian forest heritage. The phenomenon occurrence has increased in the last years from the average of 6426 fires per year in the period 1970-1980, corresponding to a forested area of about 503,000 ha, to 11164 fires in the period 1990-2000, involving 553,000 ha. Presently, timely and

G. Laneve; M. M. Castronuovo; E. Cadau

2005-01-01

326

Monitoring for Ozone Injury in West Coast (Oregon, Washington, California) Forests in 1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

This page has been left blank intentionally.Document continues on next page.1There is widespread concern about the potential impact of air contaminants on the longtermsustainability of our Nation's forests (Chappelka and Chevone 1992, Smith 1985,USDA Forest Service 1997, US EPA 1996b). Air pollutants, such as ground-level ozone,are known to interact with forest ecosystems and cause visible injury and other lessobvious, but

Sally Campbell; Gretchen Smith; Pat Temple; John Pronos; Regina Rochefort; Chris Andersen

327

Does the wood-borer Sphaeroma terebrans (Crustacea) shape the distribution of the mangrove Rhizophora mucronata?  

PubMed

Field surveys were conducted to evaluate the occurrence of the isopod borer Sphaeroma terebrans (Crustacea) in aerial roots (prop roots) of the red mangrove Rhizophora mucronata on several different spatial scales (m to 100 km) in East Africa. In 6 out of 17 sites studied in Kenya and on Zanzibar Island, Tanzania, no signs of the isopods were found. When the isopods were present the frequency of infestation was high. Trees in muddy substrates in the lower intertidal, in particular at fringing channels or the open sea, showed high prevalence and intensity of infestation, with large part of their roots damaged or dead. Trees at the upper range of Rhizophora, in sandy and muddy areas, showed no signs of isopod infestation. This pattern recurred in mangrove forests on large spatial scales and there was no indication that island forests differed from the mainland forests. This indicates that sediment characteristics, vertical height in the tidal zone, and direct exposure to incoming water are the major factors controlling the abundance of S. terebrans. The isopod may play an important role in determining the lower intertidal limits of R. mucronata. Trees with numerous dead or nongrowing roots, as result of Sphaeroma attack, are likely to tumble due to a lack of root support and this is most likely to occur along channels at the lower, muddy intertidal. Tumbled trees were frequently observed along channels in the lower, muddy intertidal, but rarely in the mid or high intertidal. Implications for management of mangrove forests are discussed. PMID:12572825

Svavarsson, Jörundur; Osore, Melckzedeck K W; Olafsson, Emil

2002-12-01

328

Rehabilitation of the Cienaga Grande de Santa Marta, a mangrove-estuarine system in the Caribbean coast of Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colombian government has been implementing, during the last five years, a project for the rehabilitation of the Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, a coastal estuarine lagoon in the Caribbean coast of Colombia where anthropogenic activities resulted in massive mortality of the mangrove forests, water quality degradation and concomitant diminution of biodiversity, fishing resources and life quality of human populations

Leonor Botero; Horst Salzwedel

1999-01-01

329

Modeling boreal forest performance with MODIS, site characteristics, and weather to monitor climate, management, and disturbance impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS), has developed an ecosystem modeling approach to monitor the boreal forests of the Yukon River Basin. A regression tree model is used to establish the performance potential of each 250-m boreal forest pixel. The model derives pixel performance based on archival growing season integral of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), physical characteristics of each pixel, and weather data. Seasonal estimates of expected performance are then derived from a model that predicts seasonal NDVI from weather and site inputs. Actual performance is calculated from a USGS and CCRS integrated version of MODIS 7- to 10-day composited NDVI (2000-2005) at 250-m resolution for Alaska and western Canada. The difference between the expected performance during a season and the actual performance that same season—the regression tree model residuals—indicates anomalies, or pixels where the ecosystem is underperforming or overperforming independent of seasonal weather and performance potential. Trends and measures in underperformance or overperformance are used to monitor and track changes across space and time. These changes signify non-weather effects and are related to known disturbances such as fires, surface drainage changes, and increasing deciduous forest components. In addition, the models can potentially indicate which areas may be more vulnerable to long-term climate change and could exceed ecological thresholds. This modeling approach provides a basis for a national ecosystem monitoring plan in the United States and improves ecosystem understanding of processes occurring in the boreal forests of Alaska and western Canada.

Wylie, B. K.; Murnaghan, K.; Rover, J. A.; Tieszen, L. L.; Brisco, B.

2009-12-01

330

Reliability of differing densities of sample grids used for the monitoring of forest condition in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern about the possible deterioration of forest health led to the establishment in the 1980s of inventories of forest condition throughout Europe. International standardisation of the programmes was sought and a number of recommendations were made concerning sampling and assessment procedures. One of the most important rulings was that the assessment should be made on a systematic grid, the minimum

Michael Köhl; John L. Innes; Edgar Kaufmann

1994-01-01

331

Use of ERS-1 SAR data for forest monitoring in South Sumatra  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the frame of the joint ESA-CEC TREES project, the capacity of ERS-1 SAR data for mapping tropical forest, has been evaluated. The authors investigate new methods of discriminating forests from deforested areas using ERS-1 data over South Sumatra. The method developed is based on the temporal variation of the radar backscatter assessed by the ratio between two images, which

T. Le Toan; F. Ribbes; T. Hahn; N. Floury; U. R. Wasrin

1996-01-01

332

Monitoring and estimating tropical forest carbon stocks: making REDD a reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reducing carbon emissions from deforestation and degradation in developing countries is of central importance in efforts to combat climate change. Key scientific challenges must be addressed to prevent any policy roadblocks. Foremost among the challenges is quantifying nations’ carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, which requires information on forest clearing and carbon storage. Here we review a range of

Holly K Gibbs; Sandra Brown; John O Niles; Jonathan A Foley

2007-01-01

333

NASA LCLUC Program: An Integrated Forest Monitoring System for Central Africa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Central Africa has the second largest unfragmented block of tropical rain forest in the world; it is also one of the largest carbon and biodiversity reservoirs. With nearly one-third of the forest currently allocated for logging, the region is poised to u...

N. Laporte J. LeMoigne P. Elkan O. Desmet D. Paget A. Pumptre P. Gouala M. Honzack F. Maisels

2004-01-01

334

Monitoring of wildfires in boreal forests using large area AVHRR NDVI composite image data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composite image data, produced from AVHRR data collected in 1990, were evaluated for locating and mapping the areal extent of wildfires in the boreal forests of Alaska during that year. A technique was developed to map forest fire boundaries by subtracting a late-summer AVHRR NDVI image from an early summer scene. The locations and boundaries

E. S. Kasischke; N. H. F. French; P. Harrell; N. L. Jr. Christensen; S. L. Ustin; D. Barry

1993-01-01

335

Red mangrove ( Rhizophora mangle L.) litter fall response to selective pruning (Indian River Lagoon, Florida, U.S.A.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This 33 month study quantified red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle L.) litter fall response to a selective pruning event using fringing forests located along the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, U.S.A. Selective pruning consisted of the removal of as many as 50% of the lateral branches originating between 2.1m (7ft) and 4.5m (15ft) above the forest floor while maintaining at least 50%

Randall W. Parkinson; Monica Perez-Bedmar; Jenna A. Santangelo

1999-01-01

336

Hydrodynamics of mangrove swamps and their coastal waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangrove swamps help control the tidal hydrodynamics of many tropical estuaries. They generate an asymmetry of the tidal currents in both the tidal creeks and the mangrove swamps. This results in self-scouring of the tidal channels. Mangrove land reclamation results in siltation of the channel. Mangrove swamps control the flushing rates of the estuaries through the lateral trapping effect. Lateral

Eric Wolanski

1992-01-01

337

Early diagenesis of carbohydrates and lignin in mangrove sediments subject to variable redox conditions (French Guiana)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparative study of lignin and neutral carbohydrate compositions, combined with C, N and ?13C analyses, was carried out on sedimentary cores, and on various vascular plant species collected in mangrove swamps of French Guiana. The main purpose of this study was to assess the diagenesis of carbohydrates and lignin in brackish to hypersaline fine-grained mangrove sediments characterized by great changes in redox conditions. Distribution of carbohydrates in sediments reflects both the lability of these compounds and their efficient recycling. They are subject to selective degradation, cellulosic glucose and xylose appearing to be the two most labile neutral sugars. In contrast a relative increase in arabinose, rhamnose, fucose and hemicellulosic glucose between plants and sediments, suggests that they may be more refractory and/or that they also derive from microbial synthesis. The total carbon from lignin-derived phenols is higher in sediments than in mangrove plants as a consequence of their rather refractory character. Nevertheless, evidence of lignin decomposition was found to be independent of local environmental conditions. The various redox processes that occur in mangrove sediments depend on plant species, stages in forest development and season. Different redox conditions induce different mechanisms for the decomposition of lignin and thus induce changes in phenol distributions. At depth, in most mangroves, an increase in (Ad/Al)v ratios and in deoxy sugars (fucose and rhamnose) content was significantly correlated with increased proportions of oxidized allochthonous organic debris deriving from the Amazonian detrital discharge, thus suggesting a specific source effect rather than a diagenesis induced change. Therefore, this study illustrates that both lignin and cellulose, derived from vascular plant debris, can be degraded in waterlogged mangrove sediments, and that their distribution depends on environmental conditions.

Marchand, C.; Disnar, J. R.; Lallier-Vergès, E.; Lottier, N.

2005-01-01

338

Utilization of mangrove wood products around mida creek (Kenya) amongst subsistence and commercial users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mida Creek (Kenya) comprises mangrove forests and other marine resources that are of economic, ecological, and environmental\\u000a importance to the local village communities. In total 116 households (100 of which could be used for numerical analysis),\\u000a which are estimated to correspond to a coverage of ca. 30% of the total Mida Creek population, were interviewed to assess\\u000a the human reliance

F. Dahdouh-Guebas; C. Mathenge; J. G. Kairo; N. Koedam

2000-01-01

339

Spatial patterns of soil attributes and components in a mangrove system in Southeast Brazil (São Paulo)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Among environmental factors governing innumerous processes that are active in estuarine environments, those of edaphic character\\u000a have received special attention in recent studies. With the objectives of determining the spatial patterns of soil attributes\\u000a and components across different mangrove forest landscapes and obtaining additional information on the cause–effect relationships\\u000a between these variables and position within the estuary, we analyzed several

Tiago Osório Ferreira; Xosé L. Otero; Valdomiro S. de Souza Junior; Pablo Vidal-Torrado; Felipe Macías; Lilian P. Firme

2010-01-01

340

The start-up phase of the national satellite forest monitoring systems for DRC and PNG: a joint venture between FAO and INPE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) is an effort to create a financial value for the carbon stored in forests, offering incentives for developing countries to reduce emissions from forested lands and invest in low-carbon paths to sustainable development. "REDD+" goes beyond deforestation and forest degradation, and includes the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. In the framework of getting countries ready for REDD+, the UN-REDD Programme, a partnership between UNEP, FAO and UNDP, assists developing countries to prepare and implement national REDD+ strategies. Designed collaboratively by a broad range of stakeholders, national UN-REDD Programmes are informed by the technical expertise of FAO, UNDP and UNEP. For the monitoring, reporting and verification, FAO supports the countries to develop satellite forest monitoring systems that allow for credible measurement, reporting and verification (MRV)of REDD+ activities. These are among the most critical elements for the successful implementation of any REDD+ mechanism, also following the COP 16 decisions in Cancun last year. The UN-REDD Programme through a joint effort of FAO and Brazil's National Space Agency, INPE, is supporting countries to develop cost-effective, robust and compatible national monitoring and MRV systems, providing tools, methodologies, training and knowledge sharing that help countries to strengthen their technical and institutional capacity for effective MRV systems. To develop strong nationally-owned forest monitoring systems, technical and institutional capacity building is key. The UN-REDD Programme, through FAO, has taken on intensive training together with INPE, and has provided technical help and assistance for in-country training and implementation for national satellite forest monitoring. The goal of the start-up phase for DRC and Papua New Guinea (PNG) in this capacity building effort is the training of technical forest people and IT persons from these two interested REDD+ countries, and to set-up the national satellite forest monitoring systems. The Brazilian forest monitoring system, TerraAmazon, which is used as a basis for this initiative, allows countries to adapt it to country needs and the training on the TerraAmazon system is a tool to enhance existing capacity on carbon monitoring systems. The start-up phase of the National Forest Monitoring System for DRC and PNG will allow these countries to follow all actions related to the implementation of its national REDD+ policies and measures. The monitoring system will work as a platform to obtain information on their REDD+ results and actions, related directly or indirectly to national REDD+ strategies and may also include actions unrelated to carbon assessment, such as forest law enforcement. With the technical assistance of FAO, INPE and other stakeholders, the countries will set up an autonomous operational forest monitoring system. An initial version and the methodologies of these syste,s will be launched in Durban, South Africa during COP 17 and is presented here.

