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Sample records for manifestations ultrastructural findings

  1. Black thyroid: clinical manifestations, ultrastructural findings, and possible mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, C.B.; Herrera, G.A.; Jaffe, K.; Yu, H.

    1985-01-01

    Ultrastructural examination of three black thyroid glands showed lysosomal accumulations of lipofuscin-like pigment and granular electron-dense material in association with 1) a minocycline-associated black thyroid with normal thyroid function; 2) a minocycline-associated black thyroid with a significant inflammatory component, fibrosis, and primary hypothyroidism; and 3) a black thyroid gland with no exposure to minocycline. The deposition of the pigments in the three cases resulted in macroscopically recognizable black thyroid glands. It is speculated that an imbalance in lysosomal function accounts for this abnormality. The glandular hypofunction documented in case 2 is unique and confirms the need to monitor function carefully in patients who are receiving minocycline. In one case electrondense deposits were identified in the thyroid gland interstitium.

  2. Scrotal angiokeratoma (Fordyce): histopathological and ultrastructural findings.

    PubMed

    Gioglio, L; Porta, C; Moroni, M; Nastasi, G; Gangarossa, I

    1992-01-01

    Bioptic findings related to four cases of scrotal angiokeratoma-Fordyce, were studied under light and electron microscopy. A particular heterogeneity of the structural and ultrastructural patterns typical of this lesion was thus observed. Light microscopy study pointed out, in particular, different degrees of dilation of papillary vessels, whereas ultrastructural study highlighted marked alterations of endothelial cells with structural and quantitative modifications of cytoplasmic organelles. PMID:1576434

  3. Osteoskeletal manifestations of scurvy: MRI and ultrasound findings.

    PubMed

    Polat, Ahmet Veysel; Bekci, Tumay; Say, Ferhat; Bolukbas, Emrah; Selcuk, Mustafa Bekir

    2015-08-01

    Scurvy has become very rare in the modern world. The incidence of scurvy in the pediatric population is extremely low. In the pediatric population, musculoskeletal manifestations are more common and multiple subperiosteal hematomas are an important indicator for the diagnosis of scurvy. Although magnetic resonance imaging findings of scurvy are well described in the literature, to our knowledge, ultrasound findings have not yet been described. In this article, we report a case of scurvy with associated magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound findings. PMID:25597047

  4. Epidermolytic ichthyosis in a dog: clinical, histopathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings.

    PubMed

    Mecklenburg, L; Hetzel, U; Ueberschär, S

    2000-05-01

    Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis (EH) in man is a complex of congenital, ichthyosiform skin diseases characterized clinically by blistering and hyperkeratosis. These clinical signs are the result of a collapse of the cytoskeleton, seen ultrastructurally as tonofilament clumping and cytolysis within terminally differentiating epidermal cells. In man, specific mutations in keratin 1, 2e, 9 or 10 underlie the various types of EH. This report describes the clinical, histopathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings in a 6-month-old dog with severe multifocal hyperkeratosis. The morphological changes were comparable with those of EH in man, indicating that this disease, presumably with a similar underlying pathogenetic mechanism, also occurs in the dog. PMID:10805985

  5. Dentomaxillofacial manifestations of Gaucher's disease: preliminary clinical and radiographic findings

    PubMed Central

    Nobre, RM; Ribeiro, ALR; Alves-Junior, SM; Tuji, FM; Rodrigues Pinheiro, M das G; Pinheiro, LR; Pinheiro, JJV

    2012-01-01

    Objectives A wide variety of manifestations is presented in patients with Gaucher's disease (GD), including bone, haematology and visceral disturbances. This study was conducted to ascertain the main maxillofacial abnormalities by means of clinical survey, panoramic and cone beam CT (CBCT); to compare the patient's group with an age–sex matched control group; and to correlate clinical and radiological data. Methods Ten patients previously diagnosed with GD were submitted to clinical and radiological surveys (CBCT and panoramic radiographs). The examination consisted of anamnesis, extra- and intraoral examinations and analyses of each patient's records. Imaging data were collected from the point of view of 3 observers, and the results compared with a healthy group (20 individuals) by means of statistical analysis (Fisher's exact test). Results Gaucher patients had significantly more manifestations than otherwise healthy carriers. The most prevalent findings were enlarged marrow spaces, generalized osteopenia and effacement of jaw structures (mandibular canal, lamina dura and mental foramen). Here we describe a case in which thickening of the maxillary sinus mucosa was observed on CBCT rather than opacification of the sinus as seen on panoramic radiographs. Pathological fractures, root resorption and delay on tooth eruption were not observed. Conclusions A poor relationship could be observed between clinical and radiological data. Patients showed important bone manifestations, which require careful diagnostic and surgical planning whenever necessary. Although panoramic radiographs have shown significant differences, CBCT is more effective in pointing out differences between patients and a control group, thus showing it as an important tool for evaluation of Gaucher patients. PMID:22988312

  6. Clinical Manifestations, Laboratory Findings, and Treatment Outcomes of SARS Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jann-Tay; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Fang, Chi-Tai; Chen, Yee-Chun; Wang, Jiun-Ling; Yu, Chong-Jen; Yang, Pan-Chyr

    2004-01-01

    Clinical and laboratory data on severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), particularly on the temporal progression of abnormal laboratory findings, are limited. We conducted a prospective study on the clinical, radiologic, and hematologic findings of SARS patients with pneumonia, who were admitted to National Taiwan University Hospital from March 8 to June 15, 2003. Fever was the most frequent initial symptom, followed by cough, myalgia, dyspnea, and diarrhea. Twenty-four patients had various underlying diseases. Most patients had elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and lymphopenia. Other common abnormal laboratory findings included leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated levels of aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase. These clinical and laboratory findings were exacerbated in most patients during the second week of disease. The overall case-fatality rate was 19.7%. By multivariate analysis, underlying disease and initial CRP level were predictive of death. PMID:15200814

  7. Ultrastructural findings in lymph nodes from pigs suffering from naturally occurring postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Cariño, C; Segalés, J

    2009-07-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate ultrastructural lesions in lymph nodes from postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS)-affected pigs and to correlate these alterations with detection of viral-like particles (VLPs). Samples of lymph nodes were taken from 4 PMWS-affected pigs and 2 healthy animals and processed by transmission electron microscopy. Significant ultrastructural alterations were only noted in PMWS-affected pigs, mainly in histiocytes and rarely in other cell types. Histiocytes showed severe swelling and proliferation of mitochondria, and proliferation and dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex. Infected histiocytes contained large numbers of intracytoplasmic inclusion (ICI) bodies with VLPs; some histiocytes also had intranuclear inclusions (INIs). Small inclusions were surrounded by double membrane, with a granular appearance or containing paracrystalline arrays; icosahedral VLPs were 8-17 nm in diameter. Large ICIs were double-membrane bounded or not and contained VLPs usually forming paracrystalline arrays. ICIs were often found next to mitochondria with severe swelling, and also inside them. INIs were not surrounded by membranes and contained virions of 10-13 nm diameter. Lymphocyte depletion was a striking finding of lymph nodes from PMWS-affected pigs. The inclusion bodies containing VLPs referred to in the present study should be classified as viral factories, suggesting that viral replication is probably a frequent event in macrophages, in which mitochondria might play a role. PMID:19276043

  8. Osteogenesis imperfecta: Ultrastructural and histological findings on examination of skin revealing novel insights into genotype-phenotype correlation.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, M; Sobey, G J; Wagner, B E; Peres, L C; Bowen, J; Bexon, J; Javaid, M K; Arundel, P; Bishop, N J

    2016-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders of bone formation, resulting in low bone mass and an increased propensity to fracture. Over 90% of patients with OI have a mutation in COL1A1/COL1A2, which shows an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. In-depth phenotyping and in particular, studies involving manifestations in the skin connective tissue have not previously been undertaken in OI. The aims of the study were to perform histological and ultrastructural examination of skin biopsies in a cohort of patients with OI; to identify common and distinguishing features in order to inform genotype-phenotype correlation; and to identify common and distinguishing features between the different subtypes of OI. As part of the RUDY (Rare Diseases in Bone, Joints and/or Blood Vessels) study, in collaboration with the NIHR Rare Diseases Translational Research Collaboration, we undertook a national study of skin biopsies in patients with OI. We studied the manifestations in the skin connective tissue and undertook in-depth clinical and molecular phenotyping of 16 patients with OI. We recruited 16 patients: analyses have shown that in type 1 collagen mutation positive patients (COL1A1/ COL1A2) (n-4/16) consistent findings included: variable collagen fibril diameter (CFD) and presence of collagen flowers. Histological examination in these patients showed an increase in elastic fibers that are frequently fragmented and clumped. These observations provide evidence that collagen flowers and CFD variability are consistent features in OI due to type 1 collagen defects and reinforce the need for accurate phenotyping in conjunction with genomic analyses. PMID:26863094

  9. Odontogenic myxoma: clinico-pathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings of a multicentric series.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Mata, Guillermo; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Carlos-Bregni, Roman; de Almeida, Oslei Paes; Contreras-Vidaurre, Elisa; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Cano-Valdéz, Ana María; Domínguez-Malagón, Hugo

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the clinico-pathological and immunohistochemical features of 62 cases of odontogenic myxoma (OM) diagnosed in three Oral Pathology Diagnostic Services in Latin America, as well as to describe the ultrastructural features of three of these cases. OM showed a wide age range (9-71 years), with a mean of 27.97 yr (SD: 11.01) and a male to female ratio of 1:2.2. Mandible was affected in 37 cases (59.6%) and maxilla in 25 (40.4%), with 61.3% located in the posterior region. Thirty-nine cases (62.9%) were multilocular and 23 (37.1%) unilocular. Size ranged from 1 to 13 cm, (mean: 5.2 cm). Thirty-seven multilocular (54.8%) and 6 unilocular lesions (26%) were larger than 4 cm (p<0.05). Epithelial islands were identified in 5 cases (8%) on H&E stained sections, but AE1/AE3 and CK14 disclosed these structures in 15 cases each (24.2%); CK5 was positive in 8 (12.9%); CK7 in 2 (3.2%) and CK19 in only 3 cases (4.8%). All cases were negative for CKs 8 and 18, S-100 protein, NSE and CD68, and showed a low index of expression of Bcl2 and ki-67 proteins (<1%). Mast cell antibodies showed these cells in 45 cases (72.6%). Myofibroblastic differentiation evidenced by myofilaments and fibronexi was found in one case out of the three studied by TEM and 29 cases (46.7%) were positive by immunohistochemistry for alpha actin. In conclusion, only a minority of OM had epithelial islands, and only 3 cases expressed CK 19, indicating an odontogenic epithelium origin. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings suggest that OM is a mesenchymal neoplasm in which several factors may contribute to its pathogenesis, including myofibroblastic differentiation and the participation of mast cell products. However, further investigations are needed to better understand the participation of these elements in this particular neoplasm. PMID:17996487

  10. New findings on sperm ultrastructure of Xenos vesparum (Rossi) (Strepsiptera, Insecta).

    PubMed

    Dallai, R; Beani, L; Kathirithamby, J; Lupetti, P; Afzelius, B A

    2003-02-01

    The systematic position of insect order Strepsiptera is still under debate. It was, therefore, thought of interest to examine the ultrastructure of a strepsipteran in a search for synapomorphies shared with Coleoptera, Diptera, or any other insect order. The fine structure of spermatozoa and the spermatid from Xenos vesparum (Rossi) was re-examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and a fixation technique that permits the visualization of the macromolecular organization of the organelles. The spermatozoon was shown to possess several traits that are characteristics of insects in general, such as a 9 + 9 + 2 axoneme, two mitochondrial derivatives containing a crystalline material and two 'zipper lines' present along the sperm tail. Seventeen protofilaments occurred along most of the accessory tubules, which reduced to 16 posteriorly. An acrosome is absent. The neck region contains a prominent centriolar adjunct, which gives rise to two accessory bodies which adhere to the mitochondrial derivatives, and to slender strands of the so-called intertubular material found between the accessory tubules. Of interest is the finding that the glycocalyx consists of prominent filamentous strands, similar to those found in siphonapterans, mecopterans and basal dipterans. PMID:12589726

  11. Stratified mucin-producing intraepithelial lesion with invasive carcinoma: 12 cases with immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Junji; Sato, Yuichiro; Sawaguchi, Akira; Yamashita, Atsushi; Maekawa, Kazunari; Sameshima, Hiroshi; Asada, Yujiro

    2016-09-01

    Stratified mucin-producing intraepithelial lesion (SMILE) is considered to be a variant of adenocarcinoma in situ (defined as intraepithelial malignant glandular epithelium without invasion) or adenosquamous carcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix. However, recent study suggested that SMILE is more similar to high-grade squamous epithelial lesion by their immunohistochemical findings. An invasive form of SMILE "invasive stratified mucin-producing carcinoma (ISMC)" has been also proposed, but immunohistochemical features are not well documented. Therefore, this study aimed to clarify the immunohistochemical characteristics of SMILE and ISMC. Twelve cases of SMILE were found among 445 patients (2.7%) with high-grade intraepithelial lesions or invasive carcinomas, 3 of whom had solely intraepithelial disease with SMILE component (mean age, 37 years; range, 30-48 years) and 9 with invasive carcinomas (mean age, 47 years; range, 37-66 years; including ISMC). Immunohistochemically, SMILE and ISMC were diffusely positive for p16 and CAM5.2, focally for IMP3, and almost negative or only focally positive for p63. Nuclear signals in SMILE and invasive carcinomas were detected by human papillomavirus (HPV) in situ hybridization; 5 cases showed HPV16 and/or HPV18 polymerase chain reaction products. The ultrastructural study of 1 case showed surface microvilli and small vacuolar structure in SMILE; ISMC had mucous-like vacuoles, many mitochondria and intracytoplasmic lumen but lacked tonofilament. These findings were more similar to adenocarcinoma in situ or adenocarcinoma than squamous intraepithelial lesion or squamous cell carcinoma. We suggest that SMILE is an intraepithelial neoplasm and ISMC is an invasive form of SMILE. PMID:27237368

  12. Cutaneous manifestations in neuro-oncology: clinically relevant tumor and treatment associated dermatologic findings.

    PubMed

    Strowd, Roy E; Strowd, Lindsay C; Blakeley, Jaishri O

    2016-06-01

    Skin findings are a rare but important aspect of the evaluation and management of patients with tumors of the nervous system. Skin findings have the highest prevalence in genetic tumor syndromes termed neuro-genodermatoses, which include neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), and tuberous sclerosis. Skin changes are observed in patients with non-syndromic nervous system malignancy, often as a result of pharmacotherapy. The skin may also manifest findings in paraneoplastic conditions that affect the nervous system, providing an early indication of underlying neoplasm, including dermatomyosistis, neuropathic itch, and brachioradial pruritus. In this article, we review the major cutaneous findings in patients with tumors of the brain, spine, and peripheral nervous system focusing on (1) cutaneous manifestations of genetic and sporadic primary nervous system tumor syndromes, and (2) paraneoplastic neurological syndromes with prominent cutaneous features. PMID:27178695

  13. Computed tomography findings mimicking appendicitis as a manifestation of colorectal cancer☆

    PubMed Central

    Watchorn, Richard E.; Poder, Liina; Wang, Zhen J.; Yeh, Benjamin M.; Webb, Emily M.; Coakley, Fergus V.

    2009-01-01

    The primary computed tomography (CT) signs of appendicitis can also be seen with other inflammatory or neoplastic processes. We report on two cases in which appendiceal dilatation and peri-appendiceal fluid or stranding were the dominant imaging manifestations of colorectal carcinoma in the ascending colon. This study highlights the need to closely examine the ascending colon in patients with a suspected CT diagnosis of acute appendicitis, since these findings may be secondary to an inconspicuous colorectal carcinoma. PMID:19857802

  14. Equine phacoclastic uveitis: the clinical manifestations, light microscopic findings, and therapy of 7 cases.

    PubMed Central

    Grahn, B H; Cullen, C L

    2000-01-01

    This retrospective clinical study describes the clinical manifestations, light microscopic findings, and diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic lens rupture in the horse. Rupture of the lens capsule in the horse usually results in a chronic, blinding inflammation (phacoclastic uveitis) unless prompt surgical and medical therapies are implemented. The clinical manifestations of acute lens capsule rupture included: cataract; intralenticular displacement of iridal pigment; lens cortical fragments attached to the perforated lens capsule, iris, and corneal endothelium; miosis; aqueous flare; and usually a corneal or scleral perforation with ulceration or focal full thickness corneal edema and scarring. The clinical signs of chronic phacoclastic uveitis include blindness, phthisis bulbi, and generalized corneal opacification related to scarring, vascularization, pigmentation, and edema. In one horse, acute phacoclastic uveitis was successfully treated with phacoemulsification to remove the ruptured lens and medical therapy to control the accompanying inflammation. The affected eyes of the horses with chronic phacoclastic uveitis were enucleated because of persistent clinical signs of nonulcerative keratitis and uveitis, despite long-term medical management. The clinical manifestations and lack of improvement with medical therapy are similar in the horse, dog, cat, and rabbit. However, the histologic findings in equine phacoclastic uveitis differ significantly from those in the dog, and rabbit. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. PMID:10816830

  15. Ultrastructural findings in congenital anemia, dyskeratosis, and progressive alopecia in Polled Hereford calves.

    PubMed

    Steffen, D J; Leipold, H W; Elliott, G S; Smith, J E

    1992-05-01

    Ultrastructural evidence of dyserythropoiesis was found in ten calves (ages 1 to 16 months) previously diagnosed as having congenital anemia, dyskeratosis, and progressive alopecia. Morphologic abnormalities found in erythroid precursors of all calves were associated with the nucleus. Rubriblast nuclei were irregular with numerous blebs, indentations, and deep clefts. Elongated blebs appeared as satellite nuclei in some sections. Nuclear membranes had numerous defects or gaps, which were frequently present in, but not limited to, recently divided cells. Cytoplasmic material could be found within these gaps and extending into the nucleus. Rubricytes had chromatin that was abnormally condensed and hyperosmiophilic, with numerous translucent vacuoles present. Binucleate rubricytes occurred frequently in affected calves. These changes resemble those of type I congenital dyserythropoiesis in human beings, and we suggest congenital anemia, dyskeratosis, and progressive alopecia of Polled Hereford calves as the appropriate diagnostic terms to describe this disease. PMID:1621331

  16. Pathology, immunohistochemistry, and ultrastructural findings associated with neurological sarcocystosis in cattle.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Calero-Bernal, R; Verma, S K; Mowery, J D

    2016-06-15

    Paraffin-embedded blocks of brain of a nine months old bull calf that died of neurological signs in 1982 in Germany were restudied. Numerous schizonts and merozoites were found associated with extensive but focal necrosis and severe meningoencephalitis. Developing stages of schizonts as well as free merozoites were identified. The schizonts were primarily in perivascular areas. Ultrastructurally, schizonts were seen both in capillaries and in extravascular space. Merozoites were often concentrated in adventitial layers of capillaries. Schizonts divided by endopolygeny, the nucleus became multi-lobed, and at the terminal stage nuclear lobes were incorporated into budding merozoites. Individual merozoites were seen in neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, leukocytes, and vascular endothelial cells. Occasionally merozoites were present in the nucleus of mononuclear cells. Individual merozoites were ovoid, 3-5×2-3μm in size, and contained a prominent nucleus, numerous micronemes, a conoid, but no rhoptries. Schizonts and merozoites did not react to polyclonal rabbit Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, and Sarcocystis neurona antibodies but did react to Sarcocystis cruzi antibodies. Because of morphological characteristics and the type of lesions, the parasite was likely due to an unidentified Sarcocystis species, different from S. cruzi. PMID:27198793

  17. Two cases of myotonic dystrophy manifesting various ophthalmic findings with genetic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min Ji; Yim, Hye Bin; Hwang, Hyung Bin

    2016-07-01

    We report two cases of myotonic dystrophy in one family; both diagnosed from genetic analysis following ophthalmic indications, but before the manifestation of systemic symptoms. A 39-year-old female visited our clinic for routine examination. Mild ptosis, sluggish pupillary response, and bilateral snowflake cataracts were found. Fundus examination revealed an increased cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) in both eyes and a defect in the retinal nerve fiber layer in the right eye. Intraocular pressure was low, but within the normal range in both eyes. Because cataracts are characteristic of myotonic dystrophy, we suggested that her 14-year-old daughter, who did not have any systemic complaints, undergo ophthalmic examination. She also had mild ptosis and snowflake cataracts. Both patients underwent genetic evaluation and were diagnosed with myotonic dystrophy caused by unstable expansion of cytosine-thymine-guanine trinucleotide repeats in the dystrophia myotonica-protein kinase gene. Ophthalmologists can diagnose myotonic dystrophy based on clinical and genetic findings, before the manifestation of systemic abnormalities. PMID:27609169

  18. Imaging Findings of Plasmacytoma of Both Breasts as a Preceding Manifestation of Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young Mi

    2016-01-01

    Breast plasmacytoma is an extremely rare tumor. It can occur as a primary isolated tumor or as an extramedullary manifestation in multiple myeloma. This report describes the unusual case of a primary extramedullary plasmacytoma that progressed to multiple myeloma within 15 months in a 35-year-old woman. The patient had been initially diagnosed with a primary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the epidural soft tissue at the cervical 6-thoracic 1 spine level and the stomach. The patient had received chemotherapy and the disease had been in remission. One year later, the disease recurred, affecting both breasts, right clavicle, and orbit. Three months later, the disease had progressed to multiple myeloma. I report this case, focusing on the findings of mammography, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography of bilateral breast plasmacytoma, and provide a review of the literature. PMID:26925106

  19. Oral manifestations in Kindler syndrome: case report and discussion of literature findings.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Nathalia Mocellin; Visioli, Fernanda; Martins, Manoela Domingues; Martins, Marco Antônio Trevizani; Munerato, Maria Cristina

    2016-07-01

    Kindler syndrome is a rare genetic disorder showing some predominant clinical manifestations, for example, trauma-induced blisters, progressive poikiloderma, skin atrophy, and photosensitivity. Oral manifestations are not commonly described and can be often misdiagnosed. This report describes the case of a female patient diagnosed with Kindler syndrome showing the classical clinical features affecting the skin, in addition to oral lesions manifesting as keratotic plaques and ulcers affecting the buccal mucosa, floor of the mouth, alveolar ridge, hard palate, and soft palate. An incisional biopsy was performed to confirm the diagnostic hypothesis of an autoimmune lesion possibly related with the syndrome. Knowledge about the possible manifestations of the Kindler syndrome is important to improve its management. PMID:26815761

  20. [Manifestations of lobar atelectasis on chest x-rays and correlation with computed tomography findings].

    PubMed

    Cortés Campos, A; Martínez Rodríguez, M

    2014-01-01

    Atelectasis is an important indicator of potentially severe underlying disease that must be diagnosed as early as possible. One of the most common mechanisms is the reabsorption of air distal to respiratory tract obstruction. The chest x-ray is an excellent tool to diagnose atelectasis, and it is especially useful for ruling out central bronchial obstructions (e.g., from endobronchial tumors). If the signs of volume loss are not recognized correctly, the diagnosis and treatment can be delayed. This article describes the main findings of lobar atelectasis on chest x-rays and their correlations with CT findings, including the classic signs described in the literature and other, less known and sometimes subtle signs. PMID:24252304

  1. [The ultrastructural manifestations of the regenerative processes in the Sertoli cells under the action of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation in the rats subjected to stress].

    PubMed

    Korolev, Yu N; Geniatulina, M S; Nikulina, L A; Mikhailik, L V

    2015-01-01

    The experiments on the outbred female rats using the electron microscopic technique have demonstrated that the application of ultrahigh frequency low-intensity electromagnetic radiation (LIEMR) with a flux density below 1 mCW/Cm2 and a frequency of approximately 1,000 MHz in the regime of primary prophylaxis and therapeutic-preventive action suppressed the development of the post-stress pathological ultrastructural changes and increased the activity of the regenerative processes in the Sertoli cells. It was shown that the developing adaptive and compensatory changes in the Sertoli cells most frequently involve the energy-producing structures (mitochondria) that undergo the enlargement of their average and total dimensions. Simultaneously, the amount of granular endoplasmic reticulum and the number of ribosomes increased while the intracellular links between the organelles strengthened and the reserve potential of the cells improved. It is concluded that the observed effects may be due to the action of both local and systemic regulation mechanisms. PMID:26285333

  2. A Translational Murine Model of Sub-Lethal Intoxication with Shiga Toxin 2 Reveals Novel Ultrastructural Findings in the Brain Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Tironi-Farinati, Carla; Geoghegan, Patricia A.; Cangelosi, Adriana; Pinto, Alipio; Loidl, C. Fabian; Goldstein, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Infection by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli causes hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), acute renal failure, and also central nervous system complications in around 30% of the children affected. Besides, neurological deficits are one of the most unrepairable and untreatable outcomes of HUS. Study of the striatum is relevant because basal ganglia are one of the brain areas most commonly affected in patients that have suffered from HUS and since the deleterious effects of a sub-lethal dose of Shiga toxin have never been studied in the striatum, the purpose of this study was to attempt to simulate an infection by Shiga toxin-producing E. coli in a murine model. To this end, intravenous administration of a sub-lethal dose of Shiga toxin 2 (0.5 ηg per mouse) was used and the correlation between neurological manifestations and ultrastructural changes in striatal brain cells was studied in detail. Neurological manifestations included significant motor behavior abnormalities in spontaneous motor activity, gait, pelvic elevation and hind limb activity eight days after administration of the toxin. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the toxin caused early perivascular edema two days after administration, as well as significant damage in astrocytes four days after administration and significant damage in neurons and oligodendrocytes eight days after administration. Interrupted synapses and mast cell extravasation were also found eight days after administration of the toxin. We thus conclude that the chronological order of events observed in the striatum could explain the neurological disorders found eight days after administration of the toxin. PMID:23383285

  3. Clinicopathologic, Immunohistochemical, and Ultrastructural Findings of a Fatal Case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection in the United Arab Emirates, April 2014.

    PubMed

    Ng, Dianna L; Al Hosani, Farida; Keating, M Kelly; Gerber, Susan I; Jones, Tara L; Metcalfe, Maureen G; Tong, Suxiang; Tao, Ying; Alami, Negar N; Haynes, Lia M; Mutei, Mowafaq Ali; Abdel-Wareth, Laila; Uyeki, Timothy M; Swerdlow, David L; Barakat, Maha; Zaki, Sherif R

    2016-03-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection causes an acute respiratory illness and is associated with a high case fatality rate; however, the pathogenesis of severe and fatal MERS-CoV infection is unknown. We describe the histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural findings from the first autopsy performed on a fatal case of MERS-CoV in the world, which was related to a hospital outbreak in the United Arab Emirates in April 2014. The main histopathologic finding in the lungs was diffuse alveolar damage. Evidence of chronic disease, including severe peripheral vascular disease, patchy cardiac fibrosis, and hepatic steatosis, was noted in the other organs. Double staining immunoassays that used anti-MERS-CoV antibodies paired with immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin and surfactant identified pneumocytes and epithelial syncytial cells as important targets of MERS-CoV antigen; double immunostaining with dipeptidyl peptidase 4 showed colocalization in scattered pneumocytes and syncytial cells. No evidence of extrapulmonary MERS-CoV antigens were detected, including the kidney. These results provide critical insights into the pathogenesis of MERS-CoV in humans. PMID:26857507

  4. Morphometrical, histopathological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural findings in human pulmonary tissue destruction following penetrating low-velocity firearm injuries to the lungs.

    PubMed

    Tsokos, Michael; Sperhake, Jan P; Paulsen, Friedrich

    2005-06-01

    This autopsy-based study investigated the morphological correlates of pulmonary tissue destruction following fatal penetrating gunshot wounds to the lungs using morphometry, histology, immunohistochemistry, and scanning electron microscopy on whole human lungs fixed-expanded via formalin inflation. As the residue of temporary cavity formation, mantle-like hemorrhagic destruction zones were seen surrounding the missile track that showed an eccentric, conical extension enlarging toward subpleural lung segments. In addition, circumscribed, satellite-like bleeding zones at distances of up to 5.5 cm beyond the border of the permanent cavity were observed that corresponded to interstitial perivascular hemorrhages around larger and smaller pulmonary vessels on the micro-morphological level. These multifocal hemorrhages within macroscopically unaffected parts of pulmonary tissue at some distance from the actual missile track may represent unrecognized, life-threatening intrapulmonary bleeding sources in survivors, potentially leading to ventilation-perfusion mismatch and progressive lung failure. A further noticeable microscopic and ultrastructural finding was that of club-shaped distensions of ruptured alveolar septa strictly limited to the extent of the temporary cavity. These club-shaped distensions of ruptured alveolar septa seem to represent a special feature of alveolar architectural damage that can be explained by the dynamics of the temporary cavity formation: the radial acceleration and overdistension of tissue during temporary cavitation initiates stretch mechanisms of the displaced tissue, causing the alveolar septa to rupture with subsequent foreshortening and pursing of elastic alveolar fibers. PMID:25869951

  5. Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (Hurler syndrome): oral and radiographic findings and ultrastructural/chemical features of enamel and dentin.

    PubMed

    Guven, Gunseli; Cehreli, Zafer C; Altun, Ceyhan; Sençimen, Metin; Ide, Semra; Bayari, Sevgi H; Karaçay, Seniz

    2008-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (Hurler syndrome, MPS I-H) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism due to deficient alpha-L-iduronidase enzyme activity and is characterized by accumulation of incompletely degraded glycosaminoglycans that generally lead to impairment of organ and body functions. This report presents oral, dental, and radiographic findings in a boy who presented with MPS I-H. Nine of the patient's primary teeth were extracted and investigated using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Compared with the teeth of otherwise healthy patients, MPS I-H-affected dentin was characterized by extremely narrow dentinal tubules, whose direction followed an irregular wave-like pattern. The enamel-dentin junction was defective, as evidenced by microgaps, and the enamel displayed irregular arrangement of prisms. The additional novel observation was made that the protein structure of enamel and dentin changed in MPS I-H-affected teeth. Also, an increase was observed in the relative mineral/matrix ratio of MPS I-H-affected dentin, indicating that its protein content had decreased in comparison with normal dentin. PMID:17604658

  6. Pathological studies of cheek teeth apical infections in the horse: 5. Aetiopathological findings in 57 apically infected maxillary cheek teeth and histological and ultrastructural findings.

    PubMed

    Dacre, Ian; Kempson, S; Dixon, P M

    2008-12-01

    Examination of 57 apically infected maxillary cheek teeth (CT) showed one or more viable pulps and minimal apical calcified tissue changes present in recently infected CT. With chronic infections, pulps were necrotic or absent, pulp horns were filled with food if occlusal pulpar exposure was present, and gross caries of dentine was occasionally present. With chronic infections, the apical changes varied from gross destructive changes in some teeth, to extensive proliferative calcified apical changes in others. Infundibular caries was believed to cause apical infection in just 16% of infected (maxillary) CT, anachoretic infection in 51%, periodontal spread in 12%, fractures and fissures in 9%, dysplasia in 5% and miscellaneous or undiagnosed causes in 7%. Histology showed viable pulp and absence of circumpulpar dentinal changes in some recently infected CT, but chronically infected teeth had loss of predentine and progressive destruction of the circumpulpar secondary, and even primary dentine, with bacteria identified within the dentinal tubules surrounding infected pulps. Tertiary dentine deposition was rarely detected. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy confirmed these histological findings and showed extensive destructive changes, especially to the dentinal architecture surrounding the pulp chambers of some infected teeth. PMID:19022689

  7. Gynecological Manifestations, Histopathological Findings, and Schistosoma-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction Results Among Women With Schistosoma haematobium Infection: A Cross-sectional Study in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Randrianasolo, Bodo Sahondra; Jourdan, Peter Mark; Ravoniarimbinina, Pascaline; Ramarokoto, Charles Emile; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa; Ravaoalimalala, Vololomboahangy Elisabeth; Gundersen, Svein Gunnar; Feldmeier, Hermann; Vennervald, Birgitte Jyding; van Lieshout, Lisette; Roald, Borghild; Leutscher, Peter; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke

    2015-01-01

    Background. The pathophysiology of female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) is only partially understood. This study aims to describe the histopathological findings, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results, and gynecological manifestations of FGS in women with different intensities of Schistosoma haematobium infection. Methods. Women aged 15–35 years living in an S. haematobium-endemic area in Madagascar underwent pelvic and colposcopic examinations. Small biopsy specimens were obtained from lesions and examined histopathologically. Schistosoma PCR was done on urine, biopsy, cervicovaginal lavage, and genital mucosal surface specimens. Results. Sandy patches and rubbery papules were found in 41 of 118 women (35%). Rubbery papules reflected an intense cellular immune reaction dominated by eosinophils, epithelial erosion, and viable ova. There was a significant decrease in the prevalence of rubbery papules with age, even after adjustment for urinary ova excretion. The sandy patches with grains showed moderate cellular immune reaction and ova (viable and/or calcified). They were most prevalent in cases with low-intensity urinary S. haematobium infection. Forty-two percent of women with Schistosoma-negative urine specimens had at least 1 genital specimen test positive for Schistosoma by PCR. Conclusions. The results indicate a diversity of lesions caused by S. haematobium and a dynamic evolution of the genital lesions. Schistosoma PCR may give an indication of the diagnosis. PMID:25725656

  8. Findings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue All Issues Explore Findings by Topic Cell Biology Cellular Structures, Functions, Processes, Imaging, Stress Response Chemistry ... Glycobiology, Synthesis, Natural Products, Chemical Reactions Computers in Biology Bioinformatics, Modeling, Systems Biology, Data Visualization Diseases Cancer, ...

  9. Ultrastructure of gingival epithelium in chronic gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Lushnikova, E L; Nepomnyashchikh, L M; Oskolsky, G I; Jurkevich, N V

    2012-03-01

    We studied ultrastructural reorganization of the gingival mucosa in chronic gingivitis. It was found that chronic inflammation leads to significant intracellular reorganization of epitheliocytes in the basal and prickle cell layers of gingival epithelium and their pronounced structural and functional heterogeneity. The main ultrastructural alterations of epitheliocytes in the basal and prickle cell layers include pronounced vacuolization of the perinuclear zone (partial necrosis), formation of thick tonofilament bundles, focal lysis and sequestration of glycogen, and destruction and reduction of intracellular junctions in some cases accompanied by acantholytic alterations. Chronic inflammation in the gingival mucosa induced extensive remodeling of the lamina propria manifested in multiplication of the basement membrane and obturation of blood vessels with collagen fibrils. PMID:22803154

  10. The Spectrum of Mitochondrial Ultrastructural Defects in Mitochondrial Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Amy E.; Ng, Yi Shiau; White, Kathryn; Davey, Tracey; Mannella, Carmen; Falkous, Gavin; Feeney, Catherine; Schaefer, Andrew M.; McFarland, Robert; Gorman, Grainne S.; Taylor, Robert W.; Turnbull, Doug M.; Picard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial functions are intrinsically linked to their morphology and membrane ultrastructure. Characterizing abnormal mitochondrial structural features may thus provide insight into the underlying pathogenesis of inherited and acquired mitochondrial diseases. Following a systematic literature review on ultrastructural defects in mitochondrial myopathy, we investigated skeletal muscle biopsies from seven subjects with genetically defined mtDNA mutations. Mitochondrial ultrastructure and morphology were characterized using two complimentary approaches: transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and serial block face scanning EM (SBF-SEM) with 3D reconstruction. Six ultrastructural abnormalities were identified including i) paracrystalline inclusions, ii) linearization of cristae and abnormal angular features, iii) concentric layering of cristae membranes, iv) matrix compartmentalization, v) nanotunelling, and vi) donut-shaped mitochondria. In light of recent molecular advances in mitochondrial biology, these findings reveal novel aspects of mitochondrial ultrastructure and morphology in human tissues with implications for understanding the mechanisms linking mitochondrial dysfunction to disease. PMID:27506553

  11. The Spectrum of Mitochondrial Ultrastructural Defects in Mitochondrial Myopathy.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Amy E; Ng, Yi Shiau; White, Kathryn; Davey, Tracey; Mannella, Carmen; Falkous, Gavin; Feeney, Catherine; Schaefer, Andrew M; McFarland, Robert; Gorman, Grainne S; Taylor, Robert W; Turnbull, Doug M; Picard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial functions are intrinsically linked to their morphology and membrane ultrastructure. Characterizing abnormal mitochondrial structural features may thus provide insight into the underlying pathogenesis of inherited and acquired mitochondrial diseases. Following a systematic literature review on ultrastructural defects in mitochondrial myopathy, we investigated skeletal muscle biopsies from seven subjects with genetically defined mtDNA mutations. Mitochondrial ultrastructure and morphology were characterized using two complimentary approaches: transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and serial block face scanning EM (SBF-SEM) with 3D reconstruction. Six ultrastructural abnormalities were identified including i) paracrystalline inclusions, ii) linearization of cristae and abnormal angular features, iii) concentric layering of cristae membranes, iv) matrix compartmentalization, v) nanotunelling, and vi) donut-shaped mitochondria. In light of recent molecular advances in mitochondrial biology, these findings reveal novel aspects of mitochondrial ultrastructure and morphology in human tissues with implications for understanding the mechanisms linking mitochondrial dysfunction to disease. PMID:27506553

  12. Ultrastructure of Polyangium cellulosum.

    PubMed Central

    Lampky, J R

    1976-01-01

    Polyangium cellulosum was examined with the transmission electron microscope and the scanning electron microscope. Freeze-fracturing and critical-point-drying techniques were employed with the latter instrument. Critical-point drying seemed to eliminate the distortion of cells and fruiting bodies. These instruments and techniques allowed for a detailed comparison of cell and fruiting-body ultrastructure. Lipid storage materials and mesosomes were found to be constant cell particulates in both vegetative cells and in the shortened myxospores. Images PMID:820686

  13. Pathologic findings in novel influenza A (H1N1) virus ("Swine Flu") infection: contrasting clinical manifestations and lung pathology in two fatal cases.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjay; Philip, Abraham T; Stoppacher, Robert

    2010-03-01

    Although novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection has assumed pandemic proportions, there are few reports of the pathologic findings. Herein we describe the pathologic findings of novel influenza A (H1N1) infection based on findings in 2 autopsy cases. The first patient, a 36-year-old man, had flu-like symptoms; oseltamivir (Tamiflu) therapy was started 8 days after onset of symptoms, and he died on day 15 of his illness. At autopsy, the main finding was diffuse alveolar damage with extensive fresh intra-alveolar hemorrhage. The second patient, a 46-year-old woman with alcoholism, was found unresponsive in a basement and brought to the hospital intoxicated and confused. Her condition deteriorated rapidly, and she died 4 days after admission. The main autopsy finding was acute bronchopneumonia with gram-positive cocci, intermixed with diffuse alveolar damage. The pathologic findings in these contrasting cases of novel influenza A (H1N1) infection are similar to those previously described for seasonal influenza. The main pathologic abnormality in fatal cases is diffuse alveolar damage, but it may be overshadowed by an acute bacterial bronchopneumonia. PMID:20154276

  14. Ultrastructural evidence of alveolar epithelial injury in idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Myers, J. L.; Katzenstein, A. L.

    1988-01-01

    The ultrastructural features of idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia (BOOP) were studied in 9 patients. As expected, the characteristic air space fibrosis was composed of spindled fibroblasts and myofibroblasts arranged concentrically within an electron-lucent stroma. In 6 patients there was evidence of incorporation of air space fibrosis into the interstitium. A surprising finding in all patients was the presence of extensive epithelial damage involving peribronchiolar alveolar septa. Necrosis and sloughing of alveolar lining cells resulted in denuding of epithelial basal laminae. Complex infoldings and deep invaginations of the denuded basal laminae into alveolar septa were common. These ultrastructural changes involving the interstitium are similar to those occurring in the interstitial pneumonias, and suggest that BOOP also results from acute epithelial injury. The different clinical manifestations and prognosis of these entities may relate to the peribronchiolar localization of the epithelial damage in BOOP compared with more diffuse involvement of distal lung in the interstitial pneumonias. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 1 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:3394793

  15. Ultrastructural hepatocytic alterations induced by silver nanoparticle toxicity.

    PubMed

    Almansour, Mansour; Sajti, Laszlo; Melhim, Walid; Jarrar, Bashir M

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (SNPs) are widely used in nanomedicine and consuming products with potential risk to human health. While considerable work was carried out on the molecular, biochemical, and physiological alterations induced by these particles, little is known of the ultrastructural pathological alterations that might be induced by nanosilver materials. The aim of the present work is to investigate the hepatocyte ultrastructural alterations that might be induced by SNP exposure. Male rats were subjected to a daily single dose (2 mg/kg) of SNPs (15-35 nm diameter) for 21 days. Liver biopsies from all rats under study were processed for transmission electron microscopy examination. The following hepatic ultrastructural alterations were demonstrated: mitochondria swelling and crystolysis, endoplasmic reticulum disruption, cytoplasmic vacuolization, lipid droplets accumulation, glycogen depletion, karyopyknosis, apoptosis, sinusoidal dilatation, Kupffer cells activation, and myelin figures formation. The current findings may indicate that SNPs can induce hepatocyte organelles alteration, leading to cellular damage that may affect the function of the liver. These findings might indicate that SNPs potentially trigger heptocyte ultrastructural alterations that may affect the function of the liver with potential risk on human health in relation to numerous applications of these particles. More work is needed to elucidate probable ultrastructural alterations in the vital organs that might result from nanosilver toxicity. PMID:26934218

  16. Tracheomalacia in a neonate with kniest dysplasia: histopathologic and ultrastructural features.

    PubMed

    Hicks, J; De Jong, A; Barrish, J; Zhu, S H; Popek, E

    2001-01-01

    Kniest dysplasia is an autosomal-dominant chondrodysplastic condition characterized by disproportionate dwarfism, short trunk, small pelvis, kyphoscoliosis, short limbs, prominent joints, premature osteoarthritis, and craniofacial manifestations. The craniofacial abnormalities include tracheomalacia, midface hypoplasia, cleft palate, early onset myopia, retinal detachment, prominent eyes, and sensorineural hearing loss. Radiologic features include dumbbell-shaped femora, platyspondylia with anterior wedging of vertebral bodies, coronal clefts of thoracolumbar vertebral bodies, low broad ilia, and short tubular bones with broad metaphyses and deformed large epiphyses. This form of chondrodysplasia is associated with mutations in type II collagen splicing sequences. Mutations have been identified in the COL2A1 (type II collagen) gene between exons 12 and 24. Type II collagen is the predominant structural protein in cartilage, and mutations in this collagen account for the Kniest dysplasia phenotype. Histopathologic and ultrastructural features of epiphyseal plate cartilage have been described, but tracheal cartilage in an affected neonate has not been examined. The authors report the histopathologic and ultrastructural findings of anterior tracheal cartilage from a 35-day-old female with suspected chondrodysplasia who had tracheomalacia with airway obstruction. The tracheal cartilage was moderately cellular, but lacked cystic and myxoid changes in its matrix. The chondrocytes had abundant cytoplasmic PAS-positive inclusions. Some of these inclusions were diastase-resistant and were also highlighted on Alcian blue staining. Ultrastructural examination revealed chondrocytes with greatly dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum containing granular proteinaceous material. There were also frequent aggregates of typical glycogen. The defect in the COL2A1 gene is secondary to mutations, especially at splice junctions, and this markedly disrupts triple helix formation. The

  17. Monoclonal light chain deposits within the stomach manifesting as immunotactoid gastropathy.

    PubMed

    Jen, Kuang-Yu; Fix, Oren K; Foster, Erina N; Laszik, Zoltan G; Ferrell, Linda D

    2015-02-01

    Immunotactoid deposits are defined by their ultrastructural appearance and are characterized by microtubular or cylindrical structures typically measuring greater than 30 nm in diameter. Although a rare entity, immunotactoid deposition most often manifests as immunotactoid glomerulopathy and is associated with underlying lymphoplasmacytic disorders. Corneal immunotactoid deposition known as immunotactoid keratopathy has also been reported in patients with paraproteinemia. Here, we describe the first reported case of immunotactoid deposition in the stomach. The deposits were composed solely of kappa immunoglobulin light chains without significant lambda light chain or immunoglobulin heavy chain components. The patient displayed no renal signs or symptoms, and additional thorough clinical examination failed to detect any evidence of a paraproteinemia or plasma cell dyscrasia. Thus, the gastric immunotactoid deposits in this case appear to be an isolated finding of light chain deposition, of which the significance and etiology are unclear. PMID:25191812

  18. Rheumatologic Manifestations of Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Sweiss, Nadera J.; Patterson, Karen; Sawaqed, Ray; Jabbar, Umair; Korsten, Peter; Hogarth, Kyle; Wollman, Robert; Garcia, Joe G.N.; Niewold, Timothy B.; Baughman, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic, clinically heterogeneous disease characterized by the development of granulomas. Any organ system can be involved, and patients may present with any number of rheumatologic symptoms. There are no U.S. Food and Drug Administration–approved therapies for the treatment of sarcoidosis. Diagnosing sarcoidosis becomes challenging, particularly when its complications cause patients’ symptoms to mimic other conditions, including polymyositis, Sjögren syndrome, or vasculitis. This review presents an overview of the etiology of and biomarkers associated with sarcoidosis. We then provide a detailed description of the rheumatologic manifestations of sarcoidosis and present a treatment algorithm based on current clinical evidence for patients with sarcoid arthritis. The discussion will focus on characteristic findings in patients with sarcoid arthritis, osseous involvement in sarcoidosis, and sarcoid myopathy. Arthritic conditions that sometimes coexist with sarcoidosis are described as well. We present two cases of sarcoidosis with rheumatologic manifestations. Our intent is to encourage a multidisciplinary, translational approach to meet the challenges and difficulties in understanding and treating sarcoidosis. PMID:20665396

  19. Peritoneal manifestations of parasitic infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Yeon; Ha, Hyun Kwon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe of peritoneal manifestations of parasitic infection at CT. A broad spectrum of CT findings can be seen in the peritoneal cavity, including a varying degree of omental or mesenteric infiltration, single or multiple peritoneal mass or nodule, and peritoneal thickening or stranding. Recognition of these findings are crucial for establish an early diagnosis and helps avoid unnecessary surgery. PMID:17924162

  20. The ultrastructure of conjunctival melanocytic tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Jakobiec, F A

    1984-01-01

    The ultrastructure of conjunctival melanocytic lesions in 49 patients was evaluated to find significant differences between benign and malignant cells. The patients studied included 9 with benign epithelial (racial) melanosis, 2 with pigmented squamous cell papillomas, 16 with conjunctival nevi, 18 with primary acquired melanosis, and 11 with invasive nodules of malignant melanoma. In benign epithelial melanosis, dendritic melanocytes were situated along the basement membrane region of the conjunctival epithelium, with one basilar dendritic melanocyte lodged among every five or six basilar keratinocytes. The dendritic melanocytes extended arborizing cellular processes between the basilar and among the suprabasilar keratinocytes, which manifested considerable uptake of melanin granules into their cytoplasm. The benign dendritic melanocytes possessed nuclei with clumped heterochromatin at the nuclear membrane, small, tightly wound nucleoli, and large, elongated, fully melaninized melanin granules. In two patients with benign hyperplasia of the dendritic melanocytes, occasional dendritic melanocytes were located in a suprabasilar position, but were always separated from each other by keratinocytes or their processes. In the two black patients with benign pigmented squamous papillomas, the benign dendritic melanocytes were located hapharzardly at all levels of the acanthotic epithelium and not just along the basement membrane region. Melanin uptake by the proliferating keratinocytes was minimal. In benign melanocytic nevi of the conjunctiva, nevus cells within the intraepithelial junctional nests displayed a more rounded cellular configuration; short villi and broader cellular processes suggestive of abortive dendrites were found. The nuclear chromatin pattern was clumped at the nuclear membrane, but the nucleoli were somewhat larger than those of benign dendritic melanocytes in epithelial melanosis. The melanosomes were smaller and rounder than those in dendritic

  1. Comparative sperm ultrastructure in Nemertea.

    PubMed

    von Döhren, J; Beckers, P; Vogeler, R; Bartolomaeus, T

    2010-07-01

    Although the monophyly of Nemertea is strongly supported by unique morphological characters and results of molecular phylogenetic studies, their ingroup relationships are largely unresolved. To contribute solving this problem we studied sperm ultrastructure of 12 nemertean species that belong to different subtaxa representing the commonly recognized major monophyletic groups. The study yielded a set of 26 characters with an unexpected variation among species of the same genus (Tubulanus and Procephalothrix species), whereas other species varied in metric values or only one character state (Ramphogordius). In some species, the sperm nucleus has grooves (Zygonemertes virescens, Amphiporus imparispinosus) that may be twisted and give a spiral shape to the sperm head (Paranemertes peregrina, Emplectonema gracile). To make the characters from sperm ultrastructure accessible for further phylogenetic analyses, they were coded in a character matrix. Published data for eight species turned out to be sufficiently detailed to be included. Comparative evaluation of available information on the sperm ultrastructure suggests that subtaxa of Heteronemertea and Hoplonemertea are supported as monophyletic by sperm morphology. However, the data do not provide information on the existing contradictions regarding the internal relationships of "Palaeonemertea." Nevertheless, our study provides evidence that sperm ultrastructure yields numerous potentially informative characters that will be included in upcoming phylogenetic analyses. PMID:20544873

  2. [Cardiovascular manifestations of human toxocariasis].

    PubMed

    Bolívar-Mejía, Adrián; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Paniz-Mondolfi, Alberto E; Delgado, Olinda

    2013-01-01

    Toxocariasis is a parasitic infection produced by helminths that cannot reach their adult stage in humans. For their etiological species (Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati), man is a paratenic host. Infection by such helminths can produce a variety of clinical manifestations, such as: visceral larvae migrans syndrome, ocular larvae migrans syndrome and covert toxocariasis. In the visceral larvae migrans syndrome, the organs that are mainly involved include liver, lungs, skin, nervous system, muscles, kidneys and the heart. Regarding the latter, the importance of cardiovascular manifestations in toxocariasis, as well as its clinical relevance, has increasingly begun to be recognized. The current article is based on a systematic information search, focused mainly on the clinical and pathological aspects of cardiovascular manifestations in toxocariasis, including its pathophysiology, laboratory findings, diagnosis and therapeutical options, with the objective of highlighting its importance as a zoonosis and its relevance to the fields of cardiovascular medicine in adults and children. PMID:23462238

  3. Ultrastructural changes in LGMD1F.

    PubMed

    Cenacchi, Giovanna; Peterle, Enrico; Fanin, Marina; Papa, Valentina; Salaroli, Roberta; Angelini, Corrado

    2013-06-01

    A large Italo-Spanish kindred with autosomal-dominant inheritance has been reported with proximal limb and axial muscle weakness. Clinical, histological and genetic features have been described. A limb girdle muscular dystrophy 1F (LGMD1F) disease locus at chromosome 7q32.1-32.2 has been previously identified. We report a muscle pathological study of two patients (mother and daughter) from this family. Muscle morphologic findings showed increased fiber size variability, fiber atrophy, and acid-phosphatase-positive vacuoles. Immunofluorescence against desmin, myotilin, p62 and LC3 showed accumulation of myofibrils, ubiquitin binding protein aggregates and autophagosomes. The ultrastructural study confirmed autophagosomal vacuoles. Many alterations of myofibrillar component were detected, such as prominent disarray, rod-like structures with granular aspect, and occasionally, cytoplasmic bodies. Our ultrastructural data and muscle pathological features are peculiar to LGMD1F and support the hypothesis that the genetic defect leads to a myopathy phenotype associated with disarrangement of the cytoskeletal network. PMID:23279333

  4. Ultrastructural radioautography and cytochemistry of lead absorption.

    PubMed Central

    Parmley, R. T.; Barton, J. C.; Conrad, M. E.; Austin, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    Lead is a universal environmental contaminant absorbed largely through the gastrointestinal tract by unknown mechanisms. Because lead absorption is influenced by iron content in the body and diet, we used ultrastructural radioautography and cytochemistry to study absorption of physiologic lead doses in the rat duodenal epithelial cell and compared these findings to those previously reported for iron absorption. Rat duodenal loops exposed in vivo to 210Pb for 1 minute demonstrated the majority of labels on the microvilli, terminal web, and apical cytoplasm. Specimens exposed to radiolead for 10 minutes demonstrated more abundant labeling with a relative increase in labeling of epithelial cell mitochondria, nuclei and basal cytoplasm, as well as phagocytic cells, endothelial cells, and circulating erythrocytes of the lamina propria. Timm's sulfide-silver method localized trace metals in epithelial cells. After administration of lead, a significant increase in staining was observed in microvilli, mitochondria, non-membrane-bound cytoplasm, and nuclear chromatin. The rapid appearance of absorbed lead in epithelial cell mitochondria and nuclei, as well as phagocytic cells in the lamina propria, was distinctly different from that reported for absorbed iron and suggests different mechanisms for the subcellular transport of these cations. The combination of radioautography and Timm's sulfide-silver staining provides the specificity and resolution needed for ultrastructural evaluation of lead absorption and should be useful in further studies of lead metabolism. Images Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figures 1-2 PMID:464028

  5. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies of rat epididymis.

    PubMed

    Francavilla, S; De Martino, C; Scorza Barcellona, P; Natali, P G

    1983-01-01

    The anatomical distribution of smooth muscle actin, myosin, fibronectin and basement membrane has been investigated immunohistochemically, using the indirect immunofluorescence technique, in the rat epididymis. The findings were correlated with the ultrastructural organization of the organ. Actin was found to be distributed in the stereociliary region of the epithelial principal cells and in the terminal web region. Actin was also visible along the base of the epithelium. Myosin was detected in the terminal web and in the terminal bar regions of the epithelium. The contractile cells showed a strong stain for both proteins. Basement membrane immunoreactivity was distributed along the epithelial basement membrane and around the contractile cells of the wall. In the cauda, between the epithelium and the contractile cell layers, the lamina propria, containing blood vessels and a thin layer of cells, was negative for all antigens investigated. Fibronectin showed a granular distribution around the contractile cells, mainly in the cauda. The ultrastructural study showed only thin (5-6 nm in diameter) filaments in the stereocilia and terminal web region. Thin filaments were also visible in the cytoplasm of the basal cells, thus suggesting a contractile function of this cell type. The heterogeneous appearance of the contractile cells of the wall seemed to support the different contractile pattern of the epididymal regions: caput, corpus and cauda. The cells present in the lamina propria showed cytoplasmic vesicles with dark granules resembling the "A" cell granules of the endocrine pancreas and gut mucosa cells. PMID:6354463

  6. Ocular manifestations of genetic skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Jen, Melinda; Nallasamy, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Genetic skin diseases, or genodermatoses, often have extracutaneous manifestations. Ocular manifestations in particular can have significant clinical implications, like blindness. Other manifestations, such as the corneal opacities that occur in X-linked ichthyosis, are asymptomatic but characteristic of a particular genodermatosis. Ophthalmologic examination can aid in diagnosis when characteristic findings are seen. The genodermatoses with ocular manifestations will be reviewed, but neurocutaneous, syndromes, genetic pigmentary disorders, and genetic metabolic diseases are not included because they are covered elsewhere in this issue. PMID:26903188

  7. Ultrastructure and stereology of cardiomyocytes in the development of regenerative and plastic myocardial insufficiency during ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Nepomnyashchikh, L M; Lushnikova, E L; Molodykh, N A; Klinnikova, M G; Molodykh, O P

    2011-05-01

    The age-related features of ultrastructural reorganization of cardiomyocytes were studied in rats with anthracycline-induced injury. The development of regenerative and plastic insufficiency of cardiomyocytes in animals of various age groups was accompanied by stereotypic ultrastructural reorganization. The major changes concerned the nucleus, myofibrillar compartment, and rough sarcoplasmic reticulum. Intracellular reorganization of cardiomyocytes in young animals was observed in the same period, but included a greater decrease in the volume density of myofibrils as compared to that in old rats. The recovery of cardiomyocyte ultrastructure in young animals occurred in the earlier period. Cardiomyocytes of old rats were characterized by greater structural modification of mitochondria and considerable area of lytic changes in myofibrillar bundles. Cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin in young animals was manifested in severe destruction of the capillary endothelium, which occurred in the early period after treatment. PMID:22442810

  8. Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 (Taeniidae): new data on sperm ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Miquel, Jordi; Świderski, Zdzisław; Azzouz-Maache, Samira; Pétavy, Anne-Françoise

    2016-06-01

    The present study establishes the ultrastructural organisation of the mature spermatozoon of Echinococcus multilocularis, which is essential for future research on the location of specific proteins involved in the sperm development in this species and also in Echinococcus granulosus. Thus, the ultrastructural characteristics of the sperm cell are described by means of transmission electron microscopy. The spermatozoon of E. multilocularis is a filiform cell, which is tapered at both extremities and lacks mitochondria. It exhibits all the characteristics of type VII spermatozoon of tapeworms, namely a single axoneme, crested bodies, spiralled cortical microtubules and nucleus, a periaxonemal sheath and intracytoplasmic walls. Other characteristics observed in the male gamete are the presence of a >900-nm long apical cone in its anterior extremity and only the axoneme in its posterior extremity. The ultrastructural characters of the spermatozoon of E. multilocularis are compared with those of other cestodes studied to date, with particular emphasis on representatives of the genus Taenia. The most interesting finding concerns the presence of two helical crested bodies in E. multilocularis while in the studied species of Taenia, there is only one crested body. Future ultrastructural studies of other species of the genus Echinococcus would be of particular interest in order to confirm whether or not the presence of two crested bodies is a characteristic of this genus. PMID:26960958

  9. Cutaneous manifestations of cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Megan L; McCusker, Meagen M; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2008-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive disease reported in 1 in 2500 live births in Northern American and Northern European Caucasian populations. Classic disease findings include chronic bacterial infection of airways and sinuses, malabsorption of fat, infertility in men, and elevated concentrations of chloride in sweat. Less well-recognized findings associated with cystic fibrosis include cutaneous findings, which can be primary or secondary manifestations of the disease process. Patients demonstrate more atopic and drug hypersensitivity reactions than the general population, but have similar rates of urticaria compared with the general population. In atypical presentations of cystic fibrosis, the nutrient deficiency dermatitis of the disease may aid with diagnosis, and notably can be the presenting sign. Other dermatologic manifestations of cystic fibrosis include early aquagenic skin wrinkling and cutaneous vasculitis, which can be associated with arthralgias. Familiarity with the nutrient deficiency dermatitis of this entity may play a role in the timely diagnosis of the disease, and the other cutaneous findings add to our understanding of the protean nature of its manifestations. PMID:18429769

  10. Rheumatic manifestations of scurvy.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Claudia; Possemato, Niccolò; Pipitone, Nicolò; Manger, Bernhard; Salvarani, Carlo

    2015-04-01

    This paper reviews the rheumatological manifestations of scurvy, based on articles published in English from 1965 until October 2014, with a particular focus on rheumatological manifestations. Scurvy is a rare, uncommon disease in developed countries. Due to its clinical heterogeneity, the disease can easily mimic rheumatologic conditions leading to a delay in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25854491

  11. Ultrastructure processing of advanced ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Mackenzie, J.D.; Ulrich, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental investigations and applications of advanced ceramics are discussed in reviews and reports presented at the Third International Conference on Ultrastructure Processing of Ceramics, Glasses, and Composites held in San Diego in February 1987. Sections are devoted to precursors and chemistry for ultrastructure processing; sol-gel science and technology; powders and colloids; advanced ceramics; and composites, new materials, and techniques. Particular attention is given to silicon oxynitride and sialon ceramics from organosilicon powders, fluoropolymer-modified silicate glasses, Raman and FTIR spectroscopy of rapid sol-gel processes, a low-temperature route to high-purity Ti/Zr/Hf diboride powders and films, and sol-gel methods for SiO2 optical-fiber coatings. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, micrographs, and tables of numerical data are included.

  12. Ultrastructure of internal jugular vein defective valves

    PubMed Central

    Tisato, V; Menegatti, E; Mascoli, F; Gianesini, S; Salvi, F; Secchiero, P

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To study the ultrastructure of intraluminal defects found in the internal jugular vein by using a scanning electron microscopy. Methods Using a scanning electron microscopy, intraluminal septa and/or defective valves blocking the flow in the distal internal jugular vein of seven patients were studied together with the adjacent wall and compared with control specimen. Results The internal jugular veins’ wall showed a significant derangement of the endothelial layer as compared to controls. Surprisingly, no endothelial cells were found in the defective cusps, and the surface of the structure is covered by a fibro-reticular lamina. Conclusions Although the lack of endothelial cells in the internal jugular vein intraluminal obstacles is a further abnormality found in course of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency, our investigation cannot clarify whether this finding is primary or caused by progressive loss of endothelium in relation to altered haemodynamic forces and/or to a past post-thrombotic/inflammatory remodelling. PMID:24972760

  13. [Mucosal ultrastructure of the rat small intestine after flight on the Kosmos-936 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Iakovleva, N D; Pogudina, N A; Brodskiĭ, R A

    1981-01-01

    The mucous membrane of the small intestine midportion of rats from the flight (weightless and centrifuged), synchronous and vivarium groups was examined electron microscopically. Ultrastructural changes were seen in all experimental groups, although their level and rate of recovery were different. Artificial gravity on Cosmos-936 did not influence those changes significantly. The data obtained suggest that the above changes are morphological manifestations of the reaction of rat small intestine to the combined effects of space flight factors. PMID:7289543

  14. Haematological manifestations of lupus

    PubMed Central

    Fayyaz, Anum; Igoe, Ann; Kurien, Biji T; Danda, Debashish; James, Judith A; Stafford, Haraldine A; Scofield, R Hal

    2015-01-01

    Our purpose was to compile information on the haematological manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), namely leucopenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA), thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and myelofibrosis. During our search of the English-language MEDLINE sources, we did not place a date-of-publication constraint. Hence, we have reviewed previous as well as most recent studies with the subject heading SLE in combination with each manifestation. Neutropenia can lead to morbidity and mortality from increased susceptibility to infection. Severe neutropenia can be successfully treated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. While related to disease activity, there is no specific therapy for lymphopenia. Severe lymphopenia may require the use of prophylactic therapy to prevent select opportunistic infections. Isolated idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura maybe the first manifestation of SLE by months or even years. Some manifestations of lupus occur more frequently in association with low platelet count in these patients, for example, neuropsychiatric manifestation, haemolytic anaemia, the antiphospholipid syndrome and renal disease. Thrombocytopenia can be regarded as an important prognostic indicator of survival in patients with SLE. Medical, surgical and biological treatment modalities are reviewed for this manifestation. First-line therapy remains glucocorticoids. Through our review, we conclude glucocorticoids do produce a response in majority of patients initially, but sustained response to therapy is unlikely. Glucocorticoids are used as first-line therapy in patients with SLE with AIHA, but there is no conclusive evidence to guide second-line therapy. Rituximab is promising in refractory and non-responding AIHA. TTP is not recognised as a criteria for classification of SLE, but there is a considerable overlap between the presenting features of TTP and SLE, and a few patients with SLE have concurrent

  15. Cutaneous manifestations of lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Laman, S D; Provost, T T

    1994-02-01

    Lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease that demonstrates cutaneous, systemic, or both cutaneous and systemic manifestations. This article reviews the cutaneous manifestations of lupus erythematosus. PMID:8153399

  16. [Unusual Migraine Manifestations].

    PubMed

    Schipper, Sivan; Gantenbein, Andreas R; Sandor, Peter S

    2016-06-01

    Migraine is a complex neurologic disorder by which several systems of the central nervous system (autonomous system, affective, cognitive, sensoric and motoric system) may be affected on different levels. Around a fourth of the patients have migraine aura. The most common aura is the visual aura, followed by sensoric aura. But motoric deficits as well as deficits of higher cortical centers (disorders of thinking, orientation, coherence or concentration) may occur as well. In analogy with a headache calendar, an aura calendar can deliver important help in the diagnostic process of rare migraine manifestations and prevent underdiagnosis of unusual migraine manifestations. Complex migraine manifestations are diagnoses of exlusion, and a broad diagnostic work-up is warranted in order to exclude dangerous neurologic pathologies. There are no specific therapeutic recommendations, as there is a lack of randomized controlled studies. PMID:27269777

  17. Platelet satellitism: an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    The ultrastructural morphology of platelet-polymorph (platelet-polymorphonuclear leukocyte) rosettes was investigated in EDTA-anticoagulated blood obtained from two patients who exhibited the phenomenon of platelet satellitism. Most of the platelet profiles were attached to the polymorph surface by broad areas of contact. Examination of these broad areas of contact at high magnification revealed an intercellular material of low electron density. This material appeared to form strands, which bridged the intercellular space and spanned the entire area formed by the apposing plasma membranes. Phagocytosis of entire platelets was only observed in 1 case. The platelet profiles that participated in rosette formation revealed a large number of glycogen particles, compared with unattached platelets. Ultrastructural examination of "stress" platelets obtained from five normal subjects treated with steroids similarly showed a large number of glycogen particles, although no rosette formation or phagocytosis of platelets was observed. The etiology of platelet satellitism is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7223859

  18. Thermodynamics in 'Manifest Reality'

    SciTech Connect

    Hankey, Alex

    2010-12-22

    D'Espagnat's proof that the universe is not a 'strongly objective reality' demands that all physical processes are reconsidered in that light. D'Espagnat suggests a 'Veiled Reality' as a suitable alternative. The most economical way to achieve that is to demand that 'information production' at a quantum level creates the basis for self-consistent perception of a world of macroscopic, 'manifest' entities, as opposed to self-existent objects. Such a 'manifest reality' fulfils both Wheeler's attempt at an 'IT-from-BIT' programme, and Zeilinger's suggestion that 'information is primary'.

  19. Cutaneous Manifestations of ESRD

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, Antonia J.; Leslie, Kieron S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary A broad range of skin diseases occurs in patients with ESRD: from the benign and asymptomatic to the physically disabling and life-threatening. Many of them negatively impact on quality of life. Their early recognition and treatment are essential in reducing morbidity and mortality. The cutaneous manifestations can be divided into two main categories: nonspecific and specific. The nonspecific manifestations are commonly seen and include skin color changes, xerosis, half-and-half nails, and pruritus. The specific disorders include acquired perforating dermatosis, bullous dermatoses, metastatic calcification, and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. This review article describes these conditions and considers the underlying pathophysiology, clinical presentations, diagnosis, and treatment options. PMID:24115194

  20. Effects of Electroacupuncture on Interstitial Cells of Cajal (ICC) Ultrastructure and Connexin 43 Protein Expression in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Functional Dyspepsia (FD) Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoshan; Xie, Shen; Hu, Wei; Liu, Yuer; Liu, Mailan; Liu, Mi; Chang, Xiaorong

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Gastrointestinal motility disorder is the main clinical manifestation in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients. Electroacupuncture is effective in improving gastrointestinal motility disorder in FD; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. It has been demonstrated that interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are pacemaker cells in the gastrointestinal tract, and the pacemaker potential is transmitted to nearby cells through gap junctions between ICC or ICC and the smooth muscle. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effects of electroacupuncture on ICC ultrastructure and expression of the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) in FD rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS The animals were randomized into 3 groups: control, model, and electroacupuncture. Electroacupuncture was applied at Zusanli (ST36) in the electroacupuncture group daily for 10 days, while no electroacupuncture was applied to model group animals. RESULTS Ultrastructure of ICC recovered normally in gastric antrum and small intestine specimens was improved, with Cx43 expression levels in these tissues significantly increased in the electroacupuncture group compared with the model group. CONCLUSIONS These findings indicated that electroacupuncture is effective in alleviating ICC damage and reduces Cx43 levels in FD rats, and suggest that ICC and Cx43 are involved in electroacupuncture treatment in rats with FD to improve gastrointestinal motility disorders. PMID:27297942

  1. Effects of Electroacupuncture on Interstitial Cells of Cajal (ICC) Ultrastructure and Connexin 43 Protein Expression in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Functional Dyspepsia (FD) Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guoshan; Xie, Shen; Hu, Wei; Liu, Yuer; Liu, Mailan; Liu, Mi; Chang, Xiaorong

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal motility disorder is the main clinical manifestation in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients. Electroacupuncture is effective in improving gastrointestinal motility disorder in FD; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. It has been demonstrated that interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are pacemaker cells in the gastrointestinal tract, and the pacemaker potential is transmitted to nearby cells through gap junctions between ICC or ICC and the smooth muscle. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effects of electroacupuncture on ICC ultrastructure and expression of the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) in FD rats. Material/Methods The animals were randomized into 3 groups: control, model, and electroacupuncture. Electroacupuncture was applied at Zusanli (ST36) in the electroacupuncture group daily for 10 days, while no electroacupuncture was applied to model group animals. Results Ultrastructure of ICC recovered normally in gastric antrum and small intestine specimens was improved, with Cx43 expression levels in these tissues significantly increased in the electroacupuncture group compared with the model group. Conclusions These findings indicated that electroacupuncture is effective in alleviating ICC damage and reduces Cx43 levels in FD rats, and suggest that ICC and Cx43 are involved in electroacupuncture treatment in rats with FD to improve gastrointestinal motility disorders. PMID:27297942

  2. Cutaneous manifestation of gastrointestinal disease

    PubMed Central

    Kerstetter, Justin

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) and cutaneous systems are closely linked in origin. Skin manifestations are frequently seen as a part of different GI syndromes. Gastroenterologists play an important role in recognizing the symptoms, patient workup and arriving at appropriate diagnoses, often in consultation with dermatologists. This review discusses the diseases with both cutaneous and intestinal involvement. Hereditary polyposis GI cancers, hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancers (CRCs), hamartomatous disorders, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are reviewed with emphasis on the genetic basis, diagnostic, histologic findings, screening modalities, and therapeutic options. PMID:27034812

  3. Musculoskeletal manifestations of endocrine disorders.

    PubMed

    Boswell, Stephanie B; Patel, Dakshesh B; White, Eric A; Gottsegen, Christopher J; Forrester, Deborah M; Masih, Sulabha; Matcuk, George R

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine disorders can lead to disturbances in numerous systems within the body, including the musculoskeletal system. Radiological evaluation of these conditions can demonstrate typical appearances of the bones and soft tissues. Knowledge of these patterns can allow the radiologist to suggest a diagnosis that may not be clinically apparent. This review will highlight the typical musculoskeletal findings of acromegaly, hypercortisolism, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, pseudo- and pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism, and diabetes mellitus. The radiological manifestations of each of these endocrine disorders, along with a brief discussion of the pathophysiology and clinical implications, will be discussed. PMID:24642251

  4. Manifest and Latent Variates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maraun, Michael D.; Halpin, Peter F.

    2008-01-01

    The clue to what latent variable models are, and to a workable account of the basis for the traditional manifest/latent variable distinction, lies in a reconsideration of the indeterminacy property of linear factor structures. In this article, the authors contend that latent variable models are not detectors of unobservable latent structures,…

  5. Destiny - Not So Manifest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Clark

    Higher education in the United States is facing a period of uncertainty, confusion, conflict, and potential change, and it has little to guide it in its past experiences. For most of its three and one-third century history, it has had a manifest destiny and through the period from 1820-1870 was marked by rapid change and some student unrest. Two…

  6. Ultrastructural changes during the fatigue of bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohn, David H.

    2006-07-01

    Repetitive mechanical loading of bone can lead to ultrastructural-level damage, which can lead to fracture if not repaired. Skeletal fractures result not only from a loss in bone mass, but also because of alterations in tissue quality. Therefore, it is important to also delineate how changes in tissue ultrastructure affect the mechanistic response of bone to its physical environment. In this overview, factors affecting tissue quality, in particular fatigue resistance, are reviewed, followed by examples of recent work that has identified ultrastructural and compositional changes that occur in bone during fatigue.

  7. Effects of hypoxic preconditioning on synaptic ultrastructure in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Sun, Zhishan; Sun, Shufeng; Duan, Yunxia; Shi, Jingfei; Qi, Zhifeng; Meng, Ran; Sun, Yongxin; Zeng, Xianwei; Chui, Dehua; Ji, Xunming

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) elicits resistance to more drastic subsequent insults, which potentially provide neuroprotective therapeutic strategy, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we examined the effects of HPC on synaptic ultrastructure in olfactory bulb of mice. Mice underwent up to five cycles of repeated HPC treatments, and hypoxic tolerance was assessed with a standard gasp reflex assay. As expected, HPC induced an increase in tolerance time. To assess synaptic responses, Western blots were used to quantify protein levels of representative markers for glia, neuron, and synapse, and transmission electron microscopy was used to examine synaptic ultrastructure and mitochondrial density. HPC did not significantly alter the protein levels of astroglial marker (GFAP), neuron-specific markers (GAP43, Tuj-1, and OMP), synaptic number markers (synaptophysin and SNAP25) or the percentage of excitatory synapses versus inhibitory synapses. However, HPC significantly affected synaptic curvature and the percentage of synapses with presynaptic mitochondria, which showed concomitant change pattern. These findings demonstrate that HPC is associated with changes in synaptic ultrastructure. PMID:25155519

  8. Ultrastructural studies of unstable angina in living man

    SciTech Connect

    Gotlieb, A.I.; Freeman, M.R.; Salerno, T.A.; Lichtenstein, S.V.; Armstrong, P.W. )

    1991-01-01

    Nineteen patients with refractory unstable angina who were undergoing aortocoronary bypass were studied to assess the extent of platelet aggregation present in the microvasculature. Ultrastructural findings on the morphology of cardiac muscle and microvasculature were correlated with the findings on coronary angiograms and thallium scans. There were no significant correlations. The presence of platelet aggregates was identified in four biopsies, two of which had thrombus by angiographic criteria. Biopsy in areas with thallium defects revealed an increased prevalence of white blood cells without acute myocardial infarction. This study confirms the presence of platelet aggregates in patients with unstable angina, albeit at a reduced frequency when compared with autopsy studies.

  9. [Ultrastructural findings in the cornea in xeroderma pigmentosum].

    PubMed

    Schwab, C; Faschinger, C; Ehgartner, E M; Langmann, G; Hanselmayer, H

    1989-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum is a very rare disease caused by an inherited defect in the DNA repair system. The cells are less able to repair defects caused by UV radiation, which results in early aging of the skin and the development of malignant skin tumors. Robins assumes that the eye is involved in 60% of the cases. In our patient we found a dense opacity of both corneas in addition to the typical lentiginous alteration of the skin. Therefore, a corneal transplantation was carried out on both eyes. The corneal buttons obtained by keratoplasty were examined by light, and transmission electron microscopy. We found massive alterations in the tissues of all corneal layers. PMID:2759527

  10. Histologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural findings in human blast lung injury.

    PubMed

    Tsokos, Michael; Paulsen, Friedrich; Petri, Susan; Madea, Burkhard; Puschel, Klaus; Turk, Elisabeth E

    2003-09-01

    The objective of this autopsy-based study was to investigate the pathology of human blast lung injury using histology, Fat Red 7B staining, immunohistochemistry, and scanning electron microscopy on lung specimens from eight medicolegal autopsy cases of fatal close-range detonations of chemical explosives. The micromorphologic equivalents of human blast lung injury can be summarized as follows: diffuse alveolar overdistension, circumscribed interstitial hemorrhages showing a cufflike pattern around pulmonary vessels, venous air embolism, bone marrow embolism, and pulmonary fat embolism. Hemorrhages within the lung parenchyma that were present in this study in blast victims without coexisting blunt or penetrating chest trauma must be regarded as potentially life-threatening intrapulmonary bleeding sites in survivors. In addition, the potential clinical importance of the presence of massive pulmonary fat embolism, which has, to the best of our knowledge, not been described previously in human blast lung injury, must be emphasized because pulmonary fat embolism may be a leading cause of the rapid respiratory deterioration with progressive hypoxia and development of acute respiratory distress syndrome in blast victims who survive. Furthermore, this study provides evidence that air embolism presenting in blast victims is not a mere ventilation-induced artifact. PMID:12842857

  11. Orofacial manifestations of achondroplasia

    PubMed Central

    Rohilla, Smriti; Kaushik, Atul; Vinod, V.C.; Tanwar, Renu; Kumar, Munish

    2012-01-01

    Achondroplasia (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man [OMIM] 100800), is considered as a form of skeletal dysplasia dwarfism that manifests with stunted stature and disproportionate limb shortening. Achondroplasia is of special interest in the field of dentistry because of its characteristic craniofacial features which include relative macrocephaly, depressed nasal bridge and maxillary hypoplasia. Presence of large head, implanted shunt, airway obstruction and difficulty in head control requires special precautions during dental management. The current case report highlights the orofacial manifestations of Achondroplasia in a young pediatric patient, along with the multidisciplinary treatment (including the dental treatment) done for the patient which also might help the general practitioners in better understanding of the condition. PMID:27298609

  12. Immunologic manifestations of autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Deretic, Vojo; Kimura, Tomonori; Timmins, Graham; Moseley, Pope; Chauhan, Santosh; Mandell, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The broad immunologic roles of autophagy span innate and adaptive immunity and are often manifested in inflammatory diseases. The immune effects of autophagy partially overlap with its roles in metabolism and cytoplasmic quality control but typically expand further afield to encompass unique immunologic adaptations. One of the best-appreciated manifestations of autophagy is protection against microbial invasion, but this is by no means limited to direct elimination of intracellular pathogens and includes a stratified array of nearly all principal immunologic processes. This Review summarizes the broad immunologic roles of autophagy. Furthermore, it uses the autophagic control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a paradigm to illustrate the breadth and complexity of the immune effects of autophagy. PMID:25654553

  13. [Respiratory manifestations in aspergillosis].

    PubMed

    Regimbaud, M

    1986-01-01

    Aspergillus is a genus of cosmopolitan fungi with a selective pulmonary tropism. Their pathogenic role is due either to spreading in pre-existing pulmonary cavities, or to their allergizing capacity. Cavitary sequellae of tuberculosis and suppuration, particularly frequent and important in tropical environment, are elective localization for Aspergillus colonization. Surgical treatment is nowadays the only efficient one. Allergic manifestations are a more complex problem of therapy, exclusion of allergen being difficult to get in tropical environment. PMID:3773680

  14. Neurological manifestations of malaria.

    PubMed

    Román, G C; Senanayake, N

    1992-03-01

    The involvement of the nervous system in malaria is reviewed in this paper. Cerebral malaria, the acute encephalopathy which complicates exclusively the infection by Plasmodium falciparum commonly affects children and adolescents in hyperendemic areas. Plugging of cerebral capillaries and venules by clumped, parasitized red cells causing sludging in the capillary circulation is one hypothesis to explain its pathogenesis. The other is a humoral hypothesis which proposes nonspecific, immune-mediated, inflammatory responses with release of vasoactive substances capable of producing endothelial damage and alterations of permeability. Cerebral malaria has a mortality rate up to 50%, and also a considerable longterm morbidity, particularly in children. Hypoglycemia, largely in patients treated with quinine, may complicate the cerebral symptomatology. Other central nervous manifestations of malaria include intracranial hemorrhage, cerebral arterial occlusion, and transient extrapyramidal and neuropsychiatric manifestations. A self-limiting, isolated cerebellar ataxia, presumably caused by immunological mechanisms, in patients recovering from falciparum malaria has been recognized in Sri Lanka. Malaria is a common cause of febrile seizures in the tropics, and it also contributes to the development of epilepsy in later life. Several reports of spinal cord and peripheral nerve involvement are also available. A transient muscle paralysis resembling periodic paralysis during febrile episodes of malaria has been described in some patients. The pathogenesis of these neurological manifestations remains unexplored, but offers excellent perspectives for research at a clinical as well as experimental level. PMID:1307475

  15. Ochronotic arthropathy: structural and ultrastructural features.

    PubMed

    Melis, M; Onori, P; Aliberti, G; Vecci, E; Gaudio, E

    1994-01-01

    Fragments of articular cartilage and synovial membrane in a case of ochronosis were studied by light microscopy (LM), polarized light, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Granular and/or shard-shaped pigments were observed in the synovia, cartilage, and subchondral tissue, and dispersed pigment was also seen in the synovial fluid. Zones of the articular cartilage surface showed small erosions near shards, and sometimes, when the degenerative process was in an advanced stage, a substitutive fibrosis of the cartilage edge was demonstrated. LM and TEM observations of the samples studied revealed an alteration of collagen fibrils that appeared wavy and sometimes fragmented with loss of periodicity. They were always mixed with the dispersed pigment. A peculiar finding that characterized this ochronotic case was the complete absence of inflammatory infiltrates or signs of monocyte-macrophage activation. These structural and ultrastructural observations suggest that the pigment deposition in the articular surfaces was due to the synovial fluid circulation and partially to subchondral blood flow, which transports and stores the ochronotic pigments in the synovia and cartilage. These etiopathologic elements associated with the mechanical pathogenesis naturally present in the joints can contribute to the explanation of the pathogenesis and origin of ochronotic arthropathy. PMID:7809996

  16. Gonadoblastoma: ultrastructural evidence for testicular origin.

    PubMed

    Ishida, T; Tagatz, G E; Okagaki, T

    1976-04-01

    A gonadoblastoma arising in the dysgenetic gonad of a virilized 17-year-old Caucasian with a female phenotype and with a 45,X0/46, X-ring-Y genotype was studied by light microscopic histochemistry, electron microscopy, and ultrastructural histochemistry. The gonadoblastoma was composed of nests of cells containg large germ cells and small "granulosa-Sertoli-like cells," and stromal tissue containing "Leydig-like cells." The germ cells were identical to those found in normal fetal gonads and in germ cell tumors. Charcot-Böttcher crystalloids present in the "granulosa-Sertoli-like cells" strongly suggest that they are, in fact, Sertoli cells. Multilayered basal laminae located in the periphery of the tumor nests and in "hyaline bodies" were identical to those surrounding the seminiferous tubules of the adult testis. The "Leydig-like cells" present in the stroma contained occasional dense bodies and crystalloids which characterize the Leydig cells of the fetal testis. Delta 5-3 beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity was demonstrated in the periphery of lipid droplets and lysosome-like dense bodies of the Leydig cells, and in some Sertoli cells. The findings support the theory that gonadoblastoma arises in a dysgenetic testis rather than in a dysgenetic ovary. PMID:1260688

  17. [Cutaneous manifestations of sarcoidosis].

    PubMed

    Descamps, V; Bouscarat, F

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disorder of unknown aetiology. Its dermatological manifestations are extremely polymorphous. They are normally classed as either specific lesions, comprising granulomas, which are generally chronic, or non-specific lesions, principally acute erythema nodosum. These signs are seen in around 25% of sarcoidosis patients. The disease may be heralded by a skin disorder. Diagnosis of cutaneous sarcoidosis provides the clinician with three problems: screening for a visceral site of the disease, determination of the prognosis, and long-term management with regular monitoring coupled with suitable therapy in the event of cosmetic or functional impairment. PMID:26804434

  18. Gravity receptors - An ultrastructural basis for peripheral sensory processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, M. D.; Donovan, K.

    1984-01-01

    The present ultrastructural study of serial sections has shown that type II hair cells of the anterior part of the utricular macula are integrated into the afferent neural circuitry of type I cells, which are arranged in clusters. Additionally, there exists a complex system of intramacularly originating efferent-type nerve fibers and terminals. The findings, taken together, suggest that on morphological grounds, complex processing of sensory information occurs in gravity receptors. Asymmetry of such a complex system may contribute to motion and space-motion sickness.

  19. Assessment of murine bone ultrastructure using synchrotron light: towards nano-computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Philipp; Voide, Romain; Stauber, Martin; Stampanoni, Marco; Donahue, Leah Rae; Wyss, Peter; Sennhauser, Urs; Müller, Ralph

    2006-08-01

    To describe the different aspects of bone quality, we follow a hierarchical approach and assess bone tissue properties in different regimes of spatial resolution, beginning at the organ level and going down to cellular dimensions. For these purposes we developed different synchrotron radiation (SR) based computed-tomography (CT) methods to assess murine bone ultrastructure. In a first step, a tubular system and the osteocyte lacunar system within murine cortical bone have been established as novel ultrastructural quantitative traits. Results in two mouse strains showed that morphometry of these quantitative traits was dependent on strain and partially on gender, and that their scaling behavior with bone size was fundamentally different. In a second step, we explored bone competence on an ultrastructural level and related our findings to the two ultrastructural quantitative traits introduced before. We showed that SR CT imaging is a powerful tool to investigate the initiation and propagation of microcracks, which may alter bone quality and may lead to increased fracture risk by means of microdamage accumulation. In summary, investigation of ultrastructural bone tissue properties will eventually lead to a better understanding of bone quality and its relative contribution to bone competence.

  20. Ophthalmologic manifestations of celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Thiago Gonçalves dos Santos; Costa, Ana Luiza Fontes de Azevedo; Oyamada, Maria Kiyoko; Schor, Paulo; Sipahi, Aytan Miranda

    2016-01-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder that affects the small intestine of genetically predisposed individuals. Ophthalmic manifestations are within the extra-intestinal manifestations, and can be divided into those of autoimmune disorders or those due to absorptive disabilities. This article reviewed the ophthalmologic manifestation of celiac disease. Ophthalmic symptoms are rare, but should be investigated in patients with celiac disease and taken into consideration as the first systemic manifestation. PMID:26949627

  1. Ultrastructure of bovine sperm chromatin.

    PubMed

    Filho, Romualdo Morandi; Beletti, Marcelo Emilio; de Oliveira, Fabio

    2015-12-01

    Mammalian semen chromatin comprises DNA, protamine, and, at lower levels, other proteins. This constitution confers intense compaction to the chromatin, helping to protect the DNA and causing the head of the sperm to be very small, facilitating the safe transport of its genetic contents. It is known that changes in the sperm chromatin compaction lead to fertility problems in bulls, justifying studies of this structure. Although there are theoretical models of sperm chromatin because of its high compaction, there is no morphological evidence of such models. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the ultrastructure of bovine sperm chromatin in an attempt to corroborate the theoretical chromatin models existing today. The isolated bull sperm heads had their chromatin partially unpacked by chemical treatment using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and dithiothreitol (DTT) and were then embedded in Epon resin. Using an ultramicrotome, ultrathin sections were obtained, which were contrasted with uranyl acetate and lead citrate, and then viewed under transmission electron microscopy. The methodology used allowed the visualization of toroidal structures interconnected by a filamentous nuclear matrix, which is entirely consistent with the most current theoretical models. PMID:26515508

  2. Platelets: production, morphology and ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Thon, Jonathan N; Italiano, Joseph E

    2012-01-01

    Platelets are anucleate, discoid cells, roughly 2-3 μm in diameter that function primarily as regulators of hemostasis, but also play secondary roles in angiogensis and innate immunity. Although human adults contain nearly one trillion platelets in circulation that are turned over every 8-10 days, our understanding of the mechanisms involved in platelet production is still incomplete. Platelets stem from large (30-100 μm) nucleated cells called megakaryocytes that reside primarily in the bone marrow. During maturation megakaryocytes extend long proplatelet elongations into sinusoidal blood vessels from which platelets ultimately release. During this process, platelets develop a number of distinguishable structural elements including: a delimited plasma membrane; invaginations of the surface membrane that form the open canalicular system (OCS); a closed-channel network of residual endoplasmic reticulum that form the dense tubular system (DTS); a spectrin-based membrane skeleton; an actin-based cytoskeletal network; a peripheral band of microtubules; and numerous organelles including α-granules, dense-granules, peroxisomes, lysosomes, and mitochondria. Proplatelet elongation and platelet production is an elaborate and complex process that defines the morphology and ultrastructure of circulating platelets, and is critical in understanding their increasingly numerous and varied biological functions. PMID:22918725

  3. [Ocular Manifestations in Sarcoidosis].

    PubMed

    Walscheid, K; Tappeiner, C; Heiligenhaus, A

    2016-05-01

    Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory multi-organ disease of unknown pathogenesis, characterised by non-necrotising granulomata. Sarcoidosis predominantly manifests in the lung, but any other organ may be affected. Ocular involvement is present in about 25 to 50 % of patients. The most common ocular manifestation is uveitis, especially of the anterior eye segment. If ocular sarcoidosis is suspected, interdisciplinary assessment of the patient is mandatory, including laboratory tests, chest X-ray, assessment by a specialist in internal medicine and, ideally, histological evidence of granuloma formation in a tissue specimen. Other (infectious) causes of granulomatous inflammation need to be excluded, especially tuberculosis or syphilis. For the ophthalmological assessment, detection of granulomatous lesions is of particular importance, especially by visualising chorioretinal granuloma by fluorescein and indocyanin green angiography. Cystoid macular oedema and glaucoma are the most frequent complications limiting visual acuity. Corticosteroids, which can be administered either locally or systemically, are the mainstay of therapy. Depending on the clinical course and the development of ocular complications, systemic steroid-sparing immunosuppressive medication may be indicated. PMID:27187879

  4. [Central manifestations of dystrophinopathies].

    PubMed

    Cuisset, J-M; Rivier, F

    2015-12-01

    The dystrophin gene involved in Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy is expressed in three main tissues resulting in clinical manifestations: skeletal muscle, heart and central nervous system. The 6 different existing dystrophins in the brain may play a role in the maturation and plasticity of neuronal synapses in particular by their functions in clustering and stabilization of different receptors at the post synaptic membrane. The possibility of an intellectual deficiency in Duchenne muscular dystrophy is known from the original description by Duchenne himself. Current data are in line with a constant cognitive impairment with a Gaussian curve shifted intellectual quotient (IQ) at -1 standard deviation from the standard population with an average IQ around 80. Clinical manifestations suggestive of a central nervous system involvement can affect all dystrophinopathies, including isolated central presentations without myopathic sign. The phenotypic spectrum appears broader and more subtle than non specific intellectual deficiency. The isolated or shared involvement of specific cognitive functions is possible (memory functions, executive functions, attention) with or without intellectual deficiency. Autism spectrum disorders are also among the encountered events. In clinical practice, it seems worth to ask for a measurement of serum creatine kinase (CK) in these different situations, keeping in mind that pure forms of central dystrophinopathies with a normal CK level have been recently reported. PMID:26773588

  5. Laryngotracheal manifestations of rhinoscleroma.

    PubMed

    Amoils, C P; Shindo, M L

    1996-05-01

    Rhinoscleroma is a rare, chronic granulomatous disease of infective causation. It usually begins in the nose and may progress to involve the larynx and trachea and cause dysphonia, stridor, and airway obstruction. Early rhinoscleroma is usually successfully treated with oral tetracycline, yet laryngotracheal disease may require operative intervention. The disease is rare in the United States, but with an increase in immigration from endemic areas, otolaryngologists should be familiar with the management of this rare disease. Current literature contains only a few reports describing the manifestations of this disease, mostly in the form of case studies. This study is a retrospective review of our institutional experience with the management of 22 patients with rhinoscleroma, 13 of whom had laryngotracheal involvement. The focus of this report is on the clinical manifestations of laryngotracheal scleroma. All of the patients were treated with long-term antibiotics. Nine patients underwent endoscopy with or without dilation and laser excision. Three patients required emergency tracheostomy, all of whom were ultimately decannulated without any sequelae. A rational approach to management of this unusual disease is provided. PMID:8651625

  6. Cutaneous manifestations of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Owen, Cindy England

    2016-06-01

    Skin findings can serve as a clue to internal disease. In this article, cutaneous manifestations of underlying lung malignancy are reviewed. Paraneoplastic dermatoses are rare, but when recognized early, can lead to early diagnosis of an underlying neoplasm. Malignancy-associated dermatoses comprise a broad group of hyperproliferative and inflammatory disorders, disorders caused by tumor production of hormonal or metabolic factors, autoimmune connective tissue diseases, among others. In this review, paraneoplastic syndromes associated with lung malignancy are discussed, including ectopic ACTH syndrome, bronchial carcinoid variant syndrome, secondary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy/digital clubbing, erythema gyratum repens, malignant acanthosis nigricans, sign of Leser-Trélat, tripe palms, hypertrichosis lanuginosa, acrokeratosis paraneoplastica, and dermatomyositis. PMID:27178690

  7. Ophthalmic manifestations postlightning strike.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Permesh Singh; Gupta, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    Various ophthalmic complications affecting the anterior and posterior segments have been identified due to lightning strike. We report the first case of an indirect lightning-induced full thickness macular hole formation in the UK as evidenced by slit lamp examination and optical coherence tomography (OCT) scan in a 77-year-old woman presenting with sudden visual loss in her right eye and thermal skin injury affecting her scalp. Her best corrected visual acuities were LogMAR 0.46 and 0.12 in the right and left eyes, respectively. There were no other ocular manifestations observed in either eye. She was initially managed conservatively with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug eye drops but surgery was later advised due to minimal changes in the visual acuity and macular hole on follow-up. OCT scanning is important in diagnosing macular holes, which usually warrant surgical intervention. PMID:25827914

  8. Manifesting the Quantum World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohrhoff, Ulrich

    2014-06-01

    In resisting attempts to explain the unity of a whole in terms of a multiplicity of interacting parts, quantum mechanics calls for an explanatory concept that proceeds in the opposite direction: from unity to multiplicity. Being part of the Scientific Image of the world, the theory concerns the process by which (the physical aspect of) what Sellars called the Manifest Image of the world comes into being. This process consists in the progressive differentiation of an intrinsically undifferentiated entity. By entering into reflexive spatial relations, this entity gives rise to (i) what looks like a multiplicity of relata if the reflexive quality of the relations is not taken into account, and (ii) what looks like a substantial expanse if the spatial quality of the relations is reified. If there is a distinctly quantum domain, it is a non-spatial and non-temporal dimension across which the transition from the unity of this entity to the multiplicity of the world takes place. Instead of being constituents of the physical world, subatomic particles, atoms, and molecules are instrumental in its manifestation. These conclusions are based on the following interpretive principle and its more direct consequences: whenever the calculation of probabilities calls for the addition of amplitudes, the distinctions we make between the alternatives lack objective reality. Applied to alternatives involving distinctions between regions of space, this principle implies that, owing to the indefiniteness of positions, the spatiotemporal differentiation of the physical world is incomplete: the existence of a real-valued spatiotemporal background is an unrealistic idealization. This guarantees the existence of observables whose values are real per se, as against "real by virtue of being indicated by the values of observables that are real per se." Applied to alternatives involving distinctions between things, it implies that, intrinsically, all fundamental particles are numerically

  9. Rheumatologic manifestations of primary immunodeficiency diseases.

    PubMed

    Dimitriades, V R; Sorensen, R

    2016-04-01

    In the last 5 years, several hundred articles have been published concerning the link between primary immunodeficiency disease (PID) and rheumatologic diseases. Although rheumatologic complications were originally thought to be at the opposite ends of the spectrum of immunopathologic manifestations, they are now all being considered secondary manifestations of a causative primary "immune derangement." For the rheumatologist, it is important to be able to identify patients who may present with typical rheumatologic findings but who have an underlying PID. In a systematic manner, this overview addresses both the systemic and organ-based rheumatologic diseases which have known associations with primary immunodeficiencies, and explores how immunodeficiency may actually cause these clinical manifestations. PMID:26971790

  10. A comparative study of mitochondrial ultrastructure in melanocytes from perilesional vitiligo skin and perilesional halo nevi skin.

    PubMed

    Ding, Gao-Zhong; Zhao, Wen-E; Li, Xue; Gong, Qing-Li; Lu, Yan

    2015-04-01

    Vitiligo and halo nevi are both pigmentary disorders of the skin characterized by the acquired loss of functional epidermal melanocytes manifesting as white macules and patches. The cellular mechanism(s) and biochemical changes that result in the appearance of these two types of achromic lesions are still uncertain; and the relationship between vitiligo and halo nevi has been in dispute. In this study, we investigated the ultrastructure of mitochondria in melanocytes and in keratinocytes from perilesional vitiligo skin and from perilesional halo nevi skin using Transmission Electron Microscopy. Furthermore, we performed a quantitative analysis of mitochondrial morphology through a stereological study. As previously reported, we found that melanocytes from perilesional active vitiligo skin were loosely connected with their surroundings by their retracted dendrites. The surface density and the volume density of mitochondria in melanocytes and in keratinocytes from perilesional vitiligo skin are increased significantly compared with the controls, especially in active vitiligo. In contrast, there are no significant differences in mitochondria in melanocytes and in keratinocytes from perilesional halo nevi skin compared with the controls. In summary, the tendency of different morphologic alterations in mitochondria from perilesional vitiligo skin and from perilesional halo nevi skin reflect heterogeneous backgrounds between the two diseases, revealing that vitiligo and halo nevi may have separate pathogenic mechanisms. These findings may help elucidate the relationship of these two diseases and their underlying mechanisms. PMID:25672813

  11. Analysis of Gene Expression and Ultrastructure of Stifle Menisci from Juvenile and Adult Pigs.

    PubMed

    Kreinest, Michael; Reisig, Gregor; Ströbel, Philipp; Fickert, Stefan; Brade, Joachim; Wennemuth, Gunther; Lipp, Peter; Schwarz, Markus L

    2016-01-01

    The origin of the age-associated degenerative processes in meniscal tissue is poorly understood and may be related to an imbalance of anabolic and catabolic metabolism. The aim of the current study was to compare medial menisci isolated from juvenile pigs and degenerated medial menisci from adult pigs in terms of gene expression profile and ultrastructure. Medial menisci were isolated from the knee joints of juvenile and adult pigs (n = 8 for each group). Degeneration was determined histologically according to a scoring system. In addition, the gene expression profiles of 14 genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins, catabolic matrix metalloproteinases and mediators of inflammation were analyzed. Changes in the ultrastructure of the collagen network of the meniscal tissue were analyzed by using transmission electron microscopy. The histologic analysis of menisci showed significantly higher grade of degeneration in tissue isolated from adult porcine knee joints compared with menisci isolated from juvenile knee joints. In particular, destruction of the collagen network was greater in adult menisci than in juvenile menisci. Degenerated menisci showed significantly decreased gene expression of COL1A1 and increased expression of MMP2, MMP13, and IL8. The menisci from adult porcine knee joints can serve as a model for meniscal degeneration. Degenerative changes were manifested as differences in histopathology, gene expression and ultrastructure of collagen network. PMID:26884408

  12. Manifestations of bodily isomerism.

    PubMed

    Loomba, Rohit S; Ahmed, Muhammad M; Spicer, Diane E; Backer, Carl L; Anderson, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    We report the findings present in 49 postmortem specimens from patients with so-called heterotaxy, concentrating on those found in the extracardiac systems of organs. Also known as bodily isomerism, we suggest that it is important to segregate the syndromes into their isomeric subtypes to be able to make inferences regarding likely extracardiac and intracardiac findings to allow for proper surveillance. We demonstrate that this is best done on the basis of the atrial appendages, which were isomeric in all the hearts obtained from the specimens available for our inspection. The abdominal organs do not demonstrate isomerism, and they show variable features when compared to the isomeric atrial appendages. PMID:26872066

  13. Paradoxical Manifestation is Common in HIV-negative Tuberculous Meningitis.

    PubMed

    Tai, Mei-Ling Sharon; Nor, Hazman Mohd; Kadir, Khairul Azmi Abdul; Viswanathan, Shanthi; Rahmat, Kartini; Zain, Norzaini Rose Mohd; Ong, Kuo Ghee; Rafia, Mohd Hanip; Tan, Chong Tin

    2016-01-01

    Paradoxical manifestation is worsening of pre-existing tuberculous lesion or appearance of new lesions in patients whose condition initially improved with antituberculous treatment. Our hypothesis was that paradoxical manifestation in non-HIV tuberculous meningitis (TBM) patients was underestimated and this could contribute to patients' prognosis. This was the first systemic study of paradoxical manifestation in HIV-negative TBM patients. Between 2009 and 2014, TBM patients were studied prospectively in 2 hospitals. Clinical features, cerebrospinal fluid, and radiological findings were monitored. Paradoxical manifestation was divided into definite (4 weeks or more) and probable (between 14 and 27 d) after commencement of antituberculous treatment. Forty-one non-HIV TBM patients were recruited. Definite paradoxical manifestation occurred in 23/41 (56%) of the patients. Time to onset of paradoxical manifestation was between 28 days and 9 months, and majority was between 28 and 50 days. Neuroimaging manifestation in the brain (22/41 patients, 54%) and clinical manifestation (22/41 patients, 54%) were most commonly seen, followed by cerebrospinal fluid manifestation (7/41 patients, 17%). Neuroimaging changes most commonly seen were worsening of leptomeningeal enhancement, new infarcts, new tuberculomas, and enlargement of tuberculoma. Initial Computed Tomography Angiography/magnetic resonance angiography brain showed vasculitis in 14 patients, with 2 (12.5%) showing paradoxical vasculitis during follow-up. Recurrence of the paradoxical manifestation was seen in 7/23 (30%) of the patients. More than half (14/23, 61%) of the patients improved, 6 (26%) patients died, and 3 (13%) patients had persistent neurological deficit. Paradoxical manifestation was very common in non-HIV TBM patients. Neuroimaging paradoxical manifestation of 2-4 weeks may not be paradoxical manifestation but could be delayed treatment response. PMID:26735523

  14. Paradoxical Manifestation is Common in HIV-negative Tuberculous Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Mei-Ling Sharon; Nor, Hazman Mohd; Kadir, Khairul Azmi Abdul; Viswanathan, Shanthi; Rahmat, Kartini; Zain, Norzaini Rose Mohd; Ong, Kuo Ghee; Rafia, Mohd Hanip; Tan, Chong Tin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Paradoxical manifestation is worsening of pre-existing tuberculous lesion or appearance of new lesions in patients whose condition initially improved with antituberculous treatment. Our hypothesis was that paradoxical manifestation in non-HIV tuberculous meningitis (TBM) patients was underestimated and this could contribute to patients’ prognosis. This was the first systemic study of paradoxical manifestation in HIV-negative TBM patients. Between 2009 and 2014, TBM patients were studied prospectively in 2 hospitals. Clinical features, cerebrospinal fluid, and radiological findings were monitored. Paradoxical manifestation was divided into definite (4 weeks or more) and probable (between 14 and 27 d) after commencement of antituberculous treatment. Forty-one non-HIV TBM patients were recruited. Definite paradoxical manifestation occurred in 23/41 (56%) of the patients. Time to onset of paradoxical manifestation was between 28 days and 9 months, and majority was between 28 and 50 days. Neuroimaging manifestation in the brain (22/41 patients, 54%) and clinical manifestation (22/41 patients, 54%) were most commonly seen, followed by cerebrospinal fluid manifestation (7/41 patients, 17%). Neuroimaging changes most commonly seen were worsening of leptomeningeal enhancement, new infarcts, new tuberculomas, and enlargement of tuberculoma. Initial Computed Tomography Angiography/magnetic resonance angiography brain showed vasculitis in 14 patients, with 2 (12.5%) showing paradoxical vasculitis during follow-up. Recurrence of the paradoxical manifestation was seen in 7/23 (30%) of the patients. More than half (14/23, 61%) of the patients improved, 6 (26%) patients died, and 3 (13%) patients had persistent neurological deficit. Paradoxical manifestation was very common in non-HIV TBM patients. Neuroimaging paradoxical manifestation of 2-4 weeks may not be paradoxical manifestation but could be delayed treatment response. PMID:26735523

  15. [Skin manifestations of monoclonal gammopathies].

    PubMed

    Hello, M; Barbarot, S; Néel, A; Connault, J; Graveleau, J; Durant, C; Decaux, O; Hamidou, M

    2014-01-01

    Whatever their aetiology, monoclonal gammopathies can be associated to several clinical features. Mechanisms are various and sometimes unknown. Skin is frequently involved and may represent a challenging diagnosis. Indeed, skin manifestations are either the presenting features and isolated, or at the background of a systemic syndrome. Our objective was to review the various skin manifestations that have been associated with monoclonal gammopathies. PMID:24070793

  16. Hyaline fibromatosis syndrome: cutaneous manifestations*

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Silvio Alencar; Stolf, Hamilton Ometto; Polizel, Juliana Ocanha; Munhoz, Tânia; Brandão, Marcela Calixto; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar

    2016-01-01

    Hyaline fibromatosis syndrome is the current name for clinical manifestations of diseases previously known as “infantile systemic hyalinosis” and “juvenile hyaline fibromatosis”. The authors report representative clinical cases of each one of the above subtypes with emphasis on cutaneous manifestations and difficulties for early diagnosis in this syndrome, essentially of multidisciplinary approach. PMID:27192526

  17. [Pulmonary manifestations of connective tissue diseases].

    PubMed

    Rehbock, B

    2015-03-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases are responsible for about 25% of all deaths due to interstitial lung disease; therefore, an early identification of patients with pulmonary manifestation changes the management. Detection, differential diagnostic classification and staging of the pneumological pattern of findings are largely based on high-resolution computed tomography (HR-CT). The main differential diagnostic challenges are interstitial manifestations which present with radiological-histopathological phenotypes of interstitial pneumonia. The most common form of interstitial pulmonary reaction form of connective tissue diseases is the nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) pattern. In rheumatoid arthritis, a usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern is dominant. Uncharacteristic reactions of airways and pleura can be the leading symptom or present as accompanying findings. A serious complication is pulmonary hypertension. Drug-induced lung lesions can present with similar HR-CT morphology as connective tissue diseases and can only be differentiated in the temporal and clinical context. PMID:25693496

  18. Dermatologic manifestation of hyperandrogenism: a retrospective chart review.

    PubMed

    Clark, Charlotte M; Rudolph, Jennifer; Gerber, Donald A; Glick, Sharon; Shalita, Alan R; Lowenstein, Eve J

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have described a wide spectrum of hyperandrogenism diseases, many of which are difficult to distinguish from each other. In order to better understand diseases of hyperandrogenism, the authors performed a retrospective study of the cutaneous features and metabolic findings in women with hyperandrogenism. A retrospective chart analysis compiled by three dermatologists in both academic and private settings was performed, including patients presenting with > or = 2 manifestations of hyperandrogenism. Relevant dermatologic and associated manifestations and laboratory and imaging study findings were reviewed. Moderate to severe acne was the most common manifestation. Other common manifestations that patients first presented with include hirsutism, acanthosis nigricans, androgenic alopecia, and skin tags. Oligomenorrhea was the most common systemic presenting sign. Statistical analysis of various clinical markers revealed correlations with hyperandrogenemia. Acanthosis nigricans and hirsutism were found to be useful clinical markers for hyperandrogenism, whereas androgenic alopecia was not. This study provides some insights into the presentation and diverse manifestations seen in hyperandrogenism. PMID:24933845

  19. Clinical Manifestations of Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo Jin; Park, Ji Ye; Jung, Joonho; Park, Seong Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM) is an uncommon disorder with only a few reported clinical studies. The goals of this study were to investigate the clinical manifestations and the natural course of SPM, as well as examine the current available treatment options for SPM. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 91 patients diagnosed with SPM between January 2008 and June 2015. Results The mean age of the patients was 22.7±13.2 years, and 67 (73.6%) were male. Chest pain (58, 37.2%) was the predominant symptom. The most frequent precipitating factor before developing SPM was a cough (15.4%), but the majority of patients (51, 56.0%) had no precipitating factors. Chest X-ray was diagnostic in 44 patients (48.4%), and chest computed tomography (CT) showed mediastinal air in all cases. Esophagography (10, 11.0%), esophagoduodenoscopy (1, 1.1%), and bronchoscopy (5, 5.5%) were performed selectively due to clinical suspicion, but no abnormal findings that implicated organ injury were documented. Twelve patients (13.2%) were discharged after a visit to the emergency room, and the others were admitted and received conservative treatment. The mean length of hospital stay was 3.0±1.6 days. There were no complications related to SPM except for recurrence in 2 patients (2.2%). Conclusion SPM responds well to conservative treatment and follows a benign natural course. Hospitalization and aggressive treatment can be performed in selective cases. PMID:27525238

  20. Dermatologic manifestations of Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Berger, B W

    1989-01-01

    Erythema migrams (EM), the distinctive cutaneous lesion of Lyme disease, has a variable clinical appearance, but at some point presents as a centrifugally expanding, usually erythematous, annular patch. Of 237 patients with this condition, 201 (85%) were examined initially from May through September. Thirty-four (14%) remembered having been bitten by a deer tick. The median interval from the bite to the appearance of EM was 9 days (range, 1-36 days). Forty-one (17%) of the patients had multiple EM lesions. Of the 237 patients, 128 (54%) manifested major extracutaneous signs and symptoms. Although EM also has a variable histologic picture, the presence of a deep and superficial perivascular and interstitial lymphohistiocytic infiltrate containing plasma cells is diagnostic. Spirochetes can be demonstrated with Warthin-Starry staining in approximately 40% of the biopsy specimens. Concomitant cutaneous lesions appeared on some patients before and during antibiotic therapy. Nine patients with serologic evidence of Borrelia burgdorferi infection had cutaneous lesions other than EM, including granuloma annulare (three), erythema nodosum (two), papular urticaria (two), Henoch-Schönlein-like purpura (one), and morphea (one). Whether these entities are cutaneous markers of Lyme disease or are coincidental findings is yet to be determined. PMID:2814169

  1. Extracardiac manifestations of bacterial endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Heffner, J E

    1979-08-01

    Bacterial endocarditis is an elusive disease that challenges clinicians' diagnostic capabilities. Because it can present with various combinations of extravalvular signs and symptoms, the underlying primary disease can go unnoticed.A review of the various extracardiac manifestations of bacterial endocarditis suggests three main patterns by which the valvular infection can be obscured. (1) A major clinical event may be so dramatic that subtle evidence of endocarditis is overlooked. The rupture of a mycotic aneurysm may simulate a subarachnoid hemorrhage from a congenital aneurysm. (2) The symptoms of bacterial endocarditis may be constitutional complaints easily attributable to a routine, trivial illness. Symptoms of low-grade fever, myalgias, back pain and anorexia may mimic a viral syndrome. (3) Endocarditis poses a difficult diagnostic dilemma when it generates constellations of findings that are classic for other disorders. Complaints of arthritis and arthralgias accompanied by hematuria and antinuclear antibody may suggest systemic lupus erythematosus; a renal biopsy study showing diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis may support this diagnosis. The combination of fever, petechiae, altered mental status, thrombocytopenia, azotemia and anemia may promote the diagnosis of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. When the protean guises of bacterial endocarditis create these clinical difficulties, errors in diagnosis occur and appropriate therapy is delayed. Keen awareness of the varied disease presentations will improve success in managing endocarditis by fostering rapid diagnosis and prompt therapy. PMID:516715

  2. Ocular manifestations of frontonasal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Roarty, J D; Pron, G E; Siegel-Bartelt, J; Posnick, J C; Buncic, J R

    1994-01-01

    The ophthalmologic findings associated with frontonasal dysplasia have not been defined previously in a large series of untreated children. We reviewed the ophthalmic manifestations of a series of patients with frontonasal dysplasia who were seen as part of their craniofacial evaluation. All had undergone a complete ophthalmologic examination before any manipulation of either the orbits or the soft tissues of the orbital contents. From 1986 to 1991, 23 patients with frontonasal dysplasia were seen; ophthalmologic abnormalities were found in 20 (87 percent). Abnormalities included significant refractive errors, strabismus, nystagmus, and eyelid ptosis. Three patients had amblyopia, a treatable cause of visual loss, from strabismus or anisometropia. Ten eyes in seven patients (30 percent) had severe structural anomalies, such as optic nerve hypoplasia, optic nerve colobomas, microphthalmia, cataract, corneal dermoid, or inflammatory retinopathy, that resulted in an acuity of 20/100 or worse. The high incidence of ocular abnormalities indicates that early assessment by an ophthalmologist should be part of the initial evaluation of patients with frontonasal dysplasia to detect treatable visual or ocular problems. PMID:8278482

  3. Critical Manifestations of Pneumoscrotum

    PubMed Central

    Dagur, Gautam; Lee, Min Y.; Warren, Kelly; Imhof, Reese; Khan, Sardar A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pneumoscrotum is a critical, physical finding that may indicate significant morbidity and mortality. Accumulation of gas in the scrotum can be primary or secondary. Objective This paper discusses rapid diagnosis and treatment options. Material and Methods PubMed searches for pneumoscrotum, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Results: We review the historical perspective, classification, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment options of pneumoscrotum, as well as the presentation of pneumoscrotum in neonates/infants. Conclusion It is crucial to diagnose the etiology pneumoscrotum and designing a treatment option based off that. PMID:27390577

  4. Gastrointestinal Manifestations of Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis has historically been considered a pulmonary disease, but with the increasing life expectancy of these patients, gastrointestinal manifestations are becoming more important. Furthermore, nutritional status is closely linked to pulmonary function and, thus, overall mortality. This article discusses gastrointestinal manifestations (which involve nutritional, pancreatic, hepatobiliary, and, in particular, gastrointestinal tract issues) of cystic fibrosis as well as management of the disease. In addition, the article discusses studies that have been critical to our understanding of gastrointestinal manifestations of cystic fibrosis. PMID:27330503

  5. Cutaneous Manifestations of Crohn Disease.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Joshua W; Swoger, Jason M; Grandinetti, Lisa M

    2015-07-01

    Awareness of the extraintestinal manifestations of Crohn disease is increasing in dermatology and gastroenterology, with enhanced identification of entities that range from granulomatous diseases recapitulating the underlying inflammatory bowel disease to reactive conditions and associated dermatoses. In this review, the underlying etiopathology of Crohn disease is discussed, and how this mirrors certain skin manifestations that present in a subset of patients is explored. The array of extraintestinal manifestations that do not share a similar pathology, but which are often seen in association with inflammatory bowel disease, is also discussed. Treatment and pathogenetic mechanisms, where available, are discussed. PMID:26143422

  6. Dermal ultrastructure in collagen VI myopathy.

    PubMed

    Hermanns-Lê, Trinh; Piérard, Gérald E; Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Delvenne, Philippe

    2014-04-01

    The COL VI mutations are responsible for a spectrum of myopathies. The authors report cutaneous ultrastructural alterations in a patient with COL6A2 myopathy. The changes include variations in size of collagen fibrils, flower-like sections of collagen fibrils, as well as thickening of vessel and nerve basement membranes. Electron microscopy of a skin biopsy contributes to the diagnosis of COL VI myopathies. PMID:24134684

  7. Quantum manifestations of Nekhoroshev stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontanari, Daniele; Fassò, Francesco; Sadovskií, Dmitrií A.

    2016-09-01

    We uncover quantum manifestations of classical Nekhoroshev theory of resonant dynamics using a simple quantum system of two coupled angular momenta with conserved equal magnitudes which corresponds to a perturbed classical integrable anisochronous Hamiltonian system.

  8. Oral Manifestations of Secondary Syphilis.

    PubMed

    de Paulo, Luiz Fernando Barbosa; Servato, João Paulo Silva; Oliveira, Maiolino Thomaz Fonseca; Durighetto, Antonio Francisco; Zanetta-Barbosa, Darceny

    2015-06-01

    Known as "the great imitator," secondary syphilis may clinically manifest itself in myriad ways, involving different organs including the oral mucosa, and mimicking, both clinically and histologically, several diseases, thereby making diagnosis a challenge for clinicians. We highlight the clinical aspects of oral manifestation in 7 patients with secondary syphilis. Clinicians should consider secondary syphilis in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative and/or white oral lesions. PMID:25892249

  9. Neurological manifestations of filarial infections.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Devender; Dumas, Michel; Preux, Pierre-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Filarial infections cause a huge public health burden wherever they are endemic. These filaria may locate anywhere in the human body. Their manifestations and pathogenic mechanisms, except the most common ones, are rarely investigated systematically. Their neurological manifestations, however, are being increasingly recognized particularly with onchocerciasis or Loa loa infections, Wuchereria bancrofti, or Mansonella perstans. The risk of developing these manifestations may also increase in cases that harbor multiple filariasis or coinfections, for instance as with Plasmodium. The microfilaria of Onchocerca and Loa loa are seen in cerebrospinal fluid. The pathogenesis of neurological manifestations of these infections is complex; however, pathogenic reactions may be caused by mechanical disruption, e.g., degeneration often followed by granulomas, causing fibrosis or mass effects on other tissues, vascular lesions, e.g., vascular block of cerebral vessels, or disordered inflammatory responses resulting in meningitis, encephalitis or localized inflammatory responses. The chances of having neurological manifestations may also depend upon the frequency and"heaviness"of infection over a lifetime. Hence, this type of infection should no longer be considered a disease of the commonly affected areas but one that may produce systemic effects or other manifestations, and these should be considered in populations where they are endemic. PMID:23829914

  10. Subcellular taxonomy: An ultrastructural classification system with diagnostic applications

    SciTech Connect

    McLay, A.L.C.; Toner, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    Contents of this work include: Ultrastructure, Nomenclature, and Disease; Numerical Listing: YX Cellular and Subcellular Structure; Alphabetical Listing; and Appendix: Proposed Revised Listing of M-6 Codes.

  11. Familial polyposis coli and its extracolonic manifestations.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S B

    1982-06-01

    A detailed clinical study of 30 families with familial polyposis coli is presented. Seven 'isolated' cases are also described. It was found that some families did not exhibit any extracolonic manifestations, but the majority of families showed various numbers of members who had these manifestations of differing types and degrees. In view of the great variability within the members of a family, polyposis coli and the Gardner syndrome are probably both produced by one pleiotropic gene. The occurrence of other neoplastic phenomena in association with polyposis coli has been considered. Many types of malignancy can occur in these patients and their families and the majority are probably fortuitous. The consistent finding of an association with medulloblastoma is such as to make this association of significance, but no reason is known for this. It is suggested that the term 'Turcot syndrome' should be used in a more restrictive manner than at present. PMID:7108915

  12. Imaging lung manifestations of HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Carolyn M.; AL-Jahdali, Hamdan H.; Irion, Klaus L.; Al Ghanem, Sarah; Gouda, Alaa; Khan, Ali Nawaz

    2010-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have led to improved care and incremental increases in survival. However, the pulmonary manifestations of HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Respiratory complaints are not infrequent in patients who are HIV positive. The great majority of lung complications of HIV/AIDS are of infectious etiology but neoplasm, interstitial pneumonias, Kaposi sarcoma and lymphomas add significantly to patient morbidity and mortality. Imaging plays a vital role in the diagnosis and management of lung of complications associated with HIV. Accurate diagnosis is based on an understanding of the pathogenesis of the processes involved and their imaging findings. Imaging also plays an important role in selection of the most appropriate site for tissue sampling, staging of disease and follow-ups. We present images of lung manifestations of HIV/AIDS, describing the salient features and the differential diagnosis. PMID:20981180

  13. The protean manifestations of pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Manger, W M

    2009-09-01

    The treacherous and deceptive nature of pheochromocytoma makes it crucial to detect and treat it promptly; otherwise it will almost certainly be fatal from cardiovascular complications or metastases. Hypertension occurring in patients with pheochromocytomas is sustained in about 50% and paroxysmal in the remainder; however, many patients remain normotensive. Hypertension attacks may be precipitated by physical activity, postural changes, anxiety, certain foods or wine, some drugs, operative procedures, etc. Cardinal manifestations are paroxysmal hypertension, headache, palpitations +/- tachycardia, inappropriate sweating; anxiety, tremulousness, pallor (rarely flushing), chest and abdominal pains; nausea and vomiting often occur. Hypercatecholaminemia manifestations are more common and pronounced when paroxysmal hypertension occurs, but persons with familial pheochromocytoma may be asymptomatic. Protean manifestations of pheochromocytoma may simulate many conditions, some of which may have elevated plasma and urine catecholamines and their metabolites. Baro-reflex failure, postural tachycardia syndrome, sleep apnea, carcinoid, renal failure, and pseudopheochromocytoma may be diagnostic challenges. The history, physical examination, biochemical testing (after eliminating interfering drugs, when possible) for plasma and urinary metanephrines can usually establish or exclude presence of pheochromocytomas. Occasionally a clonidine suppression test is needed to differentiate neurogenic from pheochromocytic hypertension. Manifestations suggesting hypercatecholaminemia without hypertension are highly atypical of pheochromocytoma. Pheochromocytoma may present as panic attacks, pre-eclampsia, cardiomyopathy, infection with fever and leucocytosis, diabetes, migraine, shock, Cushing's syndrome, multiple organ failure with lactic acidosis, neurological manifestations, transitory electrocardiogram abnormalities, constipation, intestinal obstruction, visual impairment

  14. Aquagenic urticaria with extracutaneous manifestations.

    PubMed

    Baptist, Alan P; Baldwin, James L

    2005-01-01

    Aquagenic urticaria (AU) is a rare form of physical urticaria in which contact with water evokes hives. Extracutaneous manifestations of AU have been described but have not been controlled successfully to date. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have not been used previously in the treatment of AU. The aim of this study was to describe a case of AU with extracutaneous manifestations, to describe a novel treatment approach, and to review the literature on AU. Our patient presented with urticarial lesions and migraine-like headaches after contact with any type of water. A variety of prophylactic medications including antihistamines, anticholinergics, and SSRIs, were used and, ultimately, were successful in controlling the patient's symptoms. AU is a rare condition that can have extracutaneous manifestations. Multiple classes of medications, including SSRIs, may be necessary in the treatment and prophylaxis of such patients. Additional research is needed into the pathogenesis of AU. PMID:16119038

  15. Neurocutaneous Manifestations of Genetic Mosaicism.

    PubMed

    van Steensel, Maurice A M

    2015-09-01

    Genetic mosaicism is defined as the presence of two or more genetically distinct cell populations in a single individual. Ever more disorders are found to be manifestations of mosaicism and together constitute a significant proportion of the morbidity confronting pediatric specialists. An emerging category is that of overgrowth syndromes with skin manifestations and neurological or developmental abnormalities, such as the well-known Proteus syndrome. In recent years, we have seen dramatic advances in our understanding of these disorders and we now know the genetic basis of many of them. This has profound consequences for diagnosis, counselling, and even treatment, with therapies targeted to specific pathways becoming available for clinical use. Recognizing such overgrowth syndromes, therefore, is more important than ever. Fortunately, their skin manifestations can provide important diagnostic clues when evaluated in the entire phenotypic context. In this review, I provide an overview of the most frequently seen mosaic neurocutaneous phenotypes and discuss their molecular basis. PMID:27617125

  16. Ultrastructural Variability of the Exosporium Layer of Clostridium difficile Spores.

    PubMed

    Pizarro-Guajardo, Marjorie; Calderón-Romero, Paulina; Castro-Córdova, Pablo; Mora-Uribe, Paola; Paredes-Sabja, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The anaerobic sporeformer Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea in developed and developing countries. The metabolically dormant spore form is considered the transmission, infectious, and persistent morphotype, and the outermost exosporium layer is likely to play a major role in spore-host interactions during the first contact of C. difficile spores with the host and for spore persistence during recurrent episodes of infection. Although some studies on the biology of the exosporium have been conducted (J. Barra-Carrasco et al., J Bacteriol 195:3863-3875, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.00369-13; J. Phetcharaburanin et al., Mol Microbiol 92:1025-1038, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.12611), there is a lack of information on the ultrastructural variability and stability of this layer. In this work, using transmission electron micrographs, we analyzed the variability of the spore's outermost layers in various strains and found distinctive variability in the ultrastructural morphotype of the exosporium within and between strains. Through transmission electron micrographs, we observed that although this layer was stable during spore purification, it was partially lost after 6 months of storage at room temperature. These observations were confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, where a significant decrease in the levels of two exosporium markers, the N-terminal domain of BclA1 and CdeC, was observed. It is also noteworthy that the presence of the exosporium marker CdeC on spores obtained from C. difficile biofilms depended on the biofilm culture conditions and the strain used. Collectively, these results provide information on the heterogeneity and stability of the exosporium surface of C. difficile spores. These findings have direct implications and should be considered in the development of novel methods to diagnose and/or remove C. difficile spores by using exosporium proteins as targets. PMID

  17. Cutaneous Manifestations of Common Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Dogra, Sunil; Jindal, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    Skin functions as a window to our overall health and a number of systemic diseases result in various cutaneous changes. Knowledge of these manifestations helps in suspecting an underlying systemic illness. Cutaneous abnormalities are quite common in patients with liver diseases and this article aims to focus on these dermatoses. Cutaneous manifestations seen in patients with liver disease though common are nonspecific. They can also be seen in patients without liver diseases and generally do not indicate about a specific underlying hepatic disorder. The presence of a constellation of signs and symptoms is more useful in pointing toward an underlying hepatobiliary condition. The commonest symptom in patients with liver disease is pruritus which is often protracted and disabling. Other common features include spider angiomas, palmar erythema, paper money skin, xanthelasmas, pigmentary changes, and nutritional deficiencies. In this article, first the common cutaneous manifestations that may be associated with liver disorders are discussed and then common liver diseases with their specific cutaneous findings are discussed. Cutaneous abnormalities may be the first clue to the underlying liver disease. Identifying them is crucial for early diagnosis and better management. PMID:25755383

  18. Neurologic Manifestations of Blood Dyscrasias.

    PubMed

    Couriel, Daniel R; Ricker, Holly; Steinbach, Mary; Lee, Catherine J

    2016-08-01

    Neurologic manifestations are common in blood diseases, and they can be caused by the hematologic disorder or its treatment. This article discusses hematologic diseases in adult patients, and categorizes them into benign and malignant conditions. The more common benign hematologic diseases associated with neurologic manifestations include anemias, particularly caused by B12 deficiency and sickle cell disease, and a variety of disorders of hemostasis causing bleeding or thrombosis, including thrombotic microangiopathy. Malignant conditions like multiple myeloma, leukemias, and lymphomas can have neurologic complications resulting from direct involvement, or caused by the different therapies to treat these cancers. PMID:27443994

  19. Atypical neurological manifestations of malaria

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Neeraj; Gupta, Monica; Singh, Ram; Kumar, Ashwani

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is known as a great mimic. It can manifest subtly or abruptly, typically or atypically. This aspect of the disease can frequently mislead physicians. We present two patients of malaria with atypical neurological manifestations. The first patient of Plasmodium falciparum malaria presented with fever and altered sensorium; MRI of the brain suggested cerebral venous thrombosis. The second patient of Plasmodium vivax presented with fever, double vision and right eye lateral rectus palsy due to unilateral sixth cranial nerve involvement. Both patients were managed with antimalarials and supportive medical management, and had uneventful recoveries. PMID:25150266

  20. Cutaneous manifestations in celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Abenavoli, L; Proietti, I; Leggio, L; Ferrulli, A; Vonghia, L; Capizzi, R; Rotoli, M; Amerio, P L; Gasbarrini, G; Addolorato, G

    2006-02-14

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune gluten-dependent enteropathy characterized by atrophy of intestinal villi that improves after gluten-free diet (GFD). CD is often associated with extra-intestinal manifestations; among them, several skin diseases are described in CD patients. The present review reports all CD-associated skin manifestations described in the literature and tries to analyze the possible mechanisms involved in this association. The opportunity to evaluate the possible presence of CD in patients affected by skin disorders is discussed. PMID:16521210

  1. Premature ovarian failure: morphological and ultrastructural aspects.

    PubMed

    Haidar, M A; Baracat, E C; Simões, M J; Focchi, G R; Evêncio Neto, J; de Lima, G R

    1994-01-01

    The authors documented by means of light and transmission electron microscopy that the ovaries of women with premature ovarian failure (POF) displayed dense connective tissue and rare corpora albicantia. Eight of the ten studied cases did not present ovarian follicles; in two cases, it was verified the presence of ovarian follicles, atypical primordial follicles and in one case, a corpus luteum was identified (after stimulation with exogenous gonadotrophin). Regarding the ultrastructural analysis, it was noted that the fibroblasts were united one to each other by cellular prolongations that formed a woof, constituting a cellular syncicius. PMID:7610321

  2. Ultrastructure of rabbit semilunar cartilages.

    PubMed Central

    Ghadially, F N; Thomas, I; Yong, N; Lalonde, J M

    1978-01-01

    A light and transmission electron microscopical study of 6 to 8 months old rabbit semilunar cartilages has shown that the cells in this tissue resemble chondrocytes more than fibroblasts. The prominent organelles in these cells were rough endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex. An unusual finding was the occurrence of filamentous material in Golgi sacs and vesicles, and collagen fibrils within smooth membrane-bound tubular structures, apparently within the cells. Collagen fibrils forming fibres, fibre bundles and lamellae constituted the major component of the menisci. Protein-polysaccharide particles and associated fine filaments were found in the interfibrillary matrix and in the sparse territorial matrix adjacent to the chondrocytes. Numerous immature elastic fibrils, and rare mature elastic fibres with an electorn-lucent amorphous core, were also found in the general matrix amongst the collagen fibrils. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 PMID:580431

  3. Ocular manifestations of infectious skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Sadowska-Przytocka, Anna; Czarnecka-Operacz, Magdalena; Jenerowicz, Dorota; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Ocular complications of infectious skin diseases are a common occurrence. Managing the inflamed or infected eye in the emergency setting presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the emergency physician. Infectious agents may affect any part of the eye. Ocular findings may be the first sign of many infectious diseases, such as, for example, gonorrhea or chlamydia infection. Understanding the various forms of ocular involvement in these conditions is important, because untreated ophthalmic involvement can lead to severe vision loss. This review focuses on the significant ocular manifestations of the most common infectious diseases, including bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections, that both ophthalmologists and dermatologists may encounter. PMID:26903179

  4. Manifestation of psoriasis in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Fatahzadeh, Mahnaz

    2016-03-01

    Despite the common prevalence of cutaneous psoriasis, the existence of manifestations in the oral cavity is subject to controversy. In this article, dermatologic psoriasis is reviewed, and a patient with generalized, symptomatic oral mucosal erythema resembling atrophic candidiasis synchronous with flare of chronic skin psoriasis is described. Diagnostic work up and therapeutic response supported that these mucosal findings were the oral counterpart of cutaneous disease. Dental providers should be familiar with the signs and symptoms of oral psoriasis, institute appropriate preventive measures, and provide palliation directed at symptomatic oral changes of psoriasis. PMID:26665263

  5. [Ultrastructure of the subepithelial capillaries and venules in the forestomach of sheep].