Jonckheere, I. G.; FAO UN-REDD Team Forestry Department

2011-12-01

341

Accumulation of six metals in the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Crustacea: Ucididae) and its food source, the red mangrove Rhizophora mangle (Angiosperma: Rhizophoraceae).  

PubMed

The crab Ucides cordatus and the red mangrove Rhizophora mangle are endemic mangrove species and potential bio-accumulators of metals. This study quantified the accumulation of six metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn and Pb) in different organs (claw muscle, hepatopancreas and gills) of U. cordatus, as well as in different maturation stages of the leaves (buds, green mature, and pre-abscission senescent) of R. mangle. Samples were collected from mangrove areas in Cubatão, state of São Paulo, a heavily polluted region in Brazil. Data for metal contents in leaves were evaluated by one-way ANOVA; while for crabs a factorial ANOVA was used to investigate the effect of different tissues, animal size and the interactions between them. Means were compared by Tukey test at five percent, and the association between the metal concentrations in each crab organ, depending on the size, was evaluated by Pearson's linear correlation coefficient (r). Concentrations of Pb and Hg were undetectable for the different leaf stages and crab tissues, while Cd concentrations were undetectable in the leaf stages. In general, the highest accumulation of metals in R. mangle leaves occurred in pre-abscission senescent and green mature leaves, except for Cu, which was found in the highest concentrations in buds and green mature leaves. For the crab, Cd, Cu, Cr and Mn were present in concentrations above the detection limit, with the highest accumulation in the hepatopancreas, followed by the gills. Cu was accumulated mostly in the gills. Patterns of bioaccumulation between the crab and the mangrove tree differed for each metal, probably due to the specific requirements of each organism for essential metals. However, there was a close and direct relationship between metal accumulation in the mangrove trees and in the crabs feeding on them. Tissues of R. mangle leaves and U. cordatus proved effective for monitoring metals, acting as important bioindicators of mangrove areas contaminated by various metals. PMID:22621724

Pinheiro, Marcelo Antonio Amaro; Silva, Pablo Pena Gandara E; Duarte, Luis Felipe de Almeida; Almeida, Alaor Aparecido; Zanotto, Flavia Pinheiro

2012-05-21

342

Phytoremediation in mangrove sediments impacted by persistent total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH's) using Avicennia schaueriana.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the efficiency of Avicennia schaueriana in the implementation of phytoremediation compared with intrinsic bioremediation in mangrove sediments contaminated by total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs). The experiment was conducted for 3months at a pilot scale under conditions similar to a mangrove: the dynamics of the tides were simulated, and physical, chemical, microbiological and biogeochemical parameters were monitored. After the 90 days, it was found that the phytoremediation was more efficient in the degradation of the TPHs compared to bioremediation, reducing the initial concentration of 32.2-4.2 mg/g. A. schaueriana was also more efficient in mediating the degradation of different fractions of hydrocarbons, achieving a removal efficiency of 87%. The microbiological results consisted of a higher growth in the model with the plants, demonstrating the phytostimulation ability of the plants. Finally, the experiment showed that phytoremediation is a promising alternative in mangrove impacted by oil. PMID:23228519

Moreira, Icaro T A; Oliveira, Olivia M C; Triguis, Jorge A; Queiroz, Antonio F S; Ferreira, Sergio L C; Martins, Cintia M S; Silva, Ana C M; Falcão, Brunno A

2012-12-08

343

SITHON: A Wireless Network of in Situ Optical Cameras Applied to the Early Detection-Notification-Monitoring of Forest Fires.  

PubMed

The SITHON system, a fully wireless optical imaging system, integrating a network of in-situ optical cameras linking to a multi-layer GIS database operated by Control Operating Centres, has been developed in response to the need for early detection, notification and monitoring of forest fires. This article presents in detail the architecture and the components of SITHON, and demonstrates the first encouraging results of an experimental test with small controlled fires over Sithonia Peninsula in Northern Greece. The system has already been scheduled to be installed in some fire prone areas of Greece. PMID:22408536

Tsiourlis, Georgios; Andreadakis, Stamatis; Konstantinidis, Pavlos

2009-06-08

344

Relationship between streamflow and nutrient and sediment losses from an oak-beech forest watershed during an 18-year long monitoring study in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to quantify the amount of the stream discharge, nutrient fluxes, suspended sediment loss,\\u000a and to define the relationship between streamflow and these parameters in a forest-covered watershed. The study was carried\\u000a out in an experimental watershed, which has been monitored since 1979 in the Belgrad forest in Istanbul. Significant linear\\u000a regressions were obtained between

Ferhat Gökbulak; Yusuf Serengil; Süleyman Özhan; Necdet Özyuvac?; A. Nihat Balc?

2008-01-01

345

Mangrove trees affect the community structure and distribution of anammox bacteria at an anthropogenic-polluted mangrove in the Pearl River Delta reflected by 16S rRNA and hydrazine oxidoreductase (HZO) encoding gene analyses.  

PubMed

Anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacterial community structures were investigated in surface (1-2 cm) and lower (20-21 cm) layers of mangrove sediments at sites located immediately to the mangrove trees (S0), 10 m (S1) and 1000 m (S2) away from mangrove trees in a polluted area of the Pearl River Delta. At S0, both 16S rRNA and hydrazine oxidoreductase (HZO) encoding genes of anammox bacteria showed high diversity in lower layer sediments, but they were not detectable in lower layer sediments in mangrove forest. S1 and S2 shared similar anammox bacteria communities in both surface and lower layers, which were quite different from that of S0. At all three locations, higher richness of anammox bacteria was detected in the surface layer than the lower layer; 16S rRNA genes revealed anammox bacteria were composed by four phylogenetic clusters affiliated with the "Scalindua" genus, and one group related to the potential anammox bacteria; while the hzo genes showed that in addition to sequences related to the "Scalindua", sequences affiliated with genera of "Kuenenia", "Brocadia", and "Jettenia" were also detected in mangrove sediments. Furthermore, hzo gene abundances decreased from 36.5 × 10(4) to 11.0 × 10(4) copies/gram dry sediment in lower layer sediments while increased from below detection limit to 31.5 × 10(4) copies/gram dry sediment in lower layer sediments from S0 to S2. The results indicated that anammox bacteria communities might be strongly influenced by mangrove trees. In addition, the correlation analysis showed the redox potential and the molar ratio of ammonium to nitrite in sediments might be important factors affecting the diversity and distribution of anammox bacteria in mangrove sediments. PMID:21735127

Li, Meng; Hong, Yi-Guo; Cao, Hui-Luo; Gu, Ji-Dong

2011-07-07

346

Mangrove Bacterial Diversity and the Impact of Oil Contamination Revealed by Pyrosequencing: Bacterial Proxies for Oil Pollution  

PubMed Central

Background Mangroves are transitional coastal ecosystems in tropical and sub-tropical regions and represent biologically important and productive ecosystems. Despite their great ecological and economic importance, mangroves are often situated in areas of high anthropogenic influence, being exposed to pollutants, such as those released by oil spills. Methodology/Principal Findings A microcosm experiment was conducted, which simulated an oil spill in previously pristine mangrove sediment. The effect of the oil spill on the extant microbial community was studied using direct pyrosequencing. Extensive bacterial diversity was observed in the pristine mangrove sediment, even after oil contamination. The number of different OTUs only detected in contaminated samples was significantly higher than the number of OTUs only detected in non-contaminated samples. The phylum Proteobacteria, in particular the classes Gammaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria, were prevalent before and after the simulated oil spill. On the other hand, the order Chromatiales and the genus Haliea decreased upon exposure to 2 and 5% oil, these are proposed as sensitive indicators of oil contamination. Three other genera, Marinobacterium, Marinobacter and Cycloclasticus increased their prevalence when confronted with oil. These groups are possible targets for the biomonitoring of the impact of oil in mangrove settings. Conclusions/Significance We suggest the use of sequences of the selected genera as proxies for oil pollution, using qPCR assessments. The quantification of these genera in distinct mangrove systems in relation to the local oil levels would permit the evaluation of the level of perturbance of mangroves, being useful in field monitoring. Considering the importance of mangroves to many other environments and the susceptibility of such areas to oil spills this manuscript will be of broad interest.

dos Santos, Henrique Fragoso; Cury, Juliano Carvalho; do Carmo, Flavia Lima; dos Santos, Adriana Lopes; Tiedje, James; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Rosado, Alexandre Soares; Peixoto, Raquel Silva

2011-01-01

347

Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of the mangrove tree Heritiera fomes.  

PubMed

Heritiera fomes is a mangrove tree which is widely distributed in the Sundarbans mangrove forest, Bangladesh. In this study, the EtOH extract of stem bark from H. fomes was shown to be rich in procyanidins. Trimeric, pentameric and hexameric procyanidins were identified in addition to highly polymeric material (average degree of polymerization 18-24). Bioactivity studies showed high DPPH radical scavenging and 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) inhibiting activities of the bark extracts (EC50 = 19.4 +/- 1.7 and IC50 = 22 +/- 1 microg/mL, respectively) which could be ascribed to its high content of procyanidins. The procyanidins were also assayed as DPPH scavengers and 15-LO inhibitors, with EC50 and IC50 values in the range of 8-15 and 10-15 microg/mL, respectively. The bark extracts showed antibacterial activities against K. rhizophilia, S. aureus, B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa, as well. No toxicity was observed in the brine shrimp assay. PMID:19413115

Wangensteen, Helle; Dang, Huong Cam Thi; Uddin, Shaikh Jamal; Alamgir, Mahiuddin; Malterud, Karl Egil

2009-03-01

348

Cold air drainage in a forested valley: Investigating the feasibility of monitoring ecosystem metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objectives were to: characterize spatial and temporal variation in wind speed, direction and air temperature within a steeply sloping 96ha forested watershed in the Oregon Cascade Mountains; assess the area contributing to advection in cold air drainage; identify appropriate conditions for sampling advected gases representative of the entire watershed; estimate ecosystem respiration from mass balance estimates. The flow dynamics

T. G. Pypker; M. H. Unsworth; B. Lamb; E. Allwine; S. Edburg; E. Sulzman; A. C. Mix; B. J. Bond

2007-01-01

349

A remote sensing monitoring system for a settlement area in tropical rain forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many areas in the Amazon basin experience rapid change in land use and land cover, mainly related to a process of (re)settlement of people from other parts of the country. The area around San Jose del Guaviare in the Colombian Amazon is one such area. Due to this (re)settlement process, the rain forest disappears, and is replaced by crops and

W. Bijker; D. H. Hoekman

1994-01-01

350

Long-term strategy for the statistical design of a forest health monitoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual framework is given for a broad-scale survey of forest health that accomplishes three objectives: generate descriptive statistics; detect changes in such statistics; and simplify analytical inferences that identify, and possibly establish cause-effect relationships. Our paper discusses the development of sampling schemes to satisfy these three objectives, but without any design restrictions implied by existing sample surveys. A general

Hans T. Schreuder; Raymond L. Czaplewski

1993-01-01

351

Painting the world REDD: addressing scientific barriers to monitoring emissions from tropical forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

In December 2010, parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) agreed to encourage reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from forest losses with the financial support of developed countries. This important international agreement followed about seven years of effort among governments, non-governmental organizations (NGO) and the scientific community, and is called REDD+, the program for Reducing Emissions

Gregory P. Asner

2011-01-01

352

Modelling soil carbon sequestration of intensively monitored forest plots in Europe by three different approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on soil carbon sequestration and its interaction with nitrogen availability is rather limited, since soil processes account for the most significant unknowns in the C and N cycles. In this paper we compare three completely different approaches to calculate carbon sequestration in forest soils. The first approach is the limit-value concept, in which the soil carbon accumulation is estimated

Janet P. Mol Dijkstra; Gert Jan Reinds; Hans Kros; Björn Berg; Wim de Vries

2009-01-01

353

A GIS based methodology for small scale monitoring of tropical forests - a case study in Sumatra  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Geographical Information System based methodology was developed in the framework of global survey of tropical vegetation using satellite data; it was tested on the forests of Sumatra with time series of NOAA AVHRR GAC and LAC data of 1982, 1988 and 1989. After some geometrical registration and radiometric optimization, these data are processed through a mono-date approach for minimizing

J. P. Gastellu-Etchegorry; C. Estreguil; E. Mougin; Y. Laumonier

1993-01-01

354

Conservation and biological monitoring of tropical forests: the role of parataxonomists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. The demise of tropical rain forests will lead to a large-scale extinction of genetic diversity, particularly of arthropods. Curtailing these trends might be facilitated by (i) reducing rates of habitat loss and degradation, (ii) enhancing systematics and (iii) increasing the flow of primary information on tropical biodiversity. 2. We emphasize the need to examine alternative approaches that could

YVES BASSET; VOJTECH NOVOTNY; SCOTT E. MILLER; GEORGE D. WEIBLEN; ALAN J. A. STEWART

2004-01-01

355

Data Gaps for Monitoring Forest Carbon in the United States: An Inventory Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing interest in accurate estimates of regional carbon fluxes, and identification of the causes of land\\/atmosphere\\/ocean exchange of carbon. Improved information will lead to better policies for managing greenhouse gas emissions and sequestration. The goals of this paper are to review the capability of ongoing operational inventory programs for estimating forest carbon stocks and stock changes, and to

Richard Birdsey

2004-01-01

356

Using hyperspectral imagery to assist federal forest monitoring and restoration projects in the Southern Rocky Mountains, Colorado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyperspectral imagery and the corresponding ability to conduct analysis below the pixel level have tremendous potential to aid in landcover monitoring. During large ecosystem restoration projects, being able to monitor specific aspects of the recovery over large and often inaccessible areas under constrained finances are major challenges. The Civil Air Patrol's Airborne Real-time Cueing Hyperspectral Enhanced Reconnaissance (ARCHER) can provide hyperspectral data in most parts of the United States at relatively low cost. Although designed specifically for use in locating downed aircraft, the imagery holds the potential to identify specific aspects of landcover at far greater fidelity than traditional multispectral means. The goals of this research were to improve the use of ARCHER hyperspectral imagery to classify sub-canopy and open-area vegetation in coniferous forests located in the Southern Rockies and to determine how much fidelity might be lost from a baseline of 1 meter spatial resolution resampled to 2 and 5 meter pixel size to simulate higher altitude collection. Based on analysis comparing linear spectral unmixing with a traditional supervised classification, the linear spectral unmixing proved to be statistically superior. More importantly, however, linear spectral unmixing provided additional sub-pixel information that was unavailable using other techniques. The second goal of determining fidelity loss based on spatial resolution was more difficult to determine due to how the data are represented. Furthermore, the 2 and 5 meter imagery were obtained by resampling the 1 meter imagery and therefore may not be representative of the quality of actual 2 or 5 meter imagery. Ultimately, the information derived from this research may be useful in better utilizing hyperspectral imagery to conduct forest monitoring and assessment.

Wamser, Kyle

357

Size-dependent distribution and feeding habits of Terebralia palustris in mangrove habitats of Gazi Bay, Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gastropod Terebralia palustris often dominates the surface of muddy to sandy substrates of intertidal mudflats and mangrove forests, where they clearly destabilize the sediment. In the present study, it was investigated whether and to what extent the behaviour of juvenile and adult snails differs among habitats (mudflat vs. mangrove stand) in a Sonneratia alba mangal at Gazi Bay, Kenya. For this purpose we: (1) examined their distribution along three land-sea transects; and (2) applied stable isotope analysis to determine the feeding patterns of different-sized snails from the mangrove and mudflat habitats. Additionally, we investigated if these gastropods exert an impact on microphytobenthic (diatom) biomass, and whether this is size-dependent. The latter objective was met by either enclosing or excluding different-sized snails from experimental cages on the intertidal mudflat and the subsequent assessment of a change in pigment concentration of the sediment surface. In agreement with several previous studies conducted in other mangroves and geographical locations, a spatial segregation was demonstrated between juveniles (more common on the mudflat) and adults (more common in the mangrove forest). On the intertidal mudflat juveniles avoided sediment patches characterized by highly saline water in intertidal pools and a high mud content, while adults tended to dwell on substrates covered by a high amount of leaf litter. Stable carbon isotope analysis of the foot tissue of snails sampled from the S. alba stand and the mudflat indicated a transition in food source when a shell length of 51 mm is reached. Considering the ?13C value of juveniles, it seems they might be selecting for microphytobenthos, which might explain their preference for the mudflat. The diet of size classes found in both habitats did not differ significantly, although juveniles inhabiting the mangrove forest were slightly more depleted in 13C compared to those residing on the mudflat. Assuming juveniles feed on benthic microalgae and considering the lower microalgal biomass inside the mangrove forest, this may be a consequence of a higher contribution of other, more 13C depleted organic carbon sources, like phytoplankton, to their diet. Experimental results indicate a negative, but insignificant, impact on benthic diatom biomass by juveniles (due to grazing) and adults (due to physical disturbance). This finding seems to be in agreement with the results of the stable carbon isotope analysis, strongly suggesting the selective feeding of juvenile T. palustris on benthic diatoms.

Pape, Ellen; Muthumbi, Agnes; Kamanu, Chomba Peter; Vanreusel, Ann

2008-03-01

358

Evolutionary diversity among Atlantic coast mangroves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current knowledge of intraspecific variation of mangrove species is limited in terms of rangewide distributions and is mostly restricted to morphological analyses, which have indicated a high degree of homogeneity. However, our analyses of the aliphatic hydrocarbon and triterpenoid fraction of foliar waxes (by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy) of mangrove species ( Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa) from Gabon in West Africa and French Guiana in South America show significant genetic differentiation between eastern and western Atlantic provenances. The greater diversity in lipid composition, and the tendency for longer carbon chain lengths in all taxa from Africa, may suggest that American mangroves exhibit derived characteristics. A consequence of this hypothesis would be that Atlantic mangroves are unlikely to have dispersed from the Tethys via the Pacific, as has been proposed by some authors. More widespread sampling within the Atlantic and east Pacific region is needed to support and confirm these results.

Dodd, Richard S.; Rafii, Zara A.; Fromard, François; Blasco, François

1998-06-01

359

Monitoring roadside ditches for antibiotic resistant E. coli in forest and agricultural landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is growing concern over the threat of antibiotic resistant bacteria and how they travel through natural environments. This study was developed to: (1) measure the quantities of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli present in stormwater collected from roadside ditches, (2) examine the spatial and temporal distribution of antibiotic resistance and (3) explore the difference in antibiotic resistance between different land uses. Autosamplers were used to collect composite samples of stormwater flowing in roadside ditches located near manure fertilized fields or forested areas. Samples were filtered using standard membrane filtration methods and grown with and without antibiotics on EC medium containing MUG. Three antibiotics commonly used to treat infection in humans and dairy cows were used to measure antibiotic resistance: penicillin, ampicillin and tetracycline. Though antibiotic resistance was found at forested and farm sites, preliminary data suggest higher counts of antibiotic resistant E. coli near agricultural areas.

Storrer, S.; Archibald, J. A.

2009-12-01

360

Forest fires smoke monitoring from Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor images  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for detecting forest fires smoke using SeaWiFS (Sea-viewing Wide Field-of View Sensor) images is developed in this paper. The colour masking technique is proposed to extract the maximum fires smoke pixels from the SeaStar \\/SeaWiFS satellite images by using Fusion by Arithmetic Com- bination ( FAC) of the spectral bands method. Each image used is converted from RGB

ABDELLATIF HASSINI; SÉBASTIEN DÉJEAN; NOUREDDINE BENABADJI; NOUREDDINE HASSINI; A HMED HAFID BELBACHIR

361

Monitoring of environmental conditions in taiga forests using ERS-1 SAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic-aperture radar images of forest site near Manley Hot Springs (64[degree]N, 151[degree]W), Alaska, were collected between August 1991 and December 1991, day and night, every 3 days, at C-band frequency ([lambda] = 5.7 cm), vertical receive and transmit polarization, by the European Space Agency First Remote Sensing Satellite, ERS-1. During the same period, air and soil temperatures and dielectric and

E. Rignot; K. McDonald; L. Viereck; C. Williams; P. Adams; C. Payne; W. Wood; J. Shi

1994-01-01

362

Continuous Monitoring of Forest Fires in the Mediterranean Area Using MSG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fires represent one of the main factors of degradation and destruction of the Mediterranean forest heritage. According to fire-fighting agencies, a satellite-based fire-detection system can be considered operationally useful for Mediterranean countries when fires with a minimum extent of 1500 m2 can be detected with a temporal resolution of 30 min. In fact, such a system should be able to

Giovanni Laneve; Marco M. Castronuovo; Enrico G. Cadau

2006-01-01

363

Policies, Measures and the Monitoring Needs of Forest Sector Carbon Mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest sector mitigation options can be grouped into three categories: (1) management for carbon (C) conservation, (2) management\\u000a for C storage, and (3) management for C substitution. The paper provides background information on the technical potential\\u000a for C conservation and sequestration worldwide and the average costs of achieving it. It reviews policy measures that have\\u000a been successfully applied at regional

Jayant Sathaye; N. H. Ravindranath

1997-01-01

364

Forests in climate policy: technical, institutional and economic issues in measurement and monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the economic and environmental significance of the world’s forests, we have limited data about them. Estimates of\\u000a deforestation in tropical countries and rates of reforestation or afforestation in boreal and temperate countries are inconsistent.\\u000a Accordingly, estimates of emissions released in deforestation vary widely and range from 7% to 17% of all sources of greenhouse\\u000a gas (GHG) emissions. The lack

Molly K. Macauley; Roger A. Sedjo

2011-01-01

365

Policies, measures and the monitoring needs of forest sector carbon mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest sector mitigation options can be grouped into three categories: (1) management for carbon (C) conservation, (2) management\\u000a for C storage, and (3) management for C substitution. The paper provides background information on the technical potential\\u000a for C conservation and sequestration worldwide and the average costs of achieving it. It reviews policy measures that have\\u000a been successfully applied at regional

Jayant Sathaye; N. H. Ravindranath

1997-01-01

366

Ground vegetation monitoring in Swiss forests: comparison of survey methods and implications for trend assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

At Swiss long-term forest ecosystem research sites, ground vegetation was assessed during the period 1994–2003\\/2008 following\\u000a two approaches: (1) visual assessment of the cover of species occurring in sixteen 1 m2 quadrats, distributed over a 43 × 43 m area, and (2) phytosociological relevés in concentric circular plots of 30, 200, and\\u000a 500 m2. We first compared the two approaches with respect to

Anne Thimonier; Peter Kull; Walter Keller; Barbara Moser; Thomas Wohlgemuth

2011-01-01

367

Studies of a mangrove basin, Tuff Crater, New Zealand: I. Mangrove biomass and production of detritus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mangrove, Avicennia marina var. resinifera in a tidally-flooded explosion crater, Tuff Crater, near the southern latitudinal limit of mangroves in New Zealand adopts two distinct growth forms, taller tree-like mangroves up to 4 m tall along the banks of the tidal creek, and low stunted shrub mangroves less than 1 m tall on the mudflats. Twelve trees were felled and on the basis of a biomass/height relationship for the taller trees and a biomass/canopy width relationship for the lower, above-ground biomass (excluding pneumatophores) was estimated. Average above-ground biomass for the taller mangrove was estimated to be 104·1 t ha -1 and for the lower 6·8 t ha -1. While the value for the taller mangroves is similar to figures reported for more complex tropical mangroves, the fact that 94% of the basin is covered by low generally sparse mangroves means that total biomass for the basin is estimated to be 153 t, an average of only 7·6 t ha -1. Litter-fall beneath the taller mangroves is estimated as 7·6±2·5 t ha -1 a -1 and beneath the lower mangroves 3·3±0·5 t ha -1 a -1. The value for the taller mangroves is similar to that reported from mangroves in many other parts of the world, but because of the extensive low sparse mangroves the total for the basin is estimated as 53·7 t a -1, an average rate of 2·7 t ha -1 a -1, a very low rate of litter-fall when compared with elsewhere. Decomposition of mangrove leaves occurs relatively rapidly with leaves losing half their dry weight in 10 weeks and then continuing to degrade but at a slower rate. Substrate sediment samples contain high organic matter content, and although some organic matter appears to be exported via the tidal creek, a proportion of the detrital production is evidently recycled in situ.