    PubMed

    Karmona, Kh; Kovachev, G

    1986-01-01

    Described is the ultrastructure of the subepithelial capillaries and venules in the forestomach, of sheep. The vessels have proved to be fenestrated, with an entire endothelial lining, the fenestrae being closed by a well contoured membrane (diaphragm). Certain differences were established in the wall of the subepithelial vessels of the individual compartments of the forestomach. The fenestral portions are usually located at the side that is closer to the basal epithelium, while within the deeper layers they are replaced by nonfenestrated endothelium. A well defined pericapillary space, full of cross, olblique, and longitudinal collagen fibres was found between capillaries and epithelial basal cells. There were a number of ultrastructural findings in the walls of the capillaries, venules, and epithelium, which could be referred to as morphologic indices of the active transport of metabolic substances. PMID:3727386

  6. Psychiatric manifestations in cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Fraidakis, M J

    2013-01-01

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare and severe, but treatable, inborn disorder of bile acid biosynthesis and sterol storage with autosomal recessive inheritance and variable clinical presentation. CTX treatment consists of chenodeoxycholic acid and must be started as early as possible to prevent permanent disability. Psychiatric manifestations are rare and non-specific, and often lead to significant diagnostic and treatment delay. Therefore, better recognition of the gamut of psychiatric manifestations in CTX can diminish the risk of misdiagnosis and irreversible neurological deterioration. We hereby describe the psychiatric features in CTX. A complete review of all published cases of CTX in the medical literature was undertaken and the case reports with psychiatric presentation were collected and analyzed. We also describe the psychiatric features in relation to the neurological semeiology in six patients with CTX diagnosed at the La Salpêtrière Hospital. We conclude that psychiatric manifestations in CTX follow a bimodal/bitemporal pattern, appearing early in the disease course in the form of a behavioral/personality disorder associated with learning difficulties or mental retardation, or manifesting in advanced disease in the setting of dementia as rich neuropsychiatric syndromes, such as frontal, orbitofrontal or frontotemporal syndromes of cortico-subcortical dementia encompassing behavioral/personality disturbance, affective/mood disorders or psychotic disorders. Behavioral/personality disturbance in childhood or adolescence, especially when accompanied by learning difficulties, should therefore lead to further investigation to exclude CTX, as early diagnosis and treatment is critical for prognosis. PMID:24002088

  7. [Clinical manifestations of cerebellar ataxias].

    PubMed

    Abdulkerimov, Kh T

    2003-01-01

    The analysis of clinical manifestations and focal symptoms in 18 patients with cerebellar ataxia (CA) has shown that these markers are not sufficient for making an accurate diagnosis in all CA cases. It is recommended to verify an ataxia form with objective methods, computed stabilography, in particular. PMID:12958853

  8. Clinical manifestations of cerebellar disease.

    PubMed

    Javalkar, Vijayakumar; Khan, Misbba; Davis, Debra E

    2014-11-01

    Clinical manifestations of cerebellar disease include ataxia and tremor, as well as nystagmus, dysarthria, and cognitive dysfunction. Recognition of the cerebellar pattern of disease can aid in the prompt and correct diagnosis and lead to appropriate treatment and rehabilitation to minimize disability. PMID:25439285

  9. Nonmotor manifestations of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Simuni, Tanya; Sethi, Kapil

    2008-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease. Traditionally, attention has focused on the motor symptomatology of PD, but it is now appreciated that the nonmotor symptoms affecting neuropsychiatric, sleep, autonomic, and sensory domains occur in up to 88% of PD patients and can be an important source of disability. Nonmotor manifestations of PD play a significant role in the impairment of disease-related quality of life. The cause of nonmotor manifestations of PD is multifactorial, but to a large extent, these manifestations are related to the nature of the neurodegenerative process and the widespread nondopaminergic neuropathological changes associated with the disease. Recognition of nonmotor disability is essential not only for ascertaining the functional status of patients but also for better appreciating the nature of the neurodegenerative process in PD. In addition, a number of nonmotor manifestations can precede the onset of motor symptoms in PD and can be used as screening tools allowing for early disease identification and for trials of possible disease-modifying interventions. This article reviews depression, sleep, and autonomic dysfunction in PD. PMID:19127582

  10. Esophageal Manifestations of Multisystem Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mapp, Esmond

    1980-01-01

    The esophagus may be involved directly or indirectly by numerous disease conditions. On occasion, the esophageal process may be the key to the diagnosis. In some situations, the esophageal manifestation of a disease may be more immediately life-threatening than the primary process. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:7310903

  11. Ultrastructure, biology, and phylogenetic relationships of kinorhyncha.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Birger; Higgins, Robert P

    2002-07-01

    The article summarizes current knowledge mainly about the (functional) morphology and ultrastructure, but also about the biology, development, and evolution of the Kinorhyncha. The Kinorhyncha are microscopic, bilaterally symmetrical, exclusively free-living, benthic, marine animals and ecologically part of the meiofauna. They occur throughout the world from the intertidal to the deep sea, generally in sediments but sometimes associated with plants or other animals. From adult stages 141 species are known, but 38 species have been described from juvenile stages. The trunk is arranged into 11 segments as evidenced by cuticular plates, sensory spots, setae or spines, nervous system, musculature, and subcuticular glands. The ultrastructure of several organ systems and the postembryonic development are known for very few species. Almost no data are available about the embryology and only a single gene has been sequenced for a single species. The phylogenetic relationships within Kinorhyncha are unresolved. Priapulida, Loricifera, and Kinorhyncha are grouped together as Scalidophora, but arguments are found for every possible sistergroup relationship within this taxon. The recently published Ecdysozoa hypothesis suggests a closer relationship of the Scalidophora, Nematoda, Nematomorpha, Tardigrada, Onychophora, and Arthropoda. PMID:21708758

  12. Cytological and ultrastructural studies on root tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slocum, R. D.; Gaynor, J. J.; Galston, A. W.

    1984-01-01

    The anatomy and fine structure of roots from oat and mung bean seedlings, grown under microgravity conditions for 8 days aboard the Space Shuttle, was examined and compared to that of roots from ground control plants grown under similar conditions. Roots from both sets of oat seedlings exhibited characteristic monocotyledonous tissue organization and normal ultrastructural features, except for cortex cell mitochondria, which exhibited a 'swollen' morphology. Various stages of cell division were observed in the meristematic tissues of oat roots. Ground control and flight-grown mung bean roots also showed normal tissue organization, but root cap cells in the flight-grown roots were collapsed and degraded in appearance, especially at the cap periphery. At the ultrastructural level, these cells exhibited a loss of organelle integrity and a highly-condensed cytoplasm. This latter observation perhaps suggests a differing tissue sensitivity for the two species to growth conditions employed in space flight. The basis for abnormal root cap cell development is not understood, but the loss of these putative gravity-sensing cells holds potential significance for long term plant growth orientation during space flight.

  13. How methylglyoxal kills bacteria: An ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Rabie, Erika; Serem, June Cheptoo; Oberholzer, Hester Magdalena; Gaspar, Anabella Regina Marques; Bester, Megan Jean

    2016-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of honey is due to the presence of methylglyoxal (MGO), H2O2, bee defensin as well as polyphenols. High MGO levels in manuka honey are the main source of antibacterial activity. Manuka honey has been reported to reduce the swarming and swimming motility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa due to de-flagellation. Due to the complexity of honey it is unknown if this effect is directly due to MGO. In this ultrastructural investigation the effects of MGO on the morphology of bacteria and specifically the structure of fimbriae and flagella were investigated. MGO effectively inhibited Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis; MIC 0.8 mM and Staphylococcus aureus; MIC 1.2 mM) and Gram negative (P. aeruginosa; MIC 1.0 mM and Escherichia coli; MIC 1.2 mM) bacteria growth. The ultrastructural effects of 0.5, 1.0 and 2 mM MGO on B. substilis and E. coli morphology was then evaluated. At 0.5 mM MGO, bacteria structure was unaltered. For both bacteria at 1 mM MGO fewer fimbriae were present and the flagella were less or absent. Identified structures appeared stunted and fragile. At 2 mM MGO fimbriae and flagella were absent while the bacteria were rounded with shrinkage and loss of membrane integrity. Antibacterial MGO causes alterations in the structure of bacterial fimbriae and flagella which would limit bacteria adherence and motility. PMID:26986806

  14. Processing biological tissues for ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Mascorro, José A; Bozzola, John J

    2007-01-01

    Biological tissues are passed through numerous procedures before they can be studied at the ultrastructural level with the electron microscope. Chemical fixation is widely used as a method for preserving structural detail and can be performed by simple immersion or total body vascular perfusion. A 2 to 4% solution of glutaraldehyde buffered with 0.1 M sodium phosphate, or a combination of similarly buffered glutaraldehyde and paraformaldehyde, can be used successfully to preserve the fine structure of biological tissues. The material next is washed briefly in the buffer vehicle and then secondarily fixed in 1% osmium tetroxide (osmic acid), which also is buffered with sodium phosphate. The tissue then is thoroughly dehydrated in solutions of ethanol at increasing concentrations of 50%, 70%, 95%, and 100%. After dehydration, tissues are infiltrated for a prescribed time interval with an epoxy embedding medium. After infiltration, specimens are transferred into fresh epoxy resin and polymerized at 60 to 70 degrees C for several hours. This orderly process ultimately yields fixed tissues that are encased in hardened blocks that can be thin-sectioned with an ultramicrotome. The thin sections are counterstained with solutions of heavy metals to add contrast. The material then can be subjected to the electron beam in an electron microscope to produce useful images for ultrastructural study. This overall procedure has been used successfully since the advent of biological electron microscopy to define the minute details of cells and tissues. PMID:17656744

  15. 40 CFR 262.21 - Manifest tracking numbers, manifest printing, and obtaining manifests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... instructions in the appendix to 40 CFR part 262 must appear legibly on the back of the copies of the manifest... AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The...): “Designated facility to destination State (if required)”. (ii) Page 2: “Designated facility to generator...

  16. 40 CFR 262.21 - Manifest tracking numbers, manifest printing, and obtaining manifests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... instructions in the appendix to 40 CFR part 262 must appear legibly on the back of the copies of the manifest... AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The...): “Designated facility to destination State (if required)”. (ii) Page 2: “Designated facility to generator...

  17. Ultra-structural hair alterations of drug abusers: a scanning electron microscopic investigation.

    PubMed

    Turkmenoglu, Fatma Pinar; Kasirga, Ugur Baran; Celik, Hakan Hamdi

    2015-01-01

    As drug abuse carries a societal stigma, patients do not often report their history of drug abuse to the healthcare providers. However, drug abuse is highly co-morbid with a host of other health problems such as psychiatric disorders and skin diseases, and majority of individuals with drug use disorders seek treatment in the first place for other problems. Therefore, it is very important for physicians to be aware of clinical signs and symptoms of drug use. Recently diagnostic value of dermatologic tissue alterations associated with drug abuse has become a very particular interest because skin changes were reported to be the earliest noticeable consequence of drug abuse prompting earlier intervention and treatment. Although hair is an annex of skin, alterations on hair structure due to drug use have not been demonstrated. This study represents the first report on ultra-structural hair alterations of drug abusers. We have investigated ultra-structure of the hair samples obtained from 6 cocaine, 6 heroin, 7 cannabis and 4 lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) abusers by scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM analysis of hair samples gave us drug-specific discriminating alterations. We suggest that results of this study will make a noteworthy contribution to cutaneous alterations associated with drug abuse which are regarded as the earliest clinical manifestations, and this SEM approach is a very specific and effective tool in the detection of abuse of respective drugs, leading early treatment. PMID:26309532

  18. Ultra-structural hair alterations of drug abusers: a scanning electron microscopic investigation

    PubMed Central

    Turkmenoglu, Fatma Pinar; Kasirga, Ugur Baran; Celik, Hakan Hamdi

    2015-01-01

    As drug abuse carries a societal stigma, patients do not often report their history of drug abuse to the healthcare providers. However, drug abuse is highly co-morbid with a host of other health problems such as psychiatric disorders and skin diseases, and majority of individuals with drug use disorders seek treatment in the first place for other problems. Therefore, it is very important for physicians to be aware of clinical signs and symptoms of drug use. Recently diagnostic value of dermatologic tissue alterations associated with drug abuse has become a very particular interest because skin changes were reported to be the earliest noticeable consequence of drug abuse prompting earlier intervention and treatment. Although hair is an annex of skin, alterations on hair structure due to drug use have not been demonstrated. This study represents the first report on ultra-structural hair alterations of drug abusers. We have investigated ultra-structure of the hair samples obtained from 6 cocaine, 6 heroin, 7 cannabis and 4 lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) abusers by scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM analysis of hair samples gave us drug-specific discriminating alterations. We suggest that results of this study will make a noteworthy contribution to cutaneous alterations associated with drug abuse which are regarded as the earliest clinical manifestations, and this SEM approach is a very specific and effective tool in the detection of abuse of respective drugs, leading early treatment. PMID:26309532

  19. Clinical manifestations of celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Green, Peter H R; Krishnareddy, Suneeta; Lebwohl, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-based condition affecting multiple organ systems. Clinical manifestations are manifold in form and number due to the multisystem nature of CD. There has been a progressive change in the clinical manifestations over the recent decades with fewer patients, both adults and children, presenting with a diarrheal, classical form. This, in children, is seen in only the youngest, while growth issues, screening at-risk groups and recurrent abdominal pain are the most common modes of presentation among children. Among adults, diarrhea is the most common presentation followed by anemia. Screening at-risk groups, metabolic bone disease and incidental recognition at endoscopy performed for reflux are the other main modes of presentation. The bulk of those with CD remain undiagnosed. The symptoms are often common, and increased medical education should lead to greater awareness in the medical community and an increased rate of diagnosis. PMID:25925914

  20. Porphyria and its neurologic manifestations.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Jennifer A; Dyck, P James B

    2014-01-01

    Porphyrias are rare disorders resulting from a defect in the heme biosynthetic pathway. They can produce significant disease of both the peripheral and central nervous systems, in addition to other organ systems, with acute intermittent porphyria, hereditary coproporphyria, and variegate porphyria as the subtypes associated with neurologic manifestations. The presence of a motor-predominant peripheral neuropathy (axonal predominant), accompanied by gastrointestinal distress and neuropsychiatric manifestations, should be a strong clue to the diagnosis of porphyria. Clinical confirmation can be made through evaluation of urine porphyrins during an exacerbation of disease. While hematin is helpful for acute treatment, long-term effective management requires avoidance of overstimulation of the cytochrome P450 pathway, as well as other risk factor control. PMID:24365356

  1. Systemic diseases with cutaneous manifestations.

    PubMed

    Merchant, S R; Taboada, J

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to briefly discuss the following cutaneous manifestations of selected systemic diseases: poxvirus; feline leukemia virus (FeLV); feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV); herpesvirus; calcivirus; pseudorabies; plague; tularemia; toxoplasmosis; leishmania; hypothyroidism; hyperthyroidism; hyperadrenocorticism; diabetes mellitus; acromegaly; thallium poisoning; pancreatic disease; hypereosinophilic syndrome; mucopolysaccharidosis; and pansteatitis. Recognition of these cutaneous signs may help alert the clinician to the possibility of an internal disorder so that the appropriate diagnostic tests can be considered. PMID:8525575

  2. Reproductive manifestations of thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C A

    1994-05-01

    Thyroid function and reproductive function have many interactions, the scope and mechanism of which are not fully understood. These functions are of greatest clinical importance for veterinarians working with breeders of purebred dogs. Thyroid dysfunction does not always result in clinical signs of reproductive disorders or in subfertility. It seems that animals with overt thyroid dysfunction are those most likely to manifest reproduction problems. PMID:8053110

  3. Parasitic Diseases With Cutaneous Manifestations.

    PubMed

    Ash, Mark M; Phillips, Charles M

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic diseases result in a significant global health burden. While often thought to be isolated to returning travelers, parasitic diseases can also be acquired locally in the United States. Therefore, clinicians must be aware of the cutaneous manifestations of parasitic diseases to allow for prompt recognition, effective management, and subsequent mitigation of complications. This commentary also reviews pharmacologic treatment options for several common diseases. PMID:27621348

  4. Periodontal manifestations of hyperoxaluria and oxalosis.

    PubMed

    Moskow, B S

    1989-05-01

    Dental and periodontal findings associated with primary hyperoxaluria in a 29-year old male patient are described. This is a rare, inherited, metabolic disease which results in excessive calcium oxalate synthesis. The predominant and early manifestation of hyperoxaluria is nephrocalcinosis which results in chronic renal failure. Widespread extrarenal deposits of calcium oxalate crystals, however, is a consistent finding. Extensive infiltration of crystals was noted in the pulps of the teeth, in the marrow spaces of the alveolar bone, in the gingival corium, and in the periodontal ligament. Crystalline calcium oxalate deposits in the periodontal ligament provoked a granulomatous foreign-body reaction. This resulted in aggressive external root resorption leading to pulp exposure and tooth mobility. PMID:2738833

  5. Intra- and interspecific diversity of ultrastructural markers in Scedosporium.

    PubMed

    Stepanova, Amaliya A; de Hoog, G Sybren; Vasilyeva, Nataliya V

    2016-02-01

    Ultrastructural features of conidia, lateral walls of aerial and submerged hyphal cells, and of septal pore apparatus of Scedosporium apiospermum, S. boydii, Pseudallescheria angusta and Scedosporium aurantiacum were studied. Submerged hyphal cells possessed a thick extracellular matrix. Crystalline satellites accessory to the septal pore apparatus were revealed. Fundamental ultrastructural features appeared to be heterogeneous at low taxonomic levels. The closely interrelated members of the S. apiospermum complex showed quantitative ultrastructural variability, but the unambiguously different species S. aurantiacum deviated qualitatively by markers of conidial wall structure, Woronin bodies morphology and presence/absence of crystalline satellites of the septal pore apparatus. PMID:26781370

  6. Ultrastructural demonstration of chemical modification of melanogenesis in hairless mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, M.; Gellin, G.A.; Hoshino, S.; Epstein, J.H.; Epstein, W.L.; Fukuyama, K.

    1982-02-01

    We investigated chemical and physical modifications of the genetically determined ultrastructure of melanosomes. The flank skin of hairless mice was treated with ultraviolet energy (UV) shorter than 320 nm or with a combination of a photosensitizer and UV (PUVA treatment). All melanosomes in the induced melanocytes and those in resident melanocytes in the ear skin showed eumelanogenesis, although the degree of melanin deposition differed considerably according to the induction process. Eumelanogenesis was most advanced in the resident melanocytes while PUVA-induced melanocytes showed more immature premelanosomes. We then topically applied 4-tertiary butyl catechol on the skin. The depigmenting agent caused an appearance of pheomelanosomes. The alteration in melanogenesis was seen most distinctly in premelanosomes of the PUVA-induced cells. Altered ultrastructure was also observed in matured melanosomes; this change was most apparent in the resident melanocytes. These findings indicate that cells with eumelanogenesis may undergo pheomelanogenesis. The present study demonstrated effects of chemicals on genetically determined function of melanocytes by quantitative analysis of melanosome ultrastructure.

  7. [Experimental myocardial infarct in rats induced by ligation of the coronary vessels. Electrophysiologic and ultrastructural study].

    PubMed

    Bózner, A; Kuzelová, M; Matĕjková, Z; Kulcsár, A

    1994-12-01

    Ischemic damage of rat myocardium was produced by ligature of coronary arteries. Animals were studied in three groups: those dying of dysrhythmia, animals after ischemia lasting 10 minutes and 20 minutes. All of them were investigated by ECG and extrasystoles, bigeminia, trigeminia, salvos, ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation were found. Groups with ECG finding were sampled for electron microscopy. Ultrastructural findings documented ischemic damage of cardiomyocytes-clearing of basal sarcoplasm, clearing of perinuclear zones, occurring of cytolytic regions and even necrotic disintegration of cardiocytes. PMID:7859319

  8. 78 FR 11877 - Announcement of Requirements Gathering Meetings for the Electronic Manifest (e-Manifest) System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... inefficiencies associated with the use of paper manifest forms (66 FR 28240). Although comments generally... electronically completing and transmitting manifests through a national, centralized e-Manifest system (71 FR... AGENCY Announcement of Requirements Gathering Meetings for the Electronic Manifest (e-Manifest)...

  9. [Neuropsychiatric manifestations ushering pernicious anemia].

    PubMed

    Mrabet, S; Ellouze, F; Ellini, S; Mrad, M F

    2015-12-01

    Biermer disease or pernicious anemia is an autoimmune atrophic gastritis characterized by the lack of secretion of gastric intrinsic factor. This leads to an insufficient absorption of vitamin B12 in the ileum. Clinical manifestations are mainly hematologic. Neuropsychiatric manifestations are known but are less frequent especially early in the disease. Inaugural neuropsychiatric arrays are rare and various thus making diagnosis difficult. In this article, we report through two clinical cases different neuropsychiatric manifestations revealing pernicious anemia. Mrs. C.O., aged 56, presented after surgery for gallstones, an acute psychiatric array associated with gait disorders. She had no history of neurological or psychiatric problems. The psychiatric interview revealed delirious syndrome, depressive symptoms and anxiety. Neurological examination noted a flaccid paraplegia with peripheral neuropathic syndrome and myoclonus in the upper limbs. At the full blood count, a macrocytosis (VGM: 112.2fl) without anemia was found. The level of vitamin B12 in the blood was low. Cerebro-spinal MRI was suggestive of a neuro-Biermer and showed hyper signal in the cervical cord on T2-weighted sagittal section. In axial section, hyper signal appears at the posterior columns in the form of V. There were no brain abnormalities. A sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy was diagnosed. The patient received vitamin B12 intramuscularly for ten days associated with neuroleptic treatment. Mrs. R.M., aged 40, was brought to the psychiatry consultation for acute behavioral disorders progressively worsening over a month. An anxiety syndrome, depressive syndrome and delirious syndrome were identified. Neurological examination showed a posterior cordonal syndrome with quadripyramidal syndrome. Full blood count showed a macrocytic anemia. Serum B12 level was collapsed. Cerebro-spinal MRI was normal. She received vitamin B12 with clinical and biological improvement. Features of pernicious anemia

  10. Linking progression of fibrotic lung remodeling and ultrastructural alterations of alveolar epithelial type II cells in the amiodarone mouse model.

    PubMed

    Birkelbach, Bastian; Lutz, Dennis; Ruppert, Clemens; Henneke, Ingrid; Lopez-Rodriguez, Elena; Günther, Andreas; Ochs, Matthias; Mahavadi, Poornima; Knudsen, Lars

    2015-07-01

    Chronic injury of alveolar epithelial type II cells (AE2 cells) represents a key event in the development of lung fibrosis in animal models and in humans, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Intratracheal delivery of amiodarone to mice results in a profound injury and macroautophagy-dependent apoptosis of AE2 cells. Increased autophagy manifested in AE2 cells by disturbances of the intracellular surfactant. Hence, we hypothesized that ultrastructural alterations of the intracellular surfactant pool are signs of epithelial stress correlating with the severity of fibrotic remodeling. With the use of design-based stereology, the amiodarone model of pulmonary fibrosis in mice was characterized at the light and ultrastructural level during progression. Mean volume of AE2 cells, volume of lamellar bodies per AE2 cell, and mean size of lamellar bodies were correlated to structural parameters reflecting severity of fibrosis like collagen content. Within 2 wk amiodarone leads to an increase in septal wall thickness and a decrease in alveolar numbers due to irreversible alveolar collapse associated with alveolar surfactant dysfunction. Progressive hypertrophy of AE2 cells and increase in mean individual size and total volume of lamellar bodies per AE2 cell were observed. A high positive correlation of these AE2 cell-related ultrastructural changes and the deposition of collagen fibrils within septal walls were established. Qualitatively, similar alterations could be found in IPF samples with mild to moderate fibrosis. We conclude that ultrastructural alterations of AE2 cells including the surfactant system are tightly correlated with the progression of fibrotic remodeling. PMID:25957292

  11. Ultrastructure and properties of Paecilomyces lilacinus spores.

    PubMed

    Holland, R J; Gunasekera, T S; Williams, K L; Nevalainen, K M H

    2002-10-01

    Strains of the filamentous soil fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus are currently being developed for use as biological control agents against root-knot, cyst, and other plant-parasitic nematodes. The inoculum applied in the field consists mainly of spores. This study was undertaken to examine the size, ultrastructure, and rodlet layers of P. lilacinus spores and the effect of the culture method on structural and functional spore properties. A rodlet layer was identified on aerial spores only. Other differences noted between aerial spores and those produced in submerged culture included the size and appearance of spores and thickness of spore coat layers when examined with transmission electron microscopy. The two spore types differed in UV tolerance, with aerial spores being less sensitive to environmentally relevant UV radiation. Also, viability after drying and storage was better with the aerial spores. Both spore types exhibited similar nematophagous ability. PMID:12489777

  12. Effects of ultrasound upon endothelial cell ultrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodemer, Claus; Jenne, Jürgen; Fatar, Marc; Hennerici, Michael G.; Meairs, Stephen

    2012-11-01

    A number of new brain applications for therapeutic ultrasound are emerging including drug delivery through BBB opening, enhancement of angiogenesis, sonothrombolysis and neuromodulation. Safety remains important as alterations in the cytoskeleton and tight junctions of endothelial cells have been described. In this study we characterize the in vitro effects of ultrasound on cell morphology using a new human brain cell line (hCMEC/D3). Changes in ultrastructure were analyzed with antibodies against tubulin, actin and catenin. Transport was analyzed by measuring transferrin uptake. No significant changes were seen after continuous wave ultrasound treatment of hCMEC/D3 cells grown in Opticell{trade mark, serif} chambers. We could not observe disassembled actin stress fibers or variations in the microtubule network. However, severe damage occurred in cells cultured in petri dishes.

  13. Ultrastructure and phylogeny of Ustilago coicis *

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing-ze; Guan, Pei-gang; Tao, Gang; Ojaghian, Mohammad Reza; Hyde, Kevin David

    2013-01-01

    Ustilago coicis causes serious smut on Coix lacryma-jobi in Dayang Town, Jinyun County, Zhejiang Province of China. In this paper, ultrastructural assessments on fungus-host interactions and teliospore development are presented, and molecular phylogenetic analyses have been done to elucidate the phylogenetic placement of the taxon. Hyphal growth within infected tissues was both intracellular and intercellular and on the surface of fungus-host interaction, and the fungal cell wall and the invaginated host plasma membrane were separated by a sheath comprising two distinct layers between the fungal cell wall and the invaginated host plasma membrane. Ornamentation development of teliospore walls was unique as they appeared to be originated from the exosporium. In addition, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large subunit (LSU) sequence data showed that U. coicis is closely related to Ustilago trichophora which infects grass species of the genus Echinochloa (Poaceae). PMID:23549851

  14. Defective enamel ultrastructure in diabetic rodents.

    PubMed

    Atar, M; Atar-Zwillenberg, D R; Verry, P; Spornitz, U M

    2004-07-01

    We investigated six different types of diabetic rodents. Four expressed a genetic obesity resulting in diabetes. One developed diabetes induced by a diet-dependent obesity, and one with genetic diabetes received anti-diabetic medication. The tooth samples were examined under a scanning electron microscope and with an energy dispersive microanalysis (EDX). The electron micrographs showed severe, varying degrees of damage within the six different diabetic animal types, such as irregular crystallite deposition and prism perforations in genetically obese animals compared to less-disordered prism structures in diet-dependent obesity. Anti-diabetic medication resulted in normal enamel ultrastructure. The EDX analysis revealed a reduction in the amount of calcium and phosphorus in all regions affected by diabetes. Based on these animal studies, we suggest that both juvenile diabetes type I (in infants) and adult diabetes type II (in pregnant mothers, affecting the developing foetus) may affect the normal development of teeth in humans. PMID:15242388

  15. The Effect of Spaceflight on the Ultrastructure of the Cerebellum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holstein, Gay R.; Martinelli, Giorgio P.

    2003-01-01

    In weightlessness, astronauts and cosmonauts may experience postural illusions as well as motion sickness symptoms known as the space adaptation syndrome. Upon return to Earth, they have irregularities in posture and balance. The adaptation to microgravity and subsequent re-adaptation to Earth occurs over several days. At the cellular level, a process called neuronal plasticity may mediate this adaptation. The term plasticity refers to the flexibility and modifiability in the architecture and functions of the nervous system. In fact, plastic changes are thought to underlie not just behavioral adaptation, but also the more generalized phenomena of learning and memory. The goal of this experiment was to identify some of the structural alterations that occur in the rat brain during the sensory and motor adaptation to microgravity. One brain region where plasticity has been studied extensively is the cerebellar cortex-a structure thought to be critical for motor control, coordination, the timing of movements, and, most relevant to the present experiment, motor learning. Also, there are direct as well as indirect connections between projections from the gravity-sensing otolith organs and several subregions of the cerebellum. We tested the hypothesis that alterations in the ultrastructural (the structure within the cell) architecture of rat cerebellar cortex occur during the early period of adaptation to microgravity, as the cerebellum adapts to the absence of the usual gravitational inputs. The results show ultrastructural evidence for neuronal plasticity in the central nervous system of adult rats after 24 hours of spaceflight. Qualitative studies conducted on tissue from the cerebellar cortex (specifically, the nodulus of the cerebellum) indicate that ultrastructural signs of plasticity are present in the cerebellar zones that receive input from the gravity-sensing organs in the inner ear (the otoliths). These changes are not observed in this region in cagematched

  16. A Model of the Ultrastructure of a Cell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushell, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Presents a project for modeling cellular ultrastructure for 14-17 year old students that helps to develop concepts of measurement and scaling in addition to supporting student understanding of cell biology. (Author/YDS)

  17. Uncommon Manifestations of Intervertebral Disk Pathologic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Diehn, Felix E; Maus, Timothy P; Morris, Jonathan M; Carr, Carrie M; Kotsenas, Amy L; Luetmer, Patrick H; Lehman, Vance T; Thielen, Kent R; Nassr, Ahmad; Wald, John T

    2016-01-01

    Beyond the familiar disk herniations with typical clinical features, intervertebral disk pathologic conditions can have a wide spectrum of imaging and clinical manifestations. The goal of this review is to illustrate and discuss unusual manifestations of intervertebral disk pathologic conditions that radiologists may encounter, including disk herniations in unusual locations, those with atypical imaging features, and those with uncommon pathophysiologic findings. Examples of atypical disk herniations presented include dorsal epidural, intradural, symptomatic thoracic (including giant calcified), extreme lateral (retroperitoneal), fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose-avid, acute intravertebral (Schmorl node), and massive lumbar disk herniations. Examples of atypical pathophysiologic conditions covered are discal cysts, fibrocartilaginous emboli to the spinal cord, tiny calcified disks or disk-level spiculated osteophytes causing spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak and intracranial hypotension, and pediatric acute calcific discitis. This broad gamut of disease includes a variety of sizes of disk pathologic conditions, from the tiny (eg, the minuscule calcified disks causing high-flow CSF leaks) to the extremely large (eg, giant calcified thoracic intradural disk herniations causing myelopathy). A spectrum of clinical acuity is represented, from hyperacute fibrocartilaginous emboli causing spinal cord infarct, to acute Schmorl nodes, to chronic intradural herniations. The entities included are characterized by a range of clinical courses, from the typically devastating cord infarct caused by fibrocartilaginous emboli, to the usually spontaneously resolving pediatric acute calcific discitis. Several conditions have important differential diagnostic considerations, and others have relatively diagnostic imaging findings. The pathophysiologic findings are well understood for some of these entities and poorly defined for others. Radiologists' knowledge of this broad scope of

  18. [Vectorcardiographic manifestations of atrial enlargements].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, A; Medrano, G A

    1990-01-01

    Rational interpretation of changes of the P loop due to atrial enlargements must to rely on the magnitude and spatial orientation of main resultant vectors of the activation sequence of the atria. Under normal conditions, these vectors give rise to a mean vector oriented to the left downward and discretely forward with respect to their point of origin. In the presence of right atrial enlargement, the manifestation of the first vector of atrial depolarization, oriented downward and forward, is increased. This one moves in the same direction as the mean vector of atrial depolarization, originating an elongated P loop of more than 100 mcv in the three planes. Nevertheless, in the horizontal plane, increase of the P loop voltage predominates when hypertrophy exists, while augmentation of its area predominates when dilatation exists. In left atrial enlargement, the manifestation of the second vector of atrial depolarization, oriented to the left and backward, is augmented, and it moves in the same direction as the mean vector of atrial depolarization. For this, the PF loop acquires a characteristic aspect of a boxing glove, an the PH loop becomes diphasic, with its posterior area more or less prominent, or with a typical figure-eight conformation. If a biatrial enlargement is present, the manifestation of both the main resultant vectors of atrial depolarization is accentuated. Therefore the voltage of the diphasic P loop increases. Moreover the Ps loop has a triangular configuration, with its base of 30 msc or more, located below its point of origin. Generally disturbances of interatrial and intraatrial conduction coexist owing to myocardial damage. PMID:2146934

  19. Clinical manifestation of mitochondrial diseases.

    PubMed

    Magner, Martin; Kolářová, Hana; Honzik, Tomáš; Švandová, Ivana; Zeman, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders (MD) represent a clinically, biochemically and genetically heterogeneous group of diseases associated with dysfunction of the oxidative phosphorylation system and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Our aim was to illustrate the most common clinical presentation of MD on the example of selected diseases and syndromes. The minimal prevalence of MD is estimated as 1 to 5,000. MD may manifest at any age since birth until late-adulthood with acute manifestation or as a chronic progressive disease. Virtually any organ may be impaired, but the organs with the highest energetic demands are most frequently involved, including brain, muscle, heart and liver. Some MD may manifest as a characteristic cluster of clinical features (e.g. MELAS syndrome, Kearns-Sayre syndrome). Diagnostics includes detailed history, the comprehensive clinical examination, results of specialized examinations (especially cardiology, visual fundus examination, brain imaging, EMG), laboratory testing of body fluids (lactate, aminoacids, organic acids), and analysis of bioptic samples of muscle, skin, and liver, eventually. Normal lactate level in blood does not exclude the possibility of MD. Although the aimed molecular genetic analyses may be indicated in some of mitochondrial diseases, the methods of next generation sequencing come into focus. Examples of treatment are arginine supplementation in MELAS syndrome, ketogenic diet in pyruvate oxidation disorders or quinone analogs in patients with LHON. Conclusion: The clinical suspicion of a mitochondrial disorder is often delayed, or the disease remains undiagnosed. The correct diagnosis and adequate treatment can improve prognosis of the patient. Access to genetic counseling is also of great importance. PMID:26982751

  20. Cardiac manifestations in systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lambova, Sevdalina

    2014-01-01

    Primary cardiac involvement, which develops as a direct consequence of systemic sclerosis (SSc), may manifest as myocardial damage, fibrosis of the conduction system, pericardial and, less frequently, as valvular disease. In addition, cardiac complications in SSc may develop as a secondary phenomenon due to pulmonary arterial hypertension and kidney pathology. The prevalence of primary cardiac involvement in SSc is variable and difficult to determine because of the diversity of cardiac manifestations, the presence of subclinical periods, the type of diagnostic tools applied, and the diversity of patient populations. When clinically manifested, cardiac involvement is thought to be an important prognostic factor. Profound microvascular disease is a pathognomonic feature of SSc, as both vasospasm and structural alterations are present. Such alterations are thought to predict macrovascular atherosclerosis over time. There are contradictory reports regarding the prevalence of atherosclerosis in SSc. According to some authors, the prevalence of atherosclerosis of the large epicardial coronary arteries is similar to that of the general population, in contrast with other rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. However, the level of inflammation in SSc is inferior. Thus, the atherosclerotic process may not be as aggressive and not easily detectable in smaller studies. Echocardiography (especially tissue Doppler imaging), single-photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and cardiac computed tomography are sensitive techniques for earlier detection of both structural and functional scleroderma-related cardiac pathologies. Screening for subclinical cardiac involvement via modern, sensitive tools provides an opportunity for early diagnosis and treatment, which is of crucial importance for a positive outcome. PMID:25276300

  1. Clinical manifestations of sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may manifest in a number of ways from subtle intrusion into daily life to profound sleepiness, snoring, witnessed apneas and other classic symptoms. Although there is increasing evidence suggesting OSA can adversely affect health in a variety of ways, this disorder remains underdiagnosed. The most well-escribed health consequences of OSA relate to the cardiovascular system. Hypertension and arrhythmias have a strong association with OSA, and evidence suggests that treatment of OSA in patients with refractory hypertension and in patients planning cardioversion for atrial fibrillation may be of particularly importance. Significant associations between heart failure and OSA as well as complex sleep apnea have also been well-described. Cerebrovascular insult, impaired neurocognition, and poorly controlled mood disorder are also associated with in OSA. Therapy for OSA may ameliorate atherosclerotic progression and improve outcomes post-cerebrovascular accident (CVA). OSA should be considered in patients complaining of poor concentration at work, actual or near-miss motor vehicle accidents, and patients with severe sleepiness as a component of their co-morbid mood disorders. The metabolic impact of OSA has also been studied, particularly in relation to glucose homeostasis. Also of interest is the potential impact OSA has on lipid metabolism. The adverse effect untreated OSA has on glucose tolerance and lipid levels has led to the suggestion that OSA is yet another constituent of the metabolic syndrome. Some of these metabolic derangements may be related to the adverse effects untreated OSA has on hepatic health. The cardiovascular, neurocognitive, and metabolic manifestations of OSA can have a significant impact on patient health and quality of life. In many instances, evidence exists that therapy not only improves outcomes in general, but also modifies the severity of co-morbid disease. To mitigate the long-term sequela of this disease

  2. Cutaneous and ocular manifestations of neurocutaneous syndromes.

    PubMed

    Chernoff, Karen A; Schaffer, Julie V

    2016-01-01

    Neurocutaneous syndromes are a heterogeneous group of congenital and hereditary disorders with manifestations in the skin and the nervous system, usually together with ocular features that represent diagnostic clues and potential sources of morbidity. Dermatologists and ophthalmologists often need to work together in identifying and managing patients with these conditions; herein, we focus on classic and under-recognized neurocutaneous syndromes. We begin with autosomal dominant genodermatoses characterized by hamartomas and tumors in the skin, eyes, and central nervous system: neurofibromatosis type 1, tuberous sclerosis complex, and PTEN hamartoma-tumor syndrome. This is followed by a discussion of two mosaic disorders, Sturge-Weber syndrome and neurocutaneous melanocytosis. In addition to providing an update on clinical presentations and evaluation of patients with these conditions, we review recent insights into their pathogenesis, drawing attention to relationships among the diseases on a molecular level and implications regarding treatment. We also highlight the major features of other neurocutaneous syndromes that have ocular findings plus pigmentary, vascular, hyperkeratotic, adnexal, connective tissue, photosensitive, and inflammatory manifestations in the skin. PMID:26903185

  3. Canine MPV17 truncation without clinical manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Hänninen, Reetta L.; Ahonen, Saija; Màrquez, Merce; Myöhänen, Maarit J.; Hytönen, Marjo K.; Lohi, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes (MDS) are often serious autosomal recessively inherited disorders characterized by tissue-specific mtDNA copy number reduction. Many genes, including MPV17, are associated with the hepatocerebral form of MDS. MPV17 encodes for a mitochondrial inner membrane protein with a poorly characterized function. Several MPV17 mutations have been reported in association with a heterogeneous group of early-onset manifestations, including liver disease and neurological problems. Mpv17-deficient mice present renal and hearing defects. We describe here a MPV17 truncation mutation in dogs. We found a 1-bp insertion in exon 4 of the MPV17 gene, resulting in a frameshift and early truncation of the encoded protein. The mutation halves MPV17 expression in the lymphocytes of the homozygous dogs and the truncated protein is not translated in transfected cells. The insertion mutation is recurrent and exists in many unrelated breeds, although is highly enriched in the Boxer breed. Unexpectedly, despite the truncation of MPV17, we could not find any common phenotypes in the genetically affected dogs. The lack of observable phenotype could be due to a late onset, mild symptoms or potential tissue-specific compensatory mechanisms. This study suggests species-specific differences in the manifestation of the MPV17 defects and establishes a novel large animal model to further study MPV17 function and role in mitochondrial biology. PMID:26353863

  4. Pulmonary pyoderma gangrenosum without cutaneous manifestations.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Kenneth Kazuto; Penupolu, Sudheer; Colby, Thomas Vail; Gotway, Michael Bruce; Wesselius, Lewis Jon

    2016-07-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum is a chronic sterile skin disorder that is frequently seen in association with systemic disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease. Extracutaneous pyoderma gangrenosum is rare and most commonly occurs in the lungs. It is particularly unusual for extracutaneous pyoderma gangrenosum to manifest prior to skin findings and without an associated systemic disorder. A 19-year-old white man presented with shortness of breath and a productive cough. His skin exam was normal. Unenhanced chest computed tomography showed peripheral consolidations, areas of cavitation, nodules and bilateral pleural effusions. A bronchoalveolar lavage and an autoimmune panel were unremarkable. Right lung wedge biopsies via thoracostomy was performed and showed pulmonary pyoderma gangrenosum. He was treated with corticosteroids and has returned back to his baseline. This is the first case of pulmonary pyoderma gangrenosum without any associated underlying systemic disorder and without any cutaneous manifestations to date. Serial follow-ups are necessary to assess for the development of an associated systemic disorder or skin lesions. PMID:25354722

  5. Cutaneous manifestations associated with melanoma.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Ritva; Selph, Jacqueline; Gerstenblith, Meg R

    2016-06-01

    Melanoma is a malignancy most commonly arising from the skin; therefore, primary melanoma characteristics are usually the first cutaneous manifestations of melanoma. Cutaneous metastases, which can occur locally or diffusely, are important to detect in a timely manner as treatments for advanced melanoma that impact survival are now available. Melanoma can be associated with local or diffuse pigmentation changes, including depigmentation associated with the leukodermas and hyperpigmentation associated with diffuse melanosis cutis. The leukodermas occur frequently, illustrate the immunogenic nature of melanoma, and may impact prognosis. Paraneoplastic syndromes in association with melanoma are rare, though can occur. PMID:27178692

  6. Coronal manifestations of preflare activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmahl, E. J.; Webb, D. F.; Woodgate, B.; Waggett, P.; Bentley, R.; Hurford, G.; Schadee, A.; Schrijver, J.; Harrison, R.; Martens, P.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of coronal manifestations of precursors or preheating for flares are discussed. Researchers found that almost everyone with a telescope sees something before flares. Whether an all-encompassing scenario will ever be developed is not at all clear at present. The clearest example of preflare activity appears to be activated filaments and their manifestations, which presumably are signatures of a changing magnetic field. But researchers have seen two similar eruptions, one without any evidence of emerging flux (Kundu et al., 1985) and the other with colliding poles (Simon et al., 1984). While the reconnection of flux is generally agreed to be required to energize a flare, the emergence of flux from below (at least on short timescales and in compact regions) does not appear to be a necessary condition. In some cases the cancelling of magnetic flux (Martin, 1984) by horizontal motions instead may provide the trigger (Priest, 1985) Researchers found similarities and some differences between these and previous observations. The similarities, besides the frequent involvement of filaments, include compact, multiple precursors which can occur both at and near (not at) the flare site, and the association between coronal sources and activity lower in the atmosphere (i.e., transition zone and chromosphere).

  7. 40 CFR 761.210 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.210 Manifest discrepancies. (a) Manifest discrepancies are differences between the quantity or type of PCB waste designated on the manifest or shipping paper and the quantity or type of PCB waste actually delivered to and received by a designated...

  8. 40 CFR 761.215 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.215 Manifest discrepancies. (a) Manifest... quantity or type of PCB waste designated on the manifest or shipping paper, and the quantity and type of PCB waste a facility actually receives; or (2) Rejected wastes, which may be a full or...

  9. 40 CFR 761.210 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.210 Manifest discrepancies. (a) Manifest discrepancies are differences between the quantity or type of PCB waste designated on the manifest or shipping paper and the quantity or type of PCB waste actually delivered to and received by a designated...

  10. 40 CFR 761.215 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.215 Manifest discrepancies. (a) Manifest... quantity or type of PCB waste designated on the manifest or shipping paper, and the quantity and type of PCB waste a facility actually receives; or (2) Rejected wastes, which may be a full or...

  11. 40 CFR 761.210 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.210 Manifest discrepancies. (a) Manifest discrepancies are differences between the quantity or type of PCB waste designated on the manifest or shipping paper and the quantity or type of PCB waste actually delivered to and received by a designated...

  12. Ultrastructural and histochemical aspects of zinc accumulation by fish scales.

    PubMed

    Sauer, G R; Watabe, N

    1989-01-01

    The effect of zinc exposure on the ultrastructure of the scales and scale associated cells of the estuarine teleost, Fundulus heteroclitus was investigated in laboratory experiments. The Timm sulfide silver stain indicated that in the calcified region of the scales, Zn was colocalized with the calcium phosphate mineral crystals. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that Zn did not have an effect on crystal structure. The scale osteoblasts of Zn-exposed fish showed an increase in the number of lysosome-like structures contained by the cytoplasm. In Zn-exposed animals, X-ray microanalysis revealed that these structures contain greatly increased levels of zinc and sulfur relative to controls. In all specimens, the lysosomes contained higher levels of Zn than either the surrounding cytoplasm or adjacent scales. The findings suggest that osteoblast lysosomes may be involved in the accumulation of Zn and other metals by fish scales by the enzymatic degradation of metallothioneins or other metal-binding proteins. This could represent an important mechanism for the detoxification of excess heavy metal ions taken up from the environment and the metabolism of essential metals by calcified tissues. PMID:18620291

  13. Ultrastructural study of spermatogenesis in KSR2 deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Elena; Collodel, Giulia; Mazzi, Lucia; Russo, Ilaria; Giurisato, Emanuele

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the spermatogenesis in ksr2(-/-) mice. Spermatogenesis in 12-15 week-old C57BL/6 wt and ksr2(-/-) mice was observed in testicular tissue and epididymal sperm by light and transmission electron microscopy. The reproductive capacity of male ksr2(-/-) mice was strongly impaired. Concentration, morphology and motility of epididymal spermatozoa were altered in ksr2(-/-) mice. In seminiferous tubules from ksr2(-/-) mice, all stages of spermatogenetic process were represented; spermatids displayed defects concerning nuclear and acrosomal shape and periaxonemal structures of the tail; detached head and spermatozoa with an altered head-tail connection were observed; the interstitial tissue was severely disorganized, the Leydig cells have lost their connections. TEM analysis of epididymal spermatozoa confirmed the presence of such kind of alterations. We reported, for the first time, an ultrastructural study of ksr2(-/-) mice spermatogenesis. Remarkable findings regard the altered spermiogenetic process concomitant with a severe disorganization of interstitial tissue. Further studies are needed to assess the ksr2(-/-) mice hormonal status, focussing on testosterone levels since the interstitial tissue, where the Leydig cells reside, was compromised. PMID:26055731

  14. Melatonin action in tumor skeletal muscle cells: an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Burattini, S; Battistelli, M; Codenotti, S; Falcieri, E; Fanzani, A; Salucci, S

    2016-04-01

    Melatonin (Mel), or N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, is a circadian hormone that can diffuse through all the biological membranes thanks to its amphiphilic structure, also overcoming the blood-brain barrier and placenta. Although Mel has been reported to exhibit strong antioxidant properties in healthy tissues, studies carried out on tumor cultures gave a different picture of its action, often describing Mel as effective to trigger the cell death of tumor cells by enhancing oxidative stress. Based on this premise, here Mel effect was investigated using a tumor cell line representative of the human alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS), the most frequent soft tissue sarcoma affecting childhood. For this purpose, Mel was given either dissolved in ethanol (EtOH) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at different concentrations and time exposures. Cell viability assays and ultrastructural observations demonstrated that Mel was able to induce a dose- and time-dependent cell death independently on the dissolution solvent. Microscopy analyses highlighted the presence of various apoptotic and necrotic patterns correlating with the increasing Mel dose and time of exposure. These findings suggest that Mel, triggering apoptosis in ARMS cells, could be considered as a promising drug for future multitargeted therapies. PMID:26953151

  15. Cerebellar Stroke-manifesting as Mania.

    PubMed

    Jagadesan, Venkatesan; Thiruvengadam, Kannapiran R; Muralidharan, Rengarajalu

    2014-07-01

    Secondary mania resulting from cerebral Cortex are described commonly. But secondary mania produced by cerebellar lesions are relatively uncommon. This case report describes a patient who developed cerebellar stoke and manic features simultaneously. 28 years old male developed giddiness and projectile vomiting. Then he would lie down for about an hour only to find that he could not walk. He became quarrelsome. His Psycho motor activities and speech were increased. He was euphoric and was expressing grandiose ideas. Bender Gestalt Test showed signs of organicity. Score in Young mania relating scale was 32; productivity was low in Rorschach. Neurological examination revealed left cerebellar signs like ataxia and slurring of speech. Computed tomography of brain showed left cerebellar infarct. Relationship between Psychiatric manifestations and cerebellar lesion are discussed. PMID:25035567

  16. Cerebellar Stroke-manifesting as Mania

    PubMed Central

    Jagadesan, Venkatesan; Thiruvengadam, Kannapiran R.; Muralidharan, Rengarajalu

    2014-01-01

    Secondary mania resulting from cerebral Cortex are described commonly. But secondary mania produced by cerebellar lesions are relatively uncommon. This case report describes a patient who developed cerebellar stoke and manic features simultaneously. 28 years old male developed giddiness and projectile vomiting. Then he would lie down for about an hour only to find that he could not walk. He became quarrelsome. His Psycho motor activities and speech were increased. He was euphoric and was expressing grandiose ideas. Bender Gestalt Test showed signs of organicity. Score in Young mania relating scale was 32; productivity was low in Rorschach. Neurological examination revealed left cerebellar signs like ataxia and slurring of speech. Computed tomography of brain showed left cerebellar infarct. Relationship between Psychiatric manifestations and cerebellar lesion are discussed. PMID:25035567

  17. Coronary Artery Manifestations of Fibromuscular Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Michelis, Katherine C.; Olin, Jeffrey W.; Kadian-Dodov, Daniella; d’Escamard, Valentina; Kovacic, Jason C.

    2015-01-01

    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) involving the coronary arteries is an uncommon but important condition that can present as acute coronary syndrome, left ventricular dysfunction, or potentially sudden cardiac death. Although the classic angiographic “string of beads” that may be observed in renal artery FMD does not occur in coronary arteries, potential manifestations include spontaneous coronary artery dissection, distal tapering or long, smooth narrowing that may represent dissection, intramural hematoma, spasm, or tortuosity. Importantly, FMD must be identified in at least one other noncoronary arterial territory to attribute any coronary findings to FMD. Although there is limited evidence to guide treatment, many lesions heal spontaneously; thus, a conservative approach is generally preferred. The etiology is poorly understood, but there are ongoing efforts to better characterize FMD and define its genetic and molecular basis. This report reviews the clinical course of FMD involving the coronary arteries and provides guidance for diagnosis and treatment strategies. PMID:25190240

  18. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

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  19. Oral manifestations in transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Nappalli, Deepika; Lingappa, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Organ transplantation is a widely undertaken procedure and has become an important alternative for the treatment of different end-stage organ diseases that previously had a poor prognosis. The field of organ transplant and hematopoietic stem cell transplant is developing rapidly. The increase in the number of transplant recipients also has an impact on oral and dental services. Most of the oral problems develop as a direct consequence of drug-induced immunosuppression or the procedure itself. These patients may present with oral complaints due to infections or mucosal lesions. Such lesions should be identified, diagnosed, and treated. New treatment strategies permit continuous adaptation of oral care regimens to the changing scope of oral complications. The aim of this review is to analyze those oral manifestations and to discuss the related literature. PMID:26005458

  20. Hematologic manifestations of celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Halfdanarson, Thorvardur R.; Litzow, Mark R.; Murray, Joseph A.

    2007-01-01

    Celiac disease is a common systemic disorder that can have multiple hematologic manifestations. Patients with celiac disease may present to hematologists for evaluation of various hematologic problems prior to receiving a diagnosis of celiac disease. Anemia secondary to malabsorption of iron, folic acid, and/or vitamin B12 is a common complication of celiac disease and many patients have anemia at the time of diagnosis. Celiac disease may also be associated with thrombocytosis, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, venous thromboembolism, hyposplenism, and IgA deficiency. Patients with celiac disease are at increased risk of being diagnosed with lymphoma, especially of the T-cell type. The risk is highest for enteropathy-type T-cell lymphoma (ETL) and B-cell lymphoma of the gut, but extraintestinal lymphomas can also be seen. ETL is an aggressive disease with poor prognosis, but strict adherence to a gluten-free diet may prevent its occurrence. PMID:16973955

  1. Clinical manifestations in trisomy 9.

    PubMed

    Kannan, T P; Hemlatha, S; Ankathil, R; Zilfalil, B A

    2009-07-01

    Complete trisomy 9 is a lethal diagnosis and most fetuses diagnosed thus die prenatally or during the early postnatal period and majority of such cases have been known to end in spontaneous abortion in the first trimester itself. One such rare survival of fetus ending in normal delivery and surviving until 20 days is reported here detailing the clinical manifestations of the child during the period of survival. The salient clinical features observed were small face, wide fontanel, prominent occiput, micrognathia, low set ears, upslanting palpebral fissures, high arched palate, short sternum, overlapping fingers, limited hip abduction, rocker bottom feet, heart murmurs and also webbed neck, characteristic of this trisomy 9 syndrome. PMID:19475342

  2. [Purpura: primary systemic amyloidosis manifestation].

    PubMed

    Lestre, Sara; Gonçalves, Andreia; João, Alexandre; Ferreira, Ana; Apetato, Margarida

    2009-01-01

    Primary Systemic Amyloidosis (AL) is the most frequent form of systemic amyloidosis and its morbilility is associated with immunoglobulin light chains deposition in vital organs. The mucocutaneous manifestations occur in about 30-40% of the cases and are important in diagnostic suspicion, once they appear in early stages of disease. We report a 71-years-old female patient, with disseminated purpura and cutaneous fragility with 6 months of evolution, accompanied by recent complaints of dysphagy. The first laboratory evaluation didn't show any alterations. The histological and immunohistochemical study of subcutaneous abdominal fat and skin biopsy showed lambda type amyloid protein. In the systemic work-up, we highlight a proteinúria > 1g/24h with Bence Jones proteins and the presence of monoclonal immunoglobulin light chain (lambda type) in serum immunoelectrophoresis. With the diagnosis of primary systemic amyloidosis, treatment with prednisolone and melphalan was started. PMID:19686633

  3. Oral Manifestations and Molecular Basis of Oral Genodermatoses: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shilpasree, A.S.; Chaudhary, Meenakshi

    2016-01-01

    Genodermatoses refers to group of inherited monogenic disorders with skin manifestations. Many of these disorders are rare and also have oral manifestations, called oral genodermatoses. This article provides a focused review of molecular basis of important genodermatoses that affects the oral cavity and also have prominent associated dermatologic features. In several conditions discussed here, the oral findings are distinct and may provide the first clue of an underlying genetic diagnosis. The article also emphasises on the prenatal diagnosis, genetic counselling and the treatment oral genodermatoses. PMID:27437377

  4. Isolated Tricuspid Regurgitation: Initial Manifestation of Cardiac Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Dong Woog; Park, Byung-Jo; Kim, In Sook; Jeong, Dong Seop

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid deposits in the heart are not exceptional in systemic amyloidosis. The clinical manifestations of cardiac amyloidosis may include restrictive cardiomyopathy, characterized by progressive diastolic and eventually systolic bi-ventricular dysfunction; arrhythmia; and conduction defects. To the best of our knowledge, no previous cases of isolated tricuspid regurgitation as the initial manifestation of cardiac amyloidosis have been reported. We describe a rare case of cardiac amyloidosis that initially presented with severe tricuspid regurgitation in a 42-year-old woman who was successfully treated with tricuspid valve replacement. Unusual surgical findings prompted additional evaluation that established a diagnosis of plasma cell myeloma. PMID:26665112

  5. Oral manifestations of lymphoma: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Taísa Domingues Bernardes; Ferreira, Camila Belo Tavares; Leite, Gustavo Boehmer; de Menezes Pontes, José Roberto; Antunes, Héliton S

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoma is a malignant disease with two forms: Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is diagnosed in extranodal sites in 40% of cases, and the head and neck region is the second most affected, with an incidence of 11–33%, while HL has a very low incidence in extranodal sites (1–4%). The aim of this study was to identify the oral manifestations of lymphoma through a systematic literature review, which we conducted using the PubMed, Lilacs, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. We found 1456 articles, from which we selected 73. Among the intraoral findings, the most frequent were ulcerations, pain, swelling, and tooth mobility, while the extraoral findings included facial asymmetry and cervical, submandibular, and submental lymphadenopathy. Among the few studies reporting imaging findings, the most cited lesions included hypodense lesions with diffuse boundaries, bone resorptions, and tooth displacements. The publications reviewed highlight gaps in the areas of early detection, diagnosis, and proper treatment. PMID:27594910

  6. Oral manifestations of lymphoma: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Silva, Taísa Domingues Bernardes; Ferreira, Camila Belo Tavares; Leite, Gustavo Boehmer; de Menezes Pontes, José Roberto; Antunes, Héliton S

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoma is a malignant disease with two forms: Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is diagnosed in extranodal sites in 40% of cases, and the head and neck region is the second most affected, with an incidence of 11-33%, while HL has a very low incidence in extranodal sites (1-4%). The aim of this study was to identify the oral manifestations of lymphoma through a systematic literature review, which we conducted using the PubMed, Lilacs, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. We found 1456 articles, from which we selected 73. Among the intraoral findings, the most frequent were ulcerations, pain, swelling, and tooth mobility, while the extraoral findings included facial asymmetry and cervical, submandibular, and submental lymphadenopathy. Among the few studies reporting imaging findings, the most cited lesions included hypodense lesions with diffuse boundaries, bone resorptions, and tooth displacements. The publications reviewed highlight gaps in the areas of early detection, diagnosis, and proper treatment. PMID:27594910

  7. Ultrastructural cytochemical analysis of intranuclear arsenic inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, E.M.B.

    1987-01-01

    To establish the chemical composition of the arsenic inclusion, freshly isolated preparations of inclusions and epon-embedded thin sections of inclusions were subjected to ultrastructural cytochemical analysis. Intranuclear inclusions are composed of amorphous, arsenic-containing subunits aligned linearly to form a coiled complex. Lipase, ribonuclease, deoxyribonuclease, trypsin, pepsin, protease, amylase, or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was used to digest or chelate these inclusions. Following enzymatic digestion or chelation, the electron opacity of inclusions was compared with that of control sections exposed for equal times to equivalent solutions lacking the enzymes. Exposure to amylase caused a consistent reduction in the electron opacity of thin sections of inclusions and almost complete digestion of the freshly isolated preparations of inclusions. This was indicative of the presence of a carbohydrate moiety within arsenic inclusions. Incubation of inclusions with EDTA resulted in solubilization of freshly isolated and thin-sectioned embedded material. These data indicated that the intranuclear arsenic inclusion is composed of both metallic and carbohydrate moieties, confirming earlier studies which identified arsenic within inclusions using instrumental neutron activation analysis and x-ray microprobe analysis.