Woodroffe, Colin D.

1985-03-01

368

The effect of sewage discharge on the ecosystem engineering activities of two East African fiddler crab species: consequences for mangrove ecosystem functioning.  

PubMed

A number of studies have suggested that mangrove forests and their faunal components may be pre-adapted to the impact of organic waste discharge, making them possible natural wastewater treatment wetlands. However, the results from recent research are contradictory. Some studies have shown that negative effects, sometimes subtle and difficult to observe, can be detected on specific biotic components of forests subjected to organic pollution. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate possible alterations in the ecosystem engineering activities of a fiddler crab community dominating the landward belts of Kenyan mangrove forests. The total processed sediment produced by burrowing and foraging activities in a population from a peri-urban mangrove area receiving untreated domestic sewage was compared with that from a forest not affected by urban wastewater. The results showed how the peri-urban site hosted a higher biomass of crabs, which produced a significantly lower amount of processed sediment compared with the pristine site, resulting in a lower total top sediment mixing activity of the crabs. Thus, the present study showed a link between sewage exposure and top sediment reworking by crabs, which is potentially beneficial for mangrove growth and ecosystem functioning. This represents a possible example of cryptic ecological degradation in mangal systems. PMID:21047678

Bartolini, Fabrizio; Cimò, Filippo; Fusi, Marco; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Lopes, Gil Penha; Cannicci, Stefano

2010-10-16

369

Hydrological mixing and geochemical processes characterization in an estuarine\\/mangrove system using environmental tracers in Babitonga Bay (Santa Catarina, Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrologic complex of Babitonga Bay (Brazil) forms a vast environmental complex where agriculture, shellfish farming, and industries coexist with a unique natural area of Atlantic rain forest and mangrove systems. The origin of different continental hydrological components, the environmental transition between saline and freshwaters, and the influence of the seasonality on Babitonga Bay waters are evaluated using isotopes and

Virgínia Barros Grace; Josep Mas-Pla; Therezinha Oliveira Novais; Elisa Sacchi; Gian Maria Zuppi

2008-01-01

370

Pennsylvania's Forest 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2000, the Pennsylvania Department of Conservations Natural Resources, Bureau of Forestry and the Northern Research Stations Forest Inventory and Analysis unit implemented a new annual system for inventorying and monitoring Pennsylvanias forests. This r...

B. J. Butler C. L. Alerich M. L. Hoppus S. P. Cassell W. H. McWilliams

2007-01-01

371

Mapping and monitoring deforestation and forest degradation in Sumatra (Indonesia) using Landsat time series data sets from 1990 to 2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

As reported by FAO (2005 State of the World’s Forests (Rome: UNFAO), 2010 Forest Resource Assessment (FRA) 2010\\/095 (Rome: UNFAO)), Indonesia experiences the second highest rate of deforestation among tropical countries. Hence, timely and accurate forest data are required to combat deforestation and forest degradation in support of climate change mitigation and biodiversity conservation policy initiatives. Within Indonesia, Sumatra Island

Belinda Arunarwati Margono; Svetlana Turubanova; Ilona Zhuravleva; Peter Potapov; Alexandra Tyukavina; Alessandro Baccini; Scott Goetz; Matthew C Hansen

2012-01-01

372

Evaluation of geochemical impact of tsunami on Pichavaram mangrove ecosystem, southeast coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 26 December 2004-tsunami has deposited sediments in the Pichavaram mangrove ecosystem, east coast of India. Ten surface and three core sediment samples were collected within 30 days of the event and analyzed for nutrients. Water samples were also analyzed to see the impact of tsunami on the geochemical behavior of nutrients. An increase in the concentration of various nutrients namely nitrate and phosphate was observed. The geochemistry of the mangrove forest was observed to be influenced by a number of factors like rapid increase of aquaculture farms, agricultural practices and the anthropogenic discharge from the nearby-inhabited areas. Further the sediment column was disturbed due to energetic tsunami waves, which has caused a sheer increase in the dissolved oxygen in water. As a result, the change in the redox potential has resulted in change in the nutrients absorbed/associated with the sediments. In addition, role of retreating water after tsunami on the nutrient geochemistry was also evaluated.

Ranjan, Rajesh Kumar; Ramanathan, Al.; Singh, Gurmeet

2008-08-01

373

Extensive tree health monitoring networks are useful in revealing the impacts of widespread biotic damage in boreal forests.  

PubMed

We surveyed the regional distribution of conifer defoliation in Finland with an extensive monitoring network during 1995-2006 (EU Forest Focus Level I). The average defoliation in the whole Finland was 10.3% in pine and 19.9% in spruce. The sharp changes were often related to abiotic and biotic factors. The mean age of the stand explained more than one half of the between-plot variance in defoliation. In a variance component analysis, the main effect of years was negligible, while most of the random variation was due to plot main effect and plot x year interaction. About one fifth of the defoliation could be attributed to abiotic or biotic damage, and there were strong local correlations, e.g., between the changes in defoliation and degree of pine sawfly (Diprionidae) damage. There were clear temporal and spatial patterns in the incidence of the most important causes [Scots pine: Scleroderris canker (Gremmeniella abietina), pine shoot beetles (Tomicus sp.), and pine sawflies (Diprion pini, Neodiprion sertifer); Norway spruce: rust fungi (primarily Chrysomyxa ledi)]. Our results suggest that extensive monitoring networks can reveal useful information about the widespread outbreaks of pest organisms (insects and fungi) already in their increase phases, giving some time for management decisions. In a changing climate, large-scale, regular monitoring of tree health, including abiotic and biotic causes, is more important than ever before. PMID:19629733

Nevalainen, Seppo; Lindgren, Martti; Pouttu, Antti; Heinonen, Jaakko; Hongisto, Marke; Neuvonen, Seppo

2009-07-24

374

Monitoring of ozone effects on the vitality and increment of Norway spruce and European beech in the Central European forests.  

PubMed

The ozone effect on Norway spruce (Picea abies (L) Karst.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) was studied on 48 monitoring plots in 2005-2008. These plots represent two major forest tree species stands of different ages in eight regions of the Czech Republic. The forest conditions were represented by defoliation and the annual radial increment of individual trees. The ozone exposure was assessed by using modeled values of mean annual O(3) concentration and the AOT40 index. The malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the foliage was analysed and used as an indicator of oxidative stress. The correlation analysis showed a significant relation of Norway spruce defoliation to the AOT40 exposure index, and European beech defoliation to the MDA level. The radial increment response to ozone was significant only for the European beech: (a) the correlation analysis showed its decrease with increasing AOT40; (b) the regression model showed its decrease with increasing mean annual ozone concentration only at lower altitudes (<700 m a.s.l.). PMID:22534676

rámek, Vít; Novotný, Radek; Vejpustková, Monika; H?nová, Iva; Uhlí?ová, Hana

2012-04-25

375

Responses of oaks and tanoaks to the sudden oak death pathogen after 8 y of monitoring in two coastal California forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudden oak death, caused by Phytophthora ramorum, is widely established in mesic forests of coastal central and northern California. In 2000, we placed 18 plots in two Marin County sites to monitor disease progression in coast live oaks (Quercus agrifolia), California black oaks (Q. kelloggii), and tanoaks (Lithocarpus densiflorus), the species that are most consistently killed by the pathogen in

Brice A. McPherson; Sylvia R. Mori; David L. Wood; Maggi Kelly; Andrew J. Storer; Pavel Svihra; Richard B. Standiford

2010-01-01

376

Ecological Modeling and Human Dimensions of Mangrove Change in Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangroves are coastal halophytes that tend to inhabit the low energy, tropical and sub-tropical coasts of the world. The mangrove habitats that occupy large swaths of the south Florida coastline are important habitats for a myriad of ecological and economic reasons. As such, the Florida legislature enacted the mangrove preservation act of 1996 to ensure the protection and proper trimming

Jeffrey Scott Ueland

2005-01-01

377

Conservation and sustainable exploitation of mangroves in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangroves are important wetlands along tropical and subtropical coasts that have been seriously damaged due to excessive exploitation. The need to conserve mangroves has been recognized since the 1970s. The degree of mangrove conservation ranges from rigid ecological conservation (for \\

Nora F. Y. Tam; Y. S. Wong

2002-01-01

378

Review of Protocols for Monitoring Streams and Juvenile Fish in Forested Regions of the Pacific Northwest.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document reviews existing and proposed protocols used to monitor stream ecosystem conditions and responses to land management activities in the Pacific Northwest. Because of recent work aimed at improving the utility of habitat survey and fish abunda...

S. A. Stolnack M. D. Bryant R. C. Wissmar

2005-01-01

379

ROLE OF CLIMATE IN FOREST MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT: A NEW ENGLAND EXAMPLE  

EPA Science Inventory

The development of climatological information products to support ecological data collection and analysis is described. he scope of research is narrowed to issues of direct interest to the joint U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program ...

380

A Trophic Flow Model of the Caeté Mangrove Estuary (North Brazil) with Considerations for the Sustainable Use of its Resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Caeté Estuary lies within the world's second largest mangrove region, 200 km south-east of the Amazon delta. It has an extension of about 220 km 2and is subjected to a considerable human impact through intensive harvest of mangrove crabs ( Ucides cordatus) and logging of mangroves. In order to integrate available information on biomass, catches, food spectrum and dynamics of the main species populations of the system, a trophic steady state model of 19 compartments was constructed using the ECOPATH II software (Christensen & Pauly, 1992). Ninety-nine percent of total system biomass is made up by mangroves ( Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa ), which are assumed to cover about 45% of the total area and contribute about 60% to the system's primary production. The remaining biomass (132 g m -2) is distributed between the pelagic and benthic domains in proportions of 10% and 90% respectively. Through litter fall, mangroves inject the main primary food source into the system, which is either consumed directly by herbivores (principally land crabs, Ucides cordatus) or, when already metabolized by bacteria, by detritivors (principally fiddler crabs, Uca spp.). These two groups are prominent in terms of biomass (80 g and 14·5 g m -2), and food intake (1120 g m -2 yr -1and 1378 g m -2 yr -1respectively). According to the model estimates, energy flow through the fish and shrimp compartments is of relatively low importance for the energy cycling within the system, a finding which is contrary to the situation in other mangrove estuaries reported in the literature. The dominance of mangrove epibenthos is attributed to the fact that a large part of the system's production remains within the mangrove forest as material export to the estuary is restricted to spring tides, when the forest is completely indundated. This is also the reason for the low abundance of suspension feeders, which are restricted to a small belt along the Caeté River and the small creeks which are watered daily. Phytoplankton, temporarily refloating benthic diatoms, neritic zooplankton and small pelagic fish dominate the (low) pelagic biomass. Total system throughput (10 559 g m -2 yr -1) and mean transfer efficiency between trophic levels (9·8%) calculated by the model fit well into the range reported for other tropical coastal ecosystems. The very high gross efficiency of the fishery (catch/net primary production) of 8·6% and its low trophic level (2·1) is explained by a high harvesting rate of mangroves and the fact that the main animal resource in the system are the mangrove crabs ( Ucides cordatus), which feed at the first trophic level. The model was balanced asuming a turnover rate for the land crabs of P/ B=0·25 ( P/ B: production per unit of biomass) which is possibly too high. If this value was replaced by a (possibly more realistic) lower value, the model would not balance, suggesting a situation in which more biomass is being harvested than produced, which hints to an overexploitation of this resource A ranking of the various system components in terms of their contribution to the system function (ascendency sensu Ulanowicz, 1997) revealed that detritus and associated bacteria contribute 34%, mangroves 19%, fiddler crabs 13%, phytoplankton and microphytobenthos 10%, mangrove crabs 10%, and the remaining 14 groups 14% to the total ascendency. Summary statistics of the model are given and compared with those of other coastal ecosystems.

Wolff, M.; Koch, V.; Isaac, V.

2000-06-01

381

Spatial CDF Estimation and Visualization with Applications to Forest Health Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

. This paper discusses the estimation and visualizationof spatial cumulative distribution functions (CDFs)with extensions to bivariate and higher dimensional CDFs.The use of CDFs is an important part of the USEPA EnvironmentalMonitoring and Assessment Program's (EMAP)work in assessing and monitoring the state of the nation'senvironmental resources. The resources in a given region canbe classified broadly into nominal, marginal, or sub-nominalstates. These

James J. Majure; Dianne Cook; Noel Cressie; Mark Kaiser; Soumendra Lahiri; Jürgen Symanzik

1995-01-01

382

How to save the rarest Darwin's finch from extinction: the mangrove finch on Isabela Island  

PubMed Central

Habitat destruction and predation by invasive alien species has led to the disappearance of several island populations of Darwin's finches but to date none of the 13 recognized species have gone extinct. However, driven by rapid economic growth in the Galápagos, the effects of introduced species have accelerated and severely threatened these iconic birds. The critically endangered mangrove finch (Camarhynchus heliobates) is now confined to three small mangroves on Isabela Island. During 2006–2009, we assessed its population status and monitored nesting success, both before and after rat poisoning. Population size was estimated at around only 100 birds for the two main breeding sites, with possibly 5–10 birds surviving at a third mangrove. Before rat control, 54 per cent of nests during incubation phase were predated with only 18 per cent of nests producing fledglings. Post-rat control, nest predation during the incubation phase fell to 30 per cent with 37 per cent of nests producing fledglings. During the nestling phase, infestation by larvae of the introduced parasitic fly (Philornis downsi) caused 14 per cent additional mortality. Using population viability analysis, we simulated the probability of population persistence under various scenarios of control and showed that with effective management of these invasive species, mangrove finch populations should start to recover.

Fessl, Birgit; Young, Glyn H.; Young, Richard P.; Rodriguez-Matamoros, Jorge; Dvorak, Michael; Tebbich, Sabine; Fa, John E.

2010-01-01

383

How to save the rarest Darwin's finch from extinction: the mangrove finch on Isabela Island.  

PubMed

Habitat destruction and predation by invasive alien species has led to the disappearance of several island populations of Darwin's finches but to date none of the 13 recognized species have gone extinct. However, driven by rapid economic growth in the Galápagos, the effects of introduced species have accelerated and severely threatened these iconic birds. The critically endangered mangrove finch (Camarhynchus heliobates) is now confined to three small mangroves on Isabela Island. During 2006-2009, we assessed its population status and monitored nesting success, both before and after rat poisoning. Population size was estimated at around only 100 birds for the two main breeding sites, with possibly 5-10 birds surviving at a third mangrove. Before rat control, 54 per cent of nests during incubation phase were predated with only 18 per cent of nests producing fledglings. Post-rat control, nest predation during the incubation phase fell to 30 per cent with 37 per cent of nests producing fledglings. During the nestling phase, infestation by larvae of the introduced parasitic fly (Philornis downsi) caused 14 per cent additional mortality. Using population viability analysis, we simulated the probability of population persistence under various scenarios of control and showed that with effective management of these invasive species, mangrove finch populations should start to recover. PMID:20194165

Fessl, Birgit; Young, Glyn H; Young, Richard P; Rodríguez-Matamoros, Jorge; Dvorak, Michael; Tebbich, Sabine; Fa, John E

2010-04-12

384

Monitoring Changes in Aboveground Biomass in Loblolly Pine Forests Using Multichannel Synthetic Aperture Radar Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was conducted to evaluate using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for estimating aboveground biomass in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forests. The data set for this experiment was a multiple-frequency (C-, L- and P-band), polarimetric SAR data set collected by the NASA/JPL AIRSAR System over the Duke University Research Forest located near Durham, North Carolina. In addition to the SAR data set, a set of ground measurements were collected to describe the tree geometry and biomass characteristics from 59 different stands consisting principally of loblolly pine within the Duke Forest. The aboveground, dry weight woody biomass in these test stands ranges from < 1 to >50 kg-m^2. The first analysis performed on this data set was to produce algorithms to estimate both dry and wet weight biomasses for each of the test stands, and to distribute this biomass amongst various tree components (e.g., boles, branches, and needles/leaves) as well as the different layers within the tree canopy (e.g., canopy, subcanopy and understory) in order to better relate biomass to the radar backscattering measurements. This was accomplished by development of allometric equations to estimate biomass for individual trees, from which stand estimates on an aerial basis were derived. The biomass estimates were then statistically correlated with radar backscatter (sigma ^circ) measurements derived from the SAR data set. It was found that sigma^ circ at a variety of radar frequencies (P, L, and C-bands) and linear-polarization combinations (HH, HV, and VV) were significantly correlated (at a level of significance of p = 0.001) to either individual biomass components (e.g., bole biomass, branch biomass, needle/leaf biomass, etc.) or multiple combinations of these components. While the correlations were significant at all linear polarizations at L- and P-bands, they were only significant in the cross -polarized channel at C-band. Finally, a two-step method was developed to estimate aboveground biomass from multichannel SAR data. The error estimate (coefficient of variation) for the various biomass components ranged between 16% and 27%. It is concluded that the pine stand biomasses (dry weight) for which these algorithms are valid range between 15 and 40 kg-m ^{2}.

Kasischke, Eric Stewart

385

Spectral reflectance properties of mangrove species of the Muthupettai mangrove environment, Tamil Nadu.  

PubMed

In the Muthupettai mangrove environment, spectral properties of six mangrove species viz. Avicennia marina, Aegiceras corniculatum, Excoecaria agallocha, Acanthus ilicifolius, Suaeda monoica and S. maritima was studied using Multi band Ground Truth Radiometer (Model-041). The study found that the chlorophyll concentration of different mangrove leaves varies between 0.05 and 0.36 mg g(-1), registering the minimum in S. maritima and maximum in E. agallocha. Interestingly species with higher chlorophyll concentration showed lower reflectance values alteast in the spectral bands 1 and 2. E. agallocha registered 0.36 mg g(-1) of chlorophyll while it recorded only 2.18 and 2.43% reflectance where as S. maritima recorded 3.16 and 3.27% of reflectance in bands 1 and 2. This indicates chlorophyll concentration is one of major factors responsible in determining the reflectance pattern of the pant communities. The spectral properties of mangroves were largely differed with that of the water and soil samples collected from the same locations, these results favourd the utilization of remotely sensed data for depicting various water and soil quality parameters from that of mangrove species in the mangrove environment. This study also found that the difference in reflectance of mangroves at canopy level is not only influenced by the chlorophyll content of species but also by the prevailing environmental condition and background reflectance of soil and water as well. PMID:19295083

Ajithkumar, T T; Thangaradjou, T; Kannan, L

2008-09-01

386

A comparison of nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) among three species of mangrove litter, sediments, and pneumatophores in south Florida, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assays of nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction method) were performed on fresh leaf litter (yellow leaves recently fallen\\u000a from the trees), aged leaf litter (brown leaves on the forest floor) of Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans, and Laguncularia\\u000a racemosa; and in addition rates were measured on pneumatophores of A. germinans and mangrove sediment from two different sites\\u000a along the Shark River estuary

Sílvia P. Pelegraí; Victor H. Rivera-Monroy; Robert R. Twilley

1997-01-01

387

Trematodes associated with mangrove habitat in Puerto Rican salt marshes.  

PubMed

Batillaria minima is a common snail in the coastal estuaries of Puerto Rico. This snail is host to a variety of trematodes, the most common being Cercaria caribbea XXXI, a microphallid species that uses crabs as second intermediate hosts. The prevalence of infection was higher (7.1%) near mangroves than on mudflats away from mangroves (1.4%). Similarly, there was a significant positive association between the proportion of a site covered with mangroves and the prevalence of the microphallid. The association between mangroves and higher trematode prevalence is most likely because birds use mangroves as perch sites and this results in local transmission to snails. PMID:16108572

Lafferty, K D; Hechinger, R F; Lorda, J; Soler, L

2005-06-01

388

Monitoring of Clustered Lady's Slipper Orchid (Cypripedium Fasciculatum Kell. Ex Wats.) at Apgar Campground, Clearwater National Forest.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1987 and 1988, Steve Caicco of the Conservation Data Center did a field inventory of Forest Service sensitive plant species on the Clearwater National Forest (Caicco 1987, 1988). During this survey he discovered two subpopulations of clustered lady's s...

J. Lichthardt

1995-01-01

389

Differential seed and seedling predation by crabs: impacts on tropical coastal forest composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the importance of seed predation by crabs on mangrove species distributions and densities has been established by several studies. In a tropical coastal terrestrial forest in Costa Rica, we investigated the relative importance of predation by land crabs, Gecarcinus quadratus, and hermit crabs, Coenobita compressus, on measured forest composition through a series of seed removal and seedling establishment experiments.

Erin Stewart Lindquist; C. Ronald Carroll

2004-01-01

390

One century of hydrological monitoring in two small catchments with different forest coverage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term data on precipitation and runoff are essential to draw firm conclusions about the behavior and trends of hydrological\\u000a catchments that may be influenced by land use and climate change. Here the longest continuous runoff records from small catchments\\u000a (2) in Switzerland (and possibly worldwide) are reported. The history of the hydrological monitoring in the Sperbel- and Rappengraben\\u000a (Emmental) is

Manfred Stähli; Alexandre Badoux; Andreas Ludwig; Karl Steiner; Massimiliano Zappa; Christoph Hegg

2011-01-01

391

Monitoring, indicators and community based forest management in the tropics: pretexts or red herrings?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 20 years, transfer of the management of natural resources to local populations has been a major trend in the\\u000a tropics. Many of these initiatives today incorporate the development of monitoring systems based on Criteria and Indicators\\u000a (C&I), used to gauge environmental, socio-economic, and institutional consequences over a long period of time. The design\\u000a of C&I at a local

Claude A. Garcia; Guillaume Lescuyer

2008-01-01

392

Integration of optical and SAR remotely sensed data for monitoring wildfires in Mediterranean forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large wildfires in forests of southern European countries such as Portugal, Spain, Greece, France and Italy are one key ecological disturbance of the Mediterranean environment. Optical data have been largely used for burned area mapping and literature provides an extensive reference for the typical spectral signal of burns and the methodologies applied to extract burn perimeters. However, optical remote sensing techniques have the major limitation of a reduced frequency of clear images due to cloud cover; moreover, for the specific application of burned area mapping, unburned targets such as shadows, can be spectrally confused and misclassified as burns. For this reason radar images could be integrated as an additional source of information. We developed an approach for mapping burned areas in Mediterranean regions based on Landsat TM/ETM+ data and vegetation indices that provided satisfactory results. However, we are currently working for further improving our approach by exploiting the synergy between optical and radar data. In this paper we present the first results of the analysis of the SAR backscatter over burned areas for future integration into the formal framework previously developed. Although results are preliminary, they encourage us to test the approach over different regions of the Mediterranean environment to evaluate its robustness.

Azar, Ramin; Stroppiana, Daniela; Boschetti, Mirco; Brivio, Pietro A.; Pepe, Antonio; Paglia, Luca; Calò, Fabiana; Lanari, Riccardo

2012-09-01

393

Tracing sewage water by 15N in a mangrove ecosystem to test its bioremediation ability.  