  8. Morphogenesis and Ultrastructure of Geotrichum candidum Septa

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Tadayo; Morgan, J.; Conti, S. F.

    1973-01-01

    The ultrastructure and mode of formation of septa of Geotrichum candidum were investigated by light and electron microscopy. The invaginations of the lateral membrane and wall appear to initiate at multiple points around the circumference of the cell; the immature septum subsequently assumes a cart-wheel shape, with branched spokes radiating from the center of the septum. Each face of the septum is covered with a membrane possessing hitherto undescribed structural differentiation; the membrane substructures are comprised of two central subunits encircled by 12 identical subunits. The diameter of the entire 12 plus 2 structure is 24 to 25 nm, and the diameter of each individual subunit is approximately 4 nm. The maturation of the septum appears to occur by further deposition of material along the branched skeletal regions. Numerous small openings (micropores), formed as a result of incomplete deposition, ultimately give rise to plasmodesmata. During arthrospore formation, the plasmodesmal canals and associated micropores are occluded by electron-dense materials, rendering each segment of the hyphae completely independent of the rest of the hyphae. Images PMID:4126819

  9. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, G S; Stahl, R E; el-Sadr, W; Cassai, N D; Forrester, E M; Zolla-Pazner, S

    1985-04-01

    Blood and a variety of tissues from 97 patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and 25 with the AIDS prodrome were studied ultrastructurally. Tubuloreticular structures (TRS) were found in 85 per cent of the patients with AIDS and in 92 per cent of those with the prodrome. Test tube and ring-shaped forms (TRF), found in 41 per cent of the patients with AIDS and in 8 per cent of those with the prodrome, increased with disease progression. Among the patients with AIDS, as the number of sites examined per case increased, the incidence of TRS and TRF tended to approach 100 per cent, suggesting that they are present in all patients with AIDS. Other changes seen frequently were immunologic capping of blood lymphocytes, intramitochondrial iron in blood reticulocytes and marrow normoblasts, megakaryocytic immaturity and platelet phagocytosis, collections of membranous rings in hepatocytic cytoplasm, suggestive of non-A, non-B hepatitis, and proliferations and engorgement of hepatic Ito cells with lipid. The data suggest that TRS and TRF can be used as diagnostic and prognostic markers. PMID:3872253

  10. Comparative ultrastructure of ant spermatozoa (Formicidae: Hymenoptera).

    PubMed

    Wheeler, D E; Crichton, E G; Krutzsch, P H

    1990-12-01

    Mature spermatozoa from spermathecae of founding queens were obtained from 5 species of ants, representing the major subfamilies Myrmicinae (Acromyrmex versicolor, Crematogaster sp.) and Dolichoderinae (Tapinoma sessile, Conomyrma insana, Conomyrma wheeleri). The ultrastructure of ant spermatozoa has many features in common with that of higher insects and is similar to that of other Hymenoptera. Structural similarities to spermatozoa of other Hymenoptera include an acrosome containing an internal rod that extends into the nucleus, two elongate mitochondrial derivatives, a centriolar adjunct, and an axonemal arrangement of 9 + 9 + 2 that includes well-developed coarse, or accessory, tubules. Spermatozoa obtained from A. versicolor, a species that is known to store and utilize viable sperm from this supply for over 10 years, show greater development of the mitochondrial derivatives than do the other species. The most distinctive feature of ant spermatozoa in comparison to other Hymenoptera is the large size of the centriolar adjunct relative to the other organelles. The centriolar adjunct is located posterior to the nucleus, anterior to the mitochondrial derivatives, and opposite the axoneme. PMID:2280410

  11. Ultrastructure of mitochondrial nucleoid and its surroundings.

    PubMed

    Prachař, Jarmil

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial nucleoids (hereafter nucleoids) contain genetic information, mitochondrial DNA, prerequisite for mitochondrial functioning, particularly information required for mitochondrial electron transport. To understand nucleoid functioning, it is imperative to know its ultrastructure and dynamics in the context of the actual mitochondrial state. In this study, we document the internal structure, different positions of nucleoids inside the mitochondrial tube and their different morphology. The nucleoid cores appear in section as circular or slightly oval objects ranging from 50 to 100 nm in diameter. They are mainly located in the matrix between cristae inside the mitochondrial tube but they are also frequently found close to the inner mitochondrial surface. In tightly packed form, their interior exhibits sophisticated nucleoprotein regularity. The core surroundings form an electron-lucent thick layer which is probably partitioned into separate chambers. We suggest that the morphology of nucleoids mirrors the mode of energy production, glycolysis versus oxidative phosphorylation. The new high resolution transmission electron microscopy method enabled us to obtain morphological characteristics on yet unpublished level. PMID:27174900

  12. Food restriction modifies ultrastructure of hippocampal synapses.

    PubMed

    Babits, Réka; Szőke, Balázs; Sótonyi, Péter; Rácz, Bence

    2016-04-01

    Consumption of high-energy diets may compromise health and may also impair cognition; these impairments have been linked to tasks that require hippocampal function. Conversely, food restriction has been shown to improve certain aspects of hippocampal function, including spatial memory and memory persistence. These diet-dependent functional changes raise the possibility that the synaptic structure underlying hippocampal function is also affected. To examine how short-term food restriction (FR) alters the synaptic structure of the hippocampus, we used quantitative electron microscopy to analyze the organization of neuropil in the CA1 stratum radiatum of the hippocampus in young rats, consequent to reduced food. While four weeks of FR did not modify the density, size, or shape of postsynaptic spines, the synapses established by these spines were altered, displaying increased mean length, and more frequent perforations of postsynaptic densities. That the number of perforated synapses (believed to be an indicator of synaptic enhancement) increased, and that the CA1 spine population had on average significantly longer PSDs suggests that synaptic efficacy of axospinous synapses also increased in the CA1. Taken together, our ultrastructural data reveal previously unrecognized structural changes at hippocampal synapses as a function of food restriction, supporting a link between metabolic balance and synaptic plasticity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26386363

  13. Ultrastructural and hormonal changes in the pineal-testicular axis following arecoline administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Saha, Indraneel; Chatterji, Urmi; Chaudhuri-Sengupta, Santasri; Nag, Tapas C; Nag, Debabrata; Banerjee, Samir; Maiti, B R

    2007-04-01

    Arecoline is an alkaloid of betel nut of Areca catechu. Betel nut is chewed by millions of people in the world and it causes oral and hepatic cancers in human. It has therapeutic value for the treatment of Alzheimer and schizophrenia. Arecoline has immunosuppressive, mutagenic and genotoxic effects in laboratory animals. It also affects endocrine functions. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of arecoline on pineal-testicular axis in rats. Since pineal activity is different between day and night, the current study is undertaken in both the photophase and scotophase. The findings were evaluated by ultrastructural and hormonal studies of pineal and testicular Leydig cells, with quantitations of fructose and sialic acid of sex accessories. Arecoline treatment (10 mg/kg body weight daily for 10 days) caused suppression of pineal activity at ultrastructural level by showing dilatation of the cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), large autophagosome-like bodies with swollen mitochondrial cristae, numerous lysosomes, degenerated synaptic ribbons and reduced number of synaptic-like microvesicles. Moreover, pineal and serum N-acetylserotonin and melatonin levels were decreased with increased serotonin levels in both the gland and serum. In contrast, testicular Leydig cell activity was stimulated with abundance of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER), electron-dense core vesicles and vacuolated secretory vesicles, and increased testosterone level in the arecoline recipients. Consequently, the testosterone target, like prostate, was ultrastructurally stimulated with abundance of RER and accumulation of secretory vesicles. Fructose and sialic acid concentrations were also significantly increased respectively in the coagulating gland and seminal vesicle. These results were more significant in the scotophase than the photophase. The findings suggest that arecoline inhibits pineal activity, but stimulates testicular function (testosterone level

  14. Rheumatic manifestations of hematologic disorders.

    PubMed

    Aviña-Zubieta, J A; Galindo-Rodriguez, G; Lavalle, C

    1998-01-01

    A review of the literature during the past year on rheumatic manifestations in hematologic diseases supports the idea that 80% of the hemorrhage in hemophilia occurs within the joints, with knees, elbows, and ankles being the most affected joints in adults. In contrast, the ankle is the target joint in children. Septic arthritis in hemophilic patients is becoming more important due to the advent of HIV infection. Radioactive synoviorthesis in hemarthrosis has the same rate of success as surgical synovectomy, but with far lower costs. A new study documents the association of arthritis and vasculitis in patients with myelodysplasic syndromes and lymphoproliferative disorders. An increased incidence of scoliosis in patients with beta-thalassemia has been noted. Finally, the effects of bone marrow transplantation in patients with previous autoimmune diseases is reviewed. Progression of rheumatoid arthritis after bone marrow transplantation is documented in a patient with 13 years of follow-up. Hematologic disorders in rheumatic diseases are not the topic of this review. PMID:9448995

  15. Skin manifestations of drug allergy

    PubMed Central

    Ardern-Jones, Michael R; Friedmann, Peter S

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous adverse drug reactions range from mild to severe and from those localized only to skin to those associated with systemic disease. It is important to distinguish features of cutaneous drug reactions which help classify the underlying mechanism and likely prognosis as both of these influence management decisions, some of which necessarily have to be taken rapidly. Severe cutaneous reactions are generally T cell-mediated, yet this immunological process is frequently poorly understood and principles for identification of the culprit drug are different to those of IgE mediated allergic reactions. Furthermore, intervention in severe skin manifestations of drug allergy is frequently necessary. However, a substantial literature reports on success or otherwise of glucocorticoids, cyclophsphamide, ciclosporin, intravenous immunoglobulin and anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy for the treatment of toxic epidermal necrolysis without clear consensus. As well as reviewing the recommended supportive measures and evidence base for interventions, this review aims to provide a mechanistic overview relating to a proposed clinical classification to assist the assessment and management of these complex patients. PMID:21480947

  16. Cutaneous manifestations of genitourinary malignancy.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Derek

    2016-06-01

    Genitourinary cancers are associated with a range of cutaneous syndromes, which can reflect direct metastatic spread, non-metastatic manifestations of malignancy or the consequences of treatment. More than 220,000 new cases of prostate cancer occur each year in the United States, and thus the associations with cutaneous involvement are quite well documented-rare metastatic spread, vasculitic and hemorrhagic syndromes. Cancers of the bladder and kidney may be associated with direct cutaneous metastases, vasculitic syndromes, hereditary leiomyomatosis, and other familial syndromes. Testicular cancer occasionally metastasizes to the skin but more commonly is associated with the dysplastic nevus (multiple atypical nevus) syndrome. A structured approach to history-taking, examination, and investigation is essential for optimal management, especially when these syndromes precede the diagnosis of a known malignancy. A brief review of the more common iatrogenic cutaneous complications is provided, and includes Raynaud's phenomenon, purpura, rash, hand-foot syndrome, the consequences of marrow failure, and bleomycin-induced pigmentation. PMID:27178687

  17. [EEG manifestations in metabolic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Lin, Chou-Ching K

    2005-09-01

    Normal brain function depends on normal neuronal metabolism, which is closely related to systemic homeostasis of metabolites, such as glucose, electrolytes, amino acids and ammonia. "Metabolic encephalopathy" indicates diffuse brain dysfunction caused by various systemic derangements. Electroencephalogram (EEG) is widely used to evaluate metabolic encephalopathy since 1937, when Berger first observed slow brain activity induced by hypoglycemia. EEG is most useful in differentiating organic from psychiatric conditions, identifying epileptogenicity, and providing information about the degree of cortical or subcortical dysfunction. In metabolic encephalopathy, EEG evolution generally correlates well with the severity of encephalopathy. However, EEG has little specificity in differentiating etiologies in metabolic encephalopathy. For example, though triphasic waves are most frequently mentioned in hepatic encephalopathy, they can also be seen in uremic encephalopathy, or even in aged psychiatric patients treated with lithium. Spike-and-waves may appear in hyper- or hypo-glycemia, uremic encephalopathy, or vitamin deficiencies, etc. Common principles of EEG changes in metabolic encephalopathy are (1) varied degrees of slowing, (2) assorted mixtures of epileptic discharge, (3) high incidence of triphasic waves, and (4), as a rule, reversibility after treatment of underlying causes. There are some exceptions to the above descriptions in specific metabolic disorders and EEG manifestations are highly individualized. PMID:16252619

  18. Barium cardiotoxicity: Relationship between ultrastructural damage and mechanical effects.

    PubMed

    Delfino, G; Amerini, S; Mugelli, A

    1988-01-01

    The ultrastructural damage in guinea-pig ventricular strips caused by barium was analysed. At a concentration of 1 mmol/litre, barium chloride caused a dramatic increase in the developed tension associated with the onset of automaticity. The ultrastructural analysis demonstrated that barium caused notable and consistent alterations which affected most myocyte components. Various degenerative aspects were observed in mitochondria and in the contractile apparatus. Glycogen deposits were completely depleted. Preparations driven at 4 Hz (i.e. the rate of spontaneous firing of barium-treated preparations) showed moderate ultrastructural alterations, thus demonstrating that the increase in the rate of beating is not the only determinant of the observed damage. These results suggest that the myocardial toxicity of barium is due not only to the well-known modifications in membrane permeability, but possibly also to alterations in cell function. PMID:20702358

  19. The ultrastructure of separated and cultured cell of Porphyra yezoensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Jun-Xue; Fei, Xiu-Geng

    2001-03-01

    There are many reports that cells (protoplasts) separated from the thallus of Porphyra by enzyme can develop to normal leafy thalli in the same way as monospores. But there are few investigations on the subcellular structure of the isolated vegetative cell for comparison with the subcellular structure of monospores. To clarify whether the separated and cultured cells undergo the same or similar ultrastructure changes during culture and germination as monospores undergo in their formation and germination, we observed their ultrastructure, compared them with those of the monospore and found that the ultrastructure of separated and cultured cells did not have the characteristic feature as that of monospore formation, such as production of small and large fibrous vesicles, but was accompanied by vacuolation and starch mobilization like that in monospore germination. The paper also discusses the relations between monospores and separated and cultured cells.

  20. Lectin histochemistry and ultrastructure of feline kidneys from six different storage diseases.

    PubMed

    Castagnaro, M; Alroy, J; Ucci, A A; Glew, R H

    1987-01-01

    We have compared the pattern of lectin staining with the ultrastructural features of kidneys from normal cats and 19 cats with 6 different lysosomal storage diseases. The diseases studied include GM1 and GM2 gangliosidosis, mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS)-I and MPS-VI, sphingomyelin-lipidosis (i.e., Niemann-Pick disease) and mannosidosis. Ten different biotinylated lectins were used as histochemical probes for carbohydrate residues and avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex as visualant. Concanavalia ensiformis agglutinin (Con A) stained mesangial cells in all storage diseases but GM1, epithelial cells in sphingomyelin-lipidosis and mannosidosis, endothelial cells in GM1 and mannosidosis and Bowman's capsule cells in all but GM2. Griffonia simplicifolia agglutinin I (GS-I) stained the glomerular endothelium in all six diseases, but not in control kidneys. Ricinus communis agglutinin-I (RCA-I) stained the glomerular epithelium only in GM1 and MPS-I. Succinylated wheat germ agglutinin (SWGA) stained the glomerular endothelium and epithelium in mannosidosis, and the glomerular epithelium and Bowman's capsule in MPS-I. Ultrastructure studies demonstrated an accumulation of oligosaccharides in cases of mannosidosis and GM1 gangliosidosis, a mixture of oligosaccharides and lipids in MPS-I, MPS-VI and GM2 gangliosidosis and only lipid storage in sphingomyelin lipidosis. These studies show that morphologic and histochemical changes are manifested in some kidney cell types in lysosomal storage diseases, even though the enzyme deficiency occurs in all cell types. Furthermore, we show that the nature of the undegraded stored material is complex and that other factors, such as rate of membrane turn over, membrane composition, and cell function may influence the amount and nature of the "stored" material. PMID:2892300

  1. 19 CFR 122.75 - Complete manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft... of the cargo carried on aircraft No. ____, Flight No. ____ cleared direct for ____, on ____...

  2. 19 CFR 122.75 - Complete manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft... of the cargo carried on aircraft No. ____, Flight No. ____ cleared direct for ____, on ____...

  3. 19 CFR 122.75 - Complete manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft... of the cargo carried on aircraft No. ____, Flight No. ____ cleared direct for ____, on ____...

  4. 19 CFR 122.75 - Complete manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft... of the cargo carried on aircraft No. ____, Flight No. ____ cleared direct for ____, on ____...

  5. Space Launch System Co-Manifested Payload Options for Habitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David

    2015-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) has a co-manifested payload capability that will grow over time as the launch vehicle matures and planned upgrades are implemented. The final configuration is planned to be capable of inserting a payload greater than 10 metric tons (mt) into a trans-lunar injection trajectory along with the crew in the Orion capsule and its service module. The co-manifested payload is located below the Orion and its service module in a 10 m high fairing similar to the way the Saturn launch vehicle carried the lunar lander below the Apollo command and service modules. Various approaches that utilize this comanifested payload capability to build up infrastructure in deep space have been explored in support of future asteroid, lunar, and Mars mission scenarios. This paper reports on the findings of the Advanced Concepts Office study team at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) working with the Advanced Exploration Systems Program on the Exploration Augmentation Module Project. It includes some of the possible options for habitation in the co-manifested payload volume of the SLS. Findings include a set of module designs that can be developed in 10 mt increments to support these co-manifested payload missions along with a comparison of this approach to a large-module payload flight configuration for the SLS.

  6. Neurologic manifestations of Kanzaki disease.

    PubMed

    Umehara, F; Matsumuro, K; Kurono, Y; Arimura, K; Osame, M; Kanzaki, T

    2004-05-11

    We describe the neurologic findings in a patient with alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase deficiency (Kanzaki disease). Clinical and electrophysiologic studies revealed sensory-motor polyneuropathy, and sural nerve pathology showed decreased density of myelinated fibers with axonal degeneration. The patient had mildly impaired intellectual function with abnormal brain MRI and sensory-neuronal hearing impairment with repeated episodes of vertigo attacks. These findings suggest that Kanzaki disease may develop neurologic complications in the CNS and peripheral nervous system. PMID:15136691

  7. Cardiac ultrastructure and electrocardiogram of the short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, C J; Keith, J C

    1993-10-01

    The smaller species of shrews have been of considerable interest to scientists because of their high rate of metabolism, structure-functional and behavioral adaptations to support their energy demands. The present data are the first detailed cardiac ultrastructural findings and electrocardiographic (ECG) data of adult and immature small short-tailed shrews, Blarina brevicauda. The heart is morphologically elongated and heart rates in excess of 900 b/min were observed, but ECG components and pattern are non-distinctive for this species. Ultrastructurally, the sarcomeres, tubular and sarcotubular systems and Purkinje cells resemble closely those observed in larger, less active mammals. Several distinctive features resembling those seen in some other shrews or hummingbirds exist, including reduced quantities of myocyte glycogen, irregularly shaped and tightly packed mitochondria, increased neural and vascular elements in the myocardium, and small size and unusual dispersion of atrial specific granules. These morphologic findings suggest that the remarkable physiologic performance of the heart of Blarina brevicauda is supported by a combination of macroscopic, histologic and cellular adaptations. PMID:8269404

  8. Ultrastructural characterization of the rabbit mandibular condyle following experimental induction of anterior disk displacement.

    PubMed

    Sharawy, M; Ali, A M; Choi, W S; Larke, V

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that surgical induction of anterior disk displacement (ADD) in the rabbit craniomandibular joint (CMJ) leads to cellular and extracellular alterations consistent with osteoarthritis. Similar findings were also reported in human ADD as well as osteoarthritis of other joints. The purpose of this study was to further characterize these histopathological findings at the ultrastructural level. The right joint of 15 rabbits was exposed surgically and all discal attachments were severed except for the posterior attachment. The disk was then repositioned anteriorly and sutured to the zygomatic arch. The left joint served as a sham-operated control. Ten additional joints were used as nonoperated controls. Mandibular condyles were excised 2 weeks following surgery and processed for transmission electron microscopy. Experimental condyles showed neovascularization, fibrillation and vacuolation of the extracellular matrix and an increase in the number of apoptotic cells compared to controls. In addition, chondrocytes in osteoarthritic cartilage showed an increase in the amounts of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex suggesting an increase in protein synthesis. The presence of thick collagen fibers in osteoarthritic cartilage supports our previous immunohistochemical results of the presence of type I collagen instead of normally existing type II collagen. It was concluded that surgical induction of ADD in the rabbit CMJ leads to ultrastructural changes in the mandibular condylar cartilage consistent with degenerative alterations known to occur in osteoarthritis. PMID:10899715

  9. Shoulder manifestations of diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Garcilazo, Cintia; Cavallasca, Javier A; Musuruana, Jorge L

    2010-09-01

    The musculoskeletal system can be affected by diabetes in a number of ways. The shoulder is one of the frequently affected sites. One of the rheumatic conditions caused by diabetes is frozen shoulder (adhesive capsulitis), which is characterized by pain and severe limited active and passive range of motion of the glenohumeral joint, particularly external rotation. This disorder has a clinical diagnosis and the treatment is based on physiotherapy, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroid injections and, in refractory cases, surgical resolution. As with adhesive capsulitis, calcific periarthritis of the shoulder causes pain and limited joint mobility, although usually it has a better prognosis than frozen shoulder. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy, also known as shoulder-hand syndrome, is a painful syndrome associated with vasomotor and sudomotor changes in the affected member. Diabetic amyotrophy usually affects the peripheral nerves of lower limbs. However, when symptoms involve the shoulder girdle, it must be considered in the differential diagnosis of shoulder painful conditions. Osteoarthritis is the most common rheumatic condition. There are many risk factors for shoulder osteoarthritis including age, genetics, sex, weight, joint infection, history of shoulder dislocation, and previous injury, in older age patients, diabetes is a risk factor for shoulder OA. Treatment options include acetaminophen, NSAIDs, short term opiate, glucosamine and chondroitin. Corticosteroid injections and/or injections of hyaluronans could also be considered. Patients with continued disabling pain that is not responsive to conservative measures may require surgical referral. The present review will focus on practice points of view about shoulder manifestations in patients with diabetes. PMID:20701586

  10. Ultrastructural study of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Microcotyle pancerii (Monogenea: Polyopisthocotylea: Microcotylidae), parasite of meagre Argyrosomus regius (Pisces: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Quilichini, Yann; Foata, Joséphine; Marchand, Bernard

    2009-04-01

    The present work deals with the ultrastructure of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Microcotyle pancerii, a gill parasite of meagre Argyrosomus regius collected in Corsican fish farms. Spermiogenesis was rather similar to that observed in other polyopisthocotylean Monogenea. The intercentriolar body was different from that described in digeneans. The nuclear condensation occurred in 2 successive stages. First, during the nuclear migration in the median cytoplasmic process, the nucleus developed a honeycomb-like appearance. Then, after the flagellar fusion, a discontinuous twisting of the chromatin appeared along the nucleus, with this process ending in total nuclear condensation. The structure of the spermatozoon is characterized by 2 axonemes (9 + "1" pattern), a single and continuous field of cortical microtubules, a mitochondrion, and a nucleus. Our findings were compared with various ultrastructural features in order to highlight variability within the group. PMID:18817455

  11. Cytochemical Reactions of Human Leprosy Bacilli and Mycobacteria: Ultrastructural Implications

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Clark A.; Barksdale, Lane

    1973-01-01

    Leprosy bacilli harvested from freshly biopsied tissue from cases of lepromatous, borderline and histoid leprosy were, in conjunction with Mycobacterium lepraemurium and representative mycobacteria, examined cytochemically with and without their pyridine-extractable acid-fastness. Unlike the mycobacteria, unextracted leprosy bacilli failed to give a positive response to the periodic acid Schiff test or to take up Sudan black B, toluidine blue O, alkaline methylene blue or safranin O. Once their acid-fastness was removed with pyridine, leprosy bacilli were stained by all of the foregoing dyes except Sudan black B, under this condition they remained gram positive. While permanent loss of acid-fastness from leprosy bacilli always resulted in a loss of acid hematein-fixing material (Smith-Dietrich-Baker tests), the reverse was not true. Mild aqueous saponification, bromination, or sequential treatment with lipase and phospholipase D resulted in a loss of acid hematein-positivity but not acid-fastness. After pyridine extraction, bromination, or aqueous saponification, true mycobacteria lost neither their acid hematein-positivity nor their acid-fastness. The acid hematein-positive material and the acid-fastness of both leprosy bacilli and mycobacteria were lost after treatment with alkaline ethanol. These cytochemical findings are discussed in the light of what is known of the ultrastructure of leprosy bacilli and mycobacteria, and of the occurrence of a dl-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine oxidase in leprosy bacilli but not in mycobacteria. An effort is made to explain the rather unique cytochemical properties of leprosy bacilli. Since pyridine-extractable acid-fastness (and acid hematein-positivity) serve to distinguish human leprosy bacilli from M. lepraemurium, one or the other, or both, are suggested as bases for differentiating these two organisms in animal experiments designed to show the in vivo propagation of human leprosy bacilli. PMID:4120605

  12. Effect of storage media and storage time on histological and ultrastructural changes in cat epididymal cells.

    PubMed

    Tittarelli, C M; Jurado, S B; Nuñez-Favre, R; Bonaura, M C; de la Sota, R L; Stornelli, M A

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the histological and ultrastructural changes in cat epididymides (n = 22) stored at 4 °C in two different media [saline solution (SAL) or tris-egg yolk (TEY)]. Our hypothesis was that epididymides stored in TEY would have delayed epithelial cell autolysis. Four epididymides were fixed and processed immediately, and the remaining 18 epididymides were stored at 4 °C in SAL or TEY for 24, 48 or 72 h. In histological sections, the nuclear features and stereocilia morphology were scored from 0 to 3. Ultrastructurally, nuclear chromatin and stereocilia morphology were scored from 0 to 3. In addition, using transmission electron microscopy nuclear number, nuclear area, mitochondrial number and mitochondrial area were recorded. In the histological study, parameters changed with time and media (p < 0.01). A significant effect of time was observed (p < 0.01), and the morphological changes were greatest when the storage time increased. Morphological changes were higher in SAL compared with TEY (p < 0.01). In the ultrastructural study, nuclear chromatin and stereocilia morphology decreased with time and media as in the histological study (p < 0.01). In addition, nuclear number and nuclear area changed with time (p < 0.004; p < 0.001) but not with media. Conversely, mitochondrial number and mitochondrial area did not change with media or time (p > 0.05). In conclusion, these results show that TEY preserved epididymal epithelial cells better than SAL; this finding could help improve sperm quality of stored epididymides. PMID:23279519

  13. Ultrastructural localization of tyrosine hydroxylase in tree shrew nucleus accumbens core and shell

    PubMed Central

    McCollum, Lesley A.; Roberts, Rosalinda C.

    2014-01-01

    Many behavioral, physiological, and anatomical studies utilize animal models to investigate human striatal pathologies. Although commonly used, rodent striatum may not present the optimal animal model for certain studies due to a lesser morphological complexity than that of non-human primates, which are increasingly restricted in research. As an alternative, the tree shrew could provide a beneficial animal model for studies of the striatum. The gross morphology of the tree shrew striatum resembles that of primates, with separation of the caudate and putamen by the internal capsule. The neurochemical anatomy of the ventral striatum, specifically the nucleus accumbens, has never been examined. This major region of the limbic system plays a role in normal physiological functioning and is also an area of interest for human striatal disorders. The current study uses immunohistochemistry of calbindin and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) to determine the ultrastructural organization of the nucleus accumbens core and shell of the tree shrew (Tupaia glis belangeri). Stereology was used to quantify the ultrastructural localization of TH, which displays weaker immunoreactivity in the core and denser immunoreactivity in the shell. In both regions, synapses with TH-immunoreactive axon terminals were primarily symmetric and showed no preference for targeting dendrites versus dendritic spines. The results were compared to previous ultrastructural studies of TH and dopamine in rat and monkey nucleus accumbens. Tree shrew and monkey show no preference for the postsynaptic target in the shell, in contrast to rats which show a preference for synapsing with dendrites. Tree shrews have a ratio of asymmetric to symmetric synapses formed by TH-immunoreactive terminals that is intermediate between rats and monkey. The findings from this study support the tree shrew as an alternative model for studies of human striatal pathologies. PMID:24769226

  14. CCDC65 Mutation Causes Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia with Normal Ultrastructure and Hyperkinetic Cilia

    PubMed Central

    Horani, Amjad; Brody, Steven L.; Ferkol, Thomas W.; Shoseyov, David; Wasserman, Mollie G.; Ta-shma, Asaf; Wilson, Kate S.; Bayly, Philip V.; Amirav, Israel; Cohen-Cymberknoh, Malena; Dutcher, Susan K.; Elpeleg, Orly; Kerem, Eitan

    2013-01-01

    Background Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetic disorder characterized by impaired ciliary function, leading to chronic sinopulmonary disease. The genetic causes of PCD are still evolving, while the diagnosis is often dependent on finding a ciliary ultrastructural abnormality and immotile cilia. Here we report a novel gene associated with PCD but without ciliary ultrastructural abnormalities evident by transmission electron microscopy, but with dyskinetic cilia beating. Methods Genetic linkage analysis was performed in a family with a PCD subject. Gene expression was studied in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and human airway epithelial cells, using RNA assays and immunostaining. The phenotypic effects of candidate gene mutations were determined in primary culture human tracheobronchial epithelial cells transduced with gene targeted shRNA sequences. Video-microscopy was used to evaluate cilia motion. Results A single novel mutation in CCDC65, which created a termination codon at position 293, was identified in a subject with typical clinical features of PCD. CCDC65, an orthologue of the Chlamydomonas nexin-dynein regulatory complex protein DRC2, was localized to the cilia of normal nasal epithelial cells but was absent in those from the proband. CCDC65 expression was up-regulated during ciliogenesis in cultured airway epithelial cells, as was DRC2 in C. reinhardtii following deflagellation. Nasal epithelial cells from the affected individual and CCDC65-specific shRNA transduced normal airway epithelial cells had stiff and dyskinetic cilia beating patterns compared to control cells. Moreover, Gas8, a nexin-dynein regulatory complex component previously identified to associate with CCDC65, was absent in airway cells from the PCD subject and CCDC65-silenced cells. Conclusion Mutation in CCDC65, a nexin-dynein regulatory complex member, resulted in a frameshift mutation and PCD. The affected individual had altered cilia beating patterns, and no detectable

  15. Ultrastructure: effects of melanin pigment on target specificity using a pulsed dye laser (577 nm)

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, A.K.; Tan, O.T.; Boll, J.; Parrish, J.A.; Murphy, G.F.

    1987-06-01

    It has been shown recently that brief pulses of 577 nm radiation from the tunable dye laser are absorbed selectively by oxyhemoglobin. This absorption is associated with highly specific damage to superficial vascular plexus blood vessels in those with lightly pigmented (type I-II) skin. To determine whether pigmentary differences in the overlying epidermis influence this target specificity, we exposed both type I (fair) and type V (dark) normal human skin to varying radiant exposure doses over 1.5-microsecond pulse durations from the tunable dye laser at a wavelength of 577 nm. Using ultrastructural techniques, we found in type I skin that even clinical subthreshold laser exposures caused reproducible alterations of erythrocytes and adjacent dermal vascular endothelium without comparable damage to the overlying epidermis. In contrast, degenerated epidermal basal cells represented the predominant form of cellular damage after laser exposure of type V skin at comparable doses. We conclude that epidermal melanin and vascular hemoglobin are competing sites for 577 nm laser absorption and damage, and that the target specificity of the 577 nm tunable dye laser is therefore influenced by variations in epidermal pigmentation. This finding is relevant to the clinical application of the tunable dye laser in the ablative treatment of vascular lesions. We also found on ultrastructure that the presence of electron-lucent circular structures of approximately 800 A in diameter were observed only at and above clinical threshold doses in those with type I skin and at the highest dose of 2.75 J/cm2 in type V skin. It has been proposed that these structures might be heat-fixed molds of water vapor. Both this and ultrastructural changes of epidermal basal cells demonstrate mechanisms responsible for alteration of tissue after exposure to 577 nm, which are discussed.

  16. 40 CFR 761.208 - Obtaining manifests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... print the manifest under 40 CFR 262.21 (c) and (e). A registered source may be a: (i) State agency; (ii) Commercial printer; (iii) PCB waste generator, transporter or, designated facility; or (iv) PCB waste broker... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.208 Obtaining manifests. (a)(1) A generator may...

  17. 40 CFR 761.208 - Obtaining manifests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... print the manifest under 40 CFR 262.21 (c) and (e). A registered source may be a: (i) State agency; (ii) Commercial printer; (iii) PCB waste generator, transporter or, designated facility; or (iv) PCB waste broker... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.208 Obtaining manifests. (a)(1) A generator may...

  18. Teaching about Manifest Destiny: Clarifying the Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiodo, John J.

    2000-01-01

    Provides information on Manifest Destiny and the expansionist ideals of the United States, especially during the 19th century. Offers a lesson plan that will help students understand the concept of Manifest Destiny, including an assessment activity, how to expand the lesson, an appendix, and references. (CMK)

  19. 19 CFR 123.32 - Manifests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manifests. 123.32 Section 123.32 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through the United States § 123.32 Manifests. (a)...

  20. Clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    Prasad, A S

    1985-01-01

    The essentiality of zinc for humans was recognized in the early 1960s. The causes of zinc deficiency include malnutrition, alcoholism, malabsorption, extensive burns, chronic debilitating disorders, chronic renal diseases, following uses of certain drugs such as penicillamine for Wilson's disease and diuretics in some cases, and genetic disorders such as acrodermatitis enteropathica and sickle cell disease. In pregnancy and during periods of growth the requirement of zinc is increased. The clinical manifestations in severe cases of zinc deficiency include bullous-pustular dermatitis, alopecia, diarrhea, emotional disorder, weight loss, intercurrent infections, hypogonadism in males; it is fatal if unrecognized and untreated. A moderate deficiency of zinc is characterized by growth retardation and delayed puberty in adolescents, hypogonadism in males, rough skin, poor appetite, mental lethargy, delayed wound healing, taste abnormalities, and abnormal dark adaptation. In mild cases of zinc deficiency in human subjects, we have observed oligospermia, slight weight loss, and hyperammonemia. Zinc is a growth factor. Its deficiency adversely affects growth in many animal species and humans. Inasmuch as zinc is needed for protein and DNA synthesis and for cell division, it is believed that the growth effect of zinc is related to its effect on protein synthesis. Whether or not zinc is required for the metabolism of somatomedin needs to be investigated in the future. Testicular functions are affected adversely as a result of zinc deficiency in both humans and experimental animals. This effect of zinc is at the end organ level; the hypothalamic-pituitary axis is intact in zinc-deficient subjects. Inasmuch as zinc is intimately involved in cell division, its deficiency may adversely affect testicular size and thus affect its functions. Zinc is required for the functions of several enzymes and whether or not it has an enzymatic role in steroidogenesis is not known at present

  1. Oral Manifestations and Dental Management of Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex.

    PubMed

    Scheidt, Lisa; Sanabe, Mariane Emi; Diniz, Michele Baffi

    2015-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a group of hereditary chronic disorders, characterized by fragility of the skin and mucous membranes in response to minor mechanical trauma. The objective of this study was to report the case of a young girl diagnosed with epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS), transmitted by an autosomal dominant gene. Cutaneous findings included blisters and dystrophy following minimal friction. Recurrent blisters and vesicle formation on the hard palate were the main oral findings. In conclusion, publications concerning the oral and clinical manifestations of EBS are important for providing knowledge and an early multidisciplinary approach that prevents blister formation and improves these patients' quality of life, with the dentist playing an important role in oral health management. How to cite this article: Scheidt L, Sanabe ME, Diniz MB. Oral Manifestations and Dental Management of Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):239-241. PMID:26604545

  2. Oral Manifestations and Dental Management of Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex

    PubMed Central

    Scheidt, Lisa; Sanabe, Mariane Emi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a group of hereditary chronic disorders, characterized by fragility of the skin and mucous membranes in response to minor mechanical trauma. The objective of this study was to report the case of a young girl diagnosed with epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS), transmitted by an autosomal dominant gene. Cutaneous findings included blisters and dystrophy following minimal friction. Recurrent blisters and vesicle formation on the hard palate were the main oral findings. In conclusion, publications concerning the oral and clinical manifestations of EBS are important for providing knowledge and an early multidisciplinary approach that prevents blister formation and improves these patients’ quality of life, with the dentist playing an important role in oral health management. How to cite this article: Scheidt L, Sanabe ME, Diniz MB. Oral Manifestations and Dental Management of Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):239-241. PMID:26604545

  3. Monogenic Autoinflammatory Diseases: Concept And Clinical Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    De Jesus, Adriana Almeida; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this review are to describe the clinical manifestations of the growing spectrum of monogenic autoinflammatory diseases including recently described syndromes. The autoinflammatory diseases can be grouped based on clinical findings: 1. the three classic hereditary “periodic fever syndromes”, familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF); TNF receptor associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS); and mevalonate kinase deficiency/hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and periodic fever syndrome (HIDS); 2. the cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes (CAPS), comprising familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome (FCAS), Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS) and neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID) or CINCA, and; 3. pediatric granulomatous arthritis (PGA); 4. disorders presenting with skin pustules, including deficiency of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (DIRA); Majeed syndrome; pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum and acne (PAPA) syndrome; deficiency of interleukin 36 receptor antagonist (DITRA); CARD14 mediated psoriasis (CAMPS), and early-onset inflammatory bowel diseases (EO-IBD); 5. inflammatory disorders caused by mutations in proteasome components, the proteasome associated autoinflammatory syndromes (PRAAS) 6. very rare conditions presenting with autoinflammation and immunodeficiency. PMID:23711932

  4. Emotional manifestations of PD: Neurobiological basis.

    PubMed

    Castrioto, Anna; Thobois, Stéphane; Carnicella, Sebastien; Maillet, Audrey; Krack, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common and disabling in PD. Their neurobiological bases are complex, partly because of the disease itself and partly because of the dopaminergic treatment. The aim of this review is to focus on the emotional manifestations stemming from the neurodegenerative process itself. We focus on depression, anxiety, apathy, and fatigue, which can all be part of the clinical spectrum of premotor disease and may be improved or masked by medications targeting parkinsonian motor signs or psychiatric symptoms as the disease progresses. Findings from clinical, neuroimaging, and animal studies are reviewed, showing a major contribution of the dopaminergic system to the pathophysiology of these disabling symptoms. Degeneration of noradrenergic and serotonergic projection systems also has an impact on psychiatric symptoms of PD. The available literature is reviewed, but at present there is a lack of studies that would allow disentangling the separate contribution of each of the monoaminergic systems. The use of a pragmatic classification of all these symptoms under the umbrella of hypodopaminergic behavioral syndrome seems clinically useful, as it emphasizes the crucial, although not exclusive, nature of their dopaminergic neurobiological basis, which has important implications in the clinical management of PD. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:27041545

  5. Ultrastructural changes in sweet orange with symptoms of huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus greening (Huanglongbing [HLB]) is one of the most destructive citrus diseases worldwide. To better understand the ultrastructural changes of sweet orange seedlings in response to infection, anatomical analyses of HLB-infected sweet orange were carried out by light and electron microscopy. A...

  6. Increased DNA fragmentation and ultrastructural changes in fibromyalgic muscle fibres

    PubMed Central

    Sprott, H; Salemi, S; Gay, R; Bradley, L; Alarcon, G; Oh, S; Michel, B; Gay, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether there is evidence of increased DNA fragmentation and ultrastructural changes in muscle tissue of patients with fibromyalgia (FM) compared with healthy controls. Methods: Muscle tissues from 10 community residents with FM and 10 age and sex matched healthy controls were examined "blindly" for the presence of DNA fragmentation by two different methods: terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) staining (TUNEL) and the FragEL-Klenow DNA fragmentation detection kit. Ultrastructural analysis of tissue was performed by electron microscopy. Results: DNA fragmentation was detected by both methods in 55.4 (SEM 2.5)% of the nuclei in muscle tissue of patients with FM compared with 16.1 (4.1)% (p<0.001) of the nuclei in healthy controls. Contrary to expectation, no typical features of apoptosis could be detected by electron microscopy. The myofibres and actin filaments were disorganised and lipofuscin bodies were seen; glycogen and lipid accumulation were also found. The number of mitochondria was significantly lower in patients with FM than in controls and seemed to be morphologically altered. Conclusion: The ultrastructural changes described suggest that patients with FM are characterised by abnormalities in muscle tissue that include increased DNA fragmentation and changes in the number and size of mitochondria. These cellular changes are not signs of apoptosis. Persistent focal contractions in muscle may contribute to ultrastructural tissue abnormalities as well as to the induction and/or chronicity of nociceptive transmission from muscle to the central nervous system. PMID:14962957

  7. Improved ultrastructure of marine invertebrates using non-toxic buffers

    PubMed Central

    Montanaro, Jacqueline; Gruber, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Many marine biology studies depend on field work on ships or remote sampling locations where sophisticated sample preservation techniques (e.g., high-pressure freezing) are often limited or unavailable. Our aim was to optimize the ultrastructural preservation of marine invertebrates, especially when working in the field. To achieve chemically-fixed material of the highest quality, we compared the resulting ultrastructure of gill tissue of the mussel Mytilus edulis when fixed with differently buffered EM fixatives for marine specimens (seawater, cacodylate and phosphate buffer) and a new fixative formulation with the non-toxic PHEM buffer (PIPES, HEPES, EGTA and MgCl2). All buffers were adapted for immersion fixation to form an isotonic fixative in combination with 2.5% glutaraldehyde. We showed that PHEM buffer based fixatives resulted in equal or better ultrastructure preservation when directly compared to routine standard fixatives. These results were also reproducible when extending the PHEM buffered fixative to the fixation of additional different marine invertebrate species, which also displayed excellent ultrastructural detail. We highly recommend the usage of PHEM-buffered fixation for the fixation of marine invertebrates. PMID:27069800

  8. Tissue section AFM: In situ ultrastructural imaging of native biomolecules

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Helen K.; Hodson, Nigel W.; Hoyland, Judith A.; Millward-Sadler, Sarah J.; Garrod, David; Scothern, Anthea; Griffiths, Christopher E.M.; Watson, Rachel E.B.; Cox, Thomas R.; Erler, Janine T.; Trafford, Andrew W.; Sherratt, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Conventional approaches for ultrastructural high-resolution imaging of biological specimens induce profound changes in bio-molecular structures. By combining tissue cryo-sectioning with non-destructive atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging we have developed a methodology that may be applied by the non-specialist to both preserve and visualize bio-molecular structures (in particular extracellular matrix assemblies) in situ. This tissue section AFM technique is capable of: i) resolving nm–µm scale features of intra- and extracellular structures in tissue cryo-sections; ii) imaging the same tissue region before and after experimental interventions; iii) combining ultrastructural imaging with complimentary microscopical and micromechanical methods. Here, we employ this technique to: i) visualize the macro-molecular structures of unstained and unfixed fibrillar collagens (in skin, cartilage and intervertebral disc), elastic fibres (in aorta and lung), desmosomes (in nasal epithelium) and mitochondria (in heart); ii) quantify the ultrastructural effects of sequential collagenase digestion on a single elastic fibre; iii) correlate optical (auto fluorescent) with ultrastructural (AFM) images of aortic elastic lamellae. PMID:20144712

  9. Ultrastructure of Placenta of Gravidas with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Qian; Shao, Li; Luo, Xiucui; Mu, Yingping; Xu, Wen; Gao, Chao; Gao, Li; Liu, Jiayin; Cui, Yugui

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) leads to an abnormal placental environment which may cause some structural alterations of placenta and affect placental development and function. In this study, the ultrastructural appearances of term placentas from women with GDM and normal pregnancy were meticulously compared. Materials and Methods. The placenta tissues of term birth from 10 women with GDM and 10 women with normal pregnancy were applied with the signed informed consent. The morphology of fetomaternal interface of placenta was examined using light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results. On LM, the following morphological changes in villous tissues were found in the GDM placentas when compared with the control placentas: edematous stroma, apparent increase in the number of syncytial knots, and perivillous fibrin deposition. On TEM, the distinct ultrastructural alterations indicating the degeneration of terminal villi were found in the GDM placentas as follows: thickening of the basal membrane (BM) of vasculosyncytial membrane (VSM) and the VSM itself, significantly fewer or even absent syncytiotrophoblastic microvilli, swollen or completely destroyed mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, and syncytiotrophoblasts with multiple vacuoles. Conclusion. Ultrastructural differences exist between GDM and control placentas. The differences of placenta ultrastructure are likely responsible for the impairment of placental barrier and function in GDM. PMID:26379710

  10. Correlative microscopy for phylogenetic and ultrastructural characterization of microbial communities

    PubMed Central

    Knierim, Bernhard; Luef, Birgit; Wilmes, Paul; Webb, Richard I.; Auer, Manfred; Comolli, Luis R.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2014-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can provide ultrastructural information for cells in microbial community samples and phylogenetic information can be recovered via molecular surveys. Here we report an approach to link these datasets by coupling fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with either conventional biological or cryogenic TEM. The method could revolutionize understanding of the organization and functioning of microbial communities in natural systems. PMID:23757227

  11. Hypertextual Ultrastructures: Movement and Containment in Texts and Hypertexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coste, Rosemarie L.

    2009-01-01

    The surface-level experience of hypertextuality as formless and unbounded, blurring boundaries among texts and between readers and writers, is created by a deep structure which is not normally presented to readers and which, like the ultrastructure of living cells, defines and controls texts' nature and functions. Most readers, restricted to…

  12. Ultrastructure study of apple meristem cells during cryopreservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ultrastructure of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) meristem cells was studied before and after cold acclimation (CA) and during the steps of PVS2 vitrification. We compared cells of in vitro grown shoots of two cultivars, Grushovka Vernenskaya and Voskhod. Cells of the two cultivars were simila...

  13. Improved ultrastructure of marine invertebrates using non-toxic buffers.

    PubMed

    Montanaro, Jacqueline; Gruber, Daniela; Leisch, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    Many marine biology studies depend on field work on ships or remote sampling locations where sophisticated sample preservation techniques (e.g., high-pressure freezing) are often limited or unavailable. Our aim was to optimize the ultrastructural preservation of marine invertebrates, especially when working in the field. To achieve chemically-fixed material of the highest quality, we compared the resulting ultrastructure of gill tissue of the mussel Mytilus edulis when fixed with differently buffered EM fixatives for marine specimens (seawater, cacodylate and phosphate buffer) and a new fixative formulation with the non-toxic PHEM buffer (PIPES, HEPES, EGTA and MgCl2). All buffers were adapted for immersion fixation to form an isotonic fixative in combination with 2.5% glutaraldehyde. We showed that PHEM buffer based fixatives resulted in equal or better ultrastructure preservation when directly compared to routine standard fixatives. These results were also reproducible when extending the PHEM buffered fixative to the fixation of additional different marine invertebrate species, which also displayed excellent ultrastructural detail. We highly recommend the usage of PHEM-buffered fixation for the fixation of marine invertebrates. PMID:27069800

  14. Cadmium-induced ultrastructural changes in Euglena cells

    SciTech Connect

    Duret, S.; Bonaly, J.; Bariaud, A.; Vannereau, A.; Mestre, J.C.

    1986-02-01

    The ultrastructure of Euglena gracilis grown in the presence of Cd showed only numerous myelin-like structures in mitochondria, chloroplasts altered in shape, and thylakoid arrangement and increase of osmiophilic plastoglobuli. These alterations indicate that respiratory processes are the initial target of Cd toxicity.

  15. Ultrastructure Study of Apple Meristem Cells During Cryopreservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ultrastructure of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) meristem cells was studied before and after cold acclimation (CA) and during the steps of PVS2 vitrification. We compared cells of in vitro grown shoots of two cultivars, Grushovka Vernenskaya and Voskhod. Cells of the two cultivars were simila...

  16. Ultrastructural study of thyroid capillaries after IR laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, Lourdes; Perez de Vargas, I.; Carrillo, F.; Parrado, C.; Pelaez, A.

    1994-02-01

    Laser radiation causes microscopical changes in the follicular cells relative to dose intensity. So, we have observed focal degenerative phenomena, at maximal doses, and activation of cellular function similar to the ones observed after stimulation with TSH, at minimal doses. In order to evaluate the evolution of these changes we have planned an ultrastructural study of rats thyroid capillaries treated with IR laser radiation.

  17. Molecular and Ultrastructural Properties of Maize White Line Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reports the complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of Maize white line mosaic virus (MWLMV) and describes the ultrastructural features of infected maize cells. The viral genome is an RNA molecule 4293 nt in size with the same structural organization of members of the Aureusvirus and ...

  18. [Epileptic manifestations following head injury (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Wessely, P

    1977-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the findings in a group of 300 patients with head injury, aged 15 years or over at the time of the accident, who subsequently developed epileptic manifestations. Early fits (including one case of immediate onset) were found in 33% of the cases (99 patients). In contrast to post-traumatic late epilepsy (PTE), which is a manifestation of a static process, early fits are triggered off by a dynamic process (brain oedema, haemorrhage) and are a sign of cerebral irritation, but do not represent a true form of epilepsy. Early fits are related to the acute traumatic state; the time limit is flexible, but lies in the region of 4 weeks following injury. Conversion of early fits to PTE (with or without a latent interval) occurred in 72% of the cases. This percentage is higher than the average incidence quoted in the literature and presumably arises partly from the selection criteria applied in this study. The time of appearance of early fits following injury is one factor which determines the prognosis. Fits appearing on the first day carry a relatively favourable prognosis and do not proceed to PTE in 41% of the cases, whereas this percentage shrinks to 15% in the case of fits appearing from the second week onwards. Early fits are an isolated occurrence in one third of the cases; progression to PTE is less frequent in these patients than following frequent, repeated convulsions. Furthermore, the incidence of early fits is dependent, to a large extent, on traumatological and clinical factors: the combination of unconsciousness of over three hours' duration, neurological signs referable to the central nervous system, persistent organic psychotic syndrome and intracranial bleeding leads to a significantly higher incidence of early fits than unconsciousness of less than three hours' duration and absence of neurological signs in patients who, moreover, do not display features of the psychotic syndrome, and shows a greater tendency to early fits even

  19. [Lyme disease--clinical manifestations and treatment].

    PubMed

    Stock, Ingo

    2016-05-01

    Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis) is a systemic infectious disease that can present in a variety of clinical manifestations. The disease is caused by a group of spirochaetes--Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato or Lyme borrelia--that are transmitted to humans by the bite of Ixodes ticks. Lyme disease is the most common arthropode-borne infectious disease in many European countries including Germany. Early localized infection is typically manifested by an erythema migrans skin lesion, in rarer cases as a borrelial lymphocytoma. The most common early disseminated manifestation is (early) neuroborreliosis. In adults, neuroborreliosis appears typically as meningoradiculoneuritis. Neuroborreliosis in children, however, is typically manifested by meningitis. In addition, multiple erythema migrans lesions and Lyme carditis occur relatively frequently. The most common manifestation oflate Lyme disease is Lyme arthritis. Early manifestations (and usually also late manifestations) of Lyme disease can be treated successfully by application of suitable antibacterial agents. For the treatment of Lyme disease, doxycycline, certain penicillins such as amoxicillin and some cephalosporins (ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefuroxime axetil) are recommended in current guidelines. A major challenge is the treatment of chronic, non-specific disorders, i. e., posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome and "chronic Lyme disease". Prevention of Lyme disease is mainly accomplished by protecting against tick bites. Prophylactic administration of doxycycline after tick bites is generally not recommended in Germany. There is no vaccine available for human beings. PMID:27348896

  20. Developmental and Ultrastructural Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Trypanosoma herthameyeri n. sp. of Brazilian Leptodactilydae Frogs.

    PubMed

    Attias, Márcia; Sato, Lyslaine H; Ferreira, Robson C; Takata, Carmen S A; Campaner, Marta; Camargo, Erney P; Teixeira, Marta M G; de Souza, Wanderley

    2016-09-01

    We described the phylogenetic affiliation, development in cultures and ultrastructural features of a trypanosome of Leptodacylus chaquensis from the Pantanal biome of Brazil. In the inferred phylogeny, this trypanosome nested into the Anura clade of the basal Aquatic clade of Trypanosoma, but was separate from all known species within this clade. This finding enabled us to describe it as Trypanosoma herthameyeri n. sp., which also infects other Leptodacylus species from the Pantanal and Caatinga biomes. Trypanosoma herthameyeri multiplies as small rounded forms clumped together and evolving into multiple-fission forms and rosettes of epimastigotes released as long forms with long flagella; scarce trypomastigotes and glove-like forms are common in stationary-phase cultures. For the first time, a trypanosome from an amphibian was observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy, revealing a cytostome opening, well-developed flagellar lamella, and many grooves in pumpkin-like forms. Transmission electron microscopy showed highly developed Golgi complexes, relaxed catenation of KDNA, and a rich set of spongiome tubules in a regular parallel arrangement to the flagellar pocket as confirmed by electron tomography. Considering the basal position in the phylogenetic tree, developmental and ultrastructural data of T. herthameyeri are valuable for evolutionary studies of trypanosome architecture and cell biology. PMID:26932133

  1. Ultrastructural modifications in cultured fetal quail hepatocytes exposed to pesticides and PCBs.

    PubMed

    Hugla, J L; Goffinet, G; Kremers, P; Dubois, M; Lambert, V; Stouvenakers, N; Thome, J P

    1996-07-01

    There is increasing interest in cultured hepatocytes as a tool for solving toxicological and pharmacological problems while reducing laboratory animal experimentation. In the present study, fetal hepatocytes from the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were used as an in vitro alternative model for evaluating the effects of PCBs and various pesticide-type chemicals on cell ultrastructure. Major alterations were demonstrated. The most striking effects of toxicants were an increase in the number of cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), various alterations of mitochondrial morphology, a decreased glycogen content, vacuolization of the cytoplasm, and the appearance of concentric membrane arrays (CMA's), also called myelin-like figures. Other changes were sometimes observed, such as altered cell junctions, an increased lipid content, deformations of the nuclei, or the appearance of crystalline structures. These ultrastructural modifications seem to be dose-dependent. The present in vitro findings are validated by similar observations previously made in vivo on Japanese quail. They confirm the effectiveness of this technique as a biomonitoring tool for the evaluation of environmental quality. Yet the multiplicity of possible toxic effects, even for xenobiotics of a same category, makes it necessary to screen additional indicators of toxicity, such as the detoxifying activity of monooxygenases. PMID:8812180

  2. Ultrastructural mitochondria changes in perihematomal brain and neuroprotective effects of Huperzine A after acute intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Haiying; Jiang, Mei; Lu, Lei; Zheng, Guo; Dong, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Aim The purpose of the study was to observe the ultrastructural changes of neuronal mitochondria in perihematomal brain tissue and assess the therapeutic potential of Huperzine A (HA, a mitochondrial protector) following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods Brain hemorrhage was induced in adult Sprague Dawley rats by injecting autologous blood into the striatum and then removing the brains 3, 6, 12, 24, or 48 hours later to analyze mitochondrial ultrastructure in a blinded manner. Parallel groups of ICH rats were treated with HA or saline immediately after ICH. Perihematomal apoptosis was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), caspase-3 activation and cytochrome C translocation were tracked by immunoblots, and neurobehavioral test results were compared between the groups. Results Mitochondria in perihematomal neurons demonstrated dramatic changes including mitochondrial swelling, intracristal dilation, and decreased matrix density. HA treatment decreased mitochondrial injury and apoptosis, inhibited caspase-3 activation and cytochrome C translocation, and improved behavioral recovery. Conclusion These data show that ICH induces dramatic mitochondrial damage, and HA exhibits protective effects possibly through ameliorating mitochondrial injury and apoptosis. Collectively, these findings suggest a new direction for novel therapeutics. PMID:26508860

  3. Ultrastructure of a Mobile Threadlike Tissue Floating in a Lymph Vessel.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Gil, HyunJi; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Hong-Lim; Kim, Sungchul; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Observations of the primo vascular system (PVS) floating in lymph ducts were reported by various groups. There have been, however, no studies on the ultrastructure of the entire cross section of a primo vessel (PV) inside a lymph vessel with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). In the current study we took the TEM images of a cross section of the PV inside a lymph vessel. We used the Alcian blue staining method for the finding of the target PV in a lymphatic vessel by injecting the dye into the inguinal lymph nodes. The stained PV was harvested together with the lymph vessel and some parts of the specimens were used for studying with optical microscopes. Some other parts were treated according to a standard protocol for TEM. As the results the TEM study revealed the loosely distributed collagen fibers with plenty of empty spaces and the lumens with the endothelial nuclei. It turned out to be very similar to the ultrastructure of the PVs observed on the surfaces of internal organs. It also showed how compactly the PV is surrounded with lymphocytes. In conclusion, the detailed morphological features like the distribution of fibers in the PV were revealed and shown to be similar to another kind of the PV on the surfaces of internal organs. PMID:27034687

  4. Elastofibroma dorsi: a case report with an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies.

    PubMed

    Kakudo, Natsuko; Morimoto, Naoki; Ogawa, Takeshi; Hihara, Masakatsu; Koseki, Rina; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2016-03-01

    Elastofibroma is a rare, benign, fibrous tumor formed by the proliferation of characteristic elastic fibers that commonly occurs between the lower margin of the scapula and the ribcage. We undertook a histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study of an elastofibroma dorsi beneath the right scapula of a 77-year-old woman. Tumor cells comprised collagen fiber bundles, numerous elastic fibers, and spindle cells resembling fibroblasts. The elastic and collagen fibers in the tumor were stained positively with Elastic van Gieson and Masson trichrome staining, respectively. Immunostaining showed that the fibroblasts were strongly positive for CD34, positive for vimentin, and weakly positive for α-smooth muscle actin. Ultrastructural observations revealed elastin and microfibrils between numerous irregularly arranged collagen fiber bundles. Signs suggestive of elastin deposition were also evident in the tangled collagen fibers themselves. The fibroblasts contained a large amount of rough endoplasmic reticulum and were surrounded on the outside of cells by microfibrils and collagen fibers. Although fibroblasts may produce large quantities of elastin, microfibrils, and collagen, our findings suggested that the deposition of elastin on collagen fibers may be involved in the formation of abnormal elastic fibers. PMID:26040573

  5. Ultrastructure of a Mobile Threadlike Tissue Floating in a Lymph Vessel

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Gil, HyunJi; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Hong-Lim

    2016-01-01

    Observations of the primo vascular system (PVS) floating in lymph ducts were reported by various groups. There have been, however, no studies on the ultrastructure of the entire cross section of a primo vessel (PV) inside a lymph vessel with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). In the current study we took the TEM images of a cross section of the PV inside a lymph vessel. We used the Alcian blue staining method for the finding of the target PV in a lymphatic vessel by injecting the dye into the inguinal lymph nodes. The stained PV was harvested together with the lymph vessel and some parts of the specimens were used for studying with optical microscopes. Some other parts were treated according to a standard protocol for TEM. As the results the TEM study revealed the loosely distributed collagen fibers with plenty of empty spaces and the lumens with the endothelial nuclei. It turned out to be very similar to the ultrastructure of the PVs observed on the surfaces of internal organs. It also showed how compactly the PV is surrounded with lymphocytes. In conclusion, the detailed morphological features like the distribution of fibers in the PV were revealed and shown to be similar to another kind of the PV on the surfaces of internal organs. PMID:27034687

  6. What's in a name?-"Lipolysosome": ultrastructural features of a lipid-containing organelle.

    PubMed

    Iancu, Theodore C; Manov, Irena; Shaoul, Ron; Haimi, Motti; Lerner, Aaron

    2013-10-01

    The prevalence of fatty liver is rising not only in adults but also in children and adolescents. The authors describe the ultrastructure of 12 biopsies from 10 males and 2 females aged 7-18 years. All subjects had fatty liver by ultrasonography and were overweight or obese according to BMI classification. They all had elevated aminotransferases and/or lipid/cholesterol levels, ultimately confirmed by biopsy. Steatosis was mild in 2, moderate in 3, and severe in 7 cases. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis was diagnosed in 7 and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in 5 patients. Lipolysosomes, identified in all 12 biopsies, were defined as fat droplets surrounded by a trilaminar membrane and lipofuscin-like deposits within or adjacent to the enveloping membrane. The lysosome marker CD68 revealed lysosomal activity in all lipolysosomes identified by electron microscopy. The ultrastructural features, here illustrated in diverse human biopsies, enabled lipolysosome classification in 3 types: monolocular (type I), multilocular (type II), and giant multilocular (type III). Type II, previously described in some conditions with abnormal lipid metabolism, was found in all biopsies, though with variable frequency. Type III was observed only in severe steatosis and associated with prominent connective tissue and conspicuous lipofuscin deposits. These new findings demonstrate the presence of lipolysosomes in a variety of fatty livers, in conditions hitherto unknown, in relation to the severity of steatosis, fibrogenic process, autophagy, lipolysis, and lipofuscin formation. PMID:24047346

  7. Incremental lines in root cementum of human teeth: an approach to their ultrastructural nature by microscopy.

    PubMed

    Renz, H; Schaefer, V; Duschner, H; Radlanski, R J

    1997-11-01

    In ground sections of human teeth, root cementum shows under the light microscope as alternating, almost concentric, dark and light rings. In paleontology and forensic medicine, the number of these incremental lines or annulations is used to derive the age-at-death of the individual. To find the ultrastructural features underlying these cemental annulations, we used bright-field light microscopy (LM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electron-dispersive x-radiation (EDX) in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Annulations visible in ground sections of about 100-micron thickness were no longer visible in semi-thin sections (thickness, 1-2 microns) of the same specimen in the same area. The assumption that annulations could be caused by super-imposing structures in the depth of field of the light microscope's objective lens was not verified by CLSM. Fiber bundles of higher density than the surrounding matrix in TEM micrographs could not be connected unambiguously with annulations in LM micrographs. After all, the ultrastructural nature of cemental annulations remains an open question. PMID:9470507

  8. Glomerular ultrastructure of the trout, Salmo gairdneri: effects of angiotensin II and adaptation to seawater.

    PubMed

    Gray, C J; Brown, J A

    1987-08-01

    The effect of angiotensin infusion on the glomerular ultrastructure of freshwater- and seawater-adapted rainbow trout. Salmo gairdneri, has been examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Adaptation of trout to seawater resulted in epithelial podocyte flattening, primary process broadening and apparent loss of foot processes in almost all glomeruli, features which were uncommon in freshwater-adapted trout. Similar changes were induced by infusion of freshwater-adapted animals with angiotensin, suggesting that the renin-angiotensin system plays a role in the modification of glomerular epithelial ultrastructure. Adaptation of trout to seawater also reduced glomerular diameter, but infusion of freshwater-adapted animals with angiotensin did not mirror this effect. Infusion of angiotensin into seawater-adapted animals increased the overall thickness of glomerular basement membrane by increasing the lamina rara interna and lamina densa. This did not occur when freshwater-adapted fish were either infused with angiotensin or adapted to seawater. These findings suggest that other humoral systems are involved in the control of glomerular diameter and basement membrane thickness as part of an integrated response to increased environmental salinity. PMID:3621307

  9. Ultrastructural analysis of cell component distribution in the apical cell of Ceratodon protonemata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, L. M.; Sack, F. D.

    1995-01-01

    A distinctive feature of tip-growing plant cells is that cell components are distributed differentially along the length of the cell, although most ultrastructural analyses have been qualitative. The longtitudinal distribution of cell components was studied both qualitatively and quantitatively in the apical cell of dark-grown protonemata of the moss Ceratodon. The first 35 micrometers of the apical cell was analyzed stereologically using transmission electron microscopy. There were four types of distributions along the cell's axis, three of them differential: (1) tubular endoplasmic reticulum was evenly distributed, (2) cisternal endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi vesicles were distributed in a tip-to-base gradient, (3) plastids, vacuoles, and Golgi stacks were enriched in specific areas, although the locations of the enrichments varied, and (4) mitochondria were excluded in the tip-most 5 micrometers and evenly distributed throughout the remaining 30 micrometers. This study provides one of the most comprehensive quantitative, ultrastructural analyses of the distribution of cell components in the apex of any tip-growing plant cell. The finding that almost every component had its own spatial arrangement demonstrates the complexity of the organization and regulation of the distribution of components in tip-growing cells.

  10. Ultrastructural evidence for divergent and alternating differentiations in spindle cell sarcoma xenografts.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, U; Stüben, G; Stuschke, M; Donhuijsen, K

    1997-04-01

    Seven spindle cell sarcomas, 5 poorly differentiated ones and 2 moderately well differentiated ones, were established on nude mice and long term passaging was done. Sarcoma strains were analysed electron microscopically in an attempt to get further insight in spindle cell sarcoma differentiation pathways. Ultrastructurally, the tumours were classified as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (3/7), leiomyosarcoma (2/7), rhabdomyosarcoma (1/7), and spindle cell sarcoma not otherwise classifiable (1/7). Undifferentiated tumour cells including fibroblastoid ones predominated in most xenografts, whereas cells harbouring cytoplasmic specificities tended to be few in number. Nevertheless, divergent differentiations exhibiting unusual double or triple patterns could be documented ultrastructurally in 12/30 xenografts with juxtaposed myomatous as well as nerve sheath-like cells and, in addition, histiocytoid (MFH-like) elements in 3 of the xenografts. Moreover, sarcoma strains alternated fine structural constellations in the course of passaging, whereby different phenotypes, myomatous, nerve sheath-like, unspecific, or mixed ones, succeeded one another. These findings pursue recent immunohistochemical data on multidirectional sarcoma differentiation by means of electron microscopy. They, furthermore, fit well into the concept of multipotential stem cells as progenitors in mesenchymal differentiation and suggest microenvironment to play a modifying role in the expression of cell differentiation. PMID:9165712

  11. Ultrastructure of the Subcutaneous Primo-Vascular System in Rat Abdomen.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chae Jeong; Lee, So Yeong; Ryu, Pan Dong

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we identified the primo-vascular system (PVS), a novel vascular network, in rat subcutaneous tissues. Little is known about the subcutaneous PVS (sc-PVS). Here, we examined the ultrastructure of the sc-PVS in the hypodermis at the rat abdominal midline by electron microscopy. On the surface of sc-PVS, we observed three types of cells: microcells (5-6 μm), large elliptical cells (>20 μm), and erythrocyte (3-4 μm). The inside of the sc-PVS was filled with numerous cells, which can be classified into three major groups: leucocytes, mast cells, and erythrocytes. The dense leucocytes and mast cells were easily noticed. The extracellular matrix of the sc-PVS was mainly composed of extensive fibers (79 ± 6.5 nm) tightly covered by micro- (0.5-1 μm) and nanoparticles (10-100 nm). In conclusion, the ultrastructural features, such as the resident cells on and in the sc-PVS and fiber meshwork covered by particles, indicate that sc-PVS might act as a circulatory channel for the flow and delivery of numerous cells and particles. Our findings will help understand the nature of various sc-PVS beneath-the-skin layers and how they relate to acupuncture meridians. PMID:27526159

  12. Extraintestinal manifestations of celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Sánchez, María Inés; Bercik, Premysl; Verdu, Elena F; Bai, Julio C

    2015-01-01

    Case finding for celiac disease (CD) is becoming increasingly common practice and is conducted in a wide range of clinical situations ranging from the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms to failure to thrive in children, prolonged fatigue, unexpected weight loss and anemia. Case finding is also performed in associated conditions, such as autoimmune thyroid disease, dermatitis herpetiformis and type 1 diabetes, as well as in patients with irritable bowel syndrome, unexplained neuropsychiatric disorders and first-degree relatives of patients with diagnosed CD. This aggressive active case finding has dramatically changed the clinical characteristics of newly diagnosed patients. For instance, higher numbers of patients who present with extraintestinal symptoms are now being diagnosed with CD. Current recommendations state that due to a high risk for complications if the disease remains undiagnosed, patients with extraintestinal symptoms due to CD require appropriate diagnosis and treatment. Despite criticism regarding the cost-effectiveness of case finding in CD, such an aggressive approach has been considered cost-effective for high-risk patients. The diagnosis of CD among patients with extraintestinal symptoms requires a high degree of awareness of the clinical conditions that carry a high risk for underlying CD. Also, understanding the correct use of specific serology and duodenal histology is key for an appropriate diagnostic approach. Both procedures combined are able to confirm diagnosis in the vast majority of cases. However, in certain circumstances, serology and even duodenal histology cannot confirm or rule out CD. A common cause of negative IgA serology is IgA deficiency. For such eventuality, IgG-based serological tests can help confirm the diagnosis. Importantly, some histologically diagnosed cases still remain seronegative despite exclusion of IgA deficiency. On the other hand, duodenal histology may be normal despite the presence of CD

  13. Pulsed electromagnetic wave exposure induces ultrastructural damage and upregulated expression of heat shock protein 70 in the rat adenohypophysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kang; Ren, Dong-Qing; Yi, Jun; Zhou, Xiao-Guang; Yang, Wen-Qing; Chen, Yong-Bin; Li, Yong-Qiang; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Zeng, Gui-Ying

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the ultrastructural damage and the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in the rat adenohypophysis following pulsed electromagnetic wave (PEMW) exposure. The rats were randomly divided into four groups: Sham PEMW exposure, 1 x 10(4) pulses of PEMW exposure, 1 x 10(5) pulses of PEMW exposure and 3 x 10(5) pulses of PEMW exposure. Whole body radiation of 1 x 10(4) pulses, 1 x 10(5) pulses and 3 x 10(5) pulses of PEMW were delivered with a field strength of 100 kV/m. The rats in each group (n=6 in each) were sacrificed 12, 24, 48 and 96 h after PEMW exposure. Transmission electron microscopy was then used to detect the ultrastructural changes and immunocytochemistry was used to examine the expression of HSP70. Cellular damage, including mitochondrial vacuolation occurred as early as 12 h after PEMW exposure.More severe cellular damages, including cell degeneration and necrosis, occurred 24 and 48 h after PEMW exposure. The PEMW-induced cellular damage increased as the number of PEMW pulses increased. In addition, the expression of HSP70 significantly increased following PEMW exposure and peaked after 12 h. These findings suggested that PEMW induced ultrastructural damages in the rat adenohypophysis and that HSP70 may have contributed to the PEMW-induced adenohypophyseal damage. PMID:25891763

  14. Ultrastructural characteristics of three undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem cell lines and their differentiated three-dimensional derivatives: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Suzan; Elsafadi, Mona; Mobarak, Mohammed; Alrwili, Ali; Vishnubalaji, Radhakrishnan; Manikandan, Muthurangan; Al-Qudsi, Fatma; Karim, Saleh; Al-Nabaheen, May; Aldahmash, Abdullah; Mahmood, Amer

    2014-04-01

    The fine structures of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) grown as colonies and differentiated in three-dimensional (3D) culture as embryoid bodies (EBs) were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Undifferentiated mESCs expressed markers that proved their pluripotency. Differentiated EBs expressed different differentiation marker proteins from the three germ layers. The ultrastructure of mESCs revealed the presence of microvilli on the cell surfaces, large and deep infolded nuclei, low cytoplasm-to-nuclear ratios, frequent lipid droplets, nonprominent Golgi apparatus, and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, we found prominent juvenile mitochondria and free ribosomes-rich cytoplasm in mESCs. Ultrastructure of the differentiated mESCs as EBs showed different cell arrangements, which indicate the different stages of EB development and differentiation. The morphologies of BALB/c and 129 W9.5 EBs were very similar at day 4, whereas C57BL/6 EBs were distinct from the others at day 4. This finding suggested that differentiation of EBs from different cell lines occurs in the same pattern but not at the same rate. Conversely, the ultrastructure results of BALB/c and 129 W9.5 ESCs revealed differentiating features, such as the dilated profile of a rough endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, we found low expression levels of undifferentiated markers on the outer cells of BALB/c and 129 W9.5 mESC colonies, which suggests a faster differentiation potential. PMID:24606239

  15. ULTRASTRUCTURAL CHANGES IN Schistosoma mansoni MALE WORMS AFTER in vitro INCUBATION WITH THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF Mentha x villosa Huds

    PubMed Central

    MATOS-ROCHA, Thiago José; CAVALCANTI, Marília Gabriela dos Santos; VERAS, Dyana Leal; FEITOSA, Ana Paula Sampaio; GONÇALVES, Gabriel Gazzoni Araújo; PORTELA-JUNIOR, Nairomberg Cavalcanti; LÚCIO, Ana Silvia Suassuna Carneiro; da SILVA, Anekécia Lauro; PADILHA, Rafael José Ribeiro; MARQUES, Márcia Ortiz Mayo; BARBOSA-FILHO, José Maria; ALVES, Luiz Carlos; BRAYNER, Fábio André

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The essential oil Mentha x villosa (MVEO) has a wide range of actions, including antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal and schistosomicidal actions. The present study aimed to investigate the ultrastructural changes of MVEO on the tegument of adult Schistosoma mansoni. Materials and Methods: Different concentrations of MVEO were tested on S. mansoni adult worms in vitro. Ultrastructural changes on the tegument of these adult worms were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: The MVEO caused the death of all worms at 500 μg mL-1 after 24 h. After 24h of 500 μg mL-1 MVEO treatment, bubble lesions were observed over the entire body of worms and they presented loss of tubercles in some regions of the ventral portion. In the evaluation by TEM, S. mansoni adult worms treated with MVEO, 500 μg mL-1, presented changes in the tegument and vacuoles in the syncytial matrix region. Glycogen granules close to the muscle fibers were visible. Conclusion: The ability of MVEO to cause extensive ultrastructural damage to S. mansoni adult worms correlates with its schistosomicidal effects and confirms earlier findings with S. mansoni. PMID:26910448

  16. Genetic alterations in syndromes with oral manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Anuthama, Krishnamurthy; Prasad, Harikrishnan; Ramani, Pratibha; Premkumar, Priya; Natesan, Anuja; Sherlin, Herald J.

    2013-01-01

    Ever since Gregor Johan Mendel proposed the law of inheritance, genetics has transcended the field of health and has entered all walks of life in its application. Thus, the gene is the pivoting factor for all happenings revolving around it. Knowledge of gene mapping in various diseases would be a valuable tool in prenatally diagnosing the condition and averting the future disability and stigma for the posterity. This article includes an array of genetically determined conditions in patients seen at our college out-patient department with complete manifestation, partial manifestation and array of manifestations not fitting into a particular syndrome. PMID:24379857

  17. Paraneoplastic cutaneous manifestations: concepts and updates*

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Josenilson Antônio; Mesquita, Kleyton de Carvalho; Igreja, Ana Carolina de Souza Machado; Lucas, Isabella Cristina Rodrigues Naves; Freitas, Aline Ferreira; de Oliveira, Sandra Maximiano; Costa, Izelda Maria Carvalho; Campbell, Iphis Tenfuss

    2013-01-01

    The skin often signals systemic changes. Some neoplastic diseases that affect internal organs may trigger several cutaneous manifestations. Although these dermatoses are relatively unusual, the recognition of some typical paraneoplastic dermatoses may lead to the early diagnosis of a neoplasm and determine a better prognosis. In this review article, we discuss the paraneoplastic cutaneous manifestations strongly associated with neoplasms, which include acanthosis nigricans maligna, tripe palms, erythema gyratum repens, Bazex syndrome, acquired hypertrichosis lanuginosa, necrolytic migratory erythema, Leser-Trélat sign and paraneoplastic pemphigus. We also review the clinical manifestations of each condition and include updated knowledge on disease pathogenesis. PMID:23538999

  18. Wegener Granulomatosis: Otologic Manifestation as First Symptom

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Carla Fabiane da; Polanski, Jose Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Wegener granulomatosis is a systemic vasculitis affecting small and medium-sized vessels of the upper and lower respiratory tract and kidneys. Objective To describe a case of Wegener disease with atypical manifestation. Resumed Report We describe the case of a 50-year-old woman with chronic otitis media and sensorineural hearing loss as the primary symptoms, without other manifestations. Conclusion In cases of acute ear manifestations with or without hearing loss and with poor response to usual treatments, Wegener granulomatosis should be included among the possible etiologies. After adequate diagnoses and treatment of this rare disease, there was favorable evolution. PMID:26157503

  19. Ophthalmic Manifestations of Hematopoietic Malignancy.

    PubMed

    Yoshida-Hata, Natsuyo; Katai, Naomichi; Oshitari, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report the ocular findings in patients with hematopoietic malignancy with optic nerve involvement and abducens nerve palsy. Methods. The medical records of all cases of hematopoietic cancer with ophthalmic involvements seen in the Department of Ophthalmology of the National Center for Global Health and Medicine between 2009 and 2014 were reviewed. Results. Eight patients with hematopoietic cancer with optic nerve invasion or abducens nerve palsy were studied. The primary diseases were 3 cases of multiple myeloma, 1 case of acute lymphocytic leukemia, 1 case of follicular lymphoma, and 3 cases of AIDS-related lymphoma. Six cases had optic nerve invasion, 2 cases had abducens nerve palsy, and 1 case had optic nerve invasion of both eyes. The median visual acuity of eyes with optic nerve invasion was 0.885 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) units. The final visual acuity of eyes with optic nerve invasion was 1.25 logMAR units, and that of those with sixth-nerve palsy was -0.1 logMAR units. Six cases died during the five-year follow-up period. An ophthalmic involvement in patients with hematopoietic cancer, especially AIDS-related lymphoma, was associated with poor prognosis. Conclusion. Because ophthalmic involvement in patients with hematopoietic malignancy has a poor prognosis, an early diagnosis of the cancers by the ophthalmologic findings by ophthalmologists could improve the prognosis. PMID:27375913

  20. Ophthalmic Manifestations of Hematopoietic Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report the ocular findings in patients with hematopoietic malignancy with optic nerve involvement and abducens nerve palsy. Methods. The medical records of all cases of hematopoietic cancer with ophthalmic involvements seen in the Department of Ophthalmology of the National Center for Global Health and Medicine between 2009 and 2014 were reviewed. Results. Eight patients with hematopoietic cancer with optic nerve invasion or abducens nerve palsy were studied. The primary diseases were 3 cases of multiple myeloma, 1 case of acute lymphocytic leukemia, 1 case of follicular lymphoma, and 3 cases of AIDS-related lymphoma. Six cases had optic nerve invasion, 2 cases had abducens nerve palsy, and 1 case had optic nerve invasion of both eyes. The median visual acuity of eyes with optic nerve invasion was 0.885 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) units. The final visual acuity of eyes with optic nerve invasion was 1.25 logMAR units, and that of those with sixth-nerve palsy was −0.1 logMAR units. Six cases died during the five-year follow-up period. An ophthalmic involvement in patients with hematopoietic cancer, especially AIDS-related lymphoma, was associated with poor prognosis. Conclusion. Because ophthalmic involvement in patients with hematopoietic malignancy has a poor prognosis, an early diagnosis of the cancers by the ophthalmologic findings by ophthalmologists could improve the prognosis. PMID:27375913

  1. Neurological manifestations of osteoid osteoma.

    PubMed Central

    Kiers, L; Shield, L K; Cole, W G

    1990-01-01

    The clinical and radiological features of 38 children with osteoid osteomas were analysed retrospectively. Twenty nine patients had lesions of the femur (n = 17) or tibia (n = 12). The mean duration from the onset of symptoms to diagnosis was 13.8 months. In seven patients the history of pain and abnormalities on examination suggested a possible neurological disorder. Fourteen of 29 patients (48%) with femoral or tibial osteomas had localised muscle atrophy, and 10 patients (34%) had diminished or absent deep tendon reflexes in the affected limb. Two patients had painless lesions. Six patients had normal plain radiographs. Delay in the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma may be prevented by the knowledge that pain may be referred or radicular, that the concomitant occurrence of muscle atrophy and depressed deep tendon reflexes are relatively common findings, and that the characteristic radiological features may only appear late in the course of the disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2169226

  2. Familial pellagra-like skin rash with neurological manifestations.

    PubMed

    Freundlich, E; Statter, M; Yatziv, S

    1981-02-01

    A 14-year-old boy of Arabic origin presented with a pellagra-like rash and neurological manifestations including ataxia, dysarthria, nystagmus, and coma. There was a striking response to oral nicotinamide. The laboratory findings were not typical of Hartnup disease: aminoaciduris and indicanuria were absent and there was no evidence of tryptophan malabsorption. Tryptophan loading did not induce tryptophanuria nor did it increase excretion of xanthurenic or kynurenic acids. These findings support the possibility of a block in tryptophan degradation. The family history suggests a genetically-determined disorder. PMID:6451201

  3. Familial pellagra-like skin rash with neurological manifestations.

    PubMed Central

    Freundlich, E; Statter, M; Yatziv, S

    1981-01-01

    A 14-year-old boy of Arabic origin presented with a pellagra-like rash and neurological manifestations including ataxia, dysarthria, nystagmus, and coma. There was a striking response to oral nicotinamide. The laboratory findings were not typical of Hartnup disease: aminoaciduris and indicanuria were absent and there was no evidence of tryptophan malabsorption. Tryptophan loading did not induce tryptophanuria nor did it increase excretion of xanthurenic or kynurenic acids. These findings support the possibility of a block in tryptophan degradation. The family history suggests a genetically-determined disorder. PMID:6451201

  4. Endocrine disorders and the neurologic manifestations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The nervous system and the endocrine system are closely interrelated and both involved intimately in maintaining homeostasis. Endocrine dysfunctions may lead to various neurologic manifestations such as headache, myopathy, and acute encephalopathy including coma. It is important to recognize the neurologic signs and symptoms caused by the endocrine disorders while managing endocrine disorders. This article provides an overview of the neurologic manifestations found in various endocrine disorders that affect pediatric patients. It is valuable to think about 'endocrine disorder' as a cause of the neurologic manifestations. Early diagnosis and treatment of hormonal imbalance can rapidly relieve the neurologic symptoms. Better understanding of the interaction between the endocrine system and the nervous system, combined with the knowledge about the pathophysiology of the neurologic manifestations presented in the endocrine disorders might allow earlier diagnosis and better treatment of the endocrine disorders. PMID:25654063

  5. Mucocutaneous manifestations of helminth infections: Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Lupi, Omar; Downing, Christopher; Lee, Michael; Pino, Livia; Bravo, Francisco; Giglio, Patricia; Sethi, Aisha; Klaus, Sidney; Sangueza, Omar P; Fuller, Claire; Mendoza, Natalia; Ladizinski, Barry; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Tyring, Stephen K

    2015-12-01

    In the 21st century, despite increased globalization through international travel for business, medical volunteerism, pleasure, and immigration/refugees into the United States, there is little published in the dermatology literature regarding the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections. Approximately 17% of travelers seek medical care because of cutaneous disorders, many related to infectious etiologies. This review will focus on the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections and is divided into 2 parts: part I focuses on nematode infections, and part II focuses on trematode and cestode infections. This review highlights the clinical manifestations, transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of helminth infections. Nematodes are roundworms that cause diseases with cutaneous manifestations, such as cutaneous larval migrans, onchocerciasis, filariasis, gnathostomiasis, loiasis, dracunculiasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, streptocerciasis, dirofilariasis, and trichinosis. Tremadotes, also known as flukes, cause schistosomiasis, paragonimiasis, and fascioliasis. Cestodes (tapeworms) are flat, hermaphroditic parasites that cause diseases such as sparganosis, cysticercosis, and echinococcus. PMID:26568337

  6. Musculoskeletal manifestations of the antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Noureldine, M H A; Khamashta, M A; Merashli, M; Sabbouh, T; Hughes, G R V; Uthman, I

    2016-04-01

    The scope of clinical and laboratory manifestations of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) has increased dramatically since its discovery in 1983, where any organ system can be involved. Musculoskeletal complications are consistently reported in APS patients, not only causing morbidity and mortality, but also affecting their quality of life. We reviewed all English papers on APS involvement in the musculoskeletal system using Google Scholar and Pubmed; all reports are summarized in a table in this review. The spectrum of manifestations includes arthralgia/arthritis, avascular necrosis of bone, bone marrow necrosis, complex regional pain syndrome type-1, muscle infarction, non-traumatic fractures, and osteoporosis. Some of these manifestations were reported in good quality studies, some of which showed an association between aPL-positivity and the occurrence of these manifestations, while others were merely described in case reports. PMID:26923284

  7. Rheumatic Manifestations in Patients with Chikungunya Infection.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Ávila, Mariangelí; Vilá, Luis M

    2015-06-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection is a common cause of febrile arthritis. The most common manifestations of acute infection are fever, symmetrical polyarthralgias or polyarthritis, myalgias, and maculopapular rash. Up to 80% of patients may develop musculoskeletal manifestations that persist longer than 3 months, causing impairment in their quality of life. The most common chronic manifestations are persistent or relapsing-remitting polyarthralgias, polyarthritis, and myalgias. Fingers, wrists, knees, ankles, and toes are the most frequently involved, but proximal joints and axial involvement can occur in the chronic stage. Chronic manifestations of CHIKV infection may resemble those of some autoimmune connective tissue diseases. Furthermore, CHIKV infection can cause cryoglobulinemia and may induce rheumatoid arthritis and seronegative spondyloarthropathies in genetically susceptible individuals. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend acetaminophen and non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the acute rheumatic manifestations of CHIKV infection. However, some studies suggest that low-dose corticosteroids for about 1-2 months (depending on clinical course) are beneficial in relieving acute rheumatic symptoms. Conversely, hydroxychloroquine in combination with corticosteroids or other disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) has been successful in treating chronic rheumatic manifestations. Methotrexate and sulfasalazine (alone or in combination) have also been effective for chronic CHIKV arthritis. Patients with CHIKV infection should be closely monitored to identify those with chronic arthritis who would benefit from a rheumatologic evaluation and early treatment with DMARDs. PMID:26061056

  8. Freeze-induced membrane ultrastructural alterations in rye (Secale cereale) leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, M.S.; Steponkus, P.L. )

    1993-03-01

    Freezing injury in protoplasts isolated from leaves of nonacclimated rye (Secale cereale cv Puma) is associated with the formation of the inverted hexagonal (H[sub II]) phase. However, in protoplasts from cold-acclimated rye, injury is associated with the occurrence of localized deviations in the fracture plane, a lesion referred to as the [open quotes]fracture-jump lesion.[close quotes] To establish that these ultrastructural consequences of freezing are not unique to protoplasts, the authors have examined the manifestations of freezing injury in leaves of nonacclimated and cold-acclimated rye by freeze-fracture electron microscopy. At [minus]10[degrees]C, injury in nonacclimated leaves was manifested by the appearance of aparticulate domains in the plasma membrane, aparticulate lamellae subtending the plasma membrane, and by the frequent occurrence of the H[sub II] phase. The H[sub II] phase was not observed in leaves of cold-acclimated rye frozen to [minus]35[degrees]C. Rather, injury was associated with the occurrence of the fracture-jump lesion between the plasma membrane and closely appressed cytoplasmic membranes. Studies of the time dependence of H[sub II] phase formation in nonacclimated leaves indicated that freeze-induced dehydration requires longer times in leaves than in isolated protoplasts. These results demonstrate that the freeze-induced formation of the H[sub II] phase in nonacclimated rye and the fracture-jump lesion in cold-acclimated rye are not unique to protoplasts but also occur in the leaves from which the protoplasts are isolated. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Cytologic manifestations of ballistic injury.

    PubMed

    Nichols, C A; Sens, M A

    1991-05-01

    The adherent residue from 60 projectiles in 38 consecutive gunshot wound deaths was analyzed by cytologic technique to determine whether a bullet, while passing through the body or intermediate target, retains tissue and other trace evidence. The projectiles, which were recovered from both the body and shooting area, contained microscopically recognizable cellular and inert material in all cases. Direct ballistic trauma could be documented in several tissue types, most notably in muscular tissue. Progressive damage to skeletal and cardiac muscle was seen in multiple preparations. This ranged from partial separation of the fascicles to cytoplasmic homogenization and nuclear rupture. Except in cases of severe ballistic trauma, skeletal and cardiac muscle could be distinguished on the preparations. In addition to neural tissue, projectiles traversing the central nervous system (CNS) contained elongated fragments of intact microvascular structures, sheets of cerebral covering cells, and connective tissue from the scalp. The vascular structures present in CNS preparations may clarify some of the clinical findings in victims of gunshot wounds and elucidate possible pathophysiologic mechanisms in craniocerebral projectile injuries. PMID:2024623

  10. Rock Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  11. [Experimental pancreatitis of ductal origin. Anatomo-pathologic and ultrastructural study].

    PubMed

    Testas, P; Bitker, M O; Lautard, M; Vieillefond, A; Fabre, F

    1982-12-01

    The injection of bile under low pressure led in 21 dogs out of 30 to a process of acute pancreatitis and to the reproduction of the different histopathological types of pancreatitis seen in man. This represents a weighty argument in favour of the concept of oedematous pancreatitis, interstitial pancreatitis with sometimes major cytosteatonecrosis and necrosing pancreatitis as different manifestations of the same disease, which is not universally accepted. Our research has once again emphasized the fact that the interstitial phenomena and in particular fatty necrosis precede parenchymatous necrosis. Morphological studies were used to attempt to define the link between fat necrosis and acinar necrosis. Light microscopy showed that there was no topographic evidence of direct involvement of the acinar cell in contact with fat necrosis. By contrast, ultrastructural studies revealed initial involvement of the basal pole of the acinar cell. This would emphasize the responsibility of interstitial phenomena in the maintenance, if not the induction, of acinar necrosis. It cannot be excluded that fat necrosis could indirectly, via the liberation of factors carried by oedema, play a role in these phenomena of acinar necrosis. In addition, it was noted that the apical poles of the acinar cells did not seem to be damaged, the acinar lumina were dilated and there was loss of the intercellular junctions. This would hence indicate the possible passage into the interstitium of a toxic substance (bile salts, enzymes liberated in excess) coming directly from the acinar lumina. PMID:7161318

  12. Oral manifestation in inflammatory bowel disease: A review

    PubMed Central

    Lankarani, Kamran B; Sivandzadeh, Gholam Reza; Hassanpour, Shima

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis, not only affect the intestinal tract but also have an extraintestinal involvement within the oral cavity. These oral manifestations may assist in the diagnosis and the monitoring of disease activity, whilst ignoring them may lead to an inaccurate diagnosis and useless and expensive workups. Indurated tag-like lesions, cobblestoning, and mucogingivitis are the most common specific oral findings encountered in CD cases. Aphthous stomatitis and pyostomatitis vegetans are among non-specific oral manifestations of IBD. In differential diagnosis, side effects of drugs, infections, nutritional deficiencies, and other inflammatory conditions should also be considered. Treatment usually involves managing the underlying intestinal disease. In severe cases with local symptoms, topical and/or systemic steroids and immunosuppressive drugs might be used. PMID:24379574

  13. Cryptosporidium Species and Subtypes and Clinical Manifestations in Children, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Cama, Vitaliano A.; Bern, Caryn; Roberts, Jacqueline; Cabrera, Lilia; Sterling, Charles R.; Ortega, Ynes; Gilman, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether clinical manifestations are associated with genotypes or subtypes of Cryptosporidium spp., we studied a 4-year longitudinal birth cohort of 533 children in Peru. A total of 156 infection episodes were found in 109 children. Data from first infections showed that C. hominis was associated with diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, general malaise, and increased oocyst shedding intensity and duration. In contrast, C. parvum, C. meleagridis, C. canis, and C. felis were associated with diarrhea only. C. hominis subtype families were identified (Ia, Ib, Id, and Ie); all were associated with diarrhea. Ib was also associated with nausea, vomiting, and general malaise. All C. parvum specimens belonged to subtype family IIc. Analysis of risk factors did not show associations with specific Cryptosporidium spp. genotypes or subtypes. These findings strongly suggest that Cryptosporidium spp. and subtypes are linked to different clinical manifestations in children. PMID:18826821

  14. Non-stroke Central Neurologic Manifestations in Antiphospholipid Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yelnik, Cécile M; Kozora, Elizabeth; Appenzeller, Simone

    2016-02-01

    Thrombotic manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) are well known, and various non-stroke neuro-psychiatric manifestations (NPMs) have also been consistently described, but their place in APS remains unclear. Some syndromes, such as migraine or cognitive dysfunction, are frequently described in APS, whereas others, like seizure, multiple sclerosis-like symptoms, transverse myelitis, movement disorders, or psychiatric symptoms, are rarely found. Overlap with other autoimmune diseases, in particular with systemic lupus erythematosus, the lack of large sample size prospective studies, and discrepancies in antiphospholipid antibody (aPL) determinations complicate the study of the relationship between those disorders and aPL/APS. This review article aimed to summarize updated data on pathophysiologic, epidemiologic, and radiologic findings about non-stroke NPM described in primary APS and aPL-positive patients without overlap of other autoimmune diseases. PMID:26923254

  15. Pathology, immunohistochemistry, and ultrastructural findings associated with neurological sarcocystosis in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The case of neurological sarcocystosis in a nine months old bull calf that died in 1982 was restudied. The bull was suspected to have rabies. Therefore, only brain was examined histologically. Thirty four years later, we restudied sections from paraffin-embedded blocks of brain. Numerous schizonts a...

  16. Extra-articular Manifestations in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cojocaru, Manole; Cojocaru, Inimioara Mihaela; Silosi, Isabela; Vrabie, Camelia Doina; Tanasescu, R

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease whose main characteristic is persistent joint inflammation that results in joint damage and loss of function. Although RA is more common in females, extra-articular manifestations of the disease are more common in males. The extra-articular manifestations of RA can occur at any age after onset. It is characterised by destructive polyarthritis and extra-articular organ involvement, including the skin, eye, heart, lung, renal, nervous and gastrointestinal systems. The frequence of extra-articular manifestations in RA differs from one country to another. Extra-articular organ involvement in RA is more frequently seen in patients with severe, active disease and is associated with increased mortality. Incidence and frequence figures for extra-articular RA vary according to study design. Extra-articular involvement is more likely in those who have RF and/or are HLA-DR4 positive. Occasionally, there are also systemic manifestations such as vasculitis, visceral nodules, Sjögren's syndrome, or pulmonary fibrosis present. Nodules are the most common extra-articular feature, and are present in up to 30%; many of the other classic features occur in 1% or less in normal clinic settings. Sjögren's syndrome, anaemia of chronic disease and pulmonary manifestations are relatively common – in 6-10%, are frequently present in early disease and are all related to worse outcomes measures of rheumatoid disease in particular functional impairment and mortality. The occurrence of these systemic manifestations is a major predictor of mortality in patients with RA. This paper focuses on extra-articular manifestations, defined as diseases and symptoms not directly related to the locomotor system. PMID:21977172

  17. Pulmonary ultrastructure of the late aspects of human paraquat poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Dearden, L. C.; Fairshter, R. D.; McRae, D. M.; Smith, W. R.; Glauser, F. L.; Wilson, A. F.

    1978-01-01

    The pulmonary ultrastructure of the late aspects of a case of human paraquat poisoning is investigated and compared with normal human pulmonary ultrastructure. Alveoli in the paraquat patient are numerically reduced in comparison to the control. They are filled with edematous proteinaceous plasma-like fluid containing erythrocytes, macrophages, leukocytes, fibroblast-like cells, platelets, and fibrin. These alveoli are lined by granular pneumocytes. Interstitial areas in the paraquat patient are greatly expanded and there are no alveolar septums. Interstitial areas contain proteinaceous plasma-like material, collagen, fibrin, platelets, mature fibroblasts, plasma cells, many leukocytes, numerous erythrocytes, and capillaries. Capillary permeability seems to be enhanced in the paraquat patient either by vesicles forming transendothelial channels or pores or by disruption of endothelial cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figures 3-7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:213978

  18. Ultrastructural insights into morphology and reproductive mode of Blastocystis hominis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Siwei; Qiao, Jiying; Wu, Xiaomin; Zhao, Liming; Liu, Yansheng; Fan, Xiaojun

    2012-03-01

    To understand well the morphology and reproductive mode of Blastocystis hominis, with the help of transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy the ultrastructural details of B. hominis from fresh diarrheal specimens and cultured strains were observed. In both fecal samples and culture conditions, there were vacuolar and granular forms. In diarrhea, it exists in multivacuolar, avacuolar, and amoeboid forms. In the in vitro culture, vacuolar form could transform to granular form. The most commonly noticed structure on the cell surface was surface coat with diversity in appearance (the funiform, lamellar, filiform, and floccose in different thickness) and distributions. Three modes of reproduction were confirmed, they were binary fission, plasmotomy, and budding. Under the impact of host's response, the ultrastructures of surface coat, nucleus, and mitochondrion-like organelle sometimes changed. PMID:21845408

  19. Bacillus atrophaeus Outer Spore Coat Assembly and Ultrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Plomp, M; Leighton, T J; Wheeler, K E; Pitesky, M E; Malkin, A J

    2005-11-21

    Our previous atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies successfully visualized native Bacillus atrophaeus spore coat ultrastructure and surface morphology. We have shown that the outer spore coat surface is formed by a crystalline array of {approx}11 nm thick rodlets, having a periodicity of {approx}8 nm. We present here further AFM ultrastructural investigations of air-dried and fully hydrated spore surface architecture. In the rodlet layer, planar and point defects, as well as domain boundaries, similar to those described for inorganic and macromolecular crystals, were identified. For several Bacillus species, rodlet structure assembly and architectural variation appear to be a consequence of species-specific nucleation and crystallization mechanisms that regulate the formation of the outer spore coat. We propose a unifying mechanism for nucleation and self-assembly of this crystalline layer on the outer spore coat surface.

  20. Ultrastructural observation of electron irradiation damage of lamellar bone.

    PubMed

    Hong, S I; Hong, S K; Wallace, J M; Kohn, D H

    2009-04-01

    The ultrastructure of murine femoral lamellar bone and the effect of electron irradiation (200 kV) on collagen and mineral features were investigated using in situ high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Bands of collagen fibrils were mostly aligned parallel to the long axis of the bones, with some bands of fibrils inclined in longitudinal sections. The similarity of the ultrastructure between the longitudinal and transverse sections supports the rotated plywood structure of the lamellar bone. The collagen fibrils appeared damaged and the mineral crystals were coarsened after electron irradiation. Continuous diffraction rings became spotty and the contrast between rings and the background became sharper, further suggesting coarsening of apatite crystals and increased crystallinity after irradiation. No new phases were observed after irradiation. Both the damage to collagen and coarsening of apatite crystals can deteriorate the strength and integrity of bone, and may provide insight into fracture in patients who have undergone radiation therapy. PMID:19034616

  1. Ultrastructural injury to human spermatozoa after freezing and thawing.

    PubMed

    Woolley, D M; Richardson, D W

    1978-07-01

    The ultrastructure of human spermatozoa at various stages of the freezing and thawing process was studied. In addition to conventional fixations, a freeze-substitution method was used to examine spermatozoa before they were thawed. Dilution in a glycerol-egg yolk-citrate medium caused slight swelling of the acrosome. During slow freezing, when large ice crystals grow in the diluent, the sperm plasmalemma became tighter, the mitochondria had more angular profiles and there was a reduction in electron density of the acrosomal contents. After thawing, the apical segment of the acrosome usually became swollen and the mitochondria appeared rounded. We deduce that these ultrastructural changes occur either during or after the thawing procedure. PMID:567693

  2. Sarcoidosis: radiographic manifestations in the nails and distal phalanges.

    PubMed

    Albers, Brittany K; Sluzevich, Jason C; Garner, Hillary W

    2016-05-01

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease which can affect multiple organ systems. Clinical and radiologic manifestations depend on the organ system involved and the chronicity of disease. Nail involvement in sarcoidosis is rare, but is clinically relevant as it indicates chronic systemic disease. Nail abnormalities can be identified radiographically, and when seen in patients with known or suspected sarcoidosis, should prompt careful evaluation of the underlying bone for osseous involvement. We describe a case of sarcoidosis with radiographic findings in the nails and distal phalangeal tufts, which were indicative of nail and osseous sarcoid involvement and strongly supported the presence of chronic systemic disease. Although the nail findings resolved clinically and on radiographs after treatment, the osseous findings showed only minimal improvement. To our knowledge, the radiographic findings of nail sarcoidosis have not been previously addressed in the literature. PMID:26768259

  3. Ocular manifestation of lymphoma in newly diagnosed cats.

    PubMed

    Nerschbach, V; Eule, J C; Eberle, N; Höinghaus, R; Betz, D

    2016-03-01

    Ocular manifestations of lymphoma are described in humans and dogs but rarely in cats. In this prospective study, cats with newly diagnosed and treatment-naïve lymphoma were evaluated concerning clinical stage and ophthalmologic findings. Twenty-six cats were included. In 12 cats (48%), ocular changes were documented. Uveitis anterior and posterior were predominant findings, being present in 58% of affected individuals. Other findings included exophthalmos, corneal surface lesions and chemosis. Eight cats received chemotherapy, two of which had ocular involvement. In these two cats, a complete remission of an anterior and a partial remission of a posterior uveitis were documented. Due to the detection of ocular involvement, a stage migration from stage IV to V occurred in four patients. In the light of these findings, an opthalmological examination may be considered as an important part of staging in feline lymphoma as well as of follow-up examination in affected cats. PMID:24102737

  4. Immunological and ultrastructural studies in acute biphenotypic leukaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, V; Chitale, A; Matutes, E; Buccheri, V; Morilla, R; Catovsky, D

    1993-01-01

    AIMS--To compare the sensitivity of the ultrastructural method to detect myeloperoxidase (MPO) with light microscopy and immunocytochemistry using an anti-MPO antibody; to examine the expression of lymphoid antigens in relation to MPO activity in blast cells from cases of biphenotypic leukaemia. METHODS--Blast cells from 14 cases of biphenotypic acute leukaemia were analysed. Immunological markers were performed by single or double immunofluorescence staining on a flow cytometer. The presence of MPO was determined by light microscopy, electron microscopy on fixed and unfixed cells, and by immunoalkaline phosphatase with an anti-MPO antibody. The immunogold method was applied at the ultrastructural level to assess the expression of lymphoid and myeloid antigens at the same time as the MPO activity. RESULTS--Six of the 14 cases were initially classified as acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and eight as acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). MPO activity was shown at the ultrastructural level in 4-99% blasts from all cases. Six of the 14 were MPO negative by light microscopy and three of these were negative with the antibody anti-MPO. Coexpression of lymphoid antigens (CD19, CD10, or CD2) and MPO was shown by the immunogold method in four out of 11 cases; in seven cases the blasts coexpressed myeloid antigens (CD13, CD33) and MPO. CONCLUSIONS--Electron microscopy is more sensitive for showing MPO than light microscopy and immunocytochemistry; the immunogold method combined with MPO used at the ultrastructural level can help to define the cell lineage involved in biphenotypic leukaemia by highlighting the myeloid component defined by MPO. Images PMID:8227405

  5. Cryosurgery: ultrastructural changes in pancreas tissue after low temperature exposure.

    PubMed

    Korpan, N N

    2007-04-01

    A number of theoretical and experimental studies, both in vitro and in vivo, have been performed to explain the action of low temperatures on tissue. It is now evident that the thermal parameters used in the past for freezing during cryosurgery were not precise; this may have resulted in the failure of treatment. For the first time, this report describes the early ultrastructural features of pancreatic parenchyma after low temperature exposure, i.e., cryosurgery, in vivo. We demonstrate the effect of freeze-thawing processes using temperatures of various intensities. The cryosurgical response of pancreas parenchyma, i.e., ultrastructural cellular changes in pancreas tissue, was investigated. The electronic microscopic analysis showed that, after local cryodestruction at temperatures of -80 degrees C and -180 degrees C, similar processes occurred within the pancreas tissue in the early postcryosurgical phase -- immediately and up to 24 hours after low temperature exposure on tissue. The exocrine pancreatic cells in the center of the cryozone changed upon thawing. Ultrastructural changes in the exocrine pancreatic cells, where the first signs of dystrophic processes had been noticed, were increased. These ultrastructural changes in the pancreatic cells provide a platform to better understand the mechanisms of damage and the pathogenesis of frostbite after cryosurgery. The properties of the pancreas parenchyma response after low temperature exposure provide important insights into the mechanisms of damage and the cryogenic lesion immediately after thawing in cryosurgery. Our new insights prove on the cell level that suddenly and progressively damaged pancreatic cells in the postcryosurgical zone lead to aseptic cryonecrosis and then to aseptic cryoapoptosis of vital normal tissue. The vascular capillary changes and circulatory stagnation demonstrate the anti-angiogenesis mechanism, which, together with cryoaponecrosis and cryoapoptosis, are some of the main mechanisms

  6. Ultrastructural alterations in skeletal muscle fibers of rats after exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akuzawa, M.; Hataya, M.

    1982-01-01

    Ultrastructural alterations in skeletal muscle fibers were electron microscopically studied in rats forced to run on the treadmill until all-out. When they were mild and limited to relatively small areas, the reconstruction of filaments ensued within 10 days without infiltration of cells. When they were severe and extensive, phagocytes infiltrated in the lesions and removed degenerative sacroplasmic debris from muscle fibers. A little later, myoblasts appeared and regeneration was accomplished in 30 days in much the same manner as in myogenesis.

  7. Ultrastructure of organic cell walls in Proterozoic microalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moczydlowska-Vidal, M.

    2009-04-01

    The antiquity of life has been well appreciated since the discoveries of microfossils and confirmation of their authenticity, as well as the recognition of geochemical signs of biogenicity in the Archean successions. Resolving the biological affinities of early biota is essential for the unravelling the changes that led to modern biodiversity, but also for the detection of possible biogenic records outside of the terrestrial biosphere. Advanced techniques in microscopy, tomography and spectroscopy applied to examine individual microfossils at the highest attainable spatial resolution have provided unprecedented insights into micro- and nano-scale structure and composition of organic matter. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy studies of the wall ultrastructure of sphaeromorphic and ornamented acritarchs have revealed complex, single to multilayered walls, having a unique texture in sub-layers and an occasionally preserved trilaminar sheath structure (TLS) of the cell wall. A variety of optical characteristics, the electron density and texture of fabrics of discrete layers, and the properties of biopolymers may indicate the polyphyletic affiliations of such microfossils and/or the preservation of various stages (vegetative, resting) in their life cycle. I evaluate the morphological features of organic-walled unicellular microfossils in conjunction with their cell wall ultrastructure to infer their life cycle and to recognize various developmental stages represented among microfossils attributed to a single form-taxon. Several cases of fine wall ultrastructure in microfossils have been documented and have had a conclusive influence on understanding their affinities. Some Proterozoic and Cambrian leiosphaerids are of algal affinities. Certain specimens represent chlorophyceaens, having the multilayered composite wall with TLS structure known from vegetative and resting cells in modern genera of the Chlorococcales and Volvocales. The wall ultrastructure of

  8. Cystosarcoma phylloides. A steroid receptor and ultrastructure analysis.

    PubMed

    Kesterson, G H; Georgiade, N; Seigler, H F; Barton, T K; McCarty, K S; McCarty, K S

    1979-11-01

    Six cases of cystosarcoma phylloides were evaluated by ultrastructure and steroid receptor analysis. Electron microscopy of the lesions supported previous reports of a heterogeneous tumor consisting of pleomorphic mesenchyme and normal or proliferative epithelium. In each case estrogen and progesterone receptor analysis indicated the presence of a nonsaturable estrogen and progesterone 4S binding protein rather than a specific steroid receptor as suggested by previous studies. PMID:228617

  9. Ultrastructural characterization of the pronephric glomerulus development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaodong; Chen, Zhaohong; Zeng, Caihong; Wang, Ling; Xu, Feng; Hou, Qing; Liu, Zhihong

    2016-08-01

    The zebrafish pronephros is a valuable model for studying kidney development and diseases. Ultrastructural studies have revealed that zebrafish and mammals share similarities in nephron structures such as podocytes, slit diaphragms, glomerular basement membrane, and endothelium. However, the basic ultrastructural features of the pronephric glomerulus during glomerulogenesis have not been characterized. To understand these features, it is instructive to consider the developmental process of the pronephros glomerulus. Here, we describe the ultrastructural features of pronephric glomerulus in detail from 24 h hours post-fertilization (hpf) to 144 hpf, the period during which the pronephric glomerulus develops from initiation to its mature morphology. The pronephric glomerulus underwent progressive morphogenesis from 24 to 72 hpf, and presumptive glomerular cells were observed ventral to the aorta region at 24 hpf. The nascent glomerular basement membrane and initial lumen were formed at 36 hpf. A lumen was clearly visible in the region of the pronephros at 48 hpf. At 60 hpf, the pronephric glomerulus contained more patches of capillaries. After these transformations, the complex capillary vessel networks had formed inside the glomerulus, which was surrounded by podocyte bodies with elaborate foot processes as well as well-formed glomerular basement membrane by 72 hpf. The number of renal glomerular cells rapidly increased, and the glomerulus presented its delicate structural features by 96 hpf. Morphogenesis was completed at 120 hpf with the final formation of the pronephric glomerulus. J. Morphol. 277:1104-1112, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27185367

  10. Seeding Specificity and Ultrastructural Characteristics of Infectious Recombinant Prions

    PubMed Central

    Piro, Justin R.; Wang, Fei; Walsh, Daniel J.; Rees, Judy R.; Ma, Jiyan; Supattapone, Surachai

    2012-01-01

    Infectious mouse prions can be produced from a mixture of bacterially expressed recombinant prion protein (recPrP), palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylglycerol (POPG), and RNA [Wang, F.; et al. (2010) Science 327, 1132 ]. In contrast, amyloid fibers produced from pure recPrP without POPG or RNA (recPrP fibers) fail to infect wild type mice [Colby, D. W.; et al. (2010) PLoS Pathog. 387, e1000736 ]. We compared the seeding specificity and ultrastructural features of infectious recombinant prions (recPrPSc) with those of recPrP fibers. Our results indicate that PrP fibers are not able to induce the formation of PrPSc molecules from wild type mouse brain homogenate substrate in serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA) reactions. Conversely, recPrPSc molecules did not accelerate the formation of amyloid in vitro, under conditions that produce recPrP fibers spontaneously. Ultrastructurally, recombinant prions appear to be small spherical aggregates rather than elongated fibers, as determined by atomic force and electron microscopy. Taken together, our results show that recPrPSc molecules and PrP fibers have different ultrastructural features and seeding specificities, suggesting that prion infectivity may be propagated by a specific and unique assembly pathway facilitated by cofactors. PMID:21776987

  11. Cardiomyocyte ultrastructural damage in β-thalassaemic mice

    PubMed Central

    Sanyear, Chanita; Butthep, Punnee; Nithipongvanich, Ramaneeya; Sirankapracha, Pornpan; Winichagoon, Pranee; Fucharoen, Suthat; Svasti, Saovaros

    2013-01-01

    β-thalassaemia is a hereditary anaemia resulting from the absence or reduction in β-globin chain production. Heart complications related to iron overload are the most serious cause of death in these patients. In this report cardiac pathology of β-thalassaemic mice was evaluated by light and electron microscopy. The study was carried out in thalassaemic mice carrying human β-thalassaemia mutation, IVSII-654 (654), transgenic mice carrying human βE-globin transgene insertion (E4), thalassaemic mice with human βE-globin transgene insertion (654/E4) and homozygous thalassaemic mice rescued by the human βE-globin transgene (R), which is generated by cross-breeding between the 654 and E4 mice. Histology showed iron deposition in cardiac myocytes of 654 and R mice, but the ultrastructural damage was observed only in the R mice when compared with the wild type, 654, E4 and 654/E4 mice. Histopathological changes in the cardiomyocytes of the R mice included mitochondrial swelling, loss of myofilaments and the presence of lipofuscin, related to the increased level of tissue iron content. The progressive ultrastructural pathology in R mice cardiomyocytes is consistent with the ultrastructural pathology previously studied in patients with thalassaemia. Thus, this R thalassaemic mouse model is suitable for in vivo pathophysiological study of thalassaemic heart. PMID:24020406

  12. Innervation of amphibian reproductive system. Histological and ultrastructural studies.

    PubMed

    Cisint, Susana; Crespo, Claudia A; Medina, Marcela F; Iruzubieta Villagra, Lucrecia; Fernández, Silvia N; Ramos, Inés

    2014-10-01

    In the present study we describe for the first time in anuran amphibians the histological and ultrastructural characteristics of innervation in the female reproductive organs. The observations in Rhinella arenarum revealed the presence of nerve fibers located predominantly in the ovarian hilium and in the oviduct wall. In both organs the nerves fibers are placed near blood vessels and smooth muscles fibers. In the present study the histological observations were confirmed using antibodies against peripherin and neurofilament 200 proteins. Ultrastructural analyses demonstrated that the innervation of the reproductive organs is constituted by unmyelinated nerve fibers surrounded by Schwann cells. Axon terminals contain a population of small, clear, translucent vesicles that coexist with a few dense cored vesicles. The ultrastructural characteristics together with the immunopositive reaction to tyrosine hydroxylase of the nerve fibers and the type of synaptic vesicles present in the axon terminal would indicate that the reproductive organs of R. arenarum females are innervated by the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. PMID:24882461

  13. Ultrastructure and mitochondrial numbers in pre- and postpubertal pig oocytes.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard; Callesen, Henrik; Løvendahl, Peter; Chen, Fenghua; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Nikolaisen, Nanett Kvist; Holm, Peter; Hyttel, Poul

    2016-04-01

    Prepubertal pig oocytes are associated with lower developmental competence. The aim of this experiment was to conduct an exhaustive survey of oocyte ultrastructure and to use a design-unbiased stereological approach to quantify the numerical density and total number of mitochondria in oocytes with different diameters from pre- and postpubertal pigs. The ultrastructure of smaller prepubertal immature oocytes indicated active cells in close contact with cumulus cells. The postpubertal oocytes were more quiescent cell types. The small prepubertal oocytes had a lower total mitochondrial number, but no differences were observed in mitochondrial densities between groups. Mature postpubertal oocytes adhered to the following characteristics: presence of metaphase II, lack of contact between cumulus cells and oocyte, absence of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complexes, peripheral location of cortical granules and central localisation of mitochondria, vesicles and lipid droplets. Prepubertal oocytes displayed more variation. The ultrastructure of large pre- and postpubertal oocytes was compatible with higher developmental competence, whereas that of smaller prepubertal oocytes could explain their reduced capacity. The higher number of mitochondria in large pre- and postpubertal oocytes could have an influence on oocyte competence, by increasing the pool of mitochondria available for early embryonic development. PMID:25482576

  14. Pulmonary manifestations of renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Abhinav; Sahni, Sonu; Iftikhar, Asma; Talwar, Arunabh

    2015-12-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for majority of all primary renal neoplasms. Classic manifestations of RCC include the triad of flank pain, hematuria and a palpable renal mass. Patients with RCC can develop various extra renal manifestations including involvements of the lungs, inferior vena cava, liver and the bones. The pulmonary manifestations of renal cell carcinoma include metastatic disease including endobronchial, pleural, parenchymal or lymph node metastasis, pleural effusion or hemothorax. Pulmonary embolism and tumor embolism is another common manifestation of renal cell carcinoma. RCC is a highly vascular tumor and can cause pulmonary arterio-venous fistulas leading to high output failure. Rarely, RCC can also present with paraneoplastic presentations including cough or bilateral diaphragm paralysis. Drugs used to treat RCC have been associated with drug related pneumonitis and form an important differential diagnosis in patients with RCC on therapy presenting with shortness of breath. In this review we discuss the various pulmonary manifestations of RCC. A high index of suspicion with these presentations can lead to an early diagnosis and assist in instituting an appropriate intervention. PMID:26525375

  15. ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDIES ON THE BLUE-GREEN ALGAL SYMBIONT IN CYANOPHORA PARADOXA KORSCHIKOFF

    PubMed Central

    Hall, William T.; Claus, George

    1963-01-01

    Studies conducted on the ultrastructure of Cyanophora paradoxa Korschikoff (a cryptomonad) have shown that its intracellular symbiont is closely related to unicellular blue-green algae. Due to its peculiar habitat, the intracellular symbiont lacks the characteristic cyanophycean double-layered cell wall, but is surrounded by a thin protoplasmic membrane. The protoplasm itself is differentiated into a lamellated chromatoplasm containing photosynthetic pigments, polyphosphate granules, and possible oil droplets, and a non-lamellar centroplasm with a large centrally located electron-opaque body surrounded by a fibril-containing halo. This halo-central body complex may be nuclear in nature. Binary fission of the organism is described. Since this cyanelle has not yet been classified, we name it Cyanocyta korschikoffiana nov. gen. nov. sp.; and because of its structural peculiarities, we find it necessary to create a new family for it, Cyanocytaceae, in the order Chroococcales. PMID:14086136

  16. Ultrastructural Damage of Loligo vulgaris and Illex coindetii statocysts after Low Frequency Sound Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Solé, Marta; Lenoir, Marc; Durfort, Mercè; López-Bejar, Manel; Lombarte, Antoni; André, Michel

    2013-01-01

    There is a considerable lack of information concerning marine invertebrate sensitivity to sound exposure. However, recent findings on cuttlefish and octopi showed that exposure to artificial noise had a direct consequence on the functionality and physiology of the statocysts, sensory organs, which are responsible for their equilibrium and movements in the water column. Owing to a lack of available data on deep diving cephalopod species, we conducted a noise exposure comparative experiment on one Mediterranean squid, Illex coindetii, and on the European squid Loligo vulgaris. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed similar injuries in the inner structure of the statocysts, as those found in cuttlefish and octopi. In addition to the ultrastructural description of the lesions, we publish here the first images of the crista-cupula system and inner statocyst cavity of I. coindetii. PMID:24143265

  17. Lipoid proteinosis. A biochemical and ultrastructural investigation of two new cases.

    PubMed

    Navarro, C; Fachal, C; Rodríguez, C; Padró, L; Domínguez, C

    1999-08-01

    Lipoid proteinosis is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by cutaneous and visceral lesions, in which large amounts of amorphous material are constantly found in stroma. Morphological and biochemical studies indicate abnormal collagen production, but little attention has been paid to the lipid component of lesions. Microscopic and ultrastructural studies of skin, with special emphasis on fibroblasts, vessels, nerve endings and eccrine sweat glands, were conducted in two patients with lipoid proteinosis. Biochemical studies were undertaken in cultured fibroblasts. Evidence of lysosomal storage in epithelial cells of eccrine sweat glands and in dermal histiocytes, very similar to that found in some metabolic disorders, particularly Farber disease, was found in both cases. Our findings suggest that two alterations might coexist in lipoid proteinosis, one characterized by impaired normal collagen production and the other related to a metabolic defect which may lead to accumulation of ceramide or more complex lipids. PMID:10468810

  18. [Ultrastructural diagnostic problems of pleural tumors. A study of 125 cases (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Stoebner, P; Bernaudin, J F; Adnet, J J; Basset, F

    1979-01-01

    Ultrastructural studies may improve the diagnosis of pleural tumors. A comparative study of 125 primary and secondary pleural cancers provided the major structural features needed for differential diagnosis. Two cell types were always present in malignant mesothelioma: differentiated mesothelial, and fibroblastoid cells. The former had some features of metastatic epitheliomas (microvilli, microfilaments, junctional complexes, basement membranes). The later were specific. They were sometimes isolated, had the general aspect of fibroblasts but possessed typical microvilli. It was difficult to assess the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma on isolated differentiated mesothelial cells in pleural fluids or biopsies. Cilia or secretory granules were found only in metastatic cells. The finding of fibroblastoid cells in a pleural tumor proves its mesothelial origin. PMID:573917

  19. [Bone Cell Biology Assessed by Microscopic Approach. Bone mineralization by ultrastructural imaging].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Tomoka

    2015-10-01

    Bone mineralization can be divided into two phases ; one is primary mineralization associated with osteoblastic bone formation, and the other is secondary mineralization which gradually increases mineral density of bone matrix after the primary mineralization. Primary mineralization is initiated by matrix vesicles synthesized by mature osteoblasts. Crystalline calcium phosphates are nucleated inside these matrix vesicles, and then, get out of them forming spherical mineralized nodule, which can grow more by being supplied with Ca2+ and PO4(3-) (matrix vesicle mineralization). Thereafter, the mineralized nodules make contacts with surrounding collagen fibrils, extending mineralization along with their longitudinal axis from the contact points (collagen mineralization). In this review, the ultrastructural findings on bone mineralization, specially, primary mineralization will be provided. PMID:26412723

  20. Ultrastructural changes in human skin after exposure to a pulsed laser

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, H.; Tan, O.T.; Parrish, J.A.

    1985-05-01

    Selective vascular injury following irradiation using a pulsed laser source at 577 nm was examined using ultrastructural methods in the skin of 3 fair-skinned healthy human volunteers. This vascular-specific damage was confined to the papillary dermis. Red blood cells were altered in several ways. As well as an increase in the electron density, configurational distortion modified the normal biconcave forms to ameboid structures. The most interesting finding was the appearance within these altered cells of well-defined circular/oval electron-lucent areas of 800 A diameter, possibly representing a heat-fixed record of steam formation within the red blood cell. In addition, considerable degenerative changes were evident in endothelial cells and pericytes, while mast cells, neutrophils, histiocytes, and fibroblasts as well as collagen bundles immediately surrounding most laser-damaged blood vessels appeared normal.

  1. Oral manifestations of Noonan syndrome: review of the literature and a report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Mallineni, Sreekanth Kumar; Yung Yiu, Cynthia Kar; King, Nigel Martyn

    2014-01-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) was described by Noonan and Ehmke as a multi-system disorder, which is typically evident at birth. The incidence of this syndrome is estimated to be one per 2500 to one per 1000 and affects both genders. While the clinical manifestations of NS have been well documented, the oral manifestations have not been extensively discussed. The purpose of the present article is to (a) review the oral manifestations of NS reported in the literature, and (b) describe four cases (three females and one male) of NS, who presented with short stature, cardiac problems and various oral findings. Based on these cases, we conclude that many oral anomalies may have possible relationships with NS, which require multidisciplinary treatment planning and timely management. The importance of oral findings in NS has largely gone unnoticed and it is essential to consider oral manifestations as scoring criteria in the diagnosis of NS. PMID:25611289

  2. Gross, histological and ultrastructural features of the bulbourethral gland in the greater cane rat (Thryonomys swinderianus).

    PubMed

    Adebayo, A O; Akinloye, A K; Olukole, S G; Oyeyemi, M O; Taiwo, V O; Ihunwo, A O; Oke, B O

    2015-02-01

    The present study examines the structure and ultrastructure of the bulbourethral glands in 10 sexually matured male greater cane rats raised in captivity. Following anaesthesia, the rats were perfusion-fixed transcardially and the bulbourethral glands dissected out. Upon morphologic and morphometric analysis, the Cowper's glands were observed to have an average volume of 0.24±0.08 ml, a diameter of 6.3±0.6 mm and weighs 0.199±0.06 g. The paired, gourd-shaped tubuloalveolar glands were surrounded by dense connective tissues and separated into lobules by capsular septae. Each lobule consists of endpiece/secretory units and excretory ducts lined by simple glandular epithelium and pseudo-stratified epithelium, respectively. The round end pieces consisted of 8-10 pyramidal to columnar epithelial cells with flattened, basally located nuclei and granule-filled cytoplasm that bounded a narrow glandular lumen. The striking ultrastructural features of these secretory cells were the presence of some granules with uniform electron density and those with regions of lesser density as well as the absence of secretory vacuoles. Another unique characteristic of these secretory granules is the presence of electron dense strands radiating from their surfaces. The apical surfaces of the cells were also studded with abundant microvilli. From the findings, the structure of bulbourethral glands in the greater cane rat shows more resemblances to that of humans than to its rodent phylogeny. These findings serve as additional knowledge in the structural interpretation of the bulbourethral gland and its secretory products. PMID:24660943

  3. Cutaneous manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Uva, Luís; Miguel, Diana; Pinheiro, Catarina; Freitas, João Pedro; Marques Gomes, Manuel; Filipe, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multiorgan autoimmune disease of unknown etiology with many clinical manifestations. The skin is one of the target organs most variably affected by the disease. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) established 11 criteria as a classificatory instrument to operationalise the definition of SLE in clinical trials. They were not intended to be used to diagnose individuals and do not do well in that capacity. Cutaneous lesions account for four of these 11 revised criteria of SLE. Skin lesions in patients with lupus may be specific or nonspecific. This paper covers the SLE-specific cutaneous changes: malar rash, discoid rash, photosensitivity, and oral mucosal lesions as well as SLE nonspecific skin manifestations, their pathophysiology, and management. A deeper thorough understanding of the cutaneous manifestations of SLE is essential for diagnosis, prognosis, and efficient management. Thus, dermatologists should cooperate with other specialties to provide optimal care of SLE patient. PMID:22888407

  4. Cutaneous Manifestations of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Uva, Luís; Miguel, Diana; Pinheiro, Catarina; Freitas, João Pedro; Marques Gomes, Manuel; Filipe, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multiorgan autoimmune disease of unknown etiology with many clinical manifestations. The skin is one of the target organs most variably affected by the disease. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) established 11 criteria as a classificatory instrument to operationalise the definition of SLE in clinical trials. They were not intended to be used to diagnose individuals and do not do well in that capacity. Cutaneous lesions account for four of these 11 revised criteria of SLE. Skin lesions in patients with lupus may be specific or nonspecific. This paper covers the SLE-specific cutaneous changes: malar rash, discoid rash, photosensitivity, and oral mucosal lesions as well as SLE nonspecific skin manifestations, their pathophysiology, and management. A deeper thorough understanding of the cutaneous manifestations of SLE is essential for diagnosis, prognosis, and efficient management. Thus, dermatologists should cooperate with other specialties to provide optimal care of SLE patient. PMID:22888407

  5. [Pulmonary manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus].