PubMed

Mangrove forests could be a simple and effective alternative to conventional sewage treatment, particularly for island communities given its low cost and low maintenance. Due to their high adaptation capacity, these plants are able to tolerate and bioremediate the high levels of nutrients and pollutants found in sewage water. This solution could be applied to small tropical islands with high population density such as Mayotte in the Indian Ocean. This paper reports on a trial by stable isotopic (15)N tracing of such a bioremediation process on pre-treated wastewater near the village of Malamani, in the middle of the large coastal mangrove in the bay near Chirongui. The first results show a boost in the mangrove growth, but a longer period of observation is needed to confirm the beneficial effects, and also to clarify the role of the local crab population, whose engineering activities play an important part in the ecosystem. The exact denitrification process is not yet understood, and the mass balance equation also reveals loss of nitrogen-containing compounds, which needs to be analyzed more closely. PMID:21913255

Lambs, Luc; Léopold, Audrey; Zeller, Bernd; Herteman, Mélanie; Fromard, Francois

2011-10-15

394

The Distribution of Ammonia-Oxidizing Betaproteobacteria in Stands of Black Mangroves (Avicennia germinans)  

PubMed Central

The distribution of species of aerobic chemolitho-autotrophic microorganisms such as ammonia-oxidizing bacteria are governed by pH, salinity, and temperature as well as the availability of oxygen, ammonium, carbon dioxide, and other inorganic elements required for growth. Impounded mangrove forests in the Indian River Lagoon, a coastal estuary on the east coast of Florida, are dominated by mangroves, especially stands of Black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) that differ in the size and density of individual plants. In March 2009, the management of one impoundment was changed to a regime of pumping estuarine water into the impoundment at critical times of the year to eliminate breeding sites for noxious insects. We collected soil samples in three different Black mangrove habitats before and after the change in management to determine the impacts of the altered hydrologic regimes on the distribution of 16s rRNA genes belonging to ammonia-oxidizing betaproteobacteria (?-AOB). We also sampled soils in an adjacent impoundment in which there had not been any hydrologic alteration. At the level of 97% mutual similarity in the 16s rRNA gene, 13 different operational taxonomic units were identified; the majority related to the lineages of Nitrosomonas marina (45% of the total clones), Nitrosomonas sp. Nm143 (23%), and Nitrosospira cluster 1 (19%). Long-term summer flooding of the impoundment in 2009, after initiation of the pumping regime, reduced the percentage of N. marina by half between 2008 and 2010 in favor of the two other major lineages and the potential ammonia-oxidizing activity decreased by an average of 73%. Higher interstitial salinities, probably due to a prolonged winter drought, had a significant effect on the composition of the ?-AOB in March 2009 compared to March 2008: Nitrosomonas sp. Nm143 was replaced by Nitrosospira cluster 1 as the second most important lineage. There were small, but significant differences in the bacterial communities between the flooded and non-flooded impoundments. There were also differences in the community composition of the bacteria in the three Black mangrove habitats. N. marina was most dominant in all three habitats, but was partly replaced by Nitrosospira cluster 1 in sites dominated by sparsely distributed trees and by Nitrosomonas sp. Nm143 in sites characterized by taller, more densely distributed Black mangrove trees.

Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.; Keijzer, Rosalinde M.; Verhoeven, Jos T. A.; Whigham, Dennis F.

2012-01-01

395

Difference in the crab fauna of mangrove areas at a southwest Florida and a northeast Australia location: Implications for leaf litter processing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Existing paradigms suggest that mangrove leaf litter is processed primarily via the detrital pathway in forests in the Caribbean biogeographic realm whereas herbivorous crabs are relatively more important litter processors in the Indo-West Pacific. To test this hypothesis, we used pitfall traps to collect intertidal crabs to characterize the crab fauna in a mangrove estuary in southwest Florida. We also tethered mangrove leaves to determine if herbivorous crabs are major leaf consumers there. We compared the results with previously published data collected in an analogous manner from forests in northeastern Australia. The crab fauna in Rookery Bay, Florida, is dominated by carnivorous xanthid and deposit-feeding ocypodid crabs whereas that of the Murray River in northeastern Australia is dominated by herbivorous grapsid crabs. No leaves tethered at five sites in the forests in Southwest Florida were taken by crabs. This contrasts greatly with reported values of leaf removal by crabs in Australian forests of 28-79% of the leaves reaching the forest floor. These differences in the faunal assemblages and in the fate of marked or tethered leaves provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that leaf litter is in fact processed in fundamentally different ways in the two biogeographic realms.

McIvor, C.C.; Smith, T.J., III

1995-01-01

396

Driving Forces Behind Nutrient and Organic Matter Dynamics in a Mangrove Tidal Creek in North Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the mangrove of the Caeté Estuary (North Brazil) a detailed sampling was carried out in order to gain insight into the dynamics of inorganic nutrients and organic matter in one of the world's largest mangroves and to identify the driving forces behind these processes. Throughout 36 tidal cycles in the course of one year, concentrations of dissolved and particulate organic carbon and nitrogen (DOC, POC, DON, PON) and dissolved inorganic nutrients (N, P, Si compounds) were determined in a mangrove tidal creek. Annual average concentrations (in ?M) were DOC 360, POC 240, DON 20, PON 29, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) 11, silicate 170 and phosphate 2·4. Ammonium and nitrite were about 80 and 17% of DIN, respectively. Nutrient dynamics in the creek were significantly influenced by porewater input from the upper forest sediment layer. This led to characteristic tidal signatures of nutrient and organic matter concentrations with maximum values during low tide. Annual phosphate and DOC oscillations were caused mainly by tidally dependent variations of porewater input. Their concentrations in the creek were directly proportional to the hydraulic gradient between creek and sediment water table. Due to autotrophic activity, dissolved oxygen, pH and DOC were higher and DIN was lower during daytime than at night. Annual oscillations of DIN and DON could also be attributed to varying phytoplanktonic activity. Silicate and phosphate showed only weak response to aquatic photosynthesis with slightly lower concentrations during the day. Assuming equilibrated fluxes, nitrogen fixation in the forest could be estimated to be 2·3 mmol N m -2 d -1. Based on these findings, tidal range and porewater concentrations were identified as driving forces behind coastal outwelling of nutrients and organic matter from mangroves. Outwelling probably occurs only from mangroves where the nutrient concentration in porewater exceeds the demands of the benthic community and trees, caused by positive sedimentation balances and high nitrogen fixation rates, and only in macrotidal regions where porewater can flow in considerable amounts to the tidal creeks and the ocean.

Dittmar, T.; Lara, R. J.

2001-02-01

397

Mangroves in the Gulf of California increase fishery yields  

PubMed Central

Mangroves are disappearing rapidly worldwide despite their well documented biodiversity and the ecosystem services they provide. Failure to link ecological processes and their societal benefits has favored highly destructive aquaculture and tourism developments that threaten mangroves and result in costly “externalities.” Specifically, the potentially irreparable damage to fisheries because of mangrove loss has been belittled and is greatly underestimated. Here, we show that, in the Gulf of California, fisheries landings are positively related to the local abundance of mangroves and, in particular, to the productive area in the mangrove–water fringe that is used as nursery and/or feeding grounds by many commercial species. Mangrove-related fish and crab species account for 32% of the small-scale fisheries landings in the region. The annual economic median value of these fisheries is US $37,500 per hectare of mangrove fringe, falling within the higher end of values previously calculated worldwide for all mangrove services together. The ten-year discounted value of one hectare of fringe is >300 times the official cost set by the Mexican government. The destruction of mangroves has a strong economic impact on local fishing communities and on food production in the region. Our valuation of the services provided by mangroves may prove useful in making appropriate decisions for a more efficient and sustainable use of wetlands.

Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Ezcurra, Exequiel; Danemann, Gustavo; Valdez, Victor; Murray, Jason; Sala, Enric

2008-01-01

398

Mangroves in the Gulf of California increase fishery yields.  

PubMed

Mangroves are disappearing rapidly worldwide despite their well documented biodiversity and the ecosystem services they provide. Failure to link ecological processes and their societal benefits has favored highly destructive aquaculture and tourism developments that threaten mangroves and result in costly "externalities." Specifically, the potentially irreparable damage to fisheries because of mangrove loss has been belittled and is greatly underestimated. Here, we show that, in the Gulf of California, fisheries landings are positively related to the local abundance of mangroves and, in particular, to the productive area in the mangrove-water fringe that is used as nursery and/or feeding grounds by many commercial species. Mangrove-related fish and crab species account for 32% of the small-scale fisheries landings in the region. The annual economic median value of these fisheries is US $37,500 per hectare of mangrove fringe, falling within the higher end of values previously calculated worldwide for all mangrove services together. The ten-year discounted value of one hectare of fringe is >300 times the official cost set by the Mexican government. The destruction of mangroves has a strong economic impact on local fishing communities and on food production in the region. Our valuation of the services provided by mangroves may prove useful in making appropriate decisions for a more efficient and sustainable use of wetlands. PMID:18645185

Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Ezcurra, Exequiel; Danemann, Gustavo; Valdez, Víctor; Murray, Jason; Sala, Enric

2008-07-21

399

Canopy interactions of rainfall in an off-shore mangrove ecosystem dominated by Rhizophora mangle (Belize)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bulk precipitation, throughfall and stemflow were collected to study anthropogenic effects on above-ground nutrient cycling in an off-shore mangrove forest (Rhizophora mangle L.) on Twin Cays, Belize. Samples were collected in a nitrogen limited fringe and phosphorus limited dwarf zone, and from an adjacent nitrogen fertilized fringe and a phosphorus fertilized dwarf zone. Inorganic cations and anions, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) were analysed. Throughfall represented 84% of precipitation volume. Sea salt ions (Cl-, Na+, SO42- and Mg2+) and DOC accounted for the highest proportion of solutes in rainwater, throughfall and stemflow in R. mangle stands. Non-marine sources dominated the flux of DON, DOC, NO3-, NH4+, and inorganic P (Pi) in bulk precipitation and throughfall and partially contributed to Ca2+ and K+. Deposition ratios (throughfall deposition:bulk deposition) showed that inorganic NH4+, and less so Pi were retained in the canopy of R. mangle from throughfall while all other solutes increased. Canopy leaching contributed in increasing order to net throughfall of Ca2+, Cl-, SO42-/K, Mg2+ and Na+ but dry deposition dominated the net throughfall flux during the investigated period. Fertilizer treatment and zone did only slightly affect solute concentrations of hot-water extracts of leaves, of throughfall and stemflow in stands of similar stature. While litterfall and primary production have previously been shown to increase substantially upon nutrient enrichment of mangroves we therefore conclude that fertilization, as a surrogate of anthropogenic eutrophication, may not increase nutrient leaching from mangrove canopies, and thus may only have a minor effect on soluble organic matter cycling and inputs into mangrove food webs.

Wanek, Wolfgang; Hofmann, Julia; Feller, Ilka C.

2007-10-01

400

The Amazon Mangrove Coast: The Role of Geological Factors in its Evolution During the Quaternary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Amazon mangrove coast considered in this work includes the northeast Para and northwest Maranhao states. This coast is extremely irregular and jagged with numerous bays and estuaries. The main goal of the present work is to recognize the principal geological factors responsible for the development of the mangrove system. The integration of remote sensing data with other available studies indicates the existence of four main geomorphological sectors along the mangrove coast as described below. Sector 1 extends from Marajo to Pirabas Bay and is developed over the Para platform. The coastal plateau reaches the shoreline forming terraces and active cliffs. Sector 2 extends between the Pirabas and Gurupi bays and is structured over the Bragança- Viseu basin. In this sector, the coastal sedimentary environments widen considerably towards the east from Pirabas Bay and the coastal plateaus stretch out southward to constitute inactive cliffs. Mangroves developed seaward, reaching currently a width of 30 km. Sector 3 extends from Gurupi to Turiaçu Bay and is developed over the Gurupi horst. The latter represents a stratigraphic window where proterozoic rocks outcrop near the coast. Compared with the other sectors, mangrove deposits here reach their maximum extension with up to 40 km wide. Sector 4 extends between the Turiacu and Cuma bays and is structured in the Sao Luis basin. This coastal basin is also developed on land and represents a gravimetric low along a NE-SE direction.Mangroves are narrower, with a maximum width of 26 km. This analysis of the coastal geomorphology by considering neotectonic activity allows the identification of five sectors. Sector 1, with a positive gravimetric anomaly and poorly influenced by peripheral bulge. These characteristics suggest a relative tectonic stability of this sector, where the coastal plateau reaches the shoreline and mangroves are poorly developed. Sector 2 is marked by low gravimetric anomalies and normal faults reactived by peripheral bulge. In this sector, the location of these inactive cliffs is spatially coincident with the peripheral bulge. Hence, we suggest that the inactive cliffs are a result of the flexural reactivation of ancient normal faults, which is supported by studies of in the northeastern Brazilian coast. Sector 3 is also marked by normal faults and peripheral bulge influence, presenting geomorphological characteristics similar to Sector 2. In Sectors 2 and 3 the retreated coastal plateau and inundation deposits of the estuaries allowed the development of wide tidal flats where the largest mangrove belt is established. In Sector 4 there is a great mangrove development. This area is characterized by a gravimetric high, with little influenced by peripheral bulge and is structurally controlled by normal faults limited by the Cururupu arch. The interaction of regional framework and flexural deformation explains the reactivation of ancient faults responsible for the geomorphology of the North Brazilian mangrove coast. However, further structural and geodetic monitoring from interferometric SAR data are needed for a more detailed knowledge of the Quaternary tectonics of this region. This may provide elements for a better comprehension of wetland evolution in the moist tropics, particularly regarding their response to coastal subsidence and relative sea level changes in time of global changes.

Souza-Filho, P. W.; Lara, R.; Silveira, O.; Miranda, F. P.

2007-05-01

401

The effect of climate conditions on inter-annual flowering variability monitored by pollen traps below the canopy in Draved Forest, Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1967 annual pollen deposition has been monitored in the semi-natural mixed deciduous woodland Draved Forest by the Geological\\u000a Survey of Denmark. In this paper, we analyse the variability in pollen accumulation rates for the eight most common deciduous\\u000a trees, and their relationships to monthly temperature and precipitation. High summer temperatures in the year before flowering\\u000a have a positive effect

Anne Birgitte Nielsen; Peter Friis Møller; Thomas Giesecke; Beth Stavngaard; Sonia L. Fontana; Richard H. W. Bradshaw

2010-01-01

402

MONITORING OF DEFORESTATION IN TROPICAL RAIN FOREST AREAS BY USING INSAR - COMPARISON BETWEEN L-BAND AND C-BAND SAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author compared the capability of coherence information obtained from interferometric SAR (InSAR) by C-band SAR of ERS-1 and 2 and by L-band SAR of JERS-1 for the purpose of monitoring the changes of tropical rain forest due to deforestation. The test site was a southern part of Sumatra Island with 50 by 50 kilometers coverage. The several repeat-pass interferometric

Shoji TAKEUCHI

403

An assessment of hyperspectral and lidar remote sensing for the monitoring of tropical rain forest trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective this research was to assess two types of emerging remote sensing technology, hyperspectral and lidar sensors, for the automated discrimination of tropical rain forest tree (TRF) species. The hyperspectral data contain information on the biochemical and structural properties of crowns, while the lidar data contain structural information. I hypothesized that these two datasets combined would permit greater species classification accuracy than either dataset alone. Working in an old-growth TRF in Costa Rica, canopy-emergent individual tree crowns (ITCs) for seven target species were manually digitized with reference to high spatial resolution hyperspectral and lidar datasets that were acquired from airborne sensors. Multispectral and hyperspectral classification was performed using pixel- and crown-scale spectra and spectral angle mapper (SAM), maximum likelihood (ML), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifiers. Pixel-majority and crown-scale ITC classifications were significantly more accurate with hyperspectral data relative to multispectral data, revealing the importance of the spectral detail offered by hyperspectral imagery. Additional techniques were explored to best harness this spectral information. These included incorporating hyperspectral metrics into decision trees (DTs) and multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA). The best spectral-based classification accuracy was with crown-scale spectra and a relatively simple LDA procedure. These results suggested that hyperspectral imagery need not be acquired at a very high spatial resolution or analyzed with sophisticated techniques to provide adequate discrimination of species. Leaf phenology was important in mapping TRF tree species. Leaf-off trees had distinct volume-scattering and spectral mixing properties that influenced classifier variable selection as well as final classification accuracy. Crown-scale hyperspectral data were combined with structural data from the lidar sensor in LDA and DT classifiers. There were significant differences in the majority of lidar-derived structural metrics among the study tree species; however, the addition of this information to the classifiers did not improve classification accuracies. Although lidar data was not useful for species discrimination, it did provide an unprecedented view of canopy topography and sub-canopy elevation that is difficult to measure using traditional techniques.

Clark, Matthew Loren

404

Community structure and temporal variability of juvenile fish assemblages in natural and replanted mangroves, Sonneratia alba Sm., of Gazi Bay, Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The juvenile fish community associated with natural, degraded and replanted Sonneratia alba mangroves in Gazi Bay was sampled during the South East and North East monsoons between April 2002 and June 2003. A total of 1800 individuals belonging to 49 taxa and 34 families were collected from the intertidal forest using stake nets. Fish abundance ranged from 0.93 ± 0.20 ind. m-2 (SEM02) to 1.16 ± 0.18 ind. m-2 (SEM03) between seasons and between 0.54 ± 0.07 ind. m-2 and 1.64 ± 0.33 ind. m-2 for individual sites across seasons. Five taxa accounted for approximately 70% of the total fish abundance, with Gobidae and Gerres oyena dominating. ANOSIM revealed seasonal differences in fish species composition and abundance (p = 0.01) due to fluctuating abundances of primarily Terapon sp. and Thryssa sp. The majority (65%) of fishes were reef associates, which implies a tight coupling between mangroves and coral reefs. The high proportion (75%) of commercial species indicates that fringing S. alba mangroves of Gazi Bay are important in sustaining coastal fisheries in the area. The fact that the replanted mangroves of Gazi Bay harbor a significant number of commercially important species as juveniles suggest their function as nursery habitats for nekton may well have been restored. This study is original in quantitatively evaluating the use of replanted intertidal mangroves by juvenile fish in the West Indian Ocean; a topic poorly studied worldwide to date.

Crona, B. I.; Rönnbäck, P.

2007-08-01

405

The Utilization of Mangroves by Malayan Birds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mangroves are important to Malayan birds in the following four ways. (1) They provide nesting sites for a number of large species of herons and storks, but also for at least three raptors and two owls. (2) They provide roosts for many migrant species (and...

I. C. T. Misbet

1968-01-01

406

Impact of expected climate change on mangroves  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a consensus of scientific opinion that the activities of man will cause a significant change in the global climate over the next hundred years. The rising level of carbon dioxide and other industrial gases in the atmosphere may lead to global warming with an accompanying rise in sea-level. Mangrove ecosystems grow in the intertidal zones in tropical and

C. D. Field

1995-01-01

407

Investigating Extreme Lifestyles through Mangrove Transcriptomics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mangroves represent phylogenetically diverse taxa in tropical coastal terrestrial habitats. They are extremophiles, evolutionarily adapted to tolerate flooding, anoxia, high temperatures, wind, and high and extremely variable salt conditions in typically resource-poor environments. The genetic basis for these adaptations is, however, virtually…

Dassanayake, Maheshi

2009-01-01

408

Investigating Extreme Lifestyles through Mangrove Transcriptomics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Mangroves represent phylogenetically diverse taxa in tropical coastal terrestrial habitats. They are extremophiles, evolutionarily adapted to tolerate flooding, anoxia, high temperatures, wind, and high and extremely variable salt conditions in typically resource-poor environments. The genetic basis for these adaptations is, however, virtually…

Dassanayake, Maheshi

2009-01-01

409

Forest cover monitoring using remote sensing and GIS — A case study in Dhaulkhand range of Rajaji National Park, Uttar pradesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rajaji National Park in U.P. is a protected area where large number of nomad population live within the park area. Their dependence\\u000a on the forest for cattle rearing and firewood has caused degradation of the forests. Proximity to settlements outside the\\u000a park further adds to the problems. In the present study, forest cover and river, bed changes have been attempted

K. K. Das; Shirish A. Ravan; S. K. Negi; Abhineet Jain; P. S. Roy

1996-01-01

410

Monitoring responses of forest to climate variations by MODIS NDVI: a case study of Hun River upstream, northeastern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzed the temporal variation of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference\\u000a Vegetation Index (NDVI) of Hun River upstream forest in northeastern China and its correlation with climate parameters (temperature\\u000a and precipitation) during the period of 2000–2009. We examined the interannual variation of forest, seasonal variation of\\u000a forest and lag effects of climate variables (temperature and precipitation) on

J. Yao; X. Y. He; X. Y. Li; W. Chen; D. L. Tao

411

Mapping and monitoring deforestation and forest degradation in Sumatra (Indonesia) using Landsat time series data sets from 1990 to 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As reported by FAO (2005 State of the World’s Forests (Rome: UNFAO), 2010 Forest Resource Assessment (FRA) 2010/095 (Rome: UNFAO)), Indonesia experiences the second highest rate of deforestation among tropical countries. Hence, timely and accurate forest data are required to combat deforestation and forest degradation in support of climate change mitigation and biodiversity conservation policy initiatives. Within Indonesia, Sumatra Island stands out due to the intensive forest clearing that has resulted in the conversion of 70% of the island’s forested area through 2010. We present here a hybrid approach for quantifying the extent and change of primary forest in Sumatra in terms of primary intact and primary degraded classes using a per-pixel supervised classification mapping followed by a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based fragmentation analysis. Loss of Sumatra’s primary intact and primary degraded forests was estimated to provide suitable information for the objectives of the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD and REDD+) program. Results quantified 7.54 Mha of primary forest loss in Sumatra during the last two decades (1990-2010). An additional 2.31 Mha of primary forest was degraded. Of the 7.54 Mha cleared, 7.25 Mha was in a degraded state when cleared, and 0.28 Mha was in a primary state. The rate of primary forest cover change for both forest cover loss and forest degradation slowed over the study period, from 7.34 Mha from 1990 to 2000, to 2.51 Mha from 2000 to 2010. The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) data set was employed to evaluate results. GLAS-derived tree canopy height indicated a significant structural difference between primary intact and primary degraded forests (mean height 28 m ± 8.7 m and 19 m ± 8.2 m, respectively). The results demonstrate a method for quantifying primary forest cover stand-replacement disturbance and degradation that can be replicated across the tropics in support of REDD+ initiatives.

Arunarwati Margono, Belinda; Turubanova, Svetlana; Zhuravleva, Ilona; Potapov, Peter; Tyukavina, Alexandra; Baccini, Alessandro; Goetz, Scott; Hansen, Matthew C.

2012-09-01

412

Biodiversity and biotechnological potential of mangrove-associated fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes the present hot research areas of mangrove-associated fungi, including its biodiversity, ecological\\u000a roles, novel metabolites productions and biotechnological potential. Mangrove-associated fungi were divided into saprophytic,\\u000a parasitic and true symbiotic fungi based on its ecological roles. Saprophytic fungi are fundamental to decomposition and energy\\u000a flow of mangrove, additionally, their potential toxicity also exists. Pathogenic fungi have significant effects

Zhong-shan Cheng; Jia-Hui Pan; Wen-cheng Tang; Qi-jin Chen; Yong-cheng Lin

2009-01-01

413

Mapping and characterization of mangrove plant communities in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ecological surveys were carried out to investigate the distribution and characterization of remaining mangrove stands in Hong\\u000a Kong. The field studies indicate that 43 mangrove stands, excluding Mai Po Nature Reserve, still remained along the coastline\\u000a of Hong Kong despite tremendous reclamation and development which occurred in the past 40 years. Most mangrove stands were\\u000a found in Deep Bay (western

Nora F. Y. Tam; Yuk-Shan Wong; C. Y. Lu; R. Berry

414

Mapping and characterization of mangrove plant communities in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological surveys were carried out to investigate the distribution and characterization of remaining mangrove stands in Hong\\u000a Kong. The field studies indicate that 43 mangrove stands, excluding Mai Po Nature Reserve, still remained along the coastline\\u000a of Hong Kong despite tremendous reclamation and development which occurred in the past 40 years. Most mangrove stands were\\u000a found in Deep Bay (western

Nora F. Y. Tam; Yuk-Shan Wong; C. Y. Lu; R. Berry

1997-01-01

415

Herbivore responses to nutrient enrichment and landscape heterogeneity in a mangrove ecosystem.  