    PubMed

    Vincze, Krisztina; Odler, Balázs; Müller, Veronika

    2016-07-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus is the most common connective tissue disease that is associated with pulmonary manifestations. Although lupus has the potential to affect any organ, lung involvement is observed during the course of the disease in most cases and it is prognostic for outcome. Pulmonary manifestations in lupus can be classified into five groups based on the anatomical involvement: pleura, lung parenchyma, bronchi and bronchioli, lung vasculature and respiratory muscles can be involved. The most common respiratory manifestations attributable to lupus are pleuritis with or without pleural effusion, pulmonary vascular disease, upper and lower airway dysfunction, parenchymal disease, and diaphragmatic dysfunction (shrinking lung syndrome). In this article the authors summarize lung involvement of lupus, its diagnosis, therapy and prognosis. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(29), 1154-1160. PMID:27426464

  6. [Neurological manifestations of giant cell arteritis].

    PubMed

    Grachev, Yu V

    2016-01-01

    The article describes clinical, including neurological manifestations, of giant cell arteritis (GCA) - granulomatous vasculitis of large and medium-sized vessels, predominantly craniofacial, including precerebral and cerebral, arteries. Histopathological features of GCA are illustrated by the schemes of panarteritis and «postarteritis» (proliferative and fibrotic changes in the intima, underlying the development of cerebrovascular disorders). The main clinical manifestations of GCA are described as 3 groups of symptoms: general constitutional symptoms; manifestations of vasculitis of craniofacial, precerebral and cerebral arteries; polymyalgia rheumaticа. The authors present their own version of the taxonomy of visual disturbances in patients with GCA. Diagnostic steps in patients with suggestive signs of GCA are described. Therapeutic regimens of use of glucocorticoids for suggestion/diagnosis of GCA are presented. PMID:26977631

  7. Vertigo as a Predominant Manifestation of Neurosarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Imran, Tasnim F.; Eyzner, Igor; Mirani, Neena; Hossain, Tanzib; Fede, Robert; Capitle, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease of unknown etiology that affects multiple organ systems. Neurological manifestations of sarcoidosis are less common and can include cranial neuropathies and intracranial lesions. We report the case of a 21-year-old man who presented with vertigo and uveitis. Extensive workup including brain imaging revealed enhancing focal lesions. A lacrimal gland biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. The patient was initially treated with prednisone, which did not adequately control his symptoms, and then was switched to methotrexate with moderate symptomatic improvement. Our patient had an atypical presentation with vertigo as the predominant manifestation of sarcoidosis. Patients with neurosarcoidosis typically present with systemic involvement of sarcoidosis followed by neurologic involvement. Vertigo is rarely reported as an initial manifestation. This case highlights the importance of consideration of neurosarcoidosis as an entity even in patients that may not have a typical presentation or systemic involvement of disease. PMID:25922606

  8. Pediatric vasculitis: recognizing multisystemic manifestations at body imaging.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Geetika; Sargar, Kiran; Baszis, Kevin W

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric vasculitides are multisystem diseases that can be diagnostic challenges because of variable clinical manifestations. The clinical manifestation is determined by the size of the affected vessels, organs involved, extent of vascular injury, and underlying pathologic characteristics. Henoch-Schönlein purpura and Kawasaki disease are the two most common subtypes of pediatric vasculitis. Diagnosis of pediatric vasculitis can be difficult, and the outcome can be serious or fatal in the absence of timely intervention. Imaging plays a central role in establishing the diagnosis of vasculitis involving large- and medium-sized vessels, visualizing its vascular and extravascular manifestations, and monitoring the disease course and response to treatment. Although imaging cannot depict the vessel changes of small-vessel vasculitis directly, it can be used to detect tissue damage resulting from vessel inflammation. This article discusses the classification and clinical features of the major pediatric vasculitides. The imaging approach to and nonneurologic findings of major pediatric vasculitis subtypes are reviewed for the pediatric body imager. PMID:25969938

  9. Outcomes of lung cancers manifesting as nonsolid nodules.

    PubMed

    Yip, Rowena; Wolf, Andrea; Tam, Kathleen; Taioli, Emanuela; Olkin, Ingram; Flores, Raja M; Yankelevitz, David F; Henschke, Claudia I

    2016-07-01

    This is a comprehensive review and re-analysis of available literature to assess the outcome of lung cancer presenting as nonsolid nodules (NSNs), a more indolent form of cancer. PubMed and EMBASE were searched for articles reporting on CT-detected lung cancers manifesting as NSNs published in English on or before July 17, 2015. Only studies including clinicopathologic data, lung cancer-specific survival, or overall survival were included. Data extraction was performed by three independent reviewers using prespecified criteria. Twenty-four articles from 5 countries met criteria and they included 704 subjects with 712 lung cancers manifesting as NSNs. Each article reported from 2 to 100 lung cancer cases with a median follow up of 18-51 months. All NSNs were Stage I adenocarcinoma without pathologic nodal involvement upon resection, except for one case in which the NSN progressed to become part-solid nodule after 6 years of follow-up. The five-year lung cancer-specific survival rate was 100%. These findings suggest an indolent course for lung cancers manifesting as NSNs. PMID:27237025

  10. Changes in root gravitropism, ultrastructure, and calcium balance of pea root statocytes induced by A23187

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyavskaya, N.

    product was found in mitochondrial cristae in contrast to control ones. The presence of the precipitate in other Ca 2 +-sequestered organelles was not determined. The data presented suggest that at the ultrastructural level, the effects of the Ca 2 + ionophore manifested in the loss of polarity in statocytes may be functionally related to systems that regulate the intracellular Ca 2 + homeostasis. It is evident that significant increase in Ca 2 + level in A23187-treated statocytes may cause a disbalance in the gravisensor system and/or calcium signaling and therefore to abolish gravitropism of pea roots.

  11. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Diagnosis and Clinical Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yutaro; Suda, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a parenchymal lung disease characterized by progressive interstitial fibrosis. The clinical course of IPF can be unpredictable and may be punctuated by acute exacerbations. Although much progress is being made in unraveling the mechanisms underlying IPF, effective therapy for improving survival remains elusive. Longitudinal disease profiling, especially in terms of clinical manifestations in a large cohort of patients, should lead to proper management of the patients and development of new treatments for IPF. Appropriate multidisciplinary assessment in ongoing registries is required to achieve this. This review summarizes the current status of the diagnosis and clinical manifestations of IPF.

  12. Lupus as a paraneoplastic manifestation of cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    González Amores, Yolanda; Hernando Rebollar, Sofía; Casado Bernabeu, Aida

    2016-05-01

    Tumors originating in the digestive system, like those in other areas, whether solid or otherwise, may present with extradigestive manifestations in the setting of a paraneoplastic syndrome. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune condition most commonly involving women of childbearing age. On occasion it represents a paraneoplastic manifestation heralding a primary tumor. Cancer suspicion is therefore a key element for newly diagnosed SLE cases with nonstandard epidemiology even in the absence of suggestive symptoms, and digestive tumors should be included in the differential diagnosis. PMID:26925842

  13. Ocular manifestations of feline viral diseases.

    PubMed

    Stiles, Jean

    2014-08-01

    Feline viral diseases are common and cats can be presented with a variety of clinical manifestations. Ocular disease associated with viral pathogens is not unusual, particularly with viruses causing upper respiratory tract disease in cats, such as feline herpesvirus type 1 and feline calicivirus. These agents mainly cause ocular surface disease. Other viruses, such as feline immunodeficiency virus and feline coronavirus, can cause uveitis, while feline leukemia virus can induce ocular lymphosarcoma. This review covers the most common viral pathogens of cats that cause ocular manifestations, the specific features of the ocular diseases caused by these viruses and therapeutic recommendations. PMID:24461645

  14. Child Find

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This brochure describes "Child Find," a component of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that requires states to identify, locate, and evaluate all children with disabilities, aged birth through 21, who are in need of early intervention or special education services.

  15. An Unusual Case of Multiple Intraoral Manifestations of Neurofibromatosis Type 1: Case Report with Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    M, Sheejith; Joseph, Benny; Sheejith, Bhavya

    2014-01-01

    The various oral manifestations of neurofibromatosis in dentulous patients have been documented in literature. Although most of the previous documents have discussed on common findings like a prominent lingual papillae, or solitary overgrowth of gingival soft tissue, this article focuses on a relatively rare occurrence of multiple nodular manifestations of Neurofibromatosis–1 on an edentulous alveolar ridge, tongue, palate and lips of an elderly female patient. PMID:25654048

  16. [Silicosis: computed tomography findings].

    PubMed

    González Vázquez, M; Trinidad López, C; Castellón Plaza, D; Calatayud Moscoso Del Prado, J; Tardáguila Montero, F

    2013-01-01

    Silicosis is an occupational lung disease, which is caused by the inhalation of silica and affects a wide range of jobs. There are many clinical forms of silicosis: acute silicosis, results from exposure to very large amounts of silica dust over a period of less than 2 years. Simple chronic silicosis, the most common type that we see today, results from exposure to low amounts of silica between 2 and 10 years. Chronic silicosis complicated, with silicotic conglomerates. In many cases the diagnosis of silicosis is made according to epidemiological and radiological data, without a histological confirmation. It is important to know the various radiological manifestations of silicosis to differentiate it from other lung diseases and to recognize their complications. The objective of this work is to describe typical and atypical radiological findings of silicosis and their complications in helical and high resolution (HRCT) thorax CT. PMID:22884889

  17. Clinical manifestations of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mane, Shikha K.; Bahna, Sami L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To raise awareness among healthcare providers about the clinical and laboratory findings in acute and chronic food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES). Recent findings FPIES can be caused by trivial exposure or rare foods. Summary FPIES is a non-IgE-mediated reaction that usually presents with acute severe repetitive vomiting and diarrhea associated with lethargy, pallor, dehydration, and even hypovolemic shock. Manifestations resolve usually within 24–48 h of elimination of the causative food. In chronic cases, symptoms may include persistent diarrhea, poor weight gain, failure to thrive, and improvement may take several days after the food elimination. In the acute cases, laboratory evaluation may reveal thrombocytosis and neutrophilia, peaking about 6 h postingestion. Depending on the severity, metabolic acidosis and methemoglobinemia may occur. In chronic cases, anemia, hypoalbuminemia and eosinophilia may be seen. Radiologic evaluation or other procedures, such as endoscopy and gastric juice analysis may show nonspecific abnormal findings. The diagnosis is based on clinical manifestations. Further studies looking at the phenotypes of FPIES are needed to identify clinical subtypes, and to understand the predisposing factors for developing FPIES compared with immediate-type, IgE-mediated gastroenteropathies. PMID:24651279

  18. Incidental finding of a microsporidian parasite from an AIDS patient.

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, R J; Tandy, M W; Boreham, R E; Stenzel, D J; O'Donoghue, P J

    1993-01-01

    Light microscopic examination of feces from a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient with chronic diarrhea, anorexia, and lethargy revealed the presence of numerous refractile bodies resembling microsporidian spores. They were subsequently identified as belonging to the genus Nosema on the basis of their ultrastructural characteristics. However, the microsporidia were enclosed within striated muscle cells, suggesting that they were probably ingested in food; thus, this represented an incidental finding rather than a true infection. Images PMID:8432833

  19. Real-Life Contextual Manifestations of Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Shih-Ying

    2008-01-01

    Wisdom pertains to managing human affairs, and it arises in highly contextualized situations. The present study aims to investigate manifestations of wisdom in real-life contexts through semi-structured interviews with 66 individuals nominated as wise persons. All nominees were ethnic Chinese from Taiwan, an East Asian country which has…

  20. Antisynthetase syndrome: two cases presenting orofacial manifestations.

    PubMed

    Gormley, M; Scully, C

    2014-03-01

    Antisynthetase syndrome is a rare autoimmune disease that is characterised by inflammatory myositis, and interstitial lung disease or chronic arthropathy, or both. To the best of our knowledge, orofacial manifestations have not previously been reported. We present 2 patients with orofacial disease: one with aphthous-like oral ulceration and the other with hyposalivation. PMID:24377442

  1. 19 CFR 123.32 - Manifests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manifests. 123.32 Section 123.32 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through the United States § 123.32...

  2. Neoliberalism, Curriculum Development and Manifestations of "Creativity"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakala, Juha T.; Uusikylä, Kari; Järvinen, Esa-Matti

    2015-01-01

    There is a manifest tendency for national education policy to follow global economic trends. In many Western industrialized countries, this relationship has intensified or strengthened within the last decades. The strengthening of this relationship has been seen, among other things, as evidence of the growing power of neoliberal ideology. The…

  3. 19 CFR 122.75 - Complete manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Complete manifest. 122.75 Section 122.75 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart;...

  4. Cardiovascular and renal manifestations of hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Syme, Harriet M

    2007-07-01

    In the simplest terms, hyperthyroidism is the clinical syndrome that results from an excess of thyroid hormones. This review considers the effects of hyperthyroidism on the cardiovascular and renal systems by reviewing the available literature on the clinical manifestations of this syndrome in the cat and also considering experimental studies and experience in other species, including human beings. PMID:17619008

  5. Behavioral Manifestations of Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, William N.

    1998-01-01

    This paper on the behavioral manifestations of child sexual abuse first reviews previous research concerning child variables, parent/family variables, sexual abuse in combination with other maltreatment, and physiological outcomes. Criteria for future research are offered and specific research needs in the areas of developmental progression,…

  6. Dyslexia in Regular Orthographies: Manifestation and Causation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimmer, Heinz; Schurz, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes our research on the manifestation of dyslexia in German and on cognitive deficits, which may account for the severe reading speed deficit and the poor orthographic spelling performance that characterize dyslexia in regular orthographies. An only limited causal role of phonological deficits (phonological awareness,…

  7. Retinal pigment epithelial hamartoma--unusual manifestations.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, P. R.; Walsh, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    Hamartoma of the retinal pigment epithelium is an uncommon tumour of young adults. We have seen 2 patients with this clinical diagnosis, both with unusual manifestations. In one patient growth of the tumour was observed over a 5-year period. In the second patient arterial-arterial anastomoses were detected at a site distal to the tumour. Images PMID:6722077

  8. 40 CFR 267.72 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 267.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... differences between the quantity or type of hazardous waste designated on the manifest or shipping paper, and the quantity or type of hazardous waste a facility actually receives. Significant discrepancies...

  9. Imaging manifestations of a dreaded obstetric complication in the immediate postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Zarghouni, Mehrzad; Cannon, Walter

    2014-01-01

    HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelet) syndrome is a dreaded complication that may develop during pregnancy or in the immediate postpartum period. Rarely this syndrome manifests itself with imaging findings. We report a case of HELLP syndrome in which the diagnosis was reaffirmed via imaging findings. PMID:24688204

  10. 19 CFR 123.22 - In-transit manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false In-transit manifest. 123.22 Section 123.22 Customs... CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.22 In-transit manifest. (a) Manifest required. A manifest in duplicate covering the in-transit merchandise which is...

  11. 40 CFR 262.54 - Special manifest requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Exports of Hazardous Waste § 262.54 Special manifest requirements. A primary exporter must comply with the manifest requirements of 40 CFR 262.20... (as defined in 40 CFR 264.72(a)) between the manifest and the shipment. A copy of the manifest...

  12. 40 CFR 262.54 - Special manifest requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Exports of Hazardous Waste § 262.54 Special manifest requirements. A primary exporter must comply with the manifest requirements of 40 CFR 262.20... (as defined in 40 CFR 264.72(a)) between the manifest and the shipment. A copy of the manifest...

  13. 40 CFR 262.54 - Special manifest requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Exports of Hazardous Waste § 262.54 Special manifest requirements. A primary exporter must comply with the manifest requirements of 40 CFR 262.20... (as defined in 40 CFR 264.72(a)) between the manifest and the shipment. A copy of the manifest...

  14. 40 CFR 262.54 - Special manifest requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Exports of Hazardous Waste § 262.54 Special manifest requirements. A primary exporter must comply with the manifest requirements of 40 CFR 262.20... (as defined in 40 CFR 264.72(a)) between the manifest and the shipment. A copy of the manifest...

  15. 40 CFR 262.54 - Special manifest requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Exports of Hazardous Waste § 262.54 Special manifest requirements. A primary exporter must comply with the manifest requirements of 40 CFR 262.20... (as defined in 40 CFR 264.72(a)) between the manifest and the shipment. A copy of the manifest...

  16. Ultrastructure of regenerated bone mineral surrounding hydroxyapatite-alginate composite and sintered hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Andre L; Barreto, Isabela C; Maciel, William Q; Rosa, Fabiana P; Rocha-Leão, Maria H; Werckmann, Jacques; Rossi, Alexandre M; Borojevic, Radovan; Farina, Marcos

    2012-01-01

    We report the ultrastructure of regenerated bone surrounding two types of biomaterials: hydroxyapatite-alginate composite and sintered hydroxyapatite. Critical defects in the calvaria of Wistar rats were filled with micrometer-sized spherical biomaterials and analyzed after 90 and 120 days of implantation by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance microscopy, respectively. Infrared spectroscopy showed that hydroxyapatite of both biomaterials became more disordered after implantation in the rat calvaria, indicating that the biological environment induced modifications in biomaterials structure. We observed that the regenerated bone surrounding both biomaterials had a lamellar structure with type I collagen fibers alternating in adjacent lamella with angles of approximately 90°. In each lamella, plate-like apatite crystals were aligned in the c-axis direction, although a rotation around the c-axis could be present. Bone plate-like crystal dimensions were similar in regenerated bone around biomaterials and pre-existing bone in the rat calvaria. No epitaxial growth was observed around any of the biomaterials. A distinct mineralized layer was observed between new bone and hydroxyapatite-alginate biomaterial. This region presented a particular ultrastructure with crystallites smaller than those of the bulk of the biomaterial, and was possibly formed during the synthesis of alginate-containing composite or in the biological environment after implantation. Round nanoparticles were observed in regions of newly formed bone. The findings of this work contribute to a better understanding of the role of hydroxyapatite based biomaterials in bone regeneration processes at the nanoscale. PMID:22057083

  17. The Invalidation of HspB1 Gene in Mouse Alters the Ultrastructural Phenotype of Muscles.

    PubMed

    Kammoun, Malek; Picard, Brigitte; Astruc, Thierry; Gagaoua, Mohammed; Aubert, Denise; Bonnet, Muriel; Blanquet, Véronique; Cassar-Malek, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Even though abundance of Hsp27 is the highest in skeletal muscle, the relationships between the expression of HspB1 (encoding Hsp27) and muscle characteristics are not fully understood. In this study, we have analysed the effect of Hsp27 inactivation on mouse development and phenotype. We generated a mouse strain devoid of Hsp27 protein by homologous recombination of the HspB1 gene. The HspB1-/- mouse was viable and fertile, showing neither apparent morphological nor anatomical alterations. We detected a gender dimorphism with marked effects in males, a lower body weight (P < 0.05) with no obvious changes in the growth rate, and a lower plasma lipids profile (cholesterol, HDL and triglycerides, 0.001 < P< 0.05). The muscle structure of the animals was examined by optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Not any differences in the characteristics of muscle fibres (contractile and metabolic type, shape, perimeter, cross-sectional area) were detected except a trend for a higher proportion of small fibres. Different myosin heavy chains electrophoretic profiles were observed in the HspB1-/- mouse especially the presence of an additional isoform. Electron microscopy revealed ultrastructural abnormalities in the myofibrillar structure of the HspB1-/- mouse mutant mice (e.g. destructured myofibrils and higher gaps between myofibrils) especially in the m. Soleus. Combined with our previous data, these findings suggest that Hsp27 could directly impact the organization of muscle cytoskeleton at the molecular and ultrastructural levels. PMID:27512988

  18. Species-specific ultrastructure of neuronal lipofuscin in hippocampus and neocortex of subhuman mammals and humans.

    PubMed

    Boellaard, J W; Schlote, W; Hofer, W

    2004-01-01

    Lipofuscin represents an integral part of neurons and glial cells in mammals and in submammalian species. It is a special lysosomal organelle, takes part of cellular metabolism, and is a structural expression of catabolic pathways. Species-specific differences of lipofuscin indicate metabolic differences of the relevant neurons. The authors have studied the ultrastructure of neuronal lipofuscin in the hippocampus and cerebral neocortex of dogs, horses, cows, elephants, rats, mice, apes, and humans to answer the question of species-specific differences of this organelle. Paraffin sections of formalin-fixed material were investigated by hematoxylin-eosin and PAS staining, by fluorescence microscopy for autofluorescence, with a laser scanning confocal microscope and by electron microscopy. In the animals studied and in humans the lipofuscin displayed, in addition to the general trilaminar substructure, species-specific appearances. No differences were found in the lipofuscin structure between neocortical and hippocampal neurons of the separate animal species. In contrast, in humans, neurons of the hippocampus showed a particular lipofuscin structure, not only different from the neocortical one, but also with differences between CA1 and CA3/4 sectors. Interestingly, in apes a transitional situation was found with slight differences between neocortical and hippocampal lipofuscin, especially in the rhesus monkey. This peculiarity was corroborated by the distribution of special pentilaminar linear structures in the lipofuscin pigment in all animals, only sparsely in the rhesus monkey and not in humans. The results indicate that lipofuscin ultrastructure of neocortical and hippocampal neurons is species specific and that lipofuscin in the human hippocampal neurons displays structures characteristic of man differing from the neocortical neuronal lipofuscin. The neuronal lipofuscin of apes, especially of the rhesus monkey displays structures in between humans and lower

  19. Morphology and ultrastructure of Brachymystax lenok tsinlingensis spermatozoa by scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Shao, Jian; Li, Ping; Wu, Jinming; Wei, Qiwei

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate Brachymystax lenok tsinlingensis spermatozoa cell morphology and ultrastructure through scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Findings revealed that the spermatozoa can be differentiated into three major parts: a spherical head without an acrosome, a short mid-piece, and a long, cylindrical flagellum. The mean length of the spermatozoa was 36.11±2.84μm, with a spherical head length of 2.78±0.31μm. The mean anterior and posterior head widths were 2.20±0.42μm and 2.55±0.53μm, respectively. The nuclear fossa was positioned at the base of the nucleus that contained the anterior portion of flagellum and a centriolar complex (proximal and distal centrioles). The short mid-piece was located laterally to the nucleus and possessed just one spherical mitochondrion with a mean diameter of 0.65±0.14μm. The spermatozoa flagellum was long and cylindrical, and could be separated into two parts: a long main-piece and a short end-piece. The main piece of the flagellum had short irregular side-fins. The axoneme composed the typical '9+2' microtubular doublet structure and was enclosed by the cell membran e. This study confirmed that B. lenok tsinlingensis spermatozoa can be categorized as teleostean "Type I" spermatozoa; 'primitive' or 'ect-aquasperm type' spermatozoa. To the best of the authers knowledge, this was the first study conducted on the morphology and ultrastructure of B. lenok tsinlingensis spermatozoa. PMID:27375213

  20. The cytochemical and ultrastructural characteristics of phagocytes in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shuai; Jia, Zhihao; Xin, Lusheng; Sun, Ying; Zhang, Ran; Wang, Weilin; Wang, Lingling; Song, Linsheng

    2016-08-01

    Phagocytes have been proved to play vital roles in the innate immune response. However, the cellular characteristics of phagocytes in invertebrates, especially in molluscs, remain largely unknown. In the present study, fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) was employed to sort the phagocytes from the non-phagocytic haemocytes of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The cytochemical staining analysis revealed that phagocytes were positive staining for α-naphthyl acetate esterase and myeloperoxidase, while negative staining for toluidine blue and periodic acid-Schiff. The non-phagocytic haemocytes exhibited positive staining for periodic acid-Schiff, weak positive staining for toluidine blue, but negative staining for α-naphthyl acetate esterase and myeloperoxidase. In addition, phagocytes exhibited ultrastructural cellular features similar to those of macrophages, with large cell diameter, rough cell membrane and extended pseudopodia revealed by the scanning electron microscopy, while the non-phagocytic haemocytes exhibited small cell diameter, smooth cell surface and round spherical shape. Transmission electron microscopy further demonstrated that phagocytes were abundant of cytoplasmic bodies and mitochondria, while non-phagocytic haemocytes were characterized as the comparatively large cell nucleus with contorted and condensed heterochromatin adherent to the nuclear envelope. Moreover, compared with non-phagocytic haemocytes, phagocytes exhibited significantly higher levels of intracellular cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor, interferon-like protein and interleukin-17, and significantly higher abundance of lysosome and reactive oxygen species, which were of great importance to the activation of immune response and pathogen clearance. Taken together, these findings revealed the different cytochemical and ultrastructural features between phagocytes and non-phagocytic haemocytes in C. gigas, which would provide an important clue to investigate the

  1. Variations of the ultrastructure of neuronal lipofuscin during childhood and adolescence in the human Ammon's horn.

    PubMed

    Boellaard, J W; Harzer, K; Schlote, W

    2006-01-01

    The ultrastructure of lipofuscin (Lf) was studied in hippocampal and neocortical neurons of children and youngsters between 3 months and 24 years of age. As a standard, regions CA1 and CA4 of Ammon's horn and the gyrus centralis anterior of the left hemisphere were examined, and the ratio of the two components of Lf, the pigment part, and the usually droplet-like lipid part was looked at. Few and small granules with typical linear structures in the pigment part and little lipid droplets were found as early as at the age of 3 months in all brain regions. There were no morphological differences of Lf in the areas of Ammon's horn up to 3 years, but the Lf ultrastructure in Ammon's horn differed clearly from that in the neocortical region. Differences of Lf between the areas CA1 and CA4 were found to appear at the age of 6-8 years, to have a rather variable pattern between age 11 and about 20 years, and to be relatively constant thereafter. The Lf pigment part consisted of irregularly arranged three laminar linear structures. Some varieties could be seen in the size and shape of the Lf granules and in the lipid/pigment ratio. As to the question of Lf being an "age pigment," the findings that the number of Lf granules did not further increase after the period of early adolescence was not consistent with the age pigment hypothesis. No regional or age-dependent differences were found in the Lf of astro- and oligodendroglia. PMID:17090518

  2. Grape juice concentrate (G8000(®) ) intake mitigates testicular morphological and ultrastructural damage following cadmium intoxication.

    PubMed

    Lamas, Celina A; Gollücke, Andrea P B; Dolder, Heidi

    2015-10-01

    Cadmium is a well-known testicular toxicant, and parts of the world population are exposed chronically by inhalation or by food and water intake. Grape products have been highlighted as important sources of bioactive compounds, having anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and metal chelating properties. Since maintenance of tissue morphology is essential for testicular sperm development and hence male fertility, we analysed the protective effect of grape juice concentrate (GJC) (G8000(®) ) consumption on testicular morphology in rats exposed to cadmium. Thus, four groups of male Wistar rats (n = 6 per group), 50 days old, ingested either water or G8000(®) (2 g/kg/day) until they had completed one spermatogenic cycle in adult life (136 days old). Cadmium (1.2 mg / kg) was injected intraperitoneally when the animals were 80 days old into one of the water and one of the G8000 groups; intraperitoneal saline was used as a control in the other two groups. Animals anaesthetised and exsanguinated at 136 days and then perfused with Karnovsky's fixative and then the testes were collected for morphological analysis. We describe evident disruption of testicular morphology by cadmium, with alteration in tissue component proportions, reduced Leydig cells volume and initial signs of an inflammatory process. Ultrastructural analysis showed greater damage, suggesting spermatogenesis disruption. G8000(®) ingestion allowed tissue architecture to be re-established, as was corroborated by our stereological and morphometric findings. Animals from the group where G8000(®) had been administered together with cadmium revealed a significant reduction in macrophages and blood vessel volume, suggesting diminished inflammation, when compared to animals that received only cadmium. Moreover, smaller number of ultrastructural alterations was noted, revealing fewer areas of degeneration and disorganized interstitium. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that GJC consumption prevented the

  3. Ultrastructure of spermatogenesis and mature spermatozoa in the flatworm Prosthiostomum siphunculus (Polycladida, Cotylea).

    PubMed

    Gammoudi, Mehrez; Salvenmoser, Willi; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Tekaya, Saïda; Egger, Bernhard

    2016-03-01

    This is the first study investigating spermatogenesis and spermatozoan ultrastructure in the polyclad flatworm Prosthiostomum siphunculus. The testes are numerous and scattered as follicles ventrally between the digestive ramifications. Each follicle contains the different stages of sperm differentiation. Spermatocytes and spermatids derive from a spermatogonium and the spermatids remain connected by intercellular bridges. Chromatoid bodies are present in the cytoplasm of spermatogonia up to spermatids. During early spermiogenesis, a differentiation zone appears in the distal part of spermatids. A ring of microtubules extends along the entire sperm shaft just beneath the cell membrane. An intercentriolar body is present and gives rise to two axonemes, each with a 9 + "1" micro-tubular pattern. Development of the spermatid leads to cell elongation and formation of a filiform, mature spermatozoon with two free flagella and with cortical microtubules along the sperm shaft. The flagella exit the sperm shaft at different levels, a finding common for acotyleans, but so far unique for cotylean polyclads. The Golgi complex produces numerous electron-dense bodies of two types and of different sizes. These bodies are located around a perinuclear row of mitochondria. The elongated nucleus extends almost along the entire sperm body. The nucleus is wide in the proximal part and becomes narrow going towards the distal end. Thread-like chromatin mixed with electron-dense intranuclear spindle-shaped bodies are present throughout nucleus. The general sperm ultrastructure, the presence of intranuclear bodies and a second type of cytoplasmic electron-dense bodies may provide characters useful for phylogenetic analysis. PMID:26534881

  4. Ultrastructural alterations of frozen-thawed Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Sa-Ardrit, M; Saikhun, J; Thongtip, N; Damyang, M; Mahasawangkul, S; Angkawanish, T; Jansittiwate, S; Faisaikarm, T; Kitiyanant, Y; Pavasuthipaisit, K; Pinyopummin, A

    2006-04-01

    Intact plasma and acrosome membranes and functional mitochondria following cryopreservation are important attributes for the fertilizing ability of spermatozoa. In the present study, functional and ultrastructural changes of Asian elephant spermatozoa after cryopreservation either in TEST + glycerol or HEPT + dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) were evaluated by fluorescent techniques and electron microscopy. Sperm frozen in TEST + glycerol had higher proportion of sperm with intact plasma (49.1 +/- 9.2% vs. 30.9 +/- 3.9%) and acrosomal (53.7 +/- 4.9% vs. 35.8 +/- 6.1%) membranes, as well as active mitochondria (57.0 +/- 7.2% vs. 42.0 +/- 5.0%) than those cryopreserved in HEPT + DMSO. The results obtained from electron microscopy were similar to those obtained by fluorescence microscopy. The percentage of normal spermatozoa was higher when spermatozoa were frozen in TEST + glycerol than those frozen in HEPT + DMSO (31.8 +/- 5.6 vs. 28.5 +/- 6.4). The ultrastructural alterations revealed by transmission electron microscopy could be classified as (i) distension of plasma membrane, while the acrosome was swollen; (ii) disruption or loss of plasma membrane, while acrosome was swollen with distended outer acrosomal membrane; (iii) disruption or loss of plasma and outer acrosomal membrane with leakage of acrosome content; (iv) extensive vesiculation of plasma and outer acrosomal membrane and leakage of acrosome content; (v) a complete loss of both plasma membrane and outer acrosomal membrane; and (vi) swelling of mitochondria. These findings suggest that the freezing and thawing procedure caused structural damage to elephant spermatozoa, especially in the plasma membrane, acrosome and mitochondria. Fluorescence and electron microscopic evaluations are potentially a powerful tool in the analysis of elephant spermatozoa after freezing and thawing. PMID:16533357

  5. The Invalidation of HspB1 Gene in Mouse Alters the Ultrastructural Phenotype of Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Kammoun, Malek; Picard, Brigitte; Astruc, Thierry; Gagaoua, Mohammed; Aubert, Denise; Bonnet, Muriel; Blanquet, Véronique; Cassar-Malek, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Even though abundance of Hsp27 is the highest in skeletal muscle, the relationships between the expression of HspB1 (encoding Hsp27) and muscle characteristics are not fully understood. In this study, we have analysed the effect of Hsp27 inactivation on mouse development and phenotype. We generated a mouse strain devoid of Hsp27 protein by homologous recombination of the HspB1 gene. The HspB1-/- mouse was viable and fertile, showing neither apparent morphological nor anatomical alterations. We detected a gender dimorphism with marked effects in males, a lower body weight (P < 0.05) with no obvious changes in the growth rate, and a lower plasma lipids profile (cholesterol, HDL and triglycerides, 0.001 < P< 0.05). The muscle structure of the animals was examined by optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Not any differences in the characteristics of muscle fibres (contractile and metabolic type, shape, perimeter, cross-sectional area) were detected except a trend for a higher proportion of small fibres. Different myosin heavy chains electrophoretic profiles were observed in the HspB1-/- mouse especially the presence of an additional isoform. Electron microscopy revealed ultrastructural abnormalities in the myofibrillar structure of the HspB1-/- mouse mutant mice (e.g. destructured myofibrils and higher gaps between myofibrils) especially in the m. Soleus. Combined with our previous data, these findings suggest that Hsp27 could directly impact the organization of muscle cytoskeleton at the molecular and ultrastructural levels. PMID:27512988

  6. Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma: a clinicopathological study emphasizing ultrastructural features and cytogenetic heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shan-Shan; Shen, Qin; Xia, Qiu-Yuan; Tu, Pin; Shi, Qun-Li; Zhou, Xiao-Jun; Rao, Qiu

    2013-01-01

    Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCPRCC) is a recently recognized renal neoplasm, which was initially described in end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but some cases have been reported in otherwise normal kidneys. We report a series of 11 CCPRCC (age range, 33-72 years; male-to-female ratio, 8:3). Follow-up was available for 8 patients. No patients developed local recurrence, distant or lymph-node metastasis, or cancer death. Histologically, all tumors exhibit morphologic features typical of CCPRCC including a mixture of cystic and papillary components, covered by small to medium-sized cuboidal cells with abundant clear cytoplasm. All 11 cases exhibited moderate to strong positivity for CK7, CA9, Vim, and HIF-1α, coupled with negative reactions for CD10, P504S, and RCC. We did not find any VHL gene mutations in all 11 cases. Losses of chromosomes 3 (monoploid chromosome 3) was detected in 3 cases. Ultrastructurally, the tumor cells composed of numerous glycogens with scanty cell organelles, reminiscent of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC). In conclusion, the coexpression of CA9 and HIF-1α in the absence of VHL gene abnormalities in CCPRCC suggests activation of the HIF pathway by mechanisms independent of VHL gene mutation. Losses of chromosomes 3 (monosomies chromosome 3) was detected in 3 cases suggesting that at least some of these lesions have demonstrated abnormalities of chromosomes 3. Ultrastructurally, CCPRCC composed of numerous glycogens with scanty cell organelles, reminiscent of CCRCC suggesting the close pathogenesis relationship of CCPRCC with CCRCC. PMID:24294381

  7. Histopathological, Ultrastructural and Apoptotic Changes in Diabetic Rat Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Gül, Mehmet; Bayat, Nuray; Çetin, Aslı; Kepekçi, Remziye Aysun; Şimşek, Yavuz; Kayhan, Başak; Turhan, Uğur; Otlu, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: The exchange of substances between mother and fetus via the placenta plays a vital role during development. A number of developmental disorders in the fetus and placenta are observed during diabetic pregnancies. Diabetes, together with placental apoptosis, can lead to developmental and functional disorders. Aims: Histological, ultrastructural and apoptotic changes were investigated in the placenta of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: In this study, a total of 12 female Wistar Albino rats (control (n=6) and diabetic (n=6)) were used. Rats in the diabetic group, following the administration of a single dose of STZ, showed blood glucose levels higher than 200 mg/dL after 72 hours. When pregnancy was detected after the rats were bred, two pieces of placenta and the fetuses were collected on the 20th day of pregnancy by cesarean incision under ketamine/ xylazine anesthesia from in four rats from the control and diabetic groups. Placenta tissues were processed for light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and periodic acid Schiff-diastase (PAS-D) staining for light microscopic and caspase-3 staining for immunohistochemical investigations were performed for each placenta. Electron microscopy was performed on thin sections contrasted with uranyl acetate and lead nitrate. Results: Weight gain in the placenta and fetuses of diabetic rats and thinning of the decidual layer, thickening of the hemal membrane, apoptotic bodies, congestion in intervillous spaces, increased PAS-D staining in decidual cells and caspase-3 immunoreactivity were observed in the diabetic group. After the ultrastructural examination, the apoptotic appearance of the nuclei of trophoblastic cells, edema and intracytoplasmic vacuolization, glycogen accumulation, dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum and myelin figures were observed. In addition, capillary basement membrane thickening, capillary

  8. Adult Neurogenesis: Ultrastructure of a Neurogenic Niche and Neurovascular Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Chaves da Silva, Paula Grazielle; Benton, Jeanne L.; Beltz, Barbara S.; Allodi, Silvana

    2012-01-01

    The first-generation precursors producing adult-born neurons in the crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) brain reside in a specialized niche located on the ventral surface of the brain. In the present work, we have explored the organization and ultrastructure of this neurogenic niche, using light-level, confocal and electron microscopic approaches. Our goals were to define characteristics of the niche microenvironment, examine the morphological relationships between the niche and the vasculature and observe specializations at the boundary between the vascular cavity located centrally in the niche. Our results show that the niche is almost fully encapsulated by blood vessels, and that cells in the vasculature come into contact with the niche. This analysis also characterizes the ultrastructure of the cell types in the niche. The Type I niche cells are by far the most numerous, and are the only cell type present superficially in the most ventral cell layers of the niche. More dorsally, Type I cells are intermingled with Types II, III and IV cells, which are observed far less frequently. Type I cells have microvilli on their apical cell surfaces facing the vascular cavity, as well as junctional complexes between adjacent cells, suggesting a role in regulating transport from the blood into the niche cells. These studies demonstrate a close relationship between the neurogenic niche and vascular system in P. clarkii. Furthermore, the specializations of niche cells contacting the vascular cavity are also typical of the interface between the blood/cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-brain barriers of vertebrates, including cells of the subventricular zone (SVZ) producing new olfactory interneurons in mammals. These data indicate that tissues involved in producing adult-born neurons in the crayfish brain use strategies that may reflect fundamental mechanisms preserved in an evolutionarily broad range of species, as proposed previously. The studies described here extend our understanding of

  9. Finding food

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data. PMID:21837264

  10. Ultrastructural Analysis of Drosophila Ovaries by Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hurd, Thomas R; Sanchez, Carlos G; Teixeira, Felipe K; Petzold, Chris; Dancel-Manning, Kristen; Wang, Ju-Yu S; Lehmann, Ruth; Liang, Feng-Xia A

    2015-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster ovary is a powerful, genetically tractable system through which one can elucidate the principles underlying cellular function and organogenesis in vivo. In order to understand the intricate process of oogenesis at the subcellular level, microscopic analysis with the highest possible resolution is required. In this chapter, we describe the preparation of ovaries for ultrastructural analysis using transmission electron microscopy and focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy. We discuss and provide protocols for chemical fixation of Drosophila ovaries that facilitate optimal imaging with particular attention paid to preserving and resolving mitochondrial membrane morphology and structure. PMID:26324436

  11. Greigite magnetosome membrane ultrastructure in 'Candidatus Magnetoglobus multicellularis'.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Fernanda P; Silva, Karen T; Farina, Marcos; Keim, Carolina N; Lins, Ulysses

    2008-06-01

    The ultrastructure of the greigite magnetosome membrane in the multicellular magnetotactic bacteria 'Candidatus Magnetoglobus multicellularis' was studied. Each cell contains 80 membrane-enclosed iron-sulfide magnetosomes. Cytochemistry methods showed that the magnetosomes are enveloped by a structure whose staining pattern and dimensions are similar to those of the cytoplasmic membrane, indicating that the magnetosome membrane likely originates from the cytoplasmic membrane. Freeze-fracture showed intramembrane particles in the vesicles surrounding each magnetosome. Observations of cell membrane invaginations, the trilaminar membrane structure of immature magnetosomes, and empty vesicles together suggested that greigite magnetosome formation begins by invagination of the cell membrane, as has been proposed for magnetite magnetosomes. PMID:18645957

  12. Ultrastructural Analysis of Drosophila Ovaries by Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Thomas R.; Sanchez, Carlos G.; Teixeira, Felipe K.; Petzold, Chris; Dancel-Manning, Kristen; Wang, Ju-Yu S.; Lehmann, Ruth; Liang, Feng-Xia A.

    2016-01-01

    i. Summary The Drosophila melanogaster ovary is a powerful, genetically tractable system through which one can elucidate the principles underlying cellular function and organogenesis in vivo. In order to understand the intricate process of oogenesis at the subcellular level, microscopic analysis with the highest possible resolution is required. In this chapter, we describe the preparation of ovaries for ultrastructural analysis using transmission electron microscopy and focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy. We discuss and provide protocols for chemical fixation of Drosophila ovaries that facilitate optimal imaging with particular attention paid to preserving and resolving mitochondrial membrane morphology and structure. PMID:26324436

  13. Knee arthropathy in ochronosis: diagnosis by arthroscopy with ultrastructural features.

    PubMed

    Lurie, D P; Musil, G

    1984-02-01

    Knee arthroscopy in a patient with undiagnosed chronic monoarticular arthritis revealed dark pigmentation of the snyovium; synovial biopsy revealed histologic and ultrastructural features characteristic of ochronosis. Synovial fluid (SF) was non-inflammatory, without pigmented shards of cartilage; calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals were absent in both the SF and biopsy specimen. Homogentisic acid was detectable in the urine by thin layer chromatography, and asymptomatic spondylosis with intervertebral disc calcification was found. The negative family history, lack of mucocutaneous pigmentation and failure of the urine to spontaneously darken obscured the diagnosis, which was easily made by arthroscopy. PMID:6699824

  14. Ulcerative colitis: ultrastructure of interstitial cells in myenteric plexus.

    PubMed

    Rumessen, J J; Vanderwinden, J-M; Horn, T

    2010-10-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are key regulatory cells in the gut. In the colon of patients with severe ulcerative colitis (UC), myenteric ICC had myoid ultrastructural features and were in close contact with nerve terminals. In all patients as opposed to controls, some ICC profiles showed degenerative changes, such as lipid droplets and irregular vacuoles. Nerve terminals often appeared swollen and empty. Glial cells, muscle cells, and fibroblast-like cells (FLC) showed no alterations. FLC enclosed macrophages (MLC), which were in close contact with naked axon terminals. The organization and cytological changes may be of pathophysiological significance in patients with UC. PMID:20568987

  15. Lead induced ultrastructural changes in the testis of rats.

    PubMed

    Murthy, R C; Saxena, D K; Gupta, S K; Chandra, S V

    1991-01-01

    Oral lead administration (250 ppm lead acetate through drinking water) to weaning male rats for 70 days resulted in the marked accumulation of this metal in blood and testicular tissue. No marked changes were evident in light microscopy. Ultrastructural changes were revealed in the form of vacuolisation of Sertoli cell cytoplasm and increase in the number and size of lysosomes. Some of the vacuoles contained vesicle like structures. Although there was no impairment of spermatogenesis, the changes in the Sertoli cells may lead to changes in spermatogenesis after chronic exposure. PMID:1879517

  16. Cystosarcoma phylloides. A steroid receptor and ultrastructure analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Kesterson, G H; Georgiade, N; Seigler, H F; Barton, T K; McCarty, K S; McCarty, K S

    1979-01-01

    Six cases of cystosarcoma phylloides were evaluated by ultrastructure and steroid receptor analysis. Electron microscopy of the lesions supported previous reports of a heterogeneous tumor consisting of pleomorphic mesenchyme and normal or proliferative epithelium. In each case estrogen and progesterone receptor analysis indicated the presence of a nonsaturable estrogen and progesterone 4S binding protein rather than a specific steroid receptor as suggested by previous studies. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5A. Fig. 5B. Fig. 6. PMID:228617

  17. Characterization of Septin Ultrastructure in Budding Yeast Using Electron Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Aurélie; Nogales, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Summary Septins are essential for the completion of cytokinesis. In budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, septins are located at the bud neck during mitosis and are closely connected to the inner plasma membrane. In vitro, yeast septins have been shown to self-assemble into a variety of filamentous structures, including rods, paired filaments, bundles and rings [1–3]. Using electron tomography of freeze-substituted section and cryo-electron tomography of frozen sections, we determined the three dimensional organization of the septin cytoskeleton in dividing budding yeast with molecular resolution [4,5]. Here we describe the detailed procedures used for our characterization of the septin cellular ultrastructure. PMID:26519309

  18. Hand Schuller Christian Disease: A Rare Case Report with Oral Manifestation

    PubMed Central

    Manjula, M.; Srikant, K.; Goyal, Stuti; Tanveer, Shahela

    2015-01-01

    Langerhan’s Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) is disorders which include abnormalities that result from abnormal proliferation of langerhan’s cells or their precursors. LCH is clinically classified into three types-eosinophilic granuloma, Hand Schuller Christian disease and Abt-Letterer- Siwe disease. It is usually manifested in childhood as well as in adulthood. The clinical manifestations are the result of the accumulation and infilteration of the langerhan cells in organs and tissues. Here is a rare case report of 6-year-old boy with extraoral manifestation of exopthalmic right eye and oral manifestation of mobility of teeth and with typical radiological findings. Basing on the clinical, radiological and histopathological examination the diagnosis of Hand Schuller Christian Disease was given. PMID:25738095

  19. Varied Clinical Manifestations of Amebic Colitis.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Chad J; Fleming, Rhonda; Boman, Darius A; Zuckerman, Marc J

    2015-11-01

    Invasive amebiasis is common worldwide, but infrequently observed in the United States. It is associated with considerable morbidity in patients residing in or traveling to endemic areas. We review the clinical and endoscopic manifestations of amebic colitis to alert physicians to the varied clinical manifestations of this potentially life-threatening disease. Copyright ©Most patients present with watery or bloody diarrhea. Less common presentations of amebic colitis include abdominal pain, overt gastrointestinal bleeding, exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease, or the incidental association with colon cancer. Amebic liver abscesses are the most frequent complication. Rectosigmoid involvement may be found on colonoscopy; however, most case series have reported that the cecum is the most commonly involved site, followed by the ascending colon. Endoscopic evaluation should be used to assist in the diagnosis, with attention to the observation of colonic inflammation, ulceration, and amebic trophozoites on histopathological examination. PMID:26539949

  20. Violent and criminal manifestations in dementia patients.

    PubMed

    Cipriani, Gabriele; Lucetti, Claudio; Danti, Sabrina; Carlesi, Cecilia; Nuti, Angelo

    2016-05-01

    Although the older adults have been studied as victims of violence, geriatric patients can display violent behavior. The purpose of the present review was to explore the phenomenon of criminal violations and violent acts in people with dementia. The authors used PubMed to search the MEDLINE database and other sources for original research and review articles on criminal and violent manifestation in demented patients combining the terms "criminal manifestation," "violence, aggressive behavior," "homicide," "suicide" and "homicide-suicide" together with "dementia". Possible biomarkers of violence are considered. The present review highlights the risk factors for violence in patients suffering from dementia, and reviews the literature about criminal violations and homicidal/suicidal behavior in this patient group. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 16: 541-549. PMID:26460091

  1. Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis of Acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Lugo, Gloria; Pena, Lara; Cordido, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Acromegaly and gigantism are due to excess GH production, usually as a result of a pituitary adenoma. The incidence of acromegaly is 5 cases per million per year and the prevalence is 60 cases per million. Clinical manifestations in each patient depend on the levels of GH and IGF-I, age, tumor size, and the delay in diagnosis. Manifestations of acromegaly are varied and include acral and soft tissue overgrowth, joint pain, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and heart and respiratory failure. Acromegaly is a disabling disease that is associated with increased morbidity and reduced life expectancy. The diagnosis is based primarily on clinical features and confirmed by measuring GH levels after oral glucose loading and the estimation of IGF-I. It has been suggested that the rate of mortality in patients with acromegaly is correlated with the degree of control of GH. Adequately treated, the relative mortality risk can be markedly reduced towards normal. PMID:22518126

  2. The Chronic Gastrointestinal Manifestations of Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Nilce Mitiko; Miller, Steven M.; Evora, Paulo R. Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Chagas disease is an infectious disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The disease mainly affects the nervous system, digestive system and heart. The objective of this review is to revise the literature and summarize the main chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease. The chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease are mainly a result of enteric nervous system impairment caused by T. cruzi infection. The anatomical locations most commonly described to be affected by Chagas disease are salivary glands, esophagus, lower esophageal sphincter, stomach, small intestine, colon, gallbladder and biliary tree. Chagas disease has also been studied in association with Helicobacter pylori infection, interstitial cells of Cajal and the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer. PMID:20037711

  3. Real-life contextual manifestations of wisdom.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shih-Ying

    2008-01-01

    Wisdom pertains to managing human affairs, and it arises in highly contextualized situations. The present study aims to investigate manifestations of wisdom in real-life contexts through semi-structured interviews with 66 individuals nominated as wise persons. All nominees were ethnic Chinese from Taiwan, an East Asian country which has Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism as its predominant philosophies. Analysis of these interview transcripts yielded 220 wisdom incidents that fall into five categories of wisdom. Results of the present study suggests that in real life, wisdom most likely is manifested through: 1) striving for common good by helping others and contributing to society; 2) achieving and maintaining a satisfactory state of life; 3) deciding and developing life paths; 4) resolving difficult problems at work; and 5) insisting on doing the right thing when facing adversity. PMID:19266867

  4. Maxillary sinus manifestations of methamphetamine abuse.

    PubMed

    Faucett, Erynne A; Marsh, Katherine M; Farshad, Kayven; Erman, Audrey B; Chiu, Alexander G

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamines are the second most commonly used illicit drug worldwide and cost the United States health-care system ∼$23.4 billion annually. Use of this drug affects multiple organ systems and causes a variety of clinical manifestations. Although there are commonly known sequelae of methamphetamine abuse such as "meth mouth," there is limited evidence regarding maxillary sinus manifestations. The following cases highlight the initial evaluation and management of two methamphetamine abusers with loculated purulent collections within the maxillary sinus as a result of methamphetamine abuse. Our aim was to delineate the otolaryngologic symptoms associated with the patients' methamphetamine abuse. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed loculated purulent collections within the maxillary sinus of probable odontogenic origin in both patients. Methamphetamine abuse leading to rampant caries and poor oral hygiene may predispose individuals for craniofacial infections and fluid collections. These cases illustrate the development of maxillary sinusitis and maxilla mucoceles that have been associated with methamphetamine use. PMID:25675268

  5. [Cardiac sarcoidosis - clinical manifestation and diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Błaut-Jurkowska, Justyna; Podolec, Piotr; Olszowska, Maria

    2016-08-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease defined histologically by the formation of noncaseating granulomas. The etiology of sarcoidosis remains unknown. Heart involvement in the course of sarcoidosis concerns about 5% of patients. The most common manifestation of cardiac sarcoidosis are conduction abnormalities, arrhythmias and heart failure. The diagnostic algorithm includes performing a clinical history, a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and an echocardiogram. If any of the initial screening investigations yields an abnormality, diagnostics should be continue using advanced imaging techniques: cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) or fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Nowadays endomyocardial biopsy is not performed routinely.The clinical picture of cardiac sarcoidosis is highly variable. Screening for cardiac sarcoidosis should be performed in all patients diagnosed with extracardiac sarcoidosis. Cardiac sarcoidosis should also be suspected in young patients without a diagnosis of sarcoidosis who present with conduction abnormalities of unknown etiology, because cardiac sarcoidosis may be the first or the only manifestation of the disease. PMID:27591449

  6. [Cardiac sarcoidosis - clinical manifestation and diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Błaut-Jurkowska, Justyna; Podolec, Piotr; Olszowska, Maria

    2016-07-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease defined histologically by the formation of noncaseating granulomas. The etiology of sarcoidosis remains unknown. Heart involvement in the course of sarcoidosis concerns about 5% of patients. The most common manifestation of cardiac sarcoidosis are conduction abnormalities, arrhythmias and heart failure. The diagnostic algorithm includes performing a clinical history, a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and an echocardiogram. If any of the initial screening investigations yields an abnormality, diagnostics should be continue using advanced imaging techniques: cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) or fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Nowadays endomyocardial biopsy is not performed routinely.The clinical picture of cardiac sarcoidosis is highly variable. Screening for cardiac sarcoidosis should be performed in all patients diagnosed with extracardiac sarcoidosis. Cardiac sarcoidosis should also be suspected in young patients without a diagnosis of sarcoidosis who present with conduction abnormalities of unknown etiology, because cardiac sarcoidosis may be the first or the only manifestation of the disease. PMID:27590654

  7. Cardiac manifestations of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Abhinav; Verma, Isha; Shah, Varun; Agarwal, Abhishek; Sikachi, Rutuja R

    2016-01-01

    Summary Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive, parenchymal disease of the lung with an estimated prevalence of 14–43 per 100,000. Patient usually presents with coughing and exertional dyspnea, which can lead to acute respiratory failure. IPF has been associated with various co-morbidities such as lung cancer, emphysema, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), GERD and multiple cardiovascular consequences. The cardiovascular manifestations of IPF include pulmonary hypertension, heart failure, coronary artery disease, cardiac arrhythmias & cardiac manifestations of drugs used to treat IPF. This review will outline evidence of the association between IPF and cardiovascular conditions and attempt to provide insights into the underlying pathophysiology. We also discuss the impact of these cardiovascular diseases on patients with IPF including increased morbidity and mortality. PMID:27195188

  8. Cardiac manifestations of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Abhinav; Verma, Isha; Shah, Varun; Agarwal, Abhishek; Sikachi, Rutuja R

    2016-05-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive, parenchymal disease of the lung with an estimated prevalence of 14-43 per 100,000. Patient usually presents with coughing and exertional dyspnea, which can lead to acute respiratory failure. IPF has been associated with various co-morbidities such as lung cancer, emphysema, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), GERD and multiple cardiovascular consequences. The cardiovascular manifestations of IPF include pulmonary hypertension, heart failure, coronary artery disease, cardiac arrhythmias & cardiac manifestations of drugs used to treat IPF. This review will outline evidence of the association between IPF and cardiovascular conditions and attempt to provide insights into the underlying pathophysiology. We also discuss the impact of these cardiovascular diseases on patients with IPF including increased morbidity and mortality. PMID:27195188

  9. Atypical Manifestations in Glut1 Deficiency Syndrome.

    PubMed

    De Giorgis, V; Varesio, C; Baldassari, C; Piazza, E; Olivotto, S; Macasaet, J; Balottin, U; Veggiotti, P

    2016-08-01

    Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome is a genetically determined, treatable, neurologic disorder that is caused by an insufficient transport of glucose into the brain. It is caused by a mutation in the SCL2A1 gene, which is so far the only known to be associated with this condition. Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome consists of a wide clinical spectrum that usually presents with cognitive impairment, epilepsy, paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesia, acquired microcephaly, hemolytic anemia, gait disturbance, and dyspraxia in different combinations. However, there are other clinical manifestations that we consider equally peculiar but that have so far been poorly described in literature. In this review, supported by a video contribution, we will accurately describe this type of clinical manifestation such as oculogyric crises, weakness, paroxysmal kinesigenic and nonkinesigenic dyskinesia in order to provide an additional instrument for a correct, rapid diagnosis. PMID:27250207

  10. Imaging of Spinal Manifestations of Hematological Disorders.

    PubMed

    Pawha, Puneet S; Chokshi, Falgun H

    2016-08-01

    Imaging manifestations of hematological diseases and their potential complications are broad, and there may be significant overlap in features of various disease processes. Knowledge of appropriate choice of imaging test, pertinent imaging patterns, and pathophysiology of disease can help the reader increase specificity in the diagnosis and treatment of the patient. Most importantly, we encourage readers of this review to engage their radiologists during the diagnostic, treatment, and management phases of care delivery. PMID:27444004

  11. Rheumatic manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Reyna, Tatiana Sofía; Martínez-Reyes, Cynthia; Yamamoto-Furusho, Jesús Kazúo

    2009-11-28

    This article reviews the literature concerning rheumatic manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including common immune-mediated pathways, frequency, clinical course and therapy. Musculoskeletal complications are frequent and well-recognized manifestations in IBD, and affect up to 33% of patients with IBD. The strong link between the bowel and the osteo-articular system is suggested by many clinical and experimental observations, notably in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. The autoimmune pathogenic mechanisms shared by IBD and spondyloarthropathies include genetic susceptibility to abnormal antigen presentation, aberrant recognition of self, the presence of autoantibodies against specific antigens shared by the colon and other extra-colonic tissues, and increased intestinal permeability. The response against microorganisms may have an important role through molecular mimicry and other mechanisms. Rheumatic manifestations of IBD have been divided into peripheral arthritis, and axial involvement, including sacroiliitis, with or without spondylitis, similar to idiopathic ankylosing spondylitis. Other periarticular features can occur, including enthesopathy, tendonitis, clubbing, periostitis, and granulomatous lesions of joints and bones. Osteoporosis and osteomalacia secondary to IBD and iatrogenic complications can also occur. The management of the rheumatic manifestations of IBD consists of physical therapy in combination with local injection of corticosteroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; caution is in order however, because of their possible harmful effects on intestinal integrity, permeability, and even on gut inflammation. Sulfasalazine, methotrexate, azathioprine, cyclosporine and leflunomide should be used for selected indications. In some cases, tumor necrosis factor-alpha blocking agents should be considered as first-line therapy. PMID:19938189

  12. 40 CFR 264.72 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... limits for “empty” containers set forth in 40 CFR 261.7(b). (b) Significant differences in quantity are... exceeds the quantity limits for “empty” containers set forth in 40 CFR 261.7(b), the facility must consult... set forth in 40 CFR 261.7(b) after it has signed, dated, and returned a copy of the manifest to...

  13. Peripheral Nervous System Manifestations of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brizzi, Kate T.

    2014-01-01

    Infectious causes of peripheral nervous system (PNS) disease are underrecognized but potentially treatable. Heightened awareness educed by advanced understanding of the presentations and management of these infections can aid diagnosis and facilitate treatment. In this review, we discuss the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of common bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections that affect the PNS. We additionally detail PNS side effects of some frequently used antimicrobial agents. PMID:25360209

  14. 40 CFR 264.72 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... limits for “empty” containers set forth in 40 CFR 261.7(b). (b) Significant differences in quantity are... exceeds the quantity limits for “empty” containers set forth in 40 CFR 261.7(b), the facility must consult... set forth in 40 CFR 261.7(b) after it has signed, dated, and returned a copy of the manifest to...

  15. Dermatologic Extrahepatic Manifestations of Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Dedania, Bhavtosh; Wu, George Y.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects millions of people worldwide, and an estimated 3.2 million people in the United States. HCV is a hepatotropic and lymphotropic virus that causes not only liver disease, but also a significant number of extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs). Up to 74% of patients affected by HCV will have HCV-related EHMs of some severity in their lifetime. The EHMs vary from simple cutaneous palpable purpura to complex lymphoproliferative disorders, including lymphomas and immune-complex deposit diseases causing local and/or systemic complications. Mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) is manifested by multiple systemic organ involvement, mainly skin, kidney, peripheral nerves, and salivary glands, and less frequently causes widespread vasculitis and malignant lymphoma. MC affects up to 3% of HCV-infected patients with cryoglobulinemia of clinical significance, i.e. >6%. Severe disease requires immunosuppressive or plasma exchange therapy. HCV prevalence in the United States in patients with porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) was reported to be 66%, much higher than that in general population. Therefore, all patients with PCT should be screened for HCV. The skin rash of PCT varies from large blisters to small vesicles and/or milia on the hands. Skin manifestations due to PCT usually respond to anti‐HCV treatment together with reducing skin sun exposure, avoiding triggers, having routine phlebotomy (especially for people with chronic iron overload states), and using chloroquine. Lichen planus (LP), which typically affects both the skin and oral mucosa is a chronic inflammatory disease of squamous cell origin affecting about 1% of the worldwide population. The prevalence of HCV in patients with LP varies based on geographic location. We review here the basic pathophysiology, clinical features, and management of dermatologic manifestations of HCV. PMID:26357639

  16. JNK REGULATION OF HEPATIC MANIFESTATIONS OF THE METABOLIC SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Czaja, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now recognized as both an important component of the metabolic syndrome and the most prevalent liver disease in the United States. Although the mechanisms for development of steatosis and chronic liver injury in NAFLD remain unclear, recent investigations have indicated that overactivation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is critical to this process. These findings, together with evidence for the involvement of JNK signaling in other manifestations of the metabolic syndrome such as obesity and insulin resistance, have suggested that JNK may be a novel therapeutic target in this disorder. This review details findings that JNK mediates lipid accumulation and cell injury in fatty liver disease and discusses the possible cellular mechanisms of JNK actions. PMID:20888782

  17. Central nervous system leukemia and lymphoma: computed tomographic manifestations

    SciTech Connect

    Pagani, J.J.; Libshitz, H.I.; Wallace, S.; Hayman, L.A.

    1981-12-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) abnormalities in the brain were identified in 31 of 405 patients with leukemia or lymphoma. Abnormalities included neoplastic masses (15), hemorrhage (nine), abscess (two), other brain tumors (four), and methotrexate leukoencephalopathy (one). CT was normal in 374 patients including 148 with meningeal disease diagnosed by cerebrospinal fluid cytologic examination. Prior to treatment, malignant masses were isodense or of greater density with varying amounts of edema. Increase in size or number of the masses indicated worsening. Response to radiation and chemotherapy was manifested by development of a central low density region with an enhancing rim. CT findings correlated with clinical and cerebrospinal fluid findings. The differential diagnosis of the various abnormalities is considered.

  18. Chronic polyarthritis as isolated manifestation of toxocariasis.

    PubMed

    Viola, Gabriela R; Giacomin, Maria Fernanda A; França, Camila M P; Sallum, Adriana M E; Jacob, Cristina M A; Silva, Clovis A

    2016-01-01

    Human toxocariasis is a parasitic zoonosis mainly caused by Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati and is acquired by ingestion of the parasite's embryonated eggs. Arthralgia and/or arthritis were reported in up to 17% of the cases, generally with acute duration (less than 6 weeks). However, to our knowledge, chronic polyarthritis, as the isolated presentation of Toxocara infection, was not reported. One of the 5809 patients that was followed up at our service (0.017%) had chronic polyarthritis as the single manifestation of toxocariasis and was described herein. A 3-year-old girl was referred to our service with severe painful chronic polyarthritis for a period longer than 10 weeks and morning stiffness of 30min. Dog contact exposure history in the recreational areas of neighborhood was reported. Her exams showed high levels of eosinophils in peripheral blood (29%), bone marrow aspirate revealed marked eosinophilia (32%) and Toxocara enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa) was positive (1:1280). She was treated with paracetamol (40mg/kg/day) and thiabendazole (25mg/kg/day) for 10 days, and all manifestations reduced. After eight months of follow-up, she was on clinical and laboratorial remission. In conclusion, we described a case of chronic polyarthritis, as isolated manifestation of toxocariasis, mimicking juvenile idiopathic arthritis and leukemia. Importantly, this zoonosis should be considered in patients with arthritis and eosinophilia. PMID:27267534

  19. Rare Neurological Manifestation of Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Uzma; Imdad, Aamer; Beg, Mirza

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disease characterized by permanent gastrointestinal tract sensitivity to gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. It has varied clinical manifestations, ranging from gastrointestinal to extraintestinal, including neurological, skin, reproductive and psychiatric symptoms, which makes its diagnosis difficult and challenging. Known neurological manifestations of CD include epilepsy with or without occipital calcification, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and ataxia, headache, neuropathies and behavior disorders. We present the case of a 14-year-old female with headaches and blurred vision for 1 year; she was noted to have papilledema on ophthalmic examination with increased cerebrospinal fluid opening pressure on lumber puncture and was diagnosed as a case of pseudotumor cerebri (PTC). Meanwhile her workup for chronic constipation revealed elevated tissue transglutaminase IgA and antiendomysial IgA antibodies. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with duodenal biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of CD. The patient was started on a gluten-free diet, leading to resolution of not only gastrointestinal symptoms but also to almost complete resolution of symptoms of PTC. This report describes the correlation of CD and PTC as its neurological manifestation. PMID:26120302

  20. Skin Manifestations of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Brian L.; Chandra, Stephanie; Shih, David Quan

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a disease that affects the intestinal tract via an inflammatory process. Patients who suffer from IBD often have diseases that affect multiple other organ systems as well. These are called extraintestinal manifestations and can be just as, if not more debilitating than the intestinal inflammation itself. The skin is one of the most commonly affected organ systems in patients who suffer from IBD. The scientific literature suggests that a disturbance of the equilibrium between host defense and tolerance, and the subsequent over-activity of certain immune pathways are responsible for the cutaneous disorders seen so frequently in IBD patients. The purpose of this review article is to give an overview of the types of skin diseases that are typically seen with IBD and their respective pathogenesis, proposed mechanisms, and treatments. These cutaneous disorders can manifest as metastatic lesions, reactive processes to the intestinal inflammation, complications of IBD itself, or side effects from IBD treatments; these can be associated with IBD via genetic linkage, common autoimmune processes, or other mechanisms that will be discussed in this article. Ultimately, it is important for healthcare providers to understand that skin manifestations should always be checked and evaluated for in patients with IBD. Furthermore, skin disorders can predate gastrointestinal symptoms and thus may serve as important clinical indicators leading physicians to earlier diagnosis of IBD. PMID:22347192

  1. Mitochondrial DNA, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cardiac manifestations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Ryul; Kim, Nari; Noh, Yeonhee; Xu, Zhelong; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Han, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria, the powerhouses of cells, have their own DNA (mtDNA). They regulate the transport of metabolites and ions, which determine cell physiology, survival, and death. Mitochondrial dysfunction, including impaired oxidative phosphorylation, preferentially affects heart function via imbalance of energy supply and demand. Recently, mitochondrial mutations and associated mitochondrial dysfunction were suggested as a causal factor of cardiac manifestations. Oxidative stress largely influences mtDNA stability due to oxidative modifications of mtDNA. Furthermore, the continuous replicative state of mtDNA and presence of minimal nucleoid structure render mitochondria vulnerable to oxidative damage and subsequent mutations, which impair mitochondrial functions. However, the occurrence of mtDNA heteroplasmy in the same mitochondrion or cell and presence of nuclear DNA-encoded mtDNA repair systems raise questions regarding whether oxidative stress-mediated mtDNA mutations are the major driving force in accumulation of mtDNA mutations. Here, we address the possible causes of mitochondrial DNA mutations and their involvement in cardiac manifestations. Current strategies for treatment related to mitochondrial mutations and/or dysfunction in cardiac manifestations are briefly discussed. PMID:27100514

  2. Mandibular and Dental Manifestations of Gaucher Disease

    PubMed Central

    Saranjam, Hamid R.; Sidransky, Ellen; Levine, William Z.; Zimran, Ari; Elstein, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Gaucher disease is a systemic lysosomal storage disorder with a high prevalence among Ashkenazi Jews. It is caused by an inherited deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase. Common signs and symptoms include hepatosplenomegaly, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and skeletal involvement. Oral and dental manifestations are less commonly seen. These manifestations are often asymptomatic, although they may be detected by routine dental x-rays. There are several case reports and a few larger series published describing patients with Gaucher disease who have mandibulo-maxillofacial involvement. This review aims to examine the oral manifestations observed in Gaucher disease and to suggest practical guidelines for dealing with these often worrisome signs. Among the critical issues are the benign nature of Gaucher cell infiltration of the mandible and the critical importance of being prepared for post-procedure bleeding and/or infections. Therefore, it is essential that dental practitioners be aware of the possible oral and dental complications of Gaucher disease, as well as the available treatment modalities. PMID:22251146

  3. Fetal and maternal manifestations of tuberous sclerosis complex: Value of fetal MRI.

    PubMed

    Goel, Reema; Aggarwal, Nishant; Lemmon, Monica E; Bosemani, Thangamadhan

    2016-02-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder characterized by benign hamartomas in various organ systems of the body. Prenatal screening of fetuses of mothers affected with TSC using ultrasonography (US) may detect cardiac lesions. Fetal US is not sensitive for evaluation of the brain. We describe brain MRI findings in a fetus with cardiac rhabdomyomas identified on prenatal screening US. Postnatal brain MRI at 5 days of age demonstrated fetal MRI findings without significant added information. Fetal MRI is the imaging modality of choice for evaluation of cerebral manifestations of TSC. Maternal manifestations of TSC in the abdomen or pelvis may also be demonstrated on fetal MRI. PMID:26838171

  4. Nanogold Labeling of the Yeast Endosomal System for Ultrastructural Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Mari, Muriel; Griffith, Janice; Reggiori, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    Endosomes are one of the major membrane sorting checkpoints in eukaryotic cells and they regulate recycling or destruction of proteins mostly from the plasma membrane and the Golgi. As a result the endosomal system plays a central role in maintaining cell homeostasis, and mutations in genes belonging to this network of organelles interconnected by vesicular transport, cause severe pathologies including cancer and neurobiological disorders. It is therefore of prime relevance to understand the mechanisms underlying the biogenesis and organization of the endosomal system. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been pivotal in this task. To specifically label and analyze at the ultrastructural level the endosomal system of this model organism, we present here a detailed protocol for the positively charged nanogold uptake by spheroplasts followed by the visualization of these particles through a silver enhancement reaction. This method is also a valuable tool for the morphological examination of mutants with defects in endosomal trafficking. Moreover, it is not only applicable for ultrastructural examinations but it can also be combined with immunogold labelings for protein localization investigations. PMID:25046212

  5. Vanadium induced ultrastructural changes and apoptosis in male germ cells.

    PubMed

    Aragón, M A; Ayala, M E; Fortoul, T I; Bizarro, P; Altamirano-Lozano, M

    2005-01-01

    Vanadium is a transition metal that is emitted to the atmosphere during combustion of fossil fuels. In the environment, vanadium occurs in the (V) oxidized form, but in the body it is found exclusively in the (IV) oxidized form. Vanadium tetraoxide is an inorganic chemical species in the (IV) oxidized form that has been shown to induce toxic effects in vitro and in vivo. The reproductive toxicity of vanadium in males was studied through monitoring germ cell apoptosis during spermatogenesis. We analyzed ultrastructural damage, and testosterone and progesterone concentrations following vanadium tetraoxide administered to male mice for 60 days. Spermatogenesis stages I-III and X-XII frequently showed apoptotic germ cells in control and treated animals; vanadium tetraoxide treatment induced an increase in the number of germ cell apoptosis in stages I-III and XII at 9.4 and 18.8 mg/kg, respectively. Although spermatogenesis is regulated by testosterone, in our study this hormone level was not modified by vanadium administration; thus, germ cell death was not related with testosterone concentration. At the ultrastructural level, we observed inclusion structures that varied as to location and content in the Sertoli and germ cells. PMID:15808796

  6. Ultrastructural alterations during embryonic rats' lung development caused by ozone.

    PubMed

    López, Irma; Sánchez, Ivonne; Bizarro, Patricia; Acevedo, Sandra; Ustarroz, Martha; Fortoul, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Ozone (O3) is an oxidizing agent that acts on phospholipids, proteins and sugars of cellular membranes producing free radicals, which cause oxidative damages. The O3 exposure has been used as a model to study oxidative stress, in which the respiratory airways represent the entrance to the organism. In this study, ultrastructural alterations were identified at the bronchiolar level during the intra-uterine lung development, using an O3 exposure model in pregnant rats during 18, 20 and 21 days of gestation. Twelve pregnant Wistar rats, six controls and six exposed to 1 ppm O3 inhalation during 12 h per day, were used. The rats were sacrificed at gestational days 18, 20 and 21; the fetuses were obtained and their lungs dissected. The ultrastructural analysis evidenced swollen mitochondria, cytoplasmic vacuolization of the epithelial cells and structural disorder caused by the oxidative stress. At gestation day 20, flake-off epithelial cells and laminar bodies in the bronchiolar lumen were observed. In the 21-gestation-day group, the mitochondria were edematous and their cristae were disrupted by the damage caused in mitochondrial membranes. PMID:18083976

  7. Inter-relationships of haplosporidians deduced from ultrastructural studies.

    PubMed

    Hine, P M; Carnegie, R B; Burreson, E M; Engelsma, M Y

    2009-02-25

    We reviewed papers reporting haplosporidian ultrastructure to compare inter-relationships based on ultrastructure with those based on molecular data, to identify features that may be important in haplosporidian taxonomy, and to consider parasite taxonomy in relation to host taxonomy. There were links between the following: (1) the plasmodia of an abalone parasite, Haplosporidium nelsoni and Urosporidium crescens in the release of haplosporosomes; (2) H. costale and H. armoricanum in haplosporosome shape and presence and shape of Golgi in spores; (3) basal asporous crustacean haplosporidians which form haplosporosomes from formative bodies (FBs) in vegetative stages--H. nelsoni, which forms haplosporosomes from FBs in plasmodial cytoplasm, and H. louisiana, Minchinia spp. and Bonamia perspora, which form haplosporosomes from FBs in spores; (4) crustacean haplosporidians, Bonamia spp. and M. occulta in the predominance of uni- and binucleate stages; and (5) lipid-like vesicles in sporoplasms of H. costale, H. armoricanum, H. lusitanicum, H. pickfordi, H. montforti, and B. perspora. In general, these relationships reflect phylogenies based on molecular studies. As well as spore form and ornamentation, haplosporogenesis in spores appears to be taxonomically important. Parasite and host taxonomy were linked in the infection of lower invertebrates by Urosporidium spp., the infection of oysters by Bonamia spp., and of molluscs by Minchinia spp. Haplosporidium spp. are patently an artificial, paraphyletic group probably comprising many taxa. Consequently, the taxonomy of haplosporidians needs a thorough revision. PMID:19402456

  8. Ultrastructural comparison of Bonamia spp. (Haplosporidia) infecting ostreid oysters.

    PubMed

    Hine, P M; Carnegie, R B; Kroeck, M A; Villalba, A; Engelsma, M Y; Burreson, E M

    2014-07-24

    The ultrastructure of Bonamia from Ostrea angasi from Australia, Crassostrea ariakensis from the USA, O. puelchana from Argentina and O. edulis from Spain was compared with described Bonamia spp. All appear conspecific with B. exitiosa. The Bonamia sp. from Chile had similarities to the type B. exitiosa from New Zealand (NZ), but less so than the other forms recognized as B. exitiosa. Two groups of ultrastructural features were identified; those associated with metabolism (mitochondrial profiles, lipid droplets and endoplasmic reticulum), and those associated with haplosporogenesis (Golgi, indentations in the nuclear surface, the putative trans-Golgi network, perinuclear granular material and haplosporosome-like bodies). Metabolic features were regarded as having little taxonomic value, and as the process of haplosporogenesis is not understood, only haplosporosome shape and size may be of taxonomic value. However, the uni-nucleate stages of spore-forming haplosporidians are poorly known and may be confused with Bonamia spp. uni-nucleate stages. The many forms of NZ B. exitiosa have not been observed in other hosts, which may indicate that it has a plastic life cycle. Although there are similarities between NZ B. exitiosa and Chilean Bonamia in the development of a larger uni-nucleate stage and the occurrence of cylindrical confronting cisternae, the clarification of the identity of Chilean Bonamia must await molecular studies. PMID:25060497

  9. Collyricloides massanae (Digenea, Collyriclidae): spermatozoon ultrastructure and phylogenetic importance

    PubMed Central

    Bakhoum, Abdoulaye Jacque; Quilichini, Yann; Miquel, Jordi; Feliu, Carlos; Bâ, Cheikh Tidiane; Marchand, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The spermatological characteristics of Collyricloides massanae (Digenea: Collyriclidae), a parasite of Apodemus sylvaticus caught in France, were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy. The mature sperm of C. massanae presents two axonemes of different lengths with the 9 + “1” pattern of the Trepaxonemata, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, spine-like bodies, one mitochondrion, a nucleus and granules of glycogen. An analysis of spermatological organisation emphasised some differences between the mature spermatozoon of C. massanae and those reported in the Gorgoderoidea species studied to date, specially belonging to the families Dicrocoeliidae, Paragonimidae and Troglotrematidae. The ultrastructural criteria described in C. massanae such as the morphology of both anterior and posterior spermatozoon extremities, the association “external ornamentation + cortical microtubules”, the type 2 of external ornamentation and the spine-like bodies would allow us to bring closer the Collyriclidae to Microphalloidea. However, further ultrastructural and molecular studies are needed particularly in the unexplored taxa in order to fully resolve the phylogenetic position of the Collyriclidae. PMID:25394323

  10. Ultrastructural study on the granulocytes of Uttara fowl (Gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Mohd, Khan Idrees; Mrigesh, Meena; Singh, Balwinder; Singh, Ishwar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to know the ultrastructural detail of the blood cells of Uttara fowl (native fowl of Uttarakhand). Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted on 10 apparently healthy adult birds of either sex reared at the Instructional Poultry Farm, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand. The blood was collected from wing vein using ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid as anticoagulant. The blood was further processed for scanning and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies separately. Results: Ultrastructurally, the heterophils were irregularly round in shape. The cytoplasm was laden with pleomorphic membrane-bound granules, viz., large elliptical-, medium oval-, large round-, and medium round-shaped granules. The eosinophils under TEM were irregularly circular in outline showing pseudopodia and finger-like cytoplasmic processes. The cytoplasmic granules were pleomorphic with elliptical-, round-, and rod-shaped granules. The basophils were irregularly circular in outline containing small hook-like cytoplasmic processes. The cytoplasm contained electron dense and electron lucent round-shaped granules. Conclusion: Granulocytes contained pleomorphic cytoplasmic granules. However, the shape and electron density of granules varied among the different granulocytes and helped in the characterization of different granulocytes. PMID:27057119

  11. Ultrastructural characteristics of human adult and infant cerebral cortical neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Ong, W Y; Garey, L J

    1991-01-01

    Biopsy specimens of human cerebral cortex from three adults and two infants were studied by correlating their light microscopic features in semithin sections with their ultrastructural characteristics. There was good tissue preservation, due to a minimum delay between obtaining the specimens and fixation. Pyramidal cells had a prominent apical dendrite, fine heterochromatin clumps in the nucleus and generally small numbers of cytoplasmic organelles, except for numerous free ribosomes in some of the large pyramids of Layers III to VI. Non-pyramidal cells lacked an apical dendrite and were further classified, on size and ultrastructure, into small, medium and large types. Large numbers of asymmetrical and symmetrical synapses were present in the neuropil but very few axosomatic synapses were found in the human cerebral cortex compared with subhuman primates and other mammals. Some symmetrical synapses were characterised by the presence of wide pre- and postsynaptic densities. The same general features of the adult cortex were also encountered in the infant, with certain exceptions. Many of the infant neurons had less densely packed heterochromatin, but greater numbers of free ribosomes, compared with the adult, and lipofuscin was absent. There was a total absence of myelinated fibres from the infant cortex; more large diameter dendrites were present than in the adult and axosomatic synapses were commoner. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:2050578

  12. [SPLEEN ORGAN-PRESERVING SURGERIES - ORGAN HISTO- ULTRASTRUCTURE].

    PubMed

    Amiranidze, M; Sumbadze, Ts; Sikharulidze, I; Gvidani, S; Markaryan, S

    2015-12-01

    The aim of our work is to study the functional activity of the spleen according to the histological and ultrastructural features of the organ as an indicator of the functional viability. Experiments performed using 36 white male rats (body mass 130-160 g.). 40-60% of the rat splenic tissue was removed by laparotomy under ether anesthesia. The rats were euthanized under general anesthesia after 1, 7, 15, 30, 90 and 180 days after surgery. Histological sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Ultrathin sections were studied by the electron microscope TESLA BS 500 with 4000 to 14000 magnification. It is shown that the significant changes in the spleen after organ - preserving surgery are the microcirculatiry disturbance in the first day of the experiment with the ewerblow cells to the bloodstream, a phenomenon of adhesion, which blocked blood circulation. The thickness of the capsule and the weight of the spleen do not reach the initiae values, but histo- and ultrastructural data suggest developins of defense function of the spleen and expediency of organ-preserving surgery. PMID:26719558

  13. Ultrastructural changes of goat corpus luteum during the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi-Fan; Hsu, Meng-Chieh; Cheng, Chiung-Hsiang; Tsui, Kuan-Hao; Chiu, Chih-Hsien

    2016-07-01

    The present study was designed to study the ultrastructure of goat corpora lutea (CL, n=10) and structural changes as related to steroidogenic functions during the estrous cycle. The reproduction status of goats was estimated by analyzing serum progesterone concentrations. The CL at various stages was surgically collected. To characterize ultrastructural features associated with steroidogenesis, tissue and cellular structures were studied. Blood supplies were examined based on features of the endothelial cells and capillary structures in the CL. Activated endothelial cells and developing vessels were observed in the early stage, whereas mature endothelial cells, accumulating extracellular matrix fibers, and stabilized vessels were observed in the middle and late stages of assessment. In the late stage of assessment, shrunken goat luteal cells scattered around the capillaries were detected and formed circular regression areas. Features of autophagy and luteal cell apoptosis were noted. In large luteal cells, steroidogenic organelles were present, including microvillar channels, endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria. Conformational changes in the endoplasmic reticulum and increased mitochondria with tubular cristae were observed in the early-middle CL transitions. In contrast, mitochondria swelled and the cristae transformed to the lamellar type in the late stage, suggesting that organelle plasticity could contribute to steroidogenesis in goat CL. In conclusion, results suggest angiogenesis occurs in early developing CL and programmed cell death occurred in the late stage of CL assessment in the present study. Structures and quantiles of steroidogenic organelles are correlated with the steroidogenic functions in goats. PMID:27102356

  14. Ultrastructural observation of oocytes in six types of stony corals.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Sujune; Chang, Wei-Chieh; Chavanich, Suchana; Viyakarn, Voranop; Lin, Chiahsin

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the ultrastructure of the oocytes of 6 types of scleractinian corals was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Moreover, histological and ultrastructural analyses were performed to improve our understanding of the organelles involved in coral oocyte formation. In all 6 stony coral species, the microvilli were tubular and directly grew from the surface of the oocyte membrane; yolk bodies, lipid granules, and cortical alveoli accounted for most of the volume inside the oocytes, suggesting that they are associated with energy storage and buoyancy. Clear differences were observed in the size of yolk bodies and lipid granules in the oocytes of the 6 stony coral species, which occupied approximately 55%-80% of the inner space of the oocytes. Galaxea fascicularis exhibited the largest lipid granule volume, but the oocytes contained only an average number of 12.45 lipid granules per unit area. Only Montipora incrassata oocytes contained symbiotic algae. The smallest size and proportion of lipid granules in M. incrassata oocytes may be attributed to the presence of symbiotic algae and large yolk bodies, which may help oocytes produce energy and function as a nutritional source. This study is crucial for improving the understanding of the basic biology of coral reproduction, and the ensuing datasets is critical for conservation-oriented studies seeking to cryopreserve corals during these times of dramatic global climate change. PMID:27265208

  15. Ultrastructural Changes of the Smooth Muscle in Esophageal Atresia.

    PubMed

    Al-Shraim, Mubarak M; Eid, Refaat A; Musalam, Adel Osman; Radad, Khaled; Ibrahim, Ashraf H M; Malki, Talal A

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal atresia (EA) with or without tracheo-esophageal fistula (TEF) is a relatively rare congenital anomaly. Despite the advances in the management techniques and neonatal intensive care, esophageal dysmotility remains a very common problem following EA/TEF repair. Our current study aimed to describe the most significant ultrastructural changes of the smooth muscle cells (SMCs) trying to highlight some of the underlying mechanisms of esophageal dysmotility following EA/TEF repair. Twenty-three biopsies were obtained from the tip of the lower esophageal pouch (LEP) of 23 patients during primary repair of EA/TEF. Light microscopic examination was performed with hematoxylin and eosin (HE), and Van Gieson's stains. Ultrastructural examination was done using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Histopathological examination showed distortion of smooth muscle layer and deposition of an abundant amount of fibrous tissue in-between smooth muscles. Using TEM, SMCs exhibited loss of the cell-to-cell adhesion, mitochondrial vacuolation, formation of myelin figures, and apoptotic fragmentation. There were also plasmalemmal projections and formation of ghost bodies. Interestingly, SMCs were found extending pseudopodia-like projections around adjacent collagen fibers. Engulfed collagen fibers by SMCs underwent degradation within autophagic vacuoles. Degeneration of SMCs and deposition of abundant extracellular collagen fibers are prominent pathological changes in LEP of EA/TEF. These changes might contribute to the pathogenesis of esophageal dysmotility in patients who have survived EA/TEF. PMID:26548437

  16. Spermatozoon ultrastructure of Thysanotaenia congolensis (Cyclophyllidea, Anoplocephalidae, Inermicapsiferinae): phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Miquel, Jordi; Świderski, Zdzisław; Feliu, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    The mature spermatozoon of Thysanotaenia congolensis, an intestinal parasite of black rat Rattus rattus from Cape Verde, is described by means of transmission electron microscopy. The ultrastructural organization of the sperm cell of T. congolensis follows Levron et al.'s type VII of the Eucestoda. It corresponds to a uniflagellate spermatozoon that presents crested bodies, periaxonemal sheath and intracytoplasmic walls, spiralled cortical microtubules and nucleus spiralled around the axoneme. These characteristics are also present in the spermatozoa of other inermicapsiferines and differ from the characters found in species belonging to the remaining subfamilies of anoplocephalids, namely Anoplocephalinae, Linstowiinae and Thysanosomatinae. Several authors consider the family Anoplocephalidae as a polyphyletic group, and its relationships with the Davaineidae are a matter of controversy. The phylogenetic implications of spermatological ultrastructural features present in inermicapsiferines and in the remaining anoplocephalids are discussed, and the available data on anoplocephalids are compared to similar results in davaineids in order to contribute to a better knowledge of relationships between these cyclophyllidean families. PMID:27083191

  17. Cyanobacterial ultrastructure in light of genomic sequence data.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Esquer, C R; Smarda, J; Rippka, R; Axen, S D; Guglielmi, G; Gugger, M; Kerfeld, C A

    2016-08-01

    Cyanobacteria are physiologically and morphologically diverse photosynthetic microbes that play major roles in the carbon and nitrogen cycles of the biosphere. Recently, they have gained attention as potential platforms for the production of biofuels and other renewable chemicals. Many cyanobacteria were characterized morphologically prior to the advent of genome sequencing. Here, we catalog cyanobacterial ultrastructure within the context of genomic sequence information, including high-magnification transmission electron micrographs that represent the diversity in cyanobacterial morphology. We place the image data in the context of tabulated protein domains-which are the structural, functional, and evolutionary units of proteins-from the 126 cyanobacterial genomes comprising the CyanoGEBA dataset. In particular, we identify the correspondence between ultrastructure and the occurrence of genes encoding protein domains related to the formation of cyanobacterial inclusions. This compilation of images and genome-level domain occurrence will prove useful for a variety of analyses of cyanobacterial sequence data and provides a guidebook to morphological features. PMID:27344651

  18. Ultrastructural Analysis of Candida albicans When Exposed to Silver Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Muñoz, Roberto; Avalos-Borja, Miguel; Castro-Longoria, Ernestina

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen in humans, and recently some studies have reported the antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against some Candida species. However, ultrastructural analyses on the interaction of AgNPs with these microorganisms have not been reported. In this work we evaluated the effect of AgNPs on C. albicans, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was found to have a fungicidal effect. The IC50 was also determined, and the use of AgNPs with fluconazole (FLC), a fungistatic drug, reduced cell proliferation. In order to understand how AgNPs interact with living cells, the ultrastructural distribution of AgNPs in this fungus was determined. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed a high accumulation of AgNPs outside the cells but also smaller nanoparticles (NPs) localized throughout the cytoplasm. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis confirmed the presence of intracellular silver. From our results it is assumed that AgNPs used in this study do not penetrate the cell, but instead release silver ions that infiltrate into the cell leading to the formation of NPs through reduction by organic compounds present in the cell wall and cytoplasm. PMID:25290909

  19. Ultrastructural changes in dysferlinopathy support defective membrane repair mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Cenacchi, G; Fanin, M; De Giorgi, L B; Angelini, C

    2005-01-01

    Background: The dysferlin gene has recently been shown to be involved in limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B and its allelic disease, Miyoshi myopathy, both of which are characterised by an active muscle degeneration and regeneration process. Dysferlin is known to play an essential role in skeletal muscle fibre repair, but the process underlying the pathogenetic mechanism of dysferlinopathy is not completely understood. Aims: To define both specific alterations of muscle fibres and a possible sequential mechanism of myopathy development. Methods: A histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural analysis of 10 muscle biopsies from patients with molecularly diagnosed dysferlinopathy. Results: An inflammatory response was seen in most of the muscle biopsies. The immunohistochemical pattern demonstrated active regeneration and inflammation. Non-necrotic fibres showed alterations at different submicroscopic levels, namely: the sarcolemma and basal lamina, subsarcolemmal region, and sarcoplasmic compartment. In the subsarcolemmal region there were prominent aggregations of small vesicles, probably derived from the Golgi apparatus, which consisted of empty, swollen cisternae. In the sarcolemma there were many gaps and microvilli-like projections, whereas the basal lamina was multilayered. Conclusions: The histopathological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural data show that dysferlinopathy is characterised by a very active inflammatory/degenerative process, possibly associated with an inefficient repair and regenerative system. The presence of many crowded vesicles just beneath the sarcolemma provides submicroscopical proof of a defective resealing mechanism, which fails to repair the sarcolemma. PMID:15677541

  20. Neurologic Manifestations of Enterovirus 71 Infection in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Yeon; Lee, Myoung Sook; Kim, Dong Bin

    2016-04-01

    Enterovirus 71 frequently involves the central nervous system and may present with a variety of neurologic manifestations. Here, we aimed to describe the clinical features, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) profiles of patients presenting with neurologic complications of enterovirus 71 infection. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 31 pediatric patients hospitalized with acute neurologic manifestations accompanied by confirmed enterovirus 71 infection at Ulsan University Hospital between 2010 and 2014. The patients' mean age was 2.9 ± 5.5 years (range, 18 days to 12 years), and 80.6% of patients were less than 4 years old. Based on their clinical features, the patients were classified into 4 clinical groups: brainstem encephalitis (n = 21), meningitis (n = 7), encephalitis (n = 2), and acute flaccid paralysis (n = 1). The common neurologic symptoms included myoclonus (58.1%), lethargy (54.8%), irritability (54.8%), vomiting (48.4%), ataxia (38.7%), and tremor (35.5%). Twenty-five patients underwent an MRI scan; of these, 14 (56.0%) revealed the characteristic increased T2 signal intensity in the posterior region of the brainstem and bilateral cerebellar dentate nuclei. Twenty-six of 30 patients (86.7%) showed CSF pleocytosis. Thirty patients (96.8%) recovered completely without any neurologic deficits; one patient (3.2%) died due to pulmonary hemorrhage and shock. In the present study, brainstem encephalitis was the most common neurologic manifestation of enterovirus 71 infection. The characteristic clinical symptoms such as myoclonus, ataxia, and tremor in conjunction with CSF pleocytosis and brainstem lesions on MR images are pathognomonic for diagnosis of neurologic involvement by enterovirus 71 infection. PMID:27051240

  1. Neurologic Manifestations of Enterovirus 71 Infection in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 frequently involves the central nervous system and may present with a variety of neurologic manifestations. Here, we aimed to describe the clinical features, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) profiles of patients presenting with neurologic complications of enterovirus 71 infection. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 31 pediatric patients hospitalized with acute neurologic manifestations accompanied by confirmed enterovirus 71 infection at Ulsan University Hospital between 2010 and 2014. The patients’ mean age was 2.9 ± 5.5 years (range, 18 days to 12 years), and 80.6% of patients were less than 4 years old. Based on their clinical features, the patients were classified into 4 clinical groups: brainstem encephalitis (n = 21), meningitis (n = 7), encephalitis (n = 2), and acute flaccid paralysis (n = 1). The common neurologic symptoms included myoclonus (58.1%), lethargy (54.8%), irritability (54.8%), vomiting (48.4%), ataxia (38.7%), and tremor (35.5%). Twenty-five patients underwent an MRI scan; of these, 14 (56.0%) revealed the characteristic increased T2 signal intensity in the posterior region of the brainstem and bilateral cerebellar dentate nuclei. Twenty-six of 30 patients (86.7%) showed CSF pleocytosis. Thirty patients (96.8%) recovered completely without any neurologic deficits; one patient (3.2%) died due to pulmonary hemorrhage and shock. In the present study, brainstem encephalitis was the most common neurologic manifestation of enterovirus 71 infection. The characteristic clinical symptoms such as myoclonus, ataxia, and tremor in conjunction with CSF pleocytosis and brainstem lesions on MR images are pathognomonic for diagnosis of neurologic involvement by enterovirus 71 infection. PMID:27051240

  2. The Spectrum of Parkinsonian Manifestations Associated With Glucocerebrosidase Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Goker-Alpan, Ozlem; Lopez, Grisel; Vithayathil, Joseph; Davis, Joie; Hallett, Mark; Sidransky, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Background Mutations in the glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA) result in Gaucher disease and can be associated with a phenotype characterized by adult-onset progressive neurologic deterioration and parkinsonism. Objective To define the clinical and neurologic spectrum of parkinsonian manifestations associated with GBA mutations. Design, Setting, and Patients A prospective case series of 10 patients (7 men and 3 women) with parkinsonism and GBA mutations evaluated at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. Main Outcome Measures The GBA genotypes were identified by means of DNA sequencing. Tests evaluating neurologic, motor, cognitive, ocular, and olfactory functions were performed and the results were analyzed by a single team. Results Genotyping identified GBA mutations N370S, L444P, and c.84dupG and recombinant alleles. The mean age at onset of parkinsonian manifestations was 49 years (range, 39–65 years), disease duration was 7.8 years (range, 1.2–16.0 years), and Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale part III score was 26.3 (range, 13–38). Half of the patients reported cognitive changes later in the disease course. Six patients were diagnosed as having Parkinson disease, 3 as having Lewy body dementia, and 1 as having a “Parkinson plus” syndrome. The most frequent nonmotor finding was olfactory dysfunction. Atypical manifestations included myoclonus, electroencephalographic abnormalities, and seizures. Conclusions In the homozygous and heterozygous states, GBA mutations are associated with a spectrum of parkinsonian phenotypes ranging from Parkinson disease, mostly of the akinetic type, to a less common phenotype characteristic of Lewy body dementia. PMID:18852351

  3. Congenital retrosternal hernias of Morgagni: Manifestation and treatment in children

    PubMed Central

    Slepov, Oleksii; Kurinnyi, Sergii; Ponomarenko, Oleksii; Migur, Mikhailo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to scarcity of congenital diaphragmatic hearnias of Morgagni (CDHM), non-specific clinical presentation in the pediatric age group, we aimed to investigate the incidence, clinical manifestations, anatomical characteristics, and develop diagnostic algorithm and treatment of CDHM in children. Materials and Methods: The patients’ records of children with CDHM treated in our hospital during past 20 years were retrospectively reviewed for the age at diagnosis, gender, clinical findings, anatomical features, operative details and outcome. Results: Since 1995 to 2014 we observed 6 (3 boys, 3 girls) patients with CDHM, that comprise 3.2% of all congenital diaphragmatic hernia cases (n = 185). Age at diagnosis varied from 3 mo. to 10y.o. Failure to thrive was main symptom in 4 patients, followed by recurrent respiratory infections (n = 3), dyspnea (n = 3), and gastrointestinal manifestations: constipation (n = 2), abdominal pain (n = 1). Work-up consisted of plain X-ray for all (n = 6), upper GI (n = 3), barium enema (n = 2), sonography (n = 6) and CT (n = 2). Abdominal approach used in 5 patients, and thoracotomy in one. Herniated contents were: liver lobes (n = 4), transverse colon (n = 3) and greater omentum (n = 1). 5 had right-sided lesion, 1- left-sided. Defect repaired using local tissues. Post-operative course was uneventful; all patients appeared well during follow-up. Conclusion: CDHM is very uncommon anomaly, very occasionally diagnosed at the early age. Failure to thrive and recurrent respiratory infections are most frequent clinical manifestations. In suspected CDHM we advocate the following work-up: plain chest and abdominal X-ray, contrast study (upper GI series or barium enema), ultrasonographic screen and CT scan. Surgical repair via abdominal approach, using local tissues and hernia sac removal is preferred. PMID:27251653

  4. Microbodies (Glyoxysomes and Peroxisomes) in Cucumber Cotyledons: Correlative Biochemical and Ultrastructural Study in Light- and Dark-grown Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Trelease, R N; Becker, W M; Gruber, P J; Newcomb, E H

    1971-10-01

    do not increase as they do in the light, an opportunity is afforded to compare quantitatively any changes in numbers of microbodies per cell with the changes in activities of glyoxysomal enzymes. It is found that the magnitude of the decrease in numbers of microbodies is considerably less than that of the decrease in glyoxysomal enzyme activities between days 4 and 10. When the cotyledons are exposed to light, peroxisomal enzyme activities increase greatly, but again there is no ultrastructural evidence for the synthesis of a new population of microbodies to accommodate this increase. These results allow us to conclude that the developmental transition from glyoxysomal to peroxisomal function almost certainly does not involve the actual replacement of one population of microbodies by another. Rather, the transition probably occurs within existing particles, either by a sequential functioning of two different kinds of microbodies or by a change in enzyme complement within a single population. Our findings with both light- and dark-grown cotyledons favor the latter possibility. The cytoplasmic invaginations into microbodies seen during greening of both light-grown cotyledons and etiolated cotyledons exposed to light may be morphological manifestations of the mechanism by which the microbodies lose or gain enzymes. PMID:16657820

  5. Changes in chloroplast lipid contents and chloroplast ultrastructure in Sulla carnosa and Sulla coronaria leaves under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Bejaoui, Fatma; Salas, Joaquín J; Nouairi, Issam; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Abdelly, Chedly; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Youssef, Nabil Ben

    2016-07-01

    The possible involvement of chloroplast lipids in the mechanisms of NaCl tolerance was studied in leaves of two varieties of Fabaceae: Sulla carnosa and Sulla coronaria, which were subjected to 200mM NaCl over 20days. Changes in membrane lipid peroxidation, chloroplast lipids content, fatty acids (FA) composition and the ultrastructure of chloroplasts under salt stress were investigated. Chloroplast lipids were separated and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC/ELSD). The results showed that salinity induced a significant decrease in digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and sulfoquinovosylglycerol (SQDG) content in both S. carnosa and S. coronaria leaves, whereas monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) content did not change significantly in S. carnosa leaves. The MGDG/DGDG ratio remained stable in S. coronaria leaves but increased in those of S. carnosa. In addition, the unsaturated-to-saturated fatty acids ratio (UFAs:SFAs) did not change under salt stress in S. coronaria leaves, while it decreased significantly in S. carnosa leaves. Moreover, salinity did not induce significant changes in MGDG and DGDG unsaturation level in S. carnosa leaves, in contrast to S. coronaria, in which salinity seems to enhance the unsaturation level in MGDG, DGDG and PG. Furthermore, the level of membrane lipid peroxidation, as expressed by malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, increased at 200mM in S. carnosa leaves, while it did not change significantly in those of S. coronaria. With respect to the ultrastructure of chloroplasts at 200mM NaCl, investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), salt-stress caused the swelling of thylakoids in S. carnosa mesophyll. These ultrastructural changes were observed especially in the spongy tissue in S. coronaria. Taken together, these findings suggest that the stability of MGDG/DGDG ratio, the unchanged unsaturation level, and increasing unsaturation

  6. Ultrastructural features of endometrial-myometrial interface and its alteration in adenomyosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Zhou, Li; Li, Tin C; Duan, Hua; Yu, Pei; Wang, Hong Y

    2014-01-01

    The endometrial-myometrial interface (EMI) is a specific functional region of uterus. However, our knowledge on EMI ultrastructure both in normal uterus and adenomyosis is far from enough to understand its pathology. In this study, used the samples of EMI and outer myometrium (OM) from the adenomyosis hysterectomy specimens and the subjects from the control uteri, we prospectively compared the ultrastructure of myocytes from EMI and OM, the ultrastructural changes of EMI between the proliferative and secretory phases, and the ultrastructural difference of EMI between adenomyosis and the control group. In both adenomyosis and control group, there were differences in ultrastructure between myocytes from EMI and OM. Specifically, the myocytes from EMI were rich in organelles. In contrast, the myocytes from OM had abundant contractile structural components. In the proliferative phase, the myocytes from EMI in adenomyosis had significantly smaller cell and nucleus diameter than those from the control group, but in the secretory phase, the difference was not significant. In the control group, the various ultrastructural features of myocytes from EMI including the mean diameter of cell and nuclei and the myofilaments/cytoplasm ratio exhibited cyclical changes, but in adenomyosis, the normal cyclical changes were absent. In conclusions, there are significant ultrastructural differences between the myocytes from EMI and OM. The myocytes in women with adenomyosis were significantly different to the control subjects, primarily because the normal cyclical changes were absent. PMID:24817942

  7. Ultrastructural features of endometrial-myometrial interface and its alteration in adenomyosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Zhou, Li; Li, Tin C; Duan, Hua; Yu, Pei; Wang, Hong Y

    2014-01-01

    The endometrial-myometrial interface (EMI) is a specific functional region of uterus. However, our knowledge on EMI ultrastructure both in normal uterus and adenomyosis is far from enough to understand its pathology. In this study, used the samples of EMI and outer myometrium (OM) from the adenomyosis hysterectomy specimens and the subjects from the control uteri, we prospectively compared the ultrastructure of myocytes from EMI and OM, the ultrastructural changes of EMI between the proliferative and secretory phases, and the ultrastructural difference of EMI between adenomyosis and the control group. In both adenomyosis and control group, there were differences in ultrastructure between myocytes from EMI and OM. Specifically, the myocytes from EMI were rich in organelles. In contrast, the myocytes from OM had abundant contractile structural components. In the proliferative phase, the myocytes from EMI in adenomyosis had significantly smaller cell and nucleus diameter than those from the control group, but in the secretory phase, the difference was not significant. In the control group, the various ultrastructural features of myocytes from EMI including the mean diameter of cell and nuclei and the myofilaments/cytoplasm ratio exhibited cyclical changes, but in adenomyosis, the normal cyclical changes were absent. In conclusions, there are significant ultrastructural differences between the myocytes from EMI and OM. The myocytes in women with adenomyosis were significantly different to the control subjects, primarily because the normal cyclical changes were absent. PMID:24817942

  8. Finite element modeling of hyper-viscoelasticity of peripheral nerve ultrastructures.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cheng-Tao; Chen, Yu-Hsing; Lin, Chou-Ching K; Ju, Ming-Shaung

    2015-07-16

    The mechanical characteristics of ultrastructures of rat sciatic nerves were investigated through animal experiments and finite element analyses. A custom-designed dynamic testing apparatus was used to conduct in vitro transverse compression experiments on the nerves. The optical coherence tomography (OCT) was utilized to record the cross-sectional images of nerve during the dynamic testing. Two-dimensional finite element models of the nerves were built based on their OCT images. A hyper-viscoelastic model was employed to describe the elastic and stress relaxation response of each ultrastructure of the nerve, namely the endoneurium, the perineurium and the epineurium. The first-order Ogden model was employed to describe the elasticity of each ultrastructure and a generalized Maxwell model for the relaxation. The inverse finite element analysis was used to estimate the material parameters of the ultrastructures. The results show the instantaneous shear modulus of the ultrastructures in decreasing order is perineurium, endoneurium, and epineurium. The FE model combined with the first-order Ogden model and the second-order Prony series is good enough for describing the compress-and-hold response of the nerve ultrastructures. The integration of OCT and the nonlinear finite element modeling may be applicable to study the viscoelasticity of peripheral nerve down to the ultrastructural level. PMID:25912662

  9. Gene Therapy for Neurologic Manifestations of Mucopolysaccharidoses

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Daniel A.; Banerjee, Sharbani; Hackett, Perry B.; Whitley, Chester B.; McIvor, R. Scott; Low, Walter C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mucopolysaccharidoses are a family of lysosomal disorders caused by mutations in genes that encode enzymes involved in the catabolism of glycoaminoglycans. These mutations affect multiple organ systems and can be particularly deleterious to the nervous system. At the present time, enzyme replacement therapy and hematopoietic stem-cell therapy are used to treat patients with different forms of these disorders. However, to a great extent the nervous system is not adequately responsive to current therapeutic approaches. Areas Covered Recent advances in gene therapy show great promise for treating mucopolysaccharidoses. This article reviews the current state of the art for routes of delivery in developing genetic therapies for treating the neurologic manifestations of mucopolysaccharidoses. Expert Opinion Gene therapy for treating neurological manifestations of mucopolysaccharidoses can be achieved by intraventricular, intrathecal, intranasal, and systemic administration. The intraventricular route of administration appears to provide the most wide-spread distribution of gene therapy vectors to the brain. The intrathecal route of delivery results in predominant distribution to the caudal areas of the brain while the intranasal route of delivery results in good distribution to the rostral areas of brain. The systemic route of delivery via intravenous delivery can also achieve wide spread delivery to the CNS, however, the distribution to the brain is greatly dependent on the vector system. Intravenous delivery using lentiviral vectors appear to be less effective than adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors. Moreover, some subtypes of AAV vectors are more effective than others in crossing the blood-brain-barrier. In summary, the recent advances in gene vector technology and routes of delivery to the CNS will facilitate the clinical translation of gene therapy for the treatment of the neurological manifestations of mucopolysaccharidoses. PMID:25510418

  10. Case report: bipolar disorder as the first manifestation of CADASIL

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an inherited cerebrovascular disease, clinically characterized by variable manifestations of migraine, recurrent transient ischemic attack or lacunar strokes, cognitive decline, and mood disturbances. However, manic episodes have rarely been documented as an initial symptom of CADASIL and bipolar disorder presenting as the first manifestation in CADASIL has not been reported previously from evaluations by psychiatrists or psychological testing by psychologists. Case presentation A 53 year old woman developed symptoms of mania in her 50s leading to a personality change involving a continuously labile mood and irritability over a number of years. Neuropsychological testing revealed an intact memory, but impairment in attention and executive function. In the Rorschach test, she showed a high level of cognitive rigidity. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were very consistent with a diagnosis of CADASIL, which was confirmed by genetic testing for NOTCH3 mutations. Atypical antipsychotics proved to be helpful in treating her manic symptoms and for behavior control. Conclusion We present a novel case of CADASIL that first presented as bipolar disorder. We contend that when patients show a late onset personality change or chronically irritable mood that deteriorates over many years, an organic cause such as CADASIL must be considered. Further studies are needed to better understand the exact impacts of cerebral tissue lesions and psychiatric symptoms in CADASIL patients. PMID:24929957

  11. Neural Manifestations of Implicit Self-Esteem: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lili; Cai, Huajian; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Yu L. L.; Zhang, Jianxin; Yang, Jing; Shi, Yuanyuan; Ding, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral research has established that humans implicitly tend to hold a positive view toward themselves. In this study, we employed the event-related potential (ERP) technique to explore neural manifestations of positive implicit self-esteem using the Go/Nogo association task (GNAT). Participants generated a response (Go) or withheld a response (Nogo) to self or others words and good or bad attributes. Behavioral data showed that participants responded faster to the self paired with good than the self paired with bad, whereas the opposite proved true for others, reflecting the positive nature of implicit self-esteem. ERP results showed an augmented N200 over the frontal areas in Nogo responses relative to Go responses. Moreover, the positive implicit self-positivity bias delayed the onset time of the N200 wave difference between Nogo and Go trials, suggesting that positive implicit self-esteem is manifested on neural activity about 270 ms after the presentation of self-relevant stimuli. These findings provide neural evidence for the positivity and automaticity of implicit self-esteem. PMID:25006966

  12. Manifestation of optical activity in different materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinova, A. F.; Golovina, T. G.; Konstantinov, K. K.

    2014-07-01

    Various manifestations of optical activity (OA) in crystals and organic materials are considered. Examples of optically active enantiomorphic and nonenantiomorphic crystals of 18 symmetry classes are presented. The OA of enantiomorphic organic materials as components of living nature (amino acids, sugars, and proteins) is analyzed. Questions related to the origin of life on earth are considered. Examples of differences in the enantiomers of drugs are shown. The consequences of replacing conventional left-handed amino acids with additionally right-handed amino acids for living organisms are indicated.

  13. Rhodococcus equi: clinical manifestations, virulence, and immunity.

    PubMed

    Giguère, S; Cohen, N D; Chaffin, M Keith; Hines, S A; Hondalus, M K; Prescott, J F; Slovis, N M

    2011-01-01

    Pneumonia is a major cause of disease and death in foals. Rhodococcus equi, a gram-positive facultative intracellular pathogen, is a common cause of pneumonia in foals. This article reviews the clinical manifestations of infection caused by R. equi in foals and summarizes current knowledge regarding mechanisms of virulence of, and immunity to, R. equi. A complementary consensus statement providing recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment, control, and prevention of infections caused by R. equi in foals can be found in the same issue of the Journal. PMID:22092609

  14. Cardiac Manifestation of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Werner, Rudolf A; Rudelius, Martina; Thurner, Annette; Higuchi, Takahiro; Lapa, Constantin

    2016-07-01

    Here, we report on a 38-year-old man with unclear right heart failure. Imaging with cardiac MRI and combined PET/CT with F-FDG revealed a hypermetabolic mass extending from the right ventricle to the atrium. In addition, intense glucose utilization throughout the bone marrow was noted. Biopsies of both bone marrow and cardiac mass were performed and revealed precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with gross leukemic infiltration of the myopericardium, a rare manifestation of acute lymphoblastic leukemia at initial diagnosis. PMID:27088389

  15. Skin manifestations of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Robles-Mendez, J C; Vazquez-Martinez, O; Ocampo-Candiani, J

    2015-10-01

    Skin manifestations associated with chronic kidney disease are very common. Most of these conditions present in the end stages and may affect the patient's quality of life. Knowledge of these entities can contribute to establishing an accurate diagnosis and prognosis. Severe renal pruritus is associated with increased mortality and a poor prognosis. Nail exploration can provide clues about albumin and urea levels. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is a preventable disease associated with gadolinium contrast. Comorbidities, such as diabetes mellitus and secondary hyperparathyroidism, can lead to acquired perforating dermatosis and calciphylaxis, respectively. Effective and innovative treatments are available for all of these conditions. PMID:26093993

  16. Manifestly Local Theory of Vacuum Energy Sequestering.

    PubMed

    Kaloper, Nemanja; Padilla, Antonio; Stefanyszyn, David; Zahariade, George

    2016-02-01

    We present a manifestly local, diffeomorphism invariant, and locally Poincaré invariant formulation of vacuum energy sequestering. In this theory, quantum vacuum energy generated by matter loops is canceled by auxiliary fields. The auxiliary fields decouple from gravity almost completely. Their only residual effect is an a priori arbitrary, finite contribution to the curvature of the background geometry, which is radiatively stable. Its value is to be determined by a measurement, like the finite part of any radiatively stable UV-sensitive quantity in quantum field theory. PMID:26894700

  17. Reiki and changes in pattern manifestations.

    PubMed

    Ring, Marcia E

    2009-07-01

    The purposes of this qualitative research study were to describe the changes in pattern manifestations that individuals experienced associated with receiving Reiki, and to present the theoretical understanding of these changes. The unitary field pattern portrait research method was utilized because it was ontologically, epistemologically, and methodologically consistent with the science of unitary human beings. Reiki was found to be associated with changes in awareness from dissonance and turbulence to harmony and well-being by helping individuals knowingly participate in actualizing their own capacities for healing. Reiki was found to be an appropriate voluntary mutual patterning nursing modality. PMID:19567731

  18. Systemic Sclerosis with Multiple Pulmonary Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, Parinita; Reddy, Venkata Siva Prasad; Sharma, Tarun; Salim, Nabil Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic autoimmune multisystem disorder characterized by endothelial dysfunction and fibroblast dysfunction, which results in progressive fibrosis of the skin and internal organs more frequently the lungs and gastro intestinal tract. Pulmonary involvement is common in the course of SSc, with Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) and Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) being the leading causes of death. Here we report, case of an elderly female patient presenting with Diffuse SSc with multiple uncommon pulmonary manifestations like ILD with Usual Interstitial Pneumonia (UIP) pattern (usually less common), PAH and right sided pleural effusion. PMID:27504339

  19. Ultrastructural features of collagen in thyroid carcinoma tissue observed by polarization second harmonic generation microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tokarz, Danielle; Cisek, Richard; Golaraei, Ahmad; Asa, Sylvia L.; Barzda, Virginijus; Wilson, Brian C.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in collagen ultrastructure between malignant and normal human thyroid tissue were investigated ex vivo using polarization second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. The second-order nonlinear optical susceptibility tensor component ratio and the degree of linear polarization (DOLP) of the SHG signal were measured. The ratio values are related to the collagen ultrastructure, while DOLP indicates the relative amount of coherent signal and incoherent scattering of SHG. Increase in ratio values and decrease in DOLP were observed for tumor tissue compared to normal thyroid, indicating higher ultrastructural disorder in tumor collagen. PMID:26417516

  20. How effectively does a clinostat mimic the ultrastructural effects of microgravity on plant cells?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.

    1990-01-01

    Columella cells of seedlings of Zea mays L. cv. Bear Hybrid grown in the microgravity of orbital flight allocate significantly larger relative-volumes to hyaloplasm and lipid bodies, and significantly smaller relative-volumes to dictyosomes, plastids, and starch than do columella cells of seedlings grown at 1 g. The ultrastructure of columella cells of seedlings grown at 1 g and on a rotating clinostat is not significantly different. However, the ultrastructure of cells exposed to these treatments differs significantly from that of seedlings grown in microgravity. These results indicate that the actions of a rotating clinostat do not mimic the ultrastructural effects of microgravity in columella cells of Z. mays.

  1. Effects of long-term salicylate administration on synaptic ultrastructure and metabolic activity in the rat CNS.

    PubMed

    Yi, Bin; Hu, Shousen; Zuo, Chuantao; Jiao, Fangyang; Lv, Jingrong; Chen, Dongye; Ma, Yufei; Chen, Jianyong; Mei, Ling; Wang, Xueling; Huang, Zhiwu; Wu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Tinnitus is associated with neural hyperactivity in the central nervous system (CNS). Salicylate is a well-known ototoxic drug, and we induced tinnitus in rats using a model of long-term salicylate administration. The gap pre-pulse inhibition of acoustic startle test was used to infer tinnitus perception, and only rats in the chronic salicylate-treatment (14 days) group showed evidence of experiencing tinnitus. After small animal positron emission tomography scans were performed, we found that the metabolic activity of the inferior colliculus (IC), the auditory cortex (AC), and the hippocampus (HP) were significantly higher in the chronic treatment group compared with saline group (treated for 14 days), which was further supported by ultrastructural changes at the synapses. The alterations all returned to baseline 14 days after the cessation of salicylate-treatment (wash-out group), indicating that these changes were reversible. These findings indicate that long-term salicylate administration induces tinnitus, enhanced neural activity and synaptic ultrastructural changes in the IC, AC, and HP of rats due to neuroplasticity. Thus, an increased metabolic rate and synaptic transmission in specific areas of the CNS may contribute to the development of tinnitus. PMID:27068004

  2. Ultrastructural study on the morphological changes in indigenous bacteria of mucous layer and chyme throughout the rat intestine

    PubMed Central

    MANTANI, Youhei; ITO, Eri; NISHIDA, Miho; YUASA, Hideto; MASUDA, Natsumi; QI, Wang-Mei; KAWANO, Junichi; YOKOYAMA, Toshifumi; HOSHI, Nobuhiko; KITAGAWA, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Indigenous bacteria in the alimentary tract are exposed to various bactericidal peptides and digestive enzymes, but the viability status and morphological changes of indigenous bacteria are unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to ultrastructurally clarify the degeneration and viability status of indigenous bacteria in the rat intestine. The majority of indigenous bacteria in the ileal mucous layer possessed intact cytoplasm, but the cytoplasm of a few bacteria contained vacuoles. The vacuoles were more frequently found in bacteria of ileal chyme than in those of ileal mucous layer and were found in a large majority of bacteria in both the mucous layer and chyme throughout the large intestine. In the dividing bacteria of the mucous layer and chyme throughout the intestine, the ratio of area occupied by vacuoles was almost always less than 10%. Lysis or detachment of the cell wall in the indigenous bacteria was more frequently found in the large intestine than in the ileum, whereas bacterial remnants, such as cell walls, were distributed almost evenly throughout the intestine. In an experimental control of long-time-cultured Staphylococcus epidermidis on agar, similar vacuoles were also found, but cell-wall degeneration was never observed. From these findings, indigenous bacteria in the mucous layer were ultrastructurally confirmed to be the source of indigenous bacteria in the chyme. Furthermore, the results suggested that indigenous bacteria were more severely degenerated toward the large intestine and were probably degraded in the intestine. PMID:25890991

  3. Histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies on the protective effect of ginger extract against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Ali, Doaa A; Abdeen, Ahmed M; Ismail, Mohammed F; Mostafa, Mai A

    2015-10-01

    Cisplatin (CP) is a widely used anticancer drug; however, it has several side effects such as nephrotoxicity. Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, consumed since ancient times has numerous health benefits. The objective of this work was to evaluate the protective effect of ginger extract (GE) against CP-induced nephrotoxicity. CP group displayed a marked renal failure characterized by a significant increase in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels in addition to severe histopathological and ultrastructural renal alterations. Also, CP group showed an increase in the immunohistochemical expression of Bax proapoptotic protein. In contrast, GE+CP group showed significant decrease in the elevated serum creatinine and BUN levels and an improvement in the histopathological and ultrastructural renal injury induced by CP. The overexpression of Bax proapoptotic protein was significantly decreased in the GE+CP group. Hence, the present results indicated that GE has a protective effect against CP-induced renal damage in rats. Thereby, such findings recommended the usage of GE to prevent and/or decrease the renal damage induced by CP chemotherapeutic treatment. PMID:23552260

  4. Effects of colchicine on the intestinal transport of endogenous lipid. Ultrastructural, biochemical, and radiochemical studies in fasting rats

    SciTech Connect

    Pavelka, M.; Gangl, A.

    1983-03-01

    The involvement of microtubules in the transepithelial transport of exogenous lipid in intestinal absorptive cells has been suggested. Using electronmicroscopic, biochemical, and radiochemical methods, researchers have studied the effects of the antimicrotubular agent colchicine on the intestinal mucosa and on the intestinal transport of endogenous lipid of rats in the fasting state. After colchicine treatment, the concentration of triglycerides in intestinal mucosa of rats fasted for 24 h doubled, and electron microscopic studies showed a striking accumulation of lipid particles in absorptive epithelial cells of the tips of jejunal villi. These findings suggest that colchicine interferes with the intestinal transepithelial transport of endogenous lipoproteins. Additional studies, using an intraduodenal pulse injection of (/sup 14/C)linoleic acid, showed that colchicine does not affect the uptake of fatty acids by intestinal mucosa. However, it had divergent effects on fatty acid esterification, enhancing their incorporation into triglycerides relative to phospholipids, and caused a significant accumulation of endogenous diglycerides, triglycerides, and cholesterol esters within the absorptive intestinal epithelium. Detailed ultrastructural and morphometric studies revealed a decrease of visible microtubules, and a displacement of the smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Furthermore, it is shown that after colchicine treatment, microvilli appear at the lateral plasma membrane of intestinal absorptive cells, a change not previously reported to our knowledge. Thus, our study shows that colchicine causes significant changes in enterocyte ultrastructure and colchicine perturbs the reesterification of absorbed endogenous fatty acids and their secretion in the form of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from the enterocyte.

  5. Coordinated ultrastructural and phylogenomic analyses shed light on the hidden phycobiont diversity of Trebouxia microalgae in Ramalina fraxinea.

    PubMed

    Catalá, Santiago; del Campo, Eva M; Barreno, Eva; García-Breijo, Francisco J; Reig-Armiñana, José; Casano, Leonardo M

    2016-01-01

    The precise boundary delineations between taxa in symbiotic associations are very important for evolutionary and ecophysiological studies. Growing evidence indicates that in many cases, the use of either morphological characters or molecular markers results in diversity underestimation. In lichen symbioses, Trebouxia is the most common genus of lichen phycobionts, however, the diversity within this genus has been poorly studied and as such there is no clear species concept. This study constitutes a multifaceted approach incorporating aspects of ultrastructural characterization by TEM and phylogenomics to evaluate the morphological and genetic diversity of phycobionts within the sexually reproducing lichen Ramalina fraxinea in the context of Mediterranean and temperate populations. Results reveal an association with at least seven different Trebouxia lineages belonging to at least two species, T. decolorans and T. jamesii, and diverse combinations of such lineages coexisting within the same thallus depending on the analyzed sample. Some of these lineages are shared by several other non-related lichen taxa. Our findings indicate the existence of a highly diverse assemblage of Trebouxia algae associating with R. fraxinea and suggest a possible incipient speciation within T. decolorans rendering a number of lineages or even actual species. This study stresses the importance of coordinated ultrastructural and molecular analyses to improve estimates of diversity and reveal the coexistence of more than one Trebouxia species within the same thallus. It is also necessary to have clearer species delimitation criteria within the genus Trebouxia and microalgae in general. PMID:26516030

  6. Effects of long-term salicylate administration on synaptic ultrastructure and metabolic activity in the rat CNS

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Bin; Hu, Shousen; Zuo, Chuantao; Jiao, Fangyang; Lv, Jingrong; Chen, Dongye; Ma, Yufei; Chen, Jianyong; Mei, Ling; Wang, Xueling; Huang, Zhiwu; Wu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Tinnitus is associated with neural hyperactivity in the central nervous system (CNS). Salicylate is a well-known ototoxic drug, and we induced tinnitus in rats using a model of long-term salicylate administration. The gap pre-pulse inhibition of acoustic startle test was used to infer tinnitus perception, and only rats in the chronic salicylate-treatment (14 days) group showed evidence of experiencing tinnitus. After small animal positron emission tomography scans were performed, we found that the metabolic activity of the inferior colliculus (IC), the auditory cortex (AC), and the hippocampus (HP) were significantly higher in the chronic treatment group compared with saline group (treated for 14 days), which was further supported by ultrastructural changes at the synapses. The alterations all returned to baseline 14 days after the cessation of salicylate-treatment (wash-out group), indicating that these changes were reversible. These findings indicate that long-term salicylate administration induces tinnitus, enhanced neural activity and synaptic ultrastructural changes in the IC, AC, and HP of rats due to neuroplasticity. Thus, an increased metabolic rate and synaptic transmission in specific areas of the CNS may contribute to the development of tinnitus. PMID:27068004

  7. Microscopic and ultrastructural modifications of postmenopausal atrophic vaginal mucosa after fractional carbon dioxide laser treatment.