PubMed

Complex gradients in forest structure across the landscape of offshore mangrove islands in Belize are associated with nutrient deficiency and flooding. While nutrient availability can affect many ecological processes, here we investigate how N and P enrichment interact with forest structure in three distinct zones (fringe, transition, dwarf) to alter patterns of herbivory as a function of folivory, loss of yield, and tissue mining. The effects of nutrient addition and zone varied by functional feeding group or specific herbivore. Folivory ranged from 0 to 0.4% leaf area damaged per month, but rates did not vary by either nutrient enrichment or zone. Leaf lifetime damage ranged from 3 to 10% of the total leaf area and was caused primarily by the omnivorous tree crab Aratus pisonii. We detected two distinct spatial scales of response by A. pisonii that were unrelated to nutrient treatment, i.e., most feeding damage occurred in the fringe zone and crabs fed primarily on the oldest leaves in the canopy. Loss of yield caused by the bud moth Ecdytolopha sp. varied by zone but not by nutrient treatment. A periderm-mining Marmara sp. responded positively to nutrient enrichment and closely mirrored the growth response by Rhizophora mangle across the tree height gradient. In contrast, a leaf-mining Marmara sp. was controlled by parasitoids and predators that killed >89% of its larvae. Thus, nutrient availability altered patterns of herbivory of some but not all mangrove herbivores. These findings support the hypothesis that landscape heterogeneity of the biotic and abiotic environment has species-specific effects on community structure and trophic interactions. Predicting how herbivores respond to nutrient over-enrichment in mangrove ecosystems also requires an assessment of habitat heterogeneity coupled with feeding strategies and species-specific behavior measured on multiple scales of response. PMID:17566784

Feller, Ilka C; Chamberlain, Anne

2007-06-14

416

Monitoring and information reporting for sustainable forest management: An inter-jurisdictional comparison of soft law standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is difficult to determine the information required to address sustainable forest management (SFM) issues. In the case of local-level soft law standards, such as third-party forest certification, the information must ensure adequate planning, inventory, reporting, inspection and compliance. It must also serve the practical and strategic needs of both the certified and certifying organization. In this study, the nature

Gordon M. Hickey; John L. Innes; Robert A. Kozak; Gary Q. Bull; Ilan Vertinsky

2006-01-01

417

Biophysical controls on accretion and elevation change in Caribbean mangrove ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Habitat stability of coastal ecosystems, such as marshes and mangroves, depends on maintenance of soil elevations relative to sea level. Many such systems are characterized by limited mineral sedimentation and/or rapid subsidence and are consequently dependent upon accumulation of organic matter to maintain elevations. However, little field information exists regarding the contribution of specific biological processes to vertical accretion and elevation change. This study used biogenic mangrove systems in carbonate settings in Belize (BZ) and southwest Florida (FL) to examine biophysical controls on elevation change. Rates of elevation change, vertical accretion, benthic mat formation, and belowground root accumulation were measured in fringe, basin, scrub, and dwarf forest types plus a restored forest. Elevation change rates (mm yr -1) measured with Surface Elevation Tables varied widely: BZ-Dwarf (-3.7), BZ-Scrub (-1.1), FL-Fringe (0.6), FL-Basin (2.1), BZ-Fringe (4.1), and FL-Restored (9.9). Root mass accumulation varied across sites (82-739 g m -2 yr -1) and was positively correlated with elevation change. Root volumetric contribution to vertical change (mm yr -1) was lowest in BZ-Dwarf (1.2) and FL-Fringe (2.4), intermediate in FL-Basin (4.1) and BZ-Scrub (4.3), and highest in BZ-Fringe (8.8) and FL-Restored (11.8) sites. Surface growth of turf-forming algae, microbial mats, or accumulation of leaf litter and detritus also made significant contributions to vertical accretion. Turf algal mats in fringe and scrub forests accreted faster (2.7 mm yr -1) than leaf litter mats in basin forests (1.9 mm yr -1), but similarly to microbial mats in dwarf forests (2.1 mm yr -1). Surface accretion of mineral material accounted for only 0.2-3.3% of total vertical change. Those sites with high root contributions and/or rapid growth of living mats exhibited an elevation surplus (+2 to +8 mm yr -1), whereas those with low root inputs and low (or non-living) mat accumulation showed an elevation deficit (-1 to -5.7 mm yr -1). This study indicates that biotic processes of root production and benthic mat formation are important controls on accretion and elevation change in mangrove ecosystems common to the Caribbean Region. Quantification of specific biological controls on elevation provides better insight into how sustainability of such systems might be influenced by global (e.g., climate, atmospheric CO 2) and local (e.g., nutrients, disturbance) factors affecting organic matter accumulation, in addition to relative sea-level rise.

McKee, Karen L.

2011-03-01

418

Small non-flying mammals from conserved and altered areas of Atlantic forest and Cerrado: comments on their potential use for monitoring environment.  

PubMed

Two Atlantic Forests and two Cerrado areas in Brazil were sampled for non-flying small mammal fauna. In each biome one area with altered and another with almost unaltered vegetation (national parks), were chosen to investigate these fauna. Species richness of Atlantic Forest and Cerrado was comparable in the conserved as well as in the altered areas. Data suggested that species could be divided into different ecological categories according to distribution, use of altered and/or relatively unaltered vegetation and habitat specificity. Within these ecological categories some species are appropriate indicators for monitoring environmental quality and degradation. Useful guidelines for wildlife management planning, including selecting areas for conservation units and their better boundary delimitation can ensue. PMID:12659027

Bonvicino, C R; Lindbergh, S M; Maroja, L S

2002-11-01

419

Mangroves mitigate tsunami damage: A further response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a contribution to the discussion on the potential mitigating effect of mangroves to tsunami damage. Kathiresan and Rajendran (2005) were criticised by Kerr et al. (2006). We re-analysed of the original data with an ANOVA-model with covariates. We conclude: (a) the original conclusion of Kathiresan and Rajendran (2005) holds, mortality and property loss were less behind mangroves, and literature suggests that this can be generalised beyond the investigated area; (b) relocation of human settlements 1 km inland is not practical, instead a combination of societal preparedness with early warning and disaster response systems is to be preferred. Furthermore, we deduce that mortality was most strongly, and significantly reduced with increasing elevation above mean sea level, whereas property loss was governed by distance to the shore. This could improve coastal risk assessments.

Vermaat, J.; Thampanya, U.

2006-08-01

420

Bioremediation of Mangroves Impacted by Petroleum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of oil from oceanic oil spills (e.g. the recent accident in the Gulf of Mexico) converges on coastal ecosystems\\u000a such as mangroves. Microorganisms are directly involved in biogeochemical cycles as key drivers of the degradation of many\\u000a carbon sources, including petroleum hydrocarbons. When properly understood and managed, microorganisms provide a wide range\\u000a of ecosystem services, such as bioremediation,

Henrique F. Santos; Flávia L. Carmo; Jorge E. S. Paes; Alexandre S. Rosado; Raquel S. Peixoto

2011-01-01

421

Air Pollution-Related Lichen Monitoring in National Parks, Forests, Refuges: Guidelines for Studies Intended for Regulatory and Management Purposes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guidance document is intended to serve as a resource for national park, forest, and refuge staff when considering lichen studies to address air quality concerns. It provides background regarding the use of lichens as air pollution indicators, their s...

E. Porter L. Geiser T. Blett

2003-01-01

422

Erosion on tropical rain-forest terrain: a re-evaluation in the light of long-term monitoring, aerial photographic evidence and sediment fingerprinting in Borneo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rain-forest vegetation is generally considered to be highly protective against erosion, but with disturbance via logging leading to major, but relatively short-lived increases in erosion for a 2-year period until rapid revegetation of slopes has occurred. This paper questions and re-assesses these views using a combination of long-term monitoring, GIS-assisted aerial photograph analysis and multi-proxy sediment fingerprinting in primary rainforest and adjacent terrain that was selectively logged either in 1988-89 or in 1992-93 within the Segama catchment in eastern Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. In primary forest areas, repeat measurements using the erosion bridge technique over the 20-year period 1990-2010 demonstrate how slopewash rates are significant, but concentrated in extreme events and increasing sharply with slope angle. Continuous monitoring of suspended sediment, coupled with repeat erosion bridge measurement, however, demonstrate that pipe erosion is at least as important even on moderate terrain and landsliding is an important process on steep terrain. In the selectively logged Baru catchment, a combination of long-term monitoring of suspended sediment and repeat measurements at an erosion bridge network has demonstrated that the erosional impact of logging is longer-term than formerly thought, with a major secondary peak in erosion 5-10 years after logging due to road-linked landslides and the decay of logs in debris dams; analysis of current bed-sediment and floodplain cores using a multi-proxy sediment fingerprinting approach demonstrates that sources of sediment are still different to those in primary forest over 20 years after logging ceased. Sediment fingerprinting at the large catchment scale (focussing on the analysis of lateral bench and floodplain sediment cores compared with upstream tributary sediment inputs), together with GIS-assisted analysis of aerial photographic evidence of spatial differences in landslide occurrence, demonstrates the key importance of terrain steepness and logging practices in influencing erosion rates as a result of logging. Increased landslide frequency is the main process leading to very high erosion rates in areas of steep terrain, but can be avoided if Reduced Impact Logging protocols are followed. Finally the possible consequences of current and IPCC predicted future climatic change in the region are considered. The key influence is likely to be an increase in the magnitude and frequency of extreme rainstorms. This will lead to a phase of increased landslide frequency not only in terrain covered by regenerating forest following logging and in agricultural plantation land, but also in primary forest areas; such a landslide phase would also lead to major fluvial instability downstream.

Walsh, Rory; Bidin, Kawi; Blake, William; Clarke, Michelle; Sayer, Aimee; Ghazali, Rosmadi; Annammala, Kogila; Chappell, Nick; Douglas, Ian

2010-05-01

423

Airborne Laser Scanner Mapping as a Monitoring Method for Forest Ecosystem Dynamics of Mts. Shirakami, Northeastern Japan, World Heritage Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shiramakami Mts. situated in the mountains of northeastern Japan is registered as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO, because the area includes the last remaining virgin stand of Siebold's beech (Fagus crenata)forest, the typical Japanese climax temperate forest. The registered area consists of 10,139ha core zone plus 6800 ha buffer zone and covers about one third of the Shirakami mountains

H. Yagi; M. Saito; H. Sato; T. Nakashizuka; K. Mimura; K. Mori; M. Otsubo; T. Suhama; A. Mitani

2005-01-01

424

Predicting the retreat and migration of tidal forests along the northern Gulf of Mexico under sea-level rise  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tidal freshwater forests in coastal regions of the southeastern United States are undergoing dieback and retreat from increasing tidal inundation and saltwater intrusion attributed to climate variability and sea-level rise. In many areas, tidal saltwater forests (mangroves) contrastingly are expanding landward in subtropical coastal reaches succeeding freshwater marsh and forest zones. Hydrological characteristics of these low-relief coastal forests in intertidal settings are dictated by the influence of tidal and freshwater forcing. In this paper, we describe the application of the Sea Level Over Proportional Elevation (SLOPE) model to predict coastal forest retreat and migration from projected sea-level rise based on a proxy relationship of saltmarsh/mangrove area and tidal range. The SLOPE model assumes that the sum area of saltmarsh/mangrove habitat along any given coastal reach is determined by the slope of the landform and vertical tide forcing. Model results indicated that saltmarsh and mangrove migration from sea-level rise will vary by county and watershed but greater in western Gulf States than in the eastern Gulf States where millions of hectares of coastal forest will be displaced over the next century with a near meter rise in relative sea level alone. Substantial losses of coastal forests will also occur in the eastern Gulf but mangrove forests in subtropical zones of Florida are expected to replace retreating freshwater forest and affect regional biodiversity. Accelerated global eustacy from climate change will compound the degree of predicted retreat and migration of coastal forests with expected implications for ecosystem management of State and Federal lands in the absence of adaptive coastal management.

Doyle, T. W.; Krauss, K. W.; Conner, W. H.; From, A. S.

2010-01-01

425

The effects of seed predators on the recruitment of mangroves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1 Propagule (diaspore) predation by crabs has been shown to be a major source of mortality for mangroves. We measured predation by crabs on seeds of nine tropical mangrove species in multifactorial experiments by following the fates of tethered propagules. 2 We tested whether planting, intertidal position and canopy gaps influenced predation of propagules and whether the predation of

Peter J. Clarke; Raelee A. Kerrigan

2002-01-01

426

Isopod and Insect Root Borers May Benefit Florida Mangroves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Far from threatening the persistence and geographic extent of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) in Florida, wood-boring marine isopods may aid the plant to survive wave action by initiating branching of aerial prop roots. Evidence for a recent, sudden increase in density