    PubMed

    Zerbinati, Nicola; Serati, Maurizio; Origoni, Massimo; Candiani, Massimo; Iannitti, Tommaso; Salvatore, Stefano; Marotta, Francesco; Calligaro, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal atrophy occurring during menopause is closely related to the dramatic decrease in ovarian estrogens due to the loss of follicular activity. Particularly, significant changes occur in the structure of the vaginal mucosa, with consequent impairment of many physiological functions. In this study, carried out on bioptic vaginal mucosa samples from postmenopausal, nonestrogenized women, we present microscopic and ultrastructural modifications of vaginal mucosa following fractional carbon dioxide (CO2) laser treatment. We observed the restoration of the vaginal thick squamous stratified epithelium with a significant storage of glycogen in the epithelial cells and a high degree of glycogen-rich shedding cells at the epithelial surface. Moreover, in the connective tissue constituting the lamina propria, active fibroblasts synthesized new components of the extracellular matrix including collagen and ground substance (extrafibrillar matrix) molecules. Differently from atrophic mucosa, newly-formed papillae of connective tissue indented in the epithelium and typical blood capillaries penetrating inside the papillae, were also observed. Our morphological findings support the effectiveness of fractional CO2 laser application for the restoration of vaginal mucosa structure and related physiological trophism. These findings clearly coupled with striking clinical relief from symptoms suffered by the patients before treatment. PMID:25410301

  8. Hematologic manifestations of Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Campuzano-Maya, Germán

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most common infection in humans, with a marked disparity between developed and developing countries. Although H. pylori infections are asymptomatic in most infected individuals, they are intimately related to malignant gastric conditions such as gastric cancer and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and to benign diseases such as gastritis and duodenal and gastric peptic ulcers. Since it was learned that bacteria could colonize the gastric mucosa, there have been reports in the medical literature of over 50 extragastric manifestations involving a variety medical areas of specialization. These areas include cardiology, dermatology, endocrinology, gynecology and obstetrics, hematology, pneumology, odontology, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology and pediatrics, and they encompass conditions with a range of clear evidence between the H. pylori infection and development of the disease. This literature review covers extragastric manifestations of H. pylori infection in the hematology field. It focuses on conditions that are included in international consensus and management guides for H. pylori infection, specifically iron deficiency, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency, immune thrombocytopenia, and MALT lymphoma. In addition, there is discussion of other conditions that are not included in international consensus and management guides on H. pylori, including auto-immune neutropenia, antiphospholipid syndrome, plasma cell dyscrasias, and other hematologic diseases. PMID:25278680

  9. Pulmonary manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    Gaude, Gajanan S.

    2009-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) may cause, trigger or exacerbate many pulmonary diseases. The physiological link between GERD and pulmonary disease has been extensively studied in chronic cough and asthma. A primary care physician often encounters patients with extra esophageal manifestations of GERD in the absence of heartburn. Patients may present with symptoms involving the pulmonary system; noncardiac chest pain; and ear, nose and throat disorders. Local irritation in the esophagus can cause symptoms that vary from indigestion, like chest discomfort and abdominal pain, to coughing and wheezing. If the gastric acid reaches the back of the throat, it may cause a bitter taste in the mouth and/or aspiration of the gastric acid into the lungs. The acid can cause throat irritation, postnasal drip and hoarseness, as well as recurrent cough, chest congestion and lung inflammation leading to asthma and/or bronchitis/ pneumonia. This clinical review examines the potential pathophysiological mechanisms of pulmonary manifestations of GERD. It also reviews relevant clinical information concerning GERD-related chronic cough and asthma. Finally, a potential management strategy for GERD in pulmonary patients is discussed. PMID:19641641

  10. CANDLE Syndrome: orodfacial manifestations and dental implications.

    PubMed

    Roberts, T; Stephen, L; Scott, C; di Pasquale, T; Naser-Eldin, A; Chetty, M; Shaik, S; Lewandowski, L; Beighton, P

    2015-01-01

    A South African girl with CANDLE Syndrome is reported with emphasis on the orodental features and dental management. Clinical manifestations included short stature, wasting of the soft tissue of the arms and legs, erythematous skin eruptions and a prominent abdomen due to hepatosplenomegaly. Generalized microdontia, confirmed by tooth measurement and osteopenia of her jaws, confirmed by digitalized radiography, were previously undescribed syndromic components. Intellectual impairment posed problems during dental intervention. The carious dental lesions and poor oral hygiene were treated conservatively under local anaesthetic. Prophylactic antibiotics were administered an hour before all procedures.Due to the nature of her general condition, invasive dental procedures were minimal. Regular follow-ups were scheduled at six monthly intervals. During this period, her overall oral health status had improved markedly.The CANDLE syndrome is a rare condition with grave complications including immunosuppression and diabetes mellitus. As with many genetic disorders, the dental manifestations are often overshadowed by other more conspicuous and complex syndromic features. Recognition of both the clinical and oral changes that occur in the CANDLE syndrome facilitates accurate diagnosis and appropriate dental management of this potentially lethal condition. PMID:26711936

  11. Periodontal manifestations of von Recklinghausen neuro fibromatosis.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Bhavya; Umesh, Y; Kranti, K; Seshan, Hema

    2013-03-01

    Neurofibroma is an uncommon benign tumor of the oral cavity derived from the cells that constitute the nerve sheath neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), also known as von Recklinghausen's disease, is the most common type of neurofibromatosis and accounts for about 90% of all cases. It is one of the most frequent human genetic diseases, with the prevalence of one case in 3,000 births. Neurofibroma is seen either as a solitary lesion or as part of the generalized syndrome of neurofibromatosis. The solitary form does not differ from the disseminated form or the multiple form of the disease, except that systemic and hereditary factors present in the disseminated form are absent in the solitary type. Oral cavity involvement by a solitary and peripheral plexiform neurofibroma in patients with no other signs of neurofibromatosis is uncommon. The expressivity of NF1 is extremely variable, with manifestations ranging from mild lesions to several complications and functional impairment. Oral manifestations can be found in almost 72% of NF1 patients. This is a case report of a 40-year-old lady with a history of multiple faint rounded densities in the skin, chest pain occasionally since 8 months and breathlessness since 1 year and swelling of the right side of the angle of the mandible with limited mouth opening. PMID:23869137

  12. Hepatic manifestations in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    El-Shabrawi, Mortada H; Farrag, Mona I

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by multisystem involvement and diverse clinical and serological manifestations. Clinically significant hepatic disease is generally regarded as unusual in JSLE, but many studies have showed that hepatic disease may be more common in SLE than was usually thought. Hepatic disease does not cause significant morbidity and mortality, but subclinical liver involvement is common. One of the hepatic disorders associated with JSLE is autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). The precise etiology of AIH and JSLE remains unknown, however both AIH and JSLE are associated with antinuclear antibody (ANA) and multisystem disease manifestations. A shared immunologic response and genetic predisposition were suggested. Recently, new approaches for treatment of SLE and recent patents that could develop into novel therapeutic agents in clinical management of SLE have been proposed. An array of promising new therapies is currently emerging or being developed including B-cell depletion therapies, agents targeting B-cell survival factors, blockade of T-cell co-stimulation and present review, we will also report the case of a 12-year old girl who developed JSLE four years after her preliminary diagnosis with AIH. PMID:24383439

  13. Classifying functional manifestations of ectodermal dysplasias.

    PubMed

    Simeonsson, Rune J

    2009-09-01

    Ectodermal dysplasias (ED) encompass more than 200 conditions involving some combination of disorders of hair, nails, teeth, and sweat glands. The incidence of ED is relatively rare affecting about 7 of 10,000 births [Itin and Fistarol (2004)]. Individuals manifesting ED present with a wide range of disorders involving hair, nails, teeth, and sweat glands and in many cases other characteristics as well. The complex nature of the disorder has presented challenges for clinical practice and required the involvement of multiple approaches and disciplines. It has also resulted in significant research initiatives on cause and symptomatology. A significant challenge has been the search for comprehensive documentation of the varied and complex manifestations associated with ED. Existing classification systems of ED have focused on physiological and structural dimensions. Classification approaches with a broader focus including characteristics of functioning in persons with ED could facilitate clinical work and research initiatives. In this context, the potential utility of available classifications that address functioning and disability would be appropriate to consider in the search for a consensus classification of ED. To that end, the purpose of this article is to (a) review the status of classification of ED, (b) provide a brief overview of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and Youth, ICF-CY [World Health Organization (2007); International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and Youth. Geneva: WHO.], and (c) identify possible contributions of the ICF-CY to classification of ED's. PMID:19681156

  14. Citing geospatial feature inventories with XML manifests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, R.; McGarva, G.

    2006-12-01

    Today published scientific papers include a growing number of citations for online information sources that either complement or replace printed journals and books. We anticipate this same trend for cartographic citations used in the geosciences, following advances in web mapping and geographic feature-based services. Instead of using traditional libraries to resolve citations for print material, the geospatial citation life cycle will include requesting inventories of objects or geographic features from distributed geospatial data repositories. Using a case study from the UK Ordnance Survey MasterMap database, which is illustrative of geographic object-based products in general, we propose citing inventories of geographic objects using XML feature manifests. These manifests: (1) serve as a portable listing of sets of versioned features; (2) could be used as citations within the identification portion of an international geospatial metadata standard; (3) could be incorporated into geospatial data transfer formats such as GML; but (4) can be resolved only with comprehensive, curated repositories of current and historic data. This work has implications for any researcher who foresees the need to make or resolve references to online geospatial databases.

  15. 40 CFR 263.25 - Electronic manifest signatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electronic manifest signatures. 263.25 Section 263.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Recordkeeping § 263.25 Electronic manifest signatures. (a) Electronic manifest signatures shall meet...

  16. 49 CFR 172.205 - Hazardous waste manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) hazardous waste manifest (manifest) is prepared in accordance with 40 CFR 262.20 and is signed, carried, and... in accordance with 40 CFR 263.22. (5) Before accepting hazardous waste from a rail transporter, a non.... (h) A hazardous waste manifest required by 40 CFR part 262, containing all of the...

  17. 49 CFR 172.205 - Hazardous waste manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) hazardous waste manifest (manifest) is prepared in accordance with 40 CFR 262.20 and is signed, carried, and... in accordance with 40 CFR 263.22. (5) Before accepting hazardous waste from a rail transporter, a non.... (h) A hazardous waste manifest required by 40 CFR part 262, containing all of the...

  18. 49 CFR 172.205 - Hazardous waste manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) hazardous waste manifest (manifest) is prepared in accordance with 40 CFR 262.20 and is signed, carried, and... in accordance with 40 CFR 263.22. (5) Before accepting hazardous waste from a rail transporter, a non.... (h) A hazardous waste manifest required by 40 CFR part 262, containing all of the...

  19. 49 CFR 172.205 - Hazardous waste manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) hazardous waste manifest (manifest) is prepared in accordance with 40 CFR 262.20 and is signed, carried, and... in accordance with 40 CFR 263.22. (5) Before accepting hazardous waste from a rail transporter, a non.... (h) A hazardous waste manifest required by 40 CFR part 262, containing all of the...

  20. 49 CFR 172.205 - Hazardous waste manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) hazardous waste manifest (manifest) is prepared in accordance with 40 CFR 262.20 and is signed, carried, and... in accordance with 40 CFR 263.22. (5) Before accepting hazardous waste from a rail transporter, a non.... (h) A hazardous waste manifest required by 40 CFR part 262, containing all of the...

  1. 19 CFR 122.48 - Air cargo manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Air cargo manifest. 122.48 Section 122.48 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for..., and Overflying the United States § 122.48 Air cargo manifest. (a) When required. Except as provided...

  2. 19 CFR 122.48 - Air cargo manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Air cargo manifest. 122.48 Section 122.48 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for..., and Overflying the United States § 122.48 Air cargo manifest. (a) When required. Except as provided...

  3. 19 CFR 122.48 - Air cargo manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air cargo manifest. 122.48 Section 122.48 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for..., and Overflying the United States § 122.48 Air cargo manifest. (a) When required. Except as provided...

  4. 40 CFR 262.23 - Use of the manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... returned to the generator by the designated facility (following the procedures of 40 CFR 264.72(f) or 265...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest § 262.23 Use of the manifest. (a) The generator must: (1) Sign the manifest certification by hand; and (2) Obtain the handwritten signature of...

  5. 40 CFR 262.23 - Use of the manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... returned to the generator by the designated facility (following the procedures of 40 CFR 264.72(f) or 265...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest § 262.23 Use of the manifest. (a) The generator must: (1) Sign the manifest certification by hand; and (2) Obtain the handwritten signature of...

  6. 40 CFR 262.23 - Use of the manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... returned to the generator by the designated facility (following the procedures of 40 CFR 264.72(f) or 265...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest § 262.23 Use of the manifest. (a) The generator must: (1) Sign the manifest certification by hand; and (2) Obtain the handwritten signature of...

  7. 40 CFR 262.24 - Use of the electronic manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... compliance with 49 CFR 177.817, a generator originating an electronic manifest must also provide the initial... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest § 262.24 Use of the electronic... requirement in these regulations for a generator to keep or retain a copy of each manifest is satisfied...

  8. 40 CFR 262.23 - Use of the manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... returned to the generator by the designated facility (following the procedures of 40 CFR 264.72(f) or 265...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest § 262.23 Use of the manifest. (a) The generator must: (1) Sign the manifest certification by hand; and (2) Obtain the handwritten signature of...

  9. 40 CFR 262.23 - Use of the manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... returned to the generator by the designated facility (following the procedures of 40 CFR 264.72(f) or 265...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest § 262.23 Use of the manifest. (a) The generator must: (1) Sign the manifest certification by hand; and (2) Obtain the handwritten signature of...

  10. [Psychiatric manifestations by prions. A narrative review].

    PubMed

    Carrillo Robles, Daniel; García Maldonado, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Prion diseases are a group of rare and rapidly progressive neurodegenerative conditions that may cause neuropsychiatric symptoms. This group of diseases has been described since the 18(th) century, but they were recognized decades later, when it became clear that the humans were affected by infected animals. There was controversy when the problem was attributed to a single protein with infective capacity. The common pathological process is characterized by the conversion of the normal cellular prion protein into an abnormal form. In humans, the illness has been classified as idiopathic, inherited and acquired through exposure to exogenous material containing abnormal prions. The most prominent neurological manifestation of prion diseases is the emergence of a rapidly progressive dementia, mioclonus associated with cerebellar ataxia and also extra pyramidal symptoms. Psychiatric symptoms occur in early stages of the illness and can contribute to timely diagnosis of this syndrome. Psychiatric symptoms have traditionally been grouped in three categories: affective symptoms, impaired motor function and psychotic symptoms. Such events usually occur during the prodromal period prior to the neurological manifestations and consists in the presence of social isolation, onset of delusions, irritability/aggression, visual hallucinations, anxiety and depression, and less frequent first-rank symptoms among others. Definite diagnosis requires post mortem examination. The possibility that a large number of cases may occur in the next years or that many cases have not been considered with this diagnosis is a fact. In our opinion, psychiatrists should be aware of symptoms of this disease. The main objective of this research consisted of assessing the correlation between this disturbance and neuro-psychiatric symptoms and particularly if this psychiatric manifestations integrate a clinical picture suggestive for the diagnosis of these diseases, but firstly reviewed taxonomic

  11. [Ultrastructural analysis of anastomosis group 9 of Rhizoctonia solani].

    PubMed

    Cedeño, L; Palacios Prü, E

    1996-01-01

    The ultrastructure of R. solani AG-9 (S-21, ATCC 62804) was investigated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The most important characteristics were those related with cell wall thickness, cytoplasmic matrix composition, number of nuclei and nucleoli and secretory material production. The majority of examined hyphae showed lateral cell walls thinner than those recorded before. The cytoplasmic matrix consistently appeared differentiated into two classes, one formed by a highly electron dense granular fine material and the other one showing a coloidal substance of very low density which give these cells a 'tiger-like' aspect. The grannular dense matrix always had abundant free ribosomes and usually surrounded the cytoplasmic organelles and the septal pore apparatus. The somatic cells showed up to 5 nuclei, some of which with three nucleoli. Masses of secretory material surrounded by membrane were regularly seen in the cytoplasm, with sizes similar to those of nuclei. PMID:9334448

  12. Rat limb unloading - Soleus histochemistry, ultrastructure, and electromyography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, D. A.; Slocum, G. R.; Bain, J. L. W.; Sedlak, F. R.; Sowa, T. E.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of hindlimb unloading on rat-soleus histochemisty, ultrastructure, and electromyogram (EMG) activity were investigated. It was found that, after 14 days of tail suspension, the area of type I and type IIa muscle fibers decreased by 63 and 47 percent, respectively, mainly due to the degradation of subsarcolemmal mitochondria and myofibrils. After 10 days, 3 percent of type IIa fibers exhibited segmental necrosis. After four days, video monitoring revealed abnormal plantar flexion of the hindfeet, which shortened the soleus working range. The EMG activity shifted from tonic to phasic, and aggregate activity decreased drastically after only seven days. The results indictate that the pathological changes in the soleus resulted from unloaded contractions, reduced use, compromised blood flow, and shortened working length.

  13. Mesocestoides lineatus (Goeze, 1782) (Mesocestoididae): new data on sperm ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Miquel, Jordi; Eira, Catarina; Swiderski, Zdzisław; Conn, David Bruce

    2007-06-01

    Spermiogenesis and the ultrastructural characters of the spermatozoon of Mesocestoides lineatus are described by means of transmission electron microscopy, including cytochemical analysis for glycogen. Materials were obtained from a golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) after experimental infection with tetrathyridia metacestodes obtained from naturally infected lizards (Anolis carolinensis) from Louisiana. Spermiogenesis in M. lineatus is characterized by the orthogonal growth of a free flagellum, a flagellar rotation, and a proximodistal fusion. The zone of differentiation contains 2 centrioles associated with striated rootlets and a reduced intercentriolar body. The mature spermatozoon of M. lineatus lacks a mitochondrion, and it is characterized by the presence of (1) a single, spiraled, crested body 150 nm thick; (2) a single axoneme of the 9+'1' pattern of trepaxonematan Platyhelminthes; (3) a parallel and reduced row of submembranous cortical microtubules; (4) a spiraled cordon of glycogen granules; and (5) a spiraled nucleus encircling the axoneme. PMID:17626346

  14. Ultrastructural and Histochemical Characterization of the Zebra Mussel Adhesive Apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farsad, Nikrooz

    Since their accidental introduction into the Great Lakes in mid- to late-1980s, the freshwater zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, have colonized most lakes and waterways across eastern North America. Their rapid spread is partly attributed to their ability to tenaciously attach to hard substrates via an adhesive apparatus called the byssus, resulting in serious environmental and economic impacts. A detailed ultrastructural study of the byssus revealed a 10 nm adhesive layer at the attachment interface. Distributions of the main adhesive amino acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), and its oxidizing (cross-linking) enzyme, catechol oxidase, were determined histochemically. It was found that, upon aging, DOPA levels remained high in the portion of the byssus closest to the interface, consistent with an adhesive role. In contrast, reduced levels of DOPA corresponded well with high levels of catechol oxidase in the load-bearing component of the byssus, presumably forming cross-links and increasing the cohesive strength.

  15. Advances in imaging ultrastructure yield new insights into presynaptic biology

    PubMed Central

    Bruckner, Joseph J.; Zhan, Hong; O’Connor-Giles, Kate M.

    2015-01-01

    Synapses are the fundamental functional units of neural circuits, and their dysregulation has been implicated in diverse neurological disorders. At presynaptic terminals, neurotransmitter-filled synaptic vesicles are released in response to calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels activated by the arrival of an action potential. Decades of electrophysiological, biochemical, and genetic studies have contributed to a growing understanding of presynaptic biology. Imaging studies are yielding new insights into how synapses are organized to carry out their critical functions. The development of techniques for rapid immobilization and preservation of neuronal tissues for electron microscopy (EM) has led to a new renaissance in ultrastructural imaging that is rapidly advancing our understanding of synapse structure and function. PMID:26052269

  16. Sperm ultrastructure of the hydrothermal vent octopod Vulcanoctopus hydrothermalis.

    PubMed

    Roura, A; Guerra, A; González, A F; Pascual, S

    2010-08-01

    Sperm ultrastructure of the deep-sea hydrothermal vent octopod Vulcanoctopus hydrothermalis has been carried out by transmission electron microscopy. Spermatozoa of this species have the shortest head observed so far in octopodids. The acrosome possesses a helix with six gyres. The rod-shaped nucleus is short and wide in relation with other octopodids. Noteworthy features along the nucleus are the regularly disposed dense bands of cytoplasm, which have not been observed before in octopodids. The nuclear fossa is very short and wavy. Mitochondrial sheath has 10 elongated mitochondria running parallel to the axoneme-coarse fibers complex. Sperm morphology of V. hydrothermalis resembles that of Enteroctopus dofleini, suggesting a close phylogenetic relationship. PMID:20623654

  17. Effects of soft x-ray irradiation on cell ultrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Thomas W.; Page, Anton M.; Foster, Guy F.; Stead, Anthony D.

    1993-01-01

    The future of x-ray microscopy lies mainly in its potential for imaging fresh, hydrated biological material at a resolution superior to that of light microscopy. For the image to be accepted as representing the cellular organization of the living cell, it is essential that artefacts are not introduced as a result of the image collection system. One possible source of artefacts is cellular damage resulting form the irradiation of the material with soft x rays. Cells of the unicellular alga Chlorella have been examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) following exposure to different doses of monochromatic (380 eV) soft x rays. Extreme ultrastructural damage has been detected following doses of 103 - 104 Gy, in particular loss of cellular membranes such as the internal thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast. This is discussed in relation to dosage commonly used for imaging by soft x-ray microscopy.

  18. Comparative ultrastructure of pretarsi in five calyptrate species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q K; Yang, Y Z; Li, X Y; Li, K; Zhang, D

    2016-06-01

    Pretarsi are the most important structures that allow flies to walk on various smooth surfaces and act as contact sensory organs. The pretarsal ultrastructure, including adhesive pads, claws, unguitractors, and bristles, of five calyptrate species are presented and described in detail, including Calliphora calliphoroides (Rohdendorf, 1931), Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826), Sarcophaga portschinskyi (Rohdendorf, 1937), Muscina stabulans (Fallen, 1817) and Portschinskia magnifica Pleske, 1926. Two types of tenent setae (spoon-tipped and spatula-tipped) are present on the ventral side of pulvilli in all species. The density of tenent setae and the pulvilli area in forelegs, midlegs, and hindlegs of both sexes are different. Among the five species, Ca. calliphoroides has unusually large pulvilli to its body size. These results provide morphological details that help to understand the movement and attachment of flies. PMID:26916893

  19. Ultrastructure of extrusomes in hypotrichous ciliate Pseudourostyla nova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yao; Wang, Zhengjun; Zhang, Jun; Gu, Fukang

    2011-01-01

    The ultrastructure of extrusomes of the hypotrichous ciliate Pseudourostyla nova was observed in scanning and transmission electron microscopy and enzyme-cytochemistry. The results show that the distribution, morphological characteristics, morphogenesis process, and extrusive process of the extrusomes in P. nova are different from the trichocysts in Paramecium, suggesting that the extrusomes of P. nova can respond to environmental stimuli, play an important role in the defense of this species, and cannot be regarded as "trichocysts". The results also suggest that the extrusomes might be originated from the Golgi apparatus and mature in the cytoplasm; after the extrusion of mature extrusomes, the residual substance might be reabsorbed and reused by the ciliate cell via food vacuoles, and take part in material recycling of the cell.

  20. Methanococcus vannielii: ultrastructure and sensitivity to detergents and antibiotics.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, J B; Bowers, B; Stadtman, T C

    1977-01-01

    Methanococcus vannielii is a strictly anaerobic motile coccus that possesses a tuft of flagellae. The cells are markedly sensitive to mechanical stress and are readily lysed by detergents, but the organism grows normally in media of low ionic strength. The absence of a typical cell wall, further suggested by resistance of M. vannielii to penicillin, cycloserine, and vancomycin, was confirmed by ultrastructural studies. Electron micrographs showed that the cell envelope lacks a peptidoglycan layer. On the outer surface there is a regular array of subunits similar to those of the glycoprotein envelopes of the halobacteria. However, the M. vannielii cell envelope, unlike those of the holobacteria, is unable to maintain a definite shape, and a high salt concentration is not required for its integrity. Images PMID:863858

  1. The ultrastructural study of tumorigenic cells using nanobiomarkers.

    PubMed

    Pavon, Lorena Favaro; Marti, Luciana Cavalheiro; Sibov, Tatiana Tais; Malheiros, Suzana M F; Oliveira, Daniela Mara; Guilhen, Daiane Donna; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel; Amaro Junior, Edson; Gamarra, Lionel Fernel

    2010-06-01

    Despite recent advances, patients with malignant brain tumors still have a poor prognosis. Glioblastoma (WHO grade 4 astrocytoma), the most malignant brain tumor, represents 50% of all astrocytomas, with a median survival rate of <1 year. It is, therefore, extremely important to search for new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for patients with glioblastoma. This study describes the application of superparamagnetic nanoparticles of iron oxide, as well as monoclonal antibodies, of immunophenotypic significance, conjoined to quantum dots for the ultrastructural assessment of glioblastoma cells. For this proposal, an immunophenotypic study by flow cytometry was carried out, followed by transmission electron microscopy analysis. The process of tumor cell labeling using nanoparticles can successfully contribute to the identification of tumorigenic cells and consequently for better understanding of glioblastoma genesis and recurrence. In addition, this method may help further studies in tumor imaging, diagnosis, and prognostic markers detection. PMID:20578834

  2. Ultrastructural observations on the caecum of the rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, J A; Scott, A; Gardner, I C

    1989-01-01

    The caecal mucosa of the rabbit has been studied using transmission electron microscopy and its fine structure is considered in the light of its known secretory and absorptive capacities. The luminal surface consists of columnar absorptive epithelium while the crypts are lined with glandular epithelium comprising undifferentiated cells, goblet cells containing dark and light mucigenous granules, and intra-epithelial cells. Endocrine cells occur more commonly in the cryptal epithelium and two cell types have been recognised which correspond to EC and L cells respectively. The lamina propria includes lymphocytes, plasma cells, mast cell and smooth muscle cells. There is little ultrastructural variation within mucosal cells along the length of the caecum. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:2606789

  3. Desmograptus. micronematodes, a silurian dendroid graptolite, and its ultrastructure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saunders, K.M.; Bates, D.E.B.; Kluessendorf, Joanne; Loydell, David K.; Mikulic, Donald G.

    2009-01-01

    Desmograptus micronematodes from Thornton quarry, Cook County, Illinois, USA, remarkably preserved in relief and encased in pyrite, is described. The internal details of the thecae, and of the stolon system, examined using the SEM, allow the reconstruction of the growth of a stipe. The stolons and stolonal nodes are formed of a dense crassal fabric, and are surrounded by a loose fabric of three-dimensional fibrils. The nodes have a complex structure of three boxes with proximal and distal nozzles. The base of a bitheca, and the base of each autothecal cup, has a central nozzle surrounded by a unique honeycomb fabric. The ultrastructure of the cortical fibrils, with their clockwise striations, is similar to that in Dendrograptus, and may be universal in the graptolites. The nodes of the stolon system appear identical to those of Acanthograptus and other dendroids, but differ from those of the extant hemichordate Rhabdopleura, which have only a diaphragm, and lack box structures. ?? The Palaeontological Association, 2009.

  4. Ultrastructural pathology of human liver in Rift Valley fever.

    PubMed

    Shraim, Mubarak Al; Eid, Refaat; Radad, Khaled; Saeed, Noora

    2016-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic disease that primarily affects ruminant animals and can also cause fatal disease in humans. In the current report, we present the ultrastructural changes in the liver of a man aged 60 years who died from RVF in the Aseer Central Hospital, Abha, Saudi Arabia. The main hepatic changes by transmission electron microscopy included the presence of 95-115 nm electron-dense particles consistent with RVF virions, nuclear condensation, vacuolar degeneration, lipid droplet accumulation and mitochondrial damage and dilation. There were also viral inclusion bodies with electron-dense aggregates, dilation of intercellular spaces, damage of sinusoidal microvilli with widening of space of Disse, dilation of bile canaliculi and increasing number of phagolysosomes. PMID:27485877

  5. Correlated light and electron microscopy: ultrastructure lights up!

    PubMed

    de Boer, Pascal; Hoogenboom, Jacob P; Giepmans, Ben N G

    2015-06-01

    Microscopy has gone hand in hand with the study of living systems since van Leeuwenhoek observed living microorganisms and cells in 1674 using his light microscope. A spectrum of dyes and probes now enable the localization of molecules of interest within living cells by fluorescence microscopy. With electron microscopy (EM), cellular ultrastructure has been revealed. Bridging these two modalities, correlated light microscopy and EM (CLEM) opens new avenues. Studies of protein dynamics with fluorescent proteins (FPs), which leave the investigator 'in the dark' concerning cellular context, can be followed by EM examination. Rare events can be preselected at the light microscopy level before EM analysis. Ongoing development-including of dedicated probes, integrated microscopes, large-scale and three-dimensional EM and super-resolution fluorescence microscopy-now paves the way for broad CLEM implementation in biology. PMID:26020503

  6. Ultrastructure of the mandibular gland of the ant Myrmoteras iriodum.

    PubMed

    Billen, Johan; Hashim, Rosli; Ito, Fuminori

    2016-07-01

    The mandibular gland in workers of the formicine ant Myrmoteras iriodum differs from other ants both in its general morphology and ultrastructural organization. The secretory cells appear in a pseudo-epithelial arrangement that gives them a clear polarity. At their apical side, the cells are characterized by a large cup-like extension of the reservoir, from which a bulbous invagination connects to a branched end apparatus. At the basal side, the cells show a labyrinth of basal invaginations, while the lateral cell contacts show clear interdigitations. The cytoplasmic composition reveals the presence of numerous round or elongate inclusions that contain crystalline material. Microtubules are abundant, and locally fibrillar regions are found. The function of the mandibular gland in M. iriodum has not yet been documented, and should be studied using gland extracts and behavioural observations. PMID:27130260

  7. Ultrastructure of the adrenocortical homologue in dexamethasone-treated eels.

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, T K; Butler, D G

    1980-01-01

    The ultrastructural modifications of the adrenocortical homologue (AH) in the North American eel (Anguilla rostrata) were studied following a 10 day treatment with dexamethasone (20 mg/day). The principal changes were: disorganization of smooth endoplasmic reticlum, regression and fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus, and a lowering of matrix density in the mitochondria. Steroid treatment also induced the appearance of numerous cytoplasmic inclusions: (a) lamellated bodies with electron-lucent cores; (b) membranous whorls isolating cytoplasmic regions containing smooth endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria and (c) complex aggregates showing whorls of membranes, residues of cytoplasmic organelles, and dense matrix. The non-accumulation of lipid droplets in repressed AH cells was noteworthy. These subcellular changes indicate endogenous cellular autophagy in the AH as a result of steroid-induced suppression of ACTH production by the pituitary. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:7400039

  8. Ultrastructural changes in rat epididymides induced by cowpeas.

    PubMed

    Umapathy, E; Msamati, B C; Torode, M

    1994-01-01

    The ultrastructure of tubular inclusions of caput and cauda epididymides were studied in rats that were fed only cowpeas from weaning (20-22 days old) to 130 days. The results showed significant (p < .001) fall in body weight and testicular, caput, and cauda epididymal weights in the cowpea-fed animals. Although the walls of the epididymides remained intact, the lumina of both segments showed cellular inclusions of various types amid sperm clumps. Unlike controls, where sperm flagella and headpieces were free-floating in lumina of both segments of epididymides, the experimental tubules showed cytoplasmic droplets containing trapped flagella at various stages of disintegration. Other inclusions included multilobular giant cells, lymphocytes, and membrane-bound amorphous bodies. It is proposed that these changes might be due to an altered immune response induced by lectins, one of the antinutritional factors found in cowpeas, which causes epididymal dysfunction and possibly renders these animals infertile. PMID:8166576

  9. Cognitive Manifestations of Drinking-Smoking Associations: Preliminary Findings with a Cross-Primed Stroop Task

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Jason A.; Drobes, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite tremendous growth in research examining the role of cognitive bias in addictive behaviors, scant consideration has been paid to the close association between smoking and drinking behavior. This study sought to determine whether an association between smoking and drinking could be observed at an implicit level using a novel cognitive bias task, as well as characterize the relationship between performance on this task and clinically relevant variables (i.e., heaviness of use/dependence). Methods Individuals (N = 51) with a range of smoking and drinking patterns completed a modified Stroop task in which participants identified the color of drinking, smoking and neutral words that were each preceded by drinking, smoking or neutral picture primes. Participants also provided information regarding the heaviness of their smoking and drinking behavior and completed self-report measures of alcohol and nicotine dependence. Results Response times to smoking and drinking words were significantly slowed following the presentation of either smoking or drinking picture primes. This effect did not differ across subgroups. However, the strength of the coupling between smoking and drinking prime effects was greater among heavier drinkers, who also exhibited a concordant looser coupling of the effects of smoking and drinking primes on smoking words. Conclusions Associations between smoking and drinking can be observed at an implicit level and may be strongest for heavier drinkers. PMID:25561386

  10. Antenatal manifestations of inborn errors of metabolism: autopsy findings suggestive of a metabolic disorder.

    PubMed

    Collardeau-Frachon, Sophie; Cordier, Marie-Pierre; Rossi, Massimiliano; Guibaud, Laurent; Vianey-Saban, Christine

    2016-09-01

    This review highlights the importance of performing an autopsy when faced with fetal abortion or termination of pregnancy with suspicion of an inborn error of metabolism. Radiological, macroscopic and microscopic features found at autopsy as well as placental anomalies that can suggest such a diagnosis are detailed. The following metabolic disorders encountered in fetuses are discussed: lysosomal storage diseases, peroxisomal disorders, cholesterol synthesis disorders, congenital disorders of glycosylation, glycogenosis type IV, mitochondrial respiratory chain disorders, transaldolase deficiency, generalized arterial calcification of infancy, hypophosphatasia, arylsulfatase E deficiency, inborn errors of serine metabolism, asparagine synthetase deficiency, hyperphenylalaninemia, glutaric aciduria type I, non-ketotic hyperglycinemia, pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency, pyruvate carboxylase deficiency, glutamine synthase deficiency, sulfite oxidase and molybdenum cofactor deficiency. PMID:27106218

  11. Periodontal disease: an oral manifestation of psoriasis or an occasional finding?

    PubMed

    Ganzetti, Giulia; Campanati, Anna; Santarelli, Andrea; Pozzi, Valentina; Molinelli, Elisa; Minnetti, Ilaria; Brisigotti, Valerio; Procaccini, Maurizio; Emanuelli, Monica; Offidani, Annamaria

    2014-11-01

    Even if the existence of oral psoriasis has been suggested, it is still a debated issue. Indeed, oral inflammatory diseases may histologically resemble psoriasis-related oral lesions. However, an increased prevalence of fissured tongue and geographic tongue has been associated with psoriatic patients, being a transitory and permanent lesion, respectively. Recently, it was hypothesized that gingivitis and periodontitis share the same underlying inflammatory pathogenetic process of psoriasis. Thus, in the present study, psoriatic patients were investigated for oral mucosa lesions prevalence as well as gum disease. Results displayed an increased association between gingivitis/periodontitis and psoriasis, which may suggest common underlying pathogenic risk factors. However, large-scale studies are needed to evaluate the real prevalence of gingivitis and periodontitis in these patients, to consider them a comorbidity of psoriasis. PMID:25381976

  12. [Clinically manifest or silent primary and secondary syringomyelia. The magnetic resonance findings].

    PubMed

    Gallucci, M; Bozzao, A; Splendiani, A; Amicarelli, I; Beomonte Zobel, B; Masciocchi, C; Passariello, R

    1990-04-01

    The MR scans were retrospectively reviewed of 40 patients who had been diagnosed as having syringomyelia. Our results demonstrate that syringomyelia can be found in asymptomatic patients as well as in many with atypical symptomatology. Our study stresses MR efficacy in investigating this pathologic condition. As a matter of fact, MR allowed us to visualize the cavity, its extension, the eventual association with Arnold Chiari type-I malformation and/or syringobulbia. In all cases cord enlargement and the presence of septations could also be demonstrated. In most cases the possible pathogenesis of syringomyelia could also be supposed. PMID:2377746

  13. The SAPHO syndrome revisited with an emphasis on spinal manifestations.

    PubMed

    Leone, Antonio; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor N; Casale, Roberto; Magarelli, Nicola; Semprini, Alessia; Colosimo, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    The synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome includes a group of chronic, relapsing, inflammatory musculoskeletal disorders with similar manifestations, in particular synovitis, hyperostosis, and osteitis, which may or may not be associated with neutrophilic skin eruptions such as palmoplantar pustulosis and acne conglobata. The syndrome occurs at any age, can involve any skeletal site, and its imaging appearances are variable, depending on the stage/age of the lesion and imaging method. The diagnosis is difficult if there is no skin disease. Awareness of the imaging appearances, especially in the spine, may help the radiologist in avoiding misdiagnosis (e.g., infection, tumor) and unnecessary invasive procedures, while facilitating early diagnosis and selection of an effective treatment. In this article, we provide an overview of the radiological appearances of SAPHO syndrome, focusing on the magnetic resonance imaging findings of vertebral involvement, and present relevant clinical and pathological features that assist early diagnosis. PMID:25331355

  14. [Cutaneous and mucosal manifestations associated with cocaine use].

    PubMed

    Imbernón-Moya, Adrián; Chico, Ricardo; Aguilar-Martínez, Antonio

    2016-06-17

    Complications due to cocaine are a public health problem. The typical cutaneous disease is leukocytoclastic vasculitis and/or thrombotic vasculopathy affecting mainly the ears. No intense systemic involvement is usually present, but there may be several cutaneous, mucosal and systemic manifestations. Other findings associated as arthralgia, neutropaenia or agranulocytosis, low titer positive antinuclear antibodies, antiphospholipid antibody positivity and neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies against multiple antigens help the diagnosis. This disease requires a clinical suspicion with a clinical history, a complete physical examination and a broad differential diagnosis for an early and correct diagnosis. The course is usually self-limited. In most cases the only treatment is to discontinue the use of cocaine associated with symptomatic treatment, no proven benefit of systemic corticosteroids. PMID:27033438

  15. Ictal priapism as an autonomic manifestation of Panayiotopoulos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brabec, Jiri; Chaudhary, Shuchi; Ng, Yu-Tze

    2013-12-01

    Panayiotopoulos syndrome is an idiopathic epilepsy syndrome presenting with a large variety of autonomic symptoms. The mechanism of autonomic symptoms is still not well understood. A neurologically normal 13-month-old boy presented on 2 occasions with complex partial status epilepticus that included significant ictal priapism. Inpatient brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed restricted diffusion-weighted imaging within his left temporal lobe and electroencephalograms (EEGs) left temporal slowing only. An outpatient EEG 6 months later showed abundant multifocal, predominantly posterior, as well as irregular generalized spike-and-slow-wave discharges on normal background consistent with the diagnosis of Panayiotopoulos syndrome. Ictal priapism is a previously undescribed phenomenon that is consistent with parasympathetic manifestations noted in this young boy. Acute postictal MRI and EEG findings suggest that this undeniably fascinating seizure semiological sign may be localized to the left temporal region. PMID:23112246

  16. Identification and ultrastructural characterization of a novel virus from fish.

    PubMed

    Granzow, H; Weiland, F; Fichtner, D; Schütze, H; Karger, A; Mundt, E; Dresenkamp, B; Martin, P; Mettenleiter, T C

    2001-12-01

    During routine investigations on fish, a virus (isolate DF 24/00) with novel morphological features and hitherto undescribed morphogenesis was isolated from a white bream (Blicca bjoerkna L.; Teleostei, order Cypriniformes). Cell-free virions consist of a rod-shaped nucleocapsid (120-150x19-22 nm) similar to that seen in baculoviruses. The virion has a bacilliform shape (170-200x75-88 nm) reminiscent of rhabdoviruses with an envelope containing coronavirus-like spikes (20-25 nm). DF 24/00 replicated well in various fish cell lines. Inhibitor studies with 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine indicated that the viral genome consists of RNA and chloroform sensitivity correlated with ultrastructural demonstration of enveloped virions. The buoyant density of the virus determined in sucrose was 1.17-1.19 g/ml. Preliminary biochemical characterization revealed the presence of six antigenic glycoproteins, three of which contain sugars with concanavalin-A specificity. Ultrastructurally, morphogenesis of virus progeny was detected only in the cytoplasm. Nucleocapsids were observed to bud through membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum and/or Golgi apparatus into dilated vesicles. Egress of mature virions occurs primarily by exocytosis and, only very rarely, by budding directly at the plasma membrane. Morphologically similar viruses had previously been isolated from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), blue crab (Callinectis sapidus), European shore crab (Carcinus maenas) and shrimp (Penaeus monodon). To date, none of them has been classified. In summary, the first characterization of a new virus that might represent a member of a novel virus family that has morphological features resembling those found in rhabdo-, corona- and baculoviruses is presented. PMID:11714959

  17. Ultrastructure, ZIO-staining and chromaffinity of gerbil pinealocytes.

    PubMed

    Chau, Y P; Liao, K K; Kao, M H; Huang, B N; Kao, Y S; Lu, K S

    1994-11-01

    The ultrastructure and cytochemistry of the gerbil pineal gland were studied by the conventional electron microscopy, zinc iodide-osmium tetroxide (ZIO) staining and chromaffin reaction. Conventional electron microscopy revealed that the ultrastructure of gerbil pinealocytes are similar to other rodents, i.e., irregular cell contour with numerous cytoplasmic processes, round or oval nucleus and prominent nucleoli, elongated mitochondria with flattened and tubular cristae and dense matrix, well-developed Golgi apparatus and its associated structures, abundant elements of endoplasmic reticulum--both smooth and rough varieties, and bundles of microfilament and microtubule in the cytoplasm. Some pinealocyte processes contain numerous small clear and "slightly coated" vesicles. Numerous profiles of varicosities containing small dense-cored and clear vesicles were frequently encountered. After ZIO treatment, ZIO staining was preferentially localized in the cytoplasm of some, but not all, of the gerbil pinealocytes. Numerous small clear vesicles (30-50 nm in diameter) in the process of the pinealocytes or in the varicosities of the nerve fibers showed strong ZIO-philia. After chromaffin reaction treatment, the number and electron density of small clear and dense-cored vesicles in the profiles of nerve varicosities increased and this indicates that some of the small clear and dense-cored vesicles in the varicosities are reactive. It is thus concluded that (1) the vesicles in the pinealocytes may be rich in cystine and/or cysteine and possibly the organelle is involved in the sequestering calcium ion during the calcification of the pineal concretions, and (2) the small dense-cored and clear vesicles in the nerve fibers in the gerbil pineal parenchyma may contain both serotonin and primary biogenic amines. PMID:7530780

  18. Polysorbate 80 and Helicobacter pylori: a microbiological and ultrastructural study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The frequent occurrence of chemoresistant strains reduces the chances of eradication of H. pylori infection and prompted the investigation of non-antibiotic substances active against this organism. Some surfactants enhance the effectiveness of antibiotics for their permeabilizing properties towards bacteria. We examined the antimicrobial activity to H. pylori of the surfactant polysorbate 80, used alone and in association with amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, levofloxacin and tetracycline. We also aimed to study the ultrastructural alterations caused upon H. pylori by polysorbate 80, alone and in combination with antibiotics. Twenty-two H. pylori strains were tested using the broth dilution method. After incubation, broth from each dilution was subcultured onto agar enriched with foetal bovine serum to determine the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Synergistic effect of polysorbate 80 with antibiotics was investigated by the broth dilution and disc diffusion techniques. Ultrastructural alterations of organisms treated with polysorbate 80, alone and in association with antibiotics were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Results MBCs of polysorbate 80 ranged from 2.6 (1.1) μg/ml to 32 (0) μg/ml. Polysorbate 80 exerted a synergistic effect when associated with metronidazole and clarithromycin: polysorbate 80 and metronidazole MBCs decreased by ≥ 4 fold; clarithromycin MBCs for two resistant strains decreased by 20 and 1000 times. The principal alteration caused by polysorbate 80 consisted in the detachment of the outer membrane of bacteria. Conclusions The bactericidal activity of polysorbate 80 and the synergistic effect of the association with metronidazole and clarithromycin could be useful in the treatment of H. pylori infection. PMID:22998649

  19. Ultrastructure of Bonamia sp. in Ostrea chilensis in Chile.

    PubMed

    Lohrmann, K B; Hine, P M; Campalans, M

    2009-07-23

    Oyster Ostrea chilensis samples were collected from Quihua Island, Chile, in December 2003 and February 2005, and examined in May 2004, and March, April and July 2005, for an ultrastructural comparison of the Chilean Bonamia sp. with other Bonamia spp. Only uni-nucleate stages were encountered, except in the July sample. The Chilean parasite differs from B. perspora in the apparent lack of a plasmodial stage and of sporulation. It resembles B. ostreae in size, the low number of mitochondrial profiles, and the prevalence and mean number of lipid droplets. It differs from B. ostreae in the greater prevalence of nuclear membrane-bound Golgi (NM-BG), associated haplosporogenesis, and smaller size of haplosporosomes. The Chilean Bonamia sp. resembles B. exitiosa in the number of haplosporosomes, prevalence of lipid droplets, anastomosing endoplasmic reticulum and NM-BG, presence of circles of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER), confronting cisternae (CC), and cylindrical CC (CCC). It also appears to have a similar developmental cycle to B. exitiosa with larger forms occurring in winter (August). The circles of sER, CC, and CCC have only been reported from B. exitiosa, and it appears that Chilean Bonamia sp. and B. exitiosa are more closely related than they are to B. perspora or B. ostreae. Similarities in ultrastructure and developmental stages between New Zealand and Chilean parasites suggest that the 2 species are related, and that the Chilean Bonamia sp. is either B. exitiosa, a sub-species of B. exitiosa, or a separate species closely related to B. exitiosa. PMID:19750808

  20. Ultrastructural features of spermatogenesis in Melanorivulus punctatus (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae).

    PubMed

    Cassel, Mônica; Ferreira, Adelina; Mehanna, Mahmoud

    2014-07-01

    Fish belonging to the family Rivulidae possess one of the most complex reproductive systems. Rivulus, a genus of freshwater fish in the Rivulidae family, was recently reclassified into five genera, including Melanorivulus. Its type species, M. punctatus, is widely distributed and probably represents a species complex. The ultrastructure of sperm has been broadly used in systematics, and we hereby describe the ultrastructural features of spermatogenesis in M. punctatus. Ten M. punctatus males were collected from the reservoir of Parque Estadual da Quineira, municipality of Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso, Brazil, and prepared for analysis by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. M. punctatus undergoes cystic spermatogenesis. Its cysts consist of groups of germ cells that are in synchronous development and are surrounded by cytoplasmic projections of Sertoli cells. With the breakdown of the cysts, the spermatozoa are released and their maturation is completed in the duct, where part of the cytoplasmic material is discarded through the vesicles. The mature spermatozoon is characterized by a spherical head with homogeneously condensed chromatin, a symmetric midpiece consisting of a pair of perpendicular centrioles, a ring of mitochondria, several vesicles, and one flagellum medial to the nucleus. Early stages of spermatogenesis show no peculiarities; however, in spermiogenesis, we observed that the spermatids remain interconnected by cytoplasmic bridges and have pockets of residual cytoplasm. The sperm is of the aquasperm type and is similar to that observed in the members of the family Rivulidae. The spermatozoa have a single flagellum that consists of a classic axoneme (9+2), as found in most groups of fish, despite the lateral extensions. PMID:24811986

  1. Ultrastructural, Cytochemical, and Radioautographic Localization of Placental Iron

    PubMed Central

    Parmley, Richard T.; Barton, James C.; Conrad, Marcel E.

    1981-01-01

    Maternal-fetal iron transfer across the guinea pig hemomonochorial placenta during the first, second, and third trimesters was examined using ultrastructural, cytochemical, radioautographic, and ferrokinetic methods. Acid ferrocyanide stained inorganic ferric iron on and in sinusoidal microvilli, cytoplasmic matrix or ground substance, and the outer basal plasmalemma of epithelial cells. Some stain deposits were observed within and on either side of the basement membrane. The extraluminal outer plasmalemma, intercellular junctions, and cytoplasm of endothelial cells frequently contained numerous stain deposits. Staining of trophoblast sinusoidal microvilli was similar during early and late gestation, whereas the staining of the basement membrane and endothelial cells was most prominent during the second and third trimesters. Staining of ferric iron was encountered in rare cytoplasmic granules of epithelial cells during late gestation, but not during early gestation. Placental macrophages contained acid-ferrocyanide-reactive ferric iron in large heterophagosomes and hyaloplasm. Acid ferricyanide failed to localize ferrous iron in either epithelial cells or macrophages. Light-microscopic radioautographic studies localized radioiron in placental epithelial cells and Prussian-blue-positive macrophages in specimens obtained 30 minutes after injection of radioiron (55Fe, 59Fe) into the maternal saphenous vein. At the ultrastructural level labeling was observed (in order of decreasing grain density) in or on the epithelial basal plasmalemma and basement membrane, endothelial cytoplasm, epithelial sinusoidal microvilli, and epithelial cytoplasm. Significant staining or radiolabeling was not observed in mitochondria, trophoblast granules, or nuclei. These results indicate that placental non-heme iron is trivalent and moves from the maternal to the fetal circulation by passing through trophoblast microvilli, cytoplasmic matrix, basal plasmalemma, basement membrane

  2. Brush cells in the human duodenojejunal junction: an ultrastructural study

    PubMed Central

    Morroni, Manrico; Cangiotti, Angela Maria; Cinti, Saverio

    2007-01-01

    Brush cells have been identified in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract mucosa of many mammalian species. In humans they are found in the respiratory tract and the gastrointestinal apparatus, in both the stomach and the gallbladder. The function of brush cells is unknown, and most morphological data have been obtained in rodents. To extend our knowledge of human brush cells, we performed an ultrastructural investigation of human small intestine brush cells. Six brush cells identified in five out of more than 300 small intestine biopsies performed for gastrointestinal tract disorders were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Five brush cells were located on the surface epithelium and one in a crypt. The five surface brush cells were characterized by a narrow apical pole from which emerged microvilli that were longer and thicker than those of enterocytes. The filamentous core extended far into the cell body without forming the terminal web. Caveolae were abundant. Filaments were in the form of microfilaments and intermediate filaments. Cytoplasmic projections containing filaments were found on the basolateral surface of brush cells. In a single cell, axons containing vesicles and dense core granules were in close contact both with the basal and the lateral surface of the cell. The crypt brush cell appeared less mature. We concluded that human small intestine brush cells share a similar ultrastructural biology with those of other mammals. They are polarized and well-differentiated cells endowed with a distinctive cytoskeleton. The observation of nerve fibres closely associated with brush cells, never previously described in humans, lends support to the hypothesis of a receptor role for these cells. PMID:17509089

  3. Susac's Syndrome: A Case with Unusual Cardiac Vestibular and Imaging Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    River, Yaron; Shupak, Avi; Tiosano, Beatrice; Danilov, Vika; Braverman, Itzhak

    2015-01-01

    Susac's syndrome (SS) is a disease of the microvasculature of the retina, brain, and inner ear. We describe a patient with unusual manifestations of SS with possible involvement of the brainstem, cardiac arrhythmia, and MRI findings lacking the characteristic lesions found in Susac's syndrome. PMID:26688762

  4. Geode of the femur: an uncommon manifestation potentially reflecting the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wonuk; Terk, Michael R; Hu, Bing; Garber, Elayne K; Weisman, Michael H

    2006-12-01

    Geodes are noted frequently in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but large geodes of the femur are uncommon. We describe a patient with RA and a large geode in his femur; histological findings were consistent with a rheumatoid nodule and chronically inflamed synovium. We review the literature of large femoral geodes and what this particular manifestation may reflect about the pathogenesis of RA. PMID:17080513

  5. Clinical Manifestations of Senecavirus A Infection in Neonatal Pigs, Brazil, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Leme, Raquel A.; Oliveira, Thalita E.S.; Alcântara, Brígida K.; Headley, Selwyn A.; Alfieri, Alice F.; Yang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    We identified new clinical manifestations associated with Senecavirus A infection in neonatal piglets in Brazil in 2015. Immunohistochemical and molecular findings confirmed the association of Senecavirus A with these unusual clinical signs and more deaths. Other possible disease agents investigated were not associated with these illnesses. PMID:27315157

  6. Clinical Manifestations of Senecavirus A Infection in Neonatal Pigs, Brazil, 2015.

    PubMed

    Leme, Raquel A; Oliveira, Thalita E S; Alcântara, Brígida K; Headley, Selwyn A; Alfieri, Alice F; Yang, Ming; Alfieri, Amauri A

    2016-07-01

    We identified new clinical manifestations associated with Senecavirus A infection in neonatal piglets in Brazil in 2015. Immunohistochemical and molecular findings confirmed the association of Senecavirus A with these unusual clinical signs and more deaths. Other possible disease agents investigated were not associated with these illnesses. PMID:27315157

  7. Aspergillus Osteomyelitis: Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, Management, and Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Gamaletsou, Maria N.; Rammaert, Blandine; Bueno, Marimelle A.; Moriyama, Brad; Sipsas, Nikolaos V.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Roilides, Emmanuel; Zeller, Valerie; Prinapori, Roberta; Tajaldeen, Saad Jaber; Brause, Barry; Lortholary, Olivier; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of Aspergillus osteomyelitis are not well understood. Methods Protocol-defined cases of Aspergillus osteomyelitis published in the English literature were reviewed for comorbidities, microbiology, mechanisms of infection, clinical manifestations, radiological findings, inflammatory biomarkers, antifungal therapy, and outcome. Results Among 180 evaluable patients, 127 (71%) were males. Possible predisposing medical conditions in 103 (57%) included pharmacological immunosuppression, primary immunodeficiency, and neutropenia. Seventy-three others (41%) had prior open fracture, trauma or surgery. Eighty (44%) followed a hematogenous mechanism, 58 (32%) contiguous infections, and 42 (23%) direct inoculation. Aspergillus osteomyelitis was the first manifestation of aspergillosis in 77%. Pain and tenderness were present in 80%. The most frequently infected sites were vertebrae (46%), cranium (23%), ribs (16%), and long bones (13%). Patients with vertebral Aspergillus osteomyelitis had more previous orthopedic surgery (19% vs 0%; P=0.02), while those with cranial osteomyelitis had more diabetes mellitus (32% vs 8%; P=0.002) and prior head/neck surgery (12% vs 0%; P=0.02). Radiologic findings included osteolysis, soft-tissue extension, and uptake on T2-weighted images. Vertebral body Aspergillus osteomyelitis was complicated by spinal-cord compression in 47% and neurological deficits in 41%. Forty-four patients (24%) received only antifungal therapy, while 121(67%) were managed with surgery and antifungal therapy. Overall mortality was 25%. Median duration of therapy was 90 days (range, 10–772 days). There were fewer relapses in patients managed with surgery plus antifungal therapy in comparison to those managed with antifungal therapy alone (8% vs 30%; P=0.006). Conclusions Aspergillus osteomyelitis is a debilitating infection affecting both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. The most

  8. Effects of Myrothecium verrucaria on ultrastructural integrity of kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) and phytotoxin implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Myrothecium verrucaria (Alb. & Schwein.) (MV), originally isolated from diseased sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia L.), has bioherbicial activity against kudzu and several other weeds when applied with low concentrations of the surfactant Silwet L-77. Ultrastructural investigations of MV effe...

  9. Ultrastructure of Sheep Primordial Follicles Cultured in the Presence of Indol Acetic Acid, EGF, and FSH

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Evelyn Rabelo; Maddox-Hyttel, Poul; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda Da Cruz; Viana Silva, José Roberto; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Seneda, Marcelo Marcondes; Figueiredo, José Ricardo; Toniolli, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ultrastructural characteristics of primordial follicles after culturing of sheep ovarian cortical slices in the presence of indol acetic acid (IAA), Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), and FSH. To evaluate ultrastructure of primordial follicles cultured in MEM (control) or in MEM containing IAA, EGF, and FSH, fragments of cultured tissue were processes for transmission electron microscopy. Except in the control, primordial follicles cultured in supplemented media for 6 d were ultrastructurally normal. They had oocyte with intact nucleus and the cytoplasm contained heterogeneous-sized lipid droplets and numerous round or elongated mitochondria with intact parallel cristae were observed. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) was rarely found. The granulosa cells cytoplasm contained a great number of mitochondria and abundant RER. In conclusion, the presence of IAA, EGF, and FSH helped to maintain ultrastructural integrity of sheep primordial follicles cultured in vitro. PMID:21188166

  10. ULTRASTRUCTURE OF NORMAL AND NEOPLASTIC EXOCRINE PANCREAS IN THE MUMMICHOG, FUNDULUS HETEROLCLITUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ultrastructure of normal exocrine pancreas and exocrine pancreatic neoplasms in Fundulus heteroclitus from a creosote-contaminated environment in the Elizabeth River, Virginia, is described. he normal exocrine pancreas in this species was an anastomosing tubular rather than a...

  11. Ultrastructure processing of advanced ceramics; Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Ultrastructure Processing of Ceramics, Glasses, and Composites, San Diego, CA, Feb. 23-27, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Mackenzie, J.D.; Ulrich, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    The present conference on advanced ceramics production by ultrastructural processes discusses topics in the chemistry of precursor materials, sol-gel technologies, powder and colloid preparation, characteristic advanced ceramics produced by ultrastructural means, ceramic-matrix composites, and numerous unique ultrastructurally-derived materials. Attention is given to novel Al- and Si-containing metallacarbonates, boron nitride preceramic polymers, the optical properties of silica-gel glasses, the fundamentals of sol-gel film formation, 'sonocatalytic' polymerization reactions employing ultrasound, the magnetic properties of sol-gel ferrites, the mechanical properties of wet silica gels, disclination structures in carbon and graphite, gel-derived nanocomposites, the strength-limiting features of polymer-derived ceramic fibers, fluoropolymer-modified silicate glasses, and chemically-derived refractory coatings.

  12. Ultrastructural Localization of Sucrases in Streptococcus mutans GS-5 and an Extracellular Polysaccharide Mutant: a Comparative Cytochemical and Immunocytochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Bozzola, J. J.; Johnson, M. C.; Shechmeister, I. L.

    1977-01-01

    Electron microscopy and cytochemical and immunocytochemical procedures were used to study the ultrastructural distribution of sucrase enzymes in two strains of Streptococcus mutans. In a strongly adherent and virulent parent strain, GS-5, most of the invertase and fructosyltransferase activities were demonstrated extracellularly or bound to the cell surfaces. Intracellularly, enzymatic sites were detected near the plasma membrane on the periphery of the nucleoid and central mesosome. In GS-511, a mutant of diminished virulence and adherence, most of the enzymatic activity was not located on the cell surfaces, but was found away from the cell walls and associated with extracellular polysaccharides. Intracellularly, GS-511 manifested the same distribution of invertase and fructosyltransferase as did GS-5; however, the close association of these enzymes with the plasma membrane was not shown in GS-511. In both strains, extracellular areas near regions associated with cross wall formation appeared to show localized concentrations of these sucrases. Antibodies against partially purified glucosyltransferase (GTF) enzymes from GS-5 were used to localize GTF by immunocytochemical techniques. Indirect ferritin localization procedures showed that the extracellular and cell-bound GTF enzymes were distributed in similar locations as the fructosyltransferase and invertase enzymes. By absorption of the antiserum with whole GS-511 cells, the location of extracellular GTF and surface antigens unique to GS-5 was demonstrated. The dramatically reduced levels of cell-bound sucrase activity in GS-511 indicates the significant role of these enzymes in adherence and cariogenicity. Images PMID:330413

  13. Ultrastructure and cytochemical localization of laccase in two strains of Leptosphaerulina briosiana (Pollaci) Graham and Luttrell.

    PubMed Central

    Simon, L T; Bishop, D S; Hooper, G R

    1979-01-01

    Substrate specificity tests were used to identify the presence of laccase in two strains of Leptosphaerulina briosiana (Poll.) Graham and Luttrell, an ascomycete which causes leaf spot in alfalfa. Cytochemical localization of monophenol monooxygenase (laccase) as well as the ultrastructures of the two strains were investigated. Laccase was observed in the outer layers of the cell walls of both strains. The ultrastructures of vegetative hyphae of both strains were typical of those found in most ascomycetes. Images PMID:104971

  14. Ultrastructural aspects of previtellogenic oocyte growth in hermaphrodite sharpsnout seabream, Diplodus puntazzo (Teleostei, Sparidae).

    PubMed

    Gülsoy, Nagihan; Çolak, Sibel

    2009-06-01

    This paper describes various aspects of previtellogenic oocyte growth in sharpsnout seabream, Diplodus puntazzo , is an important marine culture fish species in the Mediterranean. The ultrastructural characteristics of nuclear morphology, nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio and the starting of the follicle envelope formation were described in detail. These cells do not significantly differ from those of the other teleost species. The ultrastructural aspects provide new information on the reproductive biology of Sparidae. PMID:19584025

  15. Preclinical detection of motor and nonmotor manifestations.

    PubMed

    Tetrud, J W

    1991-08-01

    The advent of possible protective therapies for Parkinson's disease has created a need for methods of diagnosing the disease before the clinical features become fully evident. As a number of motor and nonmotor manifestations of the disease emerge months to years before a diagnosis can be made, a battery of clinical tests might be sufficient to identify individuals at an earlier stage than is currently possible using the standard history and physical examination. A list of questions regarding possible risk factors, specific symptoms, and observations of family members could be combined in a self-administered questionnaire that might identify individuals with a high probability of early, but otherwise undiagnosable, Parkinson's disease. Identification of subtle motor features is another possible screening method. For example, handwriting and speech are commonly affected prior to diagnosis; thus, automated analysis of these motor actions might also provide detection of incipient disease. PMID:1894144

  16. Brucella arteritis: clinical manifestations, treatment, and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Herrick, Jesica A; Lederman, Robert J; Sullivan, Brigit; Powers, John H; Palmore, Tara N

    2014-06-01

    Brucellosis is the most common bacterial zoonosis, and causes a considerable burden of disease in endemic countries. Cardiovascular involvement is the main cause of mortality due to infection with Brucella spp, and most commonly manifests as endocarditis, peripheral and cerebrovascular aneurysms, or arterial and venous thromboses. We report a case of brucellosis presenting as bacteraemia and aortic endarteritis 18 years after the last known exposure to risk factors for brucella infection. The patient was treated with doxycycline, rifampicin, and gentamicin, and underwent surgical repair of a penetrating aortic ulcer, with a good clinical recovery. We review the signs and symptoms, diagnostic approach, prognosis, and treatment of brucella arteritis. We draw attention to the absence of consensus about the optimum therapy for vascular brucellosis, and the urgent need for additional studies and renewed scientific interest in this major pathogen. PMID:24480149

  17. Quantum manifestations of classical nonlinear resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisniacki, Diego A.; Schlagheck, Peter

    2015-12-01

    When an integrable classical system is perturbed, nonlinear resonances are born, grow, and eventually disappear due to chaos. In this paper the quantum manifestations of such a transition are studied in the standard map. We show that nonlinear resonances act as a perturbation that break eigenphase degeneracies for unperturbed states with quantum numbers that differ in a multiple of the order of the resonance. We show that the eigenphase splittings are well described by a semiclassical expression based on an integrable approximation of the Hamiltonian in the vicinity of the resonance. The morphology in phase space of these states is also studied. We show that the nonlinear resonance imprints a systematic influence in their localization properties

  18. Pulmonary manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Majewski, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary signs and symptoms are examples of variable extraintestinal manifestations of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). These complications of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) seem to be underrecognized by both pulmonary physicians and gastroenterologists. The objective of the present review was to gather and summarize information on this particular matter, on the basis of available up-to-date literature. Tracheobronchial involvement is the most prevalent respiratory presentation, whereas IBD-related interstitial lung disease is less frequent. Latent and asymptomatic pulmonary involvement is not unusual. Differential diagnosis should always consider infections (mainly tuberculosis) and drug-induced lung pathology. The common link between intestinal disease and lung pathology is unknown, but many hypotheses have been proposed. It is speculated that environmental pollution, common immunological mechanisms and predisposing genetic factors may play a role. PMID:26788078

  19. Quantum manifestations of classical nonlinear resonances.

    PubMed

    Wisniacki, Diego A; Schlagheck, Peter

    2015-12-01

    When an integrable classical system is perturbed, nonlinear resonances are born, grow, and eventually disappear due to chaos. In this paper the quantum manifestations of such a transition are studied in the standard map. We show that nonlinear resonances act as a perturbation that break eigenphase degeneracies for unperturbed states with quantum numbers that differ in a multiple of the order of the resonance. We show that the eigenphase splittings are well described by a semiclassical expression based on an integrable approximation of the Hamiltonian in the vicinity of the resonance. The morphology in phase space of these states is also studied. We show that the nonlinear resonance imprints a systematic influence in their localization properties. PMID:26764790

  20. Patent foramen ovale: clinical manifestations and treatment.

    PubMed

    Kedia, Gautam; Tobis, Jonathan; Lee, Michael S

    2008-01-01

    A persistent patent foramen ovale produces an intermittent intra-atrial right-to-left shunt and occurs in approximately 25% of the general population. Although the vast majority of people with patent foramen ovale are asymptomatic, a patent foramen ovale is believed to act as a pathway for chemicals or thrombus that can result in a variety of clinical manifestations, including stroke, migraine headache, decompression sickness, high-altitude pulmonary edema, and platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome. The optimal management of patients with patent foramen ovale who experience cryptogenic stroke is unclear. Percutaneous closure appears to have a low risk profile and has been considered in high-risk patients who are not candidates for randomized clinical trials. Randomized clinical trials that are underway should help define the best management of patent foramen ovale, as well as the true safety and efficacy of percutaneous closure devices. PMID:18953